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Sample records for human intervention studies

  1. A metabolomics study on human dietary intervention with apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Kristensen, M.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    Metabolomics is a promising tool for searching out new biomarkers and the development of hypotheses in nutrition research. This chapter will describe the design of human dietary intervention studies where samples are collected for metabolomics analyses as well as the analytical issues and data...

  2. Coffee Consumption and Oxidative Stress: A Review of Human Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Daniela; Del Bo', Cristian; Tassotti, Michele; Riso, Patrizia; Del Rio, Daniele; Brighenti, Furio; Porrini, Marisa

    2016-07-28

    Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes) against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake) have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.

  3. Coffee Consumption and Oxidative Stress: A Review of Human Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Martini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on the potential protective effects of coffee and its bioactives (caffeine, chlorogenic acids and diterpenes against oxidative stress and related chronic disease risk has been increasing in the last years. The present review summarizes the main findings on the effect of coffee consumption on protection against lipid, protein and DNA damage, as well as on the modulation of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes in human studies. Twenty-six dietary intervention studies (involving acute and chronic coffee intake have been considered. Overall, the results suggest that coffee consumption can increase glutathione levels and improve protection against DNA damage, especially following regular/repeated intake. On the contrary, the effects of coffee on plasma antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes, as well as on protein and lipid damage, are unclear following both acute and chronic exposure. The high heterogeneity in terms of type of coffee, doses and duration of the studies, the lack of information on coffee and/or brew bioactive composition, as well as the choice of biomarkers and the methods used for their evaluation, may partially explain the variability observed among findings. More robust and well-controlled intervention studies are necessary for a thorough understanding of the effect of coffee on oxidative stress markers in humans.

  4. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention study using a human rights-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, V; Garcia, J; Rios, L F; Santos, A O; Terto, V; Munõz-Laboy, M

    2010-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people's sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights training of 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles.

  5. Religious communities and HIV prevention: an intervention-study using a human rights-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192

  6. Changing job-related burnout after intervention--a quasi-experimental study in six human service organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a longitudinal study design to analyze the development of burnout at worksites and to study the effect of interventions intended to reduce the level of burnout at individual level. METHODS: At baseline the study, sample consisted of 1024 individuals divided at six organizations and 18...... worksites in the human service sector. Four different types of interventions were identified: external and internal reorganizations, educational days, and consultancy. Burnout defined as work related, client related, and personal burnout was measured by means of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory at baseline...... of interventions did not reduce the level of burnout in our study....

  7. Study of the catabolism of thyme phenols combining in vitro fermentation and human intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Macià, Alba; Farràs, Marta; Valls, Rosa-Maria; Catalán, Úrsula; Motilva, María-José

    2014-11-12

    The gut metabolism of four thyme phenolics (monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol, rosmarinic acid, and eriodictyol) was evaluated in vitro. After the in vitro transformations of the individual phenols had been studied, the presence of their microbial metabolites was investigated in human feces collected before and after a sustained intake (3 weeks) of 25 mL/day of a thyme phenol-enriched olive oil. Results of in vitro fermentation showed low degradation of thymol and carvacrol. By contrast, large catabolism was noted when rosmarinic acid and eriodictyol were fermented, yielding hydroxyphenylpropionic acid as the main metabolite. In accordance with these results, after the in vivo intervention with thyme phenol-enriched olive oil, an increase in the concentration of hydroxyphenylpropionic and phenylpropionic acids was observed in human feces, confirming the effective in vivo microbial degradation of rosmarinic acid and eriodictyol. Carvacrol was detected in fecal samples at trace levels, suggesting that monoterpenes are well absorbed in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed.

  9. Nutrigenomics in human intervention studies: current status, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonas; Rubio-Aliaga, Isabel; Hoeft, Birgit; Bendik, Igor; Weber, Peter; Daniel, Hannelore

    2011-03-01

    Nutrigenomics applications comprise transcript-, proteome- and metabolome-profiling techniques in which responses to diets or individual ingredients are assessed in biological samples. They may also include the characterization of heterogeneity in relevant genes that affect the biological processes. This review explores various areas of nutrition and food sciences in which transcriptome-, proteome- and metabolome-analyses have been applied in human intervention studies, including nutrigenetics aspects and discusses the advantages and limitations of the methodologies. Despite the power of the profiling techniques to generate huge data sets, a critical assessment of the study outcomes emphasizes the current constraints in data interpretation, including huge knowledge gaps, the need for improved study designs and more comprehensive phenotyping of volunteers before selection for study participation. In this respect, nutrigenomics faces the same problems as all other areas of the life sciences, employing the same tools. However, there is a growing trend toward systemic approaches in which different technologies are combined and applied to the same sample, allowing physiological changes to be assessed more robustly throughout all molecular layers of mRNA, protein and metabolite changes. Nutrigenomics is thereby maturing as a branch of the life sciences and is gaining significant recognition in the scientific community. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evaluating human resource interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joha Louw-Potgieter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Programme evaluation is a transdiscipline, which examines whether a programme has merit or not. A programme is a coherent set of activities aimed at bringing about a change in people or their circumstances.Research purpose: The purpose of this special edition is to introduce readers to the evaluation of human resource (HR programmes.Motivation for the study: There are few comprehensive evaluations of HR programmes despite many publications on functional efficiency measures of HR (i.e. measures of cost, time, quantity, error and quality.Research design, approach and method: This article provides a value chain for HR activities and introduces the reader to programme theory-driven evaluation.Main findings: In summarising all of the contributions in this edition, one of the main findings was the lack of programme evaluation experience within HR functions and the difficulty this posed for the evaluators.Practical/managerial implications: This introductory article presents answers to two simple questions: What does HR do? and, What is programme evaluation? These answers will enable practitioners to understand what programme evaluators mean when we say that programme evaluation seeks to determine the merit of a programme.Contribution/value-add: The main contribution of this introductory article is to set the scene for the HR evaluations that follow. It alerts the reader to the rich theory contribution in HR literature and how to apply this in a theory-driven evaluation.

  11. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: From human to animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in drug addiction and response to exercise intervention: from human to animal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehui; Zhao, Min; Zhou, Chenglin; Li, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Accumulated research supports the idea that exercise could be an option of potential prevention and treatment for drug addiction. During the past few years, there has been increased interest in investigating of sex differences in exercise and drug addiction. This demonstrates that sex-specific exercise intervention strategies may be important for preventing and treating drug addiction in men and women. However, little is known about how and why sex differences are found when doing exercise-induced interventions for drug addiction. In this review, we included both animal and human that pulled subjects from a varied age demographic, as well as neurobiological mechanisms that may highlight the sex-related differences in these potential to assess the impact of sex-specific roles in drug addiction and exercise therapies. PMID:26182835

  13. Multilevel data analysis of a crossover designed human nutritional intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, E.J.J.; Westerhuis, J.A.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; van Dorsten, F.A.; Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Jacobs, D.M.; Smit, S.; Draijer, R.; Kroner, C.I.; Smilde, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    A new method is introduced for the analysis of 'omics' data derived from crossover designed drug or nutritional intervention studies. The method aims at finding systematic variations in metabolic profiles after a drug or nutritional challenge and takes advantage of the crossover design in the data.

  14. Being Human: A Qualitative Interview Study Exploring Why a Telehealth Intervention for Management of Chronic Conditions Had a Modest Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Sarah J; Foster, Alexis; Horspool, Kimberley; Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Salisbury, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence of benefit for telehealth for chronic conditions is mixed. Two linked randomized controlled trials tested the Healthlines Service for 2 chronic conditions: depression and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This new telehealth service consisted of regular telephone calls from nonclinical, trained health advisers who followed standardized scripts generated by interactive software. Advisors facilitated self-management by supporting participants to use Web-based resources and helped to optimize medication, improve treatment adherence, and encourage healthier lifestyles. Participants were recruited from primary care. The trials identified moderate (for depression) or partial (for CVD risk) effectiveness of the Healthlines Service. Objective An embedded qualitative study was undertaken to help explain the results of the 2 trials by exploring mechanisms of action, context, and implementation of the intervention. Methods Qualitative interview study of 21 staff providing usual health care or involved in the intervention and 24 patients receiving the intervention. Results Interviewees described improved outcomes in some patients, which they attributed to the intervention, describing how components of the model on which the intervention was based helped to achieve benefits. Implementation of the intervention occurred largely as planned. However, contextual issues in patients’ lives and some problems with implementation may have reduced the size of effect of the intervention. For depression, patients’ lives and preferences affected engagement with the intervention: these largely working-age patients had busy and complex lives, which affected their ability to engage, and some patients preferred a therapist-based approach to the cognitive behavioral therapy on offer. For CVD risk, patients’ motivations adversely affected the intervention whereby some patients joined the trial for general health improvement or from altruism, rather than

  15. Being Human: A Qualitative Interview Study Exploring Why a Telehealth Intervention for Management of Chronic Conditions Had a Modest Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Drabble, Sarah J; Foster, Alexis; Horspool, Kimberley; Edwards, Louisa; Thomas, Clare; Salisbury, Chris

    2016-06-30

    Evidence of benefit for telehealth for chronic conditions is mixed. Two linked randomized controlled trials tested the Healthlines Service for 2 chronic conditions: depression and high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This new telehealth service consisted of regular telephone calls from nonclinical, trained health advisers who followed standardized scripts generated by interactive software. Advisors facilitated self-management by supporting participants to use Web-based resources and helped to optimize medication, improve treatment adherence, and encourage healthier lifestyles. Participants were recruited from primary care. The trials identified moderate (for depression) or partial (for CVD risk) effectiveness of the Healthlines Service. An embedded qualitative study was undertaken to help explain the results of the 2 trials by exploring mechanisms of action, context, and implementation of the intervention. Qualitative interview study of 21 staff providing usual health care or involved in the intervention and 24 patients receiving the intervention. Interviewees described improved outcomes in some patients, which they attributed to the intervention, describing how components of the model on which the intervention was based helped to achieve benefits. Implementation of the intervention occurred largely as planned. However, contextual issues in patients' lives and some problems with implementation may have reduced the size of effect of the intervention. For depression, patients' lives and preferences affected engagement with the intervention: these largely working-age patients had busy and complex lives, which affected their ability to engage, and some patients preferred a therapist-based approach to the cognitive behavioral therapy on offer. For CVD risk, patients' motivations adversely affected the intervention whereby some patients joined the trial for general health improvement or from altruism, rather than motivation to make lifestyle changes to address

  16. Contracting and Procurement for Evidence-Based Interventions in Public-Sector Human Services: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willging, Cathleen E; Aarons, Gregory A; Trott, Elise M; Green, Amy E; Finn, Natalie; Ehrhart, Mark G; Hecht, Debra B

    2016-09-01

    Sustainment of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in human services depends on the inner context of community-based organizations (CBOs) that provide services and the outer context of their broader environment. Increasingly, public officials are experimenting with contracting models from for-profit industries to procure human services. In this case study, we conducted qualitative interviews with key government and CBO stakeholders to examine implementation of the Best Value-Performance Information Procurement System to contract for EBIs in a child welfare system. Findings suggest that stakeholder relationships may be compromised when procurement disregards local knowledge, communication, collaboration, and other factors supporting EBIs and public health initiatives.

  17. Human intervention study to investigate the intestinal accessibility and bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Dolores; Jung, Kathrin; Winter, Manuel; Rogoll, Dorothee; Melcher, Ralph; Richling, Elke

    2017-09-15

    We investigated the importance of the large intestine on the bioavailability of anthocyanins from bilberries in humans with/without a colon. Low bioavailability of anthocyanins in plasma and urine was observed in the frame of this study. Anthocyanins reached the circulation mainly as glucuronides. Analysis of ileal effluents (at end of small intestine) demonstrated that 30% of ingested anthocyanins were stable during 8h passage through the upper intestine. Only 20% degradants were formed and mostly intact anthocyanins were absorbed from the small intestine. Higher amounts of degradants than anthocyanins reached the circulation after bilberry extract consumption in both groups of subjects. Comparison of the bioavailability of anthocyanins in healthy subjects versus ileostomists revealed substantially higher amounts of anthocyanins and degradants in the plasma/urine of subjects with an intact gut. The results suggested that the colon is a significant site for absorption of bioactive components such as anthocyanins and their degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Animal and human mucosal tissue models to study HIV biomedical interventions: can we predict success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene S Dezzutti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Preclinical testing plays an integral role in the development of HIV prevention modalities. Several models are used including humanized mice, non-human primates and human mucosal tissue cultures. Discussion: Pharmaceutical development traditionally uses preclinical models to evaluate product safety. The HIV prevention field has extended this paradigm to include models of efficacy, encompassing humanized mice, non-human primates (typically Asian macaques and human mucosal tissue (such as cervical and colorectal. As our understanding of the biology of HIV transmission improves and includes the influence of human behaviour/biology and co-pathogens, these models have evolved as well to address more complex questions. These three models have demonstrated the effectiveness of systemic (oral and topical use of antiretroviral drugs. Importantly, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships are being developed and linked to information gathered from human clinical trials. The models are incorporating co-pathogens (bacterial and viral and the effects of coitus (mucosal fluids on drug distribution and efficacy. Humanized mice are being tailored in their immune reconstitution to better represent humans. Importantly, human mucosal tissue cultures are now being used in early clinical trials to provide information on product efficacy to more accurately characterize efficacious products to advance to larger clinical trials. While all of these models have made advancements in product development, each has limitations and the data need to be interpreted by keeping these limitations in mind. Conclusions: Development and refinement of each of these models has been an iterative process and linkages to data generated among each of them and from human clinical trials are needed to determine their reliability. Preclinical testing has evolved from simply identifying products that demonstrate efficacy prior to clinical trials to defining essential

  19. Molecular effects of isoflavone supplementation : human intervention studies and quantitative models for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Risk assessment can potentially be improved by closely linked experiments in the disciplines of epidemiology and toxicology. This was explored for isoflavones in a case study. For isoflavones potential beneficial health effects have been suggested, but discussions on their safety are

  20. Guidelines for the design, conduct and reporting of human intervention studies to evaluate the health benefits of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Robert W; Antoine, Jean-Michel; Berta, Jean-Louis; Bub, Achim; de Vries, Jan; Guarner, Francisco; Hasselwander, Oliver; Hendriks, Henk; Jäkel, Martin; Koletzko, Berthold V; Patterson, Chris C; Richelle, Myriam; Skarp, Maria; Theis, Stephan; Vidry, Stéphane; Woodside, Jayne V

    2011-11-01

    There is substantial evidence to link what we eat to the reduction of the risk of major chronic diseases and/or the improvement of functions. Thus, it is important for public health agencies and the food industry to facilitate the consumption of foods with particular health benefits by providing consumer products and messages based on scientific evidence. Although fragmentary advice is available from a range of sources, there is a lack of comprehensive scientific guidelines for the design, conduct and reporting of human intervention studies to evaluate the health benefits of foods. Such guidelines are needed both to support nutrition science in general, and to facilitate the substantiation of health claims. In the present study, which presents the consensus view of an International Life Sciences Institute Europe Expert Group that included senior scientists from academia and industry, the term 'foods' refers to foods, dietary supplements and food constituents, but not to whole diets. The present study is based on an initial survey of published papers, which identified the range and strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and was finalised following exchanges between representatives from industry, academia and regulatory bodies. The major factors involved in the design, conduct and reporting of studies are identified, summarised in a checklist table that is based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines, and elaborated and discussed in the text.

  1. The impact of substituting SFA in dairy products with MUFA or PUFA on CVD risk: evidence from human intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D Ian

    2012-12-01

    With the substantial economic and social burden of CVD, the need to modify diet and lifestyle factors to reduce risk has become increasingly important. Milk and dairy products, being one of the main contributors to SFA intake in the UK, are a potential target for dietary SFA reduction. Supplementation of the dairy cow's diet with a source of MUFA or PUFA may have beneficial effects on consumers' CVD risk by partially replacing milk SFA, thus reducing entry of SFA into the food chain. A total of nine chronic human intervention studies have used dairy products, modified through bovine feeding, to establish their effect on CVD risk markers. Of these studies, the majority utilised modified butter as their primary test product and used changes in blood cholesterol concentrations as their main risk marker. Of the eight studies that measured blood cholesterol, four reported a significant reduction in total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) following chronic consumption of modified milk and dairy products. Data from one study suggested that a significant reduction in LDL-C could be achieved in both the healthy and hypercholesterolaemic population. Thus, evidence from these studies suggests that consumption of milk and dairy products with modified fatty acid composition, compared with milk and dairy products of typical milk fat composition, may be beneficial to CVD risk in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic individuals. However, current evidence is insufficient and further work is needed to investigate the complex role of milk and cheese in CVD risk and explore the use of novel markers of CVD risk.

  2. A human rights-focused HIV intervention for sex workers in Metro Manila, Philippines: evaluation of effects in a quantitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Simmons, Janie; Wong, Betty; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Condino-Enrera, Gerlita; Hernandez, Laufred I; Simbulan, Nymia Pimentel; Raj, Anita

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated a brief human rights-focused HIV community mobilization intervention for sex workers in the Philippines, a country with one of the fastest rising number of HIV cases worldwide. Five single-session group interventions to reduce sexual risk and increase HIV testing among 86 sex workers in Manila were evaluated with pre-post-test data via Wilcoxon's signed-ranks and Mann-Whitney tests. The 4-h intervention, Kapihan (August-November, 2013), integrated human rights with HIV skill-building. Demographic data, violence/trafficking victimization, human rights knowledge, and intentions to HIV test and treat were collected. Participants were median aged 23; female (69 %); had children (55; 22 % had 3+ children); used drugs (past 3 months: 16 %); sexually/physically abused by clients (66 %); 20 % street sex workers ever took an HIV test. Pre-post-test scores significantly improved in knowledge of HIV (z = -8.895, p human rights (z = -4.391, p rights of research participants (z = -5.081, p human rights into HIV interventions may empower sex workers to address their health and human rights and test for HIV.

  3. The effect of a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) intervention on the profile of volatile organic compounds in human breath: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M A; Bandelow, S; Edwards, L; Patel, P; Martin, H J; Wilson, I D; Thomas, C L P

    2013-03-01

    This study sought to identify if detectable changes in human breath profiles may be observed following a psychological intervention designed to induce stress, a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). Breath samples were collected from 22 participants (10 male and 12 female) following a double cross-over randomized design with two experimental interventions. One intervention required participants to listen to classical music chosen to be neutral. The other intervention required participants to undertake a PASAT that induced cardiovascular responses consistent with acute stress. Both interventions also involved two sequences of cognitive function tests. Blood-pressure and heart-rate were recorded throughout each intervention and distal breath samples were collected onto Tenax® TA/Carbograph 1 thermal desorption tubes, using an adaptive breath sampler. Samples were collected before and after the PASAT. Breath samples were analysed by thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data registration using retention indexing and peak deconvolution followed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis identified six stress sensitive compounds. A principal components analysis model based on these components generated a model that predicted post-PASAT versus post-neutral intervention samples with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a selectivity of 91.6% for females, compared to 100% sensitivity and 90% selectivity for males. Of the six compounds indole, 2-hydroxy-1-phenylethanone, benzaldehyde, and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol were identified on the basis of mass spectral, retention indexing and confirmation against pure standards. 2-methylpentadecane was tentatively identified from mass spectral and retention indexing, whilst one component has yet to be assigned, although the mass spectrum is indicative of a terpene. Indole and 2-methylpentadecane concentrations increased in response to the PASAT intervention, while the other compounds reduced in their abundance in human

  4. Anti-Human Trafficking Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a significant number of programs and policies have been developed and implemented to prevent and combat human trafficking. At the international, regional and national levels, government, and international, and nongovernment organizations have established plans of action, conducted training, developed policy tools, and…

  5. The Danish Alzheimer intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...

  6. Coffee consumption rapidly reduces background DNA strand breaks in healthy humans: Results of a short-term repeated uptake intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakuradze, Tamara; Lang, Roman; Hofmann, Thomas; Schipp, Dorothea; Galan, Jens; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Richling, Elke

    2016-03-01

    Intervention studies provide evidence that long-term coffee consumption correlates with reduced DNA background damage in healthy volunteers. Here, we report on short-term kinetics of this effect, showing a rapid onset after normal coffee intake. In a short-term human intervention study, we determined the effects of coffee intake on DNA integrity during 8 h. Healthy male subjects ingested coffee in 200 mL aliquots every second hour up to a total volume of 800 mL. Blood samples were taken at baseline, immediately before the first coffee intake and subsequently every 2 h, prior to the respective coffee intake. DNA integrity was assayed by the comet assay. The results show a significant (p coffee intake. Continued coffee intake was associated with further decrements in background DNA damage within the 8 h intervention (p coffee consumption). Repeated coffee consumption was associated with reduced background DNA strand breakage, clearly measurable as early as 2 h after first intake resulting in a cumulative overall reduction by about one-third of the baseline value. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Yeast Biodiversity in Vineyard Environments Is Increased by Human Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Drumonde-Neves

    Full Text Available One hundred and five grape samples were collected during two consecutive years from 33 locations on seven oceanic islands of the Azores Archipelago. Grape samples were obtained from vineyards that were either abandoned or under regular cultivation involving common viticultural interventions, to evaluate the impact of regular human intervention on grape yeast biota diversity in vineyards. A total of 3150 yeast isolates were obtained and 23 yeast species were identified. The predominant species were Hanseniaspora uvarum, Pichia terricola, Starmerella bacillaris and Issatchenkia hanoiensis. The species Barnettozyma californica, Candida azymoides and Pichia cecembensis were reported in grapes or wine-associated environments for the first time. A higher biodiversity was found in active vineyards where regular human intervention takes place (Shannon index: 1.89 and 1.53 in the first and second years, respectively when compared to the abandoned ones (Shannon index: 0.76 and 0.31. This finding goes against the assumptions that human intervention can destroy biodiversity and lead to homogeneity in the environment. Biodiversity indices were considerably lower in the year with the heaviest rainfall. This study is the first to report on the grape yeast communities from several abandoned vineyards that have undergone no human intervention.

  8. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P<0·01; n 21) and significant reductions in stool ammonia concentration (P<0·05; n 21) after consumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (P<0·01; n 21). Our data indicate that consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.

  9. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Descriptive Study of the Temporal Patterns of Volume and Contents Change in Human Acute Burn Edema: Application in Evidence-Based Intervention and Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Dale W; Fear, Mark; Wood, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Edema after burn contributes significantly to burn wound depth conversion. In humans after burn injury, there is a lack of detailed understanding of the contents and temporal changes in volume of acute tissue edema. The novel findings of these studies relate to the collection of edema fluid after partial-thickness burn injury. Edema volume peaks on day 1 after burn without formal fluid resuscitation. The studies indicated that the peak was on day 2 for a resuscitated burn. In contrast, animal studies suggest that the peak of edema occurs by or before day 1 after injury. The findings confirm the pitfalls of evidence derived from animal models and assuming direct transference to humans. Postburn edema was demonstrated to be a high-protein fluid (ie, ≥10 g/L) for the duration of the inflammatory period. The presence of high-protein edema presents greater challenges to clinicians developing novel treatment options. The rate of volume change over time tapered to insignificant levels after day 4 following burn. Greater than 98% of the edema contents was fluid. However, the size of particulate matter did not preclude it passing through patent lymphatic collectors. The results indicate a necessity for urgent postburn intervention, which should incorporate the active stimulation of the lymphatic system to improve efficacy of edema removal.

  11. The effects of orally administered Beta-glucan on innate immune responses in humans, a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenneke Leentjens

    Full Text Available To prevent or combat infection, increasing the effectiveness of the immune response is highly desirable, especially in case of compromised immune system function. However, immunostimulatory therapies are scarce, expensive, and often have unwanted side-effects. β-glucans have been shown to exert immunostimulatory effects in vitro and in vivo in experimental animal models. Oral β-glucan is inexpensive and well-tolerated, and therefore may represent a promising immunostimulatory compound for human use.We performed a randomized open-label intervention pilot-study in 15 healthy male volunteers. Subjects were randomized to either the β -glucan (n = 10 or the control group (n = 5. Subjects in the β-glucan group ingested β-glucan 1000 mg once daily for 7 days. Blood was sampled at various time-points to determine β-glucan serum levels, perform ex vivo stimulation of leukocytes, and analyze microbicidal activity.β-glucan was barely detectable in serum of volunteers at all time-points. Furthermore, neither cytokine production nor microbicidal activity of leukocytes were affected by orally administered β-glucan.The present study does not support the use of oral β-glucan to enhance innate immune responses in humans.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01727895.

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: A human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, L.J.C. van; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods: Eleven lean (BMI 18-25 kg/m2) and eight overweight (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) men consumed 100 ml

  13. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adiponectin oligomers and muscle oxidative capacity: a human intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.; Kok, F.J.; Pelsers, M.; Bobbert, T.; Spranger, J.; Helander, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to investigate whether moderate alcohol consumption increases plasma high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and/or muscle oxidative capacity. Materials and methods Eleven lean (BMI 18 - 25 kg/m(2)) and eight overweight ( BMI >= 27 kg/m(2)) men consumed

  14. Design of aging intervention studies: the NIA interventions testing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, N L; Strong, R; Miller, R A; Nelson, J; Javors, M; Sharp, Z D; Peralba, J M; Harrison, D E

    2008-12-01

    The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program.

  15. Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jung Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to identify key metabolites related to weight reduction in humans by studying the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from 34 participants who underwent dietary intervention with black soybean peptides (BSP for 12 weeks. This research is a sequel to our previous work in which the effects of BSP on BMI and blood composition of lipid were investigated. Sera of the study were subjected to ultra performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the data were analyzed using partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA score plots. Body mass index and percent body fat of the test group were reduced. Levels of betaine, benzoic acid, pyroglutamic acid, pipecolic acid, N-phenylacetamide, uric acid, l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine, and lysophosphatidyl cholines (lysoPCs (C18:1, C18:2, C20:1, and C20:4 showed significant increases. Levels of l-proline, valine, l-leucine/isoleucine, hypoxanthine, glutamine, l-methionine, phenylpyruvic acid, several carnitine derivatives, and lysoPCs (C14:0, PC16:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:1, C18:0, and C22:0 were significantly decreased. In particular, lysoPC 16:0 with a VIP value of 12.02 is esteemed to be the most important metabolite for evaluating the differences between the 2 serum samples. Our result confirmed weight-lowering effects of BSP, accompanied by favorable changes in metabolites in the subjects’ blood. Therefore, this research enables us to better understand obesity and increases the predictability of the obesity-related risk by studying metabolites present in the blood.

  16. A pilot-study of a worksite based participatory intervention program: Its acceptability and short-term effects on work climate and attitudes in human service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylén, Eva Charlotta; Lindfors, Petra; Ishäll, Lars; Göransson, Sara; Aronsson, Gunnar; Kylin, Camilla; Sverke, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Psychosocial factors, including job demands and poor resources, have been linked to stress, health problems, and negative job attitudes. However, worksite based interventions and programs targeting psychosocial factors may change employees' perceptions of their work climate and work attitudes. This pilot study describes a newly developed worksite based participatory organizational intervention program that was tested in the social service sector. It is evaluated using participants' perceptions of the intervention to investigate its acceptability as a feature of feasibility and its short-term effects on work climate factors (job demands and resources) and work-related attitudes. Forty employees of a Swedish social service unit provided self-reports before, during, and after the intervention. As for effects, quantitative role overload and social support decreased while turnover intention increased. Responses to an open-ended question showed that participants considered the intervention program valuable for addressing issues relating to the psychosocial work climate. Although the findings are preliminary, it was possible to carry out this worksite based participatory organizational program in this particular setting. Also, the preliminary findings underscore the challenges associated with designing and implementing this type of intervention program, thus adding to the methodological discussion on implementation and evaluation.

  17. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    .... Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective...

  18. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: a social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Jordans, Mark J D; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: A social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M.

    2017-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used to illustrate the role of these concepts in intervention design and evaluation. Future directions and recommendations for applying human biology theory in pursuit of public mental health interventions are discussed. PMID:25380194

  20. Impact of human interventions on mangrove ecosystem in spatial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, Abd.; Akbar AS, M.; Nurdin, Nurjannah; Jaya, Ilham; Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Climate change components that affect mangroves include changes in sea level, high water events, storms, precipitation, temperature, and oceanic circulation. Cumulative impacts of these factors have a distinct synergy with respect to an accelerated rate of mangrove degradation. development of coastal agricultural land and shrimp farming ponds in intertidal areas are considered as the major factors behind mangrove delineation. There is no agreement for the extensive of mangrove forest in Indonesia, but invarious forums it is usually used the number of 4.25 million ha for that. At approximately 9 years ago, the extensive vast of mangrove forest in Indonesia was about 4.13 million ha but now it is only 2.49 million ha (60%). The methodology of this study consisted of two main steps: (1) image analysis, and (2) post classification. The aim of this study is to analysis the human intervention base on spatial dynamic of mangrove. The study site was selected Sagara island in Spermonde Archipelago. The results of analyze shows that decreasing of mangrove is caused human intervention.

  1. Low-fat, low-glycemic load diet and gene expression in human prostate epithelium: a feasibility study of using cDNA microarrays to assess the response to dietary intervention in target tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daniel W; Neuhouser, Marian L; Schenk, Jeannette M; Coleman, Ilsa M; Hawley, Sarah; Gifford, David; Hung, Hau; Knudsen, Beatrice S; Nelson, Peter S; Kristal, Alan R

    2007-10-01

    We examined the feasibility of using gene expression changes in human prostate epithelium as a measure of response to a dietary intervention. Eight men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer were randomized to a low-fat/low-glycemic load intervention arm (fat and total daily glycemic load fat and total daily glycemic load >200). Prostate tissue was collected before randomization and approximately 6 weeks later, at the time of radical prostatectomy. Epithelium was acquired by laser capture microdissection, and transcript abundance levels were measured by cDNA microarray hybridization and confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Men in the intervention arm consumed 39% less total energy (P = 0.004) and the difference in weight change between intervention and control arms was -6.1 kg (P = 0.02). In the intervention arm, 23 (0.46%) of 5,711 cDNAs with measurable expression were significantly altered (P fat/low-glycemic load diet was associated with significant gene expression changes in human prostate epithelium. These results show the feasibility of using prostate tissues collected at diagnosis and at surgery to study the effects of dietary manipulation on prostate tissue, which may give insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the associations of diet and obesity with the development or progression of prostate cancer.

  2. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms - A Stove Intervention Study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F; Gil, Ana I; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-12-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n=155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n=179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48h. Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Biomonitoring Human Exposure to Household Air Pollution and Association with Self-reported Health Symptoms – A Stove Intervention Study in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Commodore, Adwoa; Hartinger, Stella; Lewin, Michael; Sjödin, Andreas; Pittman, Erin; Trinidad, Debra; Hubbard, Kendra; Lanata, Claudio F.; Gil, Ana I.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Naeher, Luke P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Household air pollution (HAP) from indoor biomass stoves contains harmful pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and is a leading risk factor for global disease burden. We used biomonitoring to assess HAP exposure and association with self-reported symptoms in 334 non-smoking Peruvian women to evaluate the efficacy of a stove intervention program. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study within the framework of a community randomized control trial. Using urinary PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs) as the exposure biomarkers, we investigated whether the intervention group (n = 155, with new chimney-equipped stoves) were less exposed to HAP compared to the control group (n = 179, with mostly open-fire stoves). We also estimated associations between the exposure biomarkers, risk factors, and self-reported health symptoms, such as recent eye conditions, respiratory conditions, and headache. Results We observed reduced headache and ocular symptoms in the intervention group than the control group. Urinary 2-naphthol, a suggested biomarker for inhalation PAH exposure, was significantly lower in the intervention group (GM with 95% CI: 13.4 [12.3, 14.6] μg/g creatinine) compared to control group (16.5 [15.0, 18.0] μg/g creatinine). Stove type and/or 2-naphthol was associated with a number of self-reported symptoms, such as red eye (adjusted OR with 95% CI: 3.80 [1.32, 10.9]) in the past 48 h. Conclusions Even with the improved stoves, the biomarker concentrations in this study far exceeded those of the general populations and were higher than a no-observed-genotoxic-effect-level, indicating high exposure and a potential for increased cancer risk in the population. PMID:27680405

  4. Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Randomized, interventional, prospective, comparative study to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy and tolerability of ramipril versus telmisartan in stage 1 hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus.

  5. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  6. Teaching the History of Human Rights and "Humanitarian" Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Nolan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how I teach about human rights and so-called humanitarian interventions to MA and Ph.D. students.  The course has three main themes or foci.  First, what are human rights and why have the social and economic human rights laid out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights been so neglected or rejected, especially by the U.S.  Second, how has American foreign policy used and abused human rights.  Third, why have liberal or humanitarian interventions of a militarized sort become so prevalent since the end of the Cold War and why are they so damaging.  The goal is to get students to look critically at the meaning and uses of human rights, about which many display a naive enthusiasm.

  7. Designing mental health interventions informed by child development and human biology theory: A social ecology intervention for child soldiers in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Koirala, Suraj; Worthman, Carol M.

    2014-01-01

    The anthropological study of human biology, health, and child development provides a model with potential to address the gap in population-wide mental health interventions. Four key concepts from human biology can inform public mental health interventions: life history theory and tradeoffs, redundancy and plurality of pathways, cascades and multiplier effects in biological systems, and proximate feedback systems. A public mental health intervention for former child soldiers in Nepal is used t...

  8. Multiple Effects of Human Resource Development Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowold, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the simultaneous impact of employees participation in non-technical training, technical training, and coaching on subsequent job performance, job involvement, and job satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: The present study was based on a sample of German call center employees and on a longitudinal,…

  9. Habitual dietary fibre intake influences gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Genelle; Murphy, Rinki; Butts, Christine; Brough, Louise; Whelan, Kevin; Coad, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Dysbiotic gut microbiota have been implicated in human disease. Diet-based therapeutic strategies have been used to manipulate the gut microbiota towards a more favourable profile. However, it has been demonstrated that large inter-individual variability exists in gut microbiota response to a dietary intervention. The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether habitually low dietary fibre (LDF) v. high dietary fibre (HDF) intakes influence gut microbiota response to an inulin-type fructan prebiotic. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, thirty-four healthy participants were classified as LDF or HDF consumers. Gut microbiota composition (16S rRNA bacterial gene sequencing) and SCFA concentrations were assessed following 3 weeks of daily prebiotic supplementation (Orafti® Synergy 1; 16 g/d) or placebo (Glucidex® 29 Premium; 16 g/d), as well as after 3 weeks of the alternative intervention, following a 3-week washout period. In the LDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (P=0·001). In the HDF group, the prebiotic intervention led to an increase in Bifidobacterium (Pgut microbiota response and are therefore more likely to benefit from an inulin-type fructan prebiotic than those with LDF intakes. Future studies aiming to modulate the gut microbiota and improve host health, using an inulin-type fructan prebiotic, should take habitual dietary fibre intake into account.

  10. The ethics of human genetic intervention: a postmodern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A R

    1997-03-01

    Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance to gene therapies. Looking at these technologies in a postmodern perspective helps one to appreciate the issues at stake in social and cultural change with a new technology such as gene therapy. While "modern" technology and ethics have focused on the autonomy of the individual, we are beginning to see a lessening of such emphasis on individualism and autonomy and more emphasis on the health of the population. Such a social change could cause technologies about which society may currently be cautious (such as human genetic interventions) to become more acceptable or even expected.

  11. Healthy Eating--A Human Development Intervention Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Augelli, Anthony R.

    1981-01-01

    Describes limitations of the psychological view that has dominated obesity research. The "brand" of psychology represented is assessed on its conceptual strengths, its implications for intervention program development, and its consequences for the delivery of services to people in communities. Suggests use of a human development model.…

  12. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  13. Human Interventions versus Climate Change: Impacts on Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, M. R.; Acharya, K.

    2009-12-01

    Water availability and occurrence of water induced disasters are impacted by both natural and human centric drivers. Climate change is considered to be one of the noted drivers in this regard. Human interventions through land use/land cover change, stream and floodplain regulations via dams, weirs, and embankments could be other equally important group of drivers. Unlike developed countries that have both resources and capabilities to adapt and mitigate the impact of such drivers, developing countries are increasingly at more risk. Identifying roles of such drivers are fundamental to the formulation of any adaptation and mitigation plans for their impacts for developing countries. In this study, we present a few examples from three regions of Nepal- a developing country in South Asia generally considered as a water rich country. Through results of modeling and statistical analyses, we show which driver is in control in different watersheds. Preliminary results show that climate change impact appears to be more prominent in large snow-fed river basins. In the smaller non-snow-fed watersheds originating from the middle hill, the impacts are not explicit despite perception of local people about changes in the water availability. In the southern belt bordering India, the impacts of river regulation on downstream areas are found to be the principal cause of flooding/inundation.

  14. Researching Human Experience: video intervention/prevention assessment (VIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Patashnick

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Human experience is a critical subject for research. By discussing Video Intervention/Prevention Assessment (VIA, a patient-centered health research method where patients teach their clinicians about living with a chronic condition through the creation of visual illness narratives, this paper examines the value of qualitative inquiry and why human experience rarely is investigated directly. An analysis of a sample VIA data is presented to demonstrate how, by utilizing grounded theory and qualitative analysis, one can derive rich and unique information from human experience.

  15. A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Interventions for Parental Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson F. Conserve

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionDisclosure of parental human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection to their children remains a difficult process for parents living with HIV (PLWH. In order to identify the best strategies to facilitate parental HIV disclosure, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of existing interventions designed to help PLWH parents with the disclosure process to their children.ObjectivesTo systematically review the efficacy of interventions designed to assist PLWH disclose their HIV status to their children.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of interventions designed to assist PLWH disclose their HIV status to their children. MEDLINE/PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, and Web of Science were searched.ResultsStudies were eligible for inclusion if they evaluated an intervention for parental HIV disclosure. Five studies published between 2001 and 2015 met the inclusion criteria. The interventions were conducted in South Africa, China, and the United States. Three of the studies used two-arm randomized controlled trials, in which the intervention group was given enhanced care while the control group received standard care. Four of the five studies included a theoretically informed intervention and three were limited to mothers. Results showed that four of the interventions increased parental HIV disclosure.ConclusionThe findings suggest that parental HIV disclosure interventions are successful in assisting parents with the disclosure process and can be adapted in different cultural context. Future parental HIV disclosure interventions should include fathers in order to assist men with parental HIV disclosure.

  16. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects the interp......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...... the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  17. Determination of bioactive, free isothiocyanates from a glucosinolate-containing phytotherapeutic agent: a pilot study with in vitro models and human intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Melinda-Rita; Krumbein, Angelika; Platz, Stefanie; Schreiner, Monika; Rohn, Sascha; Rehmers, Andreas; Lavric, Vasile; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Lamy, Evelyn

    2013-03-01

    Isothiocyanates (ITCs) derived from plants of the order Brassicales are known for their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory or anticarcinogenic potential. Although only the free ITCs exert bioactivity, quantification in vivo is almost exclusively performed on total ITC/metabolite content. We therefore investigated in a pilot study the amount of free ITC at different steps critical for therapeutic efficacy. A sensitive and specific GC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of individual free ITC after solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed. We show here that release of biologically active ITC from plants occurs at not only alkaline but also acidic pH. Furthermore, in human urine conversion of the ultimate, inactive mercapturic acid conjugate back into its corresponding bioactive form is increased at alkaline as compared to neutral pH. This was also observed in the urine of human volunteers, where - in correlation with the pH value - a mean of 0.16 to 1.03 μmol ITC was detected after oral application of a phytotherapeutic agent containing 30.4 μmol of the initial pro-drugs. The amounts of free ITC being necessary for bioactivity in vitro were found to be indeed achieved in vivo. These data might be helpful to better understand the beneficial effects of ITC observed in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human benefits of animal interventions for zoonosis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Roth, Felix; Bonfoh, Bassirou; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors.

  19. Propagation of Computer Virus under Human Intervention: A Dynamical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chenquan Gan; Xiaofan Yang; Wanping Liu; Qingyi Zhu; Xulong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the propagation behavior of computer virus under human intervention. A dynamical model describing the spread of computer virus, under which a susceptible computer can become recovered directly and an infected computer can become susceptible directly, is proposed. Through a qualitative analysis of this model, it is found that the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction number R0≤1, whereas the viral equilibrium is globally asympt...

  20. Multimodal Counseling Interventions: Effect on Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oroma Nwanodi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV vaccine was developed to reduce HPV-attributable cancers, external genital warts (EGW, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Adolescent HPV vaccination series completion rates are less than 40% in the United States of America, but up to 80% in Australia and the United Kingdom. Population-based herd immunity requires 80% or greater vaccination series completion rates. Pro-vaccination counseling facilitates increased vaccination rates. Multimodal counseling interventions may increase HPV vaccination series non-completers’ HPV-attributable disease knowledge and HPV-attributable disease prophylaxis (vaccination acceptance over a brief 14-sentence counseling intervention. An online, 4-group, randomized controlled trial, with 260 or more participants per group, found that parents were more likely to accept HPV vaccination offers for their children than were childless young adults for themselves (68.2% and 52.9%. A combined audiovisual and patient health education handout (PHEH intervention raised knowledge of HPV vaccination purpose, p = 0.02, and HPV vaccination acceptance for seven items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.023. The audiovisual intervention increased HPV vaccination acceptance for five items, p < 0.001 to p = 0.006. That HPV causes EGW, and that HPV vaccination prevents HPV-attributable diseases were better conveyed by the combined audiovisual and PHEH than the control 14-sentence counseling intervention alone.

  1. Rapid isocratic HPLC method and sample extraction procedures for measuring carotenoid, retinoid, and tocopherol concentrations in human blood and breast milk for intervention studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin A deficiency is an important cause of death in the developing world. A variety of dietary interventions using provitamin A-carotenoid rich fruits and vegetables are being tested for their potential to alleviate vitamin A deficiency in several countries. Thus, there is a need for a simple, ...

