WorldWideScience

Sample records for human intestinal infections

  1. Poliovirus mutants excreted by a chronically infected hypogammaglobulinemic patient establish persistent infections in human intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie, Karine; Pelletier, Isabelle; Saulnier, Aure; Martin, Javier; Colbere-Garapin, Florence

    2004-01-01

    Immunodeficient patients whose gut is chronically infected by vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) may excrete large amounts of virus for years. To investigate how poliovirus (PV) establishes chronic infections in the gut, we tested whether it is possible to establish persistent VDPV infections in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Four type 3 VDPV mutants, representative of the viral evolution in the gut of a hypogammaglobulinemic patient over almost 2 years [J. Virol. 74 (2000) 3001], were used to infect both undifferentiated, dividing cells, and differentiated, polarized enterocytes. A VDPV mutant excreted 36 days postvaccination by the patient was lytic in both types of intestinal cell cultures, like the parental Sabin 3 (S3) strain. In contrast, three VDPVs excreted 136, 442, and 637 days postvaccination, established persistent infections both in undifferentiated cells and in enterocytes. Thus, viral determinants selected between day 36 and 136 conferred on VDPV mutants the capacity to infect intestinal cells persistently. The percentage of persistently VDPV-infected cultures was higher in enterocytes than in undifferentiated cells, implicating cellular determinants involved in the differentiation of enterocytes in persistent VDPV infections. The establishment of persistent infections in enterocytes was not due to poor replication of VDPVs in these cells, but was associated with reduced viral adsorption to the cell surface

  2. Human Primary Intestinal Epithelial Cells as an Improved In Vitro Model for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M.; Nichols, Joan; Gomez, Guillermo; White, A. Clinton

    2013-01-01

    The study of human intestinal pathogens has been limited by the lack of methods for the long-term culture of primary human intestinal epithelial cells (PECs). The development of infection models with PECs would allow a better understanding of host-parasite interactions. The objective of this study was to develop a novel method for prolonged in vitro cultivation of PECs that can be used to study Cryptosporidium infection. We isolated intact crypts from human intestines removed during weight loss surgery. The fragments of intestinal layers were cultivated with culture medium supplemented with growth factors and antiapoptotic molecules. After 7 days, the PECs formed self-regenerating cell clusters, forming villi that resemble intestinal epithelium. The PECs proliferated and remained viable for at least 60 days. The cells expressed markers for intestinal stem cells, epithelial cells, and mature enterocytes. The PECs were infected with Cryptosporidium. In contrast to older models in which parasite numbers decay, the burden of parasites increased for >120 h. In summary, we describe here a novel method for the cultivation of self-regenerating human epithelial cells from small intestinal crypts, which contain both intestinal stem cells and mature villus cells. We present data that suggest these cells support Cryptosporidium better than existing cell lines. PECs should provide an improved tool for studying host-parasite interactions involving Cryptosporidium and other intestinal pathogens. PMID:23509153

  3. Metagenomic Characterization of the Human Intestinal Microbiota in Fecal Samples from STEC-Infected Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigliucci, Federica; von Meijenfeldt, F A Bastiaan; Knijn, Arnold; Michelacci, Valeria; Scavia, Gaia; Minelli, Fabio; Dutilh, Bas E|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304546313; Ahmad, Hamideh M; Raangs, Gerwin C; Friedrich, Alex W; Rossen, John W A; Morabito, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is a homeostatic ecosystem with a remarkable impact on human health and the disruption of this equilibrium leads to an increased susceptibility to infection by numerous pathogens. In this study, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and two different bioinformatic

  4. Epidemiology of infections with intestinal parasites and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among sugar-estate residents in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanet, A. L.; Sahlu, T.; Rinke de Wit, T.; Messele, T.; Masho, W.; Woldemichael, T.; Yeneneh, H.; Coutinho, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections could play an important role in the progression of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), by further disturbing the immune system whilst it is already engaged in the fight against HIV. HIV and intestinal parasitic infections were investigated in 1239,

  5. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Noninfected Persons in a High Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevalence Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Tchameni, Sandrine Mboula; Nkenfou, Carine Nguefeu; Djataou, Patrice; Simo, Ulrich Florian; Nkoum, Alexandre Benjamin; Estrin, William

    2017-09-01

    The problem of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several coinfecting diseases. Studies have addressed this issue in Cameroon, especially in the low HIV prevalence area. The current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Adamaoua and to identify associated risk factors. Stool and blood specimens from study participants were screened for intestinal parasites and anti-HIV antibodies, respectively. Of 235 participants, 68 (28.9%) were HIV positive, 38 of them on antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 32.3%. Of 68 PLHIV, 32.3% (22/68) were infected with intestinal parasites, compared with 32.3% (54/167) of the HIV-negative patients. Univariate analysis showed no difference between the prevalence of intestinal parasites among PLHIV and HIV-negative patients ( P = 0.69). ART was not associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Multivariate analysis showed that the quality of water and the personal hygiene were the major risk factors associated to intestinal parasitosis. The level of education was associated with HIV serostatus: the higher the level of education, the lower the risk of being infected with HIV ( P = 0.00). PLHIV and the general population should be screened routinely for intestinal parasites and treated if infected.

  6. A paradox of transcriptional and functional innate interferon responses of human intestinal enteroids to enteric virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Kapil; Simon, Lukas M.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Conner, Margaret E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding host?enteric virus interactions has been limited by the inability to culture nontransformed small intestinal epithelial cells and to infect animal models with human viruses. We report epithelial responses in human small intestinal enteroid cultures from different individuals following infection with human rotavirus (HRV), a model enteric pathogen. RNA-sequencing and functional assays revealed type III IFN as the dominant transcriptional response that activates interferon-stimula...

  7. Metagenomic Characterization of the Human Intestinal Microbiota in Fecal Samples from STEC-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Gigliucci

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota is a homeostatic ecosystem with a remarkable impact on human health and the disruption of this equilibrium leads to an increased susceptibility to infection by numerous pathogens. In this study, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and two different bioinformatic approaches, based on mapping of the reads onto databases and on the reconstruction of putative draft genomes, to investigate possible changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in samples from patients with Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC infection compared to healthy and healed controls, collected during an outbreak caused by a STEC O26:H11 infection. Both the bioinformatic procedures used, produced similar result with a good resolution of the taxonomic profiles of the specimens. The stool samples collected from the STEC infected patients showed a lower abundance of the members of Bifidobacteriales and Clostridiales orders in comparison to controls where those microorganisms predominated. These differences seemed to correlate with the STEC infection although a flexion in the relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus, part of the Bifidobacteriales order, was observed also in samples from Crohn's disease patients, displaying a STEC-unrelated dysbiosis. The metagenomics also allowed to identify in the STEC positive samples, all the virulence traits present in the genomes of the STEC O26 that caused the outbreak as assessed through isolation of the epidemic strain and whole genome sequencing. The results shown represent a first evidence of the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota of children in the course of STEC infection and indicate that metagenomics may be a promising tool for the culture-independent clinical diagnosis of the infection.

  8. Metagenomic Characterization of the Human Intestinal Microbiota in Fecal Samples from STEC-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliucci, Federica; von Meijenfeldt, F. A. Bastiaan; Knijn, Arnold; Michelacci, Valeria; Scavia, Gaia; Minelli, Fabio; Dutilh, Bas E.; Ahmad, Hamideh M.; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Friedrich, Alex W.; Rossen, John W. A.; Morabito, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota is a homeostatic ecosystem with a remarkable impact on human health and the disruption of this equilibrium leads to an increased susceptibility to infection by numerous pathogens. In this study, we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and two different bioinformatic approaches, based on mapping of the reads onto databases and on the reconstruction of putative draft genomes, to investigate possible changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in samples from patients with Shiga Toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) infection compared to healthy and healed controls, collected during an outbreak caused by a STEC O26:H11 infection. Both the bioinformatic procedures used, produced similar result with a good resolution of the taxonomic profiles of the specimens. The stool samples collected from the STEC infected patients showed a lower abundance of the members of Bifidobacteriales and Clostridiales orders in comparison to controls where those microorganisms predominated. These differences seemed to correlate with the STEC infection although a flexion in the relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus, part of the Bifidobacteriales order, was observed also in samples from Crohn's disease patients, displaying a STEC-unrelated dysbiosis. The metagenomics also allowed to identify in the STEC positive samples, all the virulence traits present in the genomes of the STEC O26 that caused the outbreak as assessed through isolation of the epidemic strain and whole genome sequencing. The results shown represent a first evidence of the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota of children in the course of STEC infection and indicate that metagenomics may be a promising tool for the culture-independent clinical diagnosis of the infection. PMID:29468143

  9. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  10. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong vi...

  11. A paradox of transcriptional and functional innate interferon responses of human intestinal enteroids to enteric virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kapil; Simon, Lukas M.; Zeng, Xi-Lei; Blutt, Sarah E.; Crawford, Sue E.; Sastri, Narayan P.; Karandikar, Umesh C.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Zachos, Nicholas C.; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark; Conner, Margaret E.; Shaw, Chad A.; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium can limit enteric pathogens by producing antiviral cytokines, such as IFNs. Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) and type III IFN (IFN-λ) function at the epithelial level, and their respective efficacies depend on the specific pathogen and site of infection. However, the roles of type I and type III IFN in restricting human enteric viruses are poorly characterized as a result of the difficulties in cultivating these viruses in vitro and directly obtaining control and infected small intestinal human tissue. We infected nontransformed human intestinal enteroid cultures from multiple individuals with human rotavirus (HRV) and assessed the host epithelial response by using RNA-sequencing and functional assays. The dominant transcriptional pathway induced by HRV infection is a type III IFN-regulated response. Early after HRV infection, low levels of type III IFN protein activate IFN-stimulated genes. However, this endogenous response does not restrict HRV replication because replication-competent HRV antagonizes the type III IFN response at pre- and posttranscriptional levels. In contrast, exogenous IFN treatment restricts HRV replication, with type I IFN being more potent than type III IFN, suggesting that extraepithelial sources of type I IFN may be the critical IFN for limiting enteric virus replication in the human intestine. PMID:28069942

  12. Specific binding of lactoferrin to Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidu, S.S.; Erdei, J.; Forsgren, A.; Naidu, A.S.; Czirok, E.; Gado, I.; Kalfas, S.; Thoren, A.

    1991-01-01

    The degrees of human lactoferrin (HLf) and bovine lactoferrin (BLf) binding in 169 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human intestinal infections, and in an additional 68 strains isolated from healthy individuals, were examined in a 125 I-labelled protein binding assay. The binding was expressed as a percentage calculated from the total labelled ligand added to bacteria. The HLf and BLf binding to E. coli was in the range 3.7 to 73.4% and 4.8 to 61.6%, respectively. Enterotoxigenic strains demonstrated a significantly higher HLf binding (median = 19%) than enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, enterohaemorrhagic strains or normal intestinal E. coli isolates (medians 6 to 9). Enteropathogenic strains belonging to serotypes O44 and O127 demonstrated significantly higher HLf binding compared to O26, O55, O111, O119 and O126. No significant differences in the degree of HLf or BLf binding were found between aerobactin-producing and non-producing strains. The interaction was further characterized in a high Lf-binging EPEC strain, E34663 (serotype O127). The binding was stable in the pH range 4.0 to 7.5, did not dissociate in the presence of 2M NaCl or 2M urea, and reached saturation within two h. Unlabelled HLf and BLf displaced the 125 I-HLf binding to E34663 in a dose-dependent manner. Apo- and iron-saturated forms of Lf demonstrated similar binding to E34663. Among various unlabelled subephithelial matrix proteins and carbohydrates tested (in 10 4 -fold excess) only fibronectin and fibrinogen caused a moderate inhibition of 125 I-HLf binding. According to Scatchard plot analysis, 5,400 HLf-binding sites/cell, with an affinity constant (K a ) of 1.4 x 10 -7 M, were estimated in strain E34663. These data establish the presence of a specific Lf-binding mechanism in E. coli. (au)

  13. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  14. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  15. Mucin dynamics in intestinal bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara K Lindén

    Full Text Available Bacterial gastroenteritis causes morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Murine Citrobacter rodentium infection is a model for gastroenteritis caused by the human pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. Mucin glycoproteins are the main component of the first barrier that bacteria encounter in the intestinal tract.Using Immunohistochemistry, we investigated intestinal expression of mucins (Alcian blue/PAS, Muc1, Muc2, Muc4, Muc5AC, Muc13 and Muc3/17 in healthy and C. rodentium infected mice. The majority of the C. rodentium infected mice developed systemic infection and colitis in the mid and distal colon by day 12. C. rodentium bound to the major secreted mucin, Muc2, in vitro, and high numbers of bacteria were found in secreted MUC2 in infected animals in vivo, indicating that mucins may limit bacterial access to the epithelial surface. In the small intestine, caecum and proximal colon, the mucin expression was similar in infected and non-infected animals. In the distal colonic epithelium, all secreted and cell surface mucins decreased with the exception of the Muc1 cell surface mucin which increased after infection (p<0.05. Similarly, during human infection Salmonella St Paul, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium difficile induced MUC1 in the colon.Major changes in both the cell-surface and secreted mucins occur in response to intestinal infection.

  16. Rapid appraisal of human intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren in Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Imanalieva, Cholpon; Minbaeva, Gulnara; Stefiuk, Kayte; Jeandron, Aurelie; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    A population-representative lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) survey was conducted in 2009 to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among schoolchildren across Osh oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The diagnostic approach consisted of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from a single stool sample and an adhesive tape test. A questionnaire was administered to identify risk factors for infections. A total of 1262 schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were recruited; 41% of them harboured at least one of the eight identified helminth species. The two most prevalent helminths were Ascaris lumbricoides (23.1%) and Enterobius vermicularis (19.3%). Lower prevalences were found for Hymenolepis nana (4.4%), Fasciola hepatica (1.9%) and Dicrocoelium dendriticum (1.8%). Washing raw vegetables was a protective factor with regard to A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR)=0.69, p=0.022); tap water was borderline protective (OR=0.56, p=0.057). Children of the richest families were at a lower risk of E. vermicularis infection than the poorest ones (OR=0.41, p=0.011). Sharing the bed with more than one person was a risk factor for E. vermicularis infection (OR=2.0, p=0.002). The results call for targeted interventions against intestinal helminths in Osh oblast. In a first stage, annual deworming of schoolchildren and other high-risk groups with albendazole or mebendazole should be implemented, and reliable diagnosis and additional anthelminthic drugs should be made available. Subsequently, transmission control including locally-adapted health education, improved water supply and adequate sanitation should become the central features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ascaris Suum Infection Downregulates Inflammatory Pathways in the Pig Intestine In Vivo and in Human Dendritic Cells In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L. E.; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    similar transcriptional pathways in human dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro. DCs exposed to ABF secreted minimal amounts of cytokines and had impaired production of cyclooxygengase-2, altered glucose metabolism, and reduced capacity to induce interferon-gamma production in T cells. Our in vivo and in vitro......Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost 1 billion people. Ascaris is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... transcriptomic analysis, we show here that pigs with a chronic A. suum infection have a substantial suppression of inflammatory pathways in the intestinal mucosa, with a broad downregulation of genes encoding cytokines and antigen-processing and costimulatory molecules. A. suum body fluid (ABF) suppressed...

  18. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  19. Detection of Puumala hantavirus antigen in human intestine during acute hantavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Latus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Puumala virus (PUUV is the most important hantavirus species in Central Europe. Nephropathia epidemica (NE, caused by PUUV, is characterized by acute renal injury (AKI with thrombocytopenia and frequently gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: 456 patients with serologically and clinically confirmed NE were investigated at time of follow-up in a single clinic. The course of the NE was investigated using medical reports. We identified patients who had endoscopy with intestinal biopsy during acute phase of NE. Histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of the biopsies were performed. RESULTS: Thirteen patients underwent colonoscopy or gastroscopy for abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting during acute phase of NE. Immunohistochemistry (IHC revealed PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in 11 biopsies from 8 patients; 14 biopsies from 5 patients were negative for PUUV nucleocapsid antigen. IHC localized PUUV nucleocapsid antigen in endothelial cells of capillaries or larger vessels in the lamina propria. Rate of AKI was not higher and severity of AKI was not different in the PUUV-positive compared to the PUUV-negative group. All IHC positive biopsies were positive for PUUV RNA using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed clustering of all PUUV strains from this study with viruses previously detected from the South-West of Germany. Long-term outcome was favorable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with NE, PUUV nucleocapsid antigen and PUUV RNA was detected frequently in the intestine. This finding could explain frequent GI-symptoms in NE patients, thus demonstration of a more generalized PUUV infection. The RT-PCR was an effective and sensitive method to detect PUUV RNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic and phylogenetic approach also for archival materials. AKI was not more often present in patients with PUUV-positive IHC. This last finding should be investigated in larger numbers of

  20. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  1. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanqi; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; de Waard, Marita; Christensen, Lars; Zhou, Ping; Jiang, Pingping; Sun, Jing; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Bering, Stine Brandt; Sangild, Per Torp

    2017-06-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward bacterial infections relative to HP-treated DM. Methods: Bacteria, selected bioactive components, and markers of antioxidant capacity were measured in unpasteurized donor milk (UP), HP-treated milk, and UVC-treated milk (all from the same DM pool). Fifty-seven cesarean-delivered preterm pigs (91% gestation; ratio of males to females, 30:27) received decreasing volumes of parental nutrition (average 69 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) and increasing volumes of the 3 DM diets ( n = 19 each, average 89 mL · kg -1 · d -1 ) for 8-9 d. Body growth, gut structure and function, and systemic bacterial infection were evaluated. Results: A high bacterial load in the UP (6×10 5 colony forming units/mL) was eliminated similarly by HP and UVC treatments. Relative to HP-treated milk, both UVC-treated milk and UP showed greater activities of lipase and alkaline phosphatase and concentrations of lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, xanthine dehydrogenase, and some antioxidant markers (all P < 0.05). The pigs fed UVC-treated milk and pigs fed UP showed higher relative weight gain than pigs fed HP-treated milk (5.4% and 3.5%), and fewer pigs fed UVC-treated milk had positive bacterial cultures in the bone marrow (28%) than pigs fed HP-treated milk (68%) ( P < 0.05). Intestinal health was also improved in pigs fed UVC-treated milk compared with those fed HP-treated milk as indicated by a higher plasma citrulline concentration (36%) and villus height (38%) ( P < 0.05) and a tendency for higher aminopeptidase N (48%) and claudin-4 (26%) concentrations in the distal intestine ( P < 0.08). The gut microbiota composition was similar among groups except for greater proportions of Enterococcus in pigs

  2. Intestinal Bacterial Communities of Trypanosome-Infected and Uninfected Glossina palpalis palpalis from Three Human African Trypanomiasis Foci in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Jacob

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glossina sp. the tsetse fly that transmits trypanosomes causing the Human or the Animal African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or AAT can harbor symbiotic bacteria that are known to play a crucial role in the fly's vector competence. We hypothesized that other bacteria could be present, and that some of them could also influence the fly's vector competence. In this context the objectives of our work were: (a to characterize the bacteria that compose the G. palpalis palpalis midgut bacteriome, (b to evidence possible bacterial community differences between trypanosome-infected and non-infected fly individuals from a given AAT and HAT focus or from different foci using barcoded Illumina sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Forty G. p. palpalis flies, either infected by Trypanosoma congolense or uninfected were sampled from three trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. A total of 143 OTUs were detected in the midgut samples. Most taxa were identified at the genus level, nearly 50% at the species level; they belonged to 83 genera principally within the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. Prominent representatives included Wigglesworthia (the fly's obligate symbiont, Serratia, and Enterobacter hormaechei. Wolbachia was identified for the first time in G. p. palpalis. The average number of bacterial species per tsetse sample was not significantly different regarding the fly infection status, and the hierarchical analysis based on the differences in bacterial community structure did not provide a clear clustering between infected and non-infected flies. Finally, the most important result was the evidence of the overall very large diversity of intestinal bacteria which, except for Wigglesworthia, were unevenly distributed over the sampled flies regardless of their geographic origin and their trypanosome infection status.

  3. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salmonella Typhi Colonization Provokes Extensive Transcriptional Changes Aimed at Evading Host Mucosal Immune Defense During Early Infection of Human Intestinal Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Nickerson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commensal microorganisms influence a variety of host functions in the gut, including immune response, glucose homeostasis, metabolic pathways and oxidative stress, among others. This study describes how Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen responsible for typhoid fever, uses similar strategies to escape immune defense responses and survive within its human host. To elucidate the early mechanisms of typhoid fever, we performed studies using healthy human intestinal tissue samples and “mini-guts,” organoids grown from intestinal tissue taken from biopsy specimens. We analyzed gene expression changes in human intestinal specimens and bacterial cells both separately and after colonization. Our results showed mechanistic strategies that S. Typhi uses to rearrange the cellular machinery of the host cytoskeleton to successfully invade the intestinal epithelium, promote polarized cytokine release and evade immune system activation by downregulating genes involved in antigen sampling and presentation during infection. This work adds novel information regarding S. Typhi infection pathogenesis in humans, by replicating work shown in traditional cell models, and providing new data that can be applied to future vaccine development strategies. Keywords: Typhoid fever, Salmonella, Snapwell™ system, Human tissue, Terminal ileum, Immune system, Innate immunity, Immune evasion, Host-pathogen interaction, Vaccine development, Intestinal organoids, Organoid monolayer

  5. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  6. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  7. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  8. Interferon-Lambda: A Potent Regulator of Intestinal Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghyun; Baldridge, Megan T

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) is a recently described cytokine found to be of critical importance in innate immune regulation of intestinal viruses. Endogenous IFN-λ has potent antiviral effects and has been shown to control multiple intestinal viruses and may represent a factor that contributes to human variability in response to infection. Importantly, recombinant IFN-λ has therapeutic potential against enteric viral infections, many of which lack other effective treatments. In this mini-review, we describe recent advances regarding IFN-λ-mediated regulation of enteric viruses with important clinical relevance including rotavirus, reovirus, and norovirus. We also briefly discuss IFN-λ interactions with other cytokines important in the intestine, and how IFN-λ may play a role in regulation of intestinal viruses by the commensal microbiome. Finally, we indicate currently outstanding questions regarding IFN-λ control of enteric infections that remain to be explored to enhance our understanding of this important immune molecule.

  9. Salmonella infection inhibits intestinal biotin transport: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Abhisek; Jellbauer, Stefan; Kapadia, Rubina; Raffatellu, Manuela; Said, Hamid M

    2015-07-15

    Infection with the nontyphoidal Salmonella is a common cause of food-borne disease that leads to acute gastroenteritis/diarrhea. Severe/prolonged cases of Salmonella infection could also impact host nutritional status, but little is known about its effect on intestinal absorption of vitamins, including biotin. We examined the effect of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) infection on intestinal biotin uptake using in vivo (streptomycin-pretreated mice) and in vitro [mouse (YAMC) and human (NCM460) colonic epithelial cells, and human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells] models. The results showed that infecting mice with wild-type S. typhimurium, but not with its nonpathogenic isogenic invA spiB mutant, leads to a significant inhibition in jejunal/colonic biotin uptake and in level of expression of the biotin transporter, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. In contrast, infecting YAMC, NCM460, and Caco-2 cells with S. typhimurium did not affect biotin uptake. These findings suggest that the effect of S. typhimurium infection is indirect and is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, the levels of which were markedly induced in the intestine of S. typhimurium-infected mice. Consistent with this hypothesis, exposure of NCM460 cells to the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ led to a significant inhibition of biotin uptake, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter expression, and activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. The latter effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that S. typhimurium infection inhibits intestinal biotin uptake, and that the inhibition is mediated via the action of proinflammatory cytokines.

  10. Knowledge based assessment of intestinal parasitic Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an apparent lack of information on the risk and clinical symptoms of Intestinal Parasitic Infections (IPIs) among students attending boarding secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This questionnaire-based survey attempts to assess some behavioural habits, possible risk factor(s) as well as clinical symptoms ...

  11. Intestinal helminth infections among pregnant Cameroonian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...

  12. Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the porcine intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schauser, Kirsten; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Larsson, Lars-Inge

    2005-01-01

    The normal intestinal epithelium is renewed with a turnover rate of 3-5 days. During Salmonella infection increased cell loss is observed, possibly as a result of programmed cell death (PCD). We have, therefore, studied the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection on three elements involved...... in scattered epithelial cells and the number of positive cells increased with increasing times of exposure to Salmonella (P

  13. Quantification of Salmonella Survival and Infection in an In vitro Model of the Human Intestinal Tract as Proxy for Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas M. Wijnands

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different techniques are available for assessing differences in virulence of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The use of animal models or human volunteers is not expedient for various reasons; the use of epidemiological data is often hampered by lack of crucial data. In this paper, we describe a static, sequential gastrointestinal tract (GIT model system in which foodborne pathogens are exposed to simulated gastric and intestinal contents of the human digestive tract, including the interaction of pathogens with the intestinal epithelium. The system can be employed with any foodborne bacterial pathogens. Five strains of Salmonella Heidelberg and one strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were used to assess the robustness of the system. Four S. Heidelberg strains originated from an outbreak, the fifth S. Heidelberg strain and the S. Typhimurium strain originated from routine meat inspections. Data from plate counts, collected for determining the numbers of surviving bacteria in each stage, were used to quantify both the experimental uncertainty and biological variability of pathogen survival throughout the system. For this, a hierarchical Bayesian framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC was employed. The model system is able to distinguish serovars/strains for in vitro infectivity when accounting for within strain biological variability and experimental uncertainty.

  14. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  15. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  16. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Cotton

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time

  17. Activation of intestinal epithelial Stat3 orchestrates tissue defense during gastrointestinal infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Wittkopf

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infections with EHEC and EPEC are responsible for outbreaks of diarrheal diseases and represent a global health problem. Innate first-line-defense mechanisms such as production of mucus and antimicrobial peptides by intestinal epithelial cells are of utmost importance for host control of gastrointestinal infections. For the first time, we directly demonstrate a critical role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells upon infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium - a murine pathogen that mimics human infections with attaching and effacing Escherichia coli. C. rodentium induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-22 in gut samples of mice and was associated with activation of the transcription factor Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells. C. rodentium infection induced expression of several antimicrobial peptides such as RegIIIγ and Pla2g2a in the intestine which was critically dependent on Stat3 activation. Consequently, mice with specific deletion of Stat3 in intestinal epithelial cells showed increased susceptibility to C. rodentium infection as indicated by high bacterial load, severe gut inflammation, pronounced intestinal epithelial cell death and dissemination of bacteria to distant organs. Together, our data implicate an essential role for Stat3 activation in intestinal epithelial cells during C. rodentium infection. Stat3 concerts the host response to bacterial infection by controlling bacterial growth and suppression of apoptosis to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function.

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Primary School Children in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are a major public health problem in developing countries where majority of the affected persons are children. This study is aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of socio-demography in some rural primary schools in Ovia Northeast ...

  19. Pasteurization Procedures for Donor Human Milk Affect Body Growth, Intestinal Structure, and Resistance against Bacterial Infections in Preterm Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Duc Ninh Nguyen; de Waard, Marita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Holder pasteurization (HP) destroys multiple bioactive factors in donor human milk (DM), and UV-C irradiation (UVC) is potentially a gentler method for pasteurizing DM for preterm infants. Objective: We investigated whether UVC-treated DM improves gut maturation and resistance toward...

  20. Molecular characterization of some new E. coli strains theoretically responsible for both intestinal and extraintestinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Adwan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Strains of E. coli are divided into 3 major groups; commensal strains, diarrheagenic (intestinal E. coli pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli are unlike diarrheagenic pathotypes, they have not ability to cause intestinal disease in human, but they have normal ability for long-term colonization in the gut. This study aimed to spotlight on that intestinal and extraintestinal infections are not restricted to intestinal pathotypes and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli, respectively. A total of 102 uropathogenic E. coli isolates were collected during 2012 and 2015. A multiplex PCR was used to detect phylogenetic groups, virulence factors for extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli and intestinal E. coli pathotypes genes. Results of this research showed that 12 (11.8% uropathogenic E. coli isolates had genes that are theoretically responsible for intestinal diseases, were 10 of these isolates belonged to phylogentic group D and 2 isolates to phylogentic group A. We conclude from these results, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of E. coli that theoretically can cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections simultaneously. The presence of these strains has a great impact on public health. More studies are necessary before definitive conclusions if these strains are a different clone that theoretically have ability to cause both intestinal and extraintestinal infections and belonged to phylogenetic groups other than A and D. Products of diarrheagenic genes in UPEC strains need further studies to detect their effects in intestinal infections

  1. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  2. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli senses low biotin status in the large intestine for colonization and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Feng, Lu; Wang, Fang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is an important foodborne pathogen that infects humans by colonizing the large intestine. Here we identify a virulence-regulating pathway in which the biotin protein ligase BirA signals to the global regulator Fur, which in turn activates LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement) genes to promote EHEC adherence in the low-biotin large intestine. LEE genes are repressed in the high-biotin small intestine, thus preventing adherence and ensuring selective colonization of the large intestine. The presence of this pathway in all nine EHEC serotypes tested indicates that it is an important evolutionary strategy for EHEC. The pathway is incomplete in closely related small-intestinal enteropathogenic E. coli due to the lack of the Fur response to BirA. Mice fed with a biotin-rich diet show significantly reduced EHEC adherence, indicating that biotin might be useful to prevent EHEC infection in humans. PMID:25791315

  3. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  4. Anti-Infective Activities of Lactobacillus Strains in the Human Intestinal Microbiota: from Probiotics to Gastrointestinal Anti-Infectious Biotherapeutic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY A vast and diverse array of microbial species displaying great phylogenic, genomic, and metabolic diversity have colonized the gastrointestinal tract. Resident microbes play a beneficial role by regulating the intestinal immune system, stimulating the maturation of host tissues, and playing a variety of roles in nutrition and in host resistance to gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens. The mechanisms by which the resident microbial species combat gastrointestinal pathogens are complex and include competitive metabolic interactions and the production of antimicrobial molecules. The human intestinal microbiota is a source from which Lactobacillus probiotic strains have often been isolated. Only six probiotic Lactobacillus strains isolated from human intestinal microbiota, i.e., L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei Shirota YIT9029, L. casei DN-114 001, L. johnsonii NCC 533, L. acidophilus LB, and L. reuteri DSM 17938, have been well characterized with regard to their potential antimicrobial effects against the major gastric and enteric bacterial pathogens and rotavirus. In this review, we describe the current knowledge concerning the experimental antibacterial activities, including antibiotic-like and cell-regulating activities, and therapeutic effects demonstrated in well-conducted, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of these probiotic Lactobacillus strains. What is known about the antimicrobial activities supported by the molecules secreted by such probiotic Lactobacillus strains suggests that they constitute a promising new source for the development of innovative anti-infectious agents that act luminally and intracellularly in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24696432

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among People in Baghmalek During 2013 ‒ 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections are one of major health problems, especially in developing countries. Several factors, such as geographical location and socioeconomic conditions, are responsible for variations in the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Baghmalek is an area in Khuzestan, a western province of Iran. This area has a mild climate and is a touristic region of the province. Objectives The aim of our study was to describe the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in Baghmalek city, southwest of Iran. Patients and Methods The study was carried out from October 2013 to October 2014. A total of 8469 human stool samples were examined by microscopy methods. Separation of samples, based on age, sex and season was done and data were analyzed with the SPSS software. Results Totally, 1131 (13.35% samples were positive for intestinal parasites. It was found that prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was higher in males than in females. The greatest prevalence (45% was in the group of the under 15 years old and the prevalence rate of intestinal parasites infection was higher in summer (18.53% compared to seasons (P < 0.05. Conclusions Because the intestinal parasitic infections are a health concern in areas with poor nutritional and socioeconomic status, intervention programs, including health education and environmental sanitation, are required.

  6. The prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Badsberg, Jens Henrik

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and clinical significance of intestinal parasites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, faecal specimens from 96 HIV-infected patients were submitted to microbiological analyses, including microscopy and polymerase chain reaction for protozoa and e...

  7. Differential Effects of Statins on Inflammatory Interleukin-8 and Antimicrobial Peptide Human Β-Defensin 2 Responses in Salmonella-Infected Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative therapies are needed to reduce the use of antibiotics and incidence of drug-resistant Salmonellosis. Previous studies have revealed important roles of statins in regulating innate immunity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of statins on innate immunity in Salmonella-infected intestinal epithelial cells (IECs, which are involved in mucosal innate immunity. SW480 cells and Akt siRNA- or vitamin D receptor (VDR siRNA-transfected SW480 cells were infected by wild-type S. Typhimurium strain SL1344 in the presence or absence of statins. The mRNA or protein expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR or western blot analysis, respectively. Simvastatin or fluvastatin caused IL-8 (interleukin-8 suppression, but increased hBD-2 mRNA expression in Salmonella-infected SW480 cells. Both statins enhanced phosphorylated Akt and VDR expressions. Akt or VDR knockdown by siRNA counteracted the suppressive effect of simvastatin on IL-8 expression, whereas VDR knockdown diminished the enhanced hBD-2 expression in Salmonella-infected SW480 cells. Therefore, we observed differential regulation of statins on inflammatory IL-8 and anti-microbial hBD-2 expressions in Salmonella-infected IECs via PI3K/Akt signaling and VDR protein expression, respectively. The enhanced activity of antimicrobial peptides by statins in Salmonella-infected IECs could protect the host against infection, and modulation of pro-inflammatory responses could prevent the detrimental effects of overwhelming inflammation in the host.

  8. Prevalence of common gastro-intestinal nematode infections in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (GIN) infection and identified the common GIN parasites in commercial goat production in. Central Uganda. .... Table 1. Prevalence of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites in goats in Central Uganda .... ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. pp. 40-76.

  9. The Contributions of Human Mini-Intestines to the Study of Intestinal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huimin; Hasan, Nesrin M; In, Julie G; Estes, Mary K; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Zachos, Nicholas C; Donowitz, Mark

    2017-02-10

    The lack of accessibility to normal and diseased human intestine and the inability to separate the different functional compartments of the intestine even when tissue could be obtained have held back the understanding of human intestinal physiology. Clevers and his associates identified intestinal stem cells and established conditions to grow "mini-intestines" ex vivo in differentiated and undifferentiated conditions. This pioneering work has made a new model of the human intestine available and has begun making contributions to the understanding of human intestinal transport in normal physiologic conditions and the pathophysiology of intestinal diseases. However, this model is reductionist and lacks many of the complexities of normal intestine. Consequently, it is not yet possible to predict how great the advances using this model will be for understanding human physiology and pathophysiology, nor how the model will be modified to include multiple other intestinal cell types and physical forces necessary to more closely approximate normal intestine. This review describes recent studies using mini-intestines, which have readdressed previously established models of normal intestinal transport physiology and newly examined intestinal pathophysiology. The emphasis is on studies with human enteroids grown either as three-dimensional spheroids or two-dimensional monolayers. In addition, comments are provided on mouse studies in cases when human studies have not yet been described.

  10. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and human intestinal health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miquel, S.; Martin, R.; Rossi, O.; Bermudez-Humaran, L.G.; Chatel, J.M.; Sokol, H.; Thomas, M.; Wells, J.M.; Langella, P.

    2013-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults, representing more than 5% of the total bacterial population. Over the past five years, an increasing number of studies have clearly described the importance of this highly metabolically

  11. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs) by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...... in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process....

  12. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  14. Dietary modulation of the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Gastrointestinal infections are still a major health problem, not only in developing countries. Even in Europe and the United States about 10-15 % of the population contracts an intestinal infection each year, mostly of foodborne origin. The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotics

  15. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  16. [Morphological changes of the intestine in experimental acute intestinal infection in the treatment of colloidal silver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N

    2012-06-01

    At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.

  17. Cholesterol esterase activity of human intestinal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponz de Leon, M.; Carubbi, F.; Di Donato, P.; Carulli, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been suggested that cholesterol absorption in humans is dependent on bile acid pool composition and that expansion of the cholic acid pool size is followed by an increase of the absorption values. Similar observations were reported in rats. In the present study, therefore, the authors investigated some general properties of human intestinal cholesterol esterase, with particular emphasis on the effect of bile acids on this enzymatic activity. Twenty-nine segments of small intestine were taken during operations; the enzymatic activity was studied by using mucosal homogenate as a source of enzyme and oleic acid, cholesterol, and 14 C-labeled cholesterol as substrates. The time-activity relationship was linear within the first two hours; optimal pH for esterification ranged between 5 and 6.2. There was little difference between the esterifying activity of the jejunal and ileal mucosa. Esterification of cholesterol was observed with all the investigated fatty acids but was maximal with oleic acid. Bile acids did not affect cholesterol esterase activity when present in the incubation mixture at 0.1 and 1.0 mM; the enzymatic activity, however, was significantly inhibited when bile acids were added at 20 mM. In conclusion, this study has shown that the human intestinal mucosa possesses a cholesterol esterase activity; at variance with the rat, however, the human enzyme does not seem to be stimulated by trihydroxy bile acids

  18. Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

  19. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed

  20. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  1. Human mini-guts: new insights into intestinal physiology and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In, Julie G; Foulke-Abel, Jennifer; Estes, Mary K; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Donowitz, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The development of indefinitely propagating human 'mini-guts' has led to a rapid advance in gastrointestinal research related to transport physiology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and pathophysiology. These mini-guts, also called enteroids or colonoids, are derived from LGR5 + intestinal stem cells isolated from the small intestine or colon. Addition of WNT3A and other growth factors promotes stemness and results in viable, physiologically functional human intestinal or colonic cultures that develop a crypt-villus axis and can be differentiated into all intestinal epithelial cell types. The success of research using human enteroids has highlighted the limitations of using animals or in vitro, cancer-derived cell lines to model transport physiology and pathophysiology. For example, curative or preventive therapies for acute enteric infections have been limited, mostly due to the lack of a physiological human intestinal model. However, the human enteroid model enables specific functional studies of secretion and absorption in each intestinal segment as well as observations of the earliest molecular events that occur during enteric infections. This Review describes studies characterizing these human mini-guts as a physiological model to investigate intestinal transport and host-pathogen interactions.

  2. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from eight city administrative divisions. Proportional random sampling method to select forty five (45) schools out of 320 public, private and non-formal schools was used. Using the school ...

  3. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections and factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors established to be independently associated with presence of intestinal parasitic infection were: age 11-15 years P<0.001, use of plain water for hand washing P<0.05, eating food without spoon P<0.05, consuming raw vegetables P<0.001, untrimmed finger nails P<0.001 and source of drinking water [river ...

  4. Intestinal protozoan and helminthic diarrheal infections in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal protozoan and helminthic diarrheal infections in children under five years old in Agasha, Benue State, north-central Nigeria. ... creation particularly on proper hand washing with soap or ash and water for children and their parents/care-givers. Keywords: diarrhea, protozoa, helminthes, hygiene and hand hygiene.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections and the level of immunosuppression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasites play a significant role in the morbidity and mortality of HIV/AIDS-infected patients. The frequency of their occurrence strongly correlates with the patient's level of immunity. The most ..... Conflict of interest: Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

  6. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  7. First report of human intestinal sarcocystosis in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Virak; Marti, Hanspeter; Chhay, Saomony; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Human intestinal sarcocystosis (HIS), caused by Sarcocystis species, is acquired by eating undercooked meat from sarcocyst-containing cattle (S. hominis, S. heydorni) and pigs (S. suihominis). We report on the detection of human intestinal Sarcocystis infections in a cross-sectional survey of Strongyloides stercoralis in early 2014, in Rovieng District, Preah Vihear Province, northern Cambodia. Among 1081 participants, 108 (10.0%) were diagnosed with Sarcocystis spp. oocysts in stool samples. Males had a significantly higher risk of infection than females (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.9, p=0.001). None of the reported symptoms (abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, muscle pain and itching skin) occurring in the two weeks preceding the examinations were associated with a Sarcocystis infection. Many Sarcocystis cases were found among those who had participated in a wedding celebration and Chinese New Year festivities, where they had consumed raw or insufficiently cooked beef (83.3%) and pork (38.9%) based dishes. This report documents the first HIS cases in Cambodia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative Functional In Vitro Models of Human Intestinal Epithelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Kauffman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Physiologically relevant sources of absorptive intestinal epithelial cells are crucial for human drug transport studies. Human adenocarcinoma-derived intestinal cell lines, such as Caco-2, offer conveniences of easy culture maintenance and scalability, but do not fully recapitulate in vivo intestinal phenotypes. Additional sources of renewable physiologically relevant human intestinal cells would provide a much needed tool for drug discovery and intestinal physiology. We sought to evaluate and compare two alternative sources of human intestinal cells, commercially available primary human intestinal epithelial cells (hInEpCs and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal cells to Caco-2, for use in in vitro transwell monolayer intestinal transport assays. To achieve this for iPSC-derived cells, our previously described 3-dimensional intestinal organogenesis method was adapted to transwell differentiation. Intestinal cells were assessed by marker expression through immunocytochemical and mRNA expression analyses, monolayer integrity through Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER measurements and molecule permeability, and functionality by taking advantage the well-characterized intestinal transport mechanisms. In most cases, marker expression for primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells appeared to be as good as or better than Caco-2. Furthermore, transwell monolayers exhibited high TEER with low permeability. Primary hInEpCs showed molecule efflux indicative of P-glycoprotein transport. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived cells also showed neonatal Fc receptor-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G variants. Primary hInEpCs and iPSC-derived intestinal cells exhibit expected marker expression and demonstrate basic functional monolayer formation, similar to or better than Caco-2. These cells could offer an alternative source of human intestinal cells for understanding normal intestinal epithelial physiology and drug transport.