  2. Promoting question-asking in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders: Effectiveness of a robot intervention compared to a human-trainer intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huskens, B.E.B.M.; Verschuur, R.; Gillesen, J.; Didden, H.C.M.; Barakova, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of an applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based intervention conducted by a robot compared to an ABA-based intervention conducted by a human trainer in promoting self-initiated questions in children with autism spectrum

  3. Evaluation of Coastline Changes under Human Intervention Using Multi-Temporal High-Resolution Images: A Case Study of the Zhoushan Islands, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Continued sea-level rise and coastal development have led to considerable concerns on coastline changes along inhabited islands. Analysis of long-term coastline changes of islands is however limited due to unavailable data and the cost of field work. In this study, high-resolution images taken from 1970–2011 at an interval of about 10 years and topographic maps were collected to determine coastline changes and their drivers in the Zhoushan Islands, China. Results show that nearly all inhabited islands appeared to have noteworthy seaward expansion during the past four decades. Coastline change rates varied among islands, and the annual change rate of Zhoushan Island (the main island reached 12.83 ± 0.17 m/year during the same period. Since 2003, the study area has been dominated by artificial coast. The proportion of harbor/port and urban/industrial coast has significantly increased, while rocky coasts and shelter-farm coasts have shrunk greatly. Preliminary analysis of drivers for these coastline changes across the Zhoushan Islands highlights the roles of human policies during different periods as well as location, which were the dominant factors controlling the great spatial and temporal complexity of coastline changes of the major islands. Sediment supply from the Yangtze River decreased after the completion of the Three Gorges Dam in 2003; however, the Zhoushan coast rapidly accreted seaward during the last decade and the artificial siltation, coastal engineering, and harbor dredging materials could be responsible for the observed coastline changes. Pressured by rapid development of the port industry, the Zhoushan coast may face unprecedented challenges in coastal use in the near future. This research provides the basic background information for future studies on coastal protection and management.

  4. Controlling tungiasis in an impoverished community: an intervention study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pilger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Brazil, tungiasis is endemic in some resource-poor communities where various domestic and sylvatic animals act as reservoirs for this zoonosis. To determine the effect of control measures on the prevalence and intensity of infestation of human and animal tungiasis, a repeated cross-sectional survey with intervention was carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a traditional fishing community in Northeast Brazil, humans and reservoir animals were treated, and premise-spraying using an insecticide was done, while a second fishing community served as a control. Both communities were followed up 10 times during a 12-month period. At baseline, prevalence of tungiasis was 43% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%-51% and 37% (95% CI: 31%-43% in control and intervention villages, respectively. During the study, prevalence of tungiasis dropped to 10% (95% CI: 8%-13%; p<0.001 in the intervention village, while the prevalence remained at a high level in the control village. However, after one year, at the end of the study, in both communities the prevalence of the infestation had reached pre-intervention levels. Whereas the intensity of infestation was significantly reduced in the intervention community (p<0.001, and remained low at the end of the study (p<0.001, it did not change in the control village. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that a reduction of prevalence and intensity of infestation is possible, but in impoverished communities a long-lasting reduction of disease occurrence can only be achieved by the regular treatment of infested humans, the elimination of animal reservoirs, and, likely, through environmental changes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN27670575.

  5. Health and economic benefits of early vaccination and nonpharmaceutical interventions for a human influenza A (H7N9) pandemic: a modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazeni, Nayer; Hutton, David W; Collins, Cassandra I F; Garber, Alan M; Owens, Douglas K

    2014-05-20

    Vaccination for the 2009 pandemic did not occur until late in the outbreak, which limited its benefits. Influenza A (H7N9) is causing increasing morbidity and mortality in China, and researchers have modified the A (H5N1) virus to transmit via aerosol, which again heightens concerns about pandemic influenza preparedness. To determine how quickly vaccination should be completed to reduce infections, deaths, and health care costs in a pandemic with characteristics similar to influenza A (H7N9) and A (H5N1). Dynamic transmission model to estimate health and economic consequences of a severe influenza pandemic in a large metropolitan city. Literature and expert opinion. Residents of a U.S. metropolitan city with characteristics similar to New York City. Lifetime. Societal. Vaccination of 30% of the population at 4 or 6 months. Infections and deaths averted and cost-effectiveness. In 12 months, 48 254 persons would die. Vaccinating at 9 months would avert 2365 of these deaths. Vaccinating at 6 months would save 5775 additional lives and $51 million at a city level. Accelerating delivery to 4 months would save an additional 5633 lives and $50 million. If vaccination were delayed for 9 months, reducing contacts by 8% through nonpharmaceutical interventions would yield a similar reduction in infections and deaths as vaccination at 4 months. The model is not designed to evaluate programs targeting specific populations, such as children or persons with comorbid conditions. Vaccination in an influenza A (H7N9) pandemic would need to be completed much faster than in 2009 to substantially reduce morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Maximizing non-pharmaceutical interventions can substantially mitigate the pandemic until a matched vaccine becomes available. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, National Institutes of Health, and Department of Veterans Affairs.

  6. Helping Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Systematic Review of Exit and Postexit Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Nathaniel A; Maynard, Brandy R; Born, Kara R; Wagner, Elizabeth; Atkins, Bonnie; House, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a global problem and results in deleterious psychological, social, and physical effects on the lives of those who are trafficked; however, it is not clear how to best intervene with survivors. The purpose of this review was to synthesize the evidence of exit and postexit intervention programs for survivors of human trafficking to inform practice and research. Systematic review methods were used to search, select, and extract data from published and unpublished experimental, quasi-experimental, and preexperimental studies that assessed the effects of any exit or postexit interventions for victims of human trafficking. The authors searched eight databases, reviewed bibliographies, and conducted forward citation searches from relevant reports and prior reviews to find studies authored between 2005 and 2015. The search yielded six eligible studies that included 155 female and 6 male survivors from four countries. Interventions were diverse, with three using a trauma-informed approach. Authors measured a myriad of outcomes, including mental health, social network, community reintegration, and employment; however, the quality of most studies was poor. Evidence of effects of exit and postexit interventions is sparse, and much of the research is poorly designed and executed; however, the needs of trafficking survivors are complex and effective interventions are desperately needed. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  7. Explorative Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Intervention Study with Low Doses of Inhaled Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol Reveals No Effect on Sweet Taste Intensity Perception and Liking in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Suzanne E M; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in food reward. For example, in humans, liking of palatable foods is assumed to be modulated by endocannabinoid activity. Studies in rodents suggest that the ECS also plays a role in sweet taste intensity perception, but it is unknown to what extent this can be extrapolated to humans. Therefore, this study aimed at elucidating whether Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or cannabidiol (CBD) affects sweet taste intensity perception and liking in humans, potentially resulting in alterations in food preferences. Materials and Methods: In a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy males participated in three test sessions that were 2 weeks apart. During the test sessions, participants received THC-rich, CBD-rich, or placebo Cannabis by inhalation divided over two doses (4 + 1 mg THC; 25 + 10 mg CBD). Participants tasted seven chocolate milk-like drinks that differed in sugar concentration and they rated sweet taste intensity and liking of the drinks. They were then asked to rank the seven drinks according to how much they liked the drinks and were offered ad libitum access to their favorite drink. In addition, they completed a computerized food preference task and completed an appetite questionnaire at the start, midway, and end of the test sessions. Results: Inhalation of the Cannabis preparations did not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, ranking order, or ad libitum consumption of the favorite drink. In addition, food preferences were not influenced by the interventions. Reported fullness was lower, whereas desire to eat was higher throughout the THC compared to the CBD condition. Conclusions: These results suggest that administration of Cannabis preparations at the low doses tested does not affect sweet taste intensity perception and liking, nor does it influence food preferences in humans.

  8. Intervention Research and Its Influence on Nonintervention Research in Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Chae, Chungil

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify how intervention research weighed in nonintervention research in the field of human resource development (HRD) by examining the number, citation frequency and use of experimental studies in HRD academic journals. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 2,700 articles published between 1990 and 2014…

  9. Climate change impact assessments on the water resources of India under extensive human interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodhanan, C G; Sreeja, K G; Eldho, T I

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is a major concern in the twenty-first century and its assessments are associated with multiple uncertainties, exacerbated and confounded in the regions where human interventions are prevalent. The present study explores the challenges for climate change impact assessment on the water resources of India, one of the world's largest human-modified systems. The extensive human interventions in the Energy-Land-Water-Climate (ELWC) nexus significantly impact the water resources of the country. The direct human interventions in the landscape may surpass/amplify/mask the impacts of climate change and in the process also affect climate change itself. Uncertainties in climate and resource assessments add to the challenge. Formulating coherent resource and climate change policies in India would therefore require an integrated approach that would assess the multiple interlinkages in the ELWC nexus and distinguish the impacts of global climate change from that of regional human interventions. Concerted research efforts are also needed to incorporate the prominent linkages in the ELWC nexus in climate/earth system modelling.

  10. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  11. Humans, 'things' and space: costing hospital infection control interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, K; Graves, N; Halton, K; Barnett, A G

    2013-07-01

    Previous attempts at costing infection control programmes have tended to focus on accounting costs rather than economic costs. For studies using economic costs, estimates tend to be quite crude and probably underestimate the true cost. One of the largest costs of any intervention is staff time, but this cost is difficult to quantify and has been largely ignored in previous attempts. To design and evaluate the costs of hospital-based infection control interventions or programmes. This article also discusses several issues to consider when costing interventions, and suggests strategies for overcoming these issues. Previous literature and techniques in both health economics and psychology are reviewed and synthesized. This article provides a set of generic, transferable costing guidelines. Key principles such as definition of study scope and focus on large costs, as well as pitfalls (e.g. overconfidence and uncertainty), are discussed. These new guidelines can be used by hospital staff and other researchers to cost their infection control programmes and interventions more accurately. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Studying Human Origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbey, Raymond; Roebroeks, Wil

    2001-01-01

    This history of human origin studies covers a wide range of disciplines. This important new study analyses a number of key episodes from palaeolithic archaeology, palaeoanthropology, primatology and evolutionary theory in terms of various ideas on how one should go about such reconstructions and

  13. Quality assurance in non-interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capan, Müge

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, drug research and surveillance after authorisation becomes more and more important for several reasons. Non-interventional studies (NIS investigate various aspects of drug use including efficacy and safety under real life conditions. Such kind of health services research should be on a high scientific, methodological and organisational level. Therefore accompanying measures to improve or to keep the quality are highly recommended. The aim of quality management is: first to avoid bias of results by using an appropriate study design and an adequate data analysis, second to assure authenticity, completeness and validity of the data and third to identify and resolve deficiencies at an early stage. Basic principles are laid down in corresponding guidelines and recommendations of authorities, institutes and societies. Various guidelines for good epidemiological practice (GEP were published by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA and international and regional societies for epidemiology. In addition in Germany the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM together with the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI and the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (VFA have published respectively recommendations dealing with quality aspects of non-interventional observational studies. Key points are the advanced publishing of information about the project, developing of a study plan/protocol containing the scientific objectives, a sample size justification and a description of the planned analyses and the publishing of a summary of the results timely after completion of the study. The quality of the data can be improved by using standardized case report forms (CRF and the CRF should be reviewed and tested before start of study by some participants. A source data verification (SDV should be performed in randomly selected centres – in between 2% and 5% of the centres depending on the number of participating centres

  14. How Can Humanities Interventions Promote Progress in the Environmental Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Kitch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental humanists make compelling arguments about the importance of the environmental humanities (EH for discovering new ways to conceptualize and address the urgent challenges of the environmental crisis now confronting the planet. Many environmental scientists in a variety of fields are also committed to incorporating socio-cultural analyses in their work. Despite such intentions and rhetoric, however, and some humanists’ eagerness to incorporate science into their own work, “radical interdisciplinarity [across the humanities and sciences] is ... rare ... and does not have the impact one would hope for” (Holm et al. 2013, p. 32. This article discusses reasons for the gap between transdisciplinary intentions and the work being done in the environmental sciences. The article also describes a project designed to address that gap. Entitled “From Innovation to Progress: Addressing Hazards of the Sustainability Sciences”, the project encourages humanities interventions in problem definition, before any solution or action is chosen. Progress offers strategies for promoting expanded stakeholder engagement, enhancing understanding of power struggles and inequities that underlie problems and over-determine solutions, and designing multiple future scenarios based on alternative values, cultural practices and beliefs, and perspectives on power distribution and entitlement.

  15. GC-MS methods for metabolic profiling of microbial fermentation products of dietary polyphenols in human and in vitro intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, C.H.; van Dorsten, F.A.; Jacobs, D.M.; Le Belleguic, M.; van Velzen, E.J.J.; Bingham, M.O.; Janssen, H.-G.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Flavonoids, a subclass of polyphenols, are major constituents of many plant-based foods and beverages, including tea, wine and chocolate. Epidemiological studies have shown that a flavonoid-rich diet is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. The majority of the flavonoids survive

  16. Pilot study of a multimodal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary Ellen; Hovgaard, Doris; Boesen, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Substantial physical and functional deconditioning and diminished psychological wellbeing are all potential adverse effects of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits (physical and functional capacity) of a 4......-6 week supervised and structured mixed-type exercise, progressive relaxation and psychoeducation programme in patients undergoing allo-HSCT. Nineteen patients were randomized to an intervention or a conventional care group (CC) and were tested for physical and functional capacity before admission...... muscle strength, and minimizing loss of physical and functional capacity in patients undergoing allo-HSCT....

  17. Channel morphology changes and their relationship to valley bottom geology and human interventions; a case study from the Vistula Valley in Warsaw, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Tomasz; Ostrowski, Piotr; Siwicki, Piotr; Brach, Michał

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of the geological setting of channel zone in the morphological variability of a river reach situated between engineered and seminatural channel sections. Investigations were carried out in the Vistula River channel in Warsaw. The study included the drilling of 60 geological boreholes in the river channel and the registering of sedimentary structures of modern river-channel sediments. The morphology of the channel was defined based on a series of bathymetric measurements of different river levels. To identify the reasons for the variation in the channel-bed morphology, numerical modelling of river flow was performed. Calculations were made using the FLUENT CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model. The stabilization of bottom erosion along the engineered reach of the river was found to be associated with a shallow depth to the top of the basement of modern alluvial sediments, composed of erosion-resistant glacial deposits. The suballuvial basement in this part of the river channel also serves as a local base level in relation to the river reach upstream.

  18. An Assessment of Intervention Fidelity in Published Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Nicole A.; Kim, Irang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Intervention fidelity is a critical strategy to help advance the usefulness and integrity of social work research. This study assessed the extent to which a selected sample of published social work intervention researchers reported its intervention protocols. Methods: Six core social work journals were reviewed in this analysis. The…

  19. Pragmatic trial of an intervention to increase human papillomavirus vaccination in safety-net clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Sanderson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV infection has been causally linked to six cancers, and many disproportionately affect minorties. This study reports on the development and effectiveness of an intervention aimed at increasing HPV vaccine uptake among African American and Hispanic pediatric patients in safety-net clinics. Methods Formative research, community engagement, and theory guided development of the intervention. A clustered, non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial was conducted in four clinics providing healthcare for the underserved in Tennessee, U.S., with two intervention sites and two usual care sites. Patients aged 9-18 years (N = 408 and their mothers (N = 305 enrolled, with children clustered within families. The intervention consisted of two provider/staff training sessions and provision of patient education materials, consisting of a video/flyer promoting HPV vaccine. Medical records were reviewed before/after the initial visit and after 12 months. Results At the initial visit, provision of patient education materials and provider recommendation were higher at intervention sites versus usual care sites, and receipt of HPV vaccine was higher at intervention sites (45.4% versus 32.9% but not significantly after adjusting for patient’s age and mother’s education. Provider recommendation, but not education materials, increased the likelihood of vaccine receipt at the initial visit, although over one-third of intervention mothers cited the flyer/video as motivating vaccination. Completion of the 3-dose series at follow-up was lower in the intervention arm. Conclusions Future interventions should combine patient education, intensive provider/staff education, and patient reminders. Research should compare patient education focusing on HPV vaccine only versus all adolescent vaccines. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02808832 , 9/12/16

  20. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  1. Safe motherhood intervention studies in Africa: A review | Luck | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the findings of safe motherhood intervention studies conducted in African settings. Data sources: Published literature regarding interventions designed to reduce maternal mortality in African settings. Study selection: Studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa to assess the effects of interventions designed ...

  2. The pathobiology of human coronary atheroma: contributions of interventional cardiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Escaned-Barbosa (Javier)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe development of coronary angiography facilitated a complete new assessment of coronary circulation in humans, opening a new age in the study and treatment of coronary artery disease. A second revolution came from furrher developments of cardiac catheterisation that made possible the

  3. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein is associated with insulin resistance in humans and is regulated by hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, or liraglutide administration: cross-sectional and interventional studies in normal subjects, insulin-resistant subjects, and subjects with newly diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Liu, Rui; Li, Shu; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Dongfang; Wang, Yaxu; Xiong, Zhengai; Boden, Guenther; Chen, Shirong; Li, Ling; Yang, Gangyi

    2013-05-01

    Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Previous studies in humans and in rodents have produced conflicting results regarding the link between ZAG and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between ZAG and insulin resistance in cross-sectional and interventional studies. Serum ZAG (determined with ELISA) was compared with various parameters related to insulin resistance in subjects with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps were performed in healthy and PCOS women. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to assess mRNA and protein expression of ZAG. The effect of a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist on ZAG was studied in a 12-week liraglutide treatment trial. Circulating ZAG was lower in patients with IGT and newly diagnosed T2DM than in controls. Circulating ZAG correlated positively with HDL cholesterol and adiponectin, and correlated inversely with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat percentage, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, HbA1c, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). On multivariate analysis, ZAG was independently associated with BMI, HOMA-IR, and adiponectin. ZAG mRNA and protein were decreased in adipose tissue of T2DM patients. Moreover, circulating ZAG levels were lower in women with PCOS than in women with high insulin sensitivity. Liraglutide treatment for 12 weeks significantly increased circulating ZAG levels. We conclude that ZAG may be an adipokine associated with insulin resistance.

  4. Efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions among men who have sex with men in China: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the efficacy of HIV prevention interventions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge, HIV testing, condom use, sexual risk activity, incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV incidence were used as outcomes. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 22 studies, published between 2004 and 2011, which met inclusion criteria. Variables with the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size was d = 0.627 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.460-0.793; Z = 7.38; P women and for number of sexual partners. Interventions for condom use conducted in Southwest China (the region in China with the highest prevalence of HIV) were significantly less efficacious. Interventions for condom use were significantly more efficacious when the respondent-driven sampling recruitment method and popular opinion leader intervention strategy were used. Human immunodeficiency virus prevention interventions were efficacious among MSM in China. Additional efforts are needed to control the growing HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome infection among MSM in China. Future interventions need to use more rigorous intervention methodologies (e.g., respondent-driven sampling method, and popular opinion leader intervention strategy).

  5. Positioning the arts for intervention design research in the human services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Calligan, Holly Feen

    2015-12-01

    The arts have been integral to the human experience fostering innovation in social arrangements, strengthening group cohesion, and merging esthetics with the utilitarian properties of technology. For intervention design research in the human services the arts can harness innovation and creativity in meeting human needs and addressing social issues. Given their capacities to stimulate expression of first person experience through interpretative strategies, the arts can equip people and groups, including researchers, with opportunities to express primary experiential knowledge through creative means, portray useful ways of meeting human needs, educate others about the social issues people experience, and formulate intervention strategies or even models to address the causes and consequences of those issues. In this paper, the authors discuss how the arts can inform and deepen human service intervention design and development and, as a result, advance innovation in the human services. They offer a rationale supporting the inclusion of the arts in the design of human service interventions, examine the contributions of the arts to the formulation of intervention concept and developmental research to further improve interventions, and consider how the arts can advance the reflexivity of intervention designers. The authors draw implications for how researchers can position the arts in the nine steps of intervention design and development the authors offer in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inference for environmental intervention studies using principal stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackstadt, Amber J; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Williams, D'Ann L; Diette, Gregory B; Breysse, Patrick N; Butz, Arlene M; Peng, Roger D

    2014-12-10

    Previous research has found evidence of an association between indoor air pollution and asthma morbidity in children. Environmental intervention studies have been performed to examine the role of household environmental interventions in altering indoor air pollution concentrations and improving health. Previous environmental intervention studies have found only modest effects on health outcomes and it is unclear if the health benefits provided by environmental modification are comparable with those provided by medication. Traditionally, the statistical analysis of environmental intervention studies has involved performing two intention-to-treat analyses that separately estimate the effect of the environmental intervention on health and the effect of the environmental intervention on indoor air pollution concentrations. We propose a principal stratification approach to examine the extent to which an environmental intervention's effect on health outcomes coincides with its effect on indoor air pollution. We apply this approach to data from a randomized air cleaner intervention trial conducted in a population of asthmatic children living in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We find that among children for whom the air cleaner reduced indoor particulate matter concentrations, the intervention resulted in a meaningful improvement of asthma symptoms with an effect generally larger than previous studies have shown. A key benefit of using principal stratification in environmental intervention studies is that it allows investigators to estimate causal effects of the intervention for sub-groups defined by changes in the indoor air pollution concentration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. User-Centered Design for Developing Interventions to Improve Clinician Recommendation of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Michelle L; Mcmullen, Carmit K; Firemark, Alison J; Naleway, Allison L; Henrikson, Nora B; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the US and is associated with multiple types of cancer. Although effective HPV vaccines have been available since 2006, coverage rates in the US remain much lower than with other adolescent vaccinations. Prior research has shown that a strong recommendation from a clinician is a critical determinant in HPV vaccine uptake and coverage. However, few published studies to date have specifically addressed the issue of helping clinicians communicate more effectively with their patients about the HPV vaccine. To develop one or more novel interventions for helping clinicians make strong and effective recommendations for HPV vaccination. Using principles of user-centered design, we conducted qualitative interviews, interviews with persons from analogous industries, and a data synthesis workshop with multiple stakeholders. Five potential intervention strategies targeted at health care clinicians, youth, and their parents were developed. The two most popular choices to pursue were a values-based communication strategy and a puberty education workbook. User-centered design is a useful strategy for developing potential interventions to improve the rate and success of clinicians recommending the HPV vaccine. Further research is needed to test the effectiveness and acceptability of these interventions in clinical settings.

  8. Mediators of compassionate goal intervention effects on human neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Thane M; Mayer, Stefanie E; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L; Scarsella, Gina M; McGuire, Adam P; Crocker, Jennifer; Abelson, James L

    2017-11-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is thought to mediate the effects of stress on illness. Research has identified a limited number of psychological variables that modulate human HPA responses to stressors (e.g. perceived control and social support). Prosocial goals can reduce subjective stress, but have not been carefully examined in experimental settings where pathways of impact on biological stress markers may be traced. Recent work demonstrated that coaching individuals to strive to help others reduced HPA responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) relative to other cognitive interventions. However, identification of mediational pathways, which were not examined in the original study, is necessary to determine whether the HPA buffering effects were due to helping motivations (compassionate goals; CGs) rather than via previously identified variables such as control or support. In this new analysis, we combined the original cortisol data with novel observer ratings of interpersonal behavior and psychological variables during the stress task, and conducted new, theory-driven analyses to determine psychological mediators for the intervention's effect on cortisol responses (N = 54; 21 females, 33 males; 486 cortisol samples). Control, support, and task ego-threat failed to account for the effects of the intervention. As hypothesized, self and observer-rated CGs, as well as observer-rated perceptions of participants' interpersonal behavior as morally desirable (but not as dominant or affiliative) were significant mediators of neuroendocrine responses. The findings suggest that stress-reduction interventions based on prosocial behavior should target particular motivational and interpersonal features.

  9. Boosting Reading Fluency: An Intervention Case Study at Subword Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairaluoma, Leila; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Mikko; Holopainen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This study is an intervention case study of fluency in Finnish-speaking children with dyslexia. Two 7-year-old children, a girl and a boy, were selected from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia. The intervention emphasised syllables as reading units, and proceeded from reading syllables to reading words and text. Letter knowledge, reading…

  10. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  11. Inference for Environmental Intervention Studies using Principal Stratification

    OpenAIRE

    Hackstadt, A. J.; Butz, Arlene M.; Williams, D’Ann L.; Diette, Gregory B.; Breysse, Patrick N.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Peng, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found evidence of an association between indoor air pollution and asthma morbidity in children. Environmental intervention studies have been performed to examine the role of household environmental interventions in altering indoor air pollution concentrations and improving health. Previous environmental intervention studies have found only modest effects on health outcomes and it is unclear if the health benefits provided by environmental modification are comparable to t...

  12. Promoting question-asking in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders: effectiveness of a robot intervention compared to a human-trainer intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskens, Bibi; Verschuur, Rianne; Gillesen, Jan; Didden, Robert; Barakova, Emilia

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of an applied behaviour analysis (ABA)-based intervention conducted by a robot compared to an ABA-based intervention conducted by a human trainer in promoting self-initiated questions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data were collected in a combined crossover multiple baseline design across participants. Six children were randomly assigned to two experimental groups. Results revealed that the number of self-initiated questions for both experimental groups increased between baseline and the first intervention and was maintained during follow-up. The high number of self-initiated questions during follow-up indicates that both groups maintained this skill. The interventions conducted by a robot and a human trainer were both effective in promoting self-initiated questions in children with ASD. No conclusion with regard to the differential effectiveness of both interventions could be drawn. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.

  13. INTERVENTIONS IN HUMAN RESOURCE TRAINING FOR COMPETENCIES WITHIN THE INTELLIGENT ORGANIZATIONS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Valecillos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of a study on interventions for human talent training programs for competency within the Intelligent Organizations focus. The theoretical foundation is supported by Organizational Development and approaches from Senge (1994 , Lewin ( 1946 , Leboyer (2000 and Obeso (2003 . The methodology is embedded in the qualitative - interpretive paradigm and action research. Results showed programs focused on Senge's learning disciplines to to promote change and competence skills that help staff to cope with the challenges and opportunities facing modern business towards organizational intelligence.

  14. A cluster-randomised intervention trial against Schistosoma japonicum in the Peoples' Republic of China: bovine and human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Gray

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Bovines, particularly water buffaloes, are thought to play a major role in the transmission of schistosomiasis to humans in China. Preliminary results (1998-2003 of a praziquantel (PZQ-based pilot intervention study we undertook provided proof of principle that water buffaloes are major reservoir hosts for S. japonicum in the Poyang Lake region, Jiangxi Province.Here we present the results of a cluster-randomised intervention trial (2004-2007 undertaken in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, with increased power and more general applicability to the lake and marshlands regions of southern China. The trial involved four matched pairs of villages with one village within each pair randomly selected as a control (human PZQ treatment only, leaving the other as the intervention (human and bovine PZQ treatment. A sentinel cohort of people to be monitored for new infections for the duration of the study was selected from each village. Results showed that combined human and bovine chemotherapy with PZQ had a greater effect on human incidence than human PZQ treatment alone.The results from this study, supported by previous experimental evidence, confirms that bovines are the major reservoir host of human schistosomiasis in the lake and marshland regions of southern China, and reinforce the rationale for the development and deployment of a transmission blocking anti-S. japonicum vaccine targeting bovines.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000263291.

  15. Evaluation of Agricultural Interventions on Human and Poultry-Related Salmonella Enteritidis in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marsha; Cox, William; Otterstatter, Michael; de With, Nancy; Galanis, Eleni

    2017-10-13

    A collaborative investigation between public health and animal health led to numerous interventions along the food chain in response to an outbreak of human salmonellosis and increased incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) among poultry. Incidence of both human and chicken SE decreased substantially in 2012 and 2013 following these interventions. We used time series analysis to assess the impact of three interventions: vaccination of broiler breeder flocks, separation in the hatchery of breeder eggs, and an industry order to stop farm-gate sales of ungraded broiler hatching eggs. Results show a Granger causal association between human SE incidence and SE incidence in chickens 8 months earlier. Among the interventions, separation of breeder flocks showed a consistent and statistically significant association with declining SE incidence in chickens. Our results did not show consistent declines in chicken SE following breeder flock vaccination (live or inactivated vaccine). None of the interventions had statistically significant impacts on human SE incidence. Our results are consistent with a positive effect of certain interventions and also reveal where additional data are needed for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multiple interventions throughout the food chain are best practices when dealing with enteric pathogens; collecting data on the timing and intensity of these interventions allow proper evaluation of their independent and combined effects. Finally, we identify considerations for others interested in undertaking similar evaluations. Ongoing collaborative work between public health and animal health is required to refine strategies for SE control in British Columbia.

  16. HCI and mobile health interventions: How human-computer interaction can contribute to successful mobile health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Erika S

    2013-12-01

    Advances in mobile computing offer the potential to change when, where, and how health interventions are delivered. Rather than relying on occasional in-clinic interactions, mobile health (mHealth) interventions may overcome constraints due to limited clinician time, poor patient adherence, and inability to provide meaningful interventions at the most appropriate time. Technological capability, however, does not equate with user acceptance and adoption. How then can we ensure that mobile technologies for behavior change meet the needs of their target audience? In this paper, we argue that overcoming acceptance and adoption barriers requires interdisciplinary collaborations, bringing together not only technologists and health researchers but also human-computer interaction (HCI) experts. We discuss the value of human-computer interaction research to the nascent field of mHealth and demonstrate how research from HCI can offer complementary insights on the creation of mobile health interventions. We conclude with a discussion of barriers to interdisciplinary collaborations in mobile health and suggest ways to overcome them.

  17. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Human Performance Technology Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.

    2010-01-01

    Human Performance Technology (HPT) is a field of practice that has evolved from advancements in organizational development, instructional design, strategic human resource management and cognitive psychology. As globalization and trends like outsourcing and off-shoring start to dominate the way organizations grow, HPT practitioners are managing the…

  18. The Gambia hepatitis intervention study (GHIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS is a collaborative undertaking by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, The Government of the Republic of The Gambia and the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. This programme was launched in 1986 with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Hepatitis B (HB vaccination in childhood in the prevention of HB infection, chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer in a population at high risk. The implementation of this trial involves three overlapping phases:

    Phase l (1986-1990: V Vaccination accination of appro approximately ximately 60,000 children. HB vaccine, which was approved by the World Health Organisation, was integrated into the Gambian Expanded Programme of Immunisation (EPI in a phased manner over a four-year period from July 1986 to February 1990. During this period, two groups of children were recruited, one comprising about 60,000 children who received all vaccines in the EPI schedule plus the HB vaccine, the other comprising a similar number of children who received all vaccines except HB. Since February 1990, HB vaccination is offered to all newborns as part of the EPI schedule in The Gambia.

    Phase ll (1991-1997: Estimate of efficacy of HB vac- vaccine cine against infection and chronic carriage. Longitudinal and cross-sectional surveys were carried out in selected groups of vaccinated (Group 1 and unvaccinated (Group 2. These two subsets have provided evidence of the short-term efficacy of HB vaccine in preventing infection and chronic carriage

  19. A Descriptive Study of Outcomes of Interventions to Prevent Mother ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of the Prevention of Mother-To-Child Treatment (PMTCT) interventions, in reducing mother-to-child transmission of Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection in infants born to HIV infected women in two health centers Lusaka district (MTCT-Plus cohort) between 2002 and ...

  20. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  1. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Evens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1 How are the studies designed? (2 How are the interventions designed? and (3 What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK.

  2. The effects of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg; Huang, Tao; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    Aim: The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of the Odense Overweight Intervention Study on BMI development. Methods: The OOIS is a semi-blinded randomized controlled trial with three measurement occasions. Participants were allocated into two intervention arms; a day camp...... intervention arm (DCIA) and a standard intervention arm (SIA). For the DCIA the camp lasted for six weeks and consisted of fun-based physical activities, healthy eating, and health classes. The following 10 months a family based intervention was accomplished. The SIA was offered a weekly activity session....... Conclusions: The DCIA has a clear positive health effect in key parameters; BMI, BMI z-score, body fat-%, and clustered risk. The effect is pronounced at 6 weeks and, though reduced, still present after 52 weeks. The results of the study shows the potential of an activity camp as a basis for health change...

  3. Defining the Relationship Between Human Error Classes and Technology Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A.; Rantanen, Eas M.

    2003-01-01

    The modus operandi in addressing human error in aviation systems is predominantly that of technological interventions or fixes. Such interventions exhibit considerable variability both in terms of sophistication and application. Some technological interventions address human error directly while others do so only indirectly. Some attempt to eliminate the occurrence of errors altogether whereas others look to reduce the negative consequences of these errors. In any case, technological interventions add to the complexity of the systems and may interact with other system components in unforeseeable ways and often create opportunities for novel human errors. Consequently, there is a need to develop standards for evaluating the potential safety benefit of each of these intervention products so that resources can be effectively invested to produce the biggest benefit to flight safety as well as to mitigate any adverse ramifications. The purpose of this project was to help define the relationship between human error and technological interventions, with the ultimate goal of developing a set of standards for evaluating or measuring the potential benefits of new human error fixes.

  4. Development of a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention for Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Spring C.; Davies, Cristyn; McBride, Kate; Blades, Joanna; Stoney, Tanya; Marshall, Helen; Skinner, S. Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Australia has implemented a nation-wide programme providing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to girls and boys through school-based programmes. Previous research has identified three distinct areas for attention: (1) lack of understanding about HPV and HPV vaccination, (2) young people's desire for involvement in decision-making…

  5. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haddeland, I.; Heinke, J.; Biemans, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Konzmann, M.; Ludwig, F.; Masaki, Y.; Schewe, J.; Stacke, T.; Tessler, Z.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Wisser, D.

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct

  6. Access to essential maternal health interventions and human rights violations among vulnerable communities in eastern Burma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke C Mullany

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health indicators are poor and human rights violations are widespread in eastern Burma. Reproductive and maternal health indicators have not been measured in this setting but are necessary as part of an evaluation of a multi-ethnic pilot project exploring strategies to increase access to essential maternal health interventions. The goal of this study is to estimate coverage of maternal health services prior to this project and associations between exposure to human rights violations and access to such services. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Selected communities in the Shan, Mon, Karen, and Karenni regions of eastern Burma that were accessible to community-based organizations operating from Thailand were surveyed to estimate coverage of reproductive, maternal, and family planning services, and to assess exposure to household-level human rights violations within the pilot-project target population. Two-stage cluster sampling surveys among ever-married women of reproductive age (15-45 y documented access to essential antenatal care interventions, skilled attendance at birth, postnatal care, and family planning services. Mid-upper arm circumference, hemoglobin by color scale, and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia by rapid diagnostic dipstick were measured. Exposure to human rights violations in the prior 12 mo was recorded. Between September 2006 and January 2007, 2,914 surveys were conducted. Eighty-eight percent of women reported a home delivery for their last pregnancy (within previous 5 y. Skilled attendance at birth (5.1%, any (39.3% or > or = 4 (16.7% antenatal visits, use of an insecticide-treated bed net (21.6%, and receipt of iron supplements (11.8% were low. At the time of the survey, more than 60% of women had hemoglobin level estimates < or = 11.0 g/dl and 7.2% were Pf positive. Unmet need for contraceptives exceeded 60%. Violations of rights were widely reported: 32.1% of Karenni households reported forced labor and 10% of Karen

  7. Adapting HIV prevention evidence-based interventions in practice settings: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Uyen H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Methods Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73. Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Results Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Conclusion Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to

  8. Adapting HIV prevention evidence-based interventions in practice settings: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veniegas, Rosemary C; Kao, Uyen H; Rosales, Ricki

    2009-11-23

    Evidence-based interventions that are being delivered in real-world settings are adapted to enhance the external validity of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine multiple intervention adaptations made during pre-implementation, implementation, maintenance, and evolution phases of human immunodeficiency virus HIV prevention technology transfer. We examined two important categories of adaptations -- modifications to key characteristics, such as activities or delivery methods of interventions and reinvention of the interventions including addition and deletion of core elements. Study participants were thirty-four community-based organization staff who were implementing evidence-based interventions in Los Angeles, California. Participants were interviewed twice and interviews were professionally transcribed. Transcriptions were coded by two coders with good inter-rater reliability (kappa coefficient = 0.73). Sixty-two open-ended codes for adaptation activities, which were linked to 229 transcript segments, were categorized as modifications of key characteristics or reinvention. Participants described activities considered modifications to key characteristics and reinvention of evidence-based interventions during pre-implementation, implementation, and maintenance phases. None of the participants reported accessing technical assistance or guidance when reinventing their interventions. Staff executed many of the recommended steps for sound adaptation of these interventions for new populations and settings. Staff reported modifying and reinventing interventions when translating HIV prevention programs into practice. Targeted technical assistance for formative evaluation should be focused on the pre-implementation phase during which frequent modifications occur. Continuous or repeated measurements of fidelity are recommended. Increased technical assistance and guidance are needed to ensure that reinventions are evaluated and consistent with the

  9. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period.

  10. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized...... the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for characterization and reporting of DF sources and DF-containing materials are strongly recommended for future studies on the effects of DF on human physiology.......Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy...

  11. Sociotechnical Human Factors Involved in Remote Online Usability Testing of Two eHealth Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozney, Lori M; Baxter, Pamela; Fast, Hilary; Cleghorn, Laura; Hundert, Amos S; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-02-03

    Research in the fields of human performance technology and human computer interaction are challenging the traditional macro focus of usability testing arguing for methods that help test moderators assess "use in context" (ie, cognitive skills, usability understood over time) and in authentic "real world" settings. Human factors in these complex test scenarios may impact on the quality of usability results being derived yet there is a lack of research detailing moderator experiences in these test environments. Most comparative research has focused on the impact of the physical environment on results, and rarely on how the sociotechnical elements of the test environment affect moderator and test user performance. Improving our understanding of moderator roles and experiences with conducting "real world" usability testing can lead to improved techniques and strategies To understand moderator experiences of using Web-conferencing software to conduct remote usability testing of 2 eHealth interventions. An exploratory case study approach was used to study 4 moderators' experiences using Blackboard Collaborate for remote testing sessions of 2 different eHealth interventions. Data collection involved audio-recording iterative cycles of test sessions, collecting summary notes taken by moderators, and conducting 2 90-minute focus groups via teleconference. A direct content analysis with an inductive coding approach was used to explore personal accounts, assess the credibility of data interpretation, and generate consensus on the thematic structure of the results. Following the convergence of data from the various sources, 3 major themes were identified: (1) moderators experienced and adapted to unpredictable changes in cognitive load during testing; (2) moderators experienced challenges in creating and sustaining social presence and untangling dialogue; and (3) moderators experienced diverse technical demands, but were able to collaboratively troubleshoot with test users

  12. Application study of medical robots in vascular intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wang-sheng; Xu, Wu-yi; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Da; Wang, Da-min; Jia, Po; Li, Zhi-cao; Wang, Tian-miao; Zhang, Da-peng; Tian, Zeng-min; Zeng, Yanjun

    2011-09-01

    Based on the background of minimally invasive surgery and applications of medical robots, a vascular interventional robotic system has been developed that can be used in the field of vascular intervention. The robotic system comprises a propulsion system, an image navigation system and a virtual surgery training system. Integration of the three systems constitutes a vascular intervention prototype robotic system used to carry out in vitro vascular intervention and animal experiments. On a transparent glass vascular model, a catheter was shown to enter an arbitrary branch of the vascular model with catheter motion meeting the requirements of clinical vascular intervention surgery (VIS); i.e. error band of catheter motion experiments, 1.33-2.00 mm (4F-6F) diameter catheters were selectively inserted successfully into predefined targets in the animal, such as the renal, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular artery. Compared with conventional manual surgery, the time for robotic surgery is a little longer. There were no operative complications in the animal experiments. These simulation and animal study results demonstrate that this vascular interventional robotic system allows doctors to perform angiography remotely and prevents them from radiation exposure. The system may be the basis for further clinical applications of vascular intervention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Early psychosocial intervention in Alzheimer's disease: cost utility evaluation alongside the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study (DAISY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Sørensen, Jan; Waldorff, Frans B; Eckermann, Ane; Buss, Dorte V; Phung, Kieu T T; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2014-01-15

    To assess the cost utility of early psychosocial intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease and their primary caregivers. Cost utility evaluation alongside a multicentre, randomised controlled trial with 3 years of follow-up. Primary care and memory clinics in five Danish districts. 330 community-dwelling patients and their primary caregivers. Psychosocial counselling and support lasting 8-12 months after diagnosis and follow-up at 3, 6, 12 and 36 months in the intervention group or follow-up only in the control group. The primary outcome measure was the cost of additional quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Costs were measured from a societal perspective, including the costs of healthcare, social care, informal care and production loss. QALYs were estimated separately for the patient and the caregiver before aggregation for the main analysis. None of the observed cost and QALY measures were significantly different between the intervention and control groups, although a tendency was noted for psychosocial care leading to cost increases with informal care that was not outweighed by the tendency for cost savings with formal care. The probability of psychosocial intervention being cost-effective did not exceed 36% for any threshold value. The alternative scenario analysis showed that the probability of cost-effectiveness increased over the range of threshold values used if the cost perspective was restricted to formal healthcare. A multifaceted, psychosocial intervention programme was found unlikely to be cost-effective from a societal perspective. The recommendation for practice in settings that are similar to the Danish setting is to provide follow-up with referral to available local support programmes when needed, and to restrict large multifaceted intervention programmes to patients and caregivers with special needs until further evidence for cost-effectiveness emerges. The study was registered in the Clinical Trial Database as ISRCTN74848736.

  14. NSAID Use after Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N

    2016-12-01

    Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID use in patients who underwent bariatric surgery, and to determine the use of PPIs in patients who use NSAIDs after bariatric surgery. A randomized controlled intervention study in patients after bariatric surgery. Patients were randomized to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consisted of sending a letter to patients and their general practitioners on the risks of use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery and the importance of avoiding NSAID use. The control group received care-as-usual. Dispensing data of NSAIDs and PPIs were collected from patients' pharmacies: from a period of 6 months before and from 3 until 9 months after the intervention. Two hundred forty-eight patients were included (intervention group: 124; control group: 124). The number of users of NSAIDs decreased from 22 to 18 % in the intervention group and increased from 20 to 21 % in the control group (NS). The use of a PPI with an NSAID rose from 52 to 55 % in the intervention group, and from 52 to 69 % in the control group (NS). Informing patients and their general practitioners by letter, in addition to care-as-usual, is not an effective intervention to reduce the use of NSAIDs after bariatric surgery (trial number NTR3665).