  9. Aspectos funcionais, microbiológicos e morfológicos intestinais em crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana Functional, microbiological and morphological intestinal findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves Leite

    2006-12-01

    ocorrência ou não de diarréia. Não houve correlação entre os valores de D-xilose e os graus de atrofia vilositária.BACKGROUD: Gastrointestinal tract disorders are frequent among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, with important repercussions on nutrition and survival. Most studies related to this subject were restricted to adults, being less investigated the problem in the children. AIMS: To study intestinal digestion, absorption, microbiological and morphological findings among human immunodeficiency virus infected children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven human immunodeficiency virus infected children under 13 years old, belonging to clinical categories A, B or C, separated in two groups: five patients with current or recent episode of diarrhea and six patients without diarrhea in the last 30 days preceding entering in study. Investigation proposed: microbiological and morphological analysis of small intestine and rectum biopsy; stool exams for bacterium, parasite, rotavirus, Mycobacterium species and Cryptosporidium; D-xylose test RESULTS: All tested subjects (9/11 had low D-xylose absorption (8,4 _ 24,4 mg d/L. Small intestinal mucosa histology findings were nonspecific, represented, in majority, of grade I/II enteropathy (6/10. Increased cellular infiltration of the chorion was observed in all specimens. Rectum histology alterations were also nonspecific, with chorion increased cellular infiltration. Mycobacterim avium intracellulare and Cryptosporidium were the solely microorganisms founded, both in stool CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated high prevalence (100% of intestinal malabsorption among human immunodeficiency virus infected children, despite the occurrence or not of diarrhea. It was not possible to establish relationships between the presence of microorganisms, intestinal malabsorption, intestinal morphologic findings and the occurrence or not of diarrhea. There was no correlation between D-xylose and intensity of villous atrophy.

  10. A new approach to predict human intestinal absorption using porcine intestinal tissue and biorelevant matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, J.; Steeg, E. van de; Grossouw, D.; Zeijdner, E.E.; Krul, C.A.M.; Verwei, M.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    A reliable prediction of the oral bioavailability in humans is crucial and of high interest for pharmaceutical and food industry. The predictive value of currently used in silico methods, in vitro cell lines, ex vivo intestinal tissue and/or in vivo animal studies for human intestinal absorption,

  11. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Olusegun Akinbo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the presence of intestinal parasites and their correlation with CD4+ T-cell counts and demographics among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients in Benin City, Nigeria. Stool specimens from 2,000 HIV-positive patients and 500 controls (HIV-negative individuals were examined for ova, cysts, or parasites, using standard procedures. In addition, patient's blood samples were analyzed for CD4 counts by flow cytometry. An overall prevalence rate of 15.3% was observed among HIV-positive patients while 6.2% was noted among non-HIV subjects. HIV status was a significant (P<0.0001 risk factor for acquiring intestinal parasitic infections. Male gender, CD4 count <200cell/µl, and diarrhea were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV-positive patients. The level of education, occupation, and source of water among HIV patients significantly (P<0.0001 affected the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite in both HIV-positive patients and controls. A CD4 count <200 cells/µl was significantly associated with only Isospora belli and Cryptosporidium infections. The presence of pathogenic intestinal parasites such as A. lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichuris trichiura, and Taenia species among HIV-infected persons should not be neglected. Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in HIV-positive patients is advocated.

  13. Computed tomography for diagnosis of intestinal cytomegalovirus infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Schonlau, R.; Moedder, U.

    1994-01-01

    To check the value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the intestine, CT findings in ten patients with coloscopically proven CMV infection were reviewed. All patients were chronically ill men with AIDS. In nine of the ten cases CT scans of the small intestine and/or colon disclosed abnormalities. The predominant alteration (9/9) was a symmetric wall thickening in the bowel segments involved (10-30 mm). The location and extent showed good agreement with the inflammatory areas seen on coloscopy. The cecum and terminal ileum were the regions most frequently affected. In seven of the nine patients with CT abnormalities CT revealed pericolonic inflammation, particularly around the cecum. Lymph nodes were increased but not enlarged. Comparison of the findings in intestinal CMV infection with those in other AIDS-related diseases suggests that CT may be to limit the differential diagnosis. Abdominal CT serves as suitable primary imaging modality for the initial evaluation of patients with AIDS and abdominal symptoms of unknow etiology. (orig.)

  14. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Are Human Intestinal Eukaryotes Beneficial or Commensals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Julius; Stensvold, C.R.; Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Parfrey, L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2015), e1005039 E-ISSN 1553-7374 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/2261 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : human gut microbiota * Blastocystis * infection * diversity * parasites * impact Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.003, year: 2015

  16. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  17. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Poston; Bhuiyan, Nasir U.; Redd, R. Alex; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-01-01

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents

  18. Quantitation of small intestinal permeability during normal human drug absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, David G

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the quantitative relationship between a drug?s physical chemical properties and its rate of intestinal absorption (QSAR) is critical for selecting candidate drugs. Because of limited experimental human small intestinal permeability data, approximate surrogates such as the fraction absorbed or Caco-2 permeability are used, both of which have limitations. Methods Given the blood concentration following an oral and intravenous dose, the time course of intestinal absorpti...

  19. A Revised Model for Dosimetry in the Human Small Intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Poston; Nasir U. Bhuiyan; R. Alex Redd; Neil Parham; Jennifer Watson

    2005-02-28

    A new model for an adult human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) has been developed for use in internal dose estimations to the wall of the GIT and to the other organs and tissues of the body from radionuclides deposited in the lumenal contents of the five sections of the GIT. These sections were the esophasgus, stomach, small intestine, upper large intestine, and the lower large intestine. The wall of each section was separated from its lumenal contents.

  20. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  1. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Yadav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Diarrhoea is the main clinical manifestation caused by intestinal parasitic infections in patients, with special reference to transplant recipients who require careful consideration to reduce morbidity and mortality. Further, molecular characterization of some important parasites is necessary to delineate the different modes of transmission to consider appropriate management strategies. We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods: Stool samples from 38 transplant recipients comprising 29 post-renal, two liver and seven bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients presenting with diarrhoea and 50 transplant recipients (42 post-renal transplant, eight BMT without diarrhoea were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites by light microscopy using wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining for intestinal coccidia and modified trichrome staining for microsporidia. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium species were determined by multilocus genotyping using small subunit ribosomal (SSUrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR as the target genes. Assemblage study for Giardia lamblia was performed using triose phosphate isomerase (TPI as the target gene. Samples were also screened for bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Results: The parasites that were detected included Cryptosporidium species (21%, 8/38, Cystoisospora (Isospora belli (8%, 3, Cyclospora cayetanensis (5%, 2, G. lamblia (11%, 4, Hymenolepis nana (11%, 4, Strongyloides stercoralis (3%, 1 and Blastocystis hominis (3%, 1. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium species at SSUrRNA, COWP and DHFR loci could detect four isolates of C. hominis; two of C. parvum, one of mixed genotype and one could not be genotyped. All the C. hominis isolates were detected in adult post

  2. Development of Functional Microfold (M Cells from Intestinal Stem Cells in Primary Human Enteroids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Rouch

    Full Text Available Intestinal microfold (M cells are specialized epithelial cells that act as gatekeepers of luminal antigens in the intestinal tract. They play a critical role in the intestinal mucosal immune response through transport of viruses, bacteria and other particles and antigens across the epithelium to immune cells within Peyer's patch regions and other mucosal sites. Recent studies in mice have demonstrated that M cells are generated from Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells (ISCs, and that infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium increases M cell formation. However, it is not known whether and how these findings apply to primary human small intestinal epithelium propagated in an in vitro setting.Human intestinal crypts were grown as monolayers with growth factors and treated with recombinant RANKL, and assessed for mRNA transcripts, immunofluorescence and uptake of microparticles and S. Typhimurium.Functional M cells were generated by short-term culture of freshly isolated human intestinal crypts in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. RANKL stimulation of the monolayer cultures caused dramatic induction of the M cell-specific markers, SPIB, and Glycoprotein-2 (GP2 in a process primed by canonical WNT signaling. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a pseudopod phenotype of GP2-positive M cells that preferentially take up microparticles. Furthermore, infection of the M cell-enriched cultures with the M cell-tropic enteric pathogen, S. Typhimurium, led to preferential association of the bacteria with M cells, particularly at lower inoculum sizes. Larger inocula caused rapid induction of M cells.Human intestinal crypts containing ISCs can be cultured and differentiate into an epithelial layer with functional M cells with characteristic morphological and functional properties. This study is the first to demonstrate that M cells can be induced to form from primary human intestinal epithelium, and that S. Typhimurium preferentially infect these cells in an

  3. Intestinal Stem Cell Dynamics: A Story of Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Michael C; Flanagan, Dustin J; Sansom, Owen J

    2018-06-01

    Stem cell dynamics define the probability of accumulating mutations within the intestinal epithelium. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Nicholson et al. (2018) report that human intestinal stem cell dynamics differ significantly from those of mice and establish that oncogenic mutations are more likely to expand; therefore, "normal" epithelium may carry multiple mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential cancer mutations in cultured human intestinal stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Jarno; van Jaarsveld, Richard H.; Ponsioen, Bas; Zimberlin, Cheryl; van Boxtel, Ruben; Buijs, Arjan; Sachs, Norman; Overmeer, René M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Begthel, Harry; Korving, Jeroen; van de Wetering, Marc; Schwank, Gerald; Logtenberg, Meike; Cuppen, Edwin; Snippert, Hugo J.; Medema, Jan Paul; Kops, Geert J. P. L.; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Crypt stem cells represent the cells of origin for intestinal neoplasia. Both mouse and human intestinal stem cells can be cultured in medium containing the stem-cell-niche factors WNT, R-spondin, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and noggin over long time periods as epithelial organoids that remain

  5. Epidemiological assessment of intestinal parasitic infections in dogs at animal shelter in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: A high prevalence of intestinal parasites was found in the dogs studied. This suggests that the environment is highly contaminated with intestinal parasites. Preventive and therapeutic measures should be taken against infection with intestinal parasites in dogs in this region.

  6. Host specificity of Pisidium coreanum (Bivalvia: Sphaeriidae) to larval infection with a human intestinal fluke Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Soh, C T; Park, G M; Hwang, M K; Chung, P R

    2006-10-01

    The fingernail clam, Pisidium coreanum, has been traditionally consumed raw as a so-called drug therapy by patients with bone fractures in Korea. The present study was designed to determine the possible occurrence and, if present, the prevalence of Echinostoma cinetorchis in P. coreanum collected at a local site, and to determine the susceptibility of the clams in the laboratory to infection with miracidia and cercariae of E. cinetorchis. No cercariae or metacercariae of E. cinetorchis were observed in field-collected P. coreanum clams. In susceptibility experiments with laboratory-reared clams, individuals exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis did not release cercariae by 20 days after exposure; necropsy of exposed clams failed to show development of any sporocysts or rediae. To confirm the possibility of these clams serving as an experimental second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis, 20 of them were exposed to E. cinetorchis cercariae from experimentally infected Segmentina hemisphaerula that had been previously exposed to miracidia of E. cinetorchis; all exposed clams became infected. Metacercariae from clams at 14 days postinfection were fed to rats, and adult worms were recovered from the ileocecal regions. This is the first report of P. coreanum serving as second intermediate host of E. cinetorchis.

  7. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  8. Infection with HIV and intestinal parasites among street dwellers in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Feleke; Kebede, Yenew; Kassu, Afework; Degu, Getu; Tiruneh, Moges; Gedefaw, Molla

    2006-12-01

    In Ethiopia human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health and socioeconomic problem. Sex workers, youth, and mobile populations all show increasing prevalence of HIV. However, there is currently no information about the seroprevalence of HIV and the knowledge of HIV among street dwellers in the country. To fill this gap, 404 street dwellers residing in Gondar, northwest Ethiopia, were included in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic data, factors that prompted the subjects to become street dwellers, and their knowledge about HIV were all assessed using a structured questionnaire. Stool samples for diagnosis of intestinal parasites and venous blood for HIV antibody testing were collected and processed following standard procedures. Poverty-associated movement to urban areas in search of work was reported as a major factor that forced them to live in the streets, followed by divorce, family death, and addiction and peer pressure. One or more intestinal parasites were found in 67.6% of the street dwellers. Multiple parasitic infections were detected in 27.7%. The prevalence of HIV in the street dwellers was 6.9%. Fifty-nine (16.6%) participants responded that HIV can be transmitted by eating food together. Seventy-three (18%) believed an infected needle cannot transmit HIV, while 51 (12.6%) said HIV can be transmitted by hand shaking. One hundred ninety-two (47.5%) responded that antiretroviral therapy will not prolong the life of HIV-infected individuals. In summary, the prevalence of HIV and intestinal parasitic infection was quite high among street dwellers in Gondar. Therefore, strategies to control HIV and other infectious diseases should include this group, and regular mass deworming may help to reduce the burden of infection.

  9. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression...

  10. Quantification of Salmonella Survival and Infection in an In vitro Model of the Human Intestinal Tract as Proxy for Foodborne Pathogens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, Lucas M; Teunis, Peter F M; Kuijpers, Angelina F A; Delfgou-Van Asch, Ellen H M; Pielaat, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Different techniques are available for assessing differences in virulence of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The use of animal models or human volunteers is not expedient for various reasons; the use of epidemiological data is often hampered by lack of crucial data. In this paper, we describe a

  11. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: Role of proton pump inhibitors and intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. van Vlerken (Lotte); E.J. Huisman (Ellen); B. van Hoek (Bart); W. Renooij (W.); F.W.M. de Rooij (Felix); P.D. Siersema (Peter); K.J. van Erpecum (Karel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground Cirrhotic patients are at considerable risk for bacterial infections, possibly through increased intestinal permeability and bacterial overgrowth. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase infection risk. We aimed to explore the potential association between PPI use and

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-03-27

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries.

  14. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Results Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included ...

  15. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phimpha Paboriboune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection is an emerging problem in Laos. We conducted the first prospective study on intestinal parasites, including opportunistic protozoa, in newly diagnosed HIV infected patients, with or without diarrhea. The aims were to describe the spectrum of infections, to determine their prevalence and to assess their associations with diarrhea, CD4 cell count, place of residence and living conditions. METHODOLOGY: One to three stool samples over consecutive days were obtained from 137 patients. The Kato thick smear method, formalin-ethyl concentration and specific stains for coccidia and microsporidia diagnosis were performed on 260 stool samples. Baseline characteristics regarding relevant demographics, place of residence and living conditions, clinical features including diarrhea, were collected using a standardized questionnaire. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 137 patients were young (median age: 36 years and severely immunocompromised (83.9% at WHO stage 3 or 4, median CD4 cell count: 41/mm3. Diarrhea was present in 43.0% of patients. Parasite infection was found in 78.8% of patients, infection with at least two species in 49.6%. Prevalence rates of protozoan and helminth infections were similar (54.7% and 58.4% respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most frequent protozoa (26.3%. Cryptosporidium sp., Cytoisospora belli and microsporidia, found at low prevalence rates (6.6%, 4.4%, 2.9%, respectively, were described for the first time in Laos. Cryptosporidium sp. was associated with persistent diarrhea. Strongyloides stercoralis was the most prevalent helminth following Opisthorchis viverrini (20.4% and 47.5% respectively. The most immunocompromised patients, as assessed by a CD4 count ≤ 50 cells/mm3, were more likely to be infected with intestinal parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV infection was mainly diagnosed at an advanced stage of immunosuppression in Lao patients. Intestinal parasite infections were highly prevalent

  16. Absorption of l-methionine from the human small intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schedl, Harold P.; Pierce, Charles E.; Rider, Alan; Clifton, James A.

    1968-01-01

    Absorption of L-methionine was measured in all parts of the human small intestine using transintestinal intubation and perfusion. In four normal subjects, adsorption was higher in the proximal than in the distal intestine. In two patients with nontropical sprue in relapse, there was a proximal zone of low absorption with higher absorption distally. In all parts of the small intestine, absorption showed rate-limiting kinetics as methionine concentration was increased. In normal subjects, the proximal Km (Michaelis constant) was more than 3 times higher than the distal, which suggests a difference in transport mechanisms between the two segments. PMID:12066784

  17. Immunomodulatory Properties of Streptococcus and Veillonella Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Meijerink, M.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Wells, J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    The human small intestine is a key site for interactions between the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system. Here we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of representative species of commonly dominant small-intestinal microbial communities, including six streptococcal strains

  18. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  19. Diagnostic strategies to reveal covert infections with intestinal helminths in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Chris; Barnett, Sharon; Beall, Melissa; Drake, Jason; Elsemore, David; Thomas, Jennifer; Little, Susan

    2017-11-30

    Intestinal helminths are common in dogs in the United States, particularly non-treated dogs in animal shelters, but surveys by fecal flotation may underestimate their prevalence. To determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and evaluate the ability of fecal flotation and detection of nematode antigen to identify those infections, contents of the entire gastrointestinal tract of 97 adult (>1year) dogs previously identified for humane euthanasia at two animal control shelters in northeastern Oklahoma, USA, were screened. All helminths recovered were washed in saline and fixed prior to enumeration and identification to genus and species. Fecal samples from each dog were examined by passive sodium nitrate (SG 1.33) and centrifugal sugar solution (SG 1.25) flotation. Fecal antigen detection assays were used to confirm the presence of nematode antigen in frozen fecal samples from 92 dogs. Necropsy examination revealed Ancylostoma caninum in 45/97 (46.4%), Toxocara canis in 11/97 (11.3%), Trichuris vulpis in 38/97 (39.2%), Dipylidium caninum in 48/97 (49.5%), and Taenia sp. in 7/97 (7.2%) dogs. Passive fecal flotation identified 38/45 (84.4%) A. caninum, 6/11 (54.5%) T. canis, 26/38 (68.4%) T. vulpis, 2/48 (4.2%) D. caninum, and 1/7 (14.3%) Taenia sp. infections, while centrifugal flotation combined with antigen detection assays identified A. caninum in 97.7% (43/44), T. canis in 77.8% (7/9), and T. vulpis in 83.3% (30/36) of infected dogs based on necropsy recovery of nematodes. Taken together, these data indicate that detection of nematode antigen is a useful adjunct to microscopic examination of fecal samples for parasite eggs, and that this approach can improve diagnostic sensitivity for intestinal nematode infections in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Environmental Water Contamination in a Rural Village of Northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Alexis; Jollivet, Chloé; Morand, Serge; Thongmalayvong, Boupha; Somphavong, Silaphet; Siew, Chern-Chiang; Ting, Pei-Jun; Suputtamongkol, Saipin; Saensombath, Viengsaene; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Tan, Boon-Huan; Paboriboune, Phimpha; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Chaisiri, Kittipong

    2017-10-01

    A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E. coli O157: H7, verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC), Shigella spp., and enteric adenovirus. The level of microbial pathogens contamination was associated with human activity, with greater levels of contamination found at the downstream site compared to the site at the village and upstream, respectively. Regarding intestinal parasites, the prevalence of helminth and protozoan infections were 68.9% and 27.2%, respectively. Eight helminth taxa were identified in fecal samples, i.e., 2 tapeworm species (Taenia sp. and Hymenolepis diminuta), 1 trematode (Opisthorchis sp.), and 5 nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides stercoralis, trichostrongylids, and hookworms). Six species of intestinal protists were identified, i.e., Blastocystis hominis, Cyclospora spp., Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia. Questionnaires and interviews were also conducted to determine risk factors of infection. These analyses together with a prevailing infection level suggested that most of villagers were exposed to parasites in a similar degree due to limited socio-economic differences and sharing of similar practices. Limited access to effective public health facilities is also a significant contributing factor.

  1. Human zonulin, a potential modulator of intestinal tight junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W; Uzzau, S; Goldblum, S E; Fasano, A

    2000-12-01

    Intercellular tight junctions are dynamic structures involved in vectorial transport of water and electrolytes across the intestinal epithelium. Zonula occludens toxin derived from Vibrio cholerae interacts with a specific intestinal epithelial surface receptor, with subsequent activation of a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability. We postulated that this toxin may mimic the effect of a functionally and immunologically related endogenous modulator of intestinal tight junctions. Affinity-purified anti-zonula occludens toxin antibodies and the Ussing chamber assay were used to screen for one or more mammalian zonula occludens toxin analogues in both fetal and adult human intestine. A novel protein, zonulin, was identified that induces tight junction disassembly in non-human primate intestinal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. Comparison of amino acids in the active zonula occludens toxin fragment and zonulin permitted the identification of the putative receptor binding domain within the N-terminal region of the two proteins. Zonulin likely plays a pivotal role in tight junction regulation during developmental, physiological, and pathological processes, including tissue morphogenesis, movement of fluid, macromolecules and leukocytes between the intestinal lumen and the interstitium, and inflammatory/autoimmune disorders.

  2. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren’t any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds’ species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections ...

  3. THE CHANGES OF LARGE INTESTINE CAVITY’S MICROBIOTA IN PATIENTS WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savinova O.M.

    2015-12-01

    features of obligate microfloras’ functions (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus, E.coli, its lack has a negative impact on microecological system of the human body and reduces immunomodulatory effect on humoral and cellular immunity. So one of the issues which will have a positive impact on the health of patients with HIV infection is a normalization of obligate microflora deficit and reducing of opportunistic microflora. The conducted researches point to the need of microbiological analysis of fecal on dysbiosis for the patients with HIV infection and depending on the revealed dysbiotic changes making correction of microflora by biological agents. To correct the number of anaerobic bacteria (bifidus bacteria, lactobacillus use of bacterial preparations is not enough for only one month. It is necessary to continue taking of medicine for at least one month under the control of microbiological studies. The positive dynamics of the microflora of the large intestine points to changes that may be found in the immune system of the person that takes biological preparations. The close interaction between the microbiota of intestinal canal and the immune system leads to the formation of non–specific resistance of the organism. In this regard, the big importance has a modulating effect of intestinal microflora on products of cytokines, which are characterized by a wide range of biological effects. Conclusion. 1. Patients with HIV infection irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease have deficit both anaerobic (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and facultative anaerobic microorganisms. 2. E.coli is the leading microorganism among the facultative anaerobic intestinal microflora, its amount of has been reduced to levels <106 CFU / mL at 56% at the patients. 3. Correction of patients' microflora by bacterial agents showed that the number of E.coli already in a month have reached the normal level in 100% of cases.

  4. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megbaru Alemu; Habtamu Bedemo; Gessessew Bugssa; Sena Bayissa; Kiros Tedla

    2015-01-01

    Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total ...

  5. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah BAHMANI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method.Results: Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3% and Entamoeba coli (4.5%. Overall, 143 (35.9% had single infections and 26 (6.4% were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9% had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5% had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables (P<0.05. Conclusion: Education programs on students and their families should be implemented for the prevention and control of protozoa infections in the study area. 

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoa Infections and Associated Risk Factors among Schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Pegah; Maleki, Afshin; Sadeghi, Shahram; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ghahremani, Esmaeil

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are still a serious public health problem in the world, especially in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in Sanandaj City, Iran. This cross-sectional study involving 400 schoolchildren was carried out in 2015. Each student was selected using systematic random sampling method. Questionnaire and observation were used to identify possible risk factors. Fresh stool samples were observed using formal-ether concentration method. Five species of intestinal protozoa were identified with an overall prevalence of 42.3%. No cases of helminthes infection were detected. The predominant protozoa were Blastocys hominis (21.3%) and Entamoeba coli (4.5%). Overall, 143 (35.9%) had single infections and 26 (6.4%) were infected with more than one intestinal protozoa, in which 23 (5.9%) had double intestinal protozoa infections and 3 (0.5%) had triple infections. A significant relationship was observed between intestinal protozoa infection with economic status, water resources for drinking uses, and the methods of washing vegetables ( P protozoa infections in the study area.

  7. Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Ojurongbe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. Methods: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%, hookworm (5.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.6%, Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9% and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%. For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9% were more infected than males (2.0% but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978. Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359 were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. Conclusions: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria.

  8. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  9. Human intestinal mucus proteins isolated by transanal irrigation and proctosigmoidoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Andrea Gómez Buitrago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal mucus essentially consists of a network of Mucin2 glycoproteins embedded in many lower molecular weight proteins. This paper contributes to the proteomic study of human intestinal mucus by comparing two sample collection methods (transanal irrigation and brush cytology during proctosigmoidoscopy and analysis techniques (electrophoresis and digestion in solution. The entire sample collection and treatment process is explained, including protein extraction, digestion and desalination and peptide characterisation using a nanoAcquity UPLC chromatograph coupled to an HDMS spectrometer equipped with a nanoESI source. Collecting mucus via transanal irrigation provided a larger sample volume and protein concentration from a single patient. The proctosigmoidoscopy sample could be analysed via digestion in solution after depleting albumin. The analysis indicates that a simple mucus lysis method can evaluate the electrophoresis and digestion in solution techniques. Studying human intestinal mucus complexes is important because they perform two essential survival functions for humans as the first biochemical and physical defences for the gastrointestinal tract and a habitat for intestinal microbiota, which are primarily hosted in the colon and exceeds the human genetic information and cell number 100- and 10-fold (1.

  10. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  11. Intestinal helminth co-infection and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Arba Minch, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2017-01-13

    Helminths affect the outcome of tuberculosis by shifting cell mediated immune response to humoral and by total suppression of the host immune system. On the reverse, Mycobacterium infection favors immune escape of helminths. Therefore assessing helminth co-infection rate and predisposing factors in tuberculosis patients is mandatory to set strategies for better case management. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in Arba Minch to assess the prevalence and associated factors of intestinal helminths among pulmonary tuberculosis patients from January to August, 2016. A structured questionnaire was used to capture data about socio-demographic characteristics, clinical history and possible risk factors for intestinal helminth infections. Height and weight were measured to calculate body-mass index. Appropriate amount of stool was collected and processed by direct saline and formol-ether concentration techniques following standard protocols. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A total of 213 (57.3% male and 42.7% female) pulmonary tuberculosis patients were participated in the study. The overall co-infection rate of intestinal parasites was 26.3%. The infection rate of intestinal helminths account 24.4% and that of intestinal protozoa was 6.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides accounted the highest frequency of 11.3%. Living in rural residence (AOR = 3.175, 95% CI: 1.102-9.153, p = 0.032), Eating vegetables/ fruits without washing or peeling off (AOR = 2.208, 95% CI: 1.030-4.733, p = 0.042) and having body-mass index intestinal helminth infection. The infection rate by intestinal helminths was 24.4%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent helminth. Residence, habit of washing vegetables/fruits before use and body-mass index were associated factors with intestinal helminthiasis. Therefore health care providers should screen and treat TB patients for intestinal helminthiasis in order to ensure good prognosis.

  12. The growth pattern of the human intestine and its mesentery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soffers, Jelly H. M.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Koehler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear to what extent midgut rotation determines human intestinal topography and pathology. We reinvestigated the midgut during its looping and herniation phases of development, using novel 3D visualization techniques. We distinguished 3 generations of midgut loops. The topography of

  13. Long-term monitoring of the human intestinal microbiota composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajilic-Stojanovic, M.; Heilig, G.H.J.; Tims, S.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Vos, de W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The microbiota that colonizes the human intestinal tract is complex and its structure is specific for each of us. In this study we expand the knowledge about the stability of the subject-specific microbiota and show that this ecosystem is stable in short-term intervals (¿10 years). The faecal

  14. In Silico Modelling of the Human Intestinal Microflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamerman, Derk Jan; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2002-01-01

    The ecology of the human intestinal microflora and its interaction with the host are poorly understood. Though more and more data are being acquired, in part using modern molecular methods, development of a quantitative theory has not kept pace with this development. This is in part due to the

  15. Biotransformation of Food Dyes by Human Intestinal Bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotransformation of food dyes (Tartrazine and Quinoline yellow) by Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli isolated from human intestinal microflora was investigated. Decolourisation of the media containing the dyes was used as an index of biotransformation. Biotransformation was higher under aerobic than under ...

  16. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at Pintestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended.

  17. Metabolism of gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin) by human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sedawy, A I; Hattori, M; Kobashi, K; Namba, T

    1989-09-01

    As a part of our studies on the metabolism of crude drug components by intestinal bacteria, gentiopicroside (a secoiridoid glucoside isolated from Gentiana lutea), was anaerobically incubated with various defined strains of human intestinal bacteria. Many species had ability to transform it to a series of metabolites. Among them, Veillonella parvula ss parvula produced five metabolites, which were identified as erythrocentaurin, gentiopicral, 5-hydroxymethylisochroman-1-one,5-hydroxymethylisochromen-1- one and trans-5,6-dihydro-5-hydroxymethyl-6-methyl-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyra n-1-one.

  18. Persistent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection Increases the Susceptibility of Mice to Develop Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara M. Schultz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammations are triggered by genetic and environmental components. However, it remains unclear how specific changes in the microbiota, host immunity, or pathogen exposure could promote the onset and exacerbation of these diseases. Here, we evaluated whether Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection increases the susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation in mice. Two mouse models were used to evaluate the impact of S. Typhimurium infection: the chemical induction of colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and interleukin (IL-10−/− mice, which develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. We observed that S. Typhimurium infection makes DSS-treated and IL-10−/− mice more susceptible to develop intestinal inflammation. Importantly, this increased susceptibility is associated to the ability of S. Typhimurium to persist in liver and spleen of infected mice, which depends on the virulence proteins secreted by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. Although immunization with a live attenuated vaccine resulted in a moderate reduction of the IL-10−/− mice susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation due to previous S. Typhimurium infection, it did not prevent bacterial persistence. Our results suggest that persistent S. Typhimurium infection may increase the susceptibility of mice to develop inflammation in the intestine, which could be associated with virulence proteins secreted by TTSS-2.

  19. Neural influences on human intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dagmar; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Schemann, Michael

    2016-01-15

    We present the first systematic and, up to now, most comprehensive evaluation of the basic features of epithelial functions, such as basal and nerve-evoked secretion, as well as tissue resistance, in over 2200 surgical specimens of human small and large intestine. We found no evidence for impaired nerve-evoked epithelial secretion or tissue resistance with age or disease pathologies (stomach, pancreas or colon cancer, polyps, diverticulitis, stoma reversal). This indicates the validity of future studies on epithelial secretion or resistance that are based on data from a variety of surgical specimens. ACh mainly mediated nerve-evoked and basal secretion in the small intestine, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide were the primary pro-secretory transmitters in the large intestine. The results of the present study revealed novel insights into regional differences in nerve-mediated secretion in the human intestine and comprise the basis by which to more specifically target impaired epithelial functions in the diseased gut. Knowledge on basic features of epithelial functions in the human intestine is scarce. We used Ussing chamber techniques to record basal tissue resistance (R-basal) and short circuit currents (ISC; secretion) under basal conditions (ISC-basal) and after electrical field stimulation (ISC-EFS) of nerves in 2221 resectates from 435 patients. ISC-EFS was TTX-sensitive and of comparable magnitude in the small and large intestine. ISC-EFS or R-basal were not influenced by the patients' age, sex or disease pathologies (cancer, polyps, diverticulitis). Ion substitution, bumetanide or adenylate cyclase inhibition studies suggested that ISC-EFS depended on epithelial cAMP-driven chloride and bicarbonate secretion but not on amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Although atropine-sensitive cholinergic components prevailed for ISC-EFS of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, PG97-269-sensitive [vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 1

  20. Intestinal parasitic infections among under-five children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Moreover, there is little information on maternal awareness about intestinal parasitosis. Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among under-five children, and assess maternal awareness about it in Shesha .... local language using open-ended questions by data the collectors selected from the study ...

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-29

    Oct 29, 2010 ... Cryptosporidium species and I. belli were the opportunistic parasites observed in this study. Routine screening for intestinal parasites in. HIV-positive patients is advocated. Keywords: intestinal parasites; HIV; CD4 count; Demographics; Benin City. Received: 2 August 2010; Revised: 25 September 2010; ...

  2. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supernatant enhance neonatal resistance to systemic Escherichia coli K1 infection by accelerating development of intestinal defense

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong He; Qing Zeng; Santhosh Puthiyakunnon; Zhijie Zeng; Weijun Yang; Jiawen Qiu; Lei Du; Swapna Boddu; Tongwei Wu; Danxian Cai; Sheng-He Huang; Hong Cao

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant (LCS) has a preventive effect against gut-derived systemic neonatal Escherichia coli (E. coli) K1 infection. The preventive effects were evaluated in human colonic carcinoma cell line Caco-2 and neonatal rat models. Our in vitro results showed that LCS could block adhesion, invasion and translocation of E. coli K1 to Caco-2 monolayer via up-regulating mucin production and maintaining intestinal...

  4. Zebrafish Axenic Larvae Colonization with Human Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Jayo, Nerea; Alonso-Saez, Laura; Ramirez-Garcia, Andoni; Pardo, Miguel A

    2018-04-01

    The human intestine hosts a vast and complex microbial community that is vital for maintaining several functions related with host health. The processes that determine the gut microbiome composition are poorly understood, being the interaction between species, the external environment, and the relationship with the host the most feasible. Animal models offer the opportunity to understand the interactions between the host and the microbiota. There are different gnotobiotic mice or rat models colonized with the human microbiota, however, to our knowledge, there are no reports on the colonization of germ-free zebrafish with a complex human intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we have successfully colonized 5 days postfertilization germ-free zebrafish larvae with the human intestinal microbiota previously extracted from a donor and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing the composition of the transferred microbial communities that established inside the zebrafish gut. Thus, we describe for first time which human bacteria phylotypes are able to colonize the zebrafish digestive tract. Species with relevant interest because of their linkage to dysbiosis in different human diseases, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Prevotella spp., or Roseburia spp. have been successfully transferred inside the zebrafish digestive tract.

  5. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with a parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  6. Mini-FLOTAC, an innovative direct diagnostic technique for intestinal parasitic infections: experience from the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barda, Beatrice Divina; Rinaldi, Laura; Ianniello, Davide; Zepherine, Henry; Salvo, Fulvio; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Clementi, Massimo; Albonico, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infection are widespread in developing countries, yet an accurate diagnosis is rarely performed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recently developed mini-FLOTAC method and to compare with currently more widely used techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections in different settings. The study was carried out in Dharamsala, Himachal Pradesh, India, and in Bukumbi, Tanzania. A total of 180 pupils from two primary schools had their stool analyzed (n = 80 in Dharamsala and n = 100 in Bukumbi) for intestinal parasitic infections with three diagnostic methods: direct fecal smear, formol-ether concentration method (FECM) and mini-FLOTAC. Overall, 72% of the pupils were positive for any intestinal parasitic infection, 24% carried dual infections and 11% three infections or more. The most frequently encountered intestinal parasites were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, hookworm, (and Schistosoma mansoni, in Tanzania). Statistically significant differences were found in the detection of parasitic infections among the three methods: mini-FLOTAC was the most sensitive method for helminth infections (90% mini-FLOTAC, 60% FECM, and 30% direct fecal smear), whereas FECM was most sensitive for intestinal protozoa infections (88% FECM, 70% direct fecal smear, and 68% mini-FLOTAC). We present the first experiences with the mini-FLOTAC for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths and protozoa. Our results suggest that it is a valid, sensitive and potentially low-cost alternative technique that could be used in resource-limited settings--particularly for helminth diagnosis.

  7. The risk of pathogenic intestinal parasite infections in Kisii Municipality, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Ephantus W

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high especially in developing countries, although in many of these, the environmental risk factors have not been clearly elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the risk of pathogenic intestinal parasites infections in Kisii Municipality. Methods Random sampling was used in the selection of the study samples. Stool parasitological profiles of food handlers were done by direct smear and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation method. Both vegetable and meat samples were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. The storage and meat handling practices of the various butcheries were observed. Results Types of samples examined for occurrence of intestinal parasites includes, a total of 84 vegetable, 440 meat and 168 stool samples. Fifty five (65.5% vegetable, 334 (75.9% meat and 69 (41.1% of the stool samples were found positive for intestinal parasites indicating a high overall risk (66.18% for intestinal parasite infections. Of the parasites detected, the most common parasites infesting the foodstuffs and infecting the food handlers were Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica. Parasites were significantly less likely to be present on meat that was refrigerated during display than meat that was displayed at ambient temperature. Conclusion There is a high risk of infection with intestinal parasites in the sampled Municipal markets. About half of the food handlers surveyed (41.1 % at the Municipal Hospital had one or more parasitic infections. Furthermore, meat (65.5% and vegetables (75.9% sold at the Municipal market were found to be contaminated with parasites hence the inhabitants requires a need for education on food safety, good distribution practices and improvement on sanitary conditions.

  8. Human-derived probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains differentially reduce intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuying; Fatheree, Nicole Y; Mangalat, Nisha; Rhoads, Jon Marc

    2010-11-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) is a probiotic that inhibits the severity of enteric infections and modulates the immune system. Human-derived L. reuteri strains DSM17938, ATCC PTA4659, ATCC PTA 5289, and ATCC PTA 6475 have demonstrated strain-specific immunomodulation in cultured monocytoid cells, but information about how these strains affect inflammation in intestinal epithelium is limited. We determined the effects of the four different L. reuteri strains on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in small intestinal epithelial cells and in the ileum of newborn rats. IPEC-J2 cells (derived from the jejunal epithelium of a neonatal piglet) and IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt) were treated with L. reuteri. Newborn rat pups were gavaged cow milk formula supplemented with L. reuteri strains in the presence or absence of LPS. Protein and mRNA levels of cytokines and histological changes were measured. We demonstrate that even though one L. reuteri strain (DSM 17938) did not inhibit LPS-induced IL-8 production in cultured intestinal cells, all strains significantly reduced intestinal mucosal levels of KC/GRO (∼IL-8) and IFN-γ when newborn rat pups were fed formula containing LPS ± L. reuteri. Intestinal histological damage produced by LPS plus cow milk formula was also significantly reduced by all four strains. Cow milk formula feeding (without LPS) produced mild gut inflammation, evidenced by elevated mucosal IFN-γ and IL-13 levels, a process that could be suppressed by strain 17938. Other cytokines and chemokines were variably affected by the different strains, and there was no toxic effect of L. reuteri on intestinal cells or mucosa. In conclusion, L. reuteri strains differentially modulate LPS-induced inflammation. Probiotic interactions with both epithelial and nonepithelial cells in vivo must be instrumental in modulating intrinsic anti-inflammatory effects in the intestine. We suggest that the terms anti- and proinflammatory be used only

  9. Chronic Trichuris muris infection causes neoplastic change in the intestine and exacerbates tumour formation in APC min/+ mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Hayes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+ mice were infected with this parasite. Parasite infection in wild type mice led to the development of neoplastic change similar to that seen in mice that had been treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane. Additionally, both chronic and acute infection in the APCmin/+ mice led to an enhanced tumour development that was distinct to the site of infection suggesting systemic control. By blocking the parasite induced T regulatory response in these mice, the increase in the number of tumours following infection was abrogated. Thus T. muris infection alone causes an increase in gut pathologies that are known to be markers of cancer but also increases the incidence of tumour formation in a colon cancer model. The influence of parasitic worm infection on the development of cancer may therefore be significant.

  10. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    harm to some extent by the association or may cause death. Human ... Center and Specialist Hospital Yola, Adamawa state. MATERIALS ..... of animal dungs as manure could aid in transfer of cysts. .... American Journal of Tropical. Medicine ...

  11. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Aimee M.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity...... microorganisms, but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community, independent of identity to known genes, by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host....... Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex...

  12. Diversity of human intestinal helminthiasis in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghajack, Youthanavane; Vanmany, Monely; Rasphone, Oroth; Tesana, Smarn; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Food-borne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, including in Lao PDR. We investigated the diversity of intestinal helminthes and polyparasitism in patients with hepatobiliary or intestinal symptoms in hospital and community-based surveys. Stool samples from 232 individuals aged >or=15 years were examined by the Kato-Katz method (three samples) and a formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique (one sample). Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (MIF) were common, with prevalences of 86.2% and 62.9%, respectively. Hookworm was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth (65.9%). The prevalences of Taenia spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were 22.8%, 10.3% and 8.6%, respectively. Additionally, 97 individuals were purged; O. viverrini and Haplorchis taichui were found in 95 and 76 participants, respectively. Other trematodes included Phaneropsolus bonnei (22.7%), Prosthodendrium molenkampi (14.4%), Haplorchis pumilio (5.2%), Haplorchis yokogawai (3.1%) and Echinochasmus japonicus (3.1%). Co-infection with O. viverrini and MIFs was rampant (81.4%). Polytrematode infection is highly prevalent in Lao PDR and hence requires urgent attention.

  13. Correlation between iron deficiency anemia and intestinal parasitic infection in school-age children in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlan, D. M.; Ananda, F. R.; Sari, M. I.; Arrasyid, N. K.; Sari, D. I.

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is an abnormal hemoglobin concentration in blood that impacts almost 40% school-age children in developing countries. Intestinal parasitic infection, along with malnutrition are contributed to influence absorption, transportation, and metabolism of iron which is the most common etiology of anemia in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a correlation between iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and parasitic intestinal infection generally and protozoa infection particularly among school-age children in Medan. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from May until October 2016 in primaryschool in Medan and Hamparan Perak, Deli Serdang. Consecutive sampling was used with total 132 samples obtained. Univariate analysis and Bivariate analysis were performed.This study showed the prevalence of IDA was 7.6%, and proportion of parasitic intestinal infection was 26.5% with 19.8% protozoa infection. The correlation between IDA and intestinal parasitic infection was not significant in Chi-Square Test (p-value: 0.089), neither was between IDA and protozoa infection (p-value: 0.287). There was a correlation between MCV, MCH, and anemia with p-valueanemia, parasitic infection, and protozoa infection (p-value>0.05).

  14. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  15. Co-infection patterns of intestinal parasites in arboreal primates (proboscis monkeys, Nasalis larvatus in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Klaus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-human primates of South-East Asia remain under-studied concerning parasite epidemiology and co-infection patterns. Simultaneously, efforts in conservation demand knowledge of parasite abundance and biodiversity in threatened species. The Endangered proboscis monkey, Nasalis larvatus, a primate flagship species for conservation in Borneo, was investigated in the present study. Habitat loss and fragmentation are among the greatest threats to bachelor and harem groups of this folivorous colobine. Designed as a follow-up study, prevalence and co-infection status of intestinal parasites from N. larvatus in a protected area in Malaysian Borneo were analyzed from fecal samples using a flotation method. For the first time, the intestinal parasite co-infection patterns were examined using quantitative analyses. Overall, 92.3% of fecal samples (N = 652 were positive for helminth eggs. Five helminth groups were detected: (1 trichurids (82.7% prevalence including Trichuris spp. (82.1% and Anatrichosoma spp. (1.4%, (2 strongyles (58.9% including Trichostrongylus spp. (48.5% and Oesophagostomum/Ternidens spp. (22.8%, (3 Strongyloides fuelleborni (32.7%, (4 Ascaris lumbricoides (8.6%, and (5 Enterobius spp. (5.5%. On average, an individual was co-infected with two different groups. Significant positive associations were found for co-infections of trichurids with strongyles and S. fuelleborni as well as S. fuelleborni with A. lumbricoides and strongyles. This study shows a high prevalence of various gastrointestinal helminths with potential transmission pathways primarily related to soil and with zoonotic relevance in wild proboscis monkeys in their remaining natural habitats. Observed positive associations of trichurids with strongyles and Strongyloides spp. may result from the high prevalence of trichurids. Similarly, positive associations between Strongyloides and Ascaris were found, both of which typically occur predominantly in juvenile hosts

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  17. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  18. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Chana; Bik, Elisabeth M; DiGiulio, Daniel B; Relman, David A; Brown, Patrick O

    2007-07-01

    Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Intestinal infection with Giardia spp. reduces epithelial barrier function in a myosin light chain kinase-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kevin G-E; Meddings, Jonathon B; Kirk, David R; Lees-Miller, Susan P; Buret, André G

    2002-10-01

    Giardiasis causes malabsorptive diarrhea, and symptoms can be present in the absence of any significant morphologic injury to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of giardiasis on epithelial permeability in vivo remain unknown, and the role of T cells and myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in altered intestinal barrier function is unclear. This study was conducted to determine whether Giardia spp. alters intestinal permeability in vivo, to assess whether these abnormalities are dependent on T cells, and to assess the role of MLCK in altered epithelial barrier function. Immunocompetent and isogenic athymic mice were inoculated with axenic Giardia muris trophozoites or sterile vehicle (control), then assessed for trophozoite colonization and gastrointestinal permeability. Mechanistic studies using nontransformed human duodenal epithelial monolayers (SCBN) determined the effects of Giardia on myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, transepithelial fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran fluxes, cytoskeletal F-actin, tight junctional zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and MLCK. Giardia infection caused a significant increase in small intestinal, but not gastric or colonic, permeability that correlated with trophozoite colonization in both immunocompetent and athymic mice. In vitro, Giardia increased permeability and phosphorylation of MLC and reorganized F-actin and ZO-1. These alterations were abolished with an MLCK inhibitor. Disruption of small intestinal barrier function is T cell independent, disappears on parasite clearance, and correlates with reorganization of cytoskeletal F-actin and tight junctional ZO-1 in an MLCK-dependent fashion.

  1. Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Foulke-Abel (Jennifer); J. In (Julie); Yin, J. (Jianyi); N.C. Zachos (Nicholas C.); O. Kovbasnjuk (Olga); M.K. Estes (Mary K.); H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); M. Donowitz (Mark)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground & Aims Human intestinal crypt-derived enteroids are a model of intestinal ion transport that require validation by comparison with cell culture and animal models. We used human small intestinal enteroids to study neutral Na+ absorption and stimulated fluid and anion secretion

  2. Intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison with emphasis on soil-transmitted helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Bahiru; Zemene, Endalew; Mohammed, Abdurehman E

    2015-12-14

    Intestinal helminths infect more than two billion people worldwide. They are common in developing countries where sanitary facilities are inadequate. There is scarcity of documented data on the magnitude of intestinal helminths among inmates in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among inmates in Bedele prison, south-western Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving 234 inmates in Bedele prison was conducted in April 2012. Socio-demographic data was collected from each study participant using semi-structured questionnaire. Fresh stool specimens were collected and processed using modified McMaster technique. At least one species of intestinal helminth was identified in 111 (47.4 %) of the inmates. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite isolated, followed by the hookworms. Most of the cases of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) were light infections. Untrimmed hand fingernails was significantly associated with A. lumbricoides infection (AOR 0.383, 95 % CI 0.200-0.731). Intestinal helminths are common among the inmates in Bedele prison. Health information should be given to the inmates on proper personal hygiene practices with emphasis on trimming of hand fingernails. Monitoring helminth infections in the inmate population is required.

  3. The growth pattern of the human intestine and its mesentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffers, Jelly H M; Hikspoors, Jill P J M; Mekonen, Hayelom K; Koehler, S Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H

    2015-08-22

    It remains unclear to what extent midgut rotation determines human intestinal topography and pathology. We reinvestigated the midgut during its looping and herniation phases of development, using novel 3D visualization techniques. We distinguished 3 generations of midgut loops. The topography of primary and secondary loops was constant, but that of tertiary loops not. The orientation of the primary loop changed from sagittal to transverse due to the descent of ventral structures in a body with a still helical body axis. The 1st secondary loop (duodenum, proximal jejunum) developed intraabdominally towards a left-sided position. The 2nd secondary loop (distal jejunum) assumed a left-sided position inside the hernia before returning, while the 3rd and 4th secondary loops retained near-midline positions. Intestinal return into the abdomen resembled a backward sliding movement. Only after return, the 4th secondary loop (distal ileum, cecum) rapidly "slid" into the right lower abdomen. The seemingly random position of the tertiary small-intestinal loops may have a biomechanical origin. The interpretation of "intestinal rotation" as a mechanistic rather than a descriptive concept underlies much of the confusion accompanying the physiological herniation. We argue, instead, that the concept of "en-bloc rotation" of the developing midgut is a fallacy of schematic drawings. Primary, secondary and tertiary loops arise in a hierarchical fashion. The predictable position and growth of secondary loops is pre-patterned and determines adult intestinal topography. We hypothesize based on published accounts that malrotations result from stunted development of secondary loops.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural malay children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huat, Lim Boon; Mitra, Amal K; Jamil, Noor Izani Noor; Dam, Pim Chau; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan; Muda, Wan Abdul Manan Wan

    2012-01-01

    Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders). A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Out of 79 samples, 29 (37%) were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less) (P=0.015), eating raw salad (P=0.03), and no physical activities (P=0.03) were found independent risk factors for the child's helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019). In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02) and eating raw salad (P=0.04) remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother's poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  5. First report of birds infection by intestinal parasites in Khorramabad, west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badparva, Ebrahim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azami, Mehdi; Badparva, Masoud

    2015-12-01

    Parasitic infections in birds are omnipresent, even when they occur in low amounts, may result in subclinical diseases. There aren't any studies, based on Iranian data, investigating the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in some birds' species. We conducted a cross-sectional study between December 2011 and December 2012. The fecal samples were taken from 451 birds including hen, turkey, sparrow, pigeon and decorative birds. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether concentration technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Culture in RPMI 1640 medium, sporulation with potassium dichromate and Trichrome and Giemsa staining. Out of 451 birds' species, 157 (34.8 %), were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. We identified two nematode, two cestoda species and five protozoan parasites species. No trematodes were found in the samples studied. The parasites identified among birds involved Raillietina spp. (4.2 %) and Eimeria spp. (7.1 %) were the most common helminthes and protozoa respectively. From total of birds study, 12 (2.7 %) and 6 (1.3 %) have two and three mixed infections respectively. Intestinal parasitic infections are common in birds in west Iran. The future studies are needed in order to determine to which extent the infections influence mortality and performance of the birds.

  6. Anthrax lethal toxin disrupts intestinal barrier function and causes systemic infections with enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    Full Text Available A variety of intestinal pathogens have virulence factors that target mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways, including Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT has specific proteolytic activity against the upstream regulators of MAPKs, the MAPK kinases (MKKs. Using a murine model of intoxication, we show that LT causes the dose-dependent disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity, characterized by mucosal erosion, ulceration, and bleeding. This pathology correlates with an LT-dependent blockade of intestinal crypt cell proliferation, accompanied by marked apoptosis in the villus tips. C57BL/6J mice treated with intravenous LT nearly uniformly develop systemic infections with commensal enteric organisms within 72 hours of administration. LT-dependent intestinal pathology depends upon its proteolytic activity and is partially attenuated by co-administration of broad spectrum antibiotics, indicating that it is both a cause and an effect of infection. These findings indicate that targeting of MAPK signaling pathways by anthrax LT compromises the structural integrity of the mucosal layer, serving to undermine the effectiveness of the intestinal barrier. Combined with the well-described immunosuppressive effects of LT, this disruption of the intestinal barrier provides a potential mechanism for host invasion via the enteric route, a common portal of entry during the natural infection cycle of Bacillus anthracis.

  7. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Liza Nyantekyi; Mengistu Legesse; Girmay Medhin; Abebe Animut; Konjit Tadesse; Chanda Macias; Abraham Degarege; Berhanu Erko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Methods: Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Results: Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such...

  8. Esterification of xanthophylls by human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Tatsuya; Yamashita, Kyoko; Asai, Akira; Nagao, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Tomotaka; Imai, Ichiro; Hirata, Takashi

    2009-03-15

    We recently found that peridinin, which is uniquely present in dinoflagellates, reduced cell viability by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Peridinin is also found in edible clams and oysters because the major food sources of those shellfish are phytoplanktons such as dinoflagellates. Little is known, however, about the fate of dietary peridinin and its biological activities in mammals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enzymatic esterification of xanthophylls, especially peridinin which is uniquely present in dinoflagellates, using differentiated cultures of Caco-2 human intestinal cells. We found that peridinin is converted to peridininol and its fatty acid esters in differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with 5mumol/L peridinin solubilized with mixed micelles. The cell homogenate was also able to deacetylate peridinin and to esterify peridininol. Other xanthophylls, such as fucoxanthin, astaxanthin and zeaxanthin, were also esterified, but at relatively lower rates than peridinin. In this study, we found the enzymatic esterification of xanthophylls in mammalian intestinal cells for the first time. Our results suggest that the esterification of xanthophylls in intestinal cells is dependent on their polarity.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus induces IL-8 expression through its lipoproteins in the human intestinal epithelial cell, Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seok-Seong; Noh, Su Young; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can cause the intestinal inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of S. aureus infection in the intestine. In the present study, we investigated whether S. aureus could stimulate human intestinal epithelial cells triggering inflammation. When the human intestinal epithelial cell-line, Caco-2, and the primary colon cells were stimulated with ethanol-inactivated S. aureus, IL-8 expression was induced in a dose-dependent manner. The inactivated S. aureus preferentially stimulated Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 rather than TLR4. Lipoproteins, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) are considered as potential TLR2 ligands of S. aureus. Interestingly, S aureus lipoproteins and Pam2CSK4 mimicking Gram-positive bacterial lipoproteins, but not LTA and PGN of S. aureus, significantly induced IL-8 expression in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, lipoprotein-deficient S. aureus mutant strain failed to induce IL-8 production. Collectively, these results suggest that S. aureus stimulates the human intestinal epithelial cells to induce the chemokine IL-8 production through its lipoproteins, potentially contributing the development of intestinal inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intestinal innate antiviral immunity and immunobiotics: beneficial effects against rotavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Villena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract are the main portal entry of pathogens such as rotavirus (RVs, which is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe and a major cause of severe acute intestinal infection in livestock animals. The interactions between intestinal epithelial cells (IECs and immune cells with RVs have been studied for several years, and now it is known that the innate immune responses triggered by this virus can have both beneficial and detrimental effects for the host. It was demonstrated that natural RVs infection in infants and experimental challenges in mice result in the intestinal activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs like Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 and striking secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators that can lead to increased local tissue damage and immunopathology. Therefore, modulating desregulated intestinal immune responses triggered by PRRs activation are a significant promise for reducing the burden of RVs diseases. The ability of immunoregulatory probiotic microorganisms (immunobiotics to protect against intestinal infections such as those caused by RVs, are among the oldest effects studied for these important group of beneficial microbes. In this review, we provide an update of the current status on the modulation of intestinal antiviral innate immunity by immunobiotics, and their beneficial impact on RVs infection. In addition, we describe the research of our group that demonstrated the capacity of immunobiotic strains to beneficially modulated TLR3-triggered immune response in IECs, reduce the disruption of intestinal homeostasis caused by intraepithelial lymphocytes, and improve the resistance to RVs infections.

  11. Bacteraemia and breast abscess: unusual extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durojaiye, Oyewole; Gaur, Soma; Alsaffar, Layth

    2011-03-01

    Extra-intestinal manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection are uncommon. Most cases are associated with gastrointestinal disease and often occur as a mixed infection with other gut flora. We report a case of breast abscess following monomicrobial C. difficile bacteraemia in a female with background chronic hepatitis C infection and alcoholic liver disease. No evidence of colitis was found. Our case shows that C. difficile is indeed capable of spreading from the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Molecular Diagnosis of Human Taenia martis Eye Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Till; Schoen, Christoph; Muntau, Birgit; Addo, Marylyn; Ostertag, Helmut; Wiechens, Burkhard; Tappe, Dennis

    2016-05-04

    Taenia martis, a tapeworm harbored in the intestine of mustelids, is a rarely encountered zoonotic cysticercosis pathogen. The larval stage closely resembles the Taenia solium cysticercus, but the natural host and thus the epidemiology of the disease is different. We here report a human eye infection diagnosed molecularly in a previously healthy female German patient. The case represents the third human infection described worldwide; the two previous cases were also European, involving eye and brain. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. The prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Breivika, N-9037, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences,. Alemaya .... quantity, time, and procedure of collection. ... J.Health Dev. 2005;19(2). Table 1: Prevalence of intestinal helminths among Babile town schoolchildren, Eastern. Ethiopia, 2001. Parasite species. Males.

  14. Effect of sanitation and water treatment on intestinal protozoa infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Croll, David; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; Keiser, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic intestinal protozoa infections are responsible for substantial mortality and morbidity, particularly in settings where people lack improved sanitation and safe drinking water. We assessed the relation between access to, and use of, sanitation facilities and water treatment and infection with intestinal protozoa. We did a systematic review and searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Embase from inception to June 30, 2014, without restrictions on language. All publications were examined by two independent reviewers and were included if they presented data at the individual level about access or use of sanitation facilities or water treatment, in combination with individual-level data on human intestinal protozoa infections. Meta-analyses using random effects models were used to calculate overall estimates. 54 studies were included and odds ratios (ORs) extracted or calculated from 2 × 2 contingency tables. The availability or use of sanitation facilities was associated with significantly lower odds of infection with Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar (OR 0·56, 95% CI 0·42-0·74) and Giardia intestinalis (0·64, 0·51-0·81), but not for Blastocystis hominis (1·03, 0·87-1·23), and Cryptosporidium spp (0·68, 0·17-2·68). Water treatment was associated with significantly lower odds of B hominis (0·52, 0·34-0·78), E histolytica or E dispar (0·61, 0·38-0·99), G intestinalis (0·63, 0·50-0·80), and Cryptosporidium spp infections (0·83, 0·70-0·98). Availability and use of sanitation facilities and water treatment is associated with lower odds of intestinal protozoa infections. Interventions that focus on water and sanitation, coupled with hygiene behaviour, should be emphasised to sustain the control of intestinal protozoa infections. Swiss National Science Foundation (project numbers PBBSP3-146869 and P300P3-154634), Medicor Foundation, European Research Council (614739-A_HERO). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Opportunistic and other intestinal parasitic infections in AIDS patients, HIV seropositive healthy carriers and HIV seronegative individuals in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariam, Zelalem T; Abebe, Gemeda; Mulu, Andargachew

    2008-12-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and major causes of morbidity and mortality of such patients are opportunistic infections caused by viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic pathogens. To determine the magnitude of opportunistic and non-opportunistic intestinal parasitic infections among AIDS patients and HIV positive carrier individuals. Cross-sectional study was conducted among AIDS patients, HIV positive healthy carriers and HIV negative individuals in Jimma University Hospital, Mother Theresa Missionary Charity Centre, Medan Acts Projects and Mekdim HIV positive persons and AIDS orphans' national association from January to May, 2004. Convenient sampling technique was employed to identify the study subjects and hence a total of 160 subjects were included. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data of the patients. Stool samples were examined by direct saline, iodine wet mount, formol-ether sedimentation concentration, oocyst concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Out of 160 persons enrolled in this study 100 (62.5%) (i.e. 65 male and 35 female) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The highest rate 36 (69.2%) of intestinal parasites were observed among HIV/AIDS patients, followed by HIV positive healthy carriers 35 (61.4%) of and HIV negative individuals (29 (56.9%). Isospora belli 2 (3.9%), Cryptosporidum parvum 8 (15.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 6 (11.5%) and Blastocystis 2 (3.9%) were found only in HIV/AIDS groups I. belli, C. parvum, S. stercoralis and Blastocystis are the major opportunistic intestinal parasites observed in HIV/AIDS patients. Therefore, early detection and treatment of these parasites are important to improve the quality of life of HIV/AIDS patients with diarrhoea.

  16. Small Intestine Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  18. Status of intestinal parasitic infections among residents of Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jejaw, Ayalew; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Zemene, Endalew; Belay, Tariku

    2014-08-07

    Intestinal parasites cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, especially in developing countries like Ethiopia. Both urban and rural inhabitants are vulnerable to infection with intestinal parasites in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among residents of Jimma Town, seven years after high prevalence was reported. Four hundred and thirty four residents of Jimma Town were included in this study. By the cross-sectional survey, the overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 209 (48.2%). Nine species of intestinal parasites were isolated, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura being the most predominant. Residence in Hermata Mentina kebele, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR), 3.0, 95% CI, 1.71-5.39), age less than 10 years (AOR, 3.7, 95% CI, 1.33-10.36), illiteracy (AOR, 3.2, 95% CI, 1.64-6.19), estimated monthly family income of less than 500 Ethiopian Birr (AOR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.32-4.90) and irregular washing hands before meal (AOR, 5.3, 95% CI, 1.36-21.07) were predictors of IPI in this study. The retrospective study revealed a significant decrease (P = 0.037) in the proportion of patients infected with intestinal parasites out of those who requested stool examination over the six-year period. This study confirms that IPIs are still common among residents of Jimma Town. Nearly half of the study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Public health interventions targeting prevention of IPIs should be strengthened in Jimma Town.

  19. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of the Human Intestinal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Marguerite Moore

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human intestinal microbiota encode multiple critical functions impacting human health, including, metabolism of dietary substrate, prevention of pathogen invasion, immune system modulation, and provision of a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes accessible to pathogens. The complexity of this microbial community, its recalcitrance to standard cultivation and the immense diversity of its encoded genes has necessitated the development of novel molecular, microbiological, and genomic tools. Functional metagenomics is one such culture-independent technique used for decades to study environmental microorganisms but relatively recently applied to the study of the human commensal microbiota. Metagenomic functional screens characterize the functional capacity of a microbial community independent of identity to known genes by subjecting the metagenome to functional assays in a genetically tractable host. Here we highlight recent work applying this technique to study the functional diversity of the intestinal microbiota, and discuss how an approach combining high-throughput sequencing, cultivation, and metagenomic functional screens can improve our understanding of interactions between this complex community and its human host.

  20. spatial distribution and co-infection with urogenital and intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential transmission hotspots for the infections. intensity of S. mansoni infections seemed to reduce with age of infected school children, though not significantly. this could be attributable to the higher fecundity of the worms in younger children as their immunity is lower when compared to the older children (25). compared ...

  1. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. THE RATIONALE FOR ALPHA-INTERFERON IMMUNOTHERAPY IN INFANTS WITH FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS AND ACUTE INVASIVE INTESTINAL INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute intestinal  infections  in children are a considerable  medical and social problem  worldwide. Immune therapy  could  help  to reduce the frequency of post-infectious functional intestinal dysfunction  in patients  with comorbidities. Aim: To evaluate  the  efficacy of human  recombinant interferon  alpha-2b, administered at acute  phase  of an acute  invasive intestinal  infection to infants in the first months  of age, suffering from functional  bowel  disorders. Materials and methods: This  was  an  open-label,  randomized (envelope method, prospective  study in two parallel groups. The study included  59 infants of the  first months  of life, who were breastfed, had a history of intestinal  dysfunction  and were hospitalized  to  an  infectious  department. We studied  efficacy of recombinant interferon  alpha-2b administered in rectal suppositories  at a dose  of   chromatography with measurement of short-chain fatty acids. Results: Standard treatment was ineffective in 63.3% (95% CI 43.9–80.0% of patients. Administration   of  interferon   alpha-2b   reduced the rate of treatment failure by day 14 to 32% (95% CI 9–56% and  the  risk of persistent  diarrhea  for more than  one month  to 29% (95% CI 5–53%. In those patients  who were administered interferon, inflammation at days 25 to 55 was less severe and the levels of i-forms of short-chain fatty acids were lower. Conclusion: Immunotherapy with recombinant interferon alpha-2b seems to be a promising way to improve  combination treatment of acute invasive intestinal infections in infants with a history of intestinal dysfunction, as it reduces the risk of post-infectious intestinal disorders.

  3. Abortive Intestinal Infection With an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri Hybrid Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formal, Samuel B.; LaBrec, E. H.; Kent, T. H.; Falkow, S.

    1965-01-01

    Formal, Samuel B., (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), E. H. LaBrec, T. H. Kent, and S. Falkow. Abortive intestinal infection with an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain. J. Bacteriol. 89:1374–1382. 1965.—The mechanism of the apparent loss of virulence of an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain was studied. The parent Shigella strain caused a fatal enteric infection when fed to starved guinea pigs, and signs of dysentery followed its oral administration to monkeys. The hybrid strain failed to produce any apparent symptoms when fed to either of these species. The parent strain was shown to invade the intestinal mucosa of starved guinea pigs. This caused a severe inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria, which progressed to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium and resulted in death of the animal. The hybrid strain also invaded the intestinal mucosa and produced an inflammatory reaction. In this case, the inflammatory reaction subsided, the intestine returned to normal within 4 days after challenge, and the animal survived. Both fluorescent-antibody techniques and in vivo growth studies have shown that the hybrid strain can not maintain itself in the intestinal mucosa. Preliminary studies have indicated that a similar situation also exists in the monkey. It is concluded that the virulence of dysentery bacilli rests not only in the capacity to reach the lamina propria, but also in the ability to multiply in this region. Images PMID:14293011

  4. Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ding, Siyuan; Wang, Penghua; Wei, Zheng; Pan, Wen; Palm, Noah W; Yang, Yi; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Wang, Geng; Lei, Xuqiu; de Zoete, Marcel R; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Haiwei; Zhao, Yujiao; Jurado, Kellie A; Feng, Ningguo; Shan, Liang; Kluger, Yuval; Lu, Jun; Abraham, Clara; Fikrig, Erol; Greenberg, Harry B; Flavell, Richard A

    2017-06-29

    Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. Conditional depletion of Nlrp9b or other inflammasome components in the intestine in vivo resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mice to rotavirus replication. Our study highlights an important innate immune signalling pathway that functions in intestinal epithelial cells and may present useful targets in the modulation of host defences against viral pathogens.

  5. Nlrp9b inflammasome restricts rotavirus infection in intestinal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shu; Ding, Siyuan; Wang, Penghua; Wei, Zheng; Pan, Wen; Palm, Noah W; Yang, Yi; Yu, Hua; Li, Hua-Bing; Wang, Geng; Lei, Xuqiu; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Yunjiang; Chen, Haiwei; Zhao, Yujiao; Jurado, Kellie A.; Feng, Ningguo; Shan, Liang; Kluger, Yuval; Lu, Jun; Abraham, Clara; Fikrig, Erol; Greenberg, Harry B.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide1. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling2–5, raising the question as to whether other host factors participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. Conditional depletion of Nlrp9b or other inflammasome components in the intestine in vivo resulted in enhanced susceptibility of mice to rotavirus replication. Our study highlights an important innate immune signalling pathway that functions in intestinal epithelial cells and may present useful targets in the modulation of host defences against viral pathogens. PMID:28636595

  6. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Erqou, Sebhat; Gedefaw, Molla; Desta, Almaw

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.

  7. Intestinal Parasitological infection of employee in food manufacture anddistribution centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nasrifar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand and Aims: Food centers' employee may be carrier of bacteria (eg. Salmonella, E coil,taphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasitical infection. With regard the importance of the roleof manufacturer and distribnter of food materials in enviromental health, the status and assessmentof these infections is necessary.Method:182 employee of food manufacture and distribntion centers' of Ilam University ofMedical Sciences were examined. 3 feaces sample were obtained from each porson in 3 days andby five different laboratory method (i.e. scoth-tape, direct thechuics, Ether formaline, Telmen'Flotation were examined. Date analysis was dane by SPSS Version, and chi square test.Results: 49.2 percent of employee had positive parasitical infection, which 45.1 percent hadprotoza and 9.7 percent had intestinal helminth. The most infections of protoza were due toEntamoeba coli, Endolimax nane, giardia Lamblia, blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesniliand Iodamoeba buetschlii. The most infection of intestinal heliminth were Oxyuris VermicularisHymenolepis nana, Ascaris Lumbericoides, Tricocephal, Tricosterongylus.Conclusion: The high occurance of intestinal protoza may be due to Low level of public healthand, not favouring of hygine basis in food manufacture and distribution rlaces.

  8. Pediatric Infection and Intestinal Carriage Due to Extended-Spectrum-Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xuan; Oron, Assaf P.; Adler, Amanda L.; Wolter, Daniel J.; Berry, Jessica E.; Hoffman, Lucas; Weissman, Scott J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of intestinal carriage with extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children with index infections with these organisms. Patients with resistant Escherichia coli or Klebsiella bacteria isolated from the urine or a normally sterile site between January 2006 and December 2010 were included in this study. Available infection and stool isolates underwent phenotypic and molecular characterization. Clinical data relevant to the infections were collected and analyzed. Overall, 105 patients were identified with 106 extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (n = 92) or Klebsiella (n = 14) strains isolated from urine or a sterile site. Among the 27 patients who also had stool screening for resistant Enterobacteriaceae, 17 (63%) had intestinal carriage lasting a median of 199 days (range, 62 to 1,576). There were no significant differences in demographic, clinical, and microbiological variables between those with and those without intestinal carriage. Eighteen (17%) patients had 37 subsequent resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections identified: 31 urine and 6 blood. In a multivariable analysis, antibiotic intake in the 91 days prior to subsequent urine culture was significantly associated with subsequent urinary tract infection with a resistant organism (hazard ratio, 14.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 130.6). Intestinal carriage and reinfection were most commonly due to bacterial strains of the same sequence type and with the same resistance determinants as the index extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, but carriage and reinfection with different resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains also occurred. PMID:24798269

  9. The human intestinal IgA response; burning questions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo eSpencer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that generate the human intestinal IgA response is fundamentally important if effective mucosal vaccination is to be successful and broadly applied. There have been several major advances in this field recently that have allowed us to feel optimistic that this will be achieved. However, there are still many unanswered questions. These questions have been used as a scaffold for this review that considers findings at the current leading edge alongside the many uncertainties in this field.

  10. Methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, I R; Grasso, P; Davies, M J

    1975-01-01

    There is now evidence that ingested mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) may be methylated, in vivo, in the rat intestine and, in vitro, by human feces. However, one cannot infer from these experiments that the microbial flora of the intestine is responsible for the methylation reaction, since the gut contents contain several sources of metabolic activity other than bacteria. Data are presented on the ability of pure cultures of bacteria and yeasts, isolated from human feces, to convert HgCl/sub 2/ to methylmercury. Strains of Escherichia coli, streptococci, staphylococci, bacteriodes and bifidobacteria were inoculated into a medium containing 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, Bacto-tryptone, yeast extract and D-glucose, each at 0.5% (w/v). Results indicate that most strains of staphylococci, streptococci, yeasts and E. coli isolated from human feces, could synthesize methylmercury compounds. In contrast, few strains of obligate anaerobes could do so. Up to 6 ng methylmercury/ml were formed in 44 h from 2 ..mu..g mercuric chloride.

  11. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  12. Campylobacter fetus infections in humans : exposure and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Bergen, Marcel A P; Blaser, Martin J; Tauxe, Robert V; Newell, Diane G; van Putten, Jos P M

    Campylobacter fetus can cause intestinal illness and, occasionally, severe systemic infections. Infections mainly affect persons at higher risk, including elderly and immunocompromised individuals and those with occupational exposure to infected animals. Outbreaks are infrequent but have provided

  13. [Riddles in human tuberculous infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, I

    2000-10-01

    Tuberculosis is indeed an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, only a small percentage of individuals infected develops overt disease, tuberculosis whereas the infected bacilli persist alive years long within the vast majority of persons infected but remained healthy. There are several riddles or enigmas in the natural history of M. tuberculosis infection in humans. Some of them are as follows: 1. What is the virulence of M. tuberculosis? 2. How does M. tuberculosis persist dormant within the host? 3. What determines the development of disease from remaining healthy after infection with M. tuberculosis? 4. What is the mechanism of "endogenous reactivation" of dormant M. tuberculosis within the host? 5. Can we expect more potent anti-TB vaccine than BCG in near future? Most of these issues cited above remain unsolved. What is urgently needed today to answer correctly to these questions is the production of appropriate animal model of tuberculosis infection which mimics human tuberculosis. Murine TB does not reflect human TB at all. What characterizes the mycobacterial organism is its armour-plated unique cell wall structure which is rich in lipid and carbohydrate. Cord factor or trehalose dimycolate (TDM), the main component of cell wall, has once been regarded as the virulence factor of mycobacteria. Cord factor is responsible for the pathogenesis of TB and cachexia or even death of the patients infected. However, cord factor in itself is not toxic but exerts its detrimental effect to the host through the excessive stimulation of the host's immune system to produce abundant varied cytokines including TNF-alpha. How to evade this embarrassing effect of mycobacterial cell wall component on the host immune system seems very important for the future development of better TB vaccine than the currently used BCG.

  14. Aspects of human chlamydial infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Tjiam

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis takes a closer look at three aspects of human chlamydial infections. With regard to diagnosis the influence of logistics on the sensitivity of the culture method is discussed, along with optimalization of the culture itself and an evaluation of new diagnostic methods.

  15. Exogenous HIV-1 Nef upsets the IFN-γ-induced impairment of human intestinal epithelial integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giovanna Quaranta

    Full Text Available The mucosal tissues play a central role in the transmission of HIV-1 infection as well as in the pathogenesis of AIDS. Despite several clinical studies reported intestinal dysfunction during HIV infection, the mechanisms underlying HIV-induced impairments of mucosal epithelial barrier are still unclear. It has been postulated that HIV-1 alters enterocytic function and HIV-1 proteins have been detected in several cell types of the intestinal mucosa. In the present study, we analyzed the effect of the accessory HIV-1 Nef protein on human epithelial cell line.We used unstimulated or IFN-γ-stimulated Caco-2 cells, as a model for homeostatic and inflamed gastrointestinal tracts, respectively. We investigated the effect of exogenous recombinant Nef on monolayer integrity analyzing its uptake, transepithelial electrical resistance, permeability to FITC-dextran and the expression of tight junction proteins. Moreover, we measured the induction of proinflammatory mediators. Exogenous Nef was taken up by Caco-2 cells, increased intestinal epithelial permeability and upset the IFN-γ-induced reduction of transepithelial resistance, interfering with tight junction protein expression. Moreover, Nef inhibited IFN-γ-induced apoptosis and up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6 and MIP-3α production by Caco-2 cells while down-regulated IL-10 production. The simultaneous exposure of Caco-2 cells to Nef and IFN-γ did not affect cytokine secretion respect to untreated cells. Finally, we found that Nef counteracted the IFN-γ induced arachidonic acid cascade.Our findings suggest that exogenous Nef, perturbing the IFN-γ-induced impairment of intestinal epithelial cells, could prolong cell survival, thus allowing for accumulation of viral particles. Our results may improve the understanding of AIDS pathogenesis, supporting the discovery of new therapeutic interventions.

  16. Precision-cut intestinal slices as a culture system to analyze the infection of differentiated intestinal epithelial cells by avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyadarsaniya, Darsaniya; Winter, Christine; Mork, Ann-Kathrin; Amiri, Mahdi; Naim, Hassan Y; Rautenschlein, Silke; Herrler, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Many viruses infect and replicate in their host via the intestinal tract, e.g. many picornaviruses, several coronaviruses and avian influenza viruses of waterfowl. To analyze infection of enterocytes is a challenging task as culture systems for differentiated intestinal epithelial cells are not readily available and often have a life span that is too short for infection studies. Precision-cut intestinal slices (PCIS) from chicken embryos were prepared and shown that the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the intestine are viable for up to 4 days. Using lectin staining, it was demonstrated that α2,3-linked sialic acids, the preferred receptor determinants of avian influenza viruses, are present on the apical side of the epithelial cells. Furthermore, the epithelial cells (at the tips) of the villi were shown to be susceptible to infection by an avian influenza virus of the H9N2 subtype. This culture system will be useful to analyze virus infection of intestinal epithelial cells and it should be applicable also to the intestine of other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Intestinal Integrity Biomarkers in Early Antiretroviral-Treated Perinatally HIV-1-Infected Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koay, Wei Li A; Lindsey, Jane C; Uprety, Priyanka; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsa; Weinberg, Adriana; Levin, Myron J; Persaud, Deborah

    2018-05-12

    Biomarkers of intestinal integrity (intestinal fatty acid binding protein (iFABP) and zonulin), were compared in early antiretroviral-treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV+; n=56) African infants and HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU; n=53) controls. Despite heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV+ infants, iFABP and zonulin levels at three months of age were not different from those in HEU infants, and largely not correlated with inflammatory and immune activation biomarkers. However, zonulin levels increased, and became significantly higher in HIV+ compared to HEU infants by five months of age despite ART-suppression. These findings have implications for intestinal integrity biomarker profiling in perinatal HIV-1 infection.

  18. Determining intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) in inmates from Kajang Prison, Selangor, Malaysia for improved prison management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, Lorainne; Mahmud, Rohela; Samin, Sajideh; Yap, Nan-Jiun; Ngui, Romano; Amir, Amirah; Ithoi, Init; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-10-29

    The prison management in Malaysia is proactively seeking to improve the health status of the prison inmates. Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are widely distributed throughout the world and are still gaining great concern due to their significant morbidity and mortality among infected humans. In Malaysia, there is a paucity of information on IPIs among prison inmates. In order to further enhance the current health strategies employed, the present study aims to establish firm data on the prevalence and diversity of IPIs among HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals in a prison, an area in which informed knowledge is still very limited. Samples were subjected to microscopy examination and serological test (only for Strongyloides). Speciation for parasites on microscopy-positive samples and seropositive samples for Strongyloides were further determined via polymerase chain reaction. SPSS was used for statistical analysis. A total of 294 stool and blood samples each were successfully collected, involving 131 HIV positive and 163 HIV negative adult male inmates whose age ranged from 21 to 69-years-old. Overall prevalence showed 26.5% was positive for various IPIs. The IPIs detected included Blastocystis sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and Trichuris trichiura. Comparatively, the rate of IPIs was slightly higher among the HIV positive inmates (27.5%) than HIV negative inmates (25.8%). Interestingly, seropositivity for S. stercoralis was more predominant in HIV negative inmates (10.4%) compared to HIV-infected inmates (6.9%), however these findings were not statistically significant. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) confirmed the presence of Blastocystis, Strongyloides, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar. These data will enable the health care providers and prison management staff to understand the trend and epidemiological situations in HIV/parasitic co-infections in a prison. This information will further

  19. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Bahir Dar and Risk Factors for Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Erko, Berhanu; Medhin, Girmay; Birrie, Hailu

    1995-01-01

    A study of intestinal parasites and assessment of transmission factors were made in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Out of 528 children examined by formolether concentration method over 95 % were found to harbour one or more intestinal parasites. Human behaviour and poor sanitary conditions appeared to be responsible for the transmission of geohelminths, faeco-orally transmitted amoebae and water-related schistosome parasites. Health education is suggested to play a vital role in the c...

  20. Anemia and intestinal parasite infection in school children in rural Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thi, Le H.; Brouwer, I.D.; Verhoef, H.; Khan, N.C.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that besides iron deficiency, intestinal parasites infection is also a determinant of anemia in schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Methods: 400 primary schoolchildren from 20 primary schools in Tam Nong district, a poor rural area in Vietnam, were randomly selected

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-infected adult patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Parasitic infection of the intestinal tract is a major source of disease in patients with HIV particularly in the tropics, where diarrhea is a common complaint with variable severity and specific pathogens are be identified in more than half of the HIV/AIDS patients with persistent diarrhea. Objective: The objective of ...

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis of small-area intestinal parasites infections in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei, F. B.; Stein, A.

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasites infection is a major public health burden in low and middle-income countries. In Ghana, it is amongst the top five morbidities. In order to optimize scarce resources, reliable information on its geographical distribution is needed to guide periodic mass drug administration to

  3. ORAL REHYDRATION THERAPY INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN, WHICH SOLUTION TO CHOOSE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Novokshonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the literature about the history of the development and introduction into clinical practice the method of oral rehydration, the clinical efficacy of standard hyperosmolar glucose-saline solutions, recommended by WHO and new solutions hyperosmolar ESPGHAN for relief exsicosis (dehydration syndrome in intestinal infections of various etiologies and types of diarrhea in children. 

  4. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  5. Intestinal helminth infection drives carcinogenesis in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pastille

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, strongly associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. Parasitic infections caused by helminths have been shown to modulate the host's immune response by releasing immunomodulatory molecules and inducing regulatory T cells (Tregs. This immunosuppressive state provoked in the host has been considered as a novel and promising approach to treat IBD patients and alleviate acute intestinal inflammation. On the contrary, specific parasite infections are well known to be directly linked to carcinogenesis. Whether a helminth infection interferes with the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC is not yet known. In the present study, we demonstrate that the treatment of mice with the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus at the onset of tumor progression in a mouse model of CAC does not alter tumor growth and distribution. In contrast, H. polygyrus infection in the early inflammatory phase of CAC strengthens the inflammatory response and significantly boosts tumor development. Here, H. polygyrus infection was accompanied by long-lasting alterations in the colonic immune cell compartment, with reduced frequencies of colonic CD8+ effector T cells. Moreover, H. polygyrus infection in the course of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS mediated colitis significantly exacerbates intestinal inflammation by amplifying the release of colonic IL-6 and CXCL1. Thus, our findings indicate that the therapeutic application of helminths during CAC might have tumor-promoting effects and therefore should be well-considered.

  6. Poliovirus and other enteroviruses in children infected with intestinal parasites in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekolujo, Daniel R; Olayinka, Suraj O; Adeniji, Johnson A; Oyeyemi, Oyetunde T; Odaibo, Alexander B

    2015-10-29

    Poliovirus, an enterovirus, still persists in Nigeria despite the global efforts tailored towards its eradication. This study aimed to assess the impacts of poliovirus and other enteroviruses on the susceptibility of individuals to intestinal parasite infections. A cross-sectional study on the prevalence of intestinal parasites was conducted on two-sample stool specimens of 717 Nigerian children (between 1 and 19 years of age) whose poliovirus/other enteroviruses infection status had been determined. The overall prevalence of Sabin poliovirus and other related enteroviruses infections were 6.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was significantly higher than that of other intestinal parasites (p parasitic infection (OR = 11.7, CI = 9.2-15.0). While the prevalence of all species of parasites except S. mansoni showed no significant variations in children with Sabin poliovirus (p > 0.05), the prevalence of hookworms and Taenia spp. was significantly higher in children with other enteroviral infections (p parasites is an indication of possible association of the parasites in a more poliovirus-endemic population. A combined intervention approach for the two infections is advocated.