  15. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Jan de Vries; Anne Birkett; Toine Hulshof; Kristin Verbeke; Kernon Gibes

    2016-01-01

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comp...

  16. Design, Implementation, and Study Protocol of a Kindergarten-Based Health Promotion Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inactivity and an unhealthy diet amongst others have led to an increased prevalence of overweight and obesity even in young children. Since most health behaviours develop during childhood health promotion has to start early. The setting kindergarten has been shown as ideal for such interventions. “Join the Healthy Boat” is a kindergarten-based health promotion programme with a cluster-randomised study focussing on increased physical activity, reduced screen media use, and sugar-sweetened beverages, as well as a higher fruit and vegetable intake. Intervention and materials were developed using Bartholomew’s Intervention Mapping approach considering Bandura’s social-cognitive theory and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological framework for human development. The programme is distributed using a train-the-trainer approach and currently implemented in 618 kindergartens. The effectiveness of this one-year intervention with an intervention and a control group will be examined in 62 kindergartens using standardised protocols, materials, and tools for outcome and process evaluation. A sample of 1021 children and their parents provided consent and participated in the intervention. Results of this study are awaited to give a better understanding of health behaviours in early childhood and to identify strategies for effective health promotion. The current paper describes development and design of the intervention and its implementation and planned evaluation. Trial Registration. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS, Freiburg University, Germany, ID: DRKS00010089.

  17. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake After a Tailored, Online Educational Intervention for Female University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alaina T; Patel, Divya A; Carlos, Ruth C; Zochowski, Melissa K; Pennewell, Sarah M; Chi, Alice M; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2015-11-01

    Educational interventions may be a strategy to increase human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among female university students, but studies to date have shown mixed results. This study evaluated the effect of MeFirst, an individually tailored, online educational intervention, on HPV vaccine-related knowledge, vaccination intention, and uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students. All female students aged 18-26 years who reported being unvaccinated against HPV at a midwestern university were invited via email to enroll. Participants completed an online survey that assessed baseline HPV vaccine-related knowledge, attitudes and vaccination intention. Participants (n = 661) were then randomized to receive either an educational website automatically tailored to their baseline survey responses (MeFirst intervention) or a standard CDC information factsheet on HPV vaccine (control). Vaccine uptake and repeat knowledge and attitude measures were assessed with online surveys 3 months following the intervention and analyzed using logistic regression models. HPV vaccine uptake was similar in both the MeFirst and control groups at 3 months following the intervention (p = 0.98). Three months after the intervention, the proportion of participants with high knowledge regarding HPV vaccination increased from baseline (32% to 50%; p online educational tool had similar effects as a nontailored factsheet on HPV-related knowledge, intention to HPV undergo vaccination, and HPV vaccine uptake among previously unvaccinated female university students.

  18. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.

  19. A Postpartum Sleep and Fatigue Intervention Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Jennifer J; Dogan, Sirin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of a self-management intervention for postpartum fatigue and sleep in socioeconomically disadvantaged urban women. Helping U Get Sleep (HUGS) is a theory-guided intervention developed from the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory. Medicaid-enrolled participants in the United States were recruited from an inpatient postpartum unit. Treatment and attention control interventions were delivered (15 HUGS, 12 comparison) at a week 3 postpartum home visit and 4 follow-up phone calls. Over the 9-week protocol, the HUGS group demonstrated significant improvements in subjective fatigue and subjective sleep disturbance relative to the comparison group. The HUGS intervention was feasible and acceptable, delivered on average, in 100 min and costing US$79 per participant.

  20. A brief information–motivation–behavioral skills intervention to promote human papillomavirus vaccination among college-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez GK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Giselle K Perez,1 Dean G Cruess,2 Nicole M Strauss,3 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 2Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 3Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV is prevalent among college-aged women. Although HPV vaccines decrease women’s risk for cervical cancer, the vaccination rates remain inadequate.  Objective: This study explored the utility of an information–motivation–behavioral skills (IMB intervention in promoting HPV vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions among college-aged women. Methods: In Spring/Fall 2012, 62 participants were randomly assigned to a single-session intervention or attention control and were assessed baseline, post-intervention, and at 1 month. Results: The participants demonstrated adequate baseline vaccine knowledge, low HPV/cancer knowledge, and ambivalence about the vaccination. Post-intervention, the IMB arm demonstrated increased HPV/cancer and vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions. There were no group differences in vaccination at 1 month; however, the odds of wanting to get vaccinated increased sevenfold in the IMB arm. Conclusion: These results provide preliminary support for an IMB-based intervention in increasing vaccination knowledge, motivation, and intentions among at-risk women. Future research examining the efficacy of longer trials with larger, diverse populations is warranted. Keywords: human papillomavirus, HPV, vaccination, cervical cancer, Gardasil, IMB

  1. Exploring ART intake scenes in a human rights-based intervention to improve adherence: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Cáritas Relva; Helena, Ernani Tiaraju Santa; Caraciolo, Joselita Maria Magalhães; Paiva, Vera; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistela

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a psychosocial individual intervention to improve adherence to ART in a Brazilian reference-center, consenting PLHIV with viral load >50 copies/ml were selected. After 4 weeks of MEMS cap use, participants were randomized into an intervention group (IG) (n = 64) or control group (CG) (n = 57). CG received usual care only. The IG participated in a human rights-based intervention approach entailing four dialogical meetings focused on medication intake scenes. Comparison between IG and CG revealed no statistically significant difference in adherence measured at weeks 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24. Viral load (VL) decreased in both groups (p < 0.0001) with no significant difference between study groups. The lower number of eligible patients than expected underpowered the study. Ongoing qualitative analysis should provide deeper understanding of the trial results. NIH Clinical Trials: NCT00716040.

  2. Dietary bioactive peptides: Human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglé, Dominique; Bouhallab, Saïd

    2017-01-22

    Current opinion strongly links nutrition and health. Among nutrients, proteins, and peptides which are encrypted in their sequences and released during digestion could play a key role in improving health. These peptides have been claimed to be active on a wide spectrum of biological functions or diseases, including blood pressure and metabolic risk factors (coagulation, obesity, lipoprotein metabolism, and peroxidation), gut and neurological functions, immunity, cancer, dental health, and mineral metabolism. A majority of studies involved dairy peptides, but the properties of vegetal, animal, and sea products were also assessed. However, these allegations are mainly based on in vitro and experimental studies which are seldom confirmed in humans. This review focused on molecules which were tested in humans, and on the mechanisms explaining discrepancies between experimental and human studies.

  3. An Intervention for HPV Risk Reduction Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: An Exploratory Study with College-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jocelyn Brineman; McAnulty, Richard D.; Reeve, Charlie; Cann, Arnie

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a group intervention in reducing risks of contracting human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged women. Using a randomized design, the study examined the effectiveness of an HPV educational group intervention guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. The intervention was provided in a…

  4. Impact of pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems and laboratory markers in outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Caroline de Godoi Rezende Costa; Carnevale, Renata Cavalcanti; Rodrigues, Aline Teotonio; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Moriel, Patricia; Mazzola, Priscila Gava

    2014-01-01

    Background Substantial complexity has been introduced into treatment regimens for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Many drug-related problems (DRPs) are detected in these patients, such as low adherence, therapeutic inefficacy, and safety issues. We evaluated the impact of pharmacist interventions on CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, HIV viral load, and DRPs in patients with HIV infection. Methods In this 18-month prospective controlled study, 90 outpatients were selected by convenience sampling from the Hospital Dia–University of Campinas Teaching Hospital (Brazil). Forty-five patients comprised the pharmacist intervention group and 45 the control group; all patients had HIV infection with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pharmaceutical appointments were conducted based on the Pharmacotherapy Workup method, although DRPs and pharmacist intervention classifications were modified for applicability to institutional service limitations and research requirements. Pharmacist interventions were performed immediately after detection of DRPs. The main outcome measures were DRPs, CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, and HIV viral load. Results After pharmacist intervention, DRPs decreased from 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] =4.1–6.2) to 4.2 (95% CI =3.3–5.1) per patient (P=0.043). A total of 122 pharmacist interventions were proposed, with an average of 2.7 interventions per patient. All the pharmacist interventions were accepted by physicians, and among patients, the interventions were well accepted during the appointments, but compliance with the interventions was not measured. A statistically significant increase in CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the intervention group was found (260.7 cells/mm3 [95% CI =175.8–345.6] to 312.0 cells/mm3 [95% CI =23.5–40.6], P=0.015), which was not observed in the control group. There was no statistical difference between the groups regarding HIV viral load. Conclusion This study suggests that pharmacist

  5. The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...

  6. Supportive accountability: a model for providing human support to enhance adherence to eHealth interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Cuijpers, Pim; Lehman, Kenneth

    2011-03-10

    The effectiveness of and adherence to eHealth interventions is enhanced by human support. However, human support has largely not been manualized and has usually not been guided by clear models. The objective of this paper is to develop a clear theoretical model, based on relevant empirical literature, that can guide research into human support components of eHealth interventions. A review of the literature revealed little relevant information from clinical sciences. Applicable literature was drawn primarily from organizational psychology, motivation theory, and computer-mediated communication (CMC) research. We have developed a model, referred to as "Supportive Accountability." We argue that human support increases adherence through accountability to a coach who is seen as trustworthy, benevolent, and having expertise. Accountability should involve clear, process-oriented expectations that the patient is involved in determining. Reciprocity in the relationship, through which the patient derives clear benefits, should be explicit. The effect of accountability may be moderated by patient motivation. The more intrinsically motivated patients are, the less support they likely require. The process of support is also mediated by the communications medium (eg, telephone, instant messaging, email). Different communications media each have their own potential benefits and disadvantages. We discuss the specific components of accountability, motivation, and CMC medium in detail. The proposed model is a first step toward understanding how human support enhances adherence to eHealth interventions. Each component of the proposed model is a testable hypothesis. As we develop viable human support models, these should be manualized to facilitate dissemination.

  7. Methods to Study Intervention Sustainability Using Pre-existing, Community Interventions: Examples from the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Benjamin Ford

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quasi-experimental study design to evaluate non-random\\-ized, pre-existing community interventions not originally designed to gather rigorous data about sustainability and impact. The core components of the design include selection of a control group using propensity score matching with pre-intervention (baseline) secondary data and post-intervention follow-up in the field. The main advantages of the design include measurement of interventions implemented under ac...

  8. Breastfeeding educational interventions for health professionals: a synthesis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Amanda L; Dodgson, Joan E

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this synthesis was to review intervention studies that focused on increasing the breastfeeding knowledge, self-confidence, and supportive behaviors of healthcare professionals. Fourteen articles were identified through database searches as the basis for this review. Breastfeeding education can be effective in increasing the knowledge and confidence of nurses. Duration and exclusivity rates for breastfeeding may also be improved. Improving nurses' knowledge of breastfeeding is a modifiable factor that is important in supporting a mother in her decision to breastfeed.

  9. A randomised study of leadership interventions for healthcare managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lornudd, Caroline; Bergman, David; Sandahl, Christer; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica

    2016-10-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to assess two different leader development interventions by comparing their effects on leadership behaviour and evaluating their combined impact after two years, from the viewpoints of both the participating managers and external raters. Design/methodology/approach The study was a longitudinal randomised controlled trial with a cross-over design. Health care managers ( n = 177) were first randomised to either of two 10-month interventions and a year later were switched to the other intervention. Leadership behaviour was rated at pre-test and 12 and 24 months by participating managers and their superiors, colleagues and subordinates using a 360-degree instrument. Analysis of variance and multilevel regression analysis was performed. Findings No difference in effect on leadership behaviour was found between the two interventions. The evaluation of the combined effect of the interventions on leadership behaviour showed inconsistent (i.e. both increased and decreased) ratings by the various rater sources. Practical implications This study provides some evidence that participation in leadership development programmes can improve managers' leadership behaviours, but the results also highlight the interpretive challenges connected with using a 360-degree instrument to evaluate such development. Originality/value The longitudinal randomised controlled design and the large sample comprising both managers and external raters make this study unusually rigorous in the field of leadership development evaluations.

  10. How Multiple Interventions Influenced Employee Turnover: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    A 3-year study of 46 textile industry workers identified causes of employee turnover (supervision, training, organizational communication) using performance analysis. A study of multiple interventions based on the analysis resulted in changes in orientation procedures, organizational leadership, and climate, reducing turnover by 24%. (SK)

  11. interventional studies of anti-malarial drugs utilization in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. The best way to analyze drug utilization and evaluate impact of an intervention in health care institutions is to study the universal indicators, which are not dependent either on investigator or time of measurement. The aim of this study was to characterize the prescription pattern of public health institutions in ...

  12. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

    OpenAIRE

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans...

  13. Intervention studies to foster resilience - A systematic review and proposal for a resilience framework in future intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmitorz, A; Kunzler, A; Helmreich, I; Tüscher, O; Kalisch, R; Kubiak, T; Wessa, M; Lieb, K

    2018-02-01

    Psychological resilience refers to the phenomenon that many people are able to adapt to the challenges of life and maintain mental health despite exposure to adversity. This has stimulated research on training programs to foster psychological resilience. We evaluated concepts, methods and designs of 43 randomized controlled trials published between 1979 and 2014 which assessed the efficacy of such training programs and propose standards for future intervention research based on recent developments in the field. We found that concepts, methods and designs in current resilience intervention studies are of limited use to properly assess efficacy of interventions to foster resilience. Major problems are the use of definitions of resilience as trait or a composite of resilience factors, the use of unsuited assessment instruments, and inappropriate study designs. To overcome these challenges, we propose 1) an outcome-oriented definition of resilience, 2) an outcome-oriented assessment of resilience as change in mental health in relation to stressor load, and 3) methodological standards for suitable study designs of future intervention studies. Our proposals may contribute to an improved quality of resilience intervention studies and may stimulate further progress in this growing research field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hairong; Chen, Jiao; Zou, Lianbin; Zheng, Liefeng; Zhang, Weichao; Meng, Zhenmu; Magalhaes, Ricardo J Soares; Wang, Youming; Kang, Jingli; Sun, Xiangdong

    2016-11-24

    In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS) and rabies health information sessions (IS). The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice). A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS) and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool for public health communication and promotion; further studies

  15. From "Forest Fires" and "Hunting" to Disturbing "Habitats" and "Food Chains": Do Young Children Come Up with Any Ecological Interpretations of Human Interventions within a Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergazaki, Marida; Andriotou, Eirini

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at highlighting young children's reasoning about human interventions within a forest ecosystem. Our focus is particularly set on whether preschoolers are able to come up with any basic ecological interpretations of human actions upon forest plants or animals and how. Conducting individual, semi-structured interviews with 70…

  16. Human vs. robot operator error in a needle-based navigation system for percutaneous liver interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier-Hein, Lena; Walsh, Conor J.; Seitel, Alexander; Hanumara, Nevan C.; Shepard, Jo-Anne; Franz, A. M.; Pianka, F.; Müller, Sascha A.; Schmied, Bruno; Slocum, Alexander H.; Gupta, Rajiv; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided percutaneous punctures of the liver for cancer diagnosis and therapy (e.g. tumor biopsy, radiofrequency ablation) are well-established procedures in clinical routine. One of the main challenges related to these interventions is the accurate placement of the needle within the lesion. Several navigation concepts have been introduced to compensate for organ shift and deformation in real-time, yet, the operator error remains an important factor influencing the overall accuracy of the developed systems. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the operator error and, thus, the overall insertion error of an existing navigation system could be further reduced by replacing the user with the medical robot Robopsy. For this purpose, we performed navigated needle insertions in a static abdominal phantom as well as in a respiratory liver motion simulator and compared the human operator error with the targeting error performed by the robot. According to the results, the Robopsy driven needle insertion system is able to more accurately align the needle and insert it along its axis compared to a human operator. Integration of the robot into the current navigation system could thus improve targeting accuracy in clinical use.

  17. Early rehabilitation of cancer patients - a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arving, Cecilia; Thormodsen, Inger; Brekke, Guri; Mella, Olav; Berntsen, Sveinung; Nordin, Karin

    2013-01-07

    Faced with a life-threatening illness, such as cancer, many patients develop stress symptoms, i.e. avoidance behaviour, intrusive thoughts and worry. Stress management interventions have proven to be effective; however, they are mostly performed in group settings and it is commonly breast cancer patients who are studied. We hereby present the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an individual stress-management intervention with a stepped-care approach in several cancer diagnoses. Patients (≥ 18 years) with a recent diagnosis of breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, prostate cancer or testicle cancer and scheduled for adjuvant/curative oncology treatment, will consecutively be included in the study. In this prospective longitudinal intervention study with a stepped-care approach, patients will be randomized to control, treatment as usual, or an individual stress-management intervention in two steps. The first step is a low-intensity stress-management intervention, given to all patients randomized to intervention. Patients who continue to report stress symptoms after the first step will thereafter be given more intensive treatment at the second step of the programme. In the intervention patients will also be motivated to be physically active. Avoidance and intrusion are the primary outcomes. According to the power analyses, 300 patients are planned to be included in the study and will be followed for two years. Other outcomes are physical activity level, sleep duration and quality recorded objectively, and anxiety, depression, quality of life, fatigue, stress in daily living, and patient satisfaction assessed using valid and standardized psychometric tested questionnaires. Utilization of hospital services will be derived from the computerized patient administration systems used by the hospital. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention will be evaluated through a cost-utility analysis. This RCT

  18. Feasibility Study of the Social Enterprise Intervention with Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Xie, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To reduce mental health symptoms and high-risk behaviors and increase social support and service utilization among street-living youth, the authors conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the social enterprise intervention (SEI) at a homeless youth agency. Method: Convenience sampling was used to recruit 16 street-living…

  19. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Corpeleijn, E.; Mensink, M.R.; Saris, W.H.M.; Blaak, E.E.

    2011-01-01

    Original Article European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011) 65, 1141–1147; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.74; published online 18 May 2011 Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout: the SLIM study C Roumen1, E J M Feskens2, E Corpeleijn1, M Mensink2, W H M Saris1 and E E Blaak1 1Department

  20. Predictors of lifestyle intervention outcome and dropout : the SLIM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roumen, C; Feskens, E J M; Corpeleijn, E; Mensink, M; Saris, W H M; Blaak, E E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a 4.1-year (range 3-6 years) lifestyle intervention according to general public health recommendations on glucose tolerance and dropout in a Dutch population with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In the Study on Lifestyle

  1. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Chris G

    2016-08-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials.

  2. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  3. Planning Intervention Using Dynamic Assessments: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Natalie; Dodd, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic assessments (DA) of language have been shown to be a useful addition to the battery of tests used to diagnose language impairments in children, and to evaluate their skills. The current article explores the value of the information gained from a DA in planning intervention for a child with language impairment. A single case study was used…

  4. Avoiding Procrastination through Time Management: An Experimental Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Oberst, Verena; Stock, Armin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term time management intervention on procrastination. Procrastination is a serious issue for many students and associated with different negative consequences, such as anxiety or low grades. As procrastination is described as a self-regulatory failure, a training programme focussing…

  5. Organizational readiness: a case study of participatory interventions in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Ipsen, Christine; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an increased understanding of organizational readiness in relation to interventions. The study examines the implementation of the PoWRS model in four case companies. During the implementation period that companies have been interviewed, answered surveys and employees...

  6. A pilot study of a smoking cessation intervention for women living with HIV: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun S Kim, Sabreen Darwish, Sang A Lee, Rosanna F DeMarco Department of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, USA Background: Prevalence of cigarette smoking is substantially higher among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV than the general population in the USA. Women living with HIV (WLHIV who smoke are at higher risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and have a higher mortality rate than nonsmoking WLHIV. Compared to men, women generally require more intensive counseling for smoking cessation. The primary aim of this study is to examine the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention that is tailored to the specific needs of WLHIV. Methods: A total of 50 WLHIV will be randomized at a ratio of 1:1 to either a videoconferencing or a telephone counseling arm. Both arms have the same cessation intervention, that is, eight weekly individualized counseling sessions of 30-minute cognitive behavioral therapy plus active nicotine patches for 8 weeks. The only difference between the two arms is the delivery mode of the counseling, that is, telephone video call vs. telephone voice call. Data collection is scheduled at baseline and three follow-up points: 1, 3, and 6 months from the target quit day. Data will be analyzed using STATA 14. The primary outcome is a 6-month prolonged abstinence. Home-based salivary cotinine test will be conducted to verify self-reported smoking abstinence using a NicAlert® test strip, while a research coordinator monitors the whole process by a telephone video call. Conclusion: The study is a two-arm parallel-group pilot clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention. It attempts to examine whether videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention will be acceptable and feasible for WLHIV and will yield a better cessation outcome than telephone counseling intervention. Findings may have the

  7. A systematic review of health promotion intervention studies in the police force: study characteristics, intervention design and impacts on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; Karamacoska, Diana; El Masri, Aymen; McBride, Kate A; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Cook, Amelia; Kolt, Gregory S; Klupp, Nerida; George, Emma S

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review studies of health promotion intervention in the police force. Four databases were searched for articles reporting on prepost single and multigroup studies in police officers and trainees. Data were extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design and the impact of interventions on health. Database searching identified 25 articles reporting on 21 studies relevant to the aims of this review. Few studies (n=3) were of long duration (≥6 months). Nine of 21 studies evaluated structured physical activity and/or diet programmes only, 5 studies used education and behaviour change support-only interventions, 5 combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support, and 2 studies used computer prompts to minimise sedentary behaviour. A wide array of lifestyle behaviour and health outcomes was measured, with 11/13 multigroup and 8/8 single-group studies reporting beneficial impacts on outcomes. High risk of bias was evident across most studies. In those with the lowest risk of bias (n=2), a large effect on blood pressure and small effects on diet, sleep quality, stress and tobacco use, were reported. Health promotion interventions can impact beneficially on health of the police force, particularly blood pressure, diet, sleep, stress and tobacco use. Limited reporting made comparison of findings challenging. Combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support and programmes including peer support resulted in the most impact on health-related outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A pilot study: mindfulness meditation intervention in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Roxane Raffin; Giardino, Nicholas; Larson, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    Living well with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requires people to manage disease-related symptoms in order to participate in activities of daily living. Mindfulness practice is an intervention that has been shown to reduce symptoms of chronic disease and improve accurate symptom assessment, both of which could result in improved disease management and increased wellness for people with COPD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate an 8-week mindful meditation intervention program tailored for the COPD population and explore the use of breathing timing parameters as a possible physiological measure of meditation uptake. Results demonstrated that those randomized to the mindful meditation intervention group (N=19) had a significant increase in respiratory rate over time as compared to those randomized to the wait-list group (N=22) (P=0.045). It was also found that the mindful meditation intervention group demonstrated a significant decrease in level of mindfulness over time as compared to the wait-list group (P=0.023). When examining participants from the mindful meditation intervention who had completed six or more classes, it was found that respiratory rate did not significantly increase in comparison to the wait-list group. Furthermore, those who completed six or more classes (N=12) demonstrated significant improvement in emotional function in comparison to the wait-list group (P=0.032) even though their level of mindfulness did not improve. This study identifies that there may be a complex relationship between breathing parameters, emotion, and mindfulness in the COPD population. The results describe good feasibility and acceptability for meditation interventions in the COPD population.

  9. The ethics of evaluating obesity intervention studies on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickins-Drazilova, D; Williams, G

    2011-04-01

    The methodology of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study raises a number of important ethical questions. Many of these are already well recognised in ethical guidelines that uphold principles of individual and parental consent, confidentiality and scientific review. There are, however, wider issues that require ethical reflection. In this paper, we focus on a set of problems surrounding the evaluation of complex social interventions, and argue that comprehensive and objective evaluation is a much more ethically charged aim than it may first appear. In particular, we contend that standard scientific measures-of body size and biomarkers-convey only part of the story. This is partly because, when we intervene in communities, we are also concerned with complex social effects. These effects are made even more complex by contemporary social anxieties about fat and physical appearance, as well as about the safety and security of children. Such anxieties increase the risk of undesirable side effects that are themselves difficult to gauge. In the face of these and other complexities, we argue that the evaluation of interventions should involve a strong ethical dimension. First, it must include-as does the IDEFICS study-consideration of the opinions of the people affected, who are subjected to interventions in ways that necessarily go beyond individual consent. Second, we suggest that interventions might also be assessed by how much they empower people-and especially those persons, such as children, who are otherwise often disempowered.

  10. Recruiting participants to walking intervention studies: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Charlie E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Most researchers who are conducting physical activity trials face difficulties in recruiting participants who are representative of the population or from specific population groups. Participants who are often the hardest to recruit are often those who stand to benefit most (the least active, from ethnic and other minority groups, from neighbourhoods with high levels of deprivation, or have poor health. The aim of our study was to conduct a systematic review of published literature of walking interventions, in order to identify the impact, characteristics, and differential effects of recruitment strategies among particular population groups. Methods We conducted standard searches for studies from four sources, (i electronic literature databases and websites, (ii grey literature from internet sources, (iii contact with experts to identify additional "grey" and other literature, and (iv snowballing from reference lists of retrieved articles. Included studies were randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after experimental or observational qualitative studies, examining the effects of an intervention to encourage people to walk independently or in a group setting, and detailing methods of recruitment. Results Forty seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the descriptions of recruitment in the studies was poor with little detail reported on who undertook recruitment, or how long was spent planning/preparing and implementing the recruitment phase. Recruitment was conducted at locations that either matched where the intervention was delivered, or where the potential participants were asked to attend for the screening and signing up process. We identified a lack of conceptual clarity about the recruitment process and no standard metric to evaluate the effectiveness of recruitment. Conclusion Recruitment concepts, methods, and reporting in walking intervention trials are poorly developed, adding to

  11. An Intervention Study Targeting Nutritional Intake in Worksite Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R.; Tappe, Karyn A.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Coletta, Maria C.; Ochner, Christopher N.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees’ calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n = 96, BMI = 29.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p <. 01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p < .001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake. PMID:20434060

  12. Vernadsky's Biosphere, Teilhard's Noosphere, and Lovelock's Gaia: Perspectives on Human Intervention in Global Biogeochemical Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Serafin, R.

    1987-01-01

    Advances in analytical understanding of the biogeochemical cycles of the Biosphere have spawned the concepts of Gaia and Noosphere. Though seldom acknowledged today. it was the natural scientist Vladimir Vernadsky who first drew attention to the increasing scale of human intervention into planetary biogeochemical cycles. He did so in his book "Biosfera", published in 1926. In concert with the Jesuit paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, Vernadsky developed the notion of Noosphere -- an e...

  13. Prevention interventions for human immunodeficiency virus in drug-using women with a history of partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stockman JK

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jamila K Stockman1, Natasha Ludwig-Barron1, Monica A Hoffman2, Monica D Ulibarri3, Typhanye V Penniman Dyer41Division of Global Public Health, Department of Medicine; 2Department of Communication and Science Studies; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; 4Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USAAbstract: The intersecting epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and partner violence disproportionately affect women who use drugs. Despite accumulating evidence throughout the world linking these epidemics, HIV prevention efforts focused on these synergistic issues as well as underlying determinants that contribute to the HIV risk environment (eg, housing instability, incarceration, policing practices, survival sex are lacking. This article highlights selected behavior change theories and biomedical approaches that have been used or could be applied in HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence and in existing HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women that have been gender-focused while integrating histories of partner violence and/or relationship power dynamics. To date, there is a paucity of HIV prevention interventions designed for drug-using women (both in and outside of drug treatment programs with histories of partner violence. Of the few that exist, they have been theory-driven, culture-specific, and address certain aspects of gender-based inequalities (eg, gender-specific norms, relationship power and control, partner violence through assessment of personal risk and safety planning. However, no single intervention has addressed all of these issues. Moreover, HIV prevention interventions for drug-using women with histories of partner violence are not widespread and do not address multiple components of the risk environment. Efficacious interventions should target individuals

  14. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    behaviours over the six weeks, to identify instances of behavioural spillover from "green" purchase behaviour to other pro-environmental behaviours and to investigate if such spillover was affected by the nature of the intervention. The study revealed a positive spillover from "green" purchasing to other pro......This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... of environmentally relevant behaviours and after a six weeks intervention period where they were requested to keep track of their purchases by means of a shopping diary they answered a second survey with the same content as the first. This allowed us to analyse the change in self-reported pro- environmental...

  15. Mental health intervention in Bam earthquake crisis: a qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chime N

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health needs to increase in disasters and this study assesses the basic and mental health needs and delivered services during the first month after Bam (Iran earthquake disaster in year 2004."nMethods: Thirty Five mental health professionals and experts were involved in mental health care and interventions for survivors in Tehran general hospitals and in the Bam, were participated in a focus group qualitative study, and finding analyzed after coding from tape recorder."nResults: The primary and immediate needs of survivors were: water, food, shelter, security, finding family members, treating and helping injured ones, respect and good relationship by others, and information and news about disaster and others. Second and long time needs and services were the previous needs and services and also immediate starting the daily routine activities, opening schools and workplaces, participating in community services and resettlement or housing. Lack of previous program and inadequate services are discussed in the paper."nConclusion: It is the first time in Iran survivors get immediate mental health intervention in disaster, but based on finding and the survivors needs, and the problems reported in services were delivered, the study proposes a new mental health intervention program in natural disaster for Iran

  16. Learning intervention and the approach to study of engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonides, Ian Paul

    The aim of the research was to: investigate the effect of a learning intervention on the Approach to Study of first year engineering degree students. The learning intervention was a local programme of learning to learn' workshops designed and facilitated by the author. The primary aim of these was to develop students' Approaches to Study. Fifty-three first year engineering undergraduates at The Nottingham Trent University participated in the workshops. Approaches to Study were quantified using data obtained from the Revised Approach to Study Inventory (RASI) which was also subjected to a validity and reliability study using local data. Quantitative outcomes were supplemented using a qualitative analysis of essays written by students during the workshops. These were analysed for detail regarding student Approach to Study. It was intended that any findings would inform the local system of Engineering Education, although more general findings also emerged, in particular in relation to the utility of the research instrument. It was concluded that the intervention did not promote the preferential Deep Approach and did not affect Approaches to Study generally as measured by the RASI. This concurred with previous attempts to change student Approaches to Study at the group level. It was also established that subsequent years of the Integrated Engineering degree course are associated with progressively deteriorating Approaches to Study. Students who were exposed to the intervention followed a similar pattern of deteriorating Approaches suggesting that the local course context and its demands had a greater influence over the Approach of students than the intervention did. It was found that academic outcomes were unrelated to the extent to which students took a Deep Approach to the local assessment demands. There appeared therefore to be a mis-match between the Approach students adopted to pass examinations and those that are required for high quality learning outcomes. It is

  17. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss the findings from a case study focusing on processes involving pupils to bring about health promotion changes. The case study is related to a large EU intervention project aiming to promote health and wellbeing among children (4-16 years), ‘Shape Up: a school...... study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...

  18. Healthcare professionals and managers' participation in developing an intervention: A pre-intervention study in the elderly care context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman Howard

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the

  19. Use of a mobile social networking intervention for weight management: a mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico

    2017-07-12

    Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices (Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help.

  20. Minimal intervention dentistry procedures: a ten year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mfl; Santos, Jm; Fuks, A; Bezerra, Acb; Azevedo, Tdpl

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) is an effective treatment approach with increasing acceptance among dental professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the MID impact on Dentistry by analyzing procedures performed on patients treated at a Pediatric Dentistry Graduate Program clinic which implemented MID. The number of procedures including sealants, modified atraumatic restorative treatment (mART), resin crowns, direct pulp capping, pulpotomy, pulpectomy, and deciduous/ permanent extractions from 333 pediatric patients treated between the years 2001 to 2003 and 2008 to 2010 in Distrito Federal, Brazil were analyzed. Statistical analysis involved chi-square and G Williams tests. 783 procedures were analyzed and demonstrated that there was a significant reduction of sealant placement in the last triennium when compared to the first one (ppulpectomy (p=0.0002). Based on the results, MID represented a positive impact on the intervention on caries lesions in patients, mainly reflected by the significant reduction in the number of direct pulp capping, pulpotomy and pulpectomy.

  1. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  2. Retention of low income mothers in a parenting intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, K S; El-Mohandes, P A; Johnson, D M; Jarrett, P M; Rose, A; Cober, M

    2001-06-01

    Women with inadequate prenatal care were recruited to a multi-component parenting intervention study. Because it was anticipated that this high-risk population might present challenges to retention, a variety of strategies were employed to maintain their participation in the study. This report reviews the results of these retention efforts and compares the population that completed the study versus those that terminated prior to study completion. Two hundred and eighty-six women were randomized to an intervention or control group. Careful tracking of the mothers, offering incentives for completing various study activities and providing a culturally competent staff were among the strategies employed to maintain participation. Comparison was made of those mothers terminating before study completion versus those retained, and of those terminating early in the study period versus later. Despite retention efforts, attrition at a level of 41% occurred. A few characteristics of mothers terminating early from the study were significant including older maternal age, a larger number of children, and incidence of no prenatal care. Despite comprehensive tracking procedures, some mothers were lost to follow up after change of residence. Other reasons for attrition included child outplacement and refusal of services or data collection procedures.

  3. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilingual Text4Walking Food Service Employee Intervention Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Susan Weber; Ingram, Diana; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis; Sandi, Giselle; Moss, Angela; Ocampo, Edith V

    2016-06-01

    Half of all adults in the United States do not meet the level of recommended aerobic physical activity. Physical activity interventions are now being conducted in the workplace. Accessible technology, in the form of widespread usage of cell phones and text messaging, is available for promoting physical activity. The purposes of this study, which was conducted in the workplace, were to determine (1) the feasibility of implementing a bilingual 12-week Text4Walking intervention and (2) the effect of the Text4Walking intervention on change in physical activity and health status in a food service employee population. Before conducting the study reported here, the Text4Walking research team developed a database of motivational physical activity text messages in English. Because Hispanic or Latino adults compose one-quarter of all adults employed in the food service industry, the Text4Walking team translated the physical activity text messages into Spanish. This pilot study was guided by the Physical Activity Health Promotion Framework and used a 1-group 12-week pre- and posttest design with food service employees who self-reported as being sedentary. The aim of the study was to increase the number of daily steps over the baseline by 3000 steps. Three physical activity text messages were delivered weekly. In addition, participants received 3 motivational calls during the study. SPSS version 19.0 and R 3.0 were used to perform the data analysis. There were 33 employees who participated in the study (57.6% female), with a mean age of 43.7 years (SD 8.4). The study included 11 Hispanic or Latino participants, 8 of whom requested that the study be delivered in Spanish. There was a 100% retention rate in the study. At baseline, the participants walked 102 (SD 138) minutes/day (per self-report). This rate increased significantly (P=.008) to 182 (SD 219) minutes/day over the course of the study. The participants had a baseline mean of 10,416 (SD 5097) steps, which also increased

  5. Temporal variability of urinary di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites during a dietary intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Janet M; Dodson, Robin E; Engel, Connie L; Gray, Janet M; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) may be related to adverse health effects including developmental and reproductive disorders, prompting interest in strategies for reducing human exposure. We previously reported a reduction of DEHP metabolite levels in composite urine samples by more than 50% (geometric means) during a 3-day dietary intervention avoiding plastics in food packaging, preparation, and storage. In the present study, we analyzed individual spot urine samples before compositing in order to evaluate temporal variability. There were no meaningful changes in any of the previous findings when using individual rather than composited samples. Individual urine samples, like the composites, showed significant decreases of ≥50% in all three measured DEHP metabolites during the intervention. Compositing urine samples provided sufficient information to observe the effect of the intervention, whereas reducing analytical expenses compared with analyzing multiple samples individually. Low intraclass correlations (ICCs) for samples collected from the same person before the intervention indicate the importance of collecting multiple samples per exposure condition. Substantially larger ICCs during and after the intervention suggest that much of the variability observed in DEHP metabolite levels originates from dietary exposure.

  6. A statistical human resources costing and accounting model for analysing the economic effects of an intervention at a workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstad, Bodil J; Gelin, Gunnar; Malmquist, Claes; Vinberg, Stig

    2002-09-15

    The study had two primary aims. The first aim was to combine a human resources costing and accounting approach (HRCA) with a quantitative statistical approach in order to get an integrated model. The second aim was to apply this integrated model in a quasi-experimental study in order to investigate whether preventive intervention affected sickness absence costs at the company level. The intervention studied contained occupational organizational measures, competence development, physical and psychosocial working environmental measures and individual and rehabilitation measures on both an individual and a group basis. The study is a quasi-experimental design with a non-randomized control group. Both groups involved cleaning jobs at predominantly female workplaces. The study plan involved carrying out before and after studies on both groups. The study included only those who were at the same workplace during the whole of the study period. In the HRCA model used here, the cost of sickness absence is the net difference between the costs, in the form of the value of the loss of production and the administrative cost, and the benefits in the form of lower labour costs. According to the HRCA model, the intervention used counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level, giving an average net effect of 266.5 Euros per person (full-time working) during an 8-month period. Using an analogue statistical analysis on the whole of the material, the contribution of the intervention counteracted a rise in sickness absence costs at the company level giving an average net effect of 283.2 Euros. Using a statistical method it was possible to study the regression coefficients in sub-groups and calculate the p-values for these coefficients; in the younger group the intervention gave a calculated net contribution of 605.6 Euros with a p-value of 0.073, while the intervention net contribution in the older group had a very high p-value. Using the statistical model it was

  7. Exploring Environment-Intervention Fit: A Study of a Work Environment Intervention Program for the Care Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356

  8. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. Overall, trials included in this review (n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions are effective in reducing key HIV infection risk

  9. A human body model with active muscles for simulation of pretensioned restraints in autonomous braking interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Bråse, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study driver and passenger kinematics in autonomous braking scenarios, with and without pretensioned seat belts, using a whole-body finite element (FE) human body model (HBM) with active muscles. Upper extremity musculature for elbow and shoulder flexion-extension feedback control was added to an HBM that was previously complemented with feedback controlled muscles for the trunk and neck. Controller gains were found using a radial basis function metamodel sampled by making 144 simulations of an 8 ms(-2) volunteer sled test. The HBM kinematics, interaction forces, and muscle activations were validated using a second volunteer data set for the passenger and driver positions, with and without 170 N seat belt pretension, in 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking deceleration. The HBM was then used for a parameter study in which seat belt pretension force and timing were varied from 170 to 570 N and from 0.25 s before to 0.15 s after deceleration onset, in an 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking scenario. The model validation showed that the forward displacements and interaction forces of the HBM correlated with those of corresponding volunteer tests. Muscle activations and head rotation angles were overestimated in the HBM when compared with volunteer data. With a standard seat belt in 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking interventions, the HBM exhibited peak forward head displacements of 153 and 232 mm for the driver and passenger positions. When 570 N seat belt pretension was applied 0.15 s before deceleration onset, a reduction of peak head displacements to 60 and 75 mm was predicted. Driver and passenger responses to autonomous braking with standard and pretensioned restraints were successfully modeled in a whole-body FE HBM with feedback controlled active muscles. Variations of belt pretension force level and timing revealed that belt pretension 0.15 s before deceleration onset had the largest effect in reducing forward head and torso movement caused

  10. Fusion Guidance in Endovascular Peripheral Artery Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Nelemans, Patricia J., E-mail: patty.nelemans@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Das, Marco, E-mail: m.das@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA).MethodsFusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography.ResultsAverage time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation).ConclusionsFluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety.

  11. Application study of vascular interventional robotic mechanism for remote steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zengmin; Jia, Bo; Lu, Wangsheng; Hui, Rui

    2011-01-01

    Recently, robotic systems have been introduced as a useful method for surgical procedures. But in the field of vascular interventional therapy, the development of robotic system is slower. The purpose of the study is to verify the reliability and safety of vascular interventional robotic system used in angiography, by the way of in vitro preliminary experiments and animal experiments. The approach is to employ a proprietary vascular interventional robot system to complete glass vessel models and animal angiogram experiments. This robot system consists of a console port (remote steering system), an assistant port (propelled and rotation system) and a hydraulic fixing device, upon which surgeons control remotely to make go forward and rotate in the glass vessel models and animal vessels, on the 3D operation interface. Consequently, the operation time and success rate are counted and evaluated. In the glass vessel model experiments, the Catheter can enter various kinds of vessel models with inside diameter length greater than 3mm and angle less than 90(o). In the animal (adult dogs) experiments, surgeons can accomplish smoothly the angiogram of the renal artery, the vertebral renal and the arteria carotis communis, without any complications of surgery. The angiogram by using vascular interventional robot system is safe and reliable. Surgeons can finish the angiogram in part by remote operation, and the result of angiogram can meet a number of simple expectations. However without wire control and force feedback systems, the applicability of this kind of robot system is not flexible enough and need to be improved in the future.