  7. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Giardia co-infection promotes the secretion of antimicrobial peptides beta-defensin 2 and trefoil factor 3 and attenuates attaching and effacing bacteria-induced intestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manko, Anna; Motta, Jean-Paul; Cotton, James A; Feener, Troy; Oyeyemi, Ayodele; Vallance, Bruce A; Wallace, John L; Buret, Andre G

    2017-01-01

    Our understanding of polymicrobial gastrointestinal infections and their effects on host biology remains incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is an ubiquitous intestinal protozoan parasite infecting animals and humans. Concomitant infections with Giardia and other gastrointestinal pathogens commonly occur. In countries with poor sanitation, Giardia infection has been associated with decreased incidence of diarrheal disease and fever, and reduced serum inflammatory markers release, via mechanisms that remain obscure. This study analyzed Giardia spp. co-infections with attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens, and assessed whether and how the presence of Giardia modulates host responses to A/E enteropathogens, and alters intestinal disease outcome. In mice infected with the A/E pathogen Citrobacter rodentium, co-infection with Giardia muris significantly attenuated weight loss, macro- and microscopic signs of colitis, bacterial colonization and translocation, while concurrently enhancing the production and secretion of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) mouse β-defensin 3 and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3). Co-infection of human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) monolayers with G. duodenalis trophozoites and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) enhanced the production of the AMPs human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) and TFF3; this effect was inhibited with treatment of G. duodenalis with cysteine protease inhibitors. Collectively, these results suggest that Giardia infections are capable of reducing enteropathogen-induced colitis while increasing production of host AMPs. Additional studies also demonstrated that Giardia was able to directly inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These results reveal novel mechanisms whereby Giardia may protect against gastrointestinal disease induced by a co-infecting A/E enteropathogen. Our findings shed new light on how microbial-microbial interactions in the gut may protect a host during concomitant infections.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infection among rural Malay children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boon Huat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil-transmitted intestinal helminth infection is prevalent in rural communities of Malaysia. Risk factors contributing to helminth infections are largely unknown in the country. Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal helminth infections among children in Beris Lalang, a rural Muslim community of Malaysia. Settings and Design : In this cross-sectional study, children aged 7-9 years were recruited during the mass Friday prayer at Beris Lalang mosque by trained imams (religious leaders. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on socio-demographic profile, daily hygienic practices, and history of helminth infection. Results: Out of 79 samples, 29 (37% were positive for helminthic ova, of which 24 were ova of Trichuris trichiura. Poor education of the mother (primary education or less (P=0.015, eating raw salad (P=0.03, and no physical activities (P=0.03 were found independent risk factors for the child′s helminth infections in univariate analysis. A higher proportion of children with helminth infections complained of tiredness and fatigue compared to those without such infections (36% vs. 12%, P=0.019. In a multivariate analysis of predictors of helminth infection, poor education of the mother (P=0.02 and eating raw salad (P=0.04 remained statistically significant, after controlling for several other potential risk factors. Conclusions : T. trichiura was the most prevalent intestinal helminth infection in children in rural Malaysia. Risk factors of helminth infection included mother′s poor education and eating raw salad and vegetables.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman Dafalla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347 of the studied samples (single and multiple infections. Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5% were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%, respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1% of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%, Hookworm (34; 4.8%, Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%, Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%, Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%, Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%, and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%, respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002 with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths. A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p <0.001. Furthermore, the study has also found a strong statistical correlation between parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029. Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples, although one individual (0.14% had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections among expatriate workers in various occupations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafalla, Abdelmunim Izzeldin Abdelrahman; Almuhairi, Shaikha Ali Salem Obaid; AlHosani, Mohamed Hassan Jasim; Mohamed, Mira Yousif; Alkous, Mariam Ibrahim Ahmed; AlAzzawi, Mousa Abdelsattar; Abakar, Adam Dawoud; Nour, Bakri Yousif Mohamed; Hasan, Hayder; AbuOdeh, Ra'ed Omar; ElBakri, Ali

    2017-12-21

    Intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent throughout many countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among 21,347 expatriate workers, including food handlers and housemaids attending the public health center laboratory in Sharjah, UAE. Stool sample collection was performed throughout the period between January and December 2013. All samples were examined microscopically. Demographic data were also obtained and analyzed. Intestinal parasites were found in 3.3% (708/21,347) of the studied samples (single and multiple infections). Among positive samples, six hundred and eighty-three samples (96.5%) were positive for a single parasite: Giardia lamblia (257; 36.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (220; 31.1%), respectively, whereas mono-infections with helminths accounted for 206 (29.1%) of the samples. Infection rates with single worms were: Ascaris lumbricoides (84; 11.9%), Hookworm (34; 4.8%), Trichuris trichiura (33; 4.7%), Taenia spp. (27; 3.81%), Strongyloides stercoralis (13; 1.8%), Hymenolepis nana (13; 1.8%), and Enterobius vermicularis (2; 0.28%), respectively. Infections were significantly associated with gender (x2 = 14.18; p = 0.002) with males as the most commonly infected with both groups of intestinal parasites (protozoa and helminths). A strong statistical association was noted correlating the parasite occurrence with certain nationalities (x2= 49.5, p parasite occurrence and occupation (x2= 15.60; p = 0.029). Multiple infections were not common (3.5% of the positive samples), although one individual (0.14%) had four helminth species, concurrently. These findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic parasitic organisms may pose a significant health risk to the public.

  12. Cryptosporidiosis and other intestinal parasitic infections in patients with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Nadham K; Ali, Naeel H

    2004-09-01

    To consider the relationship of the parasitic infections including cryptosporidium with chronic diarrhea. Also the effect of chronic disease as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and nosocomial infection on the occurrence rate of parasites in cases of chronic diarrhea. Stool samples were collected from 205 patients in teaching, general, child and maternity hospitals in Basrah, Iraq, suffering from chronic diarrhea during 2000. Out of these patients, there were 40 patients with pulmonary TB and 50 inpatients with nosocomial infection. Also 175 apparently healthy individuals who have no episodes of diarrhea for at least 2-months were served as a control group. Direct smear method and then formalin ether sedimentation method were carried out for stool samples to detect intestinal parasites. Fecal smears were prepared from the sediment and stained by the modified Ziehl Neelsen stain for the recovery of red pink oocysts of cryptosporidium. Out of the 205 examined patients, cryptosporidium oocysts were found to be excreted in 20 (9.7%) patients in comparing to 1.1% of the control group. The difference is statistically significant. There were 109 (53.2%) patients found to be positive for intestinal parasitic infections compared to 26 (14.8%) of the control group. The difference is also statistically significant. Out of the 40 TB patients, 2 (5%) were found to excrete cryptosporidium oocysts and also 27 (67.3%) were positive for intestinal parasites. In addition, there were 4 (8%) excreting cryptosporidium oocysts and 23 (46%) infecting by intestinal parasites among the in patients with nosocomial infection. Both acid and non-acid fast parasites should be considered in the differential diagnosis of undiagnosed chronic diarrhea especially among patients with pulmonary TB or nosocomial infection.

  13. Histomorphometry and macroscopic intestinal lesions in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, R C L; Luns, F D; Beletti, M E; Assis, R L; Nasser, N M; Faria, E S M; Cury, M C

    2010-03-25

    This study aimed at measuring intestinal villi and assessing the intestinal absorptive area in broilers infected with Eimeria acervulina under different treatments to control coccidiosis. The experiment was divided into two stages, carried out in successive housings, raised in the same environment (or aviary). In the first stage, on 25 May 2008, fifty 12-day-old birds were orally inoculated with 3 x 10(3) oocysts of E. acervulina. In the second stage, on July 2008, other 50 birds were allocated on litter contaminated by the feces of birds on the first housing (natural infection by oocysts present in the reused litter). The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with five treatments and three replicates of 10 chicks per treatment. Broiler chicks were housed at 1 day of age and autopsies were performed at 21 days of age. Three 2-cm-long segments of the duodenum were excised from each bird and fixed in 10% buffered formalin. A total of 30 slides were prepared for each treatment, totaling 150 evaluated histological sections using H&E staining. Villus morphology was carried out by the HL Image 97 software. The intestinal absorptive area was calculated and macroscopic lesions were classified according to standard lesion scores. Results showed that intestinal villus measurements and absorptive area are directly affected by E. acervulina and that there is direct and positive correlation between the macro and microscopic findings observed in intestinal coccidiosis. E. acervulina causes shortening of villi and reduction in the intestinal absorptive area, affecting broiler growth. The prevention method of litter fermentation during the interval between housings and oral administration of Diclazuril can reduce the severity of intestinal lesions by E. acervulina in broilers impairing oocyst virulence or viability.

  14. Microfluidic Organ-on-a-Chip Models of Human IntestineSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Bein

    Full Text Available Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip models of human intestine have been developed and used to study intestinal physiology and pathophysiology. In this article, we review this field and describe how microfluidic Intestine Chips offer new capabilities not possible with conventional culture systems or organoid cultures, including the ability to analyze contributions of individual cellular, chemical, and physical control parameters one-at-a-time; to coculture human intestinal cells with commensal microbiome for extended times; and to create human-relevant disease models. We also discuss potential future applications of human Intestine Chips, including how they might be used for drug development and personalized medicine. Keywords: Organs-on-Chips, Gut-on-a-Chip, Intestine-on-a-Chip, Microfluidic

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegayehu Teklu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Results Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9% were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%, followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%, Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%, hookworm 42(4.9%, Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%, Taenia species 18(2.1%, Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%. No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9% and highland dwellers (42.3% (P = 0.185. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8% than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481. No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228 but it was higher in reproductive age group. Conclusions The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Tsalla, Tsegaye; Seifu, Belete; Teklu, Takele

    2013-02-18

    Epidemiological information on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in different regions is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control strategies. Therefore, this present study was conducted to assess the magnitude and pattern of intestinal parasitism in highland and lowland dwellers in Gamo area, South Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2010 and July 2011 at Lante, Kolla Shelle, Dorze and Geressie kebeles of Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia. The study sites and study participants were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were gathered through house-to-house survey. A total of 858 stool specimens were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration techniques for the presence of parasite. Out of the total examined subjects, 342(39.9%) were found positive for at least one intestinal parasite. The prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the highest 98(11.4%), followed by Giardia lamblia 91(10.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides 67(7.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis 51(5.9%), hookworm 42(4.9%), Trichuris trichiura 24(2.8%), Taenia species 18(2.1%), Hymenolepis nana 7(0.6%) and Schistosoma mansoni 1(0.12%). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among lowland (37.9%) and highland dwellers (42.3%) (P = 0.185). The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly different among the study sites but it was relatively higher in Geressie (42.8%) than other kebeles. Sex was not associated with parasitic infections (P = 0.481). No statistically significant difference of infection was observed among the age groups (P = 0.228) but it was higher in reproductive age group. The high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the lowland and highland dwellers in Gamo area indicated that parasitic infections are important public health problems. Thus, infection control measures and the

  17. Metabolism of aspartame by human and pig intestinal microvillar peptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, N M; Hesp, R J; Tieku, S

    1994-01-01

    The artificial sweetener aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenyl-alanine-1-methyl ester; Nutrasweet), its decomposition product alpha Asp-Phe and the related peptide alpha Asp-PheNH2 were rapidly hydrolysed by microvillar membranes prepared from human duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and from pig duodenum and kidney. The metabolism of aspartame by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations was inhibited significantly (> 78%) by amastatin or 1,10-phenanthroline, and partially (> 38%) by actinonin or bestatin, and was activated 2.9-4.5-fold by CaCl2. The inhibition by amastatin and 1,10-phenanthroline, and the activation by CaCl2 are characteristic of the cell-surface ectoenzyme aminopeptidase A (EC 3.4.11.7) and a purified preparation of this enzyme hydrolysed aspartame with a Km of 0.25 mM and a Vmax of 126 mumol/min per mg. A purified preparation of aminopeptidase W (EC 3.4.11.16) also hydrolysed aspartame but with a Km of 4.96 mM and a Vmax of 110 mumol/min per mg. However, rentiapril, an inhibitor of aminopeptidase W, caused only slight inhibition (maximally 19%) of the hydrolysis of aspartame by the microvillar membrane preparations. Similar patterns of inhibition and kinetic parameters were observed for alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2. Two other decomposition products of aspartame, beta Asp-PheMe and cyclo-Asp-Phe, were essentially resistant to hydrolysis by both the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations and the purified preparations of aminopeptidases A and W. Although the relatively selective inhibitor of aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), actinonin, partially inhibited the metabolism of aspartame, alpha Asp-Phe and alpha Asp-PheNH2 by the human and pig intestinal microvillar membrane preparations, these peptides were not hydrolysed by a purified preparation of aminopeptidase N. Membrane dipeptidase (EC 3.4.13.19) only hydrolysed the unblocked dipeptide, alpha Asp-Phe, but the selective inhibitor of this enzyme, cilastatin

  18. Prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients with diarrhea in major United States cities Prevalência de microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV com diarréia nas principais cidades dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Dworkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected patients, we performed a prospective study of HIV-infected patients with diarrheal illnesses in three US hospitals and examined an observational database of HIV-infected patients in 10 US cities. Among 737 specimens from the three hospitals, results were positive for 11 (prevalence 1.5%; seven (64% acquired HIV through male-to-male sexual contact, two (18% through male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use, and one (9% through heterosexual contact; one (9% had an undetermined mode of transmission. Median CD4 count within six months of diagnosis of microsporidiosis was 33 cells/µL (range 3 to 319 cells/µL. For the national observational database (n = 24,098, the overall prevalence of microsporidiosis was 0.16%. Prevalence of microsporidiosis among HIV-infected patients with diarrheal disease is low, and microsporidiosis is most often diagnosed in patients with very low CD4+ cell counts. Testing for microsporidia appears to be indicated, especially for patients with very low CD4+ cell counts.Para determinar a prevalência de microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em três hospitais dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte (EUA e analizada uma base de dados nacional composta de dados coletados de pacientes infectados pelo HIV em 10 cidades dos EUA. De um total de 737 amostras de fezes de pacientes infectados pelo HIV que apresentavam diarréia, amostras de 11 pacientes (prevalência de 1,5% foram positivas para microsporídios. Todos os positivos eram do sexo masculino e, entre eles, sete (64% pacientes adquiriram a infecção pelo HIV através de relação homossexual, dois (18% através de relação sexual e drogas injetáveis e um (9% através de contato heterosexual, enquanto que em um paciente o modo de transmissão do HIV não foi determinado. A contagem média de linfócitos CD4 realizada até seis

  19. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.; Zhang, P.; Zhou, Y.; Qin, H.; Shen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithel...

  20. The Role of Sphingolipids on Innate Immunity to Intestinal Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Chen

    2017-08-07

    Salmonella spp. remains a major public health problem for the whole world. To reduce the use of antimicrobial agents and drug-resistant Salmonella , a better strategy is to explore alternative therapy rather than to discover another antibiotic. Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains attract signaling proteins and orchestrate them toward cell signaling and membrane trafficking pathways. Recent studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity against infecting pathogens. It is therefore mandatory to exploit the role of the membrane sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia infected by this pathogen. In the present review, we focus on the role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia against Salmonella infection, including adhesion, autophagy, bactericidal effect, barrier function, membrane trafficking, cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression. The intervention of sphingolipid-enhanced foods to make our life healthy or pharmacological agents regulating sphingolipids is provided at the end.

  1. Intestinal lymphangiectasia: an undescribed cause of malabsorption and incomplete immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Lattur, Maria D; Payeras, Antoni; Campins, Antoni A; Pons, Jaume; Cifuentes, Carmen; Riera, Melcior

    2011-02-01

    Although paradoxical virological and immunological response after HAART has been well studied, intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) in HIV-1 infected patients has not previously described. To describe HIV patients who developed IL. Clinical Case series. 4 patients with HIV and IL diagnosis based on clinical, endoscopic and pathological findings. All four cases had prior mycobacterial infections with abdominal lymph node involvement and a very low CD4 cell count nadir. They developed intestinal lymphangiectasia despite appropriate virological suppression with HAART and repeatedly negative mycobacterial cultures. Two patients were clinically symptomatic with oedemas, ascites, diarrhoea, asthenia, weight loss; but the other two were diagnosed with malabsorption as a result of laboratory findings, with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Three of them were diagnosed by video capsule endoscopy. IL should be considered in HIV-1 infected patients who present with clinical or biochemical malabsorption parameters when there is no immunological recovery while on HAART. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. [Microbial "friend-foe" identification in human intestine microsymbiocenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Petrunova, N B

    2011-01-01

    Development of methodical approach of evaluation of microbial "friend-foe" identification in human intestine microsymbiocenosis. 9 bifidobacteria cultures (dominants) and 18 opportunistic microorganism strains (associants) isolated from patients during examination for intestine dysbiosis and identified by conventional methods were used. Evaluation of microbial "friend-foe" identification in microsymbiocenosis was performed by author developed technique that is based on determination of growth factors (GF), anti-lysozyme activity (ALA) and formation of biofilms (BFF) of associants co-incubated with exometabolites of dominants. GF, ALA, BFF were studied photometrically (Bukharin O.V., 1999, 2009; O'Toole G.A., 2000). The data were statistically analyzed by Fisher-Student criteria. The detected opposite (increase/reduction) phenomenon of the "dominant-associant" pair allowed realization of the "friend-foe" identification in microsymbiocenosis. Associants (E. coli and Enterococcus faecium) were "friend" species, in which bifidobacteria exometabolites did not change growth properties and stimulated ALA (by 17,5--32%) and BFF (by 25 - 39%). Associants (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans) were "foe" microsymbiont species, in which bifidoflora exometabolites decreased GF (by 20,7--68%), ALA (by 22,7--54%) and BFF (by 22,5 --39%). Indigenous microflora during microsymbiocenosis formation can participate in "friend-foe" identification, the basis of which is determined by microsymbiont exometabolites. The data obtained open a perspective of understanding mechanisms of intramicrobial interactions and can be used for both diagnostics and optimal selection of "candidates" during creation of new probiotics and synbiotics.

  3. Common occurrence of antibacterial agents in human intestinal microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima eDrissi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments have revealed many active mechanisms by which bacteria can inhibit the growth of other organisms. Bacteriocins are a diverse group of natural ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by a wide range of bacteria and which seem to play an important role in mediating competition within bacterial communities. In this study, we have identified and established the structural classification of putative bacteriocins encoded by 317 microbial genomes in the human intestine. On the basis of homologies to available bacteriocin sequences, mainly from lactic acid bacteria, we report the widespread occurrence of bacteriocins across the gut microbiota: 175 bacteriocins were found to be encoded in Firmicutes, 79 in Proteobacteria, 34 in Bacteroidetes and 25 in Actinobacteria. Bacteriocins from gut bacteria displayed wide differences among phyla with regard to class distribution, net positive charge, hydrophobicity and secondary structure, but the α-helix was the most abundant structure. The peptide structures and physiochemical properties of bacteriocins produced by the most abundant bacteria in the gut, the Firmicutes and the Bacteroidetes, seem to ensure low antibiotic activity and participate in permanent intestinal host defence against the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Meanwhile, the potentially harmful bacteria, including the Proteobacteria, displayed highly effective bacteriocins, probably supporting the virulent character of diseases. These findings highlight the eventual role played by bacteriocins in gut microbial competition and their potential place in antibiotic therapy.

  4. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  5. Community and genomic analysis of the human small intestine microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.

    2013-01-01

    Our intestinal tract is densely populated by different microbes, collectively called microbiota, of which the majority are bacteria. Research focusing on the intestinal microbiota often use fecal samples as a representative of the bacteria that inhabit the end of the large intestine.

  6. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Primary School Children in Bushehr, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barazesh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Due to their weak immune systems, contact with soil, and failure to comply with hygiene principles, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is high among children. Objectives This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and the effects of various factors among elementary school children in Bushehr, Iran. Methods Following coordination with the education office, schools were randomly selected from different areas, and fecal samples were collected from 203 males and females students at different education levels. The samples were examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The data were collected via questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS 18.0 and the Chi-squared test. Results Approximately 25.1% of the children were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite, and 5.9% of them were infected with more than one species. The highest prevalence was apparent in children at education levels 4 and 5. There was no significant relationship between infection and parents’ education and some clinical symptoms, such as abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and nausea, but there was a significant relationship with the number of family members. Conclusions The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was relatively high among the schoolchildren in this study. Since these parasites can cause anemia and dysfunctional nutrient absorption, growth, and learning among children, it is suggested that training courses be held for parents and that basic steps be taken to improve the level of hygiene in the region to prevent the transmission of these parasites.

  7. Disruptions of Host Immunity and Inflammation by Giardia Duodenalis: Potential Consequences for Co-Infections in the Gastro-Intestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Cotton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, or G. lamblia is a leading cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that infects hundreds of millions of people annually. Research on Giardia has greatly expanded within the last few years, and our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunology on this parasite is ever increasing. At peak infection, Giardia trophozoites induce pathophysiological responses that culminate in the development of diarrheal disease. However, human data has suggested that the intestinal mucosa of Giardia-infected individuals is devoid of signs of overt intestinal inflammation, an observation that is reproduced in animal models. Thus, our understanding of host inflammatory responses to the parasite remain incompletely understood and human studies and experimental data have produced conflicting results. It is now also apparent that certain Giardia infections contain mechanisms capable of modulating their host’s immune responses. As the oral route of Giardia infection is shared with many other gastrointestinal (GI pathogens, co-infections may often occur, especially in places with poor sanitation and/or improper treatment of drinking water. Moreover, Giardia infections may modulate host immune responses and have been found to protect against the development of diarrheal disease in developing countries. The following review summarizes our current understanding of the immunomodulatory mechanisms of Giardia infections and their consequences for the host, and highlights areas for future research. Potential implications of these immunomodulatory effects during GI co-infection are also discussed.

  8. Elevated Basal Pre-infection CXCL10 in Plasma and in the Small Intestine after Infection Are Associated with More Rapid HIV/SIV Disease Onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël J Ploquin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Elevated blood CXCL10/IP-10 levels during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI were described as an independent marker of rapid disease onset, more robust than peak viremia or CD4 cell nadir. IP-10 enhances the recruitment of CXCR3+ cells, which include major HIV-target cells, raising the question if it promotes the establishment of viral reservoirs. We analyzed data from four cohorts of HIV+ patients, allowing us to study IP-10 levels before infection (Amsterdam cohort, as well as during controlled and uncontrolled viremia (ANRS cohorts. We also addressed IP-10 expression levels with regards to lymphoid tissues (LT and blood viral reservoirs in patients and non-human primates. Pre-existing elevated IP-10 levels but not sCD63 associated with rapid CD4 T-cell loss upon HIV-1 infection. During PHI, IP-10 levels and to a lesser level IL-18 correlated with cell-associated HIV DNA, while 26 other inflammatory soluble markers did not. IP-10 levels tended to differ between HIV controllers with detectable and undetectable viremia. IP-10 was increased in SIV-exposed aviremic macaques with detectable SIV DNA in tissues. IP-10 mRNA was produced at higher levels in the small intestine than in colon or rectum. Jejunal IP-10+ cells corresponded to numerous small and round CD68neg cells as well as to macrophages. Blood IP-10 response negatively correlated with RORC (Th17 marker gene expression in the small intestine. CXCR3 expression was higher on memory CD4+ T cells than any other immune cells. CD4 T cells from chronically infected animals expressed extremely high levels of intra-cellular CXCR3 suggesting internalization after ligand recognition. Elevated systemic IP-10 levels before infection associated with rapid disease progression. Systemic IP-10 during PHI correlated with HIV DNA. IP-10 production was regionalized in the intestine during early SIV infection and CD68+ and CD68neg haematopoietic cells in the small intestine appeared to be the major source of IP-10.

  9. Implications of malaria and intestinal parasitic co-infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of malaria and gastrointestinal parasitic infections in out-patients of Federal Medical Center (FMC) Owerri Specialist Hospital, was studied between the months of January and June 2004. A total of 1,200 patients made up of preschool children (400), school children (400) and adults (400) were enlisted for the ...

  10. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  11. Advanced approaches to characterize the human intestinal microbiota by computational meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikkilä, J.; Vos, de W.M.

    2010-01-01

    GOALS: We describe advanced approaches for the computational meta-analysis of a collection of independent studies, including over 1000 phylogenetic array datasets, as a means to characterize the variability of human intestinal microbiota. BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a complex

  12. Culture of human intestinal epithelial cell using the dissociating enzyme thermolysin and endothelin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Epithelium, a highly dynamic system, plays a key role in the homeostasis of the intestine. However, thus far a human intestinal epithelial cell line has not been established in many countries. Fetal tissue was selected to generate viable cell cultures for its sterile condition, effective generation, and differentiated character. The purpose of the present study was to culture human intestinal epithelial cells by a relatively simple method. Thermolysin was added to improve the yield of epithelial cells, while endothelin-3 was added to stimulate their growth. By adding endothelin-3, the achievement ratio (viable cell cultures/total cultures was enhanced to 60% of a total of 10 cultures (initiated from 8 distinct fetal small intestines, allowing the generation of viable epithelial cell cultures. Western blot, real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining showed that cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 had high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated markers such as sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV also showed high expression levels in human intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated human intestinal epithelial cells, with the expression of surface markers (cytokeratins 8, 18 and mouse intestinal mucosa-1/39 and secretion of cytokines (sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, may be cultured by the thermolysin and endothelin-3 method and maintained for at least 20 passages. This is relatively simple, requiring no sophisticated techniques or instruments, and may have a number of varied applications.

  13. Particularly acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis. Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever. 

  14. Development of a dual vaccine for prevention of Brucella abortus infection and Escherichia coli O157:H7 intestinal colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannino, Florencia; Herrmann, Claudia K; Roset, Mara S; Briones, Gabriel

    2015-05-05

    Zoonoses that affect human and animal health have an important economic impact. In the study now presented, a bivalent vaccine has been developed that has the potential for preventing the transmission from cattle to humans of two bacterial pathogens: Brucella abortus and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A 66kDa chimeric antigen, composed by EspA, Intimin, Tir, and H7 flagellin (EITH7) from STEC, was constructed and expressed in B. abortus Δpgm vaccine strain (BabΔpgm). Mice orally immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) elicited an immune response with the induction of anti-EITH7 antibodies (IgA) that clears an intestinal infection of E. coli O157:H7 three times faster (t=4 days) than mice immunized with BabΔpgm carrier strain (t=12 days). As expected, mice immunized with BabΔpgm(EITH7) strain also elicited a protective immune response against B. abortus infection. A Brucella-based vaccine platform is described capable of eliciting a combined protective immune response against two bacterial pathogens with diverse lifestyles-the intracellular pathogen B. abortus and the intestinal extracellular pathogen STEC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  16. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  17. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  18. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  19. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  20. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-An Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined.In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment.Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  1. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 pinworm-infected) first and fourth grade primary school children in Taichung, Taiwan, for a gut microbiome study and an intestinal cytokine and SIgA analysis. In the pinworm-infected individuals, fecal samples were collected again at 2 weeks after administration of 100 mg mebendazole. Gut microbiota diversity increased after Enterobius infection, and it peaked after administration of mebendazole. At the phylum level, pinworm infection and mebendazole deworming were associated with a decreased relative abundance of Fusobacteria and an increased proportion of Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the relative abundance of the probiotic Bifidobacterium increased after enterobiasis and mebendazole treatment. The intestinal SIgA level was found to be lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was elevated in half of the mebendazole-treated group. A higher proportion of pre-treatment Salmonella spp. was associated with a non-increase in SIgA after mebendazole deworming treatment. Childhood exposure to pinworm plus mebendazole is associated with increased bacterial diversity, an increased abundance of Actinobacteria including the probiotic Bifidobacterium, and a decreased proportion of Fusobacteria. The gut SIgA level was lower in the pinworm-infected group, and was increased in half of the individuals after mebendazole deworming treatment.

  2. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyantekyi, Liza; Legesse, Mengistu; Medhin, Girmay; Animut, Abebe; Tadesse, Konjit; Macias, Chanda; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of Abaye Deneba community members regarding intestinal parasites and prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections. Knowledge about intestinal parasites was assessed by administering a questionnaire to 345 randomly selected household heads. Parasitological stool examination of 491 randomly selected individuals was done using the formol ether concentration technique. Knowledge of the Abaye Deneba community about parasitic diseases such as schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, ascariasis and taeniasis was very low. However, 204 (59.3%) members correctly responded that the cause of giardiasis is related to contaminated water and 176 (51.2%) knew how to prevent it. In some cases, respondents did correctly identify causes, symptoms of intestinal parasite infection and ways to prevent it, but they did not accurately link it to the appropriate disease caused by the different intestinal parasite species. Among the 491 stool samples examined, 50.2% of study participants showed infection with at least one intestinal parasite. Schistosoma mansoni was the most prevalent (41.3%) followed by Trichuris trichiura(9.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.4%), Taenia saginata (2.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.0%) and hookworm (0.4%). Prevalence of schistosomiasis was highest in men aged 15-24 years. Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  3. Circulating LOXL2 Levels Reflect Severity of Intestinal Fibrosis and GALT CD4+ T Lymphocyte Depletion in Treated HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Circulating LOXL2 levels may be a noninvasive measure of intestinal fibrosis and GALT CD4+T lymphocyte depletion in treated HIV infection. LOXL2 crosslinks elastin and collagen, and elevated LOXL2 levels occur in pathologic states, making LOXL2 inhibition a potential interventional target for intestinal fibrosis and its sequelae.

  4. Community awareness of intestinal parasites and the prevalence of infection among community members of rural Abaye Deneba area, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Nyantekyi

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is highly prevalent in communities of the Abaye Deneba area. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the community members about the parasite is less. Implementation of preventive chemotherapy, supplemented with health education, provision and use of sanitary facilities would be recommended to reduce morbidity and control transmission of intestinal parasites in this area.

  5. Cdx2 modulates proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaffit, Fabrice; Pare, Frederic; Gauthier, Remy; Rivard, Nathalie; Boudreau, Francois; Beaulieu, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox gene Cdx2 is involved in the regulation of the expression of intestine specific markers such as sucrase-isomaltase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Previous studies performed with immortalized or transformed intestinal cell lines have provided evidence that Cdx2 can promote morphological and functional differentiation in these experimental models. However, no data exist concerning the implication of this factor in normal human intestinal cell physiology. In the present work, we have investigated the role of Cdx2 in normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cells that lack this transcription factor. The establishment of HIEC cells expressing Cdx2 in an inducible manner shows that forced expression of Cdx2 significantly alters the proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and stimulates dipeptidylpeptidase IV expression but is not sufficient to trigger intestinal terminal differentiation. These observations suggest that Cdx2 requires additional factors to activate the enterocyte differentiation program in normal undifferentiated cells

  6. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  7. Characterization of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme of human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramine, Yasushi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2011-06-01

    Acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzyme plays a significant role in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption in the small intestine. However, the characteristics of human intestinal DGAT enzyme have not been examined in detail. The aim of our study was to characterize the human intestinal DGAT enzyme by examining acyl-CoA specificity, temperature dependency, and selectivity for 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) or 1,3-DAG. We detected DGAT activity of human intestinal microsome and found that the acyl-CoA specificity and temperature dependency of intestinal DGAT coincided with those of recombinant human DGAT1. To elucidate the selectivity of human intestinal DGAT to 1,2-DAG or 1,3-DAG, we conducted acyl-coenzyme A:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase assays using 1- or 2-monoacylglycerol (MAG) as substrates. When 2-MAG was used as acyl acceptor, both 1,2-DAG and TAG were generated; however, when 1-MAG was used, 1,3-DAG was predominantly observed and little TAG was detected. These findings suggest that human small intestinal DGAT, which is mainly encoded by DGAT1, utilizes 1,2-DAG as the substrate to form TAG. This study will contribute to understand the lipid absorption profile in the small intestine.

  8. [Human papillomavirus infection and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam Soto, Selene; de la Peña y Carranza, Alejandro Ortiz; Plascencia, Josefina Lira

    2011-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus has increased dramatically in recent years. The highest prevalence rates are among adolescents and young women, reflecting changes in sexual behavior associated with biological factors in adolescent development. Adolescents who begin sexual activity early are at greater risk of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. There are adolescents with special circumstances, where no early decision should be delayed cervical cytology and in whom it is important to initiate consultations and periodic reviews with a preventive approach. Cervical cancer can be avoided when the diagnosis and treatment of precursor lesions is early. Despite efforts at sex education based on "safe sex" with the correct use of condoms has not been able to reduce the incidence of infections with human papillomavirus in adolescents. While better than nothing, condom use is not 100% reliable. Studies show that consistent and correct use provides protection against the human papillomavirus only 70%. In Mexico, reported an overall ratio of actual use of condoms from 24.6%. It is clear that the physician who provides care for adolescents plays a fundamental role in sex education. The key to future prevention of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions could be the vaccination.

  9. Candida Infections and Human Defensins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Vania; Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio; Zupin, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. The aim of the current work was to review all previous studies in literature that analysed defensins in the context of Candida spp. infections, in order to investigate and clarify the exact mechanisms of defensins anti-fungal action. Several studies were identified from 1985 to 2017 (9 works form years 1985 to 1999, 44 works ranging from 2000 to 2009 and 35 from 2010 to 2017) searched in two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar). The main key words used for the research were "Candida", "Defensins"," Innate immune system","fungi". The findings of the reviewed studies highlight the pivotal role of defensins antimicrobial peptides in the immune response against Candida infections, since they are able to discriminate host cell from fungi: defensins are able to recognize the pathogens cell wall (different in composition from the human ones), and to disrupt it through membrane permeabilization. However, further research is needed to explain completely defensins' mechanisms of action to fight C. albicans (and other Candida spp.) infections, being the information fragmentary and only in part elucidated. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV infected patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment at Jimma Health Center, Jimma, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeynudin, A; Hemalatha, K; Kannan, S

    2013-02-01

    One of the major health problems among HIV sero-positive patients are superimposed infections due to the deficient immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasitic (IP) infections, which are also one of the basic health problems in tropical regions, are common in these patients. Infection by opportunistic pathogens, including various forms of intestinal parasites has been the hall mark of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic. To study the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasitic infection among HIV patients who are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patient samples were diagnosed by examination of single stool specimen which was examined as fresh wet mounts, formal-ether concentration technique and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Data was obtained from 91 study subjects selected by convenience sampling method. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was found to be 39.56%. Eight types of intestinal parasites was identified, the most dominant being, Ascaris lumbricoides, 21.67%, Entamoeba histolytica, 15% and Cryptosporidium parvum 13.33%. The prevalence of opportunistic parasite was 15.38%, the prevalence of non-opportunistic parasite was 20.87% and the prevalence of both opportunistic and non opportunistic was 3.29%. The study indicated that intestinal parasites were still a problem in the study area. Data also showed that among the predisposing factors, habit of hand washing before meal, usage of latrine and duration after treatment was statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections.

  11. Eosinophils are required to suppress Th2 responses in Peyer's patches during intestinal infection by nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, J; Steinfelder, S; Berek, C; Kühl, A A; Rausch, S; Hartmann, S

    2017-05-01

    Infections with enteric nematodes result in systemic type 2 helper T (Th2) responses, expansion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 antibodies, and eosinophilia. Eosinophils have a supportive role in mucosal Th2 induction during airway hyperreactivity. Whether eosinophils affect the local T-cell and antibody response in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue during enteric infections is unknown. We infected eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice with the Th2-inducing small intestinal nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and found that parasite fecundity was decreased in the absence of eosinophils. A lack of eosinophils resulted in significantly augmented expression of GATA-3 and IL-4 by CD4 + T cells during acute infection, a finding strictly limited to Peyer's patches (PP). The increase in IL-4-producing cells in ΔdblGATA-1 mice was particularly evident within the CXCR5 + PD-1 + T-follicular helper cell population and was associated with a switch of germinal centre B cells to IgG1 production and elevated serum IgG1 levels. In contrast, infected wild-type mice had a modest IgG1 response in the PP, whereas successfully maintaining a population of IgA + germinal center B cells. Our results suggest a novel role for eosinophils during intestinal infection whereby they restrict IL-4 responses by follicular T helper cells and IgG1 class switching in the PP to ensure maintenance of local IgA production.

  12. Impact of Enterobius vermicularis infection and mebendazole treatment on intestinal microbiota and host immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chin-An; Liang, Chao; Lin, Chia-Li; Hsiao, Chiung-Tzu; Peng, Ching-Tien; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies on the association of enterobiasis and chronic inflammatory diseases have revealed contradictory results. The interaction of Enterobius vermicularis infection in particular with gut microbiota and induced immune responses has never been thoroughly examined. Methodology/Findings In order to answer the question of whether exposure to pinworm and mebendazole can shift the intestinal microbial composition and immune responses, we recruited 109 (30 pinworm-negative, 79 ...

  13. [INTESTINAL FAILURE AND YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS TRANSLOCATION IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF EXPERIMENTAL GENERALIZED INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, I Yu; Pogorelky, I P; Lundovskikh, I A; Darmov, I V; Gorshkov, A S; Shabalina, M R

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in experimental pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice, as well as pathological manifestation of it as a response to the adhesion and colonization of the mucosus membrane by pathogenic bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis. Experimental models of pseudotuberculosis in conventional white mice used the pathogenic Y. pseudotuberculosis 147 serotype I strain, containing a calcium-dependence plasmid with a molecular weight of 47 MDa. Cultivation of the pseudotuberculosis pathogen given its psychrophilic was performed on Hottinger agar at a temperature of (4-5) °C. The lactobacilli strain L plantarum 8P-A3 was isolated from a lyophilized commercial probiotic Lactobacterin (manufactured by "NPO Microgen", Russia) and used to obtain native culture supernatant fluid of lactobacilli, the composition of which was detected by gas-liquid chromatography with mass-selective detection. Gentamicin for parenteral administration was manufactured by JSC "Biochemist", Russia. Pathomorphological examination was performed on the 4-6th day of the experiment. Fragments of the small intestine, liver, kidneys, and lungs from dead animals were chosen for examination. Tissues were fixed in 10% neutral formalin, dehydrated in isopropanol and embedded in paraffin. Preparations were stained with Ehrlich hematoxylin and eosin, examined on the microscope "Mikmed-2" (JSC "LOMO", Russia) under magnification x 200-x1000. Statistical processing of the experimental results was carried out according to the method of Kerber in modification of I.P. Ashmarin and A.A. Vorobyov. The role of intestinal failure and translocation of bacteria Y. pseudotuberculosis, and normal intestinal microbiota in the initiation and generalization of infection in animals has been found. It has been proved that the oral administration of supernatant

  14. Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide facilitates restoration of injured intestinal mucosal immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus-infected Muscovy ducklings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yijian; Jiang, Huihui; Zhu, Erpeng; Li, Jian; Wang, Quanxi; Zhou, Wuduo; Qin, Tao; Wu, Xiaoping; Wu, Baocheng; Huang, Yifan

    2018-02-01

    To elucidate the effect of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on the intestinal mucosal immunity in normal and Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected Muscovy ducklings, 1-day-old healthy Muscovy ducklings were pretreated with 0.2g/L HEP and/or following by MDRV infection in this study, duodenal samples were respectively collected at 1, 3, 6, 10, 15 and 21day post-infection, tissue sections were prepared for observation of morphological structure and determination of intestinal parameters (villus height/crypt depth ratio, villus surface area) as well as counts of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells, mast cells. Additionally, dynamics of secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) productions in intestinal mucosa were measured with radioimmunoassay. Results showed that HEP significantly improved intestinal morphological structure and related indexes, and significantly inhibited the reduction of intestinal mucosal IELs, goblet cells and mast cells caused by MDRV infection. Furthermore, HEP significantly increased the secretion of sIgA, IFN-γ and IL-4 to enhance intestinal mucosal immune functions. Our findings indicate that HEP treatment can effectively repair MDRV-caused injures of small intestinal mucosal immune barrier, and improve mucosal immune function in sick Muscovy ducklings, which will provide valuable help for further application of HEP in prevention and treatment of MDRV infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Innovative methods to study human intestinal drug metabolism in vitro : Precision-cut slices compared with Ussing chamber preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhof, Esther G.; Ungell, Anna-Lena B.; Sjoberg, Asa K.; de Jager, Marina H.; Hilgendorf, Constanze; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    2006-01-01

    Predictive in vitro methods to investigate drug metabolism in the human intestine using intact tissue are of high importance. Therefore, we studied the metabolic activity of human small intestinal and colon slices and compared it with the metabolic activity of the same human intestinal segments

  16. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Erko, Berhanu; Torben, Workineh; Belay, Mulugeta; Kasssu, Afework; Fetene, Teshome; Huruy, Kahsay

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.

  17. [THE MODES OF EVALUATION OF TYPE OF DEHYDRATION IN CHILDREN HOSPITALIZED BECAUSE OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, E A; Samodova, O V; Gulakova, N N; Aruiev, A B; Krylova, L A; Titova, L V

    2015-11-01

    Every year about 800,000 cases of intestinal infections end in lethal outcome due to dehydration. The different types of dehydration acquire differential approach to correction. Everywhere there is no application of routine detection of osmolarity of blood plasma under exicosis in children in view of absence of possibility of instrumental measurement. The search of techniques is needed to make it possible to indirectly detect types of dehydration in children hospitalized because of acute intestinal infection with purpose to apply rationale therapy of water-electrolyte disorders. The sampling of 32 patients with intestinal infections accompanied with signs of exicosis degree I-III was examined. The detection of osmolarity of blood was implemented by instrumental technique using gas analyzer ABL 800 Flex (Radiometer; Denmark) and five estimate techniques according to results of biochemical analysis of blood. The differences in precision of measurement of osmolarity of blood plasma by instrumental and estimate techniques were compared using Bland-Altman graphic technique. It is established that formula: 2x[Na+kp] + [glucosekp] (mmol/l) is the most recise. Its application provided results comparable with values detected by instrumental mode.

  18. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection.