  12. Human Laboratory Studies on Cannabinoids and Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mohamed; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Ranganathan, Mohini

    2016-04-01

    Some of the most compelling evidence supporting an association between cannabinoid agonists and psychosis comes from controlled laboratory studies in humans. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory studies demonstrate that cannabinoid agonists, including phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, produce a wide range of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms and psychophysiologic deficits in healthy human subjects that resemble the phenomenology of schizophrenia. These effects are time locked to drug administration, are dose related, and are transient and rarely necessitate intervention. The magnitude of effects is similar to the effects of ketamine but qualitatively distinct from other psychotomimetic drugs, including ketamine, amphetamine, and salvinorin A. Cannabinoid agonists have also been shown to transiently exacerbate symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in laboratory studies. Patients with schizophrenia are more vulnerable than healthy control subjects to the acute behavioral and cognitive effects of cannabinoid agonists and experience transient exacerbation of symptoms despite treatment with antipsychotic medications. Furthermore, laboratory studies have failed to demonstrate any "beneficial" effects of cannabinoid agonists in individuals with schizophrenia-challenging the cannabis self-medication hypothesis. Emerging evidence suggests that polymorphisms of several genes related to dopamine metabolism (e.g., COMT, DAT1, and AKT1) may moderate the effects of cannabinoid agonists in laboratory studies. Cannabinoid agonists induce dopamine release, although the magnitude of release does not appear to be commensurate to the magnitude and spectrum of their acute psychotomimetic effects. Interactions between the endocannabinoid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and glutamate systems and their individual and interactive effects on neural oscillations provide a plausible mechanism underlying the psychotomimetic effects of

  13. Individualized Responses of Gut Microbiota to Dietary Intervention Modeled in Humanized Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Samuel A; Marcobal, Angela; Higginbottom, Steven; Sonnenburg, Justin L; Kashyap, Purna C

    2016-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in shaping the structure and function of the gut microbiota. The microbes and microbial products in turn can influence various aspects of host physiology. One promising route to affect host function and restore health is by altering the gut microbiome using dietary intervention. The individuality of the microbiome may pose a significant challenge, so we sought to determine how different microbiotas respond to the same dietary intervention in a controlled setting. We modeled gut microbiotas from three healthy donors in germfree mice and defined compositional and functional alteration following a change in dietary microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs). The three gut communities exhibited responses that differed markedly in magnitude and in the composition of microbiota-derived metabolites. Adjustments in community membership did not correspond to the magnitude of changes in the microbial metabolites, highlighting potential challenges in predicting functional responses from compositional data and the need to assess multiple microbiota parameters following dietary interventions. IMPORTANCE Dietary modification has long been used empirically to modify symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and a diverse group of diseases with gastrointestinal symptoms. There is both anecdotal and scientific evidence to suggest that individuals respond quite differently to similar dietary changes, and the highly individualized nature of the gut microbiota makes it a prime candidate for these differences. To overcome the typical confounding factors of human dietary interventions, here we employ ex-germfree mice colonized by microbiotas of three different humans to test how different microbiotas respond to a defined change in carbohydrate content of diet by measuring changes in microbiota composition and function using marker gene-based next-generation sequencing and metabolomics. Our findings suggest that the same diet has very

  14. Induction of human breast cell carcinogenesis by triclocarban and intervention by curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sood, Shilpa; Choudhary, Shambhunath; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert, E-mail: hcrwang@utk.edu

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Triclocarban exposure induces breast epithelial cell carcinogenesis. •Triclocarban induces the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, and DNA damage. •Physiological doses of triclocarban induce cellular carcinogenesis. •Non-cytotoxic curcumin blocks triclocarban-induced carcinogenesis and pathways. -- Abstract: More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens and co-carcinogens. To identify co-carcinogens with abilities to induce cellular pre-malignancy, we studied the activity of triclocarban (TCC), an antimicrobial agent commonly used in household and personal care products. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that chronic exposure to TCC at physiologically-achievable nanomolar concentrations resulted in progressive carcinogenesis of human breast cells from non-cancerous to pre-malignant. Pre-malignant carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly-acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth and increased cell proliferation, without acquisition of cellular tumorigenicity. Long-term TCC exposure also induced constitutive activation of the Erk–Nox pathway and increases of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. A single TCC exposure induced transient induction of the Erk–Nox pathway, ROS elevation, increased cell proliferation, and DNA damage in not only non-cancerous breast cells but also breast cancer cells. Using these constitutively- and transiently-induced changes as endpoints, we revealed that non-cytotoxic curcumin was effective in intervention of TCC-induced cellular pre-malignancy. Our results lead us to suggest that the co-carcinogenic potential of TCC should be seriously considered in epidemiological studies to reveal the significance of TCC in the development of sporadic breast cancer. Using TCC-induced transient and constitutive endpoints as targets will likely help identify non-cytotoxic preventive

  15. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Z. Steiner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG, 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 2 functional MRI (fMRI, 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF, 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT, and 1 positron emission tomography (PET. Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  16. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Mathersul, Danielle C; MacMillan, Freya; Camfield, David A; Klupp, Nerida L; Seto, Sai W; Huang, Yong; Hohenberg, Mark I; Chang, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer's disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG), 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2 functional MRI (fMRI), 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF), 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 1 positron emission tomography (PET). Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area.

  17. Evaluating Humane Education: The Jefferson County Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Thomas A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study which analyzes the impact of three different humane education treatments, all examples of traditional programs taught by local humane societies to fifth- and sixth-grade students. Results are compared with similar studies previously conducted. (CS)

  18. A controlled human malaria infection model enabling evaluation of transmission-blocking interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Katharine A; Wang, Claire Yt; Adams, Matthew; Mitchell, Hayley; Rampton, Melanie; Elliott, Suzanne; Reuling, Isaie J; Bousema, Teun; Sauerwein, Robert; Chalon, Stephan; Möhrle, Jörg J; McCarthy, James S

    2018-02-01

    Drugs and vaccines that can interrupt the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum will be important for malaria control and elimination. However, models for early clinical evaluation of candidate transmission-blocking interventions are currently unavailable. Here we describe a new model for evaluating malaria transmission from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes using controlled human malaria infection (CHMI). Seventeen healthy malaria-naïve volunteers underwent CHMI by intravenous inoculation of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to initiate blood-stage infection. Seven to eight days after inoculation participants received piperaquine (480 mg) to attenuate asexual parasite replication while allowing gametocytes to develop and mature. Primary endpoints were development of gametocytemia, the transmissibility of gametocytes from humans to mosquitoes, and the safety and tolerability of the CHMI transmission model. To investigate in-vivo gametocytocidal drug activity in this model, participants were either given an experimental antimalarial, artefenomel (500 mg), a known gametocytocidal drug, primaquine (15 mg), or remained untreated during the period of gametocyte carriage. Male and female gametocytes were detected in all participants, and transmission to mosquitoes was achieved from 8/11 (73%) participants evaluated. Compared to untreated controls (n = 7), primaquine (15 mg, n = 5) significantly reduced gametocyte burden (P = 0.01), while artefenomel (500 mg, n = 4) had no effect. Adverse events (AEs) were mostly mild or moderate. Three AEs were assessed as severe - fatigue, elevated alanine aminotransferase, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase - and were attributed to malaria infection. Transaminase elevations were transient, asymptomatic, and resolved without intervention. We report the safe and reproducible induction of P. falciparum gametocytes in healthy malaria-naïve volunteers at densities infectious to mosquitoes, thereby demonstrating the potential for

  19. Mr.-Guided Cardiac Interventions Using Mr.-Safe Passive Devices: A Preclinical Study and First-in-Man Congenital Interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzifa, A.; Krombach, G.A.; Kraemer, N.; Krueger, S.; Schuette, A.; Von Walter, M.; Schaeffter, T.; Qureshi, S.; Krasemann, T.; Rosenthal, E.; Schwartz, C.; Varma, G.; Buhl, A.; Kohlmeier, A.; Buecker, A.; Guenther, R.W.; Razavi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous cardiac interventions are currently performed under X-ray guidance. Magnetic resonance imaging has been employed to guide intravascular interventions in the past, but mainly in animals. Translation of MR-guided interventions into humans has been limited by the lack of fully

  20. Extensive lifestyle management intervention following cardiac rehabilitation: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, S A; Ignaszewski, A; Laquer, E A; Pritchard, P H; Frohlich, J J

    2001-01-01

    Long-term management of the lifestyles of cardiac patients who have completed a cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP), and the risks that may develop for future health problems, have not been extensively reported. The purpose of this pilot study of graduates of CRPs was to: (a) assess lifestyle and risk factor trends, (b) test certain protocols, and (c) identify the challenges and limitations in managing lifestyles and risk factors. A convenience sample of 49 people with ischemic heart disease (IHD) was randomized to a Lifestyle Management Intervention (LMI) group and a Usual Care (UC) group and followed for 6 months. Patients assigned to the LMI group underwent six additional exercise sessions and participated in telephone follow-ups and a counseling session. Patients in the UC group were assessed at baseline and at the end of 6 months. Of the original 49 participants, 17 in the LMI group and 19 in the UC group completed the study. Patients in the LMI group showed significant reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-C from baseline at 6 months. Diastolic blood pressure was decreased significantly in the UC group. The study identified the challenges of lifestyle intervention and found that favorable risk factor modifications are possible for patients who have completed a CRP.

  1. Speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents used in cancer chemoprevention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, Marianne; Paulin, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the speciation and bioavailability of selenium in yeast-based intervention agents from multiple manufacturers from several time points. Sources of selenized yeast included Nutrition 21 (San Diego, CA), which supplied the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer (NPC) Trial from 1981......-1996; Cypress Systems (Fresno, CA; 1997-1999); and Pharma Nord (Vejle, Denmark; 1999-2000), which supplied the Prevention of Cancer by Intervention by Selenium (PRECISE) Trial pilot studies. The low-molecular-selenium species were liberated from the samples by proteolytic hydrolysis followed by separation...... at 54-60% of the total selenium in the yeasts. One batch of yeast, however (from 1985), which originated from the same producer as the yeast used in the NPC tablets, contained only 27% of selenium in the sample as selenomethionine. Human subjects receiving 200 mug selenium/day in the UK PRECISE Pilot...

  2. The Quality Circles Organizational Intervention: An Attitudinal Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    attitude scales and 44 ,J survey methods. Nevertheless, it was Elton Mayo’s 1933 report of studies conducted at the Hawthorne plant of the "- Western...Journal of Applied Psychology, 1965, 49, 24-33. Mayo , E. The human problems of an industrial civilization. New York: Viking Press, 1960 (originally

  3. Targeted interventions in Rajasthan, India: How informed are the beneficiaries about transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Questions: What is the present level of knowledge among the high-risk groups regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission and what is the source of such knowledge? What role do the stakeholders play in enhancing their level of knowledge? Objectives: To assess the efficacy of interventions focused on high-risk groups, and to find out indications on the needs to work with the general population. Study Design : Community-based cross-sectional survey about transmission of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS; Study Period: December 2002. Participants: 1792 respondents, which included 1001 truckers, 389 migrants, 206 street children, and 196 commercial sex workers (CSWs. Setting: In intervention sites under SACS in Rajasthan Analysis: Frequency distribution and Chi-square tests. Results: Knowledge about all the four methods of transmission of HIV/AIDS was found to be relatively poor among the targeted intervention subjects. Of those who knew about HIV/AIDS about 67 per cent of the spouses of out migrants (55% over one-third of the in migrants (35%, 45 per cent of the female commercial sex workers and 0.8 per cent truckers knew about all the correct modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS. TV/Radio emerged as the main source of knowledge about the correct modes of transmission for most of the respondents. The state health services and NGO workers, though primarily responsible for imparting knowledge to the subjects were found to be playing marginal role in the same.

  4. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs. While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their ′controlled′ nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  5. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Vora, Jesal

    2010-10-01

    Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their 'controlled' nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct.

  6. Human connectedness in nursing: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Sharon L

    2013-04-01

    Human connectedness is a powerful human need. Human connectedness occurs when an individual is actively engaged with another person, activity, object or environment, resulting in a sense of well-being. Nurses and patients, through their daily interactions share a commonality of emotions derived from the human experience. This case study describes one nurses' experience of human connectedness with a patient and how, through the use of reflection, this translated into better patient care and colleague interaction.

  7. Investigating the Effectiveness of an Inquiry-Based Intervention on Human Reproduction in Relation to Students' Gender, Prior Knowledge and Motivation for Learning in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Georgiou, Yiannis; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Kyza, Eleni A.; Mappouras, Demetrios

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of understanding how the human reproductive system works, adolescents worldwide exhibit weak conceptual understanding, which leads to serious risks, such as unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Studies focusing on the development and evaluation of inquiry-based learning interventions, promoting the…

  8. Impact of multiple genetic polymorphisms on effects of a 4-week blueberry juice intervention on ex vivo induced lymphocytic DNA damage in human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, Lonneke C.; Boots, Agnes W.; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Maas, Lou M.; Pachen, Daniëlle M. F. A.; Gottschalk, Ralph W. H.; Ketelslegers, Hans B.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.

    2007-01-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a decrease in cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease, presumably caused by antioxidants. We designed a human intervention study to assess antioxidative and possible anti-genotoxic properties of fruit-borne antioxidants. We

  9. Process and Effects Evaluation of a Digital Mental Health Intervention Targeted at Improving Occupational Well-Being: Lessons From an Intervention Study With Failed Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuraiskangas, Salla; Harjumaa, Marja; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Ermes, Miikka

    2016-05-11

    Digital interventions have the potential to serve as cost-effective ways to manage occupational stress and well-being. However, little is known about the adoption of individual-level digital interventions at organizations. The aim of this paper is to study the effects of an unguided digital mental health intervention in occupational well-being and the factors that influence the adoption of the intervention. The intervention was based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and its aim was to teach skills for stress management and mental well-being. It was delivered via a mobile and a Web-based app that were offered to employees of two information and communication technology (ICT) companies. The primary outcome measures were perceived stress and work engagement, measured by a 1-item stress questionnaire (Stress) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9). The intervention process was evaluated regarding the change mechanisms and intervention stages using mixed methods. The initial interviews were conducted face-to-face with human resource managers (n=2) of both companies in August 2013. The participants were recruited via information sessions and email invitations. The intervention period took place between November 2013 and March 2014. The participants were asked to complete online questionnaires at baseline, two months, and four months after the baseline measurement. The final phone interviews for the volunteer participants (n=17) and the human resource managers (n=2) were conducted in April to May 2014, five months after the baseline. Of all the employees, only 27 (8.1%, 27/332) took the app into use, with a mean use of 4.8 (SD 4.7) different days. In the beginning, well-being was on good level in both companies and no significant changes in well-being were observed. The activities of the intervention process failed to integrate the intervention into everyday activities at the workplace. Those who took the app into use experienced many benefits such as

  10. Partner randomized controlled trial: study protocol and coaching intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbutt Jane M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children with asthma live with frequent symptoms and activity limitations, and visits for urgent care are common. Many pediatricians do not regularly meet with families to monitor asthma control, identify concerns or problems with management, or provide self-management education. Effective interventions to improve asthma care such as small group training and care redesign have been difficult to disseminate into office practice. Methods and design This paper describes the protocol for a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate a 12-month telephone-coaching program designed to support primary care management of children with persistent asthma and subsequently to improve asthma control and disease-related quality of life and reduce urgent care events for asthma care. Randomization occurred at the practice level with eligible families within a practice having access to the coaching program or to usual care. The coaching intervention was based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Targeted behaviors included 1 effective use of controller medications, 2 effective use of rescue medications and 3 monitoring to ensure optimal control. Trained lay coaches provided parents with education and support for asthma care, tailoring the information provided and frequency of contact to the parent's readiness to change their child's day-to-day asthma management. Coaching calls varied in frequency from weekly to monthly. For each participating family, follow-up measurements were obtained at 12- and 24-months after enrollment in the study during a telephone interview. The primary outcomes were the mean change in 1 the child's asthma control score, 2 the parent's quality of life score, and 3 the number of urgent care events assessed at 12 and 24 months. Secondary outcomes reflected adherence to guideline recommendations by the primary care pediatricians and included the proportion of children prescribed controller medications

  11. Musical and Verbal Interventions in Music Therapy: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir

    1999-01-01

    In clinical work, our main task as music therapists is to make interventions: we give our clients guidance, encouragement, and support; we offer interpretations; we play with and for them. Most of the interventions are either musical or verbal. As a music therapy clinician, supervisor, and educator, I wanted to explore the following questions: (a) How do music therapists define musical and verbal interventions? (b) When does a music therapist intervene musically and when does the therapist intervene verbally? (c) When and why do music therapists suggest to their clients exploring an issue musically or verbally? (d) Do musical and verbal interventions serve the same purpose or different purposes? (d) How is the decision about the type of intervention made? and, (e) is there a difference between the power and meaning of musical interventions versus verbal interventions for both the therapist and the client?

  12. Dietary Intervention to Mitigate the Health Effects of PM Exposure in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. This presentation will highlight previously published, ongoing and planned studies conducted at the Human Studies Facility that have examined the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in modul...

  13. Prevalence of Recommendations Made Within Dental Research Articles Using Uncontrolled Intervention or Observational Study Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M K; Chestnutt, I G

    2016-03-01

    Evidence to inform clinical practice is reliant on research carried out using appropriate study design. The objectives of this work were to (i) identify the prevalence of articles reporting on human studies using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs published in peer-reviewed dental journals and (ii) determine the nature of recommendations made by these articles. Six peer-reviewed dental journals were selected. Issues published in January to June 2013 were examined and the types of articles published categorized. Following pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria, human studies classified as using uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs were subject to detailed review by two independent investigators, to examine if they presented clinical, policy or research recommendations and if these recommendations were supported by the data presented. 52.9% (n = 156) of studies published during the time period met the inclusion criteria. Studies with uncontrolled intervention or observational research designs comprised a larger proportion of the primary research studies published in the journals with lower impact factors (73.3%; n = 107) compared to the high impact journals (38.9%; n = 49). Analysis showed that 60.9% (n = 95) of the included studies made recommendations for clinical practice/dental policy. In 28.2% (n = 44) of studies, the clinical/policy recommendations made were judged to not be fully supported by the data presented. Many studies published in the current dental literature, which are not considered to produce strong evidence, make recommendations for clinical practice or policy. There were some cases when the recommendations were not fully supported by the data presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Kathleen; Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth; Cline, Krista; O'Haire, Marguerite E

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown that there are multiple benefits of animal assisted interventions for patients. However, the impact of interaction with these animals in staff is understudied, particularly in the acute care setting, and is thus a novel contribution to the literature on human-animal interaction. The purpose of this qualitative pilot study was to contribute to the body of knowledge surrounding the experiences and perceptions of hospital staff who have participated in a hospital-based animal assisted intervention program. Nine face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted (4 staff nurses, 3 support staff members, and 2 hospital volunteers). Five themes emerged from the respondent interviews: (1) descriptions of the therapy dogs; (2) contacts with the dogs at work; (3) connection with the dogs outside of work; (4) benefits; (5) drawbacks. Our findings reflect abundantly positive hospital staff experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studying food reward and motivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Subramaniam, Naresh; Cambridge, Victoria C; Medic, Nenad; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C

    2014-03-19

    A key challenge in studying reward processing in humans is to go beyond subjective self-report measures and quantify different aspects of reward such as hedonics, motivation, and goal value in more objective ways. This is particularly relevant for the understanding of overeating and obesity as well as their potential treatments. In this paper are described a set of measures of food-related motivation using handgrip force as a motivational measure. These methods can be used to examine changes in food related motivation with metabolic (satiety) and pharmacological manipulations and can be used to evaluate interventions targeted at overeating and obesity. However to understand food-related decision making in the complex food environment it is essential to be able to ascertain the reward goal values that guide the decisions and behavioral choices that people make. These values are hidden but it is possible to ascertain them more objectively using metrics such as the willingness to pay and a method for this is described. Both these sets of methods provide quantitative measures of motivation and goal value that can be compared within and between individuals.

  16. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    the understanding of all stages of multi-step carcinogenesis in the mouse, in particular the relationships between germ line predisposition and somatic genetic changes in tumors.” explained Dr. Mao in a news feature released by Berkeley Lab. “The identification of human homologues of these predisposition genes and the discovery of their roles in carcinogenesis will ultimately be important for the development of methods for the prediction of risk, diagnosis, prevention, and therapy for human cancers,” he further added. “Although targeted therapy has given hope to patients, drug resistance usually takes place within short time. We need to figure out a way to combine multiple  targeted therapies to treat patient s and somehow circumvent drug resistance to cure cancer.”Both scientists confessed to having a deep interest in the biology of cancer, which motivates them to focus their efforts in developing therapeutics as cancer intervention. However, they are sometimes subdued by numerous challenges in their research works, namely the heterogeneity and complexity of the tumors, which make it difficult to successfully treat patients. In addition, they highlighted a common challenge in their field, which also happens to be one of the main concerns for a majority of cancer researchers all over the world – lack of funding for research. “It remains challenging to obtain sufficient funds to do the research we believe is important,” they said.When asked for their opinion of targeted therapy, which is a growing part of many cancer treatment regimens, both scientists claimed, “Although targeted therapy has given hope to patients, drug resistance usually takes place within a short time. We need to figure out a way to combine multiple targeted therapies to treat patients and somehow circumvent drug resistance to cure cancer.” For researchers who are studying the biology of cancer, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao believe that they should ideally take into account

  17. The ideal epidemiological intervention study model on chronic non-infectious diseases - the way forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    Introduction Intervention studies in public- and occupational health on chronic non-infectious diseases have been increasingly used. Also in the maritime health area, intervention studies have been done and some are on the way. The intervention methods are most often counselling or education...... to modify the specific risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. The objective here is to present the methodological gold standard for the intervention studies and to discuss how to improve the intervention studies and programs. Material and Methods...... As a starting point the specific features of an ideal randomized occupational health intervention research model is presented. Two large reviews on health intervention studies are presented as an offset to discuss how the health intervention studies and programs can be improved. Results A Cochrane review based...

  18. Educational Intervention for Nutrition Education in Patients Attending an Outpatient Wound Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.

  19. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jan; Birkett, Anne; Hulshof, Toine; Verbeke, Kristin; Gibes, Kernon

    2016-03-02

    Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  20. Human biomonitoring pilot study DEMOCOPHES in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwedler, Gerda; Seiwert, Margarete; Fiddicke, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Human biomonitoring (HBM) is an effective tool to assess human exposure to environmental pollutants, but comparable HBM data in Europe are lacking. In order to expedite harmonization of HBM studies on a European scale, the twin projects COPHES (Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a Europ...... exposure over time. Therefore Germany will continue to cooperate on the harmonisation of European human biomonitoring to support the chemicals regulation with the best possible exposure data to protect Europe’s people against environmental health risks....

  1. Recruitment of pregnant women to an exercise-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; Emery, S J; Rassi, D; Uzun, O; Lewis, M J

    2016-01-01

    We share here our experience of recruiting pregnant women into an exercise intervention study. Recruitment challenges were anticipated owing to the study design, which required four hospital visits for cardiovascular assessment, a long-term (nine-month) commitment, and adherence to a 20-week exercise programme. Fifty-three women were assigned to one of three groups (no-exercise, land exercise or water exercise) using a 2 × 2 × 2 flexible randomisation design. Seven hundred forty-four women were screened at an antenatal clinic, of whom 501 were eligible to participate in the study. One hundred forty-five women were subsequently approached: 46 (32%) of whom agreed to participate, 42 (29%) were interested but then declined and 57 (39%) declined outright. Our study design helped recruit pregnant women as it allowed them some choice of group membership. We also noted that the participant-researcher relationship is important in reducing attrition. Our experience provides indications of likely recruitment and attrition rates for future randomised controlled trials of this type.

  2. Multilevel Mediation Modeling in Group-Based Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Jennifer L.; MacKinnon, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes and evaluates a method to test for mediation in multilevel data sets formed when an intervention administered to groups is designed to produce change in individual mediator and outcome variables. Applies the method to the ATLAS intervention designed to decrease steroid use among high school football players. (SLD)

  3. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: Intervention Model and Primary Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the intervention model and primary outcomes of a preventive intervention designed to reduce anxiety symptoms and prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. Participants were 40 volunteer children (mean age = 8.94 years; 45% girls; 90% Caucasian) whose parents met criteria for a…

  4. Korean turmeric is effective for dyslipidemia in human intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hee Kim

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Oral consumption of TP alleviated dyslipidemia and changed metabolites patterns by accelerating metabolic activities with less oxidative stress in participants with mild liver dysfunction.

  5. Impact of a brief intervention on cervical health literacy: A waitlist control study with jailed women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Ramaswamy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities. Using a waitlist control design, we compared changes in cervical health literacy (knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, and confidence for screening and follow-up among 188 incarcerated women who completed a 10-hour intervention between 2014 and 2016 in three Kansas City jails. We used bivariate tests and multivariate analyses that controlled for baseline cervical health literacy level and key covariates. Women in the intervention group showed significant gains in seven out of eight cervical health literacy domains (all p < 0.01, whereas the control group only improved in one domain (p < 0.01. When controlling for covariates, the intervention group had less barriers, perceptions of seriousness, susceptibility to disease, and increased self-efficacy for cervical health screening and follow-up, compared to the control group (all p < 0.05. A brief intervention is an effective way to improve jailed women's cervical health literacy, but should be provided alongside systemic efforts that expand access to correctional preventive health services, including the human papillomavirus vaccine, community-based cancer screenings, and health insurance after women leave jails and transition back to communities.

  6. Determining who responds better to a computer- vs. human-delivered physical activity intervention: results from the community health advice by telephone (CHAT) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Otten, Jennifer; Castro, Cynthia M; Grieco, Lauren; Marcus, Bess; Friedman, Robert H; Napolitano, Melissa A; King, Abby C

    2013-09-22

    Little research has explored who responds better to an automated vs. human advisor for health behaviors in general, and for physical activity (PA) promotion in particular. The purpose of this study was to explore baseline factors (i.e., demographics, motivation, interpersonal style, and external resources) that moderate intervention efficacy delivered by either a human or automated advisor. Data were from the CHAT Trial, a 12-month randomized controlled trial to increase PA among underactive older adults (full trial N = 218) via a human advisor or automated interactive voice response advisor. Trial results indicated significant increases in PA in both interventions by 12 months that were maintained at 18-months. Regression was used to explore moderation of the two interventions. Results indicated amotivation (i.e., lack of intent in PA) moderated 12-month PA (d = 0.55, p 0.12). Results provide preliminary evidence for generating hypotheses about pathways for supporting later clinical decision-making with regard to the use of either human- vs. computer-delivered interventions for PA promotion.

  7. The Intervention Nurses Start Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT) study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul, Ian M; Williams, Jennifer S; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Beiler, Jessica S; Makova, Kateryna D; Marini, Michele E; Hess, Lindsey B; Rzucidlo, Susan E; Verdiglione, Nicole; Mindell, Jodi A; Birch, Leann L

    2014-01-01

    .... The Intervention Nurses Starting Infants Growing on Healthy Trajectories (INSIGHT). Study is a longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial evaluating a responsive parenting intervention designed for the primary prevention of obesity...

  8. Effekt of a two-stage nursing assesment and intervention - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth Emilie; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    Background: Geriatric patients recently discharged from hospital are at risk of unplanned readmissions and admission to nursing home. When discharged directly from Emergency Department (ED) the risk increases, as time pressure often requires focus on the presenting problem, although 80...... % of geriatric patients have complex and often unresolved caring needs. The objective was to examine the effect of a two-stage nursing assessment and intervention to address the patients uncompensated problems given just after discharge from ED and one and six months after. Method: We conducted a prospective......, randomized, controlled trial with follow-up at one and six months. Included were patients >70 at increased risk of readmission and functional decline (had an ISAR 1 score of 2-6 points) and discharged home in the period 16th of February 2009 to 31st of January 2011, N=271. Intervention: A nurse did a brief...

  9. Psychological interventions for Psychosis: A meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, D.T.; van der Gaag, M.; Karyotaki, E.; Cuijpers, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of various interventions for psychosis, and a small number of studies have compared such interventions. The aim of this study was to provide further insight into the relative efficacy of psychological interventions for psychosis. Method:

  10. Behavioral Processes in Long-Lag Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dale T; Dannals, Jennifer E; Zlatev, Julian J

    2017-05-01

    We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones. To illustrate the roles that behavioral processes can play in long-lag experiments we examine field experiments motivated by three policy-relevant goals: prejudice reduction, health promotion, and educational achievement. In each of the experiments discussed we identify various behavioral pathways through which the manipulated psychological state could have produced the observed outcome. We argue that if psychologists conducting long-lag interventions posited a theory of change that linked manipulated psychological states to outcomes via behavioral pathways, the result would be richer theory and more practically useful research. Movement in this direction would also permit more opportunities for productive collaborations between psychologists and other social scientists interested in similar social problems.

  11. Mathematics Intervention Supporting Allen, a Latino EL: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Di Stefano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses a single case study of a first-grade Latino English Learner (EL student, Allen (pseudonym, from a larger inquiry-based intervention on inversion and mental reversibility development. The purpose of this case study was to develop a better understanding of the relationship between Allen’s English language proficiency and his ability to solve inversion and compensation mathematics tasks. The integration of multiple paradigms confronting radical constructivism and sociocultural theory of learning via culturally relevant pedagogy provided us with a multi-faceted set of perspectives in understanding the interconnection between Allen’s cultural and linguistic background and his development of algebraic reasoning. Through conceptual and retrospective analyses, we found that Allen’s language features are highly correlated with the development of his thinking strategies and his ability to solve mathematics tasks. Implications of this study include the development of teaching strategies that address critical issues in mathematics, such as the individual differences of learners, specifically ELs from Latino background. We suggest further research is needed in the field of language acquisition and access to STEM related concepts.

  12. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunziker S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field.

  13. [Studies on occupational stress intervention in workplaces abroad: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujie; Dai, Junming

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of occupational stress intervention in the workplaces abroad by systematic review and to provide a reference for domestic research. The Medline database was searched to collect the literature on occupational stress intervention published from January 1 in 2000 to September 4 in 2014, Using standardized forms, the methods, contents, subjects, study design, result indicator, effectiveness and evidence of the intervention were extracted and analyzed. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total sample size of 5699 participants, including 20 randomized trials and 10 non-randomized or self-controlled studies from 12 countries, such as Germany, Japan, and Britain. The course of intervention ranged from 4 to 16 weeks. Six types of intervention were identified, i.e., cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), relaxation technique, physical activity, organization-focused intervention, combined intervention, and multilevel intervention, among which CBT was used most frequently. The outcome variables mainly included social psychological variable and work-related variable. Occupational stress intervention could significantly improve the occupational stress and depressive symptoms, and also had some effects on the work-related outcomes. The effectiveness of the intervention might vary between the subjects with different occupational stress levels before intervention. The effectiveness of the intervention was better at an organizational level than at an individual level, but the effectiveness at a multiple level was not necessarily better than that at a single level. Occupational stress intervention is an effective method to improve the occupational stress at workplace. However, the occupational stress level before intervention, the duration and frequency of intervention, measures and level of intervention, and follow-up period have certain influence on the effectiveness of intervention. Future research should pay attention to methodology, focus on

  14. Endoscopic procedure with a modified Reiki intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Rosalinda S; Stuart-Shor, Eileen M; Russo, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study examined the use of Reiki prior to colonoscopy to reduce anxiety and minimize intraprocedure medications compared with usual care. A prospective, nonblinded, partially randomized patient preference design was employed using 21 subjects undergoing colonoscopy for the first time. Symptoms of anxiety and pain were assessed using a Likert-type scale. Between-group differences were assessed using chi-square analyses and analysis of variance. There were no differences between the control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 11) groups on age (mean = 58 years, SD = 8.5) and gender (53% women). The experimental group had higher anxiety (4.5 vs. 2.6, p = .03) and pain (0.8 vs. 0.2, p = .42) scores prior to colonoscopy. The Reiki intervention reduced mean heart rate (-9 beats/minute), systolic blood pressure (-10 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg), and respirations (-3 breaths/minute). There were no between-group differences on intraprocedure medication use or postprocedure physiologic measures. Although the experimental group patients had more symptoms, they did not require additional pain medication during the procedure, suggesting that (1) anxious people may benefit from an adjunctive therapy; (2) anxiety and pain are decreased by Reiki therapy for patients undergoing colonoscopy, and (3) additional intraprocedure pain medication may not be needed for colonoscopy patients receiving Reiki therapy. This pilot study provided important insights in preparation for a rigorous, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

  15. The role of animal models in evaluating reasonable safety and efficacy for human trials of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra JH; Blass, David M; Bok, Hilary; Coyle, Joseph T; Duggan, Patrick; Faden, Ruth; Finkel, Julia; Gearhart, John D; Hillis, Argye; Hoke, Ahmet; Johnson, Richard; Johnston, Michael; Kahn, Jeffrey; Kerr, Douglas; King, Patricia; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Liao, S Matthew; McDonald, John W; McKhann, Guy; Nelson, Karin B; Rao, Mahendra; Siegel, Andrew W; Smith, Kirby; Solter, Davor; Song, Hongjun; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vescovi, Angelo; Young, Wise; Greely, Henry T; Traystman, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    Progress in regenerative medicine seems likely to produce new treatments for neurologic conditions that use human cells as therapeutic agents; at least one trial for such an intervention is already under way. The development of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions (CBI-NCs) will likely include preclinical studies using animals as models for humans with conditions of interest. This paper explores predictive validity challenges and the proper role for animal models in developing CBI-NCs. In spite of limitations, animal models are and will remain an essential tool for gathering data in advance of first-in-human clinical trials. The goal of this paper is to provide a realistic lens for viewing the role of animal models in the context of CBI-NCs and to provide recommendations for moving forward through this challenging terrain. PMID:18728679

  16. Trials and tribulations of conducting interventional studies in urban slums of a developing country: Experiences from Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Pal, Debottam; Saha, Jayanta; Lopez, AnnaLena; Ali, Mohammad; Bannerjee, Barnali; Manna, Byomkesh; Sur, Dipika; Bhattacharya, Sujit; Kanungo, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies involving human subjects provide most internally valid evidences in epidemiological research due to their robust methodology. While conducting population-based interventional studies, to achieve external validity, inclusion of information from vulnerable groups like urban slum-dwellers of the developing world, in the epidemiological estimates is of paramount importance. The challenges faced while conducting 2 consecutive large-scale, community-based vaccine trials in urban slums of Kolkata, India are presented in this article. Interventions in these communities often get constrained by issues pertaining to human rights and benefits, socio-cultural factors, political environment, methodological shortcomings in addition to the challenges in ensuring community participation. While conducting these trials although we intermittently faced obstacles, by virtue of having a long term and robust surveillance system and developing a trusted relationship between the researchers, community leaders and residents we were able to come up with a commendable community participation which culminated into the success of the interventions. Bridging the gap between research and field operations by incorporating knowledge gathered from interventional studies and making strategies to improve health conditions of these informal settlers is a major unfulfilled agenda. We believe the lessons learnt during our research will help researchers while developing efficient interventions in similar setting.

  17. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological

  18. Effect of an Educational Intervention on Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Pre-University Students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Ng Beng; Mahayudin, Tasneem; Yien, Hii Ling; Abdul Karim, Abdul Kadir; Teik, Chew Kah; Shan, Lim Pei

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Studies evaluating the effect of health education on knowledge and perception of cervical cancer have generated conflicting results. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of educational intervention towards knowledge of HPV vacccination for cervical cancer prevention among pre-university students in Malaysia. This was an experimental before and after study performed between October 2014 and March 2015. Five hundred and eighty students were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. All were required to complete both pre-intervention and post-intervention questionnaires. Those in the intervention group were given an information leaflet to read before answering the post-intervention questionnaire. Almost half (48.3%) of the students had poor knowledge, with a score less than 5, and only 51 (8.8%) exhibited good knowledge, with a score of 11 and above. After educational intervention, the number of students with poor knowledge was reduced to 177 (29.3%) and the number of students who exhibited good knowledge increased to 148 (25.5%). Students from the intervention group demonstrated significant higher total scores in knowledge regarding 'HPV infection and cervical cancer' (p=0.000) and 'HPV vaccination and cervical cancer prevention' (p=0.000) during post-intervention as compared to the control group. Knowledge on HPV infection and vaccination is low among pre-university students. Educational intervention in the form of information leaflets appears effective in creating awareness and improving knowledge.

  19. Human trafficking and health: a conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    Human trafficking is an international crime renowned for extreme forms of violence against women, men and children. Although trafficking-related violence has been well-documented, the health of trafficked persons has been a largely neglected topic. For people who are trafficked, health risks and consequences may begin before they are recruited into the trafficking process, continue throughout the period of exploitation and persist even after individuals are released. Policy-making, service provision and research often focus narrowly on criminal violations that occur during the period of exploitation, regularly overlooking the health implications of trafficking. Similarly, the public health sector has not yet incorporated human trafficking as a health concern. We present a conceptual model that highlights the migratory and exploitative nature of a multi-staged trafficking process, which includes: 'recruitment', travel-transit', 'exploitation' and 'integration' or 'reintegration', and for some trafficked persons, 'detention' and 're-trafficking' stages. Trafficked persons may suffer from physical, sexual and psychological harm, occupational hazards, legal restrictions and difficulties associated with being marginalised or stigmatised. Researchers and decision-makers will benefit from a theoretical approach that conceptualizes trafficking and health as a multi-staged process of cumulative harm. To address a health risk such as trafficking, which spans geographical boundaries and involves multiple sectors, including immigration and law enforcement, labour, social and health services, interventions must be coordinated between nations and across sectors to promote the protection and recovery of people who are trafficked. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementation of Evidence-Based Literacy Practices in Middle School Response to Intervention: An Observation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciullo, Stephen; Lembke, Erica S.; Carlisle, Abigail; Thomas, Cathy Newman; Goodwin, Marilyn; Judd, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The authors report findings from a systematic observational study of middle school educators (Grades 6-8) in two states who provided reading interventions within Tier 2 and Tier 3 of a Response to Intervention (RTI) framework. Intervention sessions were coded and analyzed to understand (a) the frequency and type of evidence-based strategies…

  1. Teachers' Perceptions of Georgia's Early Reading Intervention Program: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobby, Patti Tennant

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher perceptions…

  2. Virtually There: Examining a Collaborative Online International Learning Pre-Departure Study Abroad Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojenski, Carrie Louise Prior

    2014-01-01

    As more guided study abroad interventions move online and into a collaborative format, it is important to not only examine the influence of students' social interactions as related to their intercultural development and experiences in the interventions, but also understand which variables influenced the success of an intervention. The purpose of…

  3. Family Crisis Intervention in War Contexts: A Case Study of a Traumatised Palestinian Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Guido; Said, Mahmud S.; Castiglioni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the phases of an innovative in vivo exposure intervention in which all family members were present at the scene of a traumatic incident. Clinical practice has borne out the efficacy of family intervention and its benefits for traumatised individuals and family groups. The intervention discussed here was…

  4. Perspectives on randomization and readiness for change in a workplace intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Persson, Roger; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    Randomization is often recommended above self-selection when allocating participants into intervention or control groups. One source of confounding in non-randomized studies is the participants’ attitudes towards the intervention. Because randomized workplace interventions are not always feasible...... refl ect the local leaders’ rather than the employees’ readiness for changes and that randomization may infl uence the participants’ attitude towards the intervention perhaps by evoking an experience of ‘winning or losing in the lottery’....

  5. Human Adaptation Genetic Response Suites: Toward New Interventions and Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in lg and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  6. Distance Video-Teleconferencing in Early Intervention: Pilot Study of a Naturalistic Parent-Implemented Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Oakes, Ashley; Haebig, Eileen; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Maternal verbal responsiveness in naturally occurring interactions is known to facilitate language development for children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The present study used a series of A-B replications to examine proximal effects of a naturalistic language intervention on the use of specific language support strategies by mothers of eight…

  7. Incorporating Prototyping and Iteration into Intervention Development: A Case Study of a Dining Hall-Based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Arianna D.; Hekler, Eric B.; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous research from the fields of computer science and engineering highlight the importance of an iterative design process (IDP) to create more creative and effective solutions. Objective: This study describes IDP as a new method for developing health behavior interventions and evaluates the effectiveness of a dining hall--based…

  8. Hydrological Responses of Andean Lakes and Tropical Floodplains to Climate Variability and Human Intervention: an Integrative Modelling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, I. C.; González Morales, C.; Serna López, J. P.; Duque, C. L.; Canon Barriga, J. E.; Dominguez, F.

    2013-12-01

    Andean water bodies in tropical regions are significantly influenced by fluctuations associated with climatic and anthropogenic drivers, which implies long term changes in mountain snow peaks, land covers and ecosystems, among others. Our work aims at providing an integrative framework to realistically assess the possible future of natural water bodies with different degrees of human intervention. We are studying in particular the evolution of three water bodies in Colombia: two Andean lakes and a floodplain wetland. These natural reservoirs represent the accumulated effect of hydrological processes in their respective basins, which exhibit different patterns of climate variability and distinct human intervention and environmental histories. Modelling the hydrological responses of these local water bodies to climate variability and human intervention require an understanding of the strong linkage between geophysical and social factors. From the geophysical perspective, the challenge is how to downscale global climate projections in the local context: complex orography and relative lack of data. To overcome this challenge we combine the correlational and physically based analysis of several sources of spatially distributed biophysical and meteorological information to accurately determine aspects such as moisture sources and sinks and past, present and future local precipitation and temperature regimes. From the social perspective, the challenge is how to adequately represent and incorporate into the models the likely response of social agents whose water-related interests are diverse and usually conflictive. To deal with the complexity of these systems we develop interaction matrices, which are useful tools to holistically discuss and represent each environment as a complex system. Our goal is to assess partially the uncertainties of the hydrological balances in these intervened water bodies we establish climate/social scenarios, using hybrid models that combine

  9. Capturing the Active Ingredients of Multicomponent Participatory Organizational Stress Interventions Using an Adapted Study Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Caroline; Ivers, Hans; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Adapted study designs use process evaluation to incorporate a measure of intervention exposure and create an artificial control and intervention groups. Taking into account exposure levels to interventions combines process and outcome evaluation and strengthens the design of the study when exposure levels cannot be controlled. This study includes longitudinal data (two assessments) with added process measures at time 2 gathered from three complex participatory intervention projects in Canada in a hospital and a university. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the specific working mechanisms of particular interventions on stress outcomes. Results showed that higher exposure to interventions aiming to modify tasks and working conditions reduced demands and improved social support, but not job control, which in turn, reduced psychological distress. Exposure to interventions aiming to improve relationships was not related to psychosocial risks. Most studies cannot explain how interventions produce their effects on outcomes, especially when there are multiple concurrent interventions delivered in several contexts. This study advances knowledge on process evaluation by using an adapted study design to capture the active ingredients of multicomponent interventions and suggesting some mechanisms by which the interventions produce their effects on stress outcomes. It provides an illustration of how to conduct process evaluation and relate exposure levels to observed outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Overview of community-based studies of depression screening interventions among the elderly population in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    In most Western and Asian countries, a higher risk of suicide is found among elderly people than those in other age groups. However, the treatment needs of elderly people who are at risk of committing suicide are not well understood. We conducted an overview of studies that assessed the impact of suicide prevention interventions on suicide rates in elderly people in Japan. We interpreted the results of these studies, as well as prominent findings associated with other successful interventions, within a framework of the suicidal process and preventive strategies. We assessed six quasi-experimental studies of community-based interventions providing universal depression screening, subsequent care, and education to elderly people in Japan, and performed a combined analysis of outcome data. Screening interventions were associated with lower suicide rates. We also found a gender difference in the response to subsequent psychiatric or primary care. Two types of interventions decreased the rate of suicide among elderly people: crisis helplines and screening interventions. These interventions featured a close link between universal, selective, and indicated prevention strategies, which reflect different approaches tailored to the size and risk profile of the target individuals. Successful interventions appear to hinge on systematic links between multi-level prevention interventions. Multi-level interventions for depression screening may result in lower suicide rates among elderly individuals in communities, although primary care interventions alone appear to be insufficient in men. The benefit of linked multi-level prevention interventions may highlight the importance of the multiple steps and components of the suicidal process.