  19. Human intestinal dendritic cells as controllers of mucosal immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bernardo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are the most potent, professional antigen-presenting cells in the body; following antigen presentation they control the type (proinflammatory/regulatory of immune response that will take place, as well as its location. Given their high plasticity and maturation ability in response to local danger signals derived from innate immunity, dendritic cells are key actors in the connection between innate immunity and adaptive immunity responses. In the gut dendritic cells control immune tolerance mechanisms against food and/or commensal flora antigens, and are also capable of initiating an active immune response in the presence of invading pathogens. Dendritic cells are thus highly efficient in controlling the delicate balance between tolerance and immunity in an environment so rich in antigens as the gut, and any factor involving these cells may impact their function, ultimately leading to the development of bowel conditions such as celiac disease or inflammatory bowel disease. In this review we shall summarize our understanding of human intestinal dendritic cells, their ability to express and induce migration markers, the various environmental factors modulating their properties, their subsets in the gut, and the problems entailed by their study, including identification strategies, differences between humans and murine models, and phenotypical variations along the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) innervation of the human eyelid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, P; Spitznas, M

    1999-06-01

    This study was conducted to obtain morphological proof of innervating nerve fibres in the glands of the human eyelid (accessory lacrimal glands of Wolfring, meibomian glands, goblet cells, glands of Zeis, glands of Moll, sweat glands, glands of lanugo hair follicles) and identification of the secretomotorically active neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) as a common transmitter. Epoxy-embedded ultrathin sections of tissue samples from human eyelids were studied using electron microscopy. Paraffin sections fixed in Bouin-Hollande solution were immunostained with rabbit antiserum against VIP. With the electron microscope we were able to identify nerves in the glandular stroma of all the glands examined with the exception of goblet cells. Intraepithelial single axons were only seen in the parenchyma of Wolfring glands. The morphological findings corresponded with the immunological finding of VIP-positive, nerve-like structures in the same locations, with the exception of lanugo hair follicle glands, and goblet cells. Our findings indicate that the glands of the eyelids and main lacrimal gland represent a functional unit with VIP as a possible common stimulating factor. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Resiniferatoxin modulates the Th1 immune response and protects the host during intestinal nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carrillo, J L; Contreras-Cordero, J F; Muñoz-López, J L; Maldonado-Tapia, C H; Muñoz-Escobedo, J J; Moreno-García, M A

    2017-09-01

    In the early stage of the intestinal phase of Trichinella spiralis infection, the host triggers a Th1-type immune response with the aim of eliminating the parasite. However, this response damages the host which favours the survival of the parasite. In the search for novel pharmacological strategies that inhibit the Th1 immune response and assist the host against T. spiralis infection, a recent study showed that resiniferatoxin had anti-inflammatory activity contributed to the host in T. spiralis infection. In this study, we evaluated whether RTX modulates the host immune response through the inhibition of Th1 cytokines in the intestinal phase. In addition, it was determined whether the treatment with RTX affects the infectivity of T. spiralis-L1 and the development of the T. spiralis life cycle. Our results show that RTX decreased serum levels of IL-12, INF-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α and parasite burden on muscle tissue. It was observed that T. spiralis-L1 treated with RTX decreased their infectivity affecting the development of the T. spiralis life cycle in mouse. These results demonstrate that RTX is able to inhibit the production of Th1 cytokines, contributing to the defence against T. spiralis, which places it as a potential drug modulator of the immune response. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawatchai Apidechkul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among hill tribe schoolchildren who attended 10 border patrol police schools in 2012, Chiang Rai, Thailand. Methods: A total of 339 subjects were recruited into the study from 2 194 children. Questionnaire was tested for validity and reliability before use. About 5 g stool specimens were collected and investigated for intestinal parasite infections by using cellophane-covered thick smear technique. Logistic regression at α = 0.05 was used to test the associations between variables to find risk factors. Results: There were 339 subjects of whom 51.9% were males and 66.1% were Buddhist; racially 31.2% were Akha and 30.4% were Kmong; mean age was 10.3 years old (minimum = 6, maximum = 16. The prevalence of parasitic infection was 9.7%. After controlling for age, sex, religion, parents’ education levels and parents’ occupations, the only factor that showed a statistically significant association with intestinal parasitic infection was the source of drinking water. The group of drinking mountain piped water had a greater risk of 8.22 times (adjusted odds ratio = 8.22, 95%; confidence interval: 1.07–63.18 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group, while the group of drinking underground water had a greater risk of 9.83 times (adjusted odds ratio = 9.83, 95%; confidence interval: 0.93–104.12 compared to the drinking commercially bottled water group. Conclusions: Drinking water contaminated by soil was shown to be an important risk factor for intestinal parasitic infection in hill tribe schoolchildren living in mountainous border areas in the northern part of Thailand. Safer alternative drinking water source should be provided along with health education for schools and villagers to be aware of the risk of intestinal parasites from drinking water sources such as mountain piped or underground wells. Such sources are likely to contain higher soil

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis patients in Addis ... METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was collected ... of co-infection appeared to have increased compared to previous studies, 6.6%, ...

  5. Role of commercial probiotic strains against human pathogen adhesion to intestinal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, M C; Meriluoto, J; Salminen, S

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this study present were to assess and to evaluate in vitro the abilities of commercial probiotic strains derived from fermented milk products and related sources currently marketed in European countries, to inhibit, compete and displace the adhesion of selected potential pathogens to immobilized human mucus. The adhesion was assessed by measuring the radioactivity of bacteria adhered to the human mucus. We tested 12 probiotic strains against eight selected pathogens. All strains tested were able to adhere to mucus. All probiotic strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P<0.05) the adhesion of Bacteroides, Clostridium, Staphylococcus and Enterobacter. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting that several complementary mechanisms are implied in the processes. Our results indicate the need for a case-by-case assessment in order to select strains with the ability to inhibit or displace a specific pathogen. Probiotics could be useful to correct deviations observed in intestinal microbiota associated with specific diseases and also, to prevent pathogen infections. The competitive exclusion properties of probiotics as well as their ability to displace and inhibit pathogens are the most importance for therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microbiota. The application of such strategies could contribute to expand the beneficial properties on human health against pathogen infection.

  6. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  7. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Bemnet; Ali, Jemal; Moges, Beyene; Yismaw, Gizachew; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Gebretsadik, Simon; Woldeyohannes, Desalegn; Tafess, Ketema; Abate, Ebba; Endris, Mengistu; Tegabu, Desalegn; Mulu, Andargachew; Ota, Fusao; Fantahun, Bereket; Kassu, Afework

    2013-01-12

    Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age). Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years) completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%). There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117-2076, n=80) and 610 IU/ml (143-1833, n=20), respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z=-0.198, P>0.8). The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not negligible in this population. In addition, there was no significant association between the

  8. Nutritional status, intestinal parasite infection and allergy among school children in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amare Bemnet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic infections have been shown to have deleterious effects on host nutritional status. In addition, although helmintic infection can modulate the host inflammatory response directed against the parasite, a causal association between helminths and allergy remains uncertain. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate the relationship between nutritional status, parasite infection and prevalence of allergy among school children. Methods A cross sectional study was performed involving school children in two elementary schools in Gondar, Ethiopia. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age. Epi-Info software was used to calculate z-scores. Stool samples were examined using standard parasitological procedures. The serum IgE levels were quantified by total IgE ELISA kit following the manufacturer’s instruction. Result A total of 405 children (with mean age of 12.09.1 ± 2.54 years completed a self-administered allergy questionnaire and provided stool samples for analysis. Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness/wasting was 15.1%, 25.2%, 8.9%, respectively. Of the total, 22.7% were found to be positive for intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite detected was Ascaris lumbricoides (31/405, 7.6%. There was no statistically significant association between prevalence of malnutrition and the prevalence of parasitic infections. Median total serum IgE level was 344 IU/ml (IQR 117–2076, n = 80 and 610 IU/ml (143–1833, n = 20, respectively, in children without and with intestinal parasite infection (Z = −0.198, P > 0.8. The prevalence of self reported allergy among the subset was 8%. IgE concentration was not associated either with the presence of parasitic infection or history of allergy. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition, intestinal parasitism and allergy was not

  9. Development and Characterization of a Human and Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cell Monolayer Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Kozuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We describe the development and characterization of a mouse and human epithelial cell monolayer platform of the small and large intestines, with a broad range of potential applications including the discovery and development of minimally systemic drug candidates. Culture conditions for each intestinal segment were optimized by correlating monolayer global gene expression with the corresponding tissue segment. The monolayers polarized, formed tight junctions, and contained a diversity of intestinal epithelial cell lineages. Ion transport phenotypes of monolayers from the proximal and distal colon and small intestine matched the known and unique physiology of these intestinal segments. The cultures secreted serotonin, GLP-1, and FGF19 and upregulated the epithelial sodium channel in response to known biologically active agents, suggesting intact secretory and absorptive functions. A screen of over 2,000 pharmacologically active compounds for inhibition of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon cultures led to the identification of a tool compound. : Siegel and colleagues describe their development of a human and mouse intestinal epithelial cell monolayer platform that maintains the cellular, molecular, and functional characteristics of tissue for each intestinal segment. They demonstrate the platform's application to drug discovery by screening a library of over 2,000 compounds to identify an inhibitor of potassium ion transport in the mouse distal colon. Keywords: intestinal epithelium, organoids, monolayer, colon, small intestine, phenotype screening assays, enteroid, colonoid

  10. Effect of microalgae on intestinal inflammation triggered by soybean meal and bacterial infection in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bravo-Tello

    Full Text Available Soybean meal has been used in many commercial diets for farm fish; despite this component inducing intestinal inflammation. On the other hand, microalgae have increasingly been used as dietary supplements in fish feed. Nevertheless, the vast quantity of microalgae species means that many remain under- or unstudied, thus limiting wide scale commercial application. In this work, we evaluated the effects to zebrafish (Danio rerio of including Tetraselmis sp (Ts; Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Pt; Chlorella sp (Ch; Nannochloropsis oculata (No; or Nannochloropsis gaditana (Ng as additives in a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation and survival after Edwardsiella tarda infection. In larvae fed a soybean meal diet supplemented with Ts, Pt, Ch, or Ng, the quantity of neutrophils present in the intestine drastically decreased as compared to larvae fed only the soybean meal diet. Likewise, Ts or Ch supplements in soybean meal or fishmeal increased zebrafish survival by more than 20% after being challenged. In the case of Ts, the observed effect correlated with an increased number of neutrophils present at the infection site. These results suggest that the inclusion of Ts or Ch in fish diets could allow the use of SBM and at the same time improve performance against pathogen.

  11. Emerging Intestinal Microsporidia Infection in HIV(+/AIDS Patients in Iran: Microscopic and Molecular Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirjalali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Microsporidia have been known as opportunistic obligate intracellular parasites particularly in immunocompromised patients. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of most prevalent intestinal microsporida parasites in HIV(+/AIDS patients. In this study, intestinal microsporidia infection was determined in HIV(+/AIDS patients using microscopic and molecular methods.Stool samples were collected from HIV(+/AIDS patients during 12 months. All of the stool specimens washed with PBS (pH: 7.5. Slim slides were prepared from each sample and were examined using light microscope with 1000X magnification. DNA extraction carried out in microscopic positive samples. DNA amplification and genus/species identification also performed by Nested-PCR and sequencing techniques.From 81 stool samples, 25 were infected with microsporidia species and E. bieneusi were identified in all of positive samples. No Encephalitozoon spp. was identified in 81 collected samples using specific primers.E. bieneusi is the most prevalent intestinal microsporidia in immunocompromised patients of Iran. On the other hand, Nested-PCR using specific primers for ssu rRNA gene is an appropriate molecular method for identification of E. bieneusi.

  12. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis and intestinal ganglionitis in a spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) infected with Mycobacterium genavense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Saggese, M D; Weeks, B R; Hoppes, S M; Porter, B F

    2011-01-01

    An approximately 30-year-old male spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, head shaking, weight loss and seizures. Gross findings on necropsy examination included atrophy of the musculature, ruffled feathers and minimal epicardial and abdominal fat. Microscopically, there were perivascular cuffs of macrophages with fewer lymphocytes in the grey and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions were accompanied by gliosis and mild vacuolation of the white matter. In the small intestine, up to 70% of the intestinal ganglia were effaced by infiltrates of macrophages and fewer lymphocytes. The intestinal lamina propria contained multiple inflammatory aggregates of a similar nature. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of numerous bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric ganglia. Amplification of the DNAJ gene confirmed a mycobacterial infection and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer confirmed the aetiology as Mycobacterium genavense. Infection of the CNS with Mycobacterium spp. is uncommon and has not been previously reported in a parrot. This case is unusual in that the organism exhibited tropism for neural tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Fetal Intestinal Cell Growth and Antimicrobial Biofunctionalities of Donor Human Milk After Preparative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaprach, Pasinee; Pongsakul, Nutkridta; Apiwattanakul, Nopporn; Muanprasat, Chatchai; Supapannachart, Sarayut; Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Chutipongtanate, Somchai

    2018-04-01

    Donor human milk is considered the next best nutrition following mother's own milk to prevent neonatal infection and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants who are admitted at neonatal intensive care unit. However, donor milk biofunctionalities after preparative processes have rarely been documented. To evaluate biofunctionalities preserved in donor milk after preparative processes by cell-based assays. Ten pools of donor milk were produced from 40 independent specimens. After preparative processes, including bacterial elimination methods (holder pasteurization and cold-sterilization microfiltration) and storage conditions (-20°C freezing storage and lyophilization) with varied duration of storage (0, 3, and 6, months), donor milk biofunctionalities were examined by fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays. At baseline, raw donor milk exhibited 193.1% ± 12.3% of fetal intestinal cell growth and 42.4% ± 11.8% of antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli. After bacteria eliminating processes, growth promoting activity was better preserved in pasteurized donor milk than microfiltrated donor milk (169.5% ± 14.3% versus 146.0% ± 11.8%, respectively; p pasteurized donor milk was further examined for the effects of storage conditions at 3 and 6 months. Freezing storage, but not lyophilization, could preserve higher growth-promoting activity during 6 months of storage (163.0% ± 9.4% versus 72.8% ± 6.2%, respectively; p < 0.005). Nonetheless, antimicrobial activity was lost at 6 months, regardless of the storage methods. This study revealed that fetal intestinal cell growth and antimicrobial assays could be applied to measure donor milk biofunctionalities and support the utilization of donor milk within 3 months after preparative processes.

  14. Intermittent fasting promotes bacterial clearance and intestinal IgA production in Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godínez-Victoria, M; Campos-Rodriguez, R; Rivera-Aguilar, V; Lara-Padilla, E; Pacheco-Yepez, J; Jarillo-Luna, R A; Drago-Serrano, M E

    2014-05-01

    The impact of intermittent fasting versus ad libitum feeding during Salmonella typhimurium infection was evaluated in terms of duodenum IgA levels, bacterial clearance and intestinal and extra-intestinal infection susceptibility. Mice that were intermittently fasted for 12 weeks or fed ad libitum were infected with S. typhimurium and assessed at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Next, we evaluated bacterial load in the faeces, Peyer's patches, spleen and liver by plate counting, as well as total and specific intestinal IgA and plasmatic corticosterone levels (by immunoenzymatic assay) and lamina propria IgA levels in plasma cells (by cytofluorometry). Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, α- and J-chains, Pax-5 factor, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (transforming growth factor-β) mRNA levels were assessed in mucosal and liver samples (by real-time PCR). Compared with the infected ad libitum mice, the intermittently fasted infected animals had (1) lower intestinal and systemic bacterial loads; (2) higher SIgA and IgA plasma cell levels; (3) higher mRNA expression of most intestinal parameters; and (4) increased or decreased corticosterone levels on day 7 and 14 post-infection, respectively. No contribution of liver IgA was observed at the intestinal level. Apparently, the changes following metabolic stress induced by intermittent fasting during food deprivation days increased the resistance to S. typhimurium infection by triggering intestinal IgA production and presumably, pathogen elimination by phagocytic inflammatory cells. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  16. Effects of BmCPV Infection on Silkworm Bombyx mori Intestinal Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenli Sun

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota has a crucial role in the growth, development and environmental adaptation in the host insect. The objective of our work was to investigate the microbiota of the healthy silkworm Bombyx mori gut and changes after the infection of B. mori cypovirus (BmCPV. Intestinal contents of the infected and healthy larvae of B. mori of fifth instar were collected at 24, 72 and 144 h post infection with BmCPV. The gut bacteria were analyzed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. 147(135 and 113(103 genera were found in the gut content of the healthy control female (male larvae and BmCPV-infected female (male larvae, respectively. In general, the microbial communities in the gut content of healthy larvae were dominated by Enterococcus, Delftia, Pelomonas, Ralstonia and Staphylococcus, however the abundance change of each genus was depended on the developmental stage and gender. Microbial diversity reached minimum at 144 h of fifth instar larvae. The abundance of Enterococcus in the females was substantially lower and the abundance of Delftia, Aurantimonas and Staphylococcus was substantially higher compared to the males. Bacterial diversity in the intestinal contents decreased after post infection with BmCPV, whereas the abundance of both Enterococcus and Staphylococcus which belongs to Gram-positive were increased. Therefore, our findings suggested that observed changes in relative abundance was related to the immune response of silkworm to BmCPV infection. Relevance analysis of plenty of the predominant genera showed the abundance of the Enterococcus genus was in negative correlation with the abundance of the most predominant genera. These results provided insight into the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of the BmCPV-infected silkworm.

  17. Diclofenac toxicity in human intestine ex vivo is not related to the formation of intestinal metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niu, Xiaoyu; de Graaf, Inge A. M.; Langelaar-Makkinje, Miriam; Horvatovich, Peter; Groothuis, Geny M. M.

    The use of diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is associated with a high prevalence of gastrointestinal side effects. In vivo studies in rodents suggested that reactive metabolites of DCF produced by the liver or the intestine might be responsible for this toxicity. In the

  18. Human organoids: a model system for intestinal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegerinck, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    You are what you eat. A common saying that indicates that your physical or mental state can be influenced by your choice of food. Unfortunately, not all people have the luxury to choose what to eat; this can be related to place of birth, social, economic state, or the physical inability of the diseased intestine to take up certain food. A cell layer, the epithelium, covers the intestine, and harbors the main functions of the intestine: uptake, digestion of food, and a barrier against unwanted...

  19. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  20. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  1. Co-endemicity of Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Intestinal Helminth Infection in the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Xu Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and intestinal helminth infection (IHI affect millions of individuals every year in China. However, the national-scale estimation of prevalence predictors and prevalence maps for these diseases, as well as co-endemic relative risk (RR maps of both diseases' prevalence are not well developed. There are co-endemic, high prevalence areas of both diseases, whose delimitation is essential for devising effective control strategies. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models including socio-economic, climatic, geographical and environmental predictors were fitted separately for active PTB and IHI based on data from the national surveys for PTB and major human parasitic diseases that were completed in 2010 and 2004, respectively. Prevalence maps and co-endemic RR maps were constructed for both diseases by means of Bayesian Kriging model and Bayesian shared component model capable of appraising the fraction of variance of spatial RRs shared by both diseases, and those specific for each one, under an assumption that there are unobserved covariates common to both diseases. Our results indicate that gross domestic product (GDP per capita had a negative association, while rural regions, the arid and polar zones and elevation had positive association with active PTB prevalence; for the IHI prevalence, GDP per capita and distance to water bodies had a negative association, the equatorial and warm zones and the normalized difference vegetation index had a positive association. Moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in western regions, low to moderate prevalence of active PTB and low prevalence of IHI were predicted in north-central regions and the southeast coastal regions, and moderate to high prevalence of active PTB and high prevalence of IHI were predicted in the south-western regions. Thus, co-endemic areas of active PTB and IHI were located in the south-western regions of

  2. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cervantes, Rosalía; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés; Moreno-Méndoza, Norma; López-Griego, Lorena; López-Salazar, Valeria; Hernández-Bello, Romel; Carrero, Julio César; Morales-Montor, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX) in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL) reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4) was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  3. Regulation of intestinal immune response by selective removal of the anterior, posterior, or entire pituitary gland in Trichinella spiralis infected golden hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Hernández-Cervantes

    Full Text Available The influence of anterior pituitary hormones on the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals has been previously reported. Hypophysectomy (HYPOX in the rat causes atrophy of the intestinal mucosa, and reduction of gastric secretion and intestinal absorption, as well as increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. However, to our knowledge, no findings have been published concerning the immune response following HYPOX during worm infection, particularly that which is caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis. The aim of this work was to analyze the effects of total or partial HYPOX on colonization of T. spiralis in the intestinal lumen, together with duodenal and splenic cytokine expression. Our results indicate that 5 days post infection, only neurointermediate pituitary lobectomy (NIL reduces the number of intestinally recovered T. spiralis larvae. Using semiquantitative inmunofluorescent laser confocal microscopy, we observed that the mean intensity of all tested Th1 cytokines was markedly diminished, even in the duodenum of infected controls. In contrast, a high level of expression of these cytokines was noted in the NIL infected hamsters. Likewise, a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity of Th2 cytokines (with the exception of IL-4 was apparent in the duodenum of control and sham infected hamsters, compared to animals with NIL surgeries, which showed an increase in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13. Histology of duodenal mucosa from NIL hamsters showed an exacerbated inflammatory infiltrate located along the lamina propria, which was related to the presence of the parasite. We conclude that hormones from each pituitary lobe affect the gastrointestinal immune responses to T. spiralis through various mechanisms.

  4. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  5. TACTICS OF BIOCENOSIS-SAVING THERAPY BY USE ANTIBIOTICS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Mazankova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 50 children aged from 3 to 67 months with acute intestinal infections receiving antibiotic therapy, were clinically and microbiologically examined using gas-liquid chromatographic test with the measurement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs in coprofiltrates. The influence on the biocenosis is assessed upon treatment with an-tidiarrhoeal medication Gelatin tannat (Adiarin, which acts by forming a protective film on the surface of intestinal mucosa preventing loss of body fluids and microbial toxins. 20 children in the control group received antibiotics, sorbents, probiotics. The study has proved the clinical effect of Gelatin tannat, resulting in reduction of time to normalization of diarrhea and intoxication for 2 days, and data on the probiotic effect of the drug, similar to that of probiotics in the control group which expands the indications for the use of Gelatin tannat for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.  

  6. Molecular testing for clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigations of intestinal parasitic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Jaco J; Stensvold, C Rune

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, nucleic acid-based methods have been developed for the diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Advantages of nucleic acid-based methods are numerous; typically, these include increased sensitivity and specificity and simpler standardization of diagnostic procedures. DNA samples can also be stored and used for genetic characterization and molecular typing, providing a valuable tool for surveys and surveillance studies. A variety of technologies have been applied, and some specific and general pitfalls and limitations have been identified. This review provides an overview of the multitude of methods that have been reported for the detection of intestinal parasites and offers some guidance in applying these methods in the clinical laboratory and in epidemiological studies.

  7. Effects of size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis infections on histopathology of the mucosa along the whole small intestine in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoste, H; Mallet, S

    1990-11-01

    The influence of population size of Trichostrongylus colubriformis on the structures of the small intestine, especially with regard to the development and origin of an intestinal adaptive response, was examined in experimentally infected rabbits. The effects of low (500 L3) and high (50,000 L3) infection on histological (villous length, mucosa to serosa ratio, crypt surface) and biochemical (protein content, alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase activities) aspects of the mucosa were assessed along the whole small intestine. The presence of a small number of worms induced only minor mucosal changes, indicating a regenerative response of the intestinal epithelium. The role of a local small population of T. colubriformis in the development of a previously described adaptive response appeared thus to be limited. On the other hand, the 50,000 L3 inoculum was associated with severe lesions of villi, marked crypt hyperplasia and with a major reduction of enzyme activities. The changes were found along the whole length of the small intestine. These results suggest that the generally recognized dose-dependent pathogenicity of the intestinal nematode infections could be ascribed to two different processes: firstly, a greater severity of the lesions; secondly, more extensive damage leading to the disappearance of any adaptive intestinal region.

  8. Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermien van Bokhorst-van de Veen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species. However, data on the in situ persistence characteristics of individual or mixtures of strains of the same species in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy human volunteers have not been reported to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The GI-tract survival of individual L. plantarum strains was determined using an intestine mimicking model system, revealing substantial inter-strain differences. The obtained data were correlated to genomic diversity of the strains using comparative genome hybridization (CGH datasets, but this approach failed to discover specific genetic loci that explain the observed differences between the strains. Moreover, we developed a next-generation sequencing-based method that targets a variable intergenic region, and employed this method to assess the in vivo GI-tract persistence of different L. plantarum strains when administered in mixtures to healthy human volunteers. Remarkable consistency of the strain-specific persistence curves were observed between individual volunteers, which also correlated significantly with the GI-tract survival predicted on basis of the in vitro assay. CONCLUSION: The survival of individual L. plantarum strains in the GI-tract could not be correlated to the absence or presence of specific genes compared to the reference strain L. plantarum WCFS1. Nevertheless, in vivo persistence analysis in the human GI-tract confirmed the strain-specific persistence, which appeared to be remarkably similar in different healthy volunteers. Moreover, the relative strain-specific persistence in vivo appeared to be accurately and significantly predicted by their relative survival in the intestine-mimicking in vitro

  9. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.

  10. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Kenneth N; Udoidung, Nsima I; Opara, Dominic C; Okon, Okpok E; Edosomwan, Evelyn U; Udoh, Anietie J

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA), weight-for-height (WH) and weight-for-age (WA) Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols. The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7%) had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (Prural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (Pmalnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  11. Evaluation of reticulated gelatin-hibiscus-propolis against intestinal commensal species commonly associated with urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olier, Maïwenn; Sekkal, Soraya; Harkat, Cherryl; Eutamene, Hélène; Theodorou, Vassilia

    2017-05-01

    Reticulated gelatin (RG), hibiscus and propolis (RGHP) is a medical device that can reduce the bacterial adherence to epithelial cultured cells and invasion by enteropathogens, thus gathering relevant properties to decrease the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed at evaluating in Wistar rats the efficacy of RGHP, RG and vehicle against intestinal commensals commonly involved in UTIs. Animals received orally (with supplemental Na 2 CO 3 ): RGHP 1540 mg/day/rat; RG 500 mg/day/rat or vehicle. RGHP significantly reduced fecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. levels without affecting other targeted Enterobacteriaceae. The antagonistic property of RGHP was confirmed in streptomycin-pretreated rats highly colonized with a human commensal E. coli strain with uropathogenic potential. RGHP may decrease the risk of UTIs by reducing colonization by opportunistic uropathogens.

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Belay

    2011-05-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama town,Ethiopia. Method: A total of 358 children from four primary schools in Adama town were included for stool examination, weight for age, height for age, weight for height and socio-economic status of the family. Results: The result of stool examinations showed that 127 (35.5% of the study subjects were infected by one or more parasite. The most frequent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (12.6% and Hymenolopis nana (8.9%. The rate of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly associated with sex, age or socio-economic factors and nutrition (P > 0.05. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 21.2%. Those children whose families had a monthly income of less than 200 ETB (Ethiopian birr were highly affected by malnutrition (P < 0.05,but family education was not identified as a factor for malnutrition amongst schoolchildren. Conclusion: The prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and H. nana could be of public health importance and calls for appropriate control strategies, and the high prevalence of malnutrition amongst children from poor families requires intervention.

  13. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION AS A DISGUISE OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dyakonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and acute intestinal infections in contemporary medicine remains relevant for clinical practice of surgeons and pediatricians. Late diagnosis of appendicitis results in development of complicated forms of vermiform appendix inflammation. This prolongs operative intervention, duration of antibacterial therapy and duration of a child’s inpatient stay. The article presents clinical observation of three children treated for perforated appendix and generalized purulent peritonitis. The described cases demonstrate the need in multidisciplinary approach and complex diagnosis of patients with such complaints as abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailegebriel, Tamirat

    2017-05-23

    Intestinal parasitic infections are still one of the major health concerns in developing countries. Monitoring of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors are essential for intervention strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors among students at Dona Berber primary school, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. School based cross-sectional study was conducted among students at Dona Berber primary school from October 2015 to June 2016. Three hundred fifty nine students were involved in the study by providing stool specimens and detailed personal information. Students were selected by stratified and systematic random sampling method. Fresh stool samples were collected from each student and processed by formal-ether fecal concentration technique. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and p value intestinal parasites. The rates of single and double parasitic infections among students were 49.6% and 16.2%, respectively. The most prevalent parasite detected in the study was E. histolytica/dispar (24.5%) followed by hookworm (22.8%). Among the different variables assessed in the study, family size of 6 (AOR = 4.90; 95% CI, 2.03-11.83), irregularly shoe wearing habit (AOR = 2.85; 95% CI, 1.53-5.32) and unclean finger nail (AOR = 3.68; 95% CI, 1.87-7.26) were independently predict intestinal parasitic infections. Student drinking well water (AOR = 2.51; 95% CI, 2.30-4.86) and unclean finger nail (AOR = 4.42; 95% CI, 2.55-7.65) were strongly associated with E. histolytica/dispar infection. Likewise, irregular shoe wearing habit (AOR = 14.13; 95% CI, 7.06-28.29) was strongly associated with hookworm infections. High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the study participants demands improvement of health education, environmental sanitation and quality of water sources.

  15. Impact of the alterations in the interstitial cells of Cajal on intestinal motility in post-infection irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zhou, Xu-Chun; Lan, Cheng

    2015-04-01

    The interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are basic components of gastrointestinal motility. However, changes in ICC and their role in post‑infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI‑IBS) remain to be elucidated. To observe the impact of alterations in the ICC on intestinal motility in a PI‑IBS mouse model, female C57BL\\6 mice were infected by the oral administration of 400 Trichinella spiralis larvae. The abdominal withdrawal reflex, intestine transportation time (ITT), grain numbers, Bristol scores, wet/dry weights and the percentage water content of the mice feces every 2 h were used to assess changes in the intestinal motor function. The intestines were excised and sectioned for pathological and histochemical examination. These intestines were also used to quantify the protein and mRNA expression of c‑kit. The C57BL\\6 mouse can act as a PI‑IBS model at day 56 post‑infection. Compared with the control mice, the ITT was shorter, the grain numbers, Bristol scores, wet weights and water contents of the mice feces were higher and the dry weights were unchanged in the PI‑IBS mice. The protein and mRNA expression levels of c‑kit were upregulated in the entire PI‑IBS mouse intestines. Following immunohistochemical staining, the increased number of c‑kit‑positive cells were detected predominantly in the submucosa and myenteron. These results suggested that the alterations of the ICC resulted in the changes of the intestinal motility patterns in the PI‑IBS mouse models induced by Trichinella spiralis infection, which may be the main mechanism underlying intestinal motility disorders in PI‑IBS.

  16. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Intestinal Parasite Infection among Schoolchildren in the Peripheral Highland Regions of Huanuco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byungjin; Kim, Bongyoung

    2017-10-01

    Schoolchildren in developing countries are at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and assess the risk factors of intestinal parasite infection among schoolchildren in rural areas of Peru. A volunteer team from the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducted a campaign for parasite eradication called "Chao parasitos" at five schools in the peripheral highland regions of Huanuco in October 2013. The study collected questionnaires and stool samples from children of participating schools. Entamoeba coli , Iodamoeba buschii , and Chilomastix mesnil were classified as nonpathogenic parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the students was 100% (185/185). Among them, 25.9% (48/185) were infected only with nonpathogenic parasites whereas 74.1% (137/185) were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most commonly detected (37.3%, 69/185), followed by Giardia lamblia (15.1%, 28/185) and I. buschii (11.9%, 22/185). Among lifestyle practices associated with parasitic infection, the rate of washing hands before meals was significantly lower in the students with pathogenic parasites compared to those with nonpathogenic parasites (77.4%, 106/137 vs. 93.8%, 45/48, p = 0.025). The prevalence of intestinal parasite was 100%. Both personal hygiene and water supply facilities are required to eradicate parasite infection in rural areas of Peru.

  17. Co-infection of intestinal parasites and Helicobacter pylori among upper gastrointestinal symptomatic adult patients attending Mekanesalem Hospital, northeast Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Abdurahaman; Tamir, Zemenu; Kasanew, Brhanu; Senbetay, Moges

    2018-02-20

    Intestinal parasites and H. pylori are well-known for their high prevalence worldwide. Thus, the objective of this study waste assess risk factors and co-infection of intestinal parasites and H. pylori among adult patients with upper gastrointestinal complaints. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 consecutive adult patients from December 10, 2015 to February 30,2016. Stool and venous blood were collected for analysis of Intestinal parasites and H. pylori infection, respectively. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 and logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess predictors of co-infection. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Helicobacter pylori IgG and intestinal parasites were detected in 70.25-38.3% of participants, respectively while G. lamblia accounted 22.3%. G. lamblia prevalence was significantly higher among H. pylori infected participants (COR: 2.76; 95% CI: 1.46-5.23), but E. hystolytica/dispar infection didn't show significant variation (p = 0.15). H. pylori and intestinal parasites concomitant co-infection was associated with male sex (AOR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.01-2.56), consumption of river water (AOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11-3.07) and ground/spring water (AOR: 4.10; 95% CI: 1.97-8.52). Thus, besides H. pylori investigation, upper gastrointestinal symptomatic patients should be screened for G. lamblia infection and other intestinal parasites.

  18. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Haileeyesus; Wegayehu, Teklu; Petros, Beyene

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART) and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43%) of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through improvement of immune status of the patients may have contributed to controlling diarrhoea-causing parasites in HIV positive patients.

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.

  1. The Impact of Intestinal Parasitic Infections on the Nutritional Status of Rural and Urban School-Aged Children in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Opara, PhD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Intestinal parasitic infection and undernutrition are still major public health problems in poor and developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between intestinal parasitic infection and nutritional status in 405 primary school children from rural and urban areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.Methods:This cross-sectional survey in 2009 obtained anthropometric data, height-for-age (HA, weight-for-height (WH and weight-for-age (WA Z-scores from each child and fecal samples were also collected and screened for intestinal parasites using standard parasitological protocols.Results:The prevalence of infection with any intestinal parasite was 67.4%. A total of six intestinal parasites were detected; hookworm (41.7% had the highest prevalence. The prevalence of intestinal parasites and undernutrition was significantly higher in rural than in urban children (P<0.001. The prevalence of stunting (HAZ < -2, underweight (WAZ < -2 and wasting (WHZ < -2 for rural and urban children were 42.3% vs. 29.7%; underweight 43.2% vs. 29.6% and wasting 10.9% vs. 6.4%, respectively. With respect to nutritional indicators, the infected children had significantly (P<0.05 higher z-scores than the uninfected children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only Hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides were each significantly (P<0.05 associated with stunting, wasting, and underweight.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Since intestinal parasitic infections are associated with malnutrition, controlling these parasites could increase the physical development and well-being of the affected children.

  2. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  3. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  4. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  6. Prevalence and predictors associated with intestinal infections by protozoa and helminths in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavechia, Maria Teresinha Gomes; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Campanerut-Sá, Paula Aline Zanetti; da Costa Benalia, Hugo Rafael; Mattiello, Matheus Felipe; Menechini, Pedro Victor Lazaretti; Dos Santos, Carlos Aparecido; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 2 billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. This research aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed with a large random sample to identify the prevalence and predictors associated with parasitic infections in primary health care in Marialva, southern Brazil, from April 2011 to September 2013. Stool samples from 775 individuals were analyzed for the presence of protozoan cysts, helminth eggs, and larvae. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 13.94 %, and the prevalence of protozoa and helminths was 15.1 and 2.9 %, respectively. The predictor variables that were associated with intestinal parasites were male gender odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.10-2.40) and the absence of a kitchen garden (OR 2.28, 95 % CI, 1.08-4.85). Positive associations were found between Giardia duodenalis and individuals aged ≤18 with high risk (OR 19.0, 95 % CI 2.16-167.52), between Endolimax nana and the absence of a kitchen garden (p < 0.01), and between Trichuris trichiura and the presence of a kitchen garden (p = 0.014). Polyparasitism was present in 27.27 % of infected individuals. Our findings confirmed a relatively low prevalence in primary care, compared to international standards, despite the rare publications in the area. As variables, male gender and the absence of a kitchen garden stood out as important predictors. It is highly relevant that the health conditions of the population comply with consistent standards.

  7. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  9. Impact of Diet on Human Intestinal Microbiota and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, A.; Vos, de W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Our intestinal microbiota is involved in the breakdown and bioconversion of dietary and host components that are not degraded and taken up by our own digestive system. The end products generated by our microbiota fuel our enterocytes and support growth but also have signaling functions that generate

  10. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity. PMID:28732017

  11. Disease severity in patients with visceral leishmaniasis is not altered by co-infection with intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajebe, Fitsumbrhan; Getahun, Mulusew; Adem, Emebet; Hailu, Asrat; Lemma, Mulualem; Fikre, Helina; Raynes, John; Tamiru, Aschalew; Mulugeta, Zemenay; Diro, Ermias; Toulza, Frederic; Shkedy, Ziv; Ayele, Tadesse; Modolell, Manuel; Munder, Markus; Müller, Ingrid; Takele, Yegnasew; Kropf, Pascale

    2017-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI. Data from VL patients was similar to VL patients co-infected with intestinal parasites, suggesting that co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites does not alter disease severity.

  12. Pneumothorax in human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibes Kumar Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumothorax occurs more frequently in people with Human immunodeficiency virus infection in comparison with the general population. In most cases it is secondary the underlying pulmonary disorder, especially pulmonary infections. Though Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is most common pulmonary infection associated with pneumothorax, other infections, non-infective etiology and iatrogenic causes are also encountered. Pneumothorax in these patients are associated with persistent bronchopleural fistula, prolonged hospital stay, poor success with intercostal tube drain, frequent requirement of surgical intervention and increased mortality. Optimal therapeutic approach in these patients is still not well-defined.

  13. Factors influencing growth and intestinal parasitic infections in preschoolers attending philanthropic daycare centers in Salvador, Northeast Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Rebecca L; Lander, Alastair G; Houghton, Lisa; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Barreto, Daniel L; Mattos, Angela P; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2012-11-01

    Poor growth and intestinal parasitic infections are widespread in disadvantaged urban children. This cross-sectional study assessed factors influencing poor growth and intestinal parasites in 376 children aged three to six years in daycare centers in Salvador, in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Data was obtained from seven daycare centers on child weight, height, socio-economic status, health and intestinal parasites in stool samples. Prevalence of moderate underweight ( -2SD), wasting and stunting was 12%, 16% and 6% respectively. Socioeconomic status, birth order, and maternal weight were predictors of poor anthropometric status. Almost 30% of children were infected with more than one intestinal parasite. Helminths (17.8%), notably Trichuris trichiura (12%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (10.5%), and protozoan Giardia duodenalis (13%) were the most common types of parasites detected. One percent of children had hookworm and Cryptosporidium sp. and 25% had non-pathogenic protozoan cysts. Boys from families with very low socio-economic status had lower linear growth and presented a greater risk of helminth infection. Deworming is considered an alternative for reducing the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in this age group.

  14. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  15. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of Infection with Intestinal Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can kill some human protozoan parasites in cell culture better than the drug metronidazole. Clinical data showing an antiprotozoal effect for PPIs are lacking. The objective of the study is to determine if PPI use is associated with a reduced risk of having intestinal parasites. We obtained electronic medical record data for all persons who received a stool ova and parasite (O & P) examination at our tertiary care academic medical center in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 2000 and September 2014. We obtained the person's age, whether they were taking a PPI at the time of the O & P examination, and whether the pathology report indicated the presence of any parasites. χ 2 with Yates correction was used to determine if PPI use was associated with stool protozoa. Three intestinal protozoa were identified in 1199 patients taking a PPI (0.3%), and 551 intestinal parasites were identified in the 14,287 patients not taking a PPI (3.9%). There was a statistically significant lower likelihood of finding protozoa in the stool of a person taking a PPI compared with those not taking a PPI (P protozoa reported on stool O & P examination compared with those not taking a PPI. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-08-29

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  17. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11 have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  18. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  19. Human Infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, China, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Luo, Jie; Xu, Huan; Li, Min; Zhang, Fengling; Li, Jin; Gu, Dayong; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming; Lu, Weiping

    2017-08-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis infection in humans is uncommon. We describe a case of B. thailandensis infection in a person in China, a location heretofore unknown for B. thailandensis. We identified the specific virulence factors of B. thailandensis, which may indicate a transition to a new virulent form.

  20. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people has ranged from mild to severe. Avian Influenza Transmission Avian Influenza Transmission Infographic [555 KB, 2 pages] Spanish [ ... important for public health. Signs and Symptoms of Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans The reported signs ...