  11. Understanding consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for healthy food choices: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034

  12. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    to 180 min/week), training of PE-teachers, and upgrading of physical education and playing facilities. Anthropometrics and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. VO2peak was directly measured and PA assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A composite...... risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteins cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-score), skinfolds, and inverse VO2peak. RESULTS: The HOMA-score of intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to post...... and HOMA-score in boys, but not in PA, VO2peak, fatness and the other measured CVD risk factors. Our results indicate that a doubling of physical education and providing training and equipment may not be sufficient to induce mayor improvements in CVD risk factors in a normal population....

  13. Use of Health Behavior Theory in Funded Grant Proposals: Cancer Screening Interventions as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrin, Sarah; Ferrer, Rebecca; Meissner, Helen; Tiro, Jasmin; Hall, Kara; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Rothman, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Interventions using theory should change behavior and identify both mechanisms of effect and necessary conditions. To date, inconsistent description of "use of theory" has limited understanding of how theory improves intervention impact. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of theory in health behavior intervention development by coding grant proposals. We developed an abstraction tool to characterize investigators, interventions, and theory use and identified seven core elements describing both how and how much theory was used. We used the tool to review and code NCI's funded cancer screening intervention R01 proposals, 1998-2009. Of 116 proposals, 38 met criteria; all but one described a conceptual model unique to the proposed research. Few proposals included plans to identify mechanisms of effect or conditions necessary for intervention effectiveness. Cancer screening intervention grant proposals rarely use theory in ways that advance behavioral or theoretical sciences. Proposed core elements may classify and synthesize the use of theory in behavioral intervention research.

  14. Intervention pathways towards improving the resilience of pastoralists: A study from Borana communities, southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argaw Ambelu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Building resilient communities towards recurrent droughts is increasingly becoming an important element in development endeavours, particularly among communities vulnerable to shocks and stresses. Despite decades of remarkable efforts made by governmental and non-governmental organization, the resilience capacity of pastoralists in Ethiopia remains poor. The aim of this study is to test the statistical relationships among the resilience dimensions that emerged through community consultations, and to identify the intervention pathways for effective resilience building efforts. Data were collected from 1058 randomly sampled households in Arero and Dhas districts of Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The data were collected through interviewer administered structured questionnaire and observational checklist. Principal component analyses were done to develop composite scores of the different resilience dimensions. Structural equation model (SEM verified the theoretical model. The SEM also revealed that resilience towards impact of recurrent droughts was multi-dimensional and showed statistically significant (p < 0.05 relationships. Consequently, household food insecurity manifested as ultimate outcome of poor resilience. Infrastructure and social services (β = −0.24, livestock dimension (β = −0.21, human capital (β = −0.12, psychosocial distress (β = −0.1 dimensions significantly (p < 0.05 affected the status of household food insecurity. Furthermore, livestock and wealth (β = 0.16, wealth and infrastructure (β = 0.06, infrastructure and human capital (β = 0.18, livestock and psychosocial distress (β = −0.09 dimensions have structural relationships and significantly influence each other. Environment, and peace and security are found to be major underlying resilience factors and significantly associated with pastoralists’ resilience which affect other resilience dimensions. The intervention pathway indicated that

  15. Assessing Statistical Change Indices in Selected Social Work Intervention Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Amanda D.; Huggins-Hoyt, Kimberly Y.; Pettus, Joelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined how evaluation and intervention research (IR) studies assessed statistical change to ascertain effectiveness. Methods: Studies from six core social work journals (2009-2013) were reviewed (N = 1,380). Fifty-two evaluation (n= 27) and intervention (n = 25) studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies were…

  16. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  17. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: intervention for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Prichard

    Full Text Available Recognising the burden helminth infections impose on human populations, and particularly the poor, major intervention programmes have been launched to control onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases, schistosomiasis, and cysticercosis. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4, established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR, was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. A summary of current helminth control initiatives is presented and available tools are described. Most of these programmes are highly dependent on mass drug administration (MDA of anthelmintic drugs (donated or available at low cost and require annual or biannual treatment of large numbers of at-risk populations, over prolonged periods of time. The continuation of prolonged MDA with a limited number of anthelmintics greatly increases the probability that drug resistance will develop, which would raise serious problems for continuation of control and the achievement of elimination. Most initiatives have focussed on a single type of helminth infection, but recognition of co-endemicity and polyparasitism is leading to more integration of control. An understanding of the implications of control integration for implementation, treatment coverage, combination of pharmaceuticals, and monitoring is needed. To achieve the goals of morbidity reduction or elimination of infection, novel tools need to be developed, including more efficacious drugs, vaccines, and/or antivectorial agents, new diagnostics for infection and assessment of drug efficacy, and markers for possible anthelmintic resistance. In addition, there is a need for the development of new formulations of some existing anthelmintics (e.g., paediatric formulations. To achieve ultimate elimination of helminth parasites, treatments for the above mentioned helminthiases, and for taeniasis

  18. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  19. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  20. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  1. Design, recruitment, and microbiological considerations in human challenge studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Thomas C; Blohmke, Christoph J; Moorthy, Vasee S; Altmann, Daniel M; Hayden, Frederick G; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth A; Levine, Myron M; Hill, Adrian V S; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-07-01

    Since the 18th century a wealth of knowledge regarding infectious disease pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment has been accumulated from findings of infection challenges in human beings. Partly because of improvements to ethical and regulatory guidance, human challenge studies-involving the deliberate exposure of participants to infectious substances-have had a resurgence in popularity in the past few years, in particular for the assessment of vaccines. To provide an overview of the potential use of challenge models, we present historical reports and contemporary views from experts in this type of research. A range of challenge models and practical approaches to generate important data exist and are used to expedite vaccine and therapeutic development and to support public health modelling and interventions. Although human challenge studies provide a unique opportunity to address complex research questions, participant and investigator safety is paramount. To increase the collaborative effort and future success of this area of research, we recommend the development of consensus frameworks and sharing of best practices between investigators. Furthermore, standardisation of challenge procedures and regulatory guidance will help with the feasibility for using challenge models in clinical testing of new disease intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  3. Developing Children's Understanding of Fractions: An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence; Coche, Frederic; Szucs, Denes; Carette, Vincent; Rey, Bernard; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Fractions constitute a stumbling block in mathematics education. To improve children's understanding of fractions, we designed an intervention based on learning-by-doing activities, which focused on the representation of the magnitude of fractions. Participants were 292 Grade 4 and 5 children. Half of the classes received experimental instruction,…

  4. Supporting caregivers of stroke patients : an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Elisabeth Theodora Petronella van den

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the development, implementation and results of an intervention targeted at two of the above-mentioned factors: caregiver characteristics and resources (knowledge and coping abilities) and social support. Furthermore, some insight is afforded into the state of the art of

  5. NSAID Use after Bariatric Surgery : a Randomized Controlled Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yska, Jan Peter; Gertsen, Sanneke; Flapper, Gerbrich; Emous, Marloes; Wilffert, Bob; van Roon, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be avoided in bariatric surgery patients. If use of an NSAID is inevitable, a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) should also be used. Aim To determine the effect of an, compared to care-as-usual, additional intervention to reduce NSAID

  6. Studies of human mutation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    November 1989, marked the beginning of a new three-year cycle of DOE grant support, in connection with which the program underwent a major reorganization. This document presents the progress on the three objectives of the present program which are: to isolate by the technique of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), proteins of special interest because of the relative mutability of the corresponding gene, establish the identity of the protein, and, for selected proteins, move to a characterization of the corresponding gene; to develop a more efficient approach, based on 2-D PAGE, for the detection of variants in DNA, with special reference to the identification of mutations in the parents of the individual whose DNA is being examined; and, to continue an effective interface with the genetic studies on the children of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, with reference to both the planning and implementation of new studies at the molecular level.

  7. How to Inform: Comparing Written and Video Education Interventions to Increase Human Papillomavirus Knowledge and Vaccination Intentions in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…

  8. Distribution and nature of sedimentary organic matter in a tropical estuary: An indicator of human intervention on environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Chakraborty, P.; Nath, B.N

    in the clay-sized fractions from the southern part. Alteration of sediment texture led to a change in the distribution pattern of SOM in the lake after bund construction. Human intervention and changes in land-use pattern were also found to influence the SOM...

  9. A systematic review of physical activity and sedentary behavior intervention studies in youth with type 1 diabetes: study characteristics, intervention design, and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; Kirk, Alison; Mutrie, Nanette; Matthews, Lynsay; Robertson, Kenneth; Saunders, David H

    2014-05-01

    To systematically review physical activity and/or sedentary behavior intervention studies for youth with type 1 diabetes. Several databases were searched for articles reporting on randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) in youth (intervention design, and efficacy of interventions on physical activity and health. Where sufficient data were available meta-analyses of health outcomes [for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)] were performed. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated using fixed and random effect models. The literature search identified 12/2397 full-text articles reporting on 11 studies. Two interventions were wholly unsupervised and only one was based on behavior change theory with no studies exploring changes in behavior processes. Nine interventions aimed to improve fitness or physical activity, two aimed to improve health, and none aimed at changing sedentary behavior. Eight interventions improved physical activity and/or fitness. At least one beneficial effect on health was found in each intervention group apart from two studies where no changes were found. Meta-analysis of 10 studies showed the interventions have a significant beneficial reduction of HbA1c (%), indicating an improvement in glycemic control [WMD, -0.85% (95% CI, -1.45 to -0.25%)]. There were insufficient data to pool other health outcome data. Few RCTs explored the efficacy of unsupervised theory-based physical activity and/or sedentary behavior interventions in youth with type 1 diabetes. Limited reporting made comparison of findings challenging. There was an overall significant beneficial effect of physical activity on HbA1c. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Communication in a Human biomonitoring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exley, Karen; Cano, Noemi; Aerts, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    country to tailor the material to reflect these differences. Future studies should consider setting up multidisciplinary networks of medical professionals and communication experts, and holding training workshops to discuss the interpretation of results and risk communication. Publicity and wide......A communication strategy was developed by The Consortium to Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale (COPHES), as part of its objectives to develop a framework and protocols to enable the collection of comparable human biomonitoring data throughout Europe. The framework and protocols were...... tested in the pilot study DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale). The aims of the communication strategy were to raise awareness of human biomonitoring, encourage participation in the study and to communicate the study results...

  11. Evaluating psychological interventions in a novel experimental human model of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Ben; Marshall, Jemma E.; Meron, Daniel; Baldwin, David S.; Chadwick, Paul; Munafò, Marcus R.; Garner, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide increases anxiety and autonomic arousal and provides a novel experimental model of anxiety with which to evaluate pharmacological and psychological treatments for anxiety. To date several psychotropic drugs including benzodiazepines, SSRIs and SNRIs have been evaluated using the 7.5% CO2 model; however, it has yet to be used to evaluate psychological interventions. We compared the effects of two core psychological components of mindfulness-meditation (open monitoring and focused attention) against general relaxation, on subjective, autonomic and neuropsychological outcomes in the 7.5% CO2 experimental model. 32 healthy screened adults were randomized to complete 10 min of guided open monitoring, focused attention or relaxation, immediately before inhaling 7.5% CO2 for 20 min. During CO2-challenge participants completed an eye-tracking measure of attention control and selective attention. Measures of subjective anxiety, blood pressure and heart rate were taken at baseline and immediately following intervention and CO2-challenge. OM and FA practice reduced subjective feelings of anxiety during 20-min inhalation of 7.5% CO2 compared to relaxation control. OM practice produced a strong anxiolytic effect, whereas the effect of FA was more modest. Anxiolytic OM and FA effects occurred in the absence of group differences in autonomic arousal and eye-movement measures of attention. Our findings are consistent with neuropsychological models of mindfulness-meditation that propose OM and FA activate prefrontal mechanisms that support emotion regulation during periods of anxiety and physiological hyper-arousal. Our findings complement those from pharmacological treatment studies, further supporting the use of CO2 challenge to evaluate future therapeutic interventions for anxiety. PMID:25765144

  12. Two centuries of coastal change at Caesarea, Israel: natural processes vs. human intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Zviely, Dov; Sivan, Dorit; Lazar, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The coast at Caesarea, Israel, has been inhabited almost continuously for the last 2,400 years, and the archeological sites are today a major international tourist attraction. Because the sites straddle the shoreline, they are subject to constant damage by wave action, and must therefore be frequently restored. In this paper, local shoreline migrations over the last 200 years are investigated with the aim of distinguishing between natural and man-made coastal changes. In order to assess these changes accurately, geomorphological and sedimentological data were examined based on detailed beach profile measurements, bathymetric surveys, and grain-size analyses. In addition, series of old aerial photographs, as well as historical topographic maps and nautical charts were consulted. The results show that shoreline changes can be grouped into two main time periods. During the first period from 1862 to 1949 before the expansion of modern settlements, the position of the shoreline changed irregularly by up to 30 m. In the second period from 1949 onward, numerous coastal structures have been erected, and various coastal modifications have been carried out. The evaluation of the data suggests that human interventions have had relatively little effect on the overall position of the shoreline, as displacements ranged only from 5 to 18 m. Thus, coastal changes at Caesarea are predominantly due to natural wave action reflected in the heterogeneous geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of the shore. This contradicts the common assumption that human activities are always mainly responsible for large-scale shoreline modifications in the region. It is concluded that, in order to implement meaningful mitigating countermeasures, coastal archeological sites need to be individually assessed with respect to the dominant factors causing local coastal change.

  13. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolier, L; Haverman, M; Westerhof, G.J; Riper, H; Smit, H.F.E; Bohlmeijer, E

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems...

  14. Evaluating clinical and public health interventions: a practical guide to study design and statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katz, Mitchell H

    2010-01-01

    .... Because the choice of research design depends on the nature of the intervention, the book covers randomized and nonrandomized designs, prospective and retrospective studies, planned clinical trials...

  15. Impact of Human Resources on Implementing an Evidence-Based HIV Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Virginia R; Dolcini, M Margaret; Catania, Joseph A

    2017-05-01

    Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) often require competent staff, or human resources (HR), for implementation. The empirical evidence characterizing the influence of HR fluctuations on EBI delivery is limited and conflicting. Using the Interactive Systems Framework, we explored staff fluctuation and the subsequent influence on RESPECT, an HIV prevention EBI. We conducted interviews with staff in two waves (n = 53, Wave I; n = 37, Wave II) in a national sample of organizations delivering RESPECT (N = 29). We analyzed interviews qualitatively to describe changes among RESPECT staff and explore the subsequent influences on RESPECT implementation. Organizations reported downsizing, turnover, and expansion of staff positions. Staff changes had multiple influences on RESPECT implementation including clients reached, fidelity to specific RESPECT protocols, and overall sustainability of RESPECT over time. HR fluctuations are common, and our analyses provide an initial characterization of the relationship between HR fluctuation and EBI implementation. Given the prominent influence of HR on EBI implementation, the Interactive Systems Framework is a useful guiding tool for future examinations.

  16. Studying Food Reward and Motivation in Humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Subramaniam, Naresh; Cambridge, Victoria C; Medic, Nenad; Farooqi, Ismaa Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in studying reward processing in humans is to go beyond subjective self-report measures and quantify different aspects of reward such as hedonics, motivation, and goal value in more objective ways...

  17. Patients' descriptions of nursing interventions supporting quality of life in acute psychiatric wards: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Anneli; Hätönen, Heli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2008-11-01

    People with mental disorders suffer from impaired quality of life (QoL). In psychiatric hospital wards nurses are in a close relationship with patients and have good opportunities to support patients' QoL. Still, relatively little is known about patients' perceptions related to nursing interventions by which nurses can support the QoL of patients with severe mental illness. To explore patients' perceptions of nursing interventions in supporting patients' QoL in acute psychiatric inpatient settings. Explorative descriptive study design. The study was conducted in seven acute 24-h psychiatric wards of general hospitals in Southern Finland. Thirty-five inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder or delusional disorder. The data were generated through semi-structured interviews and processed by means of qualitative content analysis. Five main categories of patients' perceptions of nursing interventions were identified to support QoL from patients' descriptions: empowering interventions, social interventions, activating interventions, security interventions and interventions to support physical health. Impaired QoL of patients with severe mental illness can be supported in acute psychiatric wards through nursing interventions. However, we are not sure how effective these interventions are. Thus, research on the effectiveness of nursing interventions to support patients' QoL is needed.

  18. A ventilation intervention study in classrooms to improve indoor air quality: the FRESH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbach, Jeannette T M; Vonk, Machiel; Duijm, Frans; van Ginkel, Jan T; Gehring, Ulrike; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-12-17

    Classroom ventilation rates often do not meet building standards, although it is considered to be important to improve indoor air quality. Poor indoor air quality is thought to influence both children's health and performance. Poor ventilation in The Netherlands most often occurs in the heating season. To improve classroom ventilation a tailor made mechanical ventilation device was developed to improve outdoor air supply. This paper studies the effect of this intervention. The FRESH study (Forced-ventilation Related Environmental School Health) was designed to investigate the effect of a CO2 controlled mechanical ventilation intervention on classroom CO2 levels using a longitudinal cross-over design. Target CO2 concentrations were 800 and 1200 parts per million (ppm), respectively. The study included 18 classrooms from 17 schools from the north-eastern part of The Netherlands, 12 experimental classrooms and 6 control classrooms. Data on indoor levels of CO2, temperature and relative humidity were collected during three consecutive weeks per school during the heating seasons of 2010-2012. Associations between the intervention and weekly average indoor CO2 levels, classroom temperature and relative humidity were assessed by means of mixed models with random school-effects. At baseline, mean CO2 concentration for all schools was 1335 ppm (range: 763-2000 ppm). The intervention was able to significantly decrease CO2 levels in the intervention classrooms (F (2,10) = 17.59, p device was not capable of precisely achieving the two predefined levels of CO2, our study showed that classroom CO2 levels can be reduced by intervening on classroom ventilation using a CO2 controlled mechanical ventilation system.

  19. An internet-based adolescent depression preventive intervention: study protocol for a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Tracy G; Marko-Holguin, Monika; Rothberg, Phyllis; Nidetz, Jennifer; Diehl, Anne; DeFrino, Daniela T; Harris, Mary; Ching, Eumene; Eder, Milton; Canel, Jason; Bell, Carl; Beardslee, William R; Brown, C Hendricks; Griffiths, Kathleen; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2015-05-01

    for a new generation of interventions that blend substantial computer-based instruction with human contact to intervene to prevent mental disorders such as depression. Because of the potential for broad generalizability of this model, the results of this study are important, as they will help develop the guidelines for preventive interventions with youth at-risk for the development of depressive and other mental disorders. NCT01893749 date 6 May 2012.

  20. Canavan disease, a rare early-onset human spongiform leukodystrophy: insights into its genesis and possible clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, M H; Guilfoyle, D N

    2013-04-01

    The brain contains high concentrations of the amino acid N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) and its' glutamate adduct N-acetyl-l-aspartylglutamate (NAAG), both synthesized primarily by and stored in neurons. Upon depolarization both are exported to extracellular fluid (ECF) with NAA targeted to oligodendrocytes and NAAG targeted to astrocytes where they are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes. While the functions of these substances are incompletely known, their unique tri-cellular metabolism is apparently vital to normal brain function. Canavan disease (CD) is a globally occurring but rare early-onset human spongiform leukodystrophy associated with inborn genetic errors affecting the activity of aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme highly expressed in oligodendrocytes that hydrolyzes NAA. Several hypotheses attempt to explain how the lack of ASPA activity results in the inability of oligodendrocytes to build or maintain axon-enveloping myelin sheaths, a failure reflected in the CD syndrome by profound neurological disturbances. Based on evidence provided by recent studies, as well as on descriptions of several atypical mild cases of CD and of a singular human case of an inborn error where NAA cannot be synthesized, we provide insights into the possible genesis of the CD syndrome and many of its phenotypic expressions. In this article we also evaluate current hypotheses, and discuss possible clinical interventions that may be of value in treatment of CD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A multi-modal intervention for Activating Patients at Risk for Osteoporosis (APROPOS: Rationale, design, and uptake of online study intervention material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Danila

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: We developed and implemented a novel tailored multi-modal intervention to improve initiation of osteoporosis therapy. An email address provided on the survey was the most important factor independently associated with accessing the intervention online. The design and uptake of this intervention may have implications for future studies in osteoporosis or other chronic diseases.

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION OF THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike Anthonia Adeniji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to study the relationship between human resource management interventionist strategies and organizational change; and flexibility that can make employees more adaptive and receptive to changes. Out of one hundred and sixty copies of questionnaire administered, one hundred and twenty three (123 were collected and analyzed. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM, a hypothesized relationship was tested using Amos 18 that allows test of complex relationships between variables. Our model shows that relationship exists among human resource management interventionist strategies and was consistent with organizational change in the studied industry. However, the study can be extended to other industries, for example manufacturing industry as well as industry within the merger and acquisition of companies.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of bottle weaning intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Richard; Bonuck, Karen; Trombley, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Inappropriate baby bottle use is associated with tooth decay, anemia, and overweight, and it may adversely affect dietary patterns. Parents often do not follow guidance to wean by 18 months of life. We piloted a brief, counseling-based weaning intervention in an urban WIC agency among primarily Hispanic parent/toddler dyads. At baseline (n = 48), toddlers consumed a mean 4.7 bottles/day. At follow-up (n = 39), the intervention group consumed fewer mean bottles/day than controls (0.09 vs 2.0 bottles/day, P < .045). Half the toddlers in the experimental group and one third of the control groups weaned completely. Parents of weaned children were satisfied with the outcome.

  4. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component

    OpenAIRE

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C.; Stadler, DD; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, SL; El ghormli, L; Staten, MA; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S.

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakf...

  5. Biological activity of Aronia melanocarpa antioxidants pre-screening in intervention study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konić-Ristić Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of black chokeberry fruits and juices in health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases shown both in epidemiological and dietary intervention studies are often connected with their antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the total phenolics and anthocyanins content, chemical antioxidant activity (DPPH-assay, antioxidant protection in erythrocytes and anti-platelet activity in vitro of three different chokeberry products: commercial and fresh pure chokeberry juice and crude lyophilized water-ethanol extract of chokeberry fruits, as a part of their pre-clinical evaluation. Obtained results indicated the differences in chemical composition and antioxidant activity of investigated products. Cellular effects, including both in vitro anti-platelet and antioxidant effects, were not directly correlated with the chemical antioxidant activity and results obtained in vitro for anti-platelet effects just partially consistent with the results obtained in vivo, in a pilot intervention trial. In conclusion, chemical analyses and in vitro experiments on foods and their bioactives are a valuable pre-screening tool for the evaluation of their biological activity. However, extrapolation of the obtained results to the in vivo settings is often limited and influenced by the bioavailability and metabolism of native dietary compounds or interactions with different molecules within the human body. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41030

  6. Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J; Friesen, Andrew P; Beedie, Christopher J; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times-practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective.

  7. Brief Online Training Enhances Competitive Performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK Psychological Skills Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M.; Totterdell, Peter; MacDonald, Ian; Devonport, Tracey J.; Friesen, Andrew P.; Beedie, Christopher J.; Stanley, Damian; Nevill, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned) with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742) completed a competitive task four times—practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk-outcome and self-talk-process over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, arousal and pleasant emotion. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions, low arousal, and low effort invested in performance. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills and suggest brief interventions that focus on increasing motivation, increased arousal, effort invested, and pleasant emotions were the most effective. PMID:27065904

  8. Communication with young people in paediatric and adult endocrine consultations: an intervention development and feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, J; Gleeson, H; Clayton, P E; Davis, J R E; Dimitri, P; Wales, J; Young, B; Callery, P

    2017-06-15

    Communication is complex in endocrine care, particularly during transition from paediatric to adult services. The aims of this study were to examine the feasibility of interventions to support young people to interact with clinicians. Development and evaluation of a complex intervention in 2 phases: Pre-intervention observational study; Intervention feasibility study. Purposive sample of recordings of 62 consultations with 58 young people aged 11-25 years with long-term endocrine conditions in two paediatric and two adult endocrine clinics. Proportion of time talked during consultations, number and direction of questions asked; Paediatric Consultation Assessment Tool (PCAT); OPTION shared decision making tool; Medical Information Satisfaction Scale (MISS- 21). Young people were invited to use one or more of: a prompt sheet to help them influence consultation agendas and raise questions; a summary sheet to record key information; and the www.explain.me.uk website. Nearly two thirds of young people (63%) chose to use at least one communication intervention. Higher ratings for two PCAT items (95% CI 0.0 to 1.1 and 0.1 to 1.7) suggest interventions can support consultation skills. A higher proportion of accompanying persons (83%) than young people (64%) directed questions to clinicians. The proportion of young people asking questions was higher (84%) in the intervention phase than in the observation phase (71%). Interventions were acceptable and feasible. The Intervention phase was associated with YP asking more questions, which implies that the availability of interventions could promote interactivity.

  9. Mississippi communities for healthy living: implementing a nutrition intervention effectiveness study in a rural health disparate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intervention research in rural, health disparate communities presents unique challenges for study design, implementation, and evaluation. Challenges include: 1) culturally appropriate intervention components; 2) participant recruitment and retention; 3) treatment cross-contamination; 4) intervention...

  10. Male human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance is enhanced by a brief intervention that emphasizes both male-specific vaccine benefits and altruistic motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Katherine E; Vanable, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance has been widely studied, research on vaccine uptake among boys and men is needed. Male HPV vaccination can provide both individual and community-level benefit by offering recipients personal health protection while concurrently minimizing HPV transmission and ultimately providing female health protection. As such, male vaccine acceptance may be enhanced by emphasizing both altruistic motives (female health protection) and personal health benefits. A university-based sample of young men completed computer-administered surveys and viewed informational interventions that varied in the inclusion or exclusion of altruistic motives and in the level of emphasis on male-specific HPV-related illnesses and vaccine benefits. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance was assessed immediately after intervention. Participants who received the intervention emphasizing both altruistic motives and male-specific information endorsed the greatest vaccine acceptance (mean [SD], 3.6 [1.0]). Provider and community-level interventions highlighting both altruistic motives and personal health vaccine benefits may enhance HPV vaccine uptake among young men.

  11. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR IMPROVING BUSINESS PERFORMANCE WITH LEAN MANUFACTURING AND SUCCESSFUL HUMAN FACTORS INTERVENTIONS-A CASE STUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Sharm

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays organizations compete between themselves in various categories such as faster delivery, price tags, state of art - technology and higher quality dimensio ns. A Conceptual framework with lean manufacturing and hum an factors interventions for improving business performance in terms of improved quality, reduced cost and faster de livery is presented and example s from literature are given to illustrate the desir ed situation in which ergonomics is considered as an integrated part of performance strategy . A case from an industry engaged in manufacturing shafts using lean manufacturing practices with successful ergonomic or human factors interventions is also inves tigated.

  12. Recruiting Young Gay and Bisexual Men for a Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Intervention Through Social Media: The Effects of Advertisement Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Paul L; Katz, Mira L; Bauermeister, Jose A; Shoben, Abigail B; Paskett, Electra D; McRee, Annie-Laurie

    2017-06-02

    Web-based approaches, specifically social media sites, represent a promising approach for recruiting young gay and bisexual men for research studies. Little is known, however, about how the performance of social media advertisements (ads) used to recruit this population is affected by ad content (ie, image and text). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different images and text included in social media ads used to recruit young gay and bisexual men for the pilot test of a Web-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination intervention. In July and September 2016, we used paid Facebook advertisements to recruit men who were aged 18-25 years, self-identified as gay or bisexual, US resident, and had not received HPV vaccine. A 4x2x2 factorial experiment varied ad image (a single young adult male, a young adult male couple, a group of young adult men, or a young adult male talking to a doctor), content focus (text mentioning HPV or HPV vaccine), and disease framing (text mentioning cancer or a sexually transmitted disease [STD]). Poisson regression determined whether these experimental factors affected ad performance. The recruitment campaign reached a total of 35,646 users who viewed ads for 36,395 times. This resulted in an overall unique click-through rate of 2.01% (717/35,646) and an overall conversion rate of 0.66% (241/36,395). Reach was higher for ads that included an image of a couple (incidence rate ratio, IRR=4.91, 95% CI 2.68-8.97, PFacebook ads are a convenient and cost-efficient strategy for reaching and recruiting young gay and bisexual men for a Web-based HPV vaccination intervention. To help optimize ad performance among this population, researchers should consider the importance of the text and image included in the social media recruitment ads.

  13. Improving patient knowledge of palliative care: A randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Elissa; Reid, M Carrington; Carpenter, Brian D

    2017-05-01

    To determine if laypersons' knowledge about palliative care can improve with a brief education intervention. 152 adults were recruited to participate in a web-based randomized intervention trial that followed a 2 (content)×2 (format) between-subjects design. Groups received either a video intervention, an information page intervention, a video control, or an information page control. An ANCOVA with contrast coding of two factors was utilized to assess if knowledge, as measured by the Palliative Care Knowledge Scale (PaCKS), increased post intervention. There was a significant difference between intervention group means and control group means on PaCKS scores from T1 to T2 F(1, 139)=11.10, p=0.00, η p 2 =0.074. There was no significant difference in PaCKS change scores between the video intervention and information page intervention. This study demonstrates that an information page and a brief video can improve knowledge of palliative care in laypersons. Self-administered educational interventions could be made available in diverse settings in order to reach patients and their families who may benefit from but are unaware of palliative care. Interventions more intensive than the one tested in this study might result in even more significant improvements in knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Anxiety/Depression in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, PeiYing

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to study the involvement of anxiety/depression in patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention. Inpatients in the Department of Cardiology of Xuzhou Center Hospital from December 2012 to July 2014 were divided into stent group (100 cases) and the non-stent group (50 cases). Fifty cases in the stent group were treated with psychological methods, called intervention group, and other 50 cases were untreated and called non-intervention group. All patients were assessed for anxiety and depression using self-rating anxiety scale and self-rating depression scale, 1 day after admission, 1 day after coronary angiography, and when they were discharged. No significant differences were observed on biochemical criterion, and anxiety scores or depression scores between the stent and the non-stent groups before percutaneous coronary intervention (P value >0.05 for all). After percutaneous coronary intervention, anxiety/depression scores in the intervention group and non-intervention group were significantly higher than those in the non-stent group (P anxiety/depression scores (P > 0.05). On the day of discharge, the anxiety/depression scores were the lowest in the intervention group (P Coronary artery intervention can increase patients' anxiety/depression, but appropriate psychological intervention can reduce the negative emotions.

  15. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  16. HUMAN HAND STUDY FOR ROBOTIC EXOSKELETON DELVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BIROUAS Flaviu Ionut

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will be presenting research with application in the rehabilitation of hand motor functions by the aid of robotics. The focus will be on the dimensional parameters of the biological human hand from which the robotic system will be developed. The term used for such measurements is known as anthropometrics. The anthropometric parameters studied and presented in this paper are mainly related to the angular limitations of the finger joints of the human hand.

  17. Web-based office ergonomics intervention on work-related complaints: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Marina; König, Mirjam; Jaschinski, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was a proof of concept to examine the effects of a Web-based office ergonomics intervention on subjects' individual workplace adjustments. An intervention study was conducted with 24 office workers lasting 6 weeks with three consecutive phases (before, 1 and 5 weeks after the intervention). Employees used a purpose-made website for adjusting their computer workplaces without any personal support of ergonomics experts. Workplace measurements were taken directly on site and by analysing photos taken of the employee. Self-reported complaints were assessed by filling in a questionnaire. It was found that 96% of the employees changed their workplaces on their own and retained them mostly unchanged after the intervention. Furthermore, self-reported musculoskeletal complaints and headache symptoms decreased significantly after the intervention. These findings suggest an improvement of workplace conditions so that cost-effective ergonomic Web-based interventions appear promising in further research and application.

  18. Closing a Virtuous Circle: Reciprocal Influences between Theory and Practice in Studies of Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The authors reflect on findings from three studies of different approaches to reading intervention (Al Otaiba et al., Denton et al., and Miller et al., all found in this issue). It is argued that the science of interventions for reading disorders is advanced and that these and other related studies provide a strong evidence base for guiding…

  19. Well-Being and the Social Environment of Work: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedikli, Cigdem

    2017-01-01

    There is consistent evidence that a good social environment in the workplace is associated with employee well-being. However, there has been no specific review of interventions to improve well-being through improving social environments at work. We conducted a systematic review of such interventions, and also considered performance as an outcome. We found eight studies of interventions. Six studies were of interventions that were based on introducing shared social activities into workgroups. Six out of the six studies demonstrated improvements in well-being across the sample (five studies), or for an identifiable sub-group (one study). Four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in social environments, and four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in indicators of performance. Analysis of implementation factors indicated that the interventions based on shared activities require some external facilitation, favorable worker attitudes prior to the intervention, and several different components. We found two studies that focused on improving fairness perceptions in the workplace. There were no consistent effects of these interventions on well-being or performance. We conclude that there is some evidence that interventions that increase the frequency of shared activities between workers can improve worker well-being and performance. We offer suggestions for improving the evidence base. PMID:28813009

  20. Diet, anthropometric measures and prostate cancer risk: A review of prospective cohort and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnelie, P.C.; Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    We reviewed 37 prospective cohort and four intervention studies on potential dietary risk factors for prostate cancer, published between 1966 and September 2003. Some studies were limited by small size, crude measurement of dietary exposure and limited control for confounders. Intervention and

  1. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth gr...

  2. Well-Being and the Social Environment of Work: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kevin; Watson, David; Gedikli, Cigdem

    2017-08-16

    There is consistent evidence that a good social environment in the workplace is associated with employee well-being. However, there has been no specific review of interventions to improve well-being through improving social environments at work. We conducted a systematic review of such interventions, and also considered performance as an outcome. We found eight studies of interventions. Six studies were of interventions that were based on introducing shared social activities into workgroups. Six out of the six studies demonstrated improvements in well-being across the sample (five studies), or for an identifiable sub-group (one study). Four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in social environments, and four out of the five studies demonstrated improvements in indicators of performance. Analysis of implementation factors indicated that the interventions based on shared activities require some external facilitation, favorable worker attitudes prior to the intervention, and several different components. We found two studies that focused on improving fairness perceptions in the workplace. There were no consistent effects of these interventions on well-being or performance. We conclude that there is some evidence that interventions that increase the frequency of shared activities between workers can improve worker well-being and performance. We offer suggestions for improving the evidence base.

  3. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjærsti Thorsteinsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n=21 recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73 were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool.

  4. The IDEFICS intervention trial to prevent childhood obesity: design and study methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeot, I; Baranowski, T; De Henauw, S

    2015-12-01

    One of the major research dimensions of the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of a setting-based community-oriented intervention programme for primary prevention of childhood obesity. In this supplement of Obesity Reviews, a compilation of key results of the IDEFICS intervention is packaged in a series of complementary papers. This paper describes the overall design and methods of the IDEFICS intervention in order to facilitate a comprehensive reading of the supplement. In addition, some 'best practice' examples are described. The IDEFICS intervention trial was conducted to assess whether the IDEFICS intervention prevented obesity in young children aged 2 to 9.9 years. The study was a non-randomized, quasi-experimental trial with one intervention matched to one control region in each of eight participating countries. The intervention was designed following the intervention mapping framework, using a socio-ecological theoretical approach. The intervention was designed to address several key obesity-related behaviours in children, parents, schools and community actors; the primary outcome was the prevalence of overweight/obesity according to the IOTF criteria based on body mass index. The aim was to achieve a reduction of overweight/obesity prevalence in the intervention regions. The intervention was delivered in school and community settings over a 2-year period. Data were collected in the intervention and control cohort regions at baseline and 2 years later. This paper offers an introductory framework for a comprehensive reading of this supplement on IDEFICS intervention key results. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Effects of Cereal, Fruit and Vegetable Fibers on Human Fecal Weight and Transit Time: A Comprehensive Review of Intervention Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan de Vries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereal fibers are known to increase fecal weight and speed transit time, but far less data are available on the effects of fruits and vegetable fibers on regularity. This study provides a comprehensive review of the impact of these three fiber sources on regularity in healthy humans. We identified English-language intervention studies on dietary fibers and regularity and performed weighted linear regression analyses for fecal weight and transit time. Cereal and vegetable fiber groups had comparable effects on fecal weight; both contributed to it more than fruit fibers. Less fermentable fibers increased fecal weight to a greater degree than more fermentable fibers. Dietary fiber did not change transit time in those with an initial time of <48 h. In those with an initial transit time ≥48 h, transit time was reduced by approximately 30 min per gram of cereal, fruit or vegetable fibers, regardless of fermentability. Cereal fibers have been studied more than any other kind in relation to regularity. This is the first comprehensive review comparing the effects of the three major food sources of fiber on bowel function and regularity since 1993.

  6. Alcohol use, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and preferences regarding an alcohol-focused adherence intervention in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekwaletswe CT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Connie T Kekwaletswe,1 Neo K Morojele1,21Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Pretoria, 2School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: The primary objectives of this study were to determine the association between alcohol and antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence and the perceived appropriateness and acceptability of elements of an adherence counseling program with a focus on alcohol-related ART nonadherence among a sample of ART recipients in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV clinics in Tshwane, South Africa.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The sample comprised 304 male and female ART recipients at two President's Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief-supported HIV clinics. Using an interview schedule, we assessed patients' alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, other drug use, level of adherence to ART, and reasons for missing ART doses (AIDS Clinical Trials Group adherence instrument. Additionally, patients’ views were solicited on: the likely effectiveness of potential facilitators; the preferred quantity, duration, format, and setting of the sessions; the usefulness of having family members/friends attend sessions along with the patient; and potential skill sets to be imparted.Results: About half of the male drinkers’ and three quarters of the female drinkers’ Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores were suggestive of hazardous or harmful drinking. Average self-reported ART adherence was 89.7%. There was a significant association between level of alcohol use and degree of ART adherence. Overall, participants perceived two clinic-based sessions, each of one hour’s duration, in a group format, and facilitated by a peer or adherence counselor, as most appropriate and acceptable. Participants also had a favorable attitude towards family and friends accompanying them to the sessions. They also favored an

  7. Impact of Individualized Diet Intervention on Body Composition and Respiratory Variables in Children With Respiratory Insufficiency: A Pilot Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Enid E; Bechard, Lori J; Smallwood, Craig D; Duggan, Christopher P; Graham, Robert J; Mehta, Nilesh M

    2015-07-01

    Diet modification may improve body composition and respiratory variables in children with respiratory insufficiency. Our objective was to examine the effect of an individualized diet intervention on changes in weight, lean body mass, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production in children dependent on long-term mechanical ventilatory support. Prospective, open-labeled interventional study. Study subjects' homes. Children, 1 month to 17 years old, dependent on at least 12 hr/d of transtracheal mechanical ventilatory support. Twelve weeks of an individualized diet modified to deliver energy at 90-110% of measured energy expenditure and protein intake per age-based guidelines. During a multidisciplinary home visit, we obtained baseline values of height and weight, lean body mass percent by bioelectrical impedance analysis, actual energy and protein intake by food record, and measured energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. An individualized diet was then prescribed to optimize energy and protein intake. After 12 weeks on this interventional diet, we evaluated changes in weight, height, lean body mass percent, minute ventilation, and volumetric CO2 production. Sixteen subjects, mean age 9.3 years (SD, 4.9), eight male, completed the study. For the diet intervention, a majority of subjects required a change in energy and protein prescription. The mean percentage of energy delivered as carbohydrate was significantly decreased, 51.7% at baseline versus 48.2% at follow-up, p = 0.009. Mean height and weight increased on the modified diet. Mean lean body mass percent increased from 58.3% to 61.8%. Minute ventilation was significantly lower (0.18 L/min/kg vs 0.15 L/min/kg; p = 0.04), and we observed a trend toward lower volumetric CO2 production (5.4 mL/min/kg vs 5.3 mL/min/kg; p = 0.06) after 12 weeks on the interventional diet. Individualized diet modification is feasible and associated with a significant decrease in minute ventilation, a trend toward significant

  8. The impact of hotspot-targeted interventions on malaria transmission: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bousema Teun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous in most settings, resulting in the formation of recognizable malaria hotspots. Targeting these hotspots might represent a highly efficacious way of controlling or eliminating malaria if the hotspots fuel malaria transmission to the wider community. Methods/design Hotspots of malaria will be determined based on spatial patterns in age-adjusted prevalence and density of antibodies against malaria antigens apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-1. The community effect of interventions targeted at these hotspots will be determined. The intervention will comprise larviciding, focal screening and treatment of the human population, distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying. The impact of the intervention will be determined inside and up to 500 m outside the targeted hotspots by PCR-based parasite prevalence in cross-sectional surveys, malaria morbidity by passive case detection in selected facilities and entomological monitoring of larval and adult Anopheles populations. Discussion This study aims to provide direct evidence for a community effect of hotspot-targeted interventions. The trial is powered to detect large effects on malaria transmission in the context of ongoing malaria interventions. Follow-up studies will be needed to determine the effect of individual components of the interventions and the cost-effectiveness of a hotspot-targeted approach, where savings made by reducing the number of compounds that need to receive interventions should outweigh the costs of hotspot-detection. Trial registration NCT01575613. The protocol was registered online on 20 March 2012; the first community was randomized on 26 March 2012.

  9. What underlies the perception that a medical intervention is effective? An exploratory study among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Florian; Ashworth, Mark; Hall, Sue; Sniehotta, Falko F; Marteau, Theresa M

    2010-05-01

    The perceived ineffectiveness of medical interventions is a key predictor of their underuse. This study explores the nature of this perception with regards to a range of medical interventions. Adult smokers (n = 18) completed interviews and questionnaires using the repertory grid technique to elicit personal constructs underlying perceptions of effectiveness of a range of medical interventions (three to stop smoking, three to prevent heart disease, one to reduce pain, one to lose weight, and one to treat depression). Principle components analysis was applied to identify the key underlying dimensions within the constructs. Numerical estimates of the effectiveness of the interventions were also collected from participants to compare them with the published evidence. Constructs clustered around three dimensions: "therapeutic impact," "behavior-dependent impact," and "impact facilitates general health." Smokers perceived impacts that are dependent on the individuals' behavior to offer small therapeutic impacts, while facilitating individuals' general health. These three characteristics were attributed to nonbiomedical interventions (e.g., talk-based interventions), while the opposite characteristics were attributed to biomedical interventions (i.e., medication and surgery). Numerical estimates showed that the effectiveness of stop-smoking interventions was underestimated relative to interventions to prevent heart disease. The elicited dimensions provide a basis for communicating evidence concerning the effectiveness of medical interventions, with a view to increasing their use.

  10. Brief online training enhances competitive performance: Findings of the BBC Lab UK psychological skills intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Lane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with BBC Lab UK, the present study developed 12 brief psychological skill interventions for online delivery. A protocol was designed that captured data via self-report measures, used video recordings to deliver interventions, involved a competitive concentration task against an individually matched computer opponent, and provided feedback on the effects of the interventions. Three psychological skills were used; imagery, self-talk, and if-then planning, with each skill directed to one of four different foci: outcome goal, process goal, instruction, or arousal-control. This resulted in 12 different intervention participant groups (randomly assigned with a 13th group acting as a control. Participants (n = 44,742 completed a competitive task four times--practice, baseline, following an intervention, and again after repeating the intervention. Results revealed performance improved following practice with incremental effects for imagery-outcome, imagery-process, and self-talk over the control group, with the same interventions increasing the intensity of effort invested, and increasing arousal via pleasant emotions. Arousal-control interventions associated with pleasant emotions and low effort. Instructional interventions were not effective. Results offer support for the utility of online interventions in teaching psychological skills.

  11. Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0006 Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions...AND SUBTITLE Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions 5a.  CONTRACT...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When a human and an intelligent machine work together as a team, human

  12. Evaluating the effectiveness of a radiation safety training intervention for oncology nurses: a pretest – intervention – posttest study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horan Christopher L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation, for either diagnosis or treatment, is used extensively in the field of oncology. An understanding of oncology radiation safety principles and how to apply them in practice is critical for nursing practice. Misconceptions about radiation are common, resulting in undue fears and concerns that may negatively impact patient care. Effectively educating nurses to help overcome these misconceptions is a challenge. Historically, radiation safety training programs for oncology nurses have been compliance-based and behavioral in philosophy. Methods A new radiation safety training initiative was developed for Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC adapting elements of current adult education theories to address common misconceptions and to enhance knowledge. A research design for evaluating the revised training program was also developed to assess whether the revised training program resulted in a measurable and/or statistically significant change in the knowledge or attitudes of nurses toward working with radiation. An evaluation research design based on a conceptual framework for measuring knowledge and attitude was developed and implemented using a pretest-intervention-posttest approach for 15% of the study population of 750 inpatient registered oncology nurses. Results As a result of the intervention program, there was a significant difference in nurse's cognitive knowledge as measured with the test instrument from pretest (58.9% to posttest (71.6%. The evaluation also demonstrated that while positive nursing attitudes increased, the increase was significant for only 5 out of 9 of the areas evaluated. Conclusion The training intervention was effective for increasing cognitive knowledge, but was less effective at improving overall attitudes. This evaluation provided insights into the effectiveness of training interventions on the radiation safety knowledge and attitude of oncology nurses.

  13. Genetic and biomarker studies of human longevity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, Joris

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify novel lifespan regulating loci that influence human longevity and population mortality. To this end, we performed two genome-wide association studies, one of long-lived individuals from the family-based Leiden Longevity Study (LLS) and an extended one of

  14. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  15. A longitudinal study of mental health in refugees from Burma: The impact of therapeutic interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sierra; Schweitzer, Robert; Brough, Mark; Vromans, Lyn; Murray, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Objective The present study seeks to examine the impact of therapeutic interventions for refugees within a naturalistic setting. Method Sixty-two refugees from Burma were assessed soon after arriving in Australia. All participants received standard interventions provided by a resettlement organisation which included therapeutic interventions, assessment, social assistance, and referrals where appropriate. At the completion of service provision a follow-up assessment was conducted. Results Over the course of the intervention, participants experienced a significant decrease in symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression and somatisation. Pre-intervention symptoms predicted symptoms post-intervention for post-traumatic stress, anxiety, and somatisation. Post-migration living difficulties, the number of traumas experienced, and the number of contacts with the service agency were unrelated to all mental health outcomes. Conclusions In the first Australian study of its kind, reductions in mental health symptoms post-intervention were significantly linked to pre-intervention symptomatology and the number of therapy sessions predicted post-intervention symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Future studies need to include larger samples and control groups to verify findings. PMID:22431841

  16. A Pilot Observational Study of an Acupressure/Acupuncture Intervention in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lana R; Rao, Patricia A; Paton, David C

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would tolerate an acupressure/acupuncture intervention and whether parents would adhere to a twice-weekly, 8-week intervention protocol. Second, to further understand best measures to use to capture impact of intervention on behavioral and regulatory functions. This is an observational pilot study with pre-, mid-, and postintervention measures. The intervention was carried out in a private practice office in a large metropolitan area. A total of 10 children of ages 3-10 years with ASD and one of their parents participated. A total of 16 biweekly treatment sessions of acupressure and/or acupuncture were carried out by a licensed acupuncturist, and a daily home-based acupressure intervention was carried out by a parent. Attendance, tolerance of intervention, parent compliance with home program, and parent compliance in completing daily diary and five standardized measures of behavioral and regulatory functions pre-, mid-, and postintervention were recorded. The 10 children in this observational study, collectively, tolerated the intervention and parents adhered to the 16 sessions, biweekly protocol, and home protocol, as well as completing daily diary and five standardized measures at three different time intervals. The five measurements appeared to be sensitive to behavioral and regulatory functions that may improve with this type of intervention. The results of this observational pilot study suggest that acupressure/acupuncture is a feasible intervention for children with ASD that merits rigorous evaluation through a randomized controlled trial.

  17. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  18. Reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Shekelle, Paul G; Maglione, Margaret A; Johnsen, Breanne; Perry, Tanja

    2014-05-12

    There is an increasing push for 'evidence-based' decision making in global health policy circles. However, at present there are no agreed upon standards or guidelines for how to evaluate evidence in global health. Recent evaluations of existing evidence frameworks that could serve such a purpose have identified details of program context and project implementation as missing components needed to inform policy. We performed a pilot study to assess the current state of reporting of context and implementation in studies of global health interventions. We identified three existing criteria sets for implementation reporting and selected from them 10 criteria potentially relevant to the needs of policy makers in global health contexts. We applied these 10 criteria to 15 articles included in the evidence base for three global health interventions chosen to represent a diverse set of advocated global health programs or interventions: household water chlorination, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and lay community health workers to reduce child mortality. We used a good-fair-poor/none scale for the ratings. The proportion of criteria for which reporting was poor/none ranged from 11% to 54% with an average of 30%. Eight articles had 'good' or 'fair' documentation for greater than 75% of criteria, while five articles had 'poor or none' documentation for 50% of criteria or more. Examples of good reporting were identified. Reporting of context and implementation information in studies of global health interventions is mostly fair or poor, and highly variable. The idiosyncratic variability in reporting indicates that global health investigators need more guidance about what aspects of context and implementation to measure and how to report them. This lack of context and implementation information is a major gap in the evidence needed by global health policy makers to reach decisions.

  19. Research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Liles, Brandi D; Tett, Robert P; Varma, Vandana; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the development of community-based and clinical interventions to assist children and adolescents after a disaster has become an international priority. Clinicians and researchers have begun to scientifically evaluate these interventions despite challenging conditions. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the research methodology used in studies of child disaster mental health interventions for posttraumatic stress. This scientifically rigorous analysis used standards for methodological rigor of psychosocial treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to examine 29 intervention studies. This analysis revealed that further refinement of methodology is needed to determine if certain intervention approaches are superior to other approaches and if they provide benefit beyond natural recovery. Most studies (93.1%) clearly described the interventions being tested or used manuals to guide application and most (89.7%) used standardized instruments to measure outcomes, and many used random assignment (69.0%) and provided assessor training (65.5%). Fewer studies used blinded assessment (44.8%) or measured treatment adherence (48.3%), and sample size in most studies (82.8%) was not adequate to detect small effects generally expected when comparing two active interventions. Moreover, it is unclear what constitutes meaningful change in relation to treatment especially for the numerous interventions administered to children in the general population. Overall, the results are inconclusive about which children, what settings, and what approaches are most likely to be beneficial. © 2014.

  20. Craving Behavior Intervention in Ameliorating College Students' Internet Game Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Lu; Xia, Cui-Cui; Lan, Jing; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Craving, as a central feature of addiction and a precursor of relapse, is targeted recently in addiction intervention. While Internet gaming disorder (IGD), conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, is lack of effective treatment practice and exploration of its mechanism. This research aims to test the effectiveness and detect the active ingredients of craving behavior intervention (CBI) in mitigation of IGD among young adults. A total of 63 male college students with IGD were assigned into the intervention group (six-session CBI intervention) or the waiting-list control group. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2), 3-month follow-up (T3), and 6-month follow-up (T4). Compared to the control group, a significant decrease in the severity of IGD in intervention group was found at post-intervention and lasting to 6 months after intervention. The value changes of craving could partially mediate the relationship between intervention and changes of IGD among all effects tests (immediate, T2-T1; short-term, T3-T1; and long-term effects, T4-T1). Further, explorations of the active ingredients of intervention found depression relief and shift of psychological needs from Internet to real life significantly predict craving amelioration at both post-intervention and 6-month follow-up. Although preliminary, the current study provides evidence for the value of craving-aimed intervention practice in IGD treatment and identifies two potential active ingredients for mitigation of craving, and the long-term therapeutic benefits are further conferred. Registry name: The behavioral and brain mechanism of IGD; URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02550405; Registration number: NCT02550405. PMID:28443046

  1. Health promotion interventions to prevent early childhood human influenza at the household level: a realist review to identify implications for programmes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Winsome; Dawson, Angela; Fowler, Cathrine

    2015-04-01

    To identify factors affecting the delivery of health promotion interventions to prevent early childhood human influenza at the household level. Yearly, influenza epidemics seriously affect all age groups, particularly those with weakened immune systems, including children. Influenza is transmitted easily from person to person through droplet and direct contact. Maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding close contact with the infected person and proper hand washing are recommended as the most effective means of preventing the transmission of influenza. However, it is not clear what programme-related mechanisms and contexts are crucial to the successful delivery of interventions in the home. This study systematically reviewed published research studies to identify factors influencing the effective delivery of health promotion programmes targeting influenza in a household. Realist review. A realist review methodology was selected to examine what interventions are effective in preventing and managing influenza at the household level and in what circumstances. A structured search of the peer-reviewed primary research literature was undertaken using a defined search protocol. Eight studies were retrieved for the analysis. Mechanisms impacting on intervention delivery were identified, including timing of implementation, programme reach, organisational and healthcare worker involvement, mode and place of delivery, contact with infected person, health practice compliance and sustainability at home. These findings suggest contextual factors that could be identified through ecological approaches to health promotion that are crucial for policymakers to consider when designing interventions. The active involvement of community nurses through an integrated household visiting programme may help to better deliver family-based health promotion interventions to prevent illnesses such as influenza in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reduction of Hospital Physicians' Workflow Interruptions: A Controlled Unit-Based Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weigl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly interruptive clinical environments may cause work stress and suboptimal clinical care. This study features an intervention to reduce workflow interruptions by re-designing work and organizational practices in hospital physicians providing ward coverage. A prospective, controlled intervention was conducted in two surgical and two internal wards. The intervention was based on physician quality circles - a participative technique to involve employees in the development of solutions to overcome work-related stressors. Outcome measures were the frequency of observed workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions by fellow physicians and nursing staff were significantly lower after the intervention. However, a similar decrease was also observed in control units. Additional interviews to explore process-related factors suggested that there might have been spill-over effects in the sense that solutions were not strictly confined to the intervention group. Recommendations for further research on the effectiveness and consequences of such interventions for professional communication and patient safety are discussed.

  3. The effect of brief digital interventions on attitudes to intellectual disability: Results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindau, Natalie; Amin, Tara; Zambon, Amy; Scior, Katrina

    2018-01-01

    Evidence on the effects of contact and education based interventions on attitudes is limited in the intellectual disability field. This study compared the effects of brief interventions with different education, indirect and imagined contact components on lay people's attitudes. 401 adult participants were randomised to six digital brief interventions consisting of different combinations of education, indirect and imagined contact. Their attitudes, intergroup anxiety and social distance were assessed post-intervention and at four to six-week follow-up. An intervention combining film-based education about intellectual disability and indirect contact had small positive effects on all three outcomes. Social distance was further reduced with the addition of a positively toned imagined contact task. These effects were maintained at follow-up. A brief film-based digital intervention can have small positive effects on attitudes to people with intellectual disabilities. These may be enhanced by adding positive imagined contact. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Hypnotherapy intervention for loin pain hematuria: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Koep, Lauren L; Kendrick, Cassie E

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions, including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, endpoint, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms.

  5. Can milk proteins be a useful tool in the management of cardiometabolic health? An updated review of human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Ágnes A; Givens, D Ian; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases is a significant public health burden worldwide. Emerging evidence supports the inverse association between greater dairy consumption and reduced risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Dairy proteins may have an important role in the favourable impact of dairy on human health such as blood pressure (BP), blood lipid and glucose control. The purpose of this review is to update and critically evaluate the evidence on the impacts of casein and whey protein in relation to metabolic function. Evidence from short-term clinical studies assessing postprandial responses to milk protein ingestion suggests benefits on vascular function independent of BP, as well as improvement in glycaemic homeostasis. Long-term interventions have been less conclusive, with some showing benefits and others indicating a lack of improvement in vascular function. During chronic consumption BP appears to be lowered and both dyslipidaemia and hyperglacaemia seem to be controlled. Limited number of trials investigated the effects of dairy proteins on oxidative stress and inflammation. Although the underlying mechanisms of milk proteins on cardiometabolic homeostasis remains to be elucidated, the most likely mechanism is to improve insulin resistance. The incorporation of meals enriched with dairy protein in the habitual diet may result in the beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health. Nevertheless, future well-designed, controlled studies are needed to investigate the relative effects of both casein and whey protein on BP, vascular function, glucose homeostasis and inflammation.

  6. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.

  7. The Role of Interventions in Reduction of Smoking in High School Adolescents: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad mehdi hazavei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Today nicotine has been known as an addictive substance and difficult to quit. Cigarette dependence also occurs quickly and high prevalence of nicotine dependence has made it the most common psychiatric disorder. This study was performed with the purpose of evaluating and comparing interventions based on training methods and training based on the use of theories and models of health education to reduce smoking in adolescents. Methods: Electronic search was performed using Persian and English keywords in Iran medical science databank (Iran Medex, Scientific Information Database (SID, PubMed, Science direct, Biomed Central from April 21 to June 5, 2015. Results: Nine interventional researches were investigated in this review study. The interventions were divided into two studies, which, in general, theories and models of health education were the basis for intervention in 5 studies, and 4 other interventions were carried out without the use of theories and models of health education. All studies were performed as intervention and control. Conclusion: The results showed that education based on theory and models of health education has a major impact on the reduction of smoking in adolescents. Also, time, method of interventions, and training programs using appropriate models and theories is of great importance in the effectiveness of interventions to reduce smoking in adolescents.  

  8. Male and Female Pathways to Psychopathology: Findings from a Preventive Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vuijk, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the present study was to extent the knowledge on the pathways to male and female psychopathology from childhood into early adolescence. In Chapter 1, the background of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) study was presented. The GBG study is a randomized controlled intervention study that started in 1998 when 666 children from 13 elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Rotterdam and Amsterdam were enrolled in the study at age 6. The GBG intervention is a universal...

  9. The effectiveness of intervention studies to decrease alcohol use in college undergraduate students: an integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter Fager, Judith; Mazurek Melnyk, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    This analysis was performed to critique intervention studies targeted at decreasing alcohol use in college students for the purpose of (1) synthesizing the various types of interventions and outcomes used, (2) evaluating the effectiveness of the interventions, and (3) identifying the strengths and limitations of prior studies to make recommendations for evidence-based clinical practice and future research. An exhaustive literature search was performed for experimental studies conducted in the past 10 years. Analysis using 15 identified studies indicated the following strengths: (1) use of random assignment in many of the studies, (2) use of theoretical frameworks to guide the interventions, (3) replication of previous studies, and (4) inclusion of outcome measures of alcohol use, quantity, and frequency. Limitations included: (1) small convenience samples; (2) use of multiple tools to elicit outcomes, making it difficult to compare results across studies; (3) lack of long-term follow-up to assess sustainability of the interventions; (4) use of only self-report outcome measures, which rely on subject's recall memory; (5) lack of manipulation checks to assure that subjects actually processed the interventions; and (6) a paucity of stress and coping interventions. Extensive research to address the problem of college alcohol use indicates that while education is an integral part of the approach for this problem, it is ineffective when used alone as an intervention strategy. However, some empirical support exists for the use of brief motivational interventions to reduce alcohol use and harm. A personalized approach addressing expectancies and normative use employing a motivational interviewing style may produce desired outcomes. In addition, theory-based manualized approaches using stress and coping intervention strategies need to be developed and tested. In the design of future studies, careful attention also should be given to methodological issues such as sampling

  10. Pain Intervention for people with Dementia in nursing homes (PID): study protocol for a quasi-experimental nurse intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppitz, Andrea; Bosshard, Georg; Blanc, Geneviève; Hediger, Hannele; Payne, Sheila; Volken, Thomas

    2017-04-21

    It is estimated that 19 to 83% of people with dementia suffer from pain that is inadequately treated in the last months of life. A large number of healthcare workers who care for these people in nursing homes lack appropriate expertise and may therefore not always recognise, assess and treat pain in those with dementia who have complex problems on time, properly and efficiently. The aim of this intervention trial is to identify care needs of people with dementia suffering from pain living in a nursing home. A quasi-experimental nurse-led intervention trial based on a convenience sample of four nursing homes in the Swiss Canton of Zurich examines the effects on dementia patients (n = 411), the healthcare institution and the qualification level of the healthcare workers compared to historical controls, using an event analysis and a multilevel analysis. Healthcare workers will be individually trained how to assess, intervene and evaluate acute and chronic pain. There are three data-monitoring cycles (T0, T1, T2) and two intervention cycles (I1, I2) with a total study duration of 425 days. There is also a process evaluation based on Dobbins analyses that analyse in particular the potentials for change in clinical practice of change agents. The aim of the intervention trial is to improve pain management strategies in older people with dementia in nursing homes. Clinically significant findings will be expected that will help reduce suffering in the sense of "total pain" for people with dementia. The joint intra- and interdisciplinary collaboration between practice and supply-oriented (nursing) research will have both a lasting effect on the efficiency measurement and provide scientifically sound results. Nursing homes can integrate the findings from the intervention trial into their internal quality control process. The potential for improvements can be directly influenced by the nursing home itself. Registration trial number: DRKS00009726 on DRKS, registered 10

  11. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Allison

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  12. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  13. The Study of Effective Tier II Reading Interventions for Primary Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Hines, Sheila

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effective reading interventions for primary grade students, utilizing the Response to Intervention (RtI) model. The purpose of RtI is to enhance the quality of education for children, if appropriate levels of academic instruction are present (Hanover Research, 2015). The research questions were posed to…

  14. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  15. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  16. Internet-Based Parent-Implemented Intervention for Young Children with Autism: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadan, Hedda; Snodgrass, Melinda R.; Meyer, Lori E.; Fisher, Kim W.; Chung, Moon Y.; Halle, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Both naturalistic communication and parent-implemented interventions are evidence-based practices for young children with disabilities, but demonstrations of effective methods for teaching parents to implement naturalistic interventions successfully with their children are still warranted. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a…

  17. Tailored interventions to promote Active Ageing using mobile technology: a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Melenk, J.; El Menshawy, N.; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mobile technologies facilitate innovative and ubiquitous interventions to promote Active Ageing in daily life. To ensure adoption, such interventions must be designed in co-operation with older adults. This work presents the results of a feasibility study of a system that monitors

  18. Testing the Intervention Effect in Single-Case Experiments: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Moeyaert, Mariola; Verkempynck, Paul; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Vervloet, Marlies; Ugille, Maaike; Onghena, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a Monte Carlo simulation study, evaluating two approaches for testing the intervention effect in replicated randomized AB designs: two-level hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and using the additive method to combine randomization test "p" values (RTcombiP). Four factors were manipulated: mean intervention effect,…

  19. The Feasibility of Virtual Home Visits to Provide Early Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Ginger L.; Fiechtl, Barbara J.; Olsen, Susan T.; Rule, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Although videoconferencing has been used to deliver distance education, tutoring for children, and telemedicine observations, there is limited information on the efficacy of its use in delivering part C early intervention services. Four families receiving early intervention services in a rural program participated in a pilot study to test the…

  20. Physical Activity and School Performance: Evidence from a Danish Randomised School-Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…

  1. The Effect of Teacher Beliefs on Student Competence in Mathematical Modeling--An Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Maaß, Katja

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intervention study whose aim was to promote teacher beliefs about mathematics and learning mathematics and student competences in mathematical modeling. In the intervention, teachers received written curriculum materials about mathematical modeling. The concept underlying the materials was based on constructivist ideas and…

  2. Instructors' Technology Experience and iPad Delivered Intervention Implementation: A Mixed Methods Replication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Lina; Strand Cary, Mari; Clarke, Ben; Guerreiro, Meg A.; Thier, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Instructor facilitation is an essential element in the successful implementation of technology-based interventions in authentic school settings. This manuscript reports results from two studies conducted during the development of KinderTEK, an iPad delivered kindergarten mathematics intervention, to determine the relationship between…

  3. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  4. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  5. Development of the Psychiatric Nursing Intervention Providing Structure: An International Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, L.A.; Nugter, A.; Achterberg, T. van; Goossens, P.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychiatric nurses commonly refer to "providing structure" (PS) as a key intervention. But no consensus exists about what PS entails. PS can be understood as a complex intervention. In four previous studies, a definition, activities, and context variables were described that were

  6. "Being an English Major, Being a Humanities Student": Connecting Academic Subject Identity in Literary Studies to Other Social Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Evelyn T. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' construction of academic subject identity in a university humanities discipline, English literary studies. In so doing, the study aimed to provide an empirically grounded intervention in current debates on the value of the humanities in higher education. Eight students participated in interviews lasting 15-20 minutes…

  7. Interest in Health Behavior Intervention Delivery Modalities Among Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily C; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Cox, Matthew G; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Carmack, Cindy L; Blalock, Janice A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-02-11

    Effective, broad-reaching channels are important for the delivery of health behavior interventions in order to meet the needs of the growing population of cancer survivors in the United States. New technology presents opportunities to increase the reach of health behavior change interventions and therefore their overall impact. However, evidence suggests that older adults may be slower in their adoption of these technologies than the general population. Survivors' interest for more traditional channels of delivery (eg, clinic) versus new technology-based channels (eg, smartphones) may depend on a variety of factors, including demographics, current health status, and the behavior requiring intervention. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that predict cancer survivors' interest in new technology-based health behavior intervention modalities versus traditional modalities. Surveys were mailed to 1871 survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Participants' demographics, diet and physical activity behaviors, interest in health behavior interventions, and interest in intervention delivery modalities were collected. Using path analysis, we explored the relationship between four intervention modality variables (ie, clinic, telephone, computer, and smartphone) and potential predictors of modality interest. In total, 1053 respondents to the survey (56.3% response rate); 847 provided complete data for this analysis. Delivery channel interest was highest for computer-based interventions (236/847, 27.9% very/extremely interested) and lowest for smartphone-based interventions (73/847, 8.6%), with interest in clinic-based (147/847, 17.3%) and telephone-delivered (143/847, 16.9%) falling in between. Use of other technology platforms, such as Web cameras and social networking sites, was positively predictive of interest in technology-based delivery channels. Older survivors were less likely to report interest in smartphone-based diet interventions

  8. Pilot Study of a Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Individuals in Treatment for Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P; Bernstein, Steven L; Williams, Jill M

    2017-08-30

    Over 85% of opioid-dependent individuals in methadone treatment smoke cigarettes; however, smoking cessation interventions are minimally effective in this population. To better help opioid-dependent individuals quit smoking, we developed and pilot-tested an intervention, based in the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of behavior change, which could be tailored to address individual barriers to smoking cessation in this population. We randomized participants (n=83) in methadone treatment to the eight-session, IMB model-based, intervention plus nicotine replacement therapy (intervention, n=41) or a facilitated referral to the state Quitline (control, n=42). All participants completed assessments at baseline, three-months, and six-months. Intervention participants completed a median of five sessions (IQR 3-8) and had significantly higher intervention satisfaction than control participants. Intervention participants reported smoking significantly fewer cigarettes per day at three-months (median [IQR]=6[4-15]) and six-months (median [IQR]=8 [4-14]) as compared control participants at three-months (median [IQR]=10 [5-20]) and six-months (median [IQR]=10 [6-20]). Fifty-six percent of the intervention group and 41% of the control group a made a quit attempt during the study (p=.16). At three-months, 7% (n=3) of intervention participants and none of the control participants were abstinent from smoking (p=.23). At six-months, 2% of participants in both groups were abstinent. Twenty-four percent and 10% of the intervention and control group participants, respectively, reported 20 or more smoke-free days (p=.43). An IMB-model based smoking cessation intervention for opioid-dependent smokers is feasible and acceptable in methadone treatment and may help methadone maintained smokers cut down on their smoking. This is the first study of a tailored, Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model (IMB)-based, smoking cessation intervention for opioid dependent smokers

  9. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  10. Variations in concentrations and fluxes of dissolved inorganic nutrients related to catchment scale human interventions in Pamba River, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S. E.; Jennerjahn, T. C.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2012-12-01

    River basins are geo-hydrological units. Water flowing out of the basin bears the imprint of natural factors such as geology, soil, vegetation and rainfall along with anthropogenic factors including the type and degree of human intervention within the basin. Pamba, a small mountainous river in the SW coast of India with a population density of ~1,400 persons km-2 was studied for its varying land use and human interventions as the global database are biased towards temperate regions while little is know about the smaller catchments from tropical regions. Land use comprised of dense forest in the highland region together with forest plantation and the human impacted Sabarimala temple- the second largest pilgrim, settlement with mixed tree crop (smt) in the midland and lowland paddy cultivated region. 50-60 million devotees visiting Sabarimala during November to January every year associated with the ritual bathing, discharge of human wastes emanating from the influx of millions of pilgrims due to inadequate number of sanitary latrines and the lack of facilities for sewage collection and treatment caused several ecological variations during pilgrim season. In order to asses the effect of land use and pilgrims in combination with seasonal variations in hydrology we investigated the seasonal and spatial variations in physicochemical and nutrient concentrations. Samples were collected from March 2010 to February 2012 during premonsoon (January-May), SW(June to September) and NE monsoon(October to December), from sites varying in land use. Nutrient budgets (load and yield) were calculated to quantify the inputs from various land use segments. Spatio-temporal variations in the physicochemical and dissolved nutrient concentrations were observed along the course of the river. Upstream forest region had highest dissolved oxygen(DO) and pH together with lowest dissolved inorganic nitrogen(DIN) values indicating almost pristine conditions. DIN in the temple region had the

  11. Survival after a psychoeducational intervention for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma: a replication study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Ellen H; Boesen, Sidsel H; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    The results of a randomized, intervention study done in 1993 of psychoeducation for patients with early-stage malignant melanoma showed a beneficial effect on recurrence and survival 6 years after the intervention. In the present study, we replicated the study with 258 Danish patients with malign...... with malignant melanoma. We also compared recurrence and survival among the participants in the randomized study with 137 patients who refused to participate....

  12. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  13. Preliminary studies on human lymphatic filariasis transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary studies on human lymphatic filariasis transmission control trials using Insecticide Treated Bednet (ITBN) in parts of Imo State, Nigeria. ... Two cohorts were used; ITBN-full coverage/wide scale use and ITBN-vulnerable coverage/ selective use. Endophilic mosquitoes caught twice a month by pyrethrum spray ...

  14. Transcultural influences in dementia care: observations from a psychosocial intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Alistair; Mittelman, Mary; Cole, Catherine; Morris, Julie; Winter, Jane; Page, Sean; Brodaty, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Various models of intervention for caregivers of patients with dementia have been described. There has been little direct comparison of cultural differences between countries and the effect any differences may exert on the outcome of caregiver interventions. The aims of the three-country study (USA, Australia and the UK) were to assess whether caregiver interventions can still be successful when anti-dementia drugs are provided to patients, and whether a caregiver intervention can be successfully implemented using the same methods in three different English-speaking countries. In this paper, the cultural differences and similarities between the three countries are examined. Randomised, controlled trial involving 158 patients and their caregivers (divided equally across three centres, New York, Sydney and Manchester) with all the patients receiving donepezil and the caregivers randomised to a caregiver intervention or treatment as usual. There were few differences between countries in the main outcome measures, and no differences between the treatment-as-usual group and the intervention, but interesting cultural nuances were observed between groups. Despite these differences, the caregiver intervention was associated with positive results on caregiver depression across all the countries. This first multinational carer intervention study has emphasised the similarities between the three countries whilst highlighting crucial differences which may be important when planning cross-cultural studies in the future. The positive results achieved on caregiver depression were replicated across the three centres. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reconciling quality and cost: A case study in interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Domröse, Sascha; Mahnken, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    To provide a method to calculate delay cost and examine the relationship between quality and total cost. The total cost including capacity, supply and delay cost for running an interventional radiology suite was calculated. The capacity cost, consisting of labour, lease and overhead costs, was derived based on expenses per unit time. The supply cost was calculated according to actual procedural material use. The delay cost and marginal delay cost derived from queueing models was calculated based on waiting times of inpatients for their procedures. Quality improvement increased patient safety and maintained the outcome. The average daily delay costs were reduced from 1275 € to 294 €, and marginal delay costs from approximately 2000 € to 500 €, respectively. The one-time annual cost saved from the transfer of surgical to radiological procedures was approximately 130,500 €. The yearly delay cost saved was approximately 150,000 €. With increased revenue of 10,000 € in project phase 2, the yearly total cost saved was approximately 290,000 €. Optimal daily capacity of 4.2 procedures was determined. An approach for calculating delay cost toward optimal capacity allocation was presented. An overall quality improvement was achieved at reduced costs. • Improving quality in terms of safety, outcome, efficiency and timeliness reduces cost. • Mismatch of demand and capacity is detrimental to quality and cost. • Full system utilization with random demand results in long waiting periods and increased cost.

  16. Training managers to facilitate their meetings: An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Meetings in organisations are a common object of popular frustration. They are often run by managers who picked up their meeting skills from their superiors a generation previously, thus perpetuating obsolescent practices unsuited to today’s world of work. This paper reports on a research-based i...... showed that in the employees’ judgement, there were significant improvements in their managers’ competencies in both new meeting facilitation and classical meeting management, whereas other meeting outcomes resisted change........ To test this reconceptualisation in a live experiment intended to improve real meetings, we conducted brief training of 103 managers in meeting facilitation in two organisations in Denmark. A pre- and post-intervention survey of a thousand employees who regularly participated in these managers’ meetings......Meetings in organisations are a common object of popular frustration. They are often run by managers who picked up their meeting skills from their superiors a generation previously, thus perpetuating obsolescent practices unsuited to today’s world of work. This paper reports on a research...

  17. Impact of an educational programme on reproductive health among young migrant female workers in Shenzhen, China: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunyan; Geng, Qingshan; Chen, Li; Yang, Hongling; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Reproductive health and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) account for a high proportion of health problems in the rural-to-urban young female migrant workers in China. Improving these conditions remains highly challenging. To developed an educational programme to advance the reproductive health of the female workers. An intervention study was conducted between July 2010 and April 2011 in Shenzhen. Two commune factories were selected to participate and provided a control cluster receiving routine local government health services and a second cluster receiving an educational intervention in addition to the routine services. The intervention included distribution and free access to educational study materials. The factory workers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the area of reproductive health and STD were the main study outcomes. Compared with the control cluster, at the 6-month follow-up assessment, the intervention cluster had a significantly higher proportion of correct answers to queries about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (standardised coefficients of multiple linear regression (B) 0.047; P = 0.020) and awareness of places providing free contraceptives (odds ratio [OR] 2.011, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.635-2.472; P migrant workers appears to be effective in substantially improving their knowledge of reproductive health and their attitudes and behaviour towards health, and in reducing prevalence of STD.

  18. Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - the POIBC study

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Santos, Santiago Felipe; Casas, Rafael; Taylor Palomo, Vanessa; Martin Pujol, Anna; Fitó Colomer, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. METHODS/DESIGN: Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2...

  19. Adaptive interventions may optimize outcomes in drug courts: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Arabia, Patricia L; Dugosh, Karen L; Benasutti, Kathleen M; Croft, Jason R

    2009-10-01

    Adaptive interventions apply a priori decision rules for adjusting treatment services in response to participants' clinical presentation or performance in treatment. This pilot study (n = 30) experimentally examined an adaptive intervention in a misdemeanor drug court. The participants were primarily charged with possession of marijuana (73%) or possession of drug paraphernalia (23%). Results revealed that participants in the adaptive condition had higher graduation rates and required significantly less time to graduate from the program and achieve a final resolution of the case. It took an average of nearly 4 fewer months for participants in the adaptive intervention to resolve their cases compared with those participating in drug court as usual. Participants in the adaptive condition also reported equivalent satisfaction with the program and therapeutic alliances with their counselors. These data suggest that adaptive interventions may enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of drug courts and justify examining adaptive interventions in large-scale drug court studies.

  20. Melatonin as a Novel Interventional Candidate for Fragile X Syndrome with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyoung Won

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common monogenic form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. FXS with ASD results from the loss of fragile X mental retardation (fmr gene products, including fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, which triggers a variety of physiological and behavioral abnormalities. This disorder is also correlated with clock components underlying behavioral circadian rhythms and, thus, a mutation of the fmr gene can result in disturbed sleep patterns and altered circadian rhythms. As a result, FXS with ASD individuals may experience dysregulation of melatonin synthesis and alterations in melatonin-dependent signaling pathways that can impair vigilance, learning, and memory abilities, and may be linked to autistic behaviors such as abnormal anxiety responses. Although a wide variety of possible causes, symptoms, and clinical features of ASD have been studied, the correlation between altered circadian rhythms and FXS with ASD has yet to be extensively investigated. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of melatonin on the nervous, immune, and metabolic systems and, even though the utilization of melatonin for sleep dysfunctions in ASD has been considered in clinical research, future studies should investigate its neuroprotective role during the developmental period in individuals with ASD. Thus, the present review focuses on the regulatory circuits involved in the dysregulation of melatonin and disruptions in the circadian system in individuals with FXS with ASD. Additionally, the neuroprotective effects of melatonin intervention therapies, including improvements in neuroplasticity and physical capabilities, are discussed and the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder are reviewed. The authors suggest that melatonin may be a useful treatment for FXS with ASD in terms of alleviating the adverse effects of variations in the circadian rhythm.

  1. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI

  2. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors--the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, Emelie; Leijon, Matti E; Calling, Susanna; Bergmark, Christina; Arvidsson, Daniel; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Sundquist, Kristina; Ekesbo, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR) intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1) Intervention group (IG): multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2) Control group A (CA): physical activity prescription in usual care and 3) Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection). The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients' health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural obstacles and increase their internal motivation for physical

  3. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenman Emelie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1 Intervention group (IG: multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2 Control group A (CA: physical activity prescription in usual care and 3 Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection. The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural

  4. Costing Human Rights and Community Support Interventions as a Part of Universal Access to HIV Treatment and Care in a Southern African Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louisa; Akugizibwe, Paula; Clayton, Michaela; Amon, Joseph J; Sabin, Miriam Lewis; Bennett, Rod; Stegling, Christine; Baggaley, Rachel; Kahn, James G; Holmes, Charles B; Garg, Navneet; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mack, Christina DeFilippo; Williams, Phoebe; Smyth, Caoimhe; Vitoria, Marco; Crowley, Siobhan; Williams, Brian; McClure, Craig; Granich, Reuben; Hirnschall, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has both individual health benefits and potential to decrease HIV incidence. Ensuring access to HIV services is a significant human rights issue and successful programmes require adequate human rights protections and community support. However, the cost of specific human rights and community support interventions for equitable, sustainable and non-discriminatory access to ART are not well described. Human rights and community support interventions were identified using the literature and through consultations with experts. Specific costs were then determined for these health sector interventions. Population and epidemic data were provided through the Statistics South Africa 2009 national mid-year estimates. Costs of scale up of HIV prevention and treatment were taken from recently published estimates. Interventions addressed access to services, minimising stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV, confidentiality, informed consent and counselling quality. Integrated HIV programme interventions included training for counsellors, ‘Know Your Rights’ information desks, outreach campaigns for most at risk populations, and adherence support. Complementary measures included post-service interviews, human rights abuse monitoring, transportation costs, legal assistance, and funding for human rights and community support organisations. Other essential non-health sector interventions were identified but not included in the costing framework. The annual costs for the human rights and community support interventions are United States (US) $63.8 million (US $1.22 per capita), representing 1.5% of total health sector HIV programme costs. Respect for human rights and community engagement can be understood both as an obligation of expanded ART programmes and as a critically important factor in their success. Basic rights-based and community support interventions constitute only a small percentage of overall

  5. Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    AD-A271 892 1 April 1993 Reprint Human Volunteer Studies with Campylobacter jejuni Army Project Order 90PP0820 Robert E. Black, Daniel Perlman, Mary...the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development Approved for public release; distribution unlimited NTxxeISfl RFor...C. jejuni results in diarrhea cosa visualized on a microscopic study of rectal with fecal leukocytes and blood, similar to nat- biopsy specimens

  6. The Linxian cataract studies. Two nutrition intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduto, R D; Hu, T S; Milton, R C; Zhao, J L; Everett, D F; Cheng, Q F; Blot, W J; Bing, L; Taylor, P R; Li, J Y

    1993-09-01

    To determine whether the vitamin/mineral supplements used in two cancer intervention trials affected the risk of developing age-related cataracts. Two randomized, double-masked trials with a duration of 5 to 6 years and end-of-trial eye examinations. Rural communes in Linxian, China. In trial 1, 2141 participants aged 45 to 74 years, and, in trial 2, 3249 participants aged 45 to 74 years. Multivitamin/mineral supplement or matching placebo in trial 1; factorial design to test the effect of four different vitamin/mineral combinations in trial 2 (retinol/zinc, riboflavin/niacin, ascorbic acid/molybdenum, and selenium/alpha-tocopherol/beta carotene). Prevalence of nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular cataracts in treatment groups at end of trials. In the first trial, there was a statistically significant 36% reduction in the prevalence of nuclear cataract for persons aged 65 to 74 years who received the supplements. In the second trial, the prevalence of nuclear cataract was significantly lower in persons receiving riboflavin/niacin compared with persons not receiving these vitamins. Again, persons in the oldest group, 65 to 74 years, benefited the most (44% reduction in prevalence). No treatment effect was noted for cortical cataract in either trial. Although the number of posterior subcapsular cataracts was very small, there was a statistically significant deleterious effect of treatment with riboflavin/niacin. Findings from the two trials suggest that vitamin/mineral supplements may decrease the risk of nuclear cataract. Additional research is needed in less nutritionally deprived populations before these findings can be translated into general nutritional recommendations.

  7. Defining childhood severe falciparum malaria for intervention studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bejon

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials of interventions designed to prevent severe falciparum malaria in children require a clear endpoint. The internationally accepted definition of severe malaria is sensitive, and appropriate for clinical purposes. However, this definition includes individuals with severe nonmalarial disease and coincident parasitaemia, so may lack specificity in vaccine trials. Although there is no "gold standard" individual test for severe malaria, malaria-attributable fractions (MAFs can be estimated among groups of children using a logistic model, which we use to test the suitability of various case definitions as trial endpoints.A total of 4,583 blood samples were taken from well children in cross-sectional surveys and from 1,361 children admitted to a Kenyan District hospital with severe disease. Among children under 2 y old with severe disease and over 2,500 parasites per microliter of blood, the MAFs were above 85% in moderate- and low-transmission areas, but only 61% in a high-transmission area. HIV and malnutrition were not associated with reduced MAFs, but gastroenteritis with severe dehydration (defined by reduced skin turgor, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's final diagnosis, meningitis (on cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] examination, and bacteraemia were associated with reduced MAFs. The overall MAF was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI] 83.8%-86.1% without excluding these conditions, 89% (95% CI 88.4%-90.2% after exclusions, and 95% (95% CI 94.0%-95.5% when a threshold of 2,500 parasites/mul was also applied. Applying a threshold and exclusion criteria reduced sensitivity to 80% (95% CI 77%-83%.The specificity of a case definition for severe malaria is improved by applying a parasite density threshold and by excluding children with meningitis, lower respiratory tract infection (clinician's diagnosis, bacteraemia, and gastroenteritis with severe dehydration, but not by excluding children with HIV or malnutrition.