  1. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, J.; Smidt, H.; Rijkers, G.T.; Vos, de W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonise the human gastrointestinal tract play an important role in human health. The development of culture-independent molecular techniques has provided new insights in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we summarise the

  2. Analyzing the functionality of the human intestinal microbiota by stable isotope probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovatcheva, P.P.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: gut bacteria, dietary carbohydrates, digestion, RNA-SIP, TIM-2, HITChip, human trial

    The human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract comprises a series of complex and dynamic organs ranging from the stomach to the distal colon, which harbor immense microbial assemblages, with

  3. Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Human Infection with Rickettsia felis, Kenya Allen L. Richards, Ju Jiang, Sylvia Omulo, Ryan Dare, Khalif Abdirah~a~, P:bdile Ali, Shanaaz K...infection with obligate intracellular rickettsiae , which are transmitted to humans by arthropod vectors (e.g., lice, fleas, ticks, and mites... Rickettsiae are associated with arthropods for a least a part of their life cycle and are passed to other arthropods by transovarial transmission or

  4. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  5. Human intervention study to investigate the intestinal accessibility and bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dolores; Jung, Kathrin; Winter, Manuel; Rogoll, Dorothee; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the importance of the large intestine on the bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries in humans with/without a colon. Low bioavailability of anthocyanins in plasma and urine was observed in the frame of this study. Anthocyanins reached the circulation mainly as glucuronides. Analysis of ileal effluents (at end of small intestine) demonstrated that 30% of ingested anthocyanins were stable during 8h passage through the upper intestine. Only 20% degradants were formed and mostly intact anthocyanins were absorbed from the small intestine. Higher amounts of degradants than anthocyanins reached the circulation after bilberry extract consumption in both groups of subjects. Comparison of the bioavailability of anthocyanins in healthy subjects versus ileostomists revealed substantially higher amounts of anthocyanins and degradants in the plasma/urine of subjects with an intact gut. The results suggested that the colon is a significant site for absorption of bioactive components such as anthocyanins and their degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Humanized Mouse Models of Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dane Parker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen that has adapted itself in response to selection pressure by the human immune system. A commensal of the human skin and nose, it is a leading cause of several conditions: skin and soft tissue infection, pneumonia, septicemia, peritonitis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. Mice have been used extensively in all these conditions to identify virulence factors and host components important for pathogenesis. Although significant effort has gone toward development of an anti-staphylococcal vaccine, antibodies have proven ineffective in preventing infection in humans after successful studies in mice. These results have raised questions as to the utility of mice to predict patient outcome and suggest that humanized mice might prove useful in modeling infection. The development of humanized mouse models of S. aureus infection will allow us to assess the contribution of several human-specific virulence factors, in addition to exploring components of the human immune system in protection against S. aureus infection. Their use is discussed in light of several recently reported studies.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers of Southern Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Mohammedaman; Alemu, Getaneh

    2016-02-01

    Globally about one third of the total population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites, of which, the majority are people living in tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world. Cases of intestinal parasitosis are also highly abundant in Ethiopia and hence the aim of present study was to assess prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitic infections among food handlers working in Arba Minch University students' cafeteria, South Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers working in Arba Minch University from April to June, 2015. A pretested structured questionnaire was used for collecting data about socio-demographic characteristics and possible risk factors. Stool specimens were collected and examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 20 software. A total of 376 food handlers were enrolled in the study of which thirty one of them were not willing to participate for a stool examination. The majority of study participants were females 273 (72.6 %). About 123 (36 %) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 48 (14 %) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides 32 (9.27 %). Finger nail status (AOR: 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.29-3.72), hand washing practice after toilet (AOR: 1.71, 95 % CI: 1.06-2.77), hand washing practice before food handling (AOR: 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.04-2.75), preparing food when suffering from diseases (AOR: 3.08, 95 % CI: 1.17-8.13), and using common knife for cutting raw flesh food and other food (AOR: 1.72, 95 % CI: 1.01-2.92) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection among the food handlers. This study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers. Since most of the intestinal parasites are transmitted by the feco-oral route, food handlers could be an important source of

  8. Prevalence and management of intestinal helminthiasis among HIV-infected patients at Muhimbili National Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwambete, Kennedy D; Justin-Temu, Mary; Peter, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at Muhimbili National Hospital (Tanzania) to determine prevalence of helminthiasis among in-patients with HIV/AIDS. After signing an informed consent form, participants answered a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire. Fecal specimens from patients with HIV-infected and uninfected patients were screened for intestinal helminthiasis (IHLs) using coprological methods. A total of 146 patients were recruited, of those 66 were HIV-negative while 80 were HIV-negative patients. Thirty-five patients (12 HIV/AIDS and 23 non-HIV/AIDS) had helminthic infections. Hookworms were the most frequently detected helminths among patients living with HIV/AIDS (13.6%) and HIV-negative patients (17.5%), followed by schistosomiasis (9%) detected among HIV-negative individuals only. Prevalence of helminthiases (HLs) was observed to be relatively lower among HIV-infected than uninfected patients, which is ascribable to prophylactic measures adopted for patients with HIV/AIDS. Thus, it is recommended that routine screening for HLs and prophylactic measures should be adopted for the improvement of patients' health status.

  9. X-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: A new concept of diarrhoeal secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, A.J.; Osborne, M.P.; Haddon, S.J.; Collins, J.; Starkey, W.G.; Candy, D.C.; Stephen, J.

    1990-01-01

    Neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus [epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus] and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (PI). Cytoplasmic concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. In villus tip cells, Ca concentration increased at 24-96 h PI; Na concentration increased at 24-72 h PI; Ca and Na concentrations were near normal by 168 h PI. K concentration decreased 24-72 h PI, and Cl concentration decreased 48-96 h PI. In crypt cells, changes were observed without a discernible pattern: at 96 h PI, Na, Mg, S, and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased; at 120 h PI, the concentrations of all elements except Na and Ca increased. In villus base cells, the mean concentrations of all elements except Ca peaked at 48-72 h PI and at 120 h PI. Na and Cl concentrations increased dramatically in some cells from 48 h PI onward. All the above concentration values were obtained from freeze-dried specimens and expressed in millimoles per kilogram of dry weight. Conversion of a limited number of data, pertaining to villus base cells, from dry weight to wet weight was possible. This conversion revealed that villus base cells in infected animals were more hydrated than corresponding cells from control animals. Also, the Na and Cl concentrations in mmol/kg H2O were significantly higher in villus base cells from infected animals than in those from corresponding controls: 137 +/- 7 versus 38 +/- 4 (Na) and 121 +/- 5 versus 89 +/- 6 (Cl). Wet weight concentrations of other elements were either the same (Mg) or lower (P, S, and K) after infection with virus

  10. X-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: A new concept of diarrhoeal secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, A.J.; Osborne, M.P.; Haddon, S.J.; Collins, J.; Starkey, W.G.; Candy, D.C.; Stephen, J. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))

    1990-05-01

    Neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus (epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus) and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (PI). Cytoplasmic concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. In villus tip cells, Ca concentration increased at 24-96 h PI; Na concentration increased at 24-72 h PI; Ca and Na concentrations were near normal by 168 h PI. K concentration decreased 24-72 h PI, and Cl concentration decreased 48-96 h PI. In crypt cells, changes were observed without a discernible pattern: at 96 h PI, Na, Mg, S, and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased; at 120 h PI, the concentrations of all elements except Na and Ca increased. In villus base cells, the mean concentrations of all elements except Ca peaked at 48-72 h PI and at 120 h PI. Na and Cl concentrations increased dramatically in some cells from 48 h PI onward. All the above concentration values were obtained from freeze-dried specimens and expressed in millimoles per kilogram of dry weight. Conversion of a limited number of data, pertaining to villus base cells, from dry weight to wet weight was possible. This conversion revealed that villus base cells in infected animals were more hydrated than corresponding cells from control animals. Also, the Na and Cl concentrations in mmol/kg H2O were significantly higher in villus base cells from infected animals than in those from corresponding controls: 137 +/- 7 versus 38 +/- 4 (Na) and 121 +/- 5 versus 89 +/- 6 (Cl). Wet weight concentrations of other elements were either the same (Mg) or lower (P, S, and K) after infection with virus.

  11. Two-dimensional gel proteome reference map of human small intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canzonieri Vincenzo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The small intestine is an important human organ that plays a central role in many physiological functions including digestion, absorption, secretion and defense. Duodenal pathologies include, for instance, the ulcer associated to Helicobacter Pylori infection, adenoma and, in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease. Alterations in the bowel reduce its capability to absorb nutrients, minerals and fat-soluble vitamins. Anemia and osteopenia or osteoporosis may develop as a consequence of vitamins malabsorption. Adenoma is a benign tumor that has the potential to become cancerous. Adult celiac disease patients present an overall risk of cancer that is almost twice than that found in the general population. These disease processes are not completely known. To date, a two dimensional (2D reference map of proteins expressed in human duodenal tissue is not yet available: the aim of our study was to characterize the 2D protein map, and to identify proteins of duodenal mucosa of adult individuals without duodenal illness, to create a protein database. This approach, may be useful for comparing similar protein samples in different laboratories and for the molecular characterization of intestinal pathologies without recurring to the use of surgical material. Results The enrolled population comprised five selected samples (3 males and 2 females, aged 19 to 42, taken from 20 adult subjects, on their first visit at the gastroenterology unit for a suspected celiac disease, who did not turn to be affected by any duodenal pathology after gastrointestinal and histological evaluations. Proteins extracted from the five duodenal mucosal specimens were singly separated by 2D gel electrophoresis. After image analysis of each 2D gel, 179 protein spots, representing 145 unique proteins, from 218 spots tested, were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF ms analysis. Normalized volumes, for each protein, have been reported for every gel

  12. Taurolidine-citrate-heparin lock reduces catheter-related bloodstream infections in intestinal failure patients dependent on home parenteral support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribler, Siri; Brandt, Christopher F.; Petersen, Anne H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In patients with intestinal failure who are receiving home parenteral support (HPS), catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) inflict health impairment and high costs.Objective: This study investigates the efficacy and safety of the antimicrobial catheter lock solution, taurol...

  13. Effect of Enterococcus faecium EF 55 on morphometry and proliferative activity of intestinal mucosa in broilers infected with Salmonella Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševčíková Zuzana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Enterococcus faecium EF55 on chickens, as well as its influence on proliferative activity of epithelial intestinal cells after infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type 4 (SE PT4. Moreover, the length and area of duodenal and jejunal villi of the birds were examined.

  14. Development of a vivo rabbit ligated intestinal Loop Model for HCMV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jin; Wu, Qiaoxing; Tang, Xinming; Shi, Ruihan; Suo, Jingxia; Huang, Guangping; An, Junqing; Wang, Jingyuan; Yang, Jinling; Hao, Wenzhuo; She, Ruiping; Suo, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can be found throughout the body, especially in epithelial tissue. Animal model was established by inoculation of HCMV (strain AD-169) or coinoculation with Hepatitis E virus (HEV) into the ligated sacculus rotundus and vermiform appendix in living rabbits. The specimens were collected from animals sacrificed 1 and a half hours after infection. Results The virus was found to be capable of reproducing in these specimens through RT-PCR and West...

  15. A Refined Culture System for Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Epithelial Organoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Takahashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gut epithelial organoids are routinely used to investigate intestinal biology; however, current culture methods are not amenable to genetic manipulation, and it is difficult to generate sufficient numbers for high-throughput studies. Here, we present an improved culture system of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC-derived intestinal organoids involving four methodological advances. (1 We adopted a lentiviral vector to readily establish and optimize conditioned medium for human intestinal organoid culture. (2 We obtained intestinal organoids from human iPSCs more efficiently by supplementing WNT3A and fibroblast growth factor 2 to induce differentiation into definitive endoderm. (3 Using 2D culture, followed by re-establishment of organoids, we achieved an efficient transduction of exogenous genes in organoids. (4 We investigated suspension organoid culture without scaffolds for easier harvesting and assays. These techniques enable us to develop, maintain, and expand intestinal organoids readily and quickly at low cost, facilitating high-throughput screening of pathogenic factors and candidate treatments for gastrointestinal diseases.

  16. Smoking cessation alters intestinal microbiota: insights from quantitative investigations on human fecal samples using FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Luc; Brülisauer, Karin; Zeitz, Jonas; Frei, Pascal; Scharl, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R; Fried, Michael; Loessner, Martin J; Rogler, Gerhard; Schuppler, Markus

    2014-09-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in investigations on the potential mechanistic role of the intestinal microbiota in various diseases and factors modulating intestinal microbial composition. We recently reported on intestinal microbial shifts after smoking cessation in humans. In this study, we aimed to conduct further microbial analyses and verify our previous results obtained by pyrosequencing using a direct quantitative microbial approach. Stool samples of healthy smoking human subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation during a 9-week observational period were analyzed and compared with 2 control groups, ongoing smoking and nonsmoking subjects. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to quantify specific bacterial groups. Intestinal microbiota composition was substantially altered after smoking cessation as characterized by an increase in key representatives from the phyla of Firmicutes (Clostridium coccoides, Eubacterium rectale, and Clostridium leptum subgroup) and Actinobacteria (HGC bacteria and Bifidobacteria) as well as a decrease in Bacteroidetes (Prevotella spp. and Bacteroides spp.) and Proteobacteria (β- and γ-subgroup of Proteobacteria). As determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization, an independent direct quantitative microbial approach, we could confirm that intestinal microbiota composition in humans is influenced by smoking. The characteristics of observed microbial shifts suggest a potential mechanistic association to alterations in body weight subsequent to smoking cessation. More importantly, regarding previously described microbial hallmarks of dysbiosis in inflammatory bowel diseases, a variety of observed microbial alterations after smoking cessation deserve further consideration in view of the divergent effect of smoking on the clinical course of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  17. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Waiz, M.; Al-Saadi, Rabab N.; Al-Saadi, Zahida A.; Al-Rawi, Faiza A.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to investigate a group of Iraqi woman with proved genital vulval warts, to seek evidence of human papillomavirus infection in apparently normal looking cervixes and to investigate the natural history of infection. From December 1997 to August 1998, 20 women with vulval warts were enrolled along with 20 aged-matched control cases without warts. Their ages ranged between 19-48 years with a mean of 30.4 years, (+/- standard deviation = 2.3) for patients and 18-48 years with a mean of 29.7 (+/- standard deviation = 2.7) for the control group. General and gynecological examinations were carried out. Cervical swabs for associated genital infection, papilloma smears, speculoscopy and directed punch biopsies were carried out to detect subclinical human papillomavirus infections of the cervix and associated intraepithelial neoplasm. Cytology results showed that 11 (55%) of patients had evidence of cervical infection by human papillomavirus, 6 (30%) showed mild dysplastic changes, 3 (15%) showed moderate dysplastic changes, whilst 2 (10%) showed no dysplastic changes. Speculoscopy and acetowhitening was positive in 11 (55%) and collated histological results showed evidence of human papillomavirus infection in 9 patients (45%). As for the control group one case (5%) had evidence of human papillomavirus infection. Subclinical human papillomavirus infection is more common than was previously thought among Iraqi women. It may appear alone or in association with vulval or exophytic cervical warts, or both, and may be more common than the clinically obvious disease. Speculoscopy as an adjunctive method to colposcopy was found to be a simple and an easy to perform technique. Its combination with cytology gave relatively good results when it was used as a triage instrument, and may have a more promising performance in the future. (author)

  18. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH HUMAN HERPESVIRUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8): Distribution of infection in Kaposi's sarcoma risk groups and evidence of sexual transmission. Nat Med 1996; 2: 918-924. 14. Kedes OH, Ganem 0, Ameli N, Bacchetti p. Greenblatt R The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated hepesvirus) among ...

  19. Factors Associated with High Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoan Infections among Patients in Sana'a City, Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, Naelah A.; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Mahmud, Rohela; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intestinal protozoan diseases in Yemen are a significant health problem with prevalence ranging from 18% to 27%. The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen. Methodology/Principal Findings Stool samples were collected from 503 patients aged between 1 and 80 years old; 219 were males and 284 females. Biodata were collected via pretested standard questionnaire. Faecal samples were processed and examined for (oo)cysts or ova using a wet mount preparation after formal-ether concentration technique. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 30.9%. Infection rates of Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium were 17.7%, 17.1% and 1%, respectively. Other parasites detected included Ascaris lumbricoides (2.4%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.3%), Hymenolepis nana (1.4%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%). Multivariate analysis using forward stepwise logistic regression based on intestinal protozoan infections showed that contact with animals (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.168–2.617) and taking bath less than twice a week (OR = 1.820, 95% CI = 1.192–2.779) were significant risk factors of protozoan infections. Conclusions/Significance This present study indicated that intestinal protozoan infections are still a public health problem in Yemen, with Giardia and Entamoeba infections being most common. Statistical analysis indicated that low personal hygiene and contact with animals were important predictors for intestinal protozoan infections. As highlighted in this study, in order to effectively reduce these infections, a multi-sectoral effort is needed. Preventive measures should include good hygienic practices, good animal husbandry practices, heightened

  20. Imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets infected by porcine circovirus type 2 during the fetal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yu; Li, Jin Jun; Liu, Yuan; Dong, Wei; Pang, Pei; Deng, Zhi Bang

    2017-03-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2- (PCV2-) associated reproductive disorders and enteritis have commonly been observed on PCV2-contaminated pig farms in recent years. In order to investigate disorders of intestinal immunity in piglets infected by PCV2 during the fetal period, 9 PCV2b-infected piglets and 6 non-infected piglets at one day of age were selected and euthanised prior to suckling. Samples of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and duodena were collected to investigate factors related to intestinal immunity and to detect lymphocytic apoptosis. The results indicated that there were no significant changes in the levels of IL-2, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in the PCV2b-infected piglets but IFN-γ levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01) and IL-4 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in infected piglets than in the controls. Furthermore, lymphocytic apoptosis increased in PCV2b-infected piglets and CD4+ to CD8+ ratios were lower in these piglets than in the controls. These findings suggest vertical transmission of PCV2b to fetuses, leading to an imbalance of intestinal immune function in piglets.

  1. Intestinal Microbiota Distinguish Gout Patients from Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhuang; Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhanli; Ang, Kay Ying; Huang, Shi; Hou, Qiangchuan; Su, Xiaoquan; Qiao, Jianmin; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Lifeng; Koh, Eileen; Danliang, Ho; Xu, Jian; Lee, Yuan Kun; Zhang, Heping

    2016-01-01

    Current blood-based approach for gout diagnosis can be of low sensitivity and hysteretic. Here via a 68-member cohort of 33 healthy and 35 diseased individuals, we reported that the intestinal microbiota of gout patients are highly distinct from healthy individuals in both organismal and functional structures. In gout, Bacteroides caccae and Bacteroides xylanisolvens are enriched yet Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum depleted. The established reference microbial gene catalogue for gout revealed disorder in purine degradation and butyric acid biosynthesis in gout patients. In an additional 15-member validation-group, a diagnosis model via 17 gout-associated bacteria reached 88.9% accuracy, higher than the blood-uric-acid based approach. Intestinal microbiota of gout are more similar to those of type-2 diabetes than to liver cirrhosis, whereas depletion of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and reduced butyrate biosynthesis are shared in each of the metabolic syndromes. Thus the Microbial Index of Gout was proposed as a novel, sensitive and non-invasive strategy for diagnosing gout via fecal microbiota. PMID:26852926

  2. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Hao, Haihong; Cheng, Guyue; Liu, Chunbei; Ahmed, Saeed; Shabbir, Muhammad A B; Hussain, Hafiz I; Dai, Menghong; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w.) were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus , Bacillus , Burkholderia , Pseudomonas , Rhizobium , and Acinetobacter ) and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus ) and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium ) were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group. Overall

  3. Microbial Shifts in the Intestinal Microbiota of Salmonella Infected Chickens in Response to Enrofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones (FQs are important antibiotics used for treatment of Salmonella infection in poultry in many countries. However, oral administration of fluoroquinolones may affect the composition and abundance of a number of bacterial taxa in the chicken intestine. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the microbial shifts in the gut of Salmonella infected chickens in response to enrofloxacin treatments at different dosages (0, 0.1, 4, and 100 mg/kg b.w. were quantitatively evaluated. The results showed that the shedding levels of Salmonella were significantly reduced in the high dosage group as demonstrated by both the culturing method and 16S rRNA sequencing method. The average values of diversity indices were higher in the control group than in the three medicated groups. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS analysis results showed that the microbial community of high dosage group was clearly separated from the other three groups. In total, 25 genera were significantly enriched (including 6 abundant genera: Lactococcus, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Acinetobacter and 23 genera were significantly reduced in the medicated groups than in the control group for the treatment period, but these bacterial taxa recovered to normal levels after therapy withdrawal. Additionally, 5 genera were significantly reduced in both treatment and withdrawal periods (e.g., Blautia and Anaerotruncus and 23 genera (e.g., Enterobacter and Clostridium were significantly decreased only in the withdrawal period, indicating that these genera might be the potential targets for the fluoroquinolones antimicrobial effects. Specially, Enterococcus was significantly reduced under high dosage of enrofloxacin treatment, while significantly enriched in the withdrawal period, which was presumably due to the resistance selection. Predicted microbial functions associated with genetic information processing were significantly decreased in the high dosage group

  4. Bile Salt Micelles and Phospholipid Vesicles Present in Simulated and Human Intestinal Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvang, Philipp A; Hinna, Askell H; Brouwers, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about colloidal assemblies present in human intestinal fluids (HIFs), such as bile salt micelles and phospholipid vesicles, is regarded of importance for a better understanding of the in vivo dissolution and absorption behavior of poorly soluble drugs (Biopharmaceutics Classification...... System class II/IV drugs) because of their drug-solubilizing ability. The characterization of these potential drug-solubilizing compartments is a prerequisite for further studies of the mechanistic interplays between drug molecules and colloidal structures within HIFs. The aim of the present study...... and HIF indicate that the simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF-V1 and FeSSIF-V1) represent rather simplified models of the real human intestinal environment in terms of coexisting colloidal particles. It is hypothesized that the different supramolecular assemblies detected differ in their lipid composition...

  5. EVALUATION OF THE ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE OF HIV INFECTED CHILDREN BY TRANSMISSION AND SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Araujo Chaves LEITE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To describe HIV children's small intestinal ultrastructural findings. Methods Descriptive, observational study of small intestine biopsies performed between August 1994 and May 1995 at São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This material pertained to 11 HIV infected children and was stored in a laboratory in paraffin blocks. Scanning and transmission electronic microscopy were used to view those intestine samples and ultrastructural findings were described by analyzing digitalized photos of this material. Ethical Committee approval was obtained. Results In most samples scanning microscopy showed various degrees of shortening and decreasing number of microvilli and also completes effacements in some areas. Derangement of the enterocytes was seen frequently and sometimes cells well defined borders limits seemed to be loosened. In some areas a mucous-fibrin like membrane with variable thickness and extension appeared to partially or totally coat the epithelial surface. Fat drops were present in the intestinal lumen in various samples and a bacterium morphologically resembling bacilli was seen in two occasions. Scanning microscopy confirmed transmission microscopy microvilli findings and also showed little “tufts” of those structures. In addition, it showed an increased number of vacuoles and multivesicular bodies inside various enterocytes, an increased presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes, mitochondrial vacuolization and basement membrane enlargement in the majority of samples analyzed. However, some samples exhibited normal aspect. Conclusions Our study showed the common occurrence of various important intestinal ultrastructural alterations with variable degrees among HIV infected children, some of them in our knowledge not described before.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and risk factors among schoolchildren at the University of Gondar Community School, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaw, Aschalew; Anagaw, Belay; Nigussie, Bethel; Silesh, Betrearon; Yirga, Atnad; Alem, Meseret; Endris, Mengistu; Gelaw, Baye

    2013-04-05

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and limited access to clean water. Indeed, epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections in different localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren. This school-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at the University of Gondar Community School from April 2012 to June 2012. Study subjects were selected using a systematic random sampling method. Data were gathered through direct interview by using a pretested questionnaire. The collected stool specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, cysts and trophozoites of intestinal parasites using direct saline smear and formol-ether concentration methods. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Out of 304 study subjects, 104 (34.2%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate was 43 (32.1%) for male and 61 (35.9%) for female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high in age group of 10-12 years compared to other age groups. The predominant intestinal parasite was Hymenolepis nana, followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Ascaris lumbricoides with 42 (13.8%), 28 (9.2%), 18 (5.9%), respectively. Hand washing practice and ways of transportation were statistically associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Children in grades 1 to 3 had a higher prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection than those in grades 4 to 8 (p = 0.031). Intestinal parasites were prevalent in varying magnitude among the schoolchildren. The prevalence of infections were higher for helminths compared to protozoa. Measures including education on personal

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin HEMMATI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods.Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38. Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7–33.0. The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite, Chilomastix mesnilii, and Enterobius vermicularis. Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii. E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections.Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population. 

  8. Intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of children attending primary schools in Wakiso District, Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwanga, Francis; Francis, Lwanga; Kirunda, Barbara Eva; Orach, Christopher Garimoi

    2012-08-01

    A cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections and nutritional status of primary school children was conducted in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. A total of 432 primary school children aged 6-14 years were randomly selected from 23 schools. Anthropometric measurements of weight, height, MUAC were undertaken and analyzed using AnthroPlus software. Stool samples were examined using a Kato-Katz method. The prevalence of stunting, underweight and moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was 22.5%, 5.3% and 18.5% respectively. Males had a threefold risk of being underweight (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.17-9.4, p = 0.011) and 2 fold risk of suffering from MAM (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.21-3.48, p = 0.004). Children aged 10-14 years had a 2.9 fold risk of stunting (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.37-6.16, p = 0.002) and 1.9 risk of MAM (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.07-3.44, p = 0.019). Attending urban slum schools had 1.7 fold risk of stunting (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.03-2.75, p = 0.027). Rural schools presented a twofold risk of helminth infection (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.12-3.32, p = 0.012). The prevalence of helminth infections was (10.9%), (3.1%), (1.9%), (0.2%) for hookworm, Trichuriatrichiura, Schistosomamansoni and Ascarislumbricoides, respectively. The study revealed that 26.6%, 46% and 10.3% of incidences of stunting, underweight and MAM respectively were attributable to helminth infections.

  9. Role of the employment status and education of mothers in the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Mexican rural schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagan Paul

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are a public health problem in developing countries such as Mexico. As a result, two governmental programmes have been implemented: a "National Deworming Campaign" and b "Opportunities" aimed at maternal care. However, both programmes are developed separately and their impact is still unknown. We independently investigated whether a variety of socio-economic factors, including maternal education and employment levels, were associated with intestinal parasite infection in rural school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 rural communities in two Mexican states. The study sites and populations were selected on the basis of the following traits: a presence of activities by the national administration of albendazole, b high rates of intestinal parasitism, c little access to medical examination, and d a population having less than 2,500 inhabitants. A total of 507 schoolchildren (mean age 8.2 years were recruited and 1,521 stool samples collected (3 per child. Socio-economic information was obtained by an oral questionnaire. Regression modelling was used to determine the association of socio-economic indicators and intestinal parasitism. Results More than half of the schoolchildren showed poliparasitism (52% and protozoan infections (65%. The prevalence of helminth infections was higher in children from Oaxaca (53% than in those from Sinaloa (33% (p Giardia duodenalis and Hymenolepis nana showed a high prevalence in both states. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar showed low prevalence. Children from lower-income families and with unemployed and less educated mothers showed higher risk of intestinal parasitism (odds ratio (OR 6.0, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.6–22.6; OR 4.5, 95% CI 2.5–8.2; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–7.4 respectively. Defecation in open areas was also a high risk factor for infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 2.0–3

  10. Activation of AMPK inhibits cholera toxin stimulated chloride secretion in human and murine intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailín C Rogers

    Full Text Available Increased intestinal chloride secretion through chloride channels, such as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, is one of the major molecular mechanisms underlying enterotoxigenic diarrhea. It has been demonstrated in the past that the intracellular energy sensing kinase, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, can inhibit CFTR opening. We hypothesized that pharmacological activation of AMPK can abrogate the increased chloride flux through CFTR occurring during cholera toxin (CTX mediated diarrhea. Chloride efflux was measured in isolated rat colonic crypts using real-time fluorescence imaging. AICAR and metformin were used to activate AMPK in the presence of the secretagogues CTX or forskolin (FSK. In order to substantiate our findings on the whole tissue level, short-circuit current (SCC was monitored in human and murine colonic mucosa using Ussing chambers. Furthermore, fluid accumulation was measured in excised intestinal loops. CTX and forskolin (FSK significantly increased chloride efflux in isolated colonic crypts. The increase in chloride efflux could be offset by using the AMPK activators AICAR and metformin. In human and mouse mucosal sheets, CTX and FSK increased SCC. AICAR and metformin inhibited the secretagogue induced rise in SCC, thereby confirming the findings made in isolated crypts. Moreover, AICAR decreased CTX stimulated fluid accumulation in excised intestinal segments. The present study suggests that pharmacological activation of AMPK effectively reduces CTX mediated increases in intestinal chloride secretion, which is a key factor for intestinal water accumulation. AMPK activators may therefore represent a supplemental treatment strategy for acute diarrheal illness.

  11. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Bereket; Tomass, Zewdneh; Wadilo, Fiseha; Leja, Dawit; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2017-06-20

    Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449). Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%), E. vermicularis (2.8%), Taenia species (2.6%), T. trichiura (1.2%) and H. nana (0.6%). Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th week post-exposure. The present study found high

  12. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthiasis among school children with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni infection in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bereket Alemayehu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal helminth infections are major parasitic diseases causing public health problems in Ethiopia. Although the epidemiology of these infections are well documented in Ethiopia, new transmission foci for schistosomiasis are being reported in different parts of the country. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal helminth infections among school children and determine the endemicity of schistosomiasis in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. Methods Cross-sectional parasitological and malacological surveys were conducted by collecting stool samples for microscopic examination and snails for intermediate host identification. Stool samples were collected from 503 children and processed for microscopic examination using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration methods. Snails collected from aquatic environments in the study area were identified to species level and Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails, the intermediate host of S. mansoni,, were individually exposed to artificial light in order to induce cercariae shedding. Cercariae shed from snails were used to infect laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice in order to identify the schistosome to species level. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72.2% among school children. S. mansoni infection prevalence was 58.6%. The prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infections varied among schools and sex of children. Swimming was the only factor reported to be significantly associated with S. mansoni infection (AOR = 2.954, 95% CI:1.962-4.449. Other intestinal helminth species identified were hookworms (27.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (8.7%, E. vermicularis (2.8%, Taenia species (2.6%, T. trichiura (1.2% and H. nana (0.6%. Only B. pfeifferi snails collected from streams shed schistosome cercariae and 792 adult S. mansoni worms were harvested from mice exposed to cercariae shed from B. pfeifferi on the 6th

  13. First human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Ana; Masiá, Mar; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2015-02-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  15. Microbial Eco-Physiology of the human intestinal tract: a flow cytometric approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amor, Ben K.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a multifaceted approach to further enhance our view of the complex human intestinal microbial ecosystem. This approach combines me advantages of flow cyrometry (FCM), a single cell and high-throughput technology, and molecular techniques that have proven themselves to be

  16. In Silico Prediction for Intestinal Absorption and Brain Penetration of Chemical Pesticides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedik, Lisa; Mias-Lucquin, Dominique; Bruyere, Arnaud; Fardel, Olivier

    2017-06-30

    Intestinal absorption and brain permeation constitute key parameters of toxicokinetics for pesticides, conditioning their toxicity, including neurotoxicity. However, they remain poorly characterized in humans. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate human intestine and brain permeation for a large set of pesticides ( n = 338) belonging to various chemical classes, using an in silico graphical BOILED-Egg/SwissADME online method based on lipophilicity and polarity that was initially developed for drugs. A high percentage of the pesticides (81.4%) was predicted to exhibit high intestinal absorption, with a high accuracy (96%), whereas a lower, but substantial, percentage (38.5%) displayed brain permeation. Among the pesticide classes, organochlorines ( n = 30) constitute the class with the lowest percentage of intestine-permeant members (40%), whereas that of the organophosphorus compounds ( n = 99) has the lowest percentage of brain-permeant chemicals (9%). The predictions of the permeations for the pesticides were additionally shown to be significantly associated with various molecular descriptors well-known to discriminate between permeant and non-permeant drugs. Overall, our in silico data suggest that human exposure to pesticides through the oral way is likely to result in an intake of these dietary contaminants for most of them and brain permeation for some of them, thus supporting the idea that they have toxic effects on human health, including neurotoxic effects.

  17. Associations between common intestinal parasites and bacteria in humans as revealed by qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Brien Andersen, L.; Karim, A. B.; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have shown associations between groups of intestinal bacterial or specific ratios between bacterial groups and various disease traits. Meanwhile, little is known about interactions and associations between eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms in the human gut. In this work, we...

  18. The predominant cholecystokinin in human plasma and intestine is cholecystokinin-33

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Sun, G; Christensen, T

    2001-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined by chromato......Cholecystokinin (CCK) occurs in multiple molecular forms; the major ones are CCK-58, -33, -22, and -8. Their relative abundance in human plasma and intestine, however, is debated. To settle the issue, extracts of intestinal biopsies and plasma from 10 human subjects have been examined...... by chromatography, enzyme cleavages, and measurements using a library of sequence-specific RIAs. Plasma samples were drawn in the fasting state and at intervals after a meal. The abundance of the larger forms varied with the 8 C-terminal assays in the library, as 2 assays overestimated and 3 underestimated...... the amounts present. One assay, however, measured carboxyamidated and O:-sulfated CCKs with equimolar potency before and after tryptic cleavage. This assay showed that the predominant plasma form is CCK-33, both in the fasting state ( approximately 51%) and postprandially ( approximately 57%), whereas CCK-22...

  19. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  20. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  1. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  2. High prevalence of diarrhoegenic intestinal parasite infections among non-ART HIV patients in Fitche Hospital, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haileeyesus Adamu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has been modifying both the epidemiology and outcome of parasite infections. Hence, this study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasite infections among HIV positives with and without Antiretroviral Treatment(ART and its association with CD4+ T-cell count. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Fitche hospital focusing on HIV positives who came to hospital for follow-ups. A total of 378 HIV positive persons with and without ART participated in the study. Data on socio-demographic factors and diarrhoea status were obtained by interviewing all 214 with ART and 164 without ART. Stool samples were collected from all patients and examined for intestinal parasites using direct, formol-ether and modified acid-fast staining techniques. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in this study was significantly higher among HIV positive persons not on ART. Specifically, the rate of infection with Cryptosporidium species, Blastocystis spp., Giardia lamblia, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were higher, particularly in those with CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200 cells/µL. Fifty seven percent of the study participants were on ART. Out of these 164/378 (43% of the non-ART study participants were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. Significant association was observed between lower CD4+ T-cell count (<200 cells/µL and the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Blastocystis spp. The two parasites were significantly more prevalent in HIV positive non-ART patients. CONCLUSION: HIV infection increased the risk of having Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive's immune status and screening for intestinal parasites is important. This study showed that patients who are taking ART had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea causing parasites and Cryptosporidium suggesting that ART through

  3. Peptide inhibition of human cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Cindy A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection in the United States and Europe causing significant morbidity and mortality to both mother and child. HCMV is also an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected patients with AIDS, and solid organ and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Current treatments for HCMV-associated diseases are insufficient due to the emergence of drug-induced resistance and cytotoxicity, necessitating novel approaches to limit HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic peptides targeting glycoprotein B (gB, a major glycoprotein of HCMV that is highly conserved across the Herpesviridae family, that specifically inhibit fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane preventing HCMV entry and infection. Results Using the Wimley-White Interfacial Hydrophobicity Scale (WWIHS, several regions within gB were identified that display a high potential to interact with lipid bilayers of cell membranes and hydrophobic surfaces within proteins. The ability of synthetic peptides analogous to WWIHS-positive sequences of HCMV gB to inhibit viral infectivity was evaluated. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF were infected with the Towne-GFP strain of HCMV (0.5 MOI, preincubated with peptides at a range of concentrations (78 nm to 100 μM, and GFP-positive cells were visualized 48 hours post-infection by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed quantitatively by flow cytometry. Peptides that inhibited HCMV infection demonstrated different inhibitory concentration curves indicating that each peptide possesses distinct biophysical properties. Peptide 174-200 showed 80% inhibition of viral infection at a concentration of 100 μM, and 51% and 62% inhibition at concentrations of 5 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. Peptide 233-263 inhibited infection by 97% and 92% at concentrations of 100

  4. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  5. IL-2 receptor γ-chain molecule is critical for intestinal T-cell reconstitution in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, P W; Nochi, T; Lim, A; Krisko, J F; Martinez-Torres, F; Choudhary, S K; Wahl, A; Olesen, R; Zou, W; Di Santo, J P; Margolis, D M; Garcia, J V

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal immune cells are important in host defense, yet the determinants for human lymphoid homeostasis in the intestines are poorly understood. In contrast, lymphoid homeostasis has been studied extensively in mice, where the requirement for a functional common γ-chain molecule has been established. We hypothesized that humanized mice could offer insights into human intestinal lymphoid homeostasis if generated in a strain with an intact mouse common γ-chain molecule. To address this hypothesis, we used three mouse strains (non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe-combined immunodeficient (SCID) (N/S); NOD/SCID γ-chain(-/-) (NSG); and Rag2(-/-) γ-chain(-/-) (DKO)) and two humanization techniques (bone marrow liver thymus (BLT) and human CD34(+) cell bone marrow transplant of newborn mice (hu)) to generate four common types of humanized mice: N/S-BLT, NSG-BLT, NSG-hu, and DKO-hu mice. The highest levels of intestinal human T cells throughout the small and large intestines were observed in N/S-BLT mice, which have an intact common γ-chain molecule. Furthermore, the small intestine lamina propria T-cell populations of N/S-BLT mice exhibit a human intestine-specific surface phenotype. Thus, the extensive intestinal immune reconstitution of N/S-BLT mice was both quantitatively and qualitatively better when compared with the other models tested such that N/S-BLT mice are well suited for the analysis of human intestinal lymphocyte trafficking and human-specific diseases affecting the intestines.

  6. Complete sequences of glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1989-01-01

    intestine of the proglucagon precursor were determined by pairs of basic amino acid residues flanking the two peptides. Earlier studies have shown that synthetic glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) synthesized according to the proposed structure (proglucagon 71-108 or because residue 108 is Gly, 72-107 amide......) had no physiological effects, whereas a truncated from of GLP-1, corresponding to proglucagon 78-107 amide, strongly stimulated insulin secretion and depressed glucagon secretion. To determine the amino acid sequence of the naturally occurring peptide we isolated GLP-1 from human small intestine...

  7. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  8. Human Intestinal Cells Modulate Conjugational Transfer of Multidrug Resistance Plasmids between Clinical Escherichia coli Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Sommer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial conjugation in the human gut microbiota is believed to play a major role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence plasmids. However, the modulation of bacterial conjugation by the human host remains poorly understood and there is a need for controlled systems...... to study this process. We established an in vitro co-culture system to study the interaction between human intestinal cells and bacteria. We show that the conjugation efficiency of a plasmid encoding an extended spectrum beta-lactamase is reduced when clinical isolates of Escherichia coli are co...... of the intestinal cells exposed to bacteria leading to a two-fold reduction in conjugation efficiency. These results show that human gut epithelial cells can modulate bacterial conjugation and may have relevance to gene exchange in the gut....

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; El Safadi, Dima; Cian, Amandine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as unidentified

  10. Chronic Trichuris muris infection decreases diversity of the intestinal microbiota and concomitantly increases the abundance of lactobacilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Sorobetea, Daniel; Kiilerich, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is vital for shaping the local intestinal environment as well as host immunity and metabolism. At the same time, epidemiological and experimental evidence suggest an important role for parasitic worm infections in maintaining the inflammatory and regulatory balance...... of the Lactobacillus genus. In parallel, chronic T. muris infection resulted in a significant shift in the balance between regulatory and inflammatory T cells in the intestinal adaptive immune system, in favour of inflammatory cells. Together, these data demonstrate that chronic parasite infection strongly influences...

  11. Transformation of trollioside and isoquercetin by human intestinal flora in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Shi, Duo-Zhi; Wang, Teng-Yu; Zheng, Shi-Qi; Liu, Li-Jia; Sun, Zhen-Xiao; Wang, Ru-Feng; Ding, Yi

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to determine the intestinal bacterial metabolites of trollioside and isoquercetin and their antibacterial activities. A systematic in vitro biotransformation investigation on trollioside and isoquercetin, including metabolite identification, metabolic pathway deduction, and time course, was accomplished using a human intestinal bacterial model. The metabolites were analyzed and identified by HPLC and HPLC-MS. The antibacterial activities of trollioside, isoquercetin, and their metabolites were evaluated using the broth microdilution method with berberine as a positive control, and their potency was measured as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Our results indicated that trollioside and isoquercetin were metabolized by human intestinal flora through O-deglycosylation, yielding aglycones proglobeflowery acid and quercetin, respectively The antibacterial activities of both metabolites were more potent than that of their parent compounds. In conclusion, trollioside and isoquercetin are totally and rapidly transformed by human intestinal bacteria in vitro and the transformation favors the improvement of the antibacterial activities of the parent compounds. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative quantification of human intestinal bacteria based on cPCR and LDR/LCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhou-Rui; Li, Kai; Zhou, Yu-Xun; Xiao, Zhen-Xian; Xiao, Jun-Hua; Huang, Rui; Gu, Guo-Hao

    2012-01-21

    To establish a multiple detection method based on comparative polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and ligase detection reaction (LDR)/ligase chain reaction (LCR) to quantify the intestinal bacterial components. Comparative quantification of 16S rDNAs from different intestinal bacterial components was used to quantify multiple intestinal bacteria. The 16S rDNAs of different bacteria were amplified simultaneously by cPCR. The LDR/LCR was examined to actualize the genotyping and quantification. Two beneficial (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus) and three conditionally pathogenic bacteria (Enterococcus, Enterobacterium and Eubacterium) were used in this detection. With cloned standard bacterial 16S rDNAs, standard curves were prepared to validate the quantitative relations between the ratio of original concentrations of two templates and the ratio of the fluorescence signals of their final ligation products. The internal controls were added to monitor the whole detection flow. The quantity ratio between two bacteria was tested. cPCR and LDR revealed obvious linear correlations with standard DNAs, but cPCR and LCR did not. In the sample test, the distributions of the quantity ratio between each two bacterial species were obtained. There were significant differences among these distributions in the total samples. But these distributions of quantity ratio of each two bacteria remained stable among groups divided by age or sex. The detection method in this study can be used to conduct multiple intestinal bacteria genotyping and quantification, and to monitor the human intestinal health status as well.