  8. Children of mentally ill parents – a pilot study of a group intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eChristiansen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009 and adapted it for groups. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28, a Wait Control group (n = 9, and a control group of healthy children (n = 40. Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children’s knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group and externalizing symptoms were reduced for this group as well. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children’s enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.

  9. Randomized comparative efficacy study of parent-mediated interventions for toddlers with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Paparella, Tanya; Hellemann, Gerhard; Berry, Kathleen

    2015-06-01

    This study compared effects of two parent-mediated interventions on joint engagement outcomes as augmentations of an early intervention program for toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants included 86 toddlers (range 22-36 months) with ASD and their primary caregiver. Caregiver-child dyads were randomized to receive 10 weeks of hands-on parent training in a naturalistic, developmental behavioral intervention (joint attention, symbolic play, engagement and regulation-JASPER) or a parent-only psychoeducational intervention (PEI). Dose was controlled in terms of researcher-parent contact and early intervention services received by the child. Results yielded significant effects of the JASPER intervention on the primary outcome of joint engagement. The treatment effect was large (Cohen's f² = .69) and maintained over the 6-month follow-up. JASPER effects were also found on secondary outcomes of play diversity, highest play level achieved, and generalization to the child's classroom for child-initiated joint engagement. The PEI intervention was found to be effective in reducing parenting stress associated with child characteristics. All secondary effects were generally small to moderate. These data highlight the benefit of a brief, targeted, parent-mediated intervention on child outcomes. Future studies may consider the combination of JASPER and PEI treatments for optimal parent and child outcomes. Trial registry no. NCT00999778. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Use of a Parent Management Training Intervention with Urban Foster Parents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Sonya J.; Spielfogel, Jill E.; McMeel, Lorri S.; Atkins, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of effective interventions for foster children with behavior problems is essential given the consequences of behavior problems for children’s placement stability and permanency outcomes. This article presents findings from a pilot study of an intervention providing parent management training (PMT) and support to foster parents in groups and home visits. The intervention was an adaptation of the KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) group intervention, provided in a large urban child welfare agency serving predominantly African American foster parents. The study used an intent-to-treat design, with 25 foster parents of 31 children (age 4–12) in specialized foster care assigned to either an intervention or treatment as usual control group. Longitudinal outcomes were analyzed using random effect regression models. Over time, children’s behavior problems were significantly lower in the intervention group relative to the control group, and the effect of the intervention was partially mediated by parents’ understanding of how to appropriately use the intervention parenting skills. These results provide support for the effectiveness of KEEP with urban foster children with significant behavior problems. PMID:21686093

  11. Effect of Cognitive and Aerobic Training Intervention on Older Adults with Mild or No Cognitive Impairment: A Derivative Study of the Nakajima Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sugano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An increasing elderly population in Japan requires effective cognitive intervention programs for dementia. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of such programs for older adults. Methods: The participants were local community-dwelling non-demented older adults and adults with mild cognitive impairment who underwent executive function and group aerobic training. In addition, a non-intervention group participated in activity sessions involving handicraft, Skutt ball matches, and cooking. The four criteria for assessment were cognitive function, instrumental activities of daily living, human relationships, and physical function. Results: The participants in both intervention groups showed a significant improvement in their memory function compared with the non-intervention group. Conclusion: Early rehabilitation intervention using executive function and aerobic training programs may improve memory.

  12. Reducing indoor air pollution with a randomised intervention design - a presentation of the Stove Intervention Study in the Guatemalan Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Smith-Sivertsen m.fl

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution from the burning of solid fuels (like wood and coal in simple stoves is a global problem especially affecting people living in poor rural areas of the world. When typically burnt on open fires, the resulting indoor pollution levels may be orders of magnitude higher than levels recommended by international guidelines. The most important health effects seem to be acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI in children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women. So far, health risks from solid fuel use have only been studied with observational designs, often with poor assessment of exposures. Hence there is good reason to conduct a well-designed randomised intervention study.                                          In this randomised study, conducted in a poor rural community in Guatemala, indoor exposure burden in the intervention group is reduced by replacing open fires with new chimney stoves burning the same wood fuels. Participating households (n=534 all started the project with a child less than four months or a pregnant woman, and are being followed until the child reaches 18 months. At the end of follow-up, the control households receive their new stove. The main health outcome investigated is the incidence of ALRI in infants. Also, respiratory and cardiovascular health in women is studied. Preparations are also being made to study asthma/atopy in the children as they grow older. This study will define the relationship between exposure and disease more completely, quantify the impacts of reducing indoor air pollution and document the potential for prevention of ill-health that new stoves give. It is the first randomised controlled trial ever performed on health effects from combustion pollutants in normal populations.

  13. Patient safety in the operating room: an intervention study on latent risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Beuzekom Martie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that

  14. The effects of improving hospital physicians working conditions on patient care: a prospective, controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Matthias; Hornung, Severin; Angerer, Peter; Siegrist, Johannes; Glaser, Jürgen

    2013-10-09

    Physicians, particularly in hospitals, suffer from adverse working conditions. There is a close link between physicians' psychosocial work environment and the quality of the work they deliver. Our study aimed to explore whether a participatory work-design intervention involving hospital physicians is effective in improving working conditions and quality of patient care. A prospective, controlled intervention study was conducted in two surgical and two internal departments. Participants were 57 hospital physicians and 1581 inpatients. The intervention was a structured, participatory intervention based on continuous group meetings. Physicians actively analyzed problematic working conditions, developed solutions, and initiated their implementation. Physicians' working conditions and patients' perceived quality of care were outcome criteria. These variables were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Additional data on implementation status were gathered through interviews. Over the course of ten months, several work-related problems were identified, categorized, and ten solutions were implemented. Post-intervention, physicians in the intervention departments reported substantially less conflicting demands and enhanced quality of cooperation with patients' relatives, compared to control group physicians. Moreover, positive changes in enhanced colleague support could be attributed to the intervention. Regarding patient reports of care quality of care, patient ratings of physicians organization of care improved for physicians in the intervention group. Five interviews with involved physicians confirm the plausibility of obtained results, provide information on implementation status and sustainability of the solutions, and highlight process-related factors for re-design interventions to improve hospital physicians work. This study demonstrates that participatory work design for hospital physicians is a promising intervention for improving working conditions and

  15. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  16. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.

  17. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, Merel; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Smit, Filip; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-02-08

    The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems. We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, PsychInfo, the Cochrane register, and manual searches. Forty articles, describing 39 studies, totaling 6,139 participants, met the criteria for inclusion. The outcome measures used were subjective well-being, psychological well-being and depression. Positive psychology interventions included self-help interventions, group training and individual therapy. The standardized mean difference was 0.34 for subjective well-being, 0.20 for psychological well-being and 0.23 for depression indicating small effects for positive psychology interventions. At follow-up from three to six months, effect sizes are small, but still significant for subjective well-being and psychological well-being, indicating that effects are fairly sustainable. Heterogeneity was rather high, due to the wide diversity of the studies included. Several variables moderated the impact on depression: Interventions were more effective if they were of longer duration, if recruitment was conducted via referral or hospital, if interventions were delivered to people with certain psychosocial problems and on an individual basis, and if the study design was of low quality. Moreover, indications for publication bias were found, and the quality of the studies varied considerably. The results of this meta-analysis show that positive psychology interventions can be effective in the enhancement of subjective well-being and psychological well-being, as well as in helping to reduce depressive symptoms. Additional high-quality peer-reviewed studies in diverse (clinical) populations are needed to strengthen the evidence-base for positive

  18. Genotoxicity of antiobesity drug orlistat and effect of caffeine intervention: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Manoswini; Ghosh, Ilika; Jana, Aditi; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects. Caffeine intake may be an additional burden in people using anorectic drugs, therefore, further work is needed to be carried out to evaluate the possible effects of caffeine on orlistat-induced DNA damage. Human lymphocytes were exposed to orlistat (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml), sibutramine (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) and caffeine (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 μg/ml) to assess their genotoxicity by comet assay in vitro. In addition, lymphocytes were co-incubated with caffeine (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) and a single concentration of orlistat (250 μg/ml). Orlistat and sibutramine were genotoxic at all concentrations tested, sibutramine being more genotoxic. Caffeine was found to be genotoxic at concentrations 125 μg/ml and above. Co-treatment of orlistat with non-genotoxic concentrations (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) of caffeine lead to a decrease in DNA damage. Orlistat can induce DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro and caffeine was found to reduce orlistat-induced genotoxicity.

  19. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather ERWIN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is beneficial to children’s health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n=15 received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics fluency, PA, grades, and standardized test scores were collected. Effects of the intervention were examined using mixed-design ANOVAs. Intervention students had significantly higher reading fluency and mathematics scores post-intervention and higher means for standardized reading and mathematics scores as well as grades. Short bouts of PA are important for improving CBM math and reading fluency scores. Classroom teachers should be encouraged to devote time during academic learning to incorporate PA

  20. [Early detection of specific reading disorder through response to intervention:a cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Tatsuya; Seki, Ayumi; Tanaka, Daisuke; Uchiyama, Hitoshi

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of response to intervention (RTI) for the early detection and intervention for specific reading disorder. RTIs were applied to seventy-seven first graders (36 boys and 41 girls) for the early detection and intervention of specific reading disorders. The outcomes were examined when the children reached the third grade. Reading difficulties were detected in four children at the beginning of the first grade. Decoding training and vocabulary learning were conducted with these children as interventions for reading difficulties. Three children exhibited improvements in reading difficulties at the end of the first grade. The fourth child responded poorly and was diagnosed with specific reading disorder. The assessment of outcomes at the third grade showed that this child still had reading difficulties, whereas no other child displayed symptoms for being diagnosed with specific reading disorder. RTI is effective for the early detection and intervention of specific reading disorder.

  1. A Randomized Prospective Study on Outcomes of an Empathy Intervention among Second-year Student Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Julie T; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a single, 3-day intervention on empathy levels as measured by the validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS). Methods. Forty second-year student pharmacists were recruited to participate in a non-blinded prospective study. Subjects were randomized to an intervention group (n=20) or control group (n=20) and completed the JSE-HPS at baseline, 7 days postintervention, and 90 days postintervention. The intervention group consisted of a 3-day simulation, each day including a designated activity with loss of dominant hand usage, vision, and speech. Results. The 3-day simulation increased empathy levels in the intervention group compared to the control group 7 days postintervention (p=0.035). However, there were no effects on empathy levels 90 days postintervention (p=0.38). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained in the long-term with a 3-day empathy intervention. PMID:25861099

  2. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... was analysed for allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 + Der m 1 = Der 1) by ELISA and HDMs were counted. Changes in mite and in mite allergen concentration were the same in the control and intervention groups, and measured temperatures did not differ during intervention period in the groups (18 degrees C and 19 degrees...... C). Groups turned out not to be comparable with respect to initial (self-assessed) bedroom temperature (lowest in the intervention group). There was a significant seasonal variation, with doubled Der 1 concentrations in dust collected in July-November compared to January-May samples. No effect...

  3. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different interventions to reduce preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertuğ, Nurcan; Ulusoylu, Özge; Bal, Ayça; Özgür, Hazal

    2017-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effectiveness of nature sounds and relaxation exercises for reducing preoperative anxiety. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial design was used. We divided 159 preoperative patients into three groups: nature sounds (n = 53), relaxation exercises (n = 53), and control groups (n = 53). We evaluated anxiety using the visual analog scale and state anxiety inventory scores immediately before, immediately after, and 30 min after interventions in nature sounds and relaxation exercises groups, and silent rest in the control. We found no differences between the measurement values in the intervention groups, but we did observe a difference between the intervention and control groups. The two interventions were similarly effective in reducing preoperative anxiety. These simple and low-cost interventions can be used to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical clinics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Reported human traffickers' profiles: a key step in the prevention of trafficking in persons through HIV and AIDS interventions in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamazima, Switbert R; Kazaura, Method R; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Fimbo, Benett

    2011-06-01

    a gap in comprehensive knowledge of trafficking in persons and the traffickers exists globally and in Tanzania in particular. Consequently, information on the profiles of human traffickers in the country is tremendously scanty. we conducted a baseline study in eight administrative regions of Tanzania Mainland using both qualitative and quantitative methods to generate data in to inform anti-human trafficking health interventions and programs to be implemented in the country. Study participants included the national, regional and district Community Development Officers, District Medical Officers, local government leaders, managers or representatives of non-governmental organizations involved in anti-trafficking in persons activities, members of the community and victims. different individuals or groups, knowingly or ignorantly, contribute to trafficking in persons and their roles differ at the places of origin, transit and destinations. Traffickers are males or females with varied age, marital status, relationships with victims, socio-economic status, experience and occupations. active traffickers at many stages of this crime rarely come into contact with the law enforcement system; fled or rescued victims may not be willing or unable to testify against their traffickers and coercing victims to do so could further traumatize them. Further research in needed to generate knowledge on human traffickers' profiles to inform trafficking in persons control programs through HIV and AIDS interventions in Tanzania.

  5. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a consumer behaviour intervention to improve healthy food purchases from online canteens: study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen; Rissel, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Introduction School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies given their wide reach, and frequent use by children. Online school canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer behaviour strategies that impact on purchasing decisions. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a consumer behaviour intervention implemented in an online school canteen ordering system in reducing the kilojoule, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of primary student lunch orders. Methods and analysis The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Approximately 1040 students (aged 5–12 years) from 10 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia, currently using an online canteen ordering system will be invited to participate. Schools will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the intervention (enhanced system) or control (standard online ordering only). The intervention will include evidence-based strategies shown to influence healthy food purchasing (strategies targeting availability, menu labelling, placement and prompting). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the mean content per student online lunch order of (1) energy (kJ), (2) saturated fat (g), (3) sugar (g) and (4) sodium (mg). The impact of the intervention will be determined by between-group assessment of the nutritional content of lunch purchases over a 2-month period postintervention initiation. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee and New South Wales Department of Education and School Communities. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and relevant presentations in international conferences and to stakeholders. Trial registration number

  6. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a consumer behaviour intervention to improve healthy food purchases from online canteens: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Tessa; Wyse, Rebecca; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Wiggers, John; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen; Rissel, Chris; Wolfenden, Luke

    2017-04-17

    School canteens represent an opportune setting in which to deliver public health nutrition strategies given their wide reach, and frequent use by children. Online school canteen ordering systems, where students order and pay for their lunch online, provide an avenue to improve healthy canteen purchases through the application of consumer behaviour strategies that impact on purchasing decisions. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of a consumer behaviour intervention implemented in an online school canteen ordering system in reducing the kilojoule, saturated fat, sugar and sodium content of primary student lunch orders. The study will employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Approximately 1040 students (aged 5-12 years) from 10 primary schools in New South Wales, Australia, currently using an online canteen ordering system will be invited to participate. Schools will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either the intervention (enhanced system) or control (standard online ordering only). The intervention will include evidence-based strategies shown to influence healthy food purchasing (strategies targeting availability, menu labelling, placement and prompting). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the mean content per student online lunch order of (1) energy (kJ), (2) saturated fat (g), (3) sugar (g) and (4) sodium (mg). The impact of the intervention will be determined by between-group assessment of the nutritional content of lunch purchases over a 2-month period postintervention initiation. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee and New South Wales Department of Education and School Communities. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications and relevant presentations in international conferences and to stakeholders. ACTRN12616000499482. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  7. Video-feedback intervention with maltreating parents and their children: program implementation and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Tarabulsy, George M; St-Georges, Rachèle; Dubois-Comtois, Karine; Cyr, Chantal; Bernier, Annie; St-Laurent, Diane; Pascuzzo, Katherine; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a video-feedback intervention program with maltreating parents and their children aged 1 to 5 years using a case-study approach. The 8-week program is of interest to researchers and clinicians because it is the first short-term attachment-based intervention program to demonstrate efficacy in enhancing parental sensitivity, improving child attachment security, and reducing disorganized attachment for children and parents who have been reported for child abuse and/or neglect. We have previously described the theoretical and empirical basis of the intervention program and evidence for its efficacy. Details of program implementation and a case study are currently presented.

  8. Review of intervention studies on depression in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, I Diane; Gonzalez, Elizabeth W

    2007-05-01

    Depression is prevalent among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), an acquired neurologic disability that affects predominantly women. The purpose of this article is to review intervention studies on depression in persons with MS. An integrative review of eight intervention studies published from 2000 to 2005 has revealed that various interventions could potentially alleviate depression. Although no definite conclusions can be made from this review, there is reasonable evidence that cognitive behavioral approaches are beneficial in the treatment of depression and in helping people adjust to, and cope with, having MS.

  9. Developing, implementing and evaluating OSH interventions in SMEs: a pilot, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Donato; Cagno, Enrico; Micheli, Guido J L

    2014-01-01

    The literature on occupational safety and health (OSH) interventions contains many debates on how interventions should work, but far less attention has been paid to how they actually do work, and to the contextual factors that influence their implementation, development and effect. The need of improving the understanding of the OSH interventions issue is particularly relevant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), since they experience worse OSH conditions, and have fewer physical, economic and organizational resources if compared to larger enterprises; thus, SMEs strongly need to focus their few resources in the decision-making process so as to select and put in place only the most proper interventions. This exploratory study is based on interviews with safety officers of 5 SMEs, and it gives an overview of the key features of the actual intervention process in SMEs and of the contextual factors making this actual intervention process similar or dissimilar to the ideal case. The results show how much qualitative and experience driven the actual intervention process is; they should be used to direct the future research towards an increasingly applicable one, to enable practitioners from SMEs to develop, implement and evaluate their OSH interventions in an "ideal" way.

  10. Predicted serum folate concentrations based on in vitro studies and kinetic modeling are consistent with measured folate concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Havenaar, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The nutritional quality of new functional or fortified food products depends on the bioavailability of the nutrient(s) in the human body. Bioavailability is often determined in human intervention studies by measurements of plasma or serum profiles over a certain time period. These studies are time

  11. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, LL; Schneider, M; Ford, EG; Hernandez, AE; Showell, B; Drews, KL; Moe, EL; Gillis, B; Jessup, AN; Stadler, DD; White, M

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  12. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  13. Preventing childhood obesity in early care and education settings: lessons from two intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S

    2016-05-01

    Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Psychological interventions for psychosis: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David Trevor; van der Gaag, Mark; Karyotaki, Eirini; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-05-01

    Meta-analyses have demonstrated the efficacy of various interventions for psychosis, and a small number of studies have compared such interventions. The aim of this study was to provide further insight into the relative efficacy of psychological interventions for psychosis. Forty-eight outcome trials comparing psychological interventions for psychosis were identified. The comparisons included 3,295 participants. Categorization of interventions resulted in six interventions being compared against other interventions pooled. Hedges' g was calculated for all comparisons. Risk of bias was assessed using four items of the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Researcher allegiance was assessed, and sensitivity analyses were conducted for robust significant findings. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) was significantly more efficacious than other interventions pooled in reducing positive symptoms (g=0.16). This finding was robust in all sensitivity analyses for risk of bias but lost significance in sensitivity analyses for researcher allegiance, which suffered from low power. Social skills training was significantly more efficacious in reducing negative symptoms (g=0.27). This finding was robust in sensitivity analyses for risk of bias and researcher allegiance. Significant findings for CBT, social skills training, and cognitive remediation for overall symptoms were not robust after sensitivity analyses. CBT was significantly more efficacious when compared directly with befriending for overall symptoms (g=0.42) and supportive counseling for positive symptoms (g=0.23). There are small but reliable differences in efficacy between psychological interventions for psychosis, and they occur in a pattern consistent with the specific factors of particular interventions.

  15. The application of human engineering interventions reduces ventilator-associated pneumonia in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachecho, Riad; Dobkin, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) increases mortality and length of stay and escalates the cost of care. Our institution embarked on a project to eradicate VAP. We compared the outcome of trauma patients admitted in period 1 (P1) (January 2005 to December 2006) and period 2 (P2) (January 2006 to December 2009). Team building, culture change, and the ventilator bundle were introduced and modified during P1 and were fully implemented in P2. Outcome data were calculated for both periods. The Center for Disease Control VAP definition was used. The VAP rate was calculated as VAP/1,000 ventilator days. Chi-square and t test statistics were used as appropriate. Data were considered statistically significant if p ≤ 0.05. In total, 299 trauma patients were admitted in P1 and 655 in P2. The two groups were identical in age, Injury Severity Score, mortality, and non-VAP. There was a trend toward a shorter length of stay in P2 (p = 0.06). The days on ventilator was significantly shorter in P2 compared with P1 (p = 0.05). The VAP rate dropped significantly from 7.9/1,000 in P1 to 1.0/1,000 in P2 (p = 0.04). The Appropriate Care Measure score increased from 45% in early P1 to 91% in late P2 (p = 0.0001). The application of the VAP bundle, a checklist, and the multidisciplinary team approach resulted in significant improvement of VAP in all trauma patients admitted to the shock trauma unit and to the decrease in days on ventilator in the trauma patients. This intervention did not affect mortality or the rate of non-VAP in the trauma patients. Therapeutic study, level IV.

  16. Linking ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed to track results of interventional human clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtech Huser

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In an effort to understand how results of human clinical trials are made public, we analyze a large set of clinical trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, the world's largest clinical trial registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We considered two trial result artifacts: (1 existence of a trial result journal article that is formally linked to a registered trial or (2 the deposition of a trial's basic summary results within the registry. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 8907 completed, interventional, phase 2-or-higher clinical trials that were completed in 2006-2009. The majority of trials (72.2% had no structured trial-article link present. A total of 2367 trials (26.6% deposited basic summary results within the registry. Of those, 969 trials (10.9% were classified as trials with extended results and 1398 trials (15.7% were classified as trials with only required basic results. The majority of the trials (54.8% had no evidence of results, based on either linked result articles or basic summary results (silent trials, while a minimal number (9.2% report results through both registry deposition and publication. DISCUSSION: Our study analyzes the body of linked knowledge around clinical trials (which we refer to as the "trialome". Our results show that most trials do not report results and, for those that do, there is minimal overlap in the types of reporting. We identify several mechanisms by which the linkages between trials and their published results can be increased. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that even when combining publications and registry results, and despite availability of several information channels, trial sponsors do not sufficiently meet the mandate to inform the public either via a linked result publication or basic results submission.

  17. Effects of Magnesium on the Phosphate Toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease: Time for Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2017-02-06

    Magnesium, an essential mineral for human health, plays a pivotal role in the cardiovascular system. Epidemiological studies in the general population have found an association between lower dietary magnesium intake and an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. In addition, magnesium supplementation was shown to improve blood pressure control, insulin sensitivity, and endothelial function. The relationship between magnesium and cardiovascular prognosis among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasingly investigated as it is becoming evident that magnesium can inhibit vascular calcification, a prominent risk of cardiovascular events, which commonly occurs in CKD patients. Cohort studies in patients receiving dialysis have shown a lower serum magnesium level as a significant risk for cardiovascular mortality. Interestingly, the cardiovascular mortality risk associated with hyperphosphatemia is alleviated among those with high serum magnesium levels, consistent with in vitro evidence that magnesium inhibits high-phosphate induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, a harmful effect of high phosphate on the progression of CKD is also attenuated among those with high serum magnesium levels. The potential usefulness of magnesium as a remedy for phosphate toxicity should be further explored by future intervention studies.

  18. The Angolan Proxy War: A Study of Foreign Intervention and Its Impact on War Fighting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bissonnette, Brian

    2008-01-01

    .... This study examines the influence of foreign intervention on war fighting during the Angolan Civil War and analyzes how the various levels of support impacted the successes and failures of the internal warring factions...

  19. Worksite Physical Activity Interventions and Obesity: A Review of European Studies (the HOPE Project)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vuillemin, Anne; Rostami, Cyrus; Maes, Lea; Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to review the effectiveness of physical activity promotion interventions in the worksite setting in Europe in order to identify those studies that had measured obesity-related outcomes...

  20. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies - a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ole; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Poulsen, Kjeld Børge; Gron, Sisse Malene Frydendal; Brunnberg, Hans Lennart

    2008-06-13

    Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3-5 years, covered 3-52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill-2.2 mill euro, and involved 3-7 researchers. In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned) administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action.

  1. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Kjeld

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action.

  2. Worksite physical activity interventions and obesity: a review of European studies (the HOPE project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemin, Anne; Rostami, Cyrus; Maes, Lea; Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to review the effectiveness of physical activity promotion interventions in the worksite setting in Europe in order to identify those studies that had measured obesity-related outcomes and to evaluate how external validity of the findings had been assessed. We conducted a review of studies conducted in Europe, published up to December 2009. We assessed levels of evidence regarding effectiveness and analysed external validity using the RE-AIM framework. Studies included (n = 33) were divided in 6 intervention categories. Moderate evidence of effectiveness was found for physical fitness outcomes with exercise training interventions and for physical activity outcomes with active commuting interventions. There was no or inconclusive evidence for obesity-related outcomes for all intervention categories. For external validity, elements receiving the least attention (Active commuting and exercise training appear as promising approaches to promote physical activity or fitness in the workplace. The effect of interventions on obesity-related outcomes remains to be further investigated. There is a need to better report elements of generalizability and dissemination for translation into practice of worksite physical activity interventions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ole; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Poulsen, Kjeld Børge; Gron, Sisse Malene Frydendal; Brunnberg, Hans Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned) administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action. PMID:18554380

  4. Palliative Cancer Patients' Experiences of Participating in a Lifestyle Intervention Study While Receiving Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Hilde Elisabeth Timenes; Brovold, Karianne Vassbakk; Berntsen, Sveinung; Kersten, Christian; Fegran, Liv

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions have promise in terms of their potential health benefits and as an empowerment tool for cancer patients. Nevertheless, documentation of palliative cancer patients experiences of participating in lifestyle interventions remains poor. The objective of this study was to explore how palliative cancer patients experience participation in a feasibility study focusing on multiple lifestyle interventions (physical, nutritional, smoking cessation, and stress management) while receiving chemotherapy. This was a qualitative design with semistructured interviews of 9 palliative cancer patients 3 to 4 months after inclusion to the lifestyle intervention. Data were analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis within a hermeneutic approach. Three main themes emerged: (1) adopting a healthier lifestyle, (2) taking on a more active role, and (3) boosting confidence. Participation made some participants feel guilty when they were not able to reach their own lifestyle goals. Participation in lifestyle interventions is valued by palliative cancer patients and may strengthen their coping abilities. However, some of the participants also expressed feelings of guilt and inadequacy. Thus, the organizational aspects of interventions need to be considered carefully to minimize the possibility of causing increased strain on the participants, who already experience the burden of coping with their disease. This study provides a unique insight into the palliative cancer patients experiences of participating in a trial focusing on multiple lifestyle interventions while receiving chemotherapy. The results may provide guidance for healthcare professionals in their efforts to help palliative cancer patients adopt a healthier lifestyle and to help patients increase their coping abilities.

  5. Hand washing practices in two communities of two states of Eastern India: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandip Kumar; Zaman, Forhad Akhtar; Laskar, Nasrin Banu

    2010-01-01

    Public health importance of hand washing as well as its importance in reduction of communicable diseases such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections have been highlighted in many studies worldwide. This study was designed to study the hand washing practices followed in two urban slums as well as to assess and compare the status of different components of hand washing at the pre- and post-intervention phases. A community-based cross-sectional intervention study on hand washing practices was carried out at two urban slums situated in two states of Eastern India with similar sociocultural and linguistic background. The study was carried out by using an interview technique as well as observation of hand washing practices. Interpersonal communication for behavioural change was chosen as a method of intervention. The majority (>90%) practiced hand washing after defecation in both the study areas. However, hand washing following all six steps and for stipulated time period was seen to be poor before intervention. Significant improvement was observed in all the aspects of hand washing after intervention in both the areas. The poor practice of hand washing was observed in some situations and needed attention. Use of soap and clean material for drying hands after hand washing was poor initially followed by improvement after intervention. Based on the findings of the study, it could be suggested that Behaviour Change Communication program should be further planned with emphasis on different components of hand washing with a final objective to bring down the incidence of target diseases.

  6. Impact of psychoeducation intervention module on parents of children with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Suravi Patra; Priti Arun; Bir Singh Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Context: Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in India face a host of challenges, while seeking care which ranges from unavailability of information to difficulty in availing services. Aims: To develop a psycho-education intervention module for parents of children with ASD and to study its impact on parent stress and knowledge. Settings and Design: Child Guidance Clinic Department of Psychiatry, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. Interventional study. Met...

  7. Organizational culture change in U.S. hospitals: a mixed methods longitudinal intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A; Linnander, Erika L; Brewster, Amanda L; Ting, Henry; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2015-03-07

    Improving outcomes for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a priority for hospital leadership, clinicians, and policymakers. Evidence suggests links between hospital organizational culture and hospital performance; however, few studies have attempted to shift organizational culture in order to improve performance, fewer have focused on patient outcomes, and none have addressed mortality for patients with AMI. We sought to address this gap through a novel longitudinal intervention study, Leadership Saves Lives (LSL). This manuscript describes the methodology of LSL, a 2-year intervention study using a concurrent mixed methods design, guided by open systems theory and the Assess, Innovate, Develop, Engage, Devolve (AIDED) model of diffusion, implemented in 10 U.S. hospitals and their peer hospital networks. The intervention has three primary components: 1) annual convenings of the ten intervention hospitals; 2) semiannual workshops with guiding coalitions at each hospital; and 3) continuous remote support across all intervention hospitals through a web-based platform. Primary outcomes include 1) shifts in key dimensions of hospital organizational culture associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; 2) use of targeted evidence-based practices associated with lower mortality rates for patients with AMI; and 3) in-hospital AMI mortality. Quantitative data include annual surveys of guiding coalition members in the intervention hospitals and peer network hospitals. Qualitative data include in-person, in-depth interviews with all guiding coalition members and selective observations of key interactions in care for patients with AMI, collected at three time points. Data integration will identify patterns and major themes in change processes across all intervention hospitals over time. LSL is novel in its use of a longitudinal mixed methods approach in a diverse sample of hospitals, its focus on objective outcome measures of mortality, and its

  8. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  9. A Study of Brucella Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is the most usual zoonotic disease around the world especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian sub-continent areas. This bacterium has ten species that Brucella melitensis among them recognized as the most important cause of human brucellosis. This infection transfer ways to human include of wounds, bacteria inhalation and consumption of septic dairy such as raw milk, cream and butter. Brucellosis as a systemic disease can involve more organs of patients that have symptoms such as fever, night sweating, and backache. This infection can be divided as acute, sub-acute and chronic forms according to the manner of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This research is a review study and conducted by reviewing of the literature, which is related to this issue and also visiting, PubMed, and other linked websites. Results: In human brucellosis domestic animals are the main natural reservoir of infection. Whenever incidence rate of this infection in domestic and wild animals is reduced on the other hand incidence rate in human also will reduce. Conclusion: Blood cultures, serological tests and molecular tests are common laboratory methods of this infection. Diminution of relapse and therapeutic failure rates are as most important aim, which is researcher’s regards.

  10. Implications of Error Analysis Studies for Academic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Nancy; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    We reviewed 13 studies that focused on analyzing student errors on achievement tests from the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third edition (KTEA-3). The intent was to determine what instructional implications could be derived from in-depth error analysis. As we reviewed these studies, several themes emerged. We explain how a careful…

  11. A Community Based Interventional Study on Health Status of Aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the health status of aged people living in Ekpoma. In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted in adults aged 50 years and above. Data were collected by direct interview and questionnaire. Health screening activities include history taking, physical examination, ...

  12. a community based interventional study on health status of aged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-05

    Jan 5, 2013 ... This study was undertaken to investigate the health status of aged people living in Ekpoma. In this study ... (35.8%), type 2 diabetes mellitus (15.0%), hypertensive-diabetic co-morbidities (14.0%), generalized body pain. (54.5%) ... Based on the result, one can therefore conclude that the aged population is.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity: a modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda J Cobiac

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a key risk factor for chronic disease, but a growing number of people are not achieving the recommended levels of physical activity necessary for good health. Australians are no exception; despite Australia's image as a sporting nation, with success at the elite level, the majority of Australians do not get enough physical activity. There are many options for intervention, from individually tailored advice, such as counselling from a general practitioner, to population-wide approaches, such as mass media campaigns, but the most cost-effective mix of interventions is unknown. In this study we evaluate the cost-effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: From evidence of intervention efficacy in the physical activity literature and evaluation of the health sector costs of intervention and disease treatment, we model the cost impacts and health outcomes of six physical activity interventions, over the lifetime of the Australian population. We then determine cost-effectiveness of each intervention against current practice for physical activity intervention in Australia and derive the optimal pathway for implementation. Based on current evidence of intervention effectiveness, the intervention programs that encourage use of pedometers (Dominant and mass media-based community campaigns (Dominant are the most cost-effective strategies to implement and are very likely to be cost-saving. The internet-based intervention program (AUS$3,000/DALY, the GP physical activity prescription program (AUS$12,000/DALY, and the program to encourage more active transport (AUS$20,000/DALY, although less likely to be cost-saving, have a high probability of being under a AUS$50,000 per DALY threshold. GP referral to an exercise physiologist (AUS$79,000/DALY is the least cost-effective option if high time and travel costs for patients in screening and consulting an exercise physiologist are considered

  14. Pilot and feasibility study of a parenting intervention delivered by parent peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashley M; Titus, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    Preventive parenting interventions delivered by parent peer specialists may be a viable alternative to professional-led interventions and offer an advantage of increasing access in medically underserved areas. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a 10-session, peer specialist-delivered preventive parenting intervention (Smart and Secure Children) for child disruptive behavior. The intervention was evaluated among a small sample of parents (N = 15) of preschoolers (2-5 years) residing in medically underserved communities. Pediatricians referred families to the intervention, which was delivered in primary care practices within medically underserved communities. To determine feasibility, we calculated percentages of pediatricians who referred parents to the intervention, parent peer specialists who completed 40-h interventionist and leadership training, and the average number of sessions attended by parents. Enrolled parents completed questionnaires assessing child disruptive behavior, parenting stress and parenting competence at pre-and post-intervention. Descriptive statistics demonstrated the majority of pediatricians within the clinics referred families, and all parent peer specialists completed training to deliver the intervention. On average, 60% of sessions were attended by parents. Pairwise t-tests showed pre-to-post-intervention improvements in number of child disruptive behaviors perceived as a problem by parents, parenting stress and parenting competence. No significant change was found in parent-reported frequency of child disruptive behaviors. Results suggests adequate feasibility of the Smart and Secure Children Intervention, and that it holds promise for improving parenting stress and competence, and decreasing the number of child behaviors that are perceived as a problem by parents. Future directions for research are discussed.

  15. Publication bias in studies of an applied behavior-analytic intervention: an initial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Elyssa; Smith, Tristram

    2014-01-01

    Publication bias arises when studies with favorable results are more likely to be reported than are studies with null findings. If this bias occurs in studies with single-subject experimental designs(SSEDs) on applied behavior-analytic (ABA) interventions, it could lead to exaggerated estimates of intervention effects. Therefore, we conducted an initial test of bias by comparing effect sizes, measured by percentage of nonoverlapping data (PND), in published SSED studies (n=21) and unpublished dissertations (n=10) on 1 well-established intervention for children with autism, pivotal response treatment (PRT). Although published and unpublished studies had similar methodologies, the mean PND in published studies was 22% higher than in unpublished studies, 95% confidence interval (4%, 38%). Even when unpublished studies are included, PRT appeared to be effective (PNDM=62%). Nevertheless, the disparity between published and unpublished studies suggests a need for further assessment of publication bias in the ABA literature.

  16. Case-Control Study of Injury Intervention for Preschool Children in Henggang, Shenzhen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Liu, Yi-Xin; Deng, Wen-Jiao; Yang, Wei-Jian; Wang, Fang

    2015-10-01

    To explore effective interventions for child accidental injury prevention and to reduce the incidence of injury. Cluster random sampling method was adopted, and children in 19 kindergartens in Henggang, Shenzhen and their parents were selected as the objects of study. Nineteen kindergartens were randomly divided into intervention group and control group to carry out the injury intervention case-control study. Through a series of interventions, there were certain effects. After the end of the project, the injury incidence rates of the intervention group and the control group were 4.91%, 10.64%, and the difference was significant; the average costs of treatment for injuries of the intervention group and the control group were 168.4 Yuan and 206.8 Yuan, and the difference was statistically significant; compared with before the implementation of the project, the rate of various types of injuries after the end of the project declined, in which, the rate of mechanical injury, pet bites, accidental falls, burns, and traffic accidents decreased significantly. The differences were significant. Injury interventions can effectively prevent and control the occurrence of injury.

  17. Network interventions on physical activity in an afterschool program: an agent-based social network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Shoham, David A; Tesdahl, Eric; Gesell, Sabina B

    2015-04-01

    We studied simulated interventions that leveraged social networks to increase physical activity in children. We studied a real-world social network of 81 children (average age = 7.96 years) who lived in low socioeconomic status neighborhoods, and attended public schools and 1 of 2 structured afterschool programs. The sample was ethnically diverse, and 44% were overweight or obese. We used social network analysis and agent-based modeling simulations to test whether implementing a network intervention would increase children's physical activity. We tested 3 intervention strategies. The intervention that targeted opinion leaders was effective in increasing the average level of physical activity across the entire network. However, the intervention that targeted the most sedentary children was the best at increasing their physical activity levels. Which network intervention to implement depends on whether the goal is to shift the entire distribution of physical activity or to influence those most adversely affected by low physical activity. Agent-based modeling could be an important complement to traditional project planning tools, analogous to sample size and power analyses, to help researchers design more effective interventions for increasing children's physical activity.

  18. Alcohol and substance screening and brief intervention for detainees kept in police custody. A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chariot, Patrick; Lepresle, Aude; Lefèvre, Thomas; Boraud, Cyril; Barthès, Agnès; Tedlaouti, Menouar

    2014-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention programs related to addictive disorders have proven effective in a variety of environments. Both the feasibility and outcome of brief interventions performed in police custody by forensic physicians are unknown. Our objectives were to characterize addictive behaviors in detainees and to evaluate the feasibility of a brief intervention at the time of the medical examination in police custody. This prospective study included 1000 detainees in police custody who were examined by a physician for the assessment of fitness for detention. We used a standardized questionnaire and collected data concerning individual characteristics, addictive disorders, and reported assaults or observed injuries. 944 men and 56 women (94-6%) were studied. We found an addictive disorder in 708 of 1000 cases (71%), with the use of tobacco (62%), alcohol (36%), cannabis (35%), opiates (5%), and cocaine (4%) being the most common. A brief intervention was performed in 544 of these 708 cases (77%). A total of 139 of the 708 individuals (20%) expressed a willingness to change and 14 of 708 (2%) requested some information on treatment options. The main reasons why brief interventions were not performed were aggressive behaviors, drowsiness, or fanciful statements by the detainee. Brief interventions and screening for addictive behaviors in police custody are feasible in the majority of cases. The frequent link between addictive behaviors and the suspected crimes highlights the value of such interventions, which could be incorporated into the public health mission of the physician in police custody. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  20. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children by maternal education level: results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W.; von Kappelgaard, Lene M.; Nielsen, Birgit M.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary intake among Danish children, in general, does not comply with the official recommendations. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the 3-year effect of a multi-component school-based intervention on nutrient intake in children, and to examine whether an intervention effect ...

  1. The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study: a randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention in 360 obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte M; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2011-01-01

    To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes.......To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes....

  2. Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P

    2005-01-01

    Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often incorporated unsatisfactory synthetic cannabinoid analogues or smoked herbal material of uncertain composition and irregular bioavailability. As a result, the scientific evaluation of medicinal cannabis in humans is still in its infancy. New possibilities in human research have been opened up by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly expanding knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology, and a more sympathetic political environment in several countries. More and more scientists and clinicians are becoming interested in exploring the potential of cannabis-based medicines. Future targets will extend beyond symptom relief into disease modification, and already cannabinoids seem to offer particular promise in the treatment of certain inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. This chapter will begin with an outline of the development and current status of legal controls pertaining to cannabis, following which the existing human research will be reviewed. Some key safety issues will then be considered, and the chapter will conclude with

  3. Human fertility studies under field conditions. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G A

    1992-07-01

    Human fertility is part of biological anthropology embracing human population biology devoted to the analysis of the nature, caused, origin, and development of human variation at molecular, cellular, and whole body levels. The successful outcome of human fertility depends on the interactions of biochemical, physiological, and psychological processes whose disturbance results in slight variations in behavior and even total infertility. The Hutterites in the US have the highest average fertility with over 11 live births/women. Hunter-gatherer groups rarely have more than 4 children/woman. The case of a woman who gave birth to 67 children was recorded. Total infertility often occurs even in noncontracepting societies. The most important factor that determines the character of genetic variation within the human species seems to be comparative population growth, as this was the factor determining which populations spread and which became extinct. The study of the determinants of female fertility has attracted attention recently because pregnancy and motherhood affect daily life, and in turn, reproduction is also affected by daily life. Lactational amenorrhea plays a vital role in child spacing, but the mechanism of breast feeding is complex with factors of duration, frequency, milk production, and suckling frequency interwoven. Female reproduction comprises whole body function, nutrition, body composition (the recent debate on fat stores affecting the onset of fertility), physical work, and mental health all influencing the endocrinological state. Heavy physical labor and intensive training by sportswomen can result in amenorrhea. Beta-endorphins also play a role in lactational amenorrhea along with nutrition and body composition. Infectious and venereal diseases particularly affect fertility, yet genetics protect the placenta against falciparum malaria in sickle-cell trait women.

  4. A case study of Gavi'S human papillomavirus vaccine support programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Castro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV, a sexually transmitted DNA virus that can lead to cervical cancer, is the most common cancer among women in developing regions. More than 270,000 women die per year from cervical cancer globally, and 85% of those deaths occur in developing countries. In the past, many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs have been unable to afford the implementation of HPV vaccination programmes, resulting in high cervical cancer mortality rates. Gavi, an organisation created to improve worldwide access to vaccines, undertook an initiative that had the goal of decreasing the price of an HPV vaccine to under $5 and increasing access for adolescent girl populations in LMICs. This was done through market shaping, co-financing and implementation support. This case study will present and evaluate Gavi's intervention by assessing targets, investigating cost-effectiveness and identifying strategic challenges.

  5. Implementation of a Complex Intervention to Support Leadership Development in Nursing Homes: A Multimethod Participatory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Belinda; Barrie, Karen; Sharp, Cathy; Meyer, Julienne

    2017-04-01

    Leadership is key to quality improvement in nursing homes. This article reports on the initial analysis of the transformational My Home Life Leadership Support program for nursing home managers being implemented in Scotland. It analyses learning from a multimethod participatory descriptive study. Contribution analysis theory informed the evaluation. Evidence-Based Practice, Relationship-Centered Care, Appreciative Inquiry, and Caring Conversations informed the intervention to develop transformational leadership. Data generation methods included baseline and postintervention questionnaires to describe culture change within the study population, together with more in-depth qualitative data generated from group discussions throughout the leadership support program. Qualitative data analysis was an iterative collaborative process with participants to generate themes about the impact of the program on themselves and their practice. Data showed positive changes in managers' perceptions of their self-awareness, leadership communication and relationship skills, and development of positive cultures. This model offers lessons for those interested in ways to approach the emotional, educational, and cultural dynamics of change in other human service contexts.

  6. Supporting well-being in retirement through meaningful social roles: systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura J E; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne

    2013-06-01

    The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the quality of intervention and assessment and

  7. Supporting Well-Being in Retirement through Meaningful Social Roles: Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaven, Ben; Brown, Laura Je; White, Martin; Errington, Linda; Mathers, John C; Moffatt, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Context The marked demographic change toward greater proportions of older people in developed nations poses significant challenges for health and social care. Several studies have demonstrated an association between social roles in later life and positive health and well-being outcomes. After retiring from work, people may lose roles that provide purpose and social contacts. The outcomes of interventions to promote social roles in retirement have not been systematically reviewed. Methods We examined three research questions: (1) What kinds of intervention have been developed to promote social roles in retirement? (2) How much have they improved perceived roles? (3) Have these roles improved health or well-being? We included those studies that evaluated the provision of social roles; used a control or comparison group; targeted healthy retirement-transition adults who were living in the community; provided an abstract written in English; took place in a highly developed nation; and reported social role, health, or well-being outcomes. We searched eight electronic databases and combined the results with hand searches. Findings Through our searches, we identified 9,062 unique publications and eleven evaluative studies of acceptable quality, which reported seven interventions that met our inclusion criteria. These interventions varied in year of inception and scope, but only two were based outside North America. The studies rarely reported the quality or meaning of roles. Only three studies used random allocation, thus limiting inferences of causality from these studies. Interventions providing explicit roles and using supportive group structures were somewhat effective in improving one or more of the following: life satisfaction, social support and activity, physical health and activity, functional health, and cognition. Conclusions Social role interventions may improve health and well-being for people in retirement transition. Future research should improve the

  8. A practitioner's guide to developing critical appraisal skills: interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael L; Pihlstrom, Bruce Lee

    2012-10-01

    Randomized controlled clinical trials are considered to provide the highest level of evidence for clinical practice, public health policy and evidence-based systematic reviews. Although all randomized controlled clinical trials share basic design characteristics, to assess the outcome of a particular trial one must carefully evaluate specific details of its design and analysis that might bias the study and influence its results. In this article, the authors review key points that practitioners should consider when assessing randomized controlled clinical trials so they can determine the applicability of study results to clinical practice. Dentists encounter a variety of types of evidence when trying to assess the utility of new therapeutic agents and procedures for their clinical practice. This article provides a background to use in evaluating data and selecting studies that provide the most rigorous clinical support for safety and effectiveness.

  9. Een sociaal-cognitief interventieprogramma voor gedragsgestoorde kinderen, een vooronderzoek. / A social cognitive intervention program for children with a conduct disorder, a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Prins, P.J.M.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    Conducted a pilot study on the efficacy of a social-cognitive group intervention program based on social information-processing theory (K. A. Dodge, 1986) for children with a conduct disorder. Human Ss: 16 Dutch school-age children and adolescents (aged 10-13 yrs) (conduct disorder). Ss participated

  10. Activation of Human T Cells in Hypertension: Studies of Humanized Mice and Hypertensive Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Hana A; McMaster, William G; Saleh, Mohamed A; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Mikolajczyk, Tomasz P; Kaszuba, Anna M; Konior, Anna; Prejbisz, Aleksander; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Norlander, Allison E; Chen, Wei; Bonami, Rachel H; Marshall, Andrew F; Poffenberger, Greg; Weyand, Cornelia M; Madhur, Meena S; Moore, Daniel J; Harrison, David G; Guzik, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    Emerging evidence supports an important role for T cells in the genesis of hypertension. Because this work has predominantly been performed in experimental animals, we sought to determine whether human T cells are activated in hypertension. We used a humanized mouse model in which the murine immune system is replaced by the human immune system. Angiotensin II increased systolic pressure to 162 versus 116 mm Hg for sham-treated animals. Flow cytometry of thoracic lymph nodes, thoracic aorta, and kidney revealed increased infiltration of human leukocytes (CD45(+)) and T lymphocytes (CD3(+) and CD4(+)) in response to angiotensin II infusion. Interestingly, there was also an increase in the memory T cells (CD3(+)/CD45RO(+)) in the aortas and lymph nodes. Prevention of hypertension using hydralazine and hydrochlorothiazide prevented the accumulation of T cells in these tissues. Studies of isolated human T cells and monocytes indicated that angiotensin II had no direct effect on cytokine production by T cells or the ability of dendritic cells to drive T-cell proliferation. We also observed an increase in circulating interleukin-17A producing CD4(+) T cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that produce interferon-γ in hypertensive compared with normotensive humans. Thus, human T cells become activated and invade critical end-organ tissues in response to hypertension in a humanized mouse model. This response likely reflects the hypertensive milieu encountered in vivo and is not a direct effect of the hormone angiotensin II. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Can morbidity associated with untreated asthma in primary school children be reduced?: a controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R; Williams, J; Britton, J; Tattersfield, A

    1991-11-09

    To determine whether an intervention programme based on existing school and community resources can reduce school absence and improve participation in games lessons and sport in children with unrecognised or undertreated asthma. Parallel group controlled intervention study. 102 primary schools in Nottingham: 49 were randomised to receive the intervention and 53 to be control schools. All children aged 5 to 10 years with parent reported absence from school because of wheezing in the previous year and taking no treatment or beta agonists only. Children with asthma were referred to their general practitioner for assessment of symptoms and treatment. Teachers were given education on asthma by the school nurse in 44 of the 49 intervention schools. Changes in school absence and missed games and swimming lessons because of wheezing, and schools' policy towards management of asthma in school. Of 17,432 children screened, 451 met the entry criteria--228 in intervention schools and 223 in control schools. 152 (67%) children in intervention schools visited their general practitioner, of whom 39 (26%) were given a new diagnosis of asthma and 58 (38%) had treatment for asthma increased or changed. Over the next academic year mean (SE) parent reported school absence due to wheezing fell significantly, but to a similar extent, in both intervention and control schools (0.82 (0.11) and 1.09 (0.21) weeks respectively). There was little change in school recorded absence or participation in games lessons and swimming lessons in either group. At the end of the study intervention schools were more likely to have improved aspects of management of asthma in school. The intervention resulted in a majority of children being assessed by their general practitioner and improved teachers' understanding and management of asthma, but it did not result in any appreciable reduction in morbidity.

  12. Effectiveness of a stepped primary care smoking cessation intervention: cluster randomized clinical trial (ISTAPS study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, Carmen; Advani, Mamta; Puente, Diana; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Martin, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness in primary care of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on the transtheoretical model of change. Cluster randomized trial; unit of randomization: basic care unit (family physician and nurse who care for the same group of patients); and intention-to-treat analysis. All interested basic care units (n = 176) that worked in 82 primary care centres belonging to the Spanish Preventive Services and Health Promotion Research Network in 13 regions of Spain. A total of 2,827 smokers (aged 14-85 years) who consulted a primary care centre for any reason, provided written informed consent and had valid interviews. The outcome variable was the 1-year continuous abstinence rate at the 2-year follow-up. The main variable was the study group (intervention/control). Intervention involved 6-month implementation of recommendations from a Clinical Practice Guideline which included brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation-contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group involved usual care. Among others, characteristics of tobacco use and motivation to quit variables were also collected. The 1-year continuous abstinence rate at the 2-year follow-up was 8.1% in the intervention group and 5.8% in the control group (P = 0.014). In the multivariate logistic regression, the odds of quitting of the intervention versus control group was 1.50 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.14). A stepped smoking cessation intervention based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased smoking abstinence at a 2-year follow-up among smokers visiting primary care centres. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. The meaning of life intervention for patients with advanced-stage cancer: development and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Esther; Lau, Ka-po; Lai, Theresa; Ching, Shirley

    2012-11-01

    To develop the Meaning of Life Intervention in response to the need for brief and meaning-focused interventions in palliative care and to establish potential effect sizes for future full-scale randomized, controlled trials. A randomized, controlled trial conducted to pilot test the Meaning of Life Intervention. A 68-bed oncology inpatient ward in an urban acute general hospital in Hong Kong. 84 patients with advanced-stage cancer. Fifty-eight completed the study. Assessments of outcome variables were conducted at baseline and one day and two weeks after the intervention. Patients were randomly allocated to the intervention group or the control group. Repeated measures analysis of covariance were conducted to assess the impact of the Meaning of Life Intervention on participants' quality of life. The primary outcome was quality of life and was measured by the Quality-of-Life Concerns in the End-of-Life (QOLC-E) questionnaire and with a single-item scale on global quality of life. The eight subscales of the QOLC-E served as secondary outcomes. Statistically significant main effects were noted for the group in the QOLC-E questionnaire total score, the single-item scale on global quality of life, and the existential distress subscale of the QOLC-E questionnaire. The effects represented a medium effect size. The results of this pilot study show that the Meaning of Life Intervention can improve quality of life, particularly existential distress. The Meaning of Life Intervention represents a potentially effective and efficient intervention that is feasible for implementation by nursing staff for patients with advanced-stage cancer in a palliative care setting.

  14. Experiencing flow in different types of physical activity intervention programs: three randomized studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Strahler, K.; Krustrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    exercise intervention groups experience rather high levels of flow regardless of whether the intervention is a team or individual sport. Differences in experiencing flow, worry and exertion as well as physiological improvements could be found for the different types of sports and the two genders......This study explores whether inactive individuals can experience flow, a rewarding, psychological state, during an exercise intervention and if there are differences according to the type of intervention they perform. Furthermore, the study investigates if experiencing flow is connected......, with the male football group having the highest score for physiological improvement and the lowest score for worry. A connection between experiencing flow and physiological improvement could not be found. Future research should investigate the influence that the participant's gender and also the type of sport...

  15. A listening skill educational intervention for pediatric rehabilitation clinicians: A mixed-methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gillian; Servais, Michelle; Shepherd, Tracy A; Willoughby, Colleen; Bolack, Linda; Moodie, Sheila; Baldwin, Patricia; Strachan, Deborah; Knickle, Kerry; Pinto, Madhu; Parker, Kathryn; McNaughton, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    To prepare for an RCT by examining the effects of an educational intervention on the listening skills of pediatric rehabilitation clinicians, piloting study procedures, and investigating participants' learning experiences. Six experienced clinicians received the intervention, consisting of video simulations and solution-focused coaching regarding personal listening goals. Self- and observer-rated measures of listening skill were completed and qualitative information was gathered in interviews and a member checking session. Significant change on self-reported listening skills was found from pre- to post-test and/or follow-up. The pilot provided useful information to improve the study protocol, including the addition of an initial orientation to listening skills. Participants found the intervention to be a highly valuable and intense learning experience, and reported immediate changes to their clinical and interprofessional practice. The educational intervention has the potential to be an effective means to enhance the listening skills of practicing pediatric rehabilitation clinicians.

  16. The effect of Christmas joy on the mood among medical doctors - a randomized, blinded intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkjær, Christine; Møller, Marianne Birkebæk; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Each December Santa's elves spread Christmas joy (JN). Laughter and humour may influence health and stress level. No other study has investigated the effect of JN on the good spirit (DGH) among healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a single......-centre blinded intervention study with crossover at three hospital departments. JN intervention of three days was randomized. Median ± standard deviation was given. The level of significance was p ... from 0.02 in November to 0.03 in December (without JN) and further to 0.05 with JN. At one department, the rise was significant. At a department without morning coffee, the DGH level raised after JN intervention corresponding to the level at the departments with morning coffee before JN intervention...

  17. Does elevated C-reactive protein cause human atherothrombosis? Novel insights from genetics, intervention trials, and elsewhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge

    2009-01-01

    increased CRP levels, but not with increased risk of atherothrombosis. A human intervention trial in healthy people with low LDL cholesterol and elevated CRP demonstrated that aggressive statin treatment caused reductions of 50% in LDL cholesterol, 37% in CRP, 50% in atherothrombotic cardiovascular events......, 20% in total mortality, and 45% in venothrombotic events. Importantly, the maximal atherothrombotic treatment benefits were obtained in those who achieved the lowest levels of both LDL cholesterol and CRP. SUMMARY: Given the data available in mid-2009, elevated CRP per se does not seem to cause...

  18. Human Elimination of Organochlorine Pesticides: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J; Lane, Kevin; Birkholz, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Background . Many individuals have been exposed to organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) through food, water, air, dermal exposure, and/or vertical transmission. Due to enterohepatic reabsorption and affinity to adipose tissue, OCPs are not efficiently eliminated from the human body and may accrue in tissues. Many epidemiological studies demonstrate significant exposure-disease relationships suggesting OCPs can alter metabolic function and potentially lead to illness. There is limited study of interventions to facilitate OCP elimination from the human body. This study explored the efficacy of induced perspiration as a means to eliminate OCPs. Methods . Blood, urine, and sweat (BUS) were collected from 20 individuals. Analysis of 23 OCPs was performed using dual-column gas chromatography with electron-capture detectors. Results . Various OCPs and metabolites, including DDT, DDE, methoxychlor, endrin, and endosulfan sulfate, were excreted into perspiration. Generally, sweat samples showed more frequent OCP detection than serum or urine analysis. Many OCPs were not readily detected in blood testing while still being excreted and identified in sweat. No direct correlation was found among OCP concentrations in the blood, urine, or sweat compartments. Conclusions . Sweat analysis may be useful in detecting some accrued OCPs not found in regular serum testing. Induced perspiration may be a viable clinical tool for eliminating some OCPs.

  19. Delphi Survey for Designing a Intervention Research Study on Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye

    2017-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. The two-round Delphi technique was used with a panel of 10 childhood obesity experts. The panelists were asked to rate "priority populations," "methods of intervention," "measurement of outcomes," "future intervention settings," and "duration of intervention" by using a structured questionnaire. Finally, a portfolio analysis was performed with the adequacy and feasibility indexes as the two axes. For priority populations, the panel favored "elementary," "preschool," and "middle and high school" students in this order. Regarding intervention settings, the panelists assigned high adequacy and feasibility to "childcare centers" and "home" for preschool children, "school" and "home" for elementary school children, and "school" for adolescents in middle and high school. As the age of the target population increased, the panelists scored increasing numbers of anthropometric, clinical, and intermediate outcomes as highly adequate and feasible for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention. According to the results of the Delphi survey, the highest-priority population for the research on childhood obesity prevention was that of elementary school students. Various settings, methods, outcome measures, and durations for the different age groups were also suggested.

  20. Interventions for prevention of childhood obesity in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess

    2016-01-01

    Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation.

  1. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. School lunch and learning behaviour in primary schools: an intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael; Golley, Rebecca; Baines, Ed; Bassett, Paul; Wood, Lesley; Pearce, Jo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: In addition to the nutritional benefits of healthier school food, anecdotes describe improvements in children's behaviour and educational outcomes when school food or the school dining room environment is improved. This study hypothesised that a school food and dining room intervention would improve pupils' learning-related classroom behaviour. Subjects/Methods: A controlled intervention trial involving six primary schools matched in triplets and ...

  3. Activating seniors to improve chronic disease care: Results from a pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Frosch, DL; Rincon, D.; Ochoa, S; Mangione, CM

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of an activation intervention delivered in community senior centers to improve health outcomes for chronic diseases that disproportionately affect older adults. Design: Two-group quasi-experimental study. Setting: Two Los Angeles community senior centers. Participants: One hundred sixteen senior participants. Intervention: Participants were invited to attend group screenings of video programs intended to inform about and motivate self-management of chronic c...

  4. Delphi Survey for Designing a Intervention Research Study on Childhood Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jeong; Sung, Eunju; Choi, Eun Young; Ju, Young-Su; Park, Eal-Whan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Yoo, Sunmi; Park, Kyung Hee; Choi, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seolhye

    2017-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity in South Korea has increased owing to economic improvement and the prevailing Westernized dietary pattern. As the incidence of chronic diseases caused by obesity is also expected to increase, effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity are needed. Therefore, we conducted a Delphi study to determine the priorities of a potential intervention research on childhood obesity prevention and its adequacy and feasibility. Methods The two-round D...

  5. Impact of xanthohumol (a prenylated flavonoid from hops) on DNA stability and other health-related biochemical parameters: Results of human intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferk, Franziska; Mišík, Miroslav; Nersesyan, Armen; Pichler, Christoph; Jäger, Walter; Szekeres, Thomas; Marculescu, Rodrig; Poulsen, Henrik E; Henriksen, Trine; Bono, Roberto; Romanazzi, Valeria; Al-Serori, Halh; Biendl, Martin; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Kundi, Michael; Knasmüller, Siegfried

    2016-04-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is a hop flavonoid found in beers and refreshment drinks. Results of in vitro and animal studies indicate that it causes beneficial health effects due to DNA protective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and phytoestrogenic properties. Aim of the present study was to find out if XN causes alterations of health-related parameters in humans. The effects of the flavonoid were investigated in a randomized crossover intervention trial (n = 22) in which the participants consumed a XN drink (12 mg XN/P/day). We monitored alterations of the DNA stability in single cell gel electrophoresis assays in lymphocytes and of several health-related biomarkers. A decrease of oxidatively damaged purines and protection toward reactive oxygen species induced DNA damage was found after the consumption of the beverage; also the excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-guanosine in urine was reduced. The assumption that the flavonoid causes DNA protection was confirmed in a randomized follow-up study with pure XN (n = 10) with a parallel design. Other biochemical parameters reflecting the redox- and hormonal status and lipid- and glucose metabolism were not altered after the intervention. Taken together, our data indicate that low doses of XN protect humans against oxidative DNA damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Analyzing large-scale conservation interventions with Bayesian hierarchical models: a case study of supplementing threatened Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Mark D; Buhle, Eric R; Semmens, Brice X; Ford, Michael J; Cooney, Tom; Carmichael, Richard W

    2015-05-01

    Myriad human activities increasingly threaten the existence of many species. A variety of conservation interventions such as habitat restoration, protected areas, and captive breeding have been used to prevent extinctions. Evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions requires appropriate statistical methods, given the quantity and quality of available data. Historically, analysis of variance has been used with some form of predetermined before-after control-impact design to estimate the effects of large-scale experiments or conservation interventions. However, ad hoc retrospective study designs or the presence of random effects at multiple scales may preclude the use of these tools. We evaluated the effects of a large-scale supplementation program on the density of adult Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Snake River basin in the northwestern United States currently listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We analyzed 43 years of data from 22 populations, accounting for random effects across time and space using a form of Bayesian hierarchical time-series model common in analyses of financial markets. We found that varying degrees of supplementation over a period of 25 years increased the density of natural-origin adults, on average, by 0-8% relative to nonsupplementation years. Thirty-nine of the 43 year effects were at least two times larger in magnitude than the mean supplementation effect, suggesting common environmental variables play a more important role in driving interannual variability in adult density. Additional residual variation in density varied considerably across the region, but there was no systematic difference between supplemented and reference populations. Our results demonstrate the power of hierarchical Bayesian models to detect the diffuse effects of management interventions and to quantitatively describe the variability of intervention success. Nevertheless, our study could not address whether ecological factors

  7. Forest greenness after the massive 2008 Chinese ice storm: integrated effects of natural processes and human intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Gu, Lianhong; Dickinson, Robert E.; Zhou, Benzhi

    2012-09-01

    effects of large extreme events and human intervention on forest ecosystems.

  8. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  9. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    ) to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. METHODS: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design including two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study....... During spring 2017 the interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban...

  10. The Importance of Risk and Subgroup Analysis of Nonparticipants in a Geriatric Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, E.; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, C

    2016-01-01

    Background. A major concern in intervention studies is the generalizability of the findings due to refusal of intended participants to actually take part. In studies including ill older people the number of those declining to participate may be large and the concern is therefore relevant...... randomized study. Conclusion. We recommend that intervention studies among older people or other fragile patient groups include analysis of relevant risk and subgroup analyses of refusers........ Objectives. To compare patients characteristics, rates of acute readmission, and mortality after one and six months among older persons who agreed and those who declined to participate in a randomized controlled trial and to describe subgroups of nonparticipants. Design. Comparative study based...

  11. Work, Productivity, and Human Performance: Practical Case Studies in Ergonomics, Human Factors and Human Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, T. M.; Pityn, P. J.

    This book contains 12 case histories, each based on a real-life problem, that show how a manager can use common sense, knowledge, and interpersonal skills to solve problems in human performance at work. Each case study describes a worker's problem and provides background information and an assignment; solutions are suggested. The following cases…

  12. Development and evaluation of two web-based interventions for the promotion of physical activity in older adults: study protocol for a community-based controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Bragina, Inna; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Rost, Eric; Lippke, Sonia; Meyer, Jochen; Schnauber, Jochen; Wasmann, Merlin; Toborg, Merle; Koppelin, Frauke; Brand, Tilman; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-05-25

    Regular physical activity (PA) is a key contributor to healthy ageing. However, despite known health benefits, only one third of older adults in Germany reach the PA levels recommended for persons aged 65 years and above by the World Health Organization. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two web-based interventions for the initiation and maintenance of regular PA (i.e., intervention groups 1 and 2) compared to a delayed intervention control group of older adults aged 65 to 75 years. Study participants will be randomly assigned to one of three study arms in five communities in the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan region: a) Participants in the first arm will receive access to a web-based intervention for 10 weeks allowing them to track their weekly PA (subjective self-monitoring, intervention group 1); b) participants in the second arm will receive access to the web-based intervention for 10 weeks and, in addition, track PA using Fitbit Zips (objective self-monitoring, intervention group 2); c) participants in the delayed intervention control group will receive access to the intervention implemented in the first study arm after completion of the 12-week follow-up in the other two groups within each community. In addition, weekly group meetings in the communities will be offered to study participants in the intervention groups providing the opportunity to address questions related to the use of the website and to practice PA in groups (e.g., neighborhood walks, strength and balance exercises). To evaluate short-term effects of the intervention on physical and psychological health, PA, physical fitness, and cognitive and psychological variables will be assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up. This study will provide answers regarding acceptance and effectiveness of web-based interventions promoting uptake and maintenance of regular PA in persons aged 65-75 years. Study findings will contribute to a growing body of evidence in

  13. Development and evaluation of two web-based interventions for the promotion of physical activity in older adults: study protocol for a community-based controlled intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Muellmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular physical activity (PA is a key contributor to healthy ageing. However, despite known health benefits, only one third of older adults in Germany reach the PA levels recommended for persons aged 65 years and above by the World Health Organization. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of two web-based interventions for the initiation and maintenance of regular PA (i.e., intervention groups 1 and 2 compared to a delayed intervention control group of older adults aged 65 to 75 years. Methods/Design Study participants will be randomly assigned to one of three study arms in five communities in the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan region: a Participants in the first arm will receive access to a web-based intervention for 10 weeks allowing them to track their weekly PA (subjective self-monitoring, intervention group 1; b participants in the second arm will receive access to the web-based intervention for 10 weeks and, in addition, track PA using Fitbit Zips (objective self-monitoring, intervention group 2; c participants in the delayed intervention control group will receive access to the intervention implemented in the first study arm after completion of the 12-week follow-up in the other two groups within each community. In addition, weekly group meetings in the communities will be offered to study participants in the intervention groups providing the opportunity to address questions related to the use of the website and to practice PA in groups (e.g., neighborhood walks, strength and balance exercises. To evaluate short-term effects of the intervention on physical and psychological health, PA, physical fitness, and cognitive and psychological variables will be assessed at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Discussion This study will provide answers regarding acceptance and effectiveness of web-based interventions promoting uptake and maintenance of regular PA in persons aged 65–75 years. Study

  14. The Self-care Educational Intervention for Patients With Heart Failure: A Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Mary; Peters, Robyn; Hwang, Rita; Korczyk, Dariusz; Ha, Tina; New, Nicole

    A variety of educational interventions have been implemented to assist patients with heart failure (HF) to maintain their own health, develop self-care behaviors, and decrease readmissions. The most effective approach to education has yet to be established. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational intervention for patients with HF in reducing hospital readmissions. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge and self-care behaviors. A randomized controlled trial in a large tertiary referral hospital in Australia has recruited 200 patients and will follow them for 12 months. Patients diagnosed with HF have been randomly allocated 1:1 to either usual education or a multimedia educational intervention. Framed by the principles of adult learning, this individualized intervention was delivered face to face by a specialized HF nurse, with a targeted educational assessment and subsequent development of an educational plan. The multimedia approach combined viewing a DVD and verbal discussion supported by a written manual. The teach-back strategy at the conclusion of the intervention evaluated the patient's learning through 5 key questions about self-management of HF. Readmissions are assessed at 28 days, 3 months, and 12 months. Knowledge and self-care behavior are assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a targeted multimedia educational intervention. Study results may inform the design of in-hospital education for HF patients.

  15. A study on the evaluation of patient dose in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung Sin [Dongkook Univ. hospital, Goyang, (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung Sin; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang [Hanseo Univ., Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Sam [Singu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); You, In Gyu [Hallym Univ. hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    To perform patient dose surveys in major interventional radiography procedures as a mean of inter-institutional comparison and of establishing reference dose levels with the ultimate goal of optimizing patient doses in the field of interventional radiography. We reviewed international patient dose survey data in the literature and measured patient dose in major interventional radiography procedures (TACE, AVF, PTBD, TFCA, GDC embolization). ESD(Entrance Skin Dose) was measured using TLD chips attached to the patient skin and ED(Effective Dose) was calculated using angiography unit-derived DAP. A survey of patient dose in interventional radiography procedures were also performed with a questionnaire for interventional radiologists and we proposed a guideline for optimizing patient doses in the field of interventional radiology. The patient dose survey data in interventional radiography procedures were very rare in literature compared with those in diagnostic radiography procedures. In TACE, the mean ED was 25.43 mSv and the mean ESD was 511.75 mGy. The mean ED of TACE was not high, but the cumulative dose should be checked, due to longer procedure TACE. In TFCA, the mean ED was 22.6 mSv and it was relatively high compared with data of other countries. In GDC embolization, the mean ED was not available, because GDC embolization was performed with old Image-Intensifier-type unit and there has no unit-installed ionization chamber. Also, the mean ESD of GDC embolization was up to 2,264 mGy and further studies are needed to calculate the net ED of GDC embolization. Patient dose occurred during interventional radiography procedures are high related with the difficulty of the procedure, fluoroscopy time, the number of angiographies and the treatment protocol. Therefore, continuous education and efforts should be made to optimize the patient dose in the field of interventional radiology.

  16. Dropout From an eHealth Intervention for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Silje Stangeland; Karlsen, Bjørg; Oord, Ellen Renate; Graue, Marit; Oftedal, Bjørg

    2017-05-30

    Adequate self-management is the cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment, as people make the majority of daily treatment measures and health decisions. The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the complexity of diabetes self-management demonstrate the need for innovative and effective ways to deliver self-management support. eHealth interventions are promoted worldwide and hold a great potential in future health care for people with chronic diseases such as T2DM. However, many eHealth interventions face high dropout rates. This led to our interest in the experiences of participants who dropped out of an eHealth intervention for adults with T2DM, based on the Guided Self-Determination (GSD) counseling method. In this study, we aimed to explore experiences with an eHealth intervention based on GSD in general practice from the perspective of those who dropped out and to understand their reasons for dropping out. To the best of our knowledge, no previous qualitative study has focused on participants who withdrew from an eHealth self-management support intervention for adults with T2DM. A qualitative design based on telephone interviews was used to collect data. The sample comprised 12 adults with type 2 diabetes who dropped out of an eHealth intervention. Data were collected in 2016 and subjected to qualitative content analysis. We identified one overall theme: "Losing motivation for intervention participation." This theme was illustrated by four categories related to the participants' experiences of the eHealth intervention: (1) frustrating technology, (2) perceiving the content as irrelevant and incomprehensible, (3) choosing other activities and perspectives, and (4) lacking face-to-face encounters. Our findings indicate that the eHealth intervention based on GSD without face-to-face encounters with nurses reduced participants' motivation for engagement in the intervention. To maintain motivation, our study points to the importance of

  17. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of implementation of efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention interventions are rare, especially in resource-poor settings, but important, because they have the potential to increase the impact of interventions by improving uptake and sustainability. Few studies have focused on provider and organizational factors that may influence uptake and fidelity to core intervention components. Using a hybrid design, we will study the implementation of an efficacious intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs among female sex workers (FSWs in 12 cities across Mexico. Our protocol will test a ‘train-the-trainer’ implementation model for transporting the Mujer Segura (Healthy Woman intervention into community-based organizations (CBOs. Methods We have partnered with Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (Mexfam, a non-governmental organization that has CBOs throughout Mexico. At each CBO, trained ethnographers will survey CBO staff on characteristics of their organization and on their attitudes toward their CBO and toward the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs. Then, after CBO staff recruit a sample of 80 eligible FSWs and deliver a standard-care, didactic intervention to 40 women randomly selected from that pool, a Mexfam staff person will be trained in the Mujer Segura intervention and will then train other counselors to deliver Mujer Segura to the 40 remaining participating FSWs. FSW participants will receive a baseline behavioral assessment and be tested for HIV and STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia; they will be reassessed at six months post-intervention to measure for possible intervention effects. At the same time, both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected on the implementation process, including measures of counselors’ fidelity to the intervention model. After data collection at each CBO is complete, the relative efficacy of the Mujer Segura

  18. Implementation of an efficacious intervention for high risk women in Mexico: protocol for a multi-site randomized trial with a parallel study of organizational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L; Semple, Shirley J; Chavarin, Claudia V; Mendoza, Doroteo V; Santos, Lorena E; Chaffin, Mark; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Aarons, Gregory A

    2012-10-29

    Studies of implementation of efficacious human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention interventions are rare, especially in resource-poor settings, but important, because they have the potential to increase the impact of interventions by improving uptake and sustainability. Few studies have focused on provider and organizational factors that may influence uptake and fidelity to core intervention components. Using a hybrid design, we will study the implementation of an efficacious intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in 12 cities across Mexico. Our protocol will test a 'train-the-trainer' implementation model for transporting the Mujer Segura (Healthy Woman) intervention into community-based organizations (CBOs). We have partnered with Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (Mexfam), a non-governmental organization that has CBOs throughout Mexico. At each CBO, trained ethnographers will survey CBO staff on characteristics of their organization and on their attitudes toward their CBO and toward the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Then, after CBO staff recruit a sample of 80 eligible FSWs and deliver a standard-care, didactic intervention to 40 women randomly selected from that pool, a Mexfam staff person will be trained in the Mujer Segura intervention and will then train other counselors to deliver Mujer Segura to the 40 remaining participating FSWs. FSW participants will receive a baseline behavioral assessment and be tested for HIV and STIs (syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia); they will be reassessed at six months post-intervention to measure for possible intervention effects. At the same time, both qualitative and quantitative data will be collected on the implementation process, including measures of counselors' fidelity to the intervention model. After data collection at each CBO is complete, the relative efficacy of the Mujer Segura intervention will be analyzed, and across CBOs

  19. Arguments pro and con of the 'enhancement' of human beings through genetic intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Veselin

    2010-01-01

    The paper aims to explain two basic standpoints regarding the enhancement of human beings through genetic engineering. Savulescu seems to be starting from a technoprogressive, (neo)liberal orientation, while Fukuyama's position implies a step back - to (bio)conservatism, returning to the natural human rights. These opposing general attitudes reflect the same aspiration - towards greater control and monitoring by the state for the benefit of individuals and (or) humankind. While Fukuyama justi...

  20. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours......), and low intensity intervention (meetings and discussions) and reference. Sleep quality was assessed by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) at baseline and follow-up (12 months). To elucidate the process of the intervention interviews were conducted. Influence on one's own working hours increased only...... in the high intensity group (p sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due...

  1. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather ERWIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Physical activity is beneficial to children’s health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities forstudents throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aclassroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants(n=15 received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics fluency, PA, grades, and standardized testscores were collected. Effects of the intervention were examined using mixed-design ANOVAs.Intervention students had significantly higher reading fluency and mathematics scores postinterventionand higher means for standardized reading and mathematics scores as well as grades.Short bouts of PA are important for improving CBM math and reading fluency scores. Classroomteachers should be encouraged to devote time during academic learning to incorporate PA.

  2. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies - a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach...... is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3-5 years, covered 3-52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill-2.2 mill €, and involved 3-7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring...... questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve...

  3. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  4. Using diagnostic radiology in human evolutionary studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPOOR, FRED; JEFFERY, NATHAN; ZONNEVELD, FRANS

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of medical imaging and associated computer graphics techniques to the study of human evolutionary history, with an emphasis on basic concepts and on the advantages and limitations of each method. Following a short discussion of plain film radiography and pluridirectional tomography, the principles of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their role in the investigation of extant and fossil morphology are considered in more detail. The second half of the paper deals with techniques of 3-dimensional visualisation based on CT and MRI and with quantitative analysis of digital images. PMID:10999271

  5. School lunch and learning behaviour in primary schools: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golley, R; Baines, E; Bassett, P; Wood, L; Pearce, J; Nelson, M

    2010-11-01

    In addition to the nutritional benefits of healthier school food, anecdotes describe improvements in children's behaviour and educational outcomes when school food or the school dining room environment is improved. This study hypothesized that a school food and dining room intervention would improve pupils' learning-related classroom behaviour. A controlled intervention trial involving six primary schools matched in triplets and randomly assigned to a 12-week intervention (promotion of healthier school food at lunchtime and changes in the school dining environment) or 12-week wait-listed control group. Study outcome was learning-related behaviours measured in a random sample of 146 pupils in years 3-5. On-task and off-task behaviours were observed and used as proxy measures for concentration and disengagement (disruption), respectively. Teacher-pupil on-task engagement was 3.4 times more likely in the intervention schools compared with the control schools (adjusted model odds ratio (OR)=3.40 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.56, 7.36), P=0.009). However, on-task pupil-pupil behaviour was less likely in the intervention group (adjusted model OR=0.45 (95% CI=0.28, 0.70), Pschool food and dining room intervention can have a positive impact on pupils' alertness. However, if raised alertness is not channelled and supervised, it may result in increased off-task behaviour when pupils are working together.

  6. Effects of early support intervention on workplace ergonomics--a two-year followup study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.

  7. Alcohol intervention strategy among tuberculosis patients: a pilot study from South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B; Watson, B; Senthil, E K; Deepalakshmi, A; Balaji, G; Chandra, S; Manogaran, C; Nagarajan, K; Ovung, S; Jayabal, L; Swaminathan, S

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol dependence has been a major cause of treatment non-adherence in tuberculosis (TB) management. There is an urgent need to develop a feasible, acceptable alcohol intervention programme to ensure treatment completion. Four of the 10 Chennai Corporation zones in Chennai, South India, were randomly selected: two each for the experimental and control arms of the study. TB patients registered from August 2013 to January 2014 with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) scale. The intervention consisted of four individual counselling sessions at months 0, 2, 4 and 6 conducted by highly trained interventionists. Of 872 TB patients, 298 (31%) were found to have alcohol use disorders. The numbers of TB patients in the experimental and control arms were respectively 113 (38%) and 185 (62%). The proportion of patients with favourable treatment outcomes was higher in the intervention than in the control group (87% vs. 62%, P = 0.04). Overall adherence to anti-tuberculosis treatment was significantly higher in the intervention group (P = 0.02). Study findings suggest that alcohol interventions could be effective in ensuring favourable TB treatment outcomes and adherence. This calls for a large cluster randomised trial for greater generalisability. Tested alcohol-intervention strategies should be recommended to promote treatment adherence among TB patients who consume alcohol.

  8. Nurse-Enhanced Memory Intervention in Heart Failure: the MEMOIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Susan J; Therrien, Barbara; Riley, Penny L; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Ronis, David L; Koelling, Todd M; Smith, Dean G; Sullivan, Barbara Jean; Frankini, Ann-Marie; Giordani, Bruno

    2011-10-01

    Many patients with heart failure (HF) have cognitive deficits, including memory loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive training intervention on memory (primary outcome), working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and performance of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Forty patients with HF were randomly assigned to the computerized plasticity-based cognitive training intervention called Brain Fitness or to the health education active control intervention. Advanced practice nurses made weekly home visits to assess symptoms and monitor intervention adherence. Patients completed demographic and clinical data (baseline), neuropsychologic tests (baseline and 8 and 12 weeks), and measures of cognitive and IADLs performance (baseline and 12 weeks) and satisfaction (12 weeks). Linear mixed models analyses indicated a significant group by time interaction for delayed recall memory (P = .032) and a significant time effect for total (list learning) (P < .001) and delayed (P = .015) recall memory, psychomotor speed (P = .029), and performance of IADLs (P = .006). Intervention adherence and patient satisfaction were high. To our knowledge, this was the first test of Brain Fitness in HF. Although it was a preliminary study with limitations, results support the need for a larger randomized controlled trial to determine whether the memory loss of HF is amenable to plasticity-based interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise induced dehydration status and skinfold compressibility in athletes: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniela; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Carvalho, Pedro; Amaral, Teresa F

    2018-01-01

    Skinfold thickness assessment is a widely recognized technique for the estimation of body adiposity and fat free mass. This method assumes that skinfolds' compressibility is constant but there are some factors that could influence its compressibility. This study aims to evaluate whether the skinfolds' compressibility is influenced by hydration status. An intervention study was conducted in a sample of 22 adult male amateur soccer players, who took part in a 90min simulated soccer match. Before and after the intervention skinfolds thicknesses were measured in eight anatomical sites. An electronic caliper, Lipotool, was used to collect and record 120 values during 2s of evaluation. To analyze skinfolds' compressibility, two methods were used: identification of lowest skinfold thickness measurement (SL) and SH = 110% x SL, and the parameter TAU (τ) determination. Baseline hydration status was evaluated by total body water (TBW) through multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Dehydration was assessed by the difference of body weight before and after the intervention. The intervention resulted in a loss of 2.11% of participants' baseline weight. The skinfolds thicknesses, assessed by SL and SH, were significantly higher after exercise for all skinfolds except for skinfolds at iliac crest and abdominal. This intervention did not affect skinfolds' compressibility when assessed by τ. However, an association between dehydration and medial-calf skinfold' compressibility was found (r=0.48, p=0.042). Although an increase in the skinfolds thickness after the intervention was found, skinfolds' compressibility did not change.

  10. Data analysis methods for assessing palliative care interventions in one-group pre–post studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ioroi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of palliative care are often performed using single-arm pre–post study designs that lack causal inference. Thus, in this study, we propose a novel data analysis approach that incorporates risk factors from single-arm studies instead of using paired t-tests to assess intervention effects. Methods: Physical, psychological and social evaluations of eligible cancer inpatients were conducted by a hospital-based palliative care team. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C15-PAL. Among 35 patients, 9 were discharged within 1 week and 26 were included in analyses. Structural equation models with observed measurements were applied to estimate direct and indirect intervention effects and simultaneously consider risk factors. Results: Parameters were estimated using full models that included associations among covariates and reduced models that excluded covariates with small effects. The total effect was calculated as the sum of intervention and covariate effects and was equal to the mean of the difference (0.513 between pre- and post-intervention quality of life (reduced model intervention effect, 14.749; 95% confidence intervals, −4.407 and 33.905; p = 0.131; covariate effect, −14.236; 95% confidence interval, −33.708 and 5.236; p = 0.152. Conclusion: Using the present analytical method for single-arm pre–post study designs, factors that modulate effects of interventions were modelled, and intervention and covariate effects were distinguished based on structural equation model.

  11. Experimental Intervention Studies on Word Problem Solving and Math Disabilities: A Selective Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for…

  12. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savović, Jelena; Jones, Hayley E; Altman, Douglas G

    2012-01-01

    Published evidence suggests that aspects of trial design lead to biased intervention effect estimates, but findings from different studies are inconsistent. This study combined data from 7 meta-epidemiologic studies and removed overlaps to derive a final data set of 234 unique meta-analyses conta...

  13. Interventions for Promoting Gender Equity at Elementary Education Level in South Kashmir: An Evaluative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the interventions for promoting gender equity at elementary education level in South Kashmir. Descriptive survey method was used in this study to obtain pertinent and precise information. The sample of this study included 120 head teachers and 90 local community members selected by using purposive sampling…

  14. An in vitro patient-tailored model of human cerebral artery