  13. Prevalence of and risk factors for malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasites as single infections or co-infections in different settlements of Gabon, Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'bondoukwé, Noé Patrick; Kendjo, Eric; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Koumba Lengongo, Jeanne Vanessa; Offouga Mbouoronde, Christelle; Nkoghe, Dieudonné; Touré, Fousseyni; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine

    2018-01-30

    Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections. Intestinal parasitic infections (61.1%), including intestinal protozoa (56.7%) and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) (22.2%), predominated, whereas Plasmodium falciparum (18.8%), Loa loa (4.7%), and Mansonella perstans (1.1%) were less prevalent. Filariasis and STHs were mainly found in rural settlements, whereas a higher plasmodial infection prevalence rate was observed in the periurban area. The most common IPI was blastocystosis (48.6%), followed by ascaridiasis (13.7%), trichuriasis (11.8%), amoebiasis (9.3%), giardiasis (4.8%), and strongyloidiasis (3.7%). Hookworm was detected in one adult from rural Dienga. Adults had a higher prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and STHs, whereas Giardia duodenalis was more frequently observed among children aged below 5 years (P < 0.01). The polyparasitism rate was 41.5%, with 7.0% Plasmodium-IPIs and 1.8% Plasmodium-STH co-infections. The multivariate analysis showed that living in a suburban area, belonging to the age group of 5-15 years, having none or a secondary education, or having an open body water close to home were significant risk factors for malaria (P ≤ 0.01). For STH infections, identified risk factors were drinking untreated water and living in a rural area (P ≤ 0.04). No significant predictors were identified for IPIs and malaria-IPI co-infection. This study reports a high prevalence of IPIs and intestinal protozoa, but a low rate of malaria-IPI co-infections in the study sites

  14. The transcriptome of HIV-1 infected intestinal CD4+ T cells exposed to enteric bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson C Yoder

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a

  15. Oral absorption of peptides and nanoparticles across the human intestine: Opportunities, limitations and studies in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, P; Artursson, P

    2016-11-15

    In this contribution, we review the molecular and physiological barriers to oral delivery of peptides and nanoparticles. We discuss the opportunities and predictivity of various in vitro systems with special emphasis on human intestine in Ussing chambers. First, the molecular constraints to peptide absorption are discussed. Then the physiological barriers to peptide delivery are examined. These include the gastric and intestinal environment, the mucus barrier, tight junctions between epithelial cells, the enterocytes of the intestinal epithelium, and the subepithelial tissue. Recent data from human proteome studies are used to provide information about the protein expression profiles of the different physiological barriers to peptide and nanoparticle absorption. Strategies that have been employed to increase peptide absorption across each of the barriers are discussed. Special consideration is given to attempts at utilizing endogenous transcytotic pathways. To reliably translate in vitro data on peptide or nanoparticle permeability to the in vivo situation in a human subject, the in vitro experimental system needs to realistically capture the central aspects of the mentioned barriers. Therefore, characteristics of common in vitro cell culture systems are discussed and compared to those of human intestinal tissues. Attempts to use the cell and tissue models for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Human papilomavirus infection in couples. A discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Lysenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian literature, insufficient attention is given to the study of the flow of human papillomavirus infection in couples. The aim of the study was to establish the frequency of infection with oncogenic HPV types and clinical manifestations of human papillomavirus infection in regular sexual partners. Surveyed 38 couples who are regular sexual partners in the past three years and denying unauthorized sex. PVI revealed at 70.9 per cent of women who had contact with an infected partner and 79.8 per cent of men. The average age for first sexual intercourse in women was 18.2 years, men - 16.7 years. 80% of men before marriage had more than 5 sexual partners. In 37 of 38 pairs of HPV types of high oncogenic risk coincide. The most frequently detected HPV type 16, are a few less - HPV 51, 31 and 39. Clinical manifestation of HPV infection among sexual partners of the 38 couples not identified, subclinical form of infection in women and men after colposcopy and peniscopy were found with equal frequency (18.4% and (15,8%, respectively. The descriptions of peniscopy in men with HPV of high oncogenic risk was done.

  17. Intestinal colonization of broiler chickens by Campylobacter spp. in an experimental infection study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Vigre, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of poultry meat is considered as one of the main sources of human campylobacteriosis, and there is clearly a need for new surveillance and control measures based on quantitative data on Campylobacter spp. colonization dynamics in broiler chickens. We conducted four experimental...... infection trials, using four isolators during each infection trial to evaluate colonization of individual broiler chickens by Campylobacter jejuni over time. Individual and pooled faecal samples were obtained at days 4, 7 and 12 post-inoculation (p.i.) and caecal samples at day 12 p.i. There were large...

  18. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assoumou Aka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%. Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003. The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the

  19. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Sylvain G; Odermatt, Peter; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Utzinger, Jürg; Aka, N'da D; Adoubryn, Koffi D; Assoumou, Aka; Dreyfuss, Gilles; Koussémon, Marina

    2011-06-03

    Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and Entamoeba coli was the most

  20. [Frequency of intestinal microsporidian infections in HIV-positive patients, as diagnosis by quick hot Gram chromotrope staining and PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Jorge H; Montoya, Martha Nelly; Vanegas, Adriana Lucía; Díaz, Abel; Navarro-i-Martínez, Luis; Bornay, Fernando Jorge; Izquierdo, Fernando; del Aguila, Carmen; Agudelo, Sonia del Pilar

    2004-12-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites, today mainly associated with diarrhea in AIDS patients. Microsporidia prevalence ranges from 8% to 52% in different countries, as evaluated by several diagnostic methods, such as the stain test and PCR. In Medellín, Colombia, its frequency is unknown, and hence, a study was undertaken to determine the frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV patients, by means of the quick-hot Gram chromotrope test and the PCR. A prospective and descriptive study of an intentional population of all HIV-positive patients was sent to the Grupo Interdisciplinario para el Estudio de las Parasitosis Intestinales laboratory by institutions treating the HIV-positive patients of Medellín between August 2001 and September 2002. The clinical-epidemiological survey included a serial stool test with direct concentration and special stains for coccidiae and intestinal microsporidia. In addition, counts of lymphocytes TCD4+ and viral load were requested. One hundred and three patients with ages ranging from 2-74 years were evaluated. Seventy percent presented with diarrhea--mostly in men (83.5%). The overall frequency of intestinal microsporidiosis was 3.9% and that of other intestinal parasitic infections was 39.8%. Three of the four patients positive for microsporida were infected with Enterocytozoon bieneusi and one with Encephalitozoon intestinalis. The microsporidiosis frequency was relatively low with 3 of the 4 cases associated with protracted diarrhea, counts of LTCD4+ below 100 cel/microl and viral loads up to 100,000 copies.

  1. Heterophysiasis, an intestinal fluke infection of man and vertebrates transmitted by euryhaline gastropods and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraschewski, H.

    1984-03-01

    Heterophyes heterophyes, agent of human heterophyiasis in the Near East, is transmitted in marine lagoons and saline inland waters, where the euryhaline intermediate hosts are abundant. In Egypt, mullets, the predominant second intermediate hosts, are customarily consumed raw; thus man becomes infected easily. Symptoms of human infections are usually considered mild. Mullets do not seem to be affected by the metacercariae encysted in the muscles, whereas the growth of the snail host Pirenella conica was found to be enhanced due to the infestation by the trematodes. In laboratory experiments, the flukes were found to be well developed in dogs, foxes and cats, but failed to reach sexual maturity in several other potentially piscivorous mammals and birds. In nature, dogs probably serve as the major reservoir hosts. Heterophyiasis is most prevalent in the Nile Delta, a huge brackish water area which is densely populated by humans and, consequently, also by dogs and cats. In the Far East, besides Heterophyes nocens, several other heterophysids with marine or fresh-water life-cycles are known to infect humans.

  2. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission...... of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity...... of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two...

  3. Diversity of halophilic archaea in fermented foods and human intestines and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung

    2013-12-01

    Archaea are prokaryotic organisms distinct from bacteria in the structural and molecular biological sense, and these microorganisms are known to thrive mostly at extreme environments. In particular, most studies on halophilic archaea have been focused on environmental and ecological researches. However, new species of halophilic archaea are being isolated and identified from high salt-fermented foods consumed by humans, and it has been found that various types of halophilic archaea exist in food products by culture-independent molecular biological methods. In addition, even if the numbers are not quite high, DNAs of various halophilic archaea are being detected in human intestines and much interest is given to their possible roles. This review aims to summarize the types and characteristics of halophilic archaea reported to be present in foods and human intestines and to discuss their application as well.

  4. Human Intestinal Fluid Layer Separation: The Effect On Colloidal Structures & Solubility Of Lipophilic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny, Riethorst; Amitava, Mitra; Filippos, Kesisoglou; Wei, Xu; Jan, Tack; Joachim, Brouwers; Patrick, Augustijns

    2018-05-23

    In addition to individual intestinal fluid components, colloidal structures are responsible for enhancing the solubility of lipophilic compounds. The present study investigated the link between as well as the variability in the ultrastructure of fed state human intestinal fluids (FeHIF) and their solubilizing capacity for lipophilic compounds. For this purpose, FeHIF samples from 10 healthy volunteers with known composition and ultrastructure were used to determine the solubility of four lipophilic compounds. In light of the focus on solubility and ultrastructure, the study carefully considered the methodology of solubility determination in relation to colloid composition and solubilizing capacity of FeHIF. To determine the solubilizing capacity of human and simulated intestinal fluids, the samples were saturated with the compound of interest, shaken for 24 h, and centrifuged. When using FeHIF, solubilities were determined in the micellar layer of FeHIF, i.e. after removing the upper (lipid) layer (standard procedure), as well as in 'full' FeHIF (without removal of the upper layer). Compound concentrations were determined using HPLC-UV/fluorescence. To link the solubilizing capacity with the ultrastructure, all human and simulated fluids were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) before and after centrifugation and top layer (lipid) removal. Comparing the ultrastructure and solubilizing capacity of individual FeHIF samples demonstrated a high intersubject variability in postprandial intestinal conditions. Imaging of FeHIF after removal of the upper layer clearly showed that only micellar structures remain in the lower layer. This observation suggests that larger colloids such as vesicles and lipid droplets are contained in the upper, lipid layer. The solubilizing capacity of most FeHIF samples substantially increased with inclusion of this lipid layer. The relative increase in solubilizing capacity upon inclusion of the lipid layer was most pronounced

  5. Naturally occurring glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) receptors in human intestinal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Anette; Hastrup, Sven; Andersen, Marie; Thim, Lars

    2006-02-17

    Although clinical trials with GLP-2 receptor agonists are currently ongoing, the mechanisms behind GLP-2-induced intestinal epithelial growth remain to be understood. To approach the GLP-2 mechanism of action this study aimed to identify intestinal cell lines endogenously expressing the GLP-2 receptor. Here we report the first identification of a cell line endogenously expressing functional GLP-2 receptors. The human intestinal epithelial cell line, FHC, expressed GLP-2 receptor encoding mRNA (RT-PCR) and GLP-2 receptor protein (Western blot). In cultured FHC cells, GLP-2 induced concentration dependent cAMP accumulation (pEC(50)=9.7+/-0.04 (mean+/-S.E.M., n=4)). In addition, a naturally occurring human intestinal fibroblast cell line, 18Co, endogenously expressing GLP-2 receptor encoding mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) was identified. No receptor functionality (binding or G-protein signalling) could be demonstrated in 18Co cells. The identified gut-relevant cell lines provide tools for future clarification of the mechanisms underlying GLP-2-induced epithelial growth.

  6. Current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and their impact on hematological and nutritional status among Karen hill tribe children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Nachaiwieng, Woottichai; Duangmano, Suwit; Prasannarong, Mujalin; Somboon, Pradya; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2018-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic infection represents a substantial problem for children living in rural or limited resources areas and significantly relates to anemia and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the current prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and assess the impact of intestinal parasitic infection on hematological and nutritional status in those children. A total of 375 Karen hill tribe children, 6-14 years of age, in Omkoi District were randomly selected to participate in this study. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasitic infection through formalin-ether concentration method. Blood samples were collected for hematological and iron analysis. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 47.7% (179/375), with single infections (29.3%) and polyparatism (18.4%). The most common pathogenic parasite was Trichuris trichiura (16.0%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (13%) and Giardia lamblia (3.5%). In addition, non-pathogenic amoeba, Entamoeba coli was observed with a high prevalence rate (31.2%). Anemia and eosinophilia prevalence were 6.40% (24/375) and 74.7% (280/375), respectively. Eosinophilia was significantly more prevalent in children with intestinal parasitic infection compared to uninfected children. Among 249 children, 13.7% were iron deficiency, 9.6% were thalassemia and hemoglobinophathy and 8% were G-6-PD deficiency. A high prevalence infection rate was significantly associated with eosinophilia, but independently related to anemia and iron deficiency. Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic in school-age children of Karen hill tribe population in Omkoi District. These data highlight the need for an integrated approach to control transmission of intestinal parasites and improve the health and sanitation status of Karen hill tribe children in Thailand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  7. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, H. van; Swam, I. van; Wels, M.W.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  8. Congruent Strain Specific Intestinal Persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an Intestine-Mimicking In Vitro System and in Human Volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Swam, van I.; Wels, M.; Bron, P.A.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An important trait of probiotics is their capability to reach their intestinal target sites alive to optimally exert their beneficial effects. Assessment of this trait in intestine-mimicking in vitro model systems has revealed differential survival of individual strains of a species.

  9. Differentiation-dependent activation of the human intestinal alkaline phosphatase promoter by HNF-4 in intestinal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Bressendorff, Simon; Troelsen, Jesper T

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene (ALPI) encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme, which is highly upregulated during small intestinal epithelial cell differentiation. To identify new putative promoter motifs responsible for the regulation of ALPI expression during differentiation of the en...

  10. Expression of acyl-CoA synthetase 5 reflects the state of villus architecture in human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gassler, Nikolaus; Kopitz, Jürgen; Tehrani, Arman

    2004-01-01

    Several disorders of the small intestine are associated with disturbances in villus architecture. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the differentiation of villi represents an important step in the improvement of the understanding of small intestinal pathology......-CoA synthetase 5 pattern correlate with conversion of intestinal epithelial cells to a gastric phenotype. These results suggest that deranged acyl-CoA synthetase 5 expression, synthesis, and activity are closely related to the state of villus architecture and epithelial homeostasis in human small intestine....

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  12. Intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic diseases Parasitosis intestinales, cisticercosis e hidatidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Botero

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper offers an up to date review of the intestinal parasitic infections, cysticercosis and hydatic disease found In Colombia. Their main epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic features are presented, to provide the reader with a current view of their public health Importance, prevalence and impact on morbidity and mortality.

    Se presenta una revisión actualizada sobre las parasitosis intestinales, la cisticercosis y la hidatidosis en Colombia, con una breve descripción de la prevalencia, las características epidemiológicas, los efectos sobre la salud y algunos aspectos de control y tratamiento. Con esta revisión se busca tener información resumida sobre las parasitosis que se encuentran en Colombia y su mayor o menor Importancia en salud pública. TambIén se pretende ofrecer una Idea del nivel de gravedad de estas entidades como causas de morbilidad y mortalidad en este país. 

  13. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Kim, Nayoung; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-03-15

    Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori , AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori -positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori -negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body.

  14. Associations among Gastric Juice pH, Atrophic Gastritis, Intestinal Metaplasia and Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jihee; Lee, Jongchan; Hwang, Young-Jae; Kim, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Jung Wha; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastric juice plays a crucial role in the physiology of the stomach. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations among the pH of gastric juice, atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), pepsinogen, and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods Gastric biopsies and juice were collected from 46 subjects who underwent endoscopies at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between November 2011 and March 2013. H. pylori, AG and IM were evaluated, and pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and interleukin (IL)-1β levels were measured. Results The mean pH of gastric juice was higher in the H. pylori-positive group (n=17) than that in the H. pylori-negative group (n=29) (4.54 vs 2.46, p=0.002). When patients were divided into pH <3 (n=28) and pH ≥3 (n=18) groups, H. pylori was lower in the pH <3 group (21.4%) than in the pH ≥3 group (61.1%) (p=0.007). The pH ≥3 group demonstrated AG and IM more frequently than the pH <3 group in the body (p=0.047 and p=0.051, respectively) but not in the antrum. There were no differences in pepsinogen I or II, I/II ratio, and IL-1β levels between the two groups. Conclusions There is a relationship between chronic H. pylori infection and gastric juice pH ≥3, which may originate from AG and IM in the body. PMID:28918609

  15. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogert, van den B.; Boekhorst, te J.; Herrmann, R.; Smid, E.J.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus

  16. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia P; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management.

  17. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... isolated from different anatomical compartments, including the myocardium, but, until now, it has not been possible to demonstrate the accompanying histopathological signs of inflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine if saffold virus is capable of causing invasive infection in the human...... myocardium. STUDY DESIGN: Using real-time PCR, we retrospectively examined formalin-fixed paraffin embedded cardiac tissue specimens from 150 deceased individuals diagnosed with myocarditis at autopsy. The results were compared with histological findings. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Saffold virus was detected...

  18. Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood : Factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function

    OpenAIRE

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea in childhood: factors determining recovery and the relationship of systemic infections with intestinal function Zulfiqar A. Bhutta Nutritional rehabilitation of persistent diarrhea (PD), a major killer of children in the third world, poses an enormous challenge. We validated the efficacy of a traditional local weaning diet based on rice-lentils (Khitchri) and yogurt (K-Y diet) for nutritional rehabilitation of PD. ...

  19. Effect of pea and faba bean fractions on net fluid absorption in ETEC-infected small intestinal segements of weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Jansman, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    After weaning piglets frequently have diarrhoea associated with an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Alternative plant protein sources such as peas, faba beans and lupins may contribute in preventing gastrointestinal problems. In the small intestinal segment perfusion model, the

  20. Extensive diversity of intestinal trichomonads of non-human primates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkalová, P.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Pomajbíková, K.; Modrý, David; Čepička, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 139, č. 1 (2012), s. 92-102 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : trichomonads * Parabasalia * non-human primates * diversity * host specificity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2012

  1. Intestinal parasitic infections in children presenting with diarrhoea in outpatient and inpatient settings in an informal settlement of Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbae, Cecilia Kathure; Nokes, David James; Mulinge, Erastus; Nyambura, Joyce; Waruru, Anthony; Kariuki, Samuel

    2013-05-27

    The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as urban slums in tropical sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross sectional study, children aged 5 years and below who presented with diarrhoea were recruited from selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlement, and from Mbagathi District hospital, Nairobi, over a period of two years (2010-2011). Stool samples were examined for the presence of parasites using direct, formal-ether concentration method and the Modified Ziehl Neelsen staining technique. Overall, 541/2112 (25.6%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being; Entamoeba histolytica, 225 (36.7%),Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%), Giardia lamblia, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 432/1577(27.4%) than among those admitted in hospital 109/535 (20.1%) p informal settlements' environment. Routine examinations of stool samples and treatment could benefit both the HIV infected and uninfected children in outpatient and inpatient settings.

  2. A Multi-Omic View of Host-Pathogen-Commensal Interplay in Salmonella-Mediated Intestinal Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Brooke LD; Li, Jie; Sanford, James A.; Kim, Young-Mo; Kronewitter, Scott R.; Jones, Marcus B.; Peterson, Christine; Peterson, Scott N.; Frank, Bryan C.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Brown, Joseph N.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2013-06-26

    The potential for commensal microorganisms indigenous to a host (the ‘microbiome’ or ‘microbiota’) to alter infection outcome by influencing host-pathogen interplay is largely unknown. We used a multi-omics “systems” approach, incorporating proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, and metagenomics, to explore the molecular interplay between the murine host, the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), and commensal gut microorganisms during intestinal infection with S. Typhimurium. We find proteomic evidence that S. Typhimurium thrives within the infected 129/SvJ mouse gut without antibiotic pre-treatment, inducing inflammation and disrupting the intestinal microbiome (e.g., suppressing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes while promoting growth of Salmonella and Enterococcus). Alteration of the host microbiome population structure was highly correlated with gut environmental changes, including the accumulation of metabolites normally consumed by commensal microbiota. Finally, the less characterized phase of S. Typhimurium’s lifecycle was investigated, and both proteomic and glycomic evidence suggests S. Typhimurium may take advantage of increased fucose moieties to metabolize fucose while growing in the gut. The application of multiple omics measurements to Salmonella-induced intestinal inflammation provides insights into complex molecular strategies employed during pathogenesis between host, pathogen, and the microbiome.

  3. Intestinal mucosal mast cells from rats infected with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis contain protease-resistant chondroitin sulfate di-B proteoglycans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.L.; Lee, T.D.G.; Seldin, D.C.; Austen, K.F.; Befus, A.D.; Bienenstock, J.

    1986-01-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Nippostrongylus brasiliensis were injected i.p. with 2 mCi of [ 35 S] sulfate on days 13, 15, 17, and 19 after infection. The intestines were removed from animals on day 20 or 21 after infection, the intestinal cells were obtained by collagenase treatment and mechanical dispersion of the tissue, and the 35 S-labeled mucosal mast cells (MMC) were enriched to 60 to 65% purity by Percoll centrifugation. The isolated proteoglycans were of approx. 150,000 m.w., were resistant to pronase degradation, and contained highly sulfated chondroitin sulfate side chains. The presence in normal mammalian cells of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that contain a high percentage of the unusual disulfated di-B disaccharide has not been previously reported. The rat intestinal MMC proteoglycans are the first chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans that have been isolated from an enriched populations of normal mast cells. They are homologous to the chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans of the transformed rat basophilic leumekia-1 cell and the cultured interleukin 3-dependent mouse bone marrow-derived mast cell, in that these chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are all highly sulfated, protease-resistant proteoglycans

  4. Similarity of hydrolyzing activity of human and rat small intestinal disaccharidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oku T

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsuneyuki Oku¹, Kenichi Tanabe¹, Shigeharu Ogawa², Naoki Sadamori¹, Sadako Nakamura¹¹Graduate School of Human Health Science, University of Nagasaki, Siebold, Nagayo, Japan; ²Juzenkai Hospital, Kagomachi, Nagasaki, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to clarify whether it is possible to extrapolate results from studies of the hydrolyzing activity of disaccharidases from rats to humans.Materials and methods: We measured disaccharidase activity in humans and rats using identical preparation and assay methods, and investigated the similarity in hydrolyzing activity. Small intestinal samples without malignancy were donated by five patients who had undergone bladder tumor surgery, and homogenates were prepared to measure disaccharidase activity. Adult rat homogenates were prepared using small intestine.Results: Maltase activity was the highest among the five disaccharidases, followed by sucrase and then palatinase in humans and rats. Trehalase activity was slightly lower than that of palatinase in humans and was similar to that of sucrase in rats. Lactase activity was the lowest in humans, but was similar to that of palatinase in rats. Thus, the hydrolyzing activity of five disaccharidases was generally similar in humans and rats. The relative activity of sucrose and palatinase versus maltase was generally similar between humans and rats. The ratio of rat to human hydrolyzing activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase was 1.9–3.1, but this was not a significant difference. Leaf extract from Morus alba strongly inhibited the activity of maltase, sucrase, and palatinase, but not trehalase and lactase, and the degree of inhibition was similar in humans and rats. L-arabinose mildly inhibited sucrase activity, but hardly inhibited the activity of maltase, palatinase, trehalase and lactase in humans and rats. The digestibility of 1-kestose, galactosylsucrose, and panose by small intestinal enzymes was very similar between humans and

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among schoolchildren in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Shrestha, Akina; Grissoum, Tarnagda; Kaboré, Aminata; Schindler, Christian; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-10-18

    Unsafe drinking water, unimproved sanitation and lack of hygiene pose health risks, particularly to children in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections in school-aged children in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in February 2015 with 385 children aged 8-14 years from eight randomly selected schools in the Plateau Central and Centre-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. Stool samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and a formalin-ether concentration method for the diagnosis of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Urine samples were examined with a urine filtration technique for Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Water samples from community sources (n = 37), children's households (n = 95) and children's drinking water cups (n = 113) were analysed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. Data on individual and family-level risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to determine factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren. Intestinal parasitic infections were highly prevalent; 84.7 % of the children harboured intestinal protozoa, while helminth infections were diagnosed in 10.7 % of the children. We found significantly lower odds of pathogenic intestinal protozoa infection (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis) among children from the Plateau Central, compared to the Centre-Ouest region (P parasitic infections in children. Intestinal protozoa but not helminths were highly prevalent among schoolchildren in randomly selected schools in two regions of Burkina Faso. Our findings call for specific public health measures tailored to school-aged children and rural communities in this part of Burkina Faso. It will be interesting to assess the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions on the

  6. Intestinal mass in a one year old child: An unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Aragon, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyloidiasis is a common disease in the world. In children, the worldwide prevalence rates ranged from 0.6% to 5.3% [1]. In Colombia studies report a prevalence of 1.3% in children, although it may be higher [2]. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. However, on rare occasions the infection can cause duodenal obstruction, pyloric hypertrophy and colonic mass. This article reports the first case of a toddler who presented with a mass in the cecum as a manifestation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection, which required surgical resection as it was initially believed to be a Burkitt lymphoma.

  7. Hydrolysis of pyrethroids by human and rat tissues: Examination of intestinal, liver and serum carboxylesterases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, J. Allen; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2007-01-01

    Hydrolytic metabolism of pyrethroid insecticides in humans is one of the major catabolic pathways that clear these compounds from the body. Rodent models are often used to determine the disposition and clearance rates of these esterified compounds. In this study the distribution and activities of esterases that catalyze pyrethroid metabolism have been investigated in vitro using several human and rat tissues, including small intestine, liver and serum. The major esterase in human intestine is carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2). We found that the pyrethroid trans-permethrin is effectively hydrolyzed by a sample of pooled human intestinal microsomes (5 individuals), while deltamethrin and bioresmethrin are not. This result correlates well with the substrate specificity of recombinant hCE2 enzyme. In contrast, a sample of pooled rat intestinal microsomes (5 animals) hydrolyze trans-permethrin 4.5-fold slower than the sample of human intestinal microsomes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that pooled samples of cytosol from human or rat liver are ∼ 2-fold less hydrolytically active (normalized per mg protein) than the corresponding microsomal fraction toward pyrethroid substrates; however, the cytosolic fractions do have significant amounts (∼ 40%) of the total esteratic activity. Moreover, a 6-fold interindividual variation in carboxylesterase 1 protein expression in human hepatic cytosols was observed. Human serum was shown to lack pyrethroid hydrolytic activity, but rat serum has hydrolytic activity that is attributed to a single CE isozyme. We purified the serum CE enzyme to homogeneity to determine its contribution to pyrethroid metabolism in the rat. Both trans-permethrin and bioresmethrin were effectively cleaved by this serum CE, but deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, alpha-cypermethrin and cis-permethrin were slowly hydrolyzed. Lastly, two model lipase enzymes were examined for their ability to hydrolyze pyrethroids. However, no hydrolysis products could be detected

  8. The Impact of Cooperative Social Organization on Reducing the Prevalence of Malaria and Intestinal Parasite Infections in Awramba, a Rural Community in South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Yihenew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Parasitic diseases are the major causes of human health problem in Ethiopia. The high prevalence of parasitic infections is closely correlated with poverty, poor environmental hygiene, and impoverished health services. Objective. The study was conducted to assess the impact of health-conscious Awramba cooperative community and its neighboring communities on the prevalence of parasitic infections in South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods. Single stool specimens were collected from 392 individuals from Awramba and the neighboring communities. Specimens were examined microscopically for the presence of parasites using microscopy. Questionnaire was administered to determine the knowledge attitude and practice (KAP of study participants. Results. Of the total 392 study participants examined, 58(14.8% were positive for malaria and 173 (44.1% for intestinal parasites. The prevalence of malaria in Awramba community (5.1% was less than that in neighboring communities (24.5%. The prevalence of parasitic infections in Awramba (18.8% was less than that of the neighboring communities (69.4%. Conclusion. This study showed that good household and environmental hygiene, good toilet construction and usage, and proper utilization of ITN in Awramba cooperative community have significantly contributed to the reduction of the burden of parasitic infections. Thus, the positive achievement in reducing parasitic infections in Awramba cooperative community could be used as a model for affordable health intervention in the neighboring communities, in particular, and the whole country in general.

  9. Biorelevant media resistant co-culture model mimicking permeability of human intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Delphine; Pellequer, Yann; Tempesta, Camille; Lorscheidt, Stefan; Kettel, Bernadette; Tamaddon, Lana; Jannin, Vincent; Demarne, Frédéric; Lamprecht, Alf; Béduneau, Arnaud

    2015-03-15

    Cell culture models are currently used to predict absorption pattern of new compounds and formulations in the human gastro-intestinal tract (GIT). One major drawback is the lack of relevant apical incubation fluids allowing mimicking luminal conditions in the GIT. Here, we suggest a culture model compatible with biorelevant media, namely Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FaSSIF) and Fed State Simulated Intestinal Fluid (FeSSIF). Co-culture was set up from Caco-2 and mucus-secreting HT29-MTX cells using an original seeding procedure. Viability and cytotoxicity assays were performed following incubation of FeSSIF and FaSSIF with co-culture. Influence of biorelevant fluids on paracellular permeability or transporter proteins were also evaluated. Results were compared with Caco-2 and HT29-MTX monocultures. While Caco-2 viability was strongly affected with FeSSIF, no toxic effect was detected for the co-cultures in terms of viability and lactate dehydrogenase release. The addition of FeSSIF to the basolateral compartment of the co-culture induced cytotoxic effects which suggested the apical mucus barrier being cell protective. In contrast to FeSSIF, FaSSIF induced a slight increase of the paracellular transport and both tested media inhibited partially the P-gp-mediated efflux in the co-culture. Additionally, the absorptive transport of propranolol hydrochloride, a lipophilic β-blocker, was strongly affected by biorelevant fluids. This study demonstrated the compatibility of the Caco-2/HT29-MTX model with some of the current biorelevant media. Combining biorelevant intestinal fluids with features such as mucus secretion, adjustable paracellular and P-gp mediated transports, is a step forward to more realistic in-vitro models of the human intestine. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Association between the human herpesvirus 8 and the diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small intestine in common variable immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokuina, Elena; Dominguez Alvarez, Carlos; Noa Pedroso, Guillermo; Martinez Rodriguez Pedro Ariel

    2009-01-01

    The common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the more frequent primary immunodeficiency in clinical field and its presentation forms are very variable. We describe the case of a women presenting with adult CVID with chronic diarrhea syndrome, weight loss and diffuse lymphadenopathies, where the more marked immunologic features were a deep hypogammaglobulinemia of the three major kinds of immunoglobulins and numerical decrease of B cells (CD19 +) and NK cells (CD3 -C D56 +) in peripheral blood. Biopsy of small intestine obtained by video-assisted panendoscope, showed the presence of a multinodular lymphoid hyperplasia with partial atrophy of hairinesses. Immunohistochemistry showed that nodules were high germinal centers with distribution of B cells (CD20 +) and T cells (CD3 +) , similar to that of normal follicle. There was not differential expression of the K and λ light chains. The real time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) method detected many copies from the genome of type 8 human herpesvirus (VHH-8) (133 copies/μL of DNA) in biopsy of intestinal nodule DNA. VHH-8 infection may to be a significant factor in pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients presenting with CVID

  11. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  12. Foodborne intestinal protozoan infection and associated factors among patients with watery diarrhea in Northern Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, Birhane; Bugssa, Gessessew; Bayisa, Sena; Alemu, Megbaru

    2018-03-02

    Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections. Hence, the current study was aimed at determining the prevalence of foodborne intestinal protozoa infections and associated factors among diarrheic patients in North Ethiopia. A health facility based cross-sectional study was conducted among 223 patients with watery diarrhea in four selected government health facilities in North Ethiopia from November 2016-June 2017. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demography of study participants and factors associated with foodborne protozoa infections. The diarrheic stool samples were collected, transported, and processed using direct wet mount, formal-ether concentration and modified ZiehlNeelson staining methods. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21 and descriptive statistics, bi-variate, and multivariate logistic regressions were computed. P-value parasite infection .

  13. The use of protein hydrolysate improves the protein intestinal absorption in undernourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutinho Eridan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients residing in endemic areas for schistosomiasis in Brazil are usually undernourished and when they develop the hepatosplenic clinical form of the disease should usually receive hospital care, many of them being in need of nutritional rehabilitation before specific treatment can be undertaken. In the mouse model, investigations carried out in our laboratory detected a reduced aminoacid uptake in undernourished animals which is aggravated by a superimposed infection with Schistosoma mansoni. However, in well-nourished infected mice no dysfunction occurs. In this study, we tried to improve the absorptive intestinal performance of undernourished mice infected with S. mansoni by feeding them with hydrolysed casein instead of whole casein. The values obtained for the coefficient of protein intestinal absorption (cpia among well-nourished mice were above 90% (either hydrolysed or whole protein. In undernourished infected mice, however, the cpia improved significantly after feeding them with hydrolysed casein, animals reaching values close to those obtained in well-nourished infected mice.

  14. Intestinal ameliorative effects of traditional Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava in mice infected with Vibrio cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Olufunke B; Ajayi, Olusola L; Bankole, Samuel O; Popoola, Temitope Os

    2016-06-01

    Cholera, a severe acute watery diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae is endemic in Nigeria with most cases occurring in the rural areas. In South West Nigeria, some individuals resort to alternative treatments such as Ogi-tutu, Psidium guajava and Vernonia amygdalina during infections. The effectiveness of these alternatives in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection requires experimental investigation. This study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of Ogi-tutu, Vernonia amygdalina and Psidium guajava on intestinal histopathology of experimental mice infected with V. cholerae. Preliminary investigation of in vitro vibriocidal activities of these alternatives were carried out using agar cup diffusion assay. For ameliorative effects, adult mice were inoculated with 100 µl (106 cells) of Vibrio cholerae and dosed at 0 h (immediate prevention) and 4 h (treatment of infection) and their intestines were histopathologically evaluated. The histopathological changes were the same irrespective of the treated groups, but the lesions varied in extent and severity. The ameliorative effects in decreasing order were V. amygdalina > P. guajava > Ogi-tutu. V. amygdalina gave the best ameliorative effects in the prevention and treatment of V. cholerae infection.

  15. Diagnosis of edema and inflammation in human intestines using ultrawideband radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.; Messaris, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    Human intestines are vital organs, which are often subjected to chronic issues. In particular, Crohn's disease is a bowel aliment resulting in inflammation along the lining of one's digestive tract. Moreover, such an inflammatory condition causes changes in the thickness of the intestines; and we posit induce changes in the dielectric properties detectable by radar. This detection hinges on the increase in fluid content in the afflicted area, which is described by effective medium approximations (EMA). In this paper, we consider one of the constitutive parameters (i.e. relative permittivity) of different human tissues and introduce a simple numerical, electromagnetic multilayer model. We observe how the increase in water content in one layer can be approximated to predict the effective permittivity of that layer. Moreover, we note trends in how such an accumulation can influence the total effective reflection coefficient of the multiple layers.

  16. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... a continuous basal lamina, caveolae, intermediate filaments, dense bodies, dense bands, and a well-developed subsurface smooth endoplasmic reticulum), but the arrangement of organelles was clearly different, and cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. Interstitial cells of Cajal were......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  17. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang van Tong

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity.

  18. Recognition of a 30,000 MW antigen of Giardia muris trophozoites by intestinal IgA from Giardia-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, M F; Pappo, J

    1990-08-01

    The principal aims of this work were (i) to identify the molecular weight (MW) of Giardia muris trophozoite antigens that are recognized by IgA in small intestinal secretions from G. muris-infected mice, and (ii) to determine whether mouse intestinal Giardia-specific IgA is directed against trophozoite surfaces. BALB/c mice were infected with G. muris cysts, and intestinal secretions were harvested from these mice at various times after the start of Giardia infection, and from uninfected mice. Flow cytometry showed that intestinal IgA from G. muris-infected mice, but not from uninfected mice, became bound to trophozoite surfaces in vitro. Western blotting of trophozoite proteins with mouse intestinal secretions showed that IgA from Giardia-infected mice reacted specifically with a broad protein band of approximately 30,000 MW. This finding suggests that one or more trophozoite proteins of approximately 30,000 MW are targets for intestinal antibody in mice infected with G. muris.

  19. Intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ante-natal care (ANC) in East Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna

    2017-09-05

    Ethiopia is a developing country where intestinal helminthic infections are major public health problems. The burden of intestinal parasites, particularly the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), is often very high in school children and pregnant women. Anemia, associated with STH, is a major factor in women's health, especially during pregnancy; it is an important contributor to maternal mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection and anemia among pregnant women attending ANC in East Wollega Zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five health centers of East Wollega Zone of Oromia Region, Ethiopia between November 2015 and January 2016. The health centers were selected randomly and study participants were enrolled consecutively with proportions from all the health centers. Stool and blood specimens were processed using standard operating procedures in accordance with structured questionnaires. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between predictors and outcome variables. P values less than 0.05 were taken as significant levels. Results were presented in tables and figures. A total of 372 pregnant women were enrolled in this study with a median age of 25 years (range 17-40 years). The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was 24.7% (92/372) with the predominance of Hookworm (15.1%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.5%). Illiteracy [AOR, 95% CI 2.21 (1.3, 4.8), P = 0.042], absence of latrine [AOR, 95% CI 4.62 (1.7, 8.3), P = 0.013] and regular consumption of raw and/or unwashed fruit [AOR, 95% CI 3.30 (1.2, 6.3), P = 0.011] were significant predictors of intestinal helminthic infection. The overall prevalence of anemia was 17.5% (65/372) where mild anemia accounts for 80% of the total anemia. Anemia was significantly associated with the first trimester of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.82 (1.3, 6.2), P = 0.009], previous malaria infection [AOR, 95% CI 2.32 (1

  20. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples.

  1. Autoradiographic quantification of vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites in sections from human blood mononuclear cell pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkind, J.S.; Kurihara, M.; Castren, E.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic methods were utilized to characterize specific, high-affinity vasoactive intestinal peptide binding sites (Kd = 310 +/- 60 pmol/L; Bmax = 93 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein) in frozen sections obtained from a mononuclear cell pellet derived from 20 ml of human blood. The method is at least one order of magnitude more sensitive than conventional membrane binding techniques, and it has the potential for wide applications in studies of neuropeptide, biogenic amine, and drug binding in clinical samples

  2. Consensus hologram QSAR modeling for the prediction of human intestinal absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Tiago L; Andricopulo, Adriano D

    2012-04-15

    Consistent in silico models for ADME properties are useful tools in early drug discovery. Here, we report the hologram QSAR modeling of human intestinal absorption using a dataset of 638 compounds with experimental data associated. The final validated models are consistent and robust for the consensus prediction of this important pharmacokinetic property and are suitable for virtual screening applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  4. PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed KIANI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs, their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs was 32.2% (419/1,301. Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6% were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6% presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%, followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%, Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3% and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%. Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001, contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02, age above 15 years (p = 0.001 and seasons (p = 0.001 were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001 and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04. Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii oral infection induces intestinal inflammation and retinochoroiditis in mice genetically selected for immune oral tolerance resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Ramos Furtado Dias

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS or resistance (TR to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection Induces Intestinal Inflammation and Retinochoroiditis in Mice Genetically Selected for Immune Oral Tolerance Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis. PMID:25437299

  7. Primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers respond differently to a hazardous and an innocuous protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, A D; Zimmermann, C; Delaney, B; Hurley, B P

    2017-08-01

    An experimental platform employing human derived intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line monolayers grown on permeable Transwell ® filters was previously investigated to differentiate between hazardous and innocuous proteins. This approach was effective at distinguishing these types of proteins and perturbation of monolayer integrity, particularly transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), was the most sensitive indicator. In the current report, in vitro indicators of monolayer integrity, cytotoxicity, and inflammation were evaluated using primary (non-transformed) human polarized small intestinal epithelial barriers cultured on Transwell ® filters to compare effects of a hazardous protein (Clostridium difficile Toxin A [ToxA]) and an innocuous protein (bovine serum albumin [BSA]). ToxA exerted a reproducible decrease on barrier integrity at doses comparable to those producing effects observed from cell line-derived IEC monolayers, with TEER being the most sensitive indicator. In contrast, BSA, tested at concentrations substantially higher than ToxA, did not cause changes in any of the tested variables. These results demonstrate a similarity in response to certain proteins between cell line-derived polarized IEC models and a primary human polarized small intestinal epithelial barrier model, thereby reinforcing the potential usefulness of cell line-derived polarized IECs as a valid experimental platform to differentiate between hazardous and non-hazardous proteins. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Children in the Day Care Centers of Gonbad-e Kavus County, North-Eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mesgarian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasite infection is one of the major health problems in the world especially in the developing countries. Objectives: This study was an attempt to examine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infection in the day care centers in Gonbad-e Kavus. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 932 children were recruited from 45 day care centers in Gonbad-e Kavus in Iran, through a survey and their stool samples were examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration and Trichrome staining techniques. Also, scotch tape slides were microscopically analyzed. Data were analyzed using percentage, frequency and Chi-square test using SPSS ver.16. Odds Ratio was used show the effect size of socio-demographic variables on the rate of intestinal parasite infection. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasite infections among the children was 26.6%. This study found a significant relationship between the children age, parent education and the place of residency with the rate of intestinal parasite infection (P < 0.05. The children in rural areas were 1.55 times more likely than the children in urban areas to be infected with intestinal parasites (OR = 1.55. Moreover, the results of this study showed that an increase in parent’s education for one level decreased the risk of infection in their children by 6% (OR = 0.94. Also, with a rise in the age of participants for a year, the risk of infection increased by 44% (OR = 1.44. Conclusions: Due to the high rate of intestinal parasite infections among children, parents and child care workers need to learn about the various means by which parasites can be transmitted in day care centers.

  9. Comparative analysis of pyrosequencing and a phylogenetic microarray for exploring microbial community structures in the human distal intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claesson, M.J.; O'Sullivan, O.; Wang, Q.; Nikkilä, J.; Marchesi, J.R.; Smidt, H.; Vos, de W.M.; Ross, R.P.; O'Toole, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variations in the composition of the human intestinal microbiota are linked to diverse health conditions. High-throughput molecular technologies have recently elucidated microbial community structure at much higher resolution than was previously possible. Here we compare two such

  10. The effect of storage time of human red cells on intestinal microcirculatory oxygenation in a rat isovolemic exchange model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raat, N. J.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Mik, E. G.; Gouwerok, C. W.; Verhaar, R.; Goedhart, P. T.; de Korte, D.; Ince, C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the storage time of human leukodepleted red blood cell concentrates compromises intestinal microvascular oxygen concentration oxygen (muPo(2)) during isovolemic exchange transfusion at low hematocrit. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled study. Setting:

  11. The fate of epithelial cells in the human large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, D H; Gibson, P R

    1999-08-01

    One hundred and forty biopsies of the colon and rectum, collected during routine colonoscopies of 51 patients aged 19 to 74 years, were examined using light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that surface epithelial cells undergo apoptosis, passing through fenestrations in the basement membrane to where they enter the lamina propria and are taken up by macrophages; and it is hypothesized that apoptotic cells are carried through the fenestrations on a current of fluid. The study also found that epithelial cells positioned over the crypts are better attached and more robust than those more distant from the crypt opening; and it is further hypothesized that, after reaching the top of the crypts, some goblet cells cease secreting mucus and pass onto the surface compartment of absorptive cells. An unexpected finding was that the lower regions of the crypts commonly contain isolated necrotic colonocytes. Apoptotic cells were rarely observed in the crypt epithelium. The findings of this study support the "recycling" model of epithelial cell death in the surface compartment of the human colon.

  12. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  13. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-07-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly.

  14. Binding of Candida albicans to Human CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 Modulates the Inflammatory Response of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Klaile

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans colonizes human mucosa, including the gastrointestinal tract, as a commensal. In immunocompromised patients, C. albicans can breach the intestinal epithelial barrier and cause fatal invasive infections. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1; CD66a, CEACAM5 (CEA, and CEACAM6 (CD66c are immunomodulatory receptors expressed on human mucosa and are recruited by bacterial and viral pathogens. Here we show for the first time that a fungal pathogen (i.e., C. albicans also binds directly to the extracellular domain of human CEACAM1, CEACAM3, CEACAM5, and CEACAM6. Binding was specific for human CEACAMs and mediated by the N-terminal IgV-like domain. In enterocytic C2BBe1 cells, C. albicans caused a transient tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM1 and induced higher expression of membrane-bound CEACAM1 and soluble CEACAM6. Lack of the CEACAM1 receptor after short hairpin RNA (shRNA knockdown abolished CXCL8 (interleukin-8 secretion by C2BBe1 cells in response to C. albicans. In CEACAM1-competent cells, the addition of recombinant soluble CEACAM6 reduced the C. albicans-induced CXCL8 secretion.

  15. Long chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids attenuate the IL-1?-induced pro-inflammatory response in human fetal intestinal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wijendran, Vasuki; Brenna, JT; Wang, Dong Hao; Zhu, Weishu; Meng, Di; Ganguli, Kriston; Kothapalli, Kumar SD; Requena, Pilar; Innis, Sheila; Walker, WA

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that excessive inflammation of the immature intestine may predispose premature infants to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) in human fetal and adult intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in primary culture. Methods Human fetal IEC in culture were derived from a healthy fetal small intestine (H4) or resected small intestine of a neonate wit...

  16. Comparative Microarray Analysis of Intestinal Lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella Infection in the Chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; Lillehoj, Hyun; Min, Wongi; Kim, Chul Hong; Park, Myeong Seon; Hong, Yeong Ho; Lillehoj, Erik P.

    2011-01-01

    Relative expression levels of immune- and non-immune-related mRNAs in chicken intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes experimentally infected with Eimeria acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella were measured using a 10K cDNA microarray. Based on a cutoff of >2.0-fold differential expression compared with uninfected controls, relatively equal numbers of transcripts were altered by the three Eimeria infections at 1, 2, and 3 days post-primary infection. By contrast, E. tenella elicited the greatest number of altered transcripts at 4, 5, and 6 days post-primary infection, and at all time points following secondary infection. When analyzed on the basis of up- or down-regulated transcript levels over the entire 6 day infection periods, approximately equal numbers of up-regulated transcripts were detected following E. tenella primary (1,469) and secondary (1,459) infections, with a greater number of down-regulated mRNAs following secondary (1,063) vs. primary (890) infection. On the contrary, relatively few mRNA were modulated following primary infection with E. acervulina (35 up, 160 down) or E. maxima (65 up, 148 down) compared with secondary infection (E. acervulina, 1,142 up, 1,289 down; E. maxima, 368 up, 1,349 down). With all three coccidia, biological pathway analysis identified the altered transcripts as belonging to the categories of “Disease and Disorder” and “Physiological System Development and Function”. Sixteen intracellular signaling pathways were identified from the differentially expressed transcripts following Eimeria infection, with the greatest significance observed following E. acervulina infection. Taken together, this new information will expand our understanding of host-pathogen interactions in avian coccidiosis and contribute to the development of novel disease control strategies. PMID:22140460

  17. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmidlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. METHODOLOGY: In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm, and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo

  18. Clinical Efficacy of Dioctahedral Smectite in the Complex Therapy of Acute Intestinal Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Novokshonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the study of clinical effectiveness and impact on intestinal microbiocenosis dioctahedral smectite (Neosmektin® of acute intestinal infectious of bacterial, viral, and mixt etiology. The clinical studies have shown that the additional inclusion in the complex therapy for children this enterosorbent has a pronounced detoxification and antidiarrheal effect, reducing the duration of the acute period of the disease increases sanitize effectiveness of the therapy against pathogens and contributes to the normalization of microbiocenosis intestine.

  19. The Ussing Chamber Assay to Study Drug Metabolism and Transport in the Human Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Beatrice; Mangelsen, Eva; Wingolf, Caroline; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Tannergren, Christer; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus

    2017-06-22

    The Ussing chamber is an old but still powerful technique originally designed to study the vectorial transport of ions through frog skin. This technique is also used to investigate the transport of chemical agents through the intestinal barrier as well as drug metabolism in enterocytes, both of which are key determinants for the bioavailability of orally administered drugs. More contemporary model systems, such as Caco-2 cell monolayers or stably transfected cells, are more limited in their use compared to the Ussing chamber because of differences in expression rates of transporter proteins and/or metabolizing enzymes. While there are limitations to the Ussing chamber assay, the use of human intestinal tissue remains the best laboratory test for characterizing the transport and metabolism of compounds following oral administration. Detailed in this unit is a step-by-step protocol for preparing human intestinal tissue, for designing Ussing chamber experiments, and for analyzing and interpreting the findings. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Correlation between oral drug absorption in humans and apparent drug permeability coefficients in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artursson, P.; Karlsson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Monolayers of a well differentiated human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, were used as a model to study passive drug absorption across the intestinal epithelium. Absorption rate constants (expressed as apparent permeability coefficients) were determined for 20 drugs and peptides with different structural properties. The permeability coefficients ranged from approximately 5 x 10 - 8 to 5 x 10 - 5 cm/s. A good correlation was obtained between data on oral absorption in humans and the results in the Caco-2 model. Drugs that are completely absorbed in humans had permeability coefficients greater than 1 x 10 - 6 cm/s. Drugs that are absorbed to greater than 1% but less than 100% had permeability coefficients of 0.1-1.0 x 10 - 6 cm/s while drugs and peptides that are absorbed to less than 1% had permeability coefficients of less than or equal to 1 x 10 - 7 cm/s. The results indicate that Caco-2 monolayers can be used as a model for studies on intestinal drug absorption

  1. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  2. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans (Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp. and six genera of helminths (Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.. The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349. Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349. The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918 (P < 0.01 and Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region (64.8%, 566/873. Mixed infections were mostly detected for Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  3. Radioprotection of the intestinal crypts of mice by recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.G.; Miyamoto, T.

    1990-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (rHIL-1 alpha or IL-1) protected the intestinal crypt cells of mice against X-ray-induced damage. The survival of crypt cells measured in terms of their ability to form colonies of regenerating duodenal epithelium in situ was increased when IL-1 was given either before or after irradiation. The maximum degree of radioprotection was seen when the drug was given between 13 and 25 h before irradiation. The IL-1 dose producing maximum protection was about 6.3 micrograms/kg. This is the first report indicating that the cytokine IL-1 has a radioprotective effect in the intestine. The finding suggests that IL-1 may be of potential value in preventing radiation injury to the gut in the clinic

  4. Development of microfluidic cell culture devices towards an in vitro human intestinal barrier model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Hsih-Yin

    to enable real-time detection of cell responses, adjustment of cellular stimulation etc. leading to establishment of conditional experiments. In this project, microfluidic systems engineering was leveraged to develop an eight chamber multi-layer microchip for intestinal barrier studies. Sandwiched between...... the layers was a modified Teflon porous membrane for cell culture. The novelty lies in modifying the surface of the porous Teflon support membrane using thiol-ene ‘click’ chemistry, thus allowing the modified Teflon membrane to be bonded between the chip layers to form an enclosed microchip. Successful...... application of the multi-layer microchip was demonstrated by integrating the microchip to an existing cell culture fluidic system to culture the human intestinal epithelial cells, Caco-2, for long term studies. Under the continuous low flow conditions, the cells differentiated into columnar cells displaying...

  5. Optimization of micro-fabricated porous membranes for intestinal epithelial cell culture and in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair Gourikutty Sajay, Bhuvanendran; Yin, Chiam Su; Ramadan, Qasem

    2017-12-01

    In vitro modeling of organs could provide a controlled platform for studying physiological events and has great potential in the field of pharmaceutical development. Here, we describe the characterization of in vitro modeling of the human intestinal barrier mimicked using silicon porous membranes as a substrate. To mimic an intestinal in vivo setup as closely as possible, a porous substrate is required in a dynamic environment for the cells to grow rather than a static setup with an impermeable surface such as a petri dish. In this study, we focus on the detailed characterization of Caco-2 cells cultured on a silicon membrane with different pore sizes as well as the effect of dynamic fluid flow on the model. The porous silicon membrane together with continuous perfusion of liquid applying shear stress on the cells enhances the differentiation of polarized cells by providing access to the both their basal and apical surfaces. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.5-3 µm were used and a shear stress of ~0.03 dyne cm-2 was created by applying a low flow rate of 20 nl s-1. By providing these optimized conditions, cells were able to differentiate with columnar morphology, which developed microvilli structures on their apical side and tight junctions between adjacent cells like those in a healthy human intestinal barrier. In this setup, it is possible to study the important cellular functions of the intestine such as transport, absorption and secretion, and thus this model has great potential in drug screening.

  6. Commensal Streptococcus salivarius Modulates PPARγ Transcriptional Activity in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Couvigny

    Full Text Available The impact of commensal bacteria in eukaryotic transcriptional regulation has increasingly been demonstrated over the last decades. A multitude of studies have shown direct effects of commensal bacteria from local transcriptional activity to systemic impact. The commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius is one of the early bacteria colonizing the oral and gut mucosal surfaces. It has been shown to down-regulate nuclear transcription factor (NF-кB in human intestinal cells, a central regulator of the host mucosal immune system response to the microbiota. In order to evaluate its impact on a further important transcription factor shown to link metabolism and inflammation in the intestine, namely PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, we used human intestinal epithelial cell-lines engineered to monitor PPARγ transcriptional activity in response to a wide range of S. salivarius strains. We demonstrated that different strains from this bacterial group share the property to inhibit PPARγ activation independently of the ligand used. First attempts to identify the nature of the active compounds showed that it is a low-molecular-weight, DNase-, proteases- and heat-resistant metabolite secreted by S. salivarius strains. Among PPARγ-targeted metabolic genes, I-FABP and Angptl4 expression levels were dramatically reduced in intestinal epithelial cells exposed to S. salivarius supernatant. Both gene products modulate lipid accumulation in cells and down-regulating their expression might consequently affect host health. Our study shows that species belonging to the salivarius group of streptococci impact both host inflammatory and metabolic regulation suggesting a possible role in the host homeostasis and health.

  7. The dose-response relation in human volunteers for gastro-intestinal pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunis PFM; Heijden OG van der; Giessen JWB van der; Havelaar AH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    Published data on infection of human hosts with various protozoa, bacteria, and viruses causing gastro-enteritis are used to establish a quantitative relationship between ingested dose and the risk of infection. For all data sets analysed, this relationship is determined by fitting either an

  8. The Mathematical Biology of Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nowak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are constant victims of infectious diseases. Biomedical research during this century has led to important insights into the molecular details of immune defense. Yet, many questions relating to disease require a quantitative understanding of the complex systems that arise from the nonlinear interactions between populations of immune cells and infectious agents. Exploration of such questions has lead to a newly emerging field of mathematical biology describing the spread of infectious agents both within and between infected individuals. This essay will discuss simple and complex models of evolution, and the propagation of virus and prion infections. Such models provide new perspectives for our understanding of infectious disease and provide guidelines for interpreting experimental observation; they also define what needs to be measured to improve understanding.

  9. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  10. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  11. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  12. Human inflammatory bowel disease does not associate with Lawsonia intracellularis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giese Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that bacterial infection of the intestinal mucosa may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD. In pigs, an obligate intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis (LI, was shown to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE of which some forms display histological and clinical similarities to human IBD. Since LI-similar Desulfovibrio spp. may infect human cells, we hypothesized that LI might be associated with the development of human IBD. Results In human intestinal tissue samples, PCR using LLG, 50SL27, LSA and strictly LI-specific 16SII primers, yielded either no amplicons or products with weak homology to human genomic sequences. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed no specificity for LI. However, amplification of DNA with less specific 16SI primers resulted in products bearing homology to certain Streptococcus species. These 16SI-amplified products were present in healthy and diseased specimens, without obvious prevalence. Conclusion LI is not associated with the pathogenesis of UC or CD. Whether an immunologic response to commensal bacteria such as streptococci may contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in IBD, remained to be determined.

  13. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Marcella M A; Verhagen, Lilly M; Hermans, Peter W M; del Nogal, Berenice; Sánchez, Adriana Márquez; Acevedo, Natacha Martinez; Murga, Rosalicia Ramirez; Roelfsema, Jeroen; Pinelli, Elena; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2014-05-29

    While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 - 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 - 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 - 30.5). High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal protozoan infections respectively. Helminth

  14. The Shift of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Innate Immunity-Deficient Mutant rde-1 Strain of C. elegans upon Orsay Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host–virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 (ne219 strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 (ne219 mutant animals. Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by Orsay virus on intestinal microbiota in wildtype and innate immunity-deficient animals using C. elegans as the model species. Our findings indicate that virus infection may alters the microbiome in animals with defective immune response.

  15. The Shift of the Intestinal Microbiome in the Innate Immunity-Deficient Mutant rde-1 Strain of C. elegans upon Orsay Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanyuan; Xun, Zhe; Coffman, Stephanie R; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The status of intestinal microbiota is a determinant of host health. However, the alteration of the gut microbiota caused by the innate immune response to virus infection is unclear. Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural virus Orsay provide an excellent model of host-virus interactions. We evaluated the intestinal microbial community complexity of the wild-type N2 and the innate immunity-deficient mutant rde-1 ( ne219 ) strains of C. elegans upon Orsay virus infection. The gut microbiota diversity was decreased in rde-1 ( ne219 ) mutant animals, and a large number of genes were associated with the difference between infected and uninfected rde-1 ( ne219 ) mutant animals. Therefore, this study provides the first evaluation of the alterations caused by Orsay virus on intestinal microbiota in wildtype and innate immunity-deficient animals using C. elegans as the model species. Our findings indicate that virus infection may alters the microbiome in animals with defective immune response.

  16. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  17. Differential human gut microbiome assemblages during soil-transmitted helminth infections in Indonesia and Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Supali, Taniawati; Gankpala, Lincoln; Djuardi, Yenny; Sartono, Erliyani; Zhou, Yanjiao; Fischer, Kerstin; Martin, John; Tyagi, Rahul; Bolay, Fatorma K; Fischer, Peter U; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2018-02-28

    The human intestine and its microbiota is the most common infection site for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which affect the well-being of ~ 1.5 billion people worldwide. The complex cross-kingdom interactions are not well understood. A cross-sectional analysis identified conserved microbial signatures positively or negatively associated with STH infections across Liberia and Indonesia, and longitudinal samples analysis from a double-blind randomized trial showed that the gut microbiota responds to deworming but does not transition closer to the uninfected state. The microbiomes of individuals able to self-clear the infection had more alike microbiome assemblages compared to individuals who remained infected. One bacterial taxon (Lachnospiracae) was negatively associated with infection in both countries, and 12 bacterial taxa were significantly associated with STH infection in both countries, including Olsenella (associated with reduced gut inflammation), which also significantly reduced in abundance following clearance of infection. Microbial community gene abundances were also affected by deworming. Functional categories identified as associated with STH infection included arachidonic acid metabolism; arachidonic acid is the precursor for pro-inflammatory leukotrienes that threaten helminth survival, and our findings suggest that some modulation of arachidonic acid activity in the STH-infected gut may occur through the increase of arachidonic acid metabolizing bacteria. For the first time, we identify specific members of the gut microbiome that discriminate between moderately/heavily STH-infected and non-infected states across very diverse geographical regions using two different statistical methods. We also identify microbiome-encoded biological functions associated with the STH infections, which are associated potentially with STH survival strategies, and changes in the host environment. These results provide a novel insight of the cross

  18. Prediction of Human Intestinal Absorption of Compounds Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Sharma, Anju; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Information about Pharmacokinetics of compounds is an essential component of drug design and development. Modeling the pharmacokinetic properties require identification of the factors effecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of compounds. There have been continuous attempts in the prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds using various Artificial intelligence methods in the effort to reduce the attrition rate of drug candidates entering to preclinical and clinical trials. Currently, there are large numbers of individual predictive models available for absorption using machine learning approaches. Six Artificial intelligence methods namely, Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis were used for prediction of absorption of compounds. Prediction accuracy of Support vector machine, k- nearest neighbor, Probabilistic neural network, Artificial neural network, Partial least square and Linear discriminant analysis for prediction of intestinal absorption of compounds was found to be 91.54%, 88.33%, 84.30%, 86.51%, 79.07% and 80.08% respectively. Comparative analysis of all the six prediction models suggested that Support vector machine with Radial basis function based kernel is comparatively better for binary classification of compounds using human intestinal absorption and may be useful at preliminary stages of drug design and development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enteric serotype typhi infection presenting with sub-intestinal obstruction and mesenteric adenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khuwaitir, Tarig S.; Al-Zuhair, Amin A.; Al-Ghamdi, Ali G.; Khan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhi NARST infections increase minimal inhibitory concentrations of fluoroquinolones, due to chromosomal mutations in the gene encoding DNA gyrase, and can lead to a delayed treatment response. This in turn alters the course of the disease allowing for a protracted period of illness and the occurrence of complications. In this case report, we present a patient from the Indian sub-continent, who was diagnosed with NARST complicated by sub-intestinal obstruction, her diagnosis, treatment and subsequent recovery. (author)

  20. Echinococcus ortleppi Infections in Humans and Cattle, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umhang, Gérald; Arbez-Gindre, Francine; Mantion, Georges; Delabrousse, Eric; Millon, Laurence; Boué, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, liver infections caused by Echinococcus ortleppi tapeworms were diagnosed in 2 humans in France. In 2012, a nationwide slaughterhouse survey identified 7 E. ortleppi infections in cattle. The foci for these infections were spatially distinct. The prevalence of E. ortleppi infections in France may be underestimated. PMID:25417697

  1. Parasite Infection, Carcinogenesis and Human Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tong, Hoang; Brindley, Paul J; Meyer, Christian G; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P

    2017-02-01

    Cancer may be induced by many environmental and physiological conditions. Infections with viruses, bacteria and parasites have been recognized for years to be associated with human carcinogenicity. Here we review current concepts of carcinogenicity and its associations with parasitic infections. The helminth diseases schistosomiasis, opisthorchiasis, and clonorchiasis are highly carcinogenic while the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causing agent of Chagas disease, has a dual role in the development of cancer, including both carcinogenic and anticancer properties. Although malaria per se does not appear to be causative in carcinogenesis, it is strongly associated with the occurrence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma in areas holoendemic for malaria. The initiation of Plasmodium falciparum related endemic Burkitt lymphoma requires additional transforming events induced by the Epstein-Barr virus. Observations suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis may be a relevant co-factor in HTLV-1-related T cell lymphomas. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms of parasitic infection-induced carcinogenicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional modulation of human intestinal epithelial cell responses by Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus salivarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Ann M; O'Regan, Padraig; Fanning, Áine; O'Mahony, Caitlin; MacSharry, John; Lyons, Anne; Bienenstock, John; O'Mahony, Liam; Shanahan, Fergus

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in antigen sampling and the maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, the interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal surface remains incompletely understood. Here we investigated immune cell responses to commensal and pathogenic bacteria. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 or Salmonella typhimurium UK1 for varying times, or were pretreated with a probiotic for 2 hr prior to stimulation with S. typhimurium or flagellin. Gene arrays were used to examine inflammatory gene expression. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, interleukin (IL)-8 secretion, pathogen adherence to IECs, and mucin-3 (MUC3) and E-cadherin gene expression were assayed by TransAM assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence, and real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by bacteria-treated peripheral blood-derived DCs were measured using ELISA. S. typhimurium increased expression of 36 of the 847 immune-related genes assayed, including NF-κB and IL-8. The commensal bacteria did not alter expression levels of any of the 847 genes. However, B. infantis and L. salivarius attenuated both IL-8 secretion at baseline and S. typhimurium-induced pro-inflammatory responses. B. infantis also limited flagellin-induced IL-8 protein secretion. The commensal bacteria did not increase MUC3 or E-cadherin expression, or interfere with pathogen binding to HT-29 cells, but they did stimulate IL-10 and TNF-α secretion by DCs. The data demonstrate that, although the intestinal epithelium is immunologically quiescent when it encounters B. infantis or L. salivarius, these commensal bacteria exert immunomodulatory effects on intestinal immune cells that mediate host responses to flagellin and enteric pathogens. PMID:16771855

  4. Intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors in preschoolers from different urban settings in Central-Western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Guimarães Luz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the associated risk factors in children attending preschools located in areas with different socioeconomic and structural features in the city of Rondonópolis, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2015 and 2016 among four-to-five years old children. Initially, urban neighborhoods with preschools were classified into five risk strata for parasitic infections, which were defined on the basis of socioeconomic and structural variables. Then, one school from each stratum was randomly chosen for data collection. After obtaining the written informed consent from parents or guardians, the children provided stool samples for examination. Interviews were conducted with parents or guardians to determine the associated risk factors. Results: Coproparasitological tests were performed on 215 (46.5% preschoolers, and the overall prevalence was 22.8%. The occurrence of such infections increased with the increase in risk stratum of the neighborhood. Protozoa infections, mainly by Entamoeba coli (11.2% and Giardia duodenalis (9.8%, were the most frequent. The consumption of tap water (OR = 3.56, P = 0.002, no washing of fruits and vegetables before consumption (OR = 3.44, P = 0.002, and no hand washing before eating (OR = 2.63, P = 0.004 were associated with these infections. Conclusions: The prevalence of intestinal parasites among Rondonópolis preschoolers is relevant and associated with precarious hygienic–sanitary behavior, especially in areas with poor socioeconomic and structural conditions.

  5. Impact of enrofloxacin on the human intestinal microbiota revealed by comparative molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Soo; Kim, Jong Nam; Yoon, Seok-Hwan; Chun, Jongsik; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2012-06-01

    The indigenous human intestinal microbiota could be disrupted by residues of antibiotics in foods as well as therapeutically administered antibiotics to humans. These disruptions may lead to adverse health outcomes. To observe the possible impact of residues of antibiotics at concentrations below therapeutic levels on human intestinal microbiota, we performed studies using in vitro cultures of fecal suspensions from three individuals with 10 different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 150 μg/ml) of the fluoroquinolone, enrofloxacin. The bacterial communities of the control and enrofloxacin dosed fecal samples were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. In addition, changes of functional gene expression were analyzed by a pyrosequencing-based random whole-community mRNA sequencing method. Although each individual had a unique microbial composition, the communities of all individuals were affected by enrofloxacin. The proportions of two phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, were significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin exposure, while the proportion of Firmicutes increased. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) using the Fast UniFrac indicated that the community structures of intestinal microbiota were shifted by enrofloxacin. Most of the mRNA transcripts and the anti-microbial drug resistance genes increased with increasing concentrations of enrofloxacin. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of control and enrofloxacin treated fecal suspensions provided valuable information of affected bacterial taxa down to the species level, and the community transcriptomic analyses using mRNA revealed the functional gene expression responses of the changed bacterial communities by enrofloxacin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwang Bo; Lee, Hana; Son, Ye Seul; Lee, Ji Hye; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Mi-Ok; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Lee, Jaemin; Kim, Seokho; Jung, Cho-Rok; Kim, Janghwan; Son, Mi-Young

    2018-01-01

    Human intestinal organoids (hIOs) derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have immense potential as a source of intestines. Therefore, an efficient system is needed for visualizing the stage of intestinal differentiation and further identifying hIOs derived from hPSCs. Here, 2 fluorescent biosensors were developed based on human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) lines that stably expressed fluorescent reporters driven by intestine-specific gene promoters Krüppel-like factor 5 monomeric Cherry (KLF5 mCherry ) and intestine-specific homeobox enhanced green fluorescence protein (ISX eGFP ). Then hIOs were efficiently induced from those transgenic hiPSC lines in which mCherry- or eGFP-expressing cells, which appeared during differentiation, could be identified in intact living cells in real time. Reporter gene expression had no adverse effects on differentiation into hIOs and proliferation. Using our reporter system to screen for hIO differentiation factors, we identified DMH1 as an efficient substitute for Noggin. Transplanted hIOs under the kidney capsule were tracked with fluorescence imaging (FLI) and confirmed histologically. After orthotopic transplantation, the localization of the hIOs in the small intestine could be accurately visualized using FLI. Our study establishes a selective system for monitoring the in vitro differentiation and for tracking the in vivo localization of hIOs and contributes to further improvement of cell-based therapies and preclinical screenings in the intestinal field.-Jung, K. B., Lee, H., Son, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Cho, H.-S., Lee, M.-O., Oh, J.-H., Lee, J., Kim, S., Jung, C.-R., Kim, J., Son, M.-Y. In vitro and in vivo imaging and tracking of intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells. © FASEB.

  7. Amebiasis intestinal Intestinal amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIO CÉSAR GÓMEZ

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica es el patógeno intestinal más frecuente en nuestro medio -después de Giardia lamblia-, una de las principales causas de diarrea en menores de cinco años y la cuarta causa de muerte en el mundo debida a infección por protozoarios. Posee mecanismos patogénicos complejos que le permiten invadir la mucosa intestinal y causar colitis amebiana. El examen microscópico es el método más usado para su identificación pero la existencia de dos especies morfológicamente iguales, una patógena ( E. histolytica y una no patógena ( Entamoeba dispar, ha llevado al desarrollo de otros métodos de diagnóstico. El acceso al agua potable y los servicios sanitarios adecuados, un tratamiento médico oportuno y el desarrollo de una vacuna, son los ejes para disminuir la incidencia y mortalidad de esta entidad.Entamoeba histolytica is the most frequent intestinal pathogen seen in our country, after Giardia lamblia, being one of the main causes of diarrhea in children younger than five years of age, and the fourth leading cause of death due to infection for protozoa in the world. It possesses complex pathogenic mechanisms that allow it to invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. Microscopy is the most used method for its identification, but the existence of two species morphologically identical, the pathogen one ( E. histolytica, and the non pathogen one ( E. dispar, have taken to the development of other methods of diagnosis. The access to drinkable water and appropriate sanitary services, an opportune medical treatment, and the development of a vaccine are the axes to diminish the incidence and mortality of this entity.

  8. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among HIV Positive Persons Who Are Naive and on Antiretroviral Treatment in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklemariam, Zelalem; Abate, Degu; Mitiku, Habtamu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    Background. Intestinal parasitic infection affects the health and quality of life of people living with HIV. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among HIV positive individuals who are naive and who are on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted on 371 (112 ART-naive group and 259 on ART) HIV positive individuals. Stool specimens were collected...

  9. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  10. JUSTIFICATION OF THE CHOICE OF OPTIMAL PROBIOTIC THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN WITH FUNCTIONAL AND CHRONIC DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Meskina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studied the comparative efficacy of probiotics with different composition of strains in the complex treatment of acute intestinal infection in 89 children with functional disorders and chronic gastrointestinal tract. Conducted a dynamic study of the intestinal microflora bacteriological method and gas-liquid chromatography with the definition of short-chain fatty acid content of the level of carbohydrates in the feces and stool data. Set different dates for stopping diarrhea and features state of the intestinal ecosystem indicators after treatment in patients receiving comprehensive probiotic containing bifidobacteria and enterococcus, or probiotic containing lactobacillus. 

  11. Conformational restrictions in ligand binding to the human intestinal di-/tripeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Våbenø, Jon; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Steffansen, Bente

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a computational method aiding the design of dipeptidomimetic pro-moieties targeting the human intestinal di-/tripeptide transporter hPEPT1. First, the conformation in which substrates bind to hPEPT1 (the bioactive conformation) was identified...... to change the peptide backbone conformation (DeltaE(bbone)) from the global energy minimum conformation to the identified bioactive conformation was calculated for 20 hPEPT1 targeted model prodrugs with known K(i) values. Quantitatively, an inverse linear relationship (r(2)=0.81, q(2)=0.80) was obtained...

  12. Smoking cessation induces profound changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Biedermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human intestinal microbiota is a crucial factor in the pathogenesis of various diseases, such as metabolic syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Yet, knowledge about the role of environmental factors such as smoking (which is known to influence theses aforementioned disease states on the complex microbial composition is sparse. We aimed to investigate the role of smoking cessation on intestinal microbial composition in 10 healthy smoking subjects undergoing controlled smoking cessation. METHODS: During the observational period of 9 weeks repetitive stool samples were collected. Based on abundance of 16S rRNA genes bacterial composition was analysed and compared to 10 control subjects (5 continuing smokers and 5 non-smokers by means of Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis and high-throughput sequencing. RESULTS: Profound shifts in the microbial composition after smoking cessation were observed with an increase of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria on the phylum level. In addition, after smoking cessation there was an increase in microbial diversity. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that smoking is an environmental factor modulating the composition of human gut microbiota. The observed changes after smoking cessation revealed to be similar to the previously reported differences in obese compared to lean humans and mice respectively, suggesting a potential pathogenetic link between weight gain and smoking cessation. In addition they give rise to a potential association of smoking status and the course of IBD.

  13. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (Pcultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (Pculture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma endocannabinoid levels in lean, overweight and obese humans: relationships with intestinal permeability markers, inflammation and incretin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tanya J; Cvijanovic, Nada; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Argueta, Donovan A; Rayner, Christopher K; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Young, Richard L

    2018-02-13

    Intestinal production of endocannabinoid and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is impaired in high-fat diet/obese rodents, leading to reduced satiety. Such diets also alter the intestinal microbiome in association with enhanced intestinal permeability and inflammation, however little is known of these effects in humans. This study aimed to: (i) evaluate effects of lipid on plasma anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol (2-AG) and OEA in humans, and (ii) examine relationships with intestinal permeability, inflammation markers and incretin hormone secretion. 20 lean, 18 overweight and 19 obese participants underwent intraduodenal Intralipid® infusion (2 kcal/min) with collection of endoscopic duodenal biopsies and blood. Plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA (HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) (multiplex), and duodenal expression of occludin, zona-occludin-1 (ZO-1), intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase (IAP), and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) (RT-PCR), were assessed. Fasting plasma AEA was increased in obese, compared with lean and overweight (Plean (Plean and overweight. The relationships between plasma AEA with duodenal ZO-1 and IAP, and GIP, suggest that altered endocannabinoid signalling may contribute to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and incretin release in human obesity.

  15. An investigation of parasitic infections and review of molecular characterization of the intestinal protozoa in nonhuman primates in China from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junqiang; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Rongjun; Yu, Fuchang; Wu, Yayun; Chang, Yankai; Wang, Chenrong; Qi, Meng; Zhang, Longxian

    2017-04-01

    Parasites are a well-known threat to nonhuman primate (NHP) populations, and potentially cause zoonotic diseases in humans. In this study, the basic data was provided of the parasites in NHPs and the molecular characterization of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi , Giardia duodenalis , Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. were reviewed, which were found in these samples. A total of 3349 fecal samples were collected from 34 species reared at 17 districts in zoos, farms, free-range, or research laboratories, and examined microscopically. Eleven genera of intestinal parasites were detected: five genera of protozoans ( Isospora spp., Entamoeba spp., Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora spp.) and six genera of helminths ( Trichuris spp., Strongyloides spp., Ascaris spp., Physaloptera spp., Ancylostoma spp., and Enterobius spp.). The overall sample prevalence of parasitic infection was 54.1% (1811/3349). Entamoeba spp. was the most prevalent (36.4%, 1218/3349). The infection rate was the highest in free-range animals (73.0%, 670/918) (P Entamoeba spp., Trichuris spp., and Strongyloides spp.. Molecular characterization was reviewed of Enterocytozoon bieneusi , Giardia duodenalis , Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp., as these are zoonotic species or genotypes. This parasitological data for NHPs in China, provides important information for veterinarians and public health authorities for the elimination of such parasites and monitor the potential transmission of zoonotic infections from NHPs.

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the population of Central Asia on the example of inhabitants of Eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    Parasitic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract are a major health problem worldwide, especially in the Third World countries, where poor standards of hygiene and sanitation as well as the lack of medical care facilitate the spread of food and waterborne infections. To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Central Asia on the example of the population inhabiting the Ghazni Province in eastern part of the country and to assess the validity of the WHO recommended mass deworming campaign carried out in Afghanistan. Taking into consideration the fact that hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Asia and Africa have recently been flooding into Europe, it has become necessary to investigate the epidemiology of intestinal parasitoses in areas characterized by different climatic conditions and poor standards of sanitation. The study was conducted in eastern Afghanistan between November 2011 and April 2014. Parasitological examination was performed on 3 different study groups: 110 soldiers from the Afghan National Army (adults), 1,167 patients hospitalized at the Ghazni Provincial Hospital (807 children and adolescents aged 1–18 and 360 adults), and 1,869 students (7–18 years) frequenting local schools. The study involved 3,146 people including: 2,248 females and 898 males; 2,676 children and adolescents (1–18 years) and 460 adults (19–85 years). Three stool samples were collected from each study subject at the intervals of 2 to 3 days. The samples were fixed in 10% formalin and then transported by air to the Department of Epidemiology and Tropical Medicine (Military Institute of Medicine) in Poland, where they were examined by light microscopy using 3 different diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation with distilled water, Fülleborn’s flotation). In total, 1,220 Afghans were found to be infected with pathogenic intestinal parasites (38.8%): 44/110 soldiers (40.0%), 322/807 hospitalized children and adolescents

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in the small intestine of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) with and without Echinococcus multilocularis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brožová, Adela; Jankovská, Ivana; Miholová, Daniela; Scháňková, Štěpánka; Truněčková, Jana; Langrová, Iva; Kudrnáčová, Marie; Vadlejch, Jaroslav

    2015-02-01

    Heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) levels in red fox small intestine samples with or without Echinococcus multilocularis infection were studied. The red foxes were taken from the open countryside of northwest Bohemia (CR). Red foxes with E. multilocularis infection had lower levels of toxic metals (Cd, Pb); cadmium levels in infected foxes (0.0052 mg/kg) were twice as low as in uninfected foxes (0.0106 mg/kg). This was the same case for lead: 0.0288 mg/kg infected red foxes (inf.) and 0.0413 mg/kg uninfected (uninf.). Conversely, red foxes with E. multilocularis infection yielded higher concentrations in comparison to their uninfected counterparts: Cr (0.0087 mg/kg uninf. and 0.0116 mg/kg inf.), Cu (0.2677 mg/kg uninf. and 0.3205 mg/kg inf.), Fe (6.46 mg/kg uninf. and 10.89 mg/kg inf.), Mn (0.1966 mg/kg uninf. and 0.2029 mg/kg inf.), Ni (0.0415 mg/kg uninf. and 0.064 mg/kg inf.) and Zn (16.71 mg/kg uninf. and 20.25 mg/kg inf). This could support the hypothesis that tapeworms are able to absorb toxic heavy metals from the host body into their tissues, as well as to modify other element concentrations in the host body.

  18. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Long-Term-Residents and Settled Immigrants in Qatar in the Period 2005 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A.; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Doiphode, Sanjay H.

    2013-01-01

    The expanding economy of Qatar in the last two decades has attracted immigrants, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections, and recent analyses have indicated consistently rising trends in the prevalence of some infections. Here, we examined 18,563 hospital records of subjects in Qatar seeking medical assistance for a variety of ailments, combining data from 2009 to 2011 with the earlier dataset from 2005 to 2008 to enable trends to be identified across a 7-year period. We found that 8.6% were infected with one or more species of parasites, however in contrast to the earlier period (2005–2008), in the latter 3 years there were falling trends of prevalence providing some optimism that parasitic infections among the resident immigrants have begun to decline. We identified also geographic regions from which resident workers still maintain a relatively high prevalence of helminth infections despite their long-term residence in Qatar. PMID:23478576

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections: Current prevalence and risk factors among schoolchildren in capital area of the Republic of Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Huang, Ying-Chieh; Chou, Chia-Mei; Chiang, Chia-Lien; Lee, Fei-Peng; Hsu, Yun-Ting; Lin, Jia-Wei; Briand, Kennar; Tu, Chia-Ying; Fan, Chia-Kwung

    2017-12-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among schoolchildren in Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI) largely remains unknown, thus investigation on IPIs status to establish the baseline data is urgently needed. This cross-sectional study intended to investigate the current IPIs status and associated risk factors among schoolchildren at capital of RMI. Single stool sample from 400 schoolchildren (207 boys and 193 girls) aged 9.73±2.50 yrs old was examined by employing merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde concentration method. Demographic characteristics, uncomfortable symptoms and risk factors were obtained by questionnaires investigation. The overall prevalence of IPIs in schoolchildren was 22.8% (91/400), of them 24.2% harbored at least 2 different parasites. Notably, the majority was infected by waterborne protozoan parasites (82.4%, 75/91). Nine different intestinal parasites have been identified, of which six were pathogenic including Hook worm, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis. Schoolchildren who ever complained dizziness or headache showed a significant higher prevalence of pathogenic IPIs than those who did not (p<0.05). Schoolchildren who lived in urban area than rural area had higher chance to acquire pathogenic IPIs (p=0.03). However, none of risk factors were identified to be associated with pathogenic IPIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early establishment of epithelial apoptosis in the developing human small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, P H; Cardin, E; Harnois, C; Reed, J C; Vézina, A

    2000-12-01

    In the adult small intestine, the dynamic renewal of the epithelium is characterized by a sequence of cell production in the crypts, cell maturation and cell migration to the tip of villi, where apoptosis is undertaken. Little is known about enterocytic apoptosis during development. In man, intestinal architectural features and functions are acquired largely by mid-gestation (18-20 wks); the question whether the establishment of enterocytic apoptotic processes parallels or not the acquisition of other intestinal functional features remains open. In the present study, we approached this question by examining enterocytic apoptosis during development of the human jejunum (9-20 wks gestation), using the ISEL (in situ terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick-end labelling) method. Between 9 and 17 wks, apoptotic enterocytes were not evidenced. However, beginning at the 18 wks stage, ISEL-positive enterocytes were regularly observed at the tip of villi. Since the Bcl-2 family of proteins constitutes a critical checkpoint in apoptosis, acting upstream of the apoptotic machinery, we investigated the expression of six Bcl-2 homologs (Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Mcl-1, Bax, Bak, Bad) and one non-homologous associated molecule (Bag-1). By immunofluorescence, we found that all homologs analyzed were expressed by enterocytes between 9 and 20 wks. However, Bcl-2 homologs underwent a gradual compartmentalization of epithelial expression along the maturing crypt-villus axis, to establish gradients of expression by 18-20 wks. Western blot analyses indicated that the expression levels of Bcl-2 homologs were modulated during morphogenesis of the crypt-villus axis, in parallel to their gradual compartmentalization of expression. Altogether, these data suggest that regulatory mechanisms of human enterocytic apoptosis become established by mid-gestation (18-20 wks) and coincide with the maturation of the crypt-villus axis of cell proliferation, differentiation and renewal.

  1. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  2. Cockroaches as carriers of human intestinal parasites in two localities in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinfu, Addisu; Erko, Berhanu

    2008-11-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the role of cockroaches as potential carriers of human intestinal parasites in Addis Ababa and Ziway, Ethiopia. A total of 6480 cockroaches were trapped from the two localities from October 2006 to March 2007. All the cockroaches trapped in Addis Ababa (n=2240) and almost 50% (2100/4240) of those trapped in Ziway were identified as Blattella germanica. The rest of the cockroaches trapped in Ziway were identified as Periplaneta brunnea (24.52%), Pycnoscelus surinamensis (16.03%) and Supella longipalpa (9.90%). Microscopic examination of the external body washes of pooled cockroaches and individual gut contents revealed that cockroaches are carriers of Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar cysts as well as Enterobius vermicularis, Trichuris trichiura, Taenia spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides ova. Besides their role as a nuisance, the present study further confirms that cockroaches serve as carriers of human intestinal parasites. The possible association of cockroaches with allergic conditions such as asthma is also discussed. Hence, appropriate control measures should be taken particularly to make hotels and residential areas free of cockroaches as they represent a health risk.

  3. Sugars increase non-heme iron bioavailability in human epithelial intestinal and liver cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Christides

    Full Text Available Previous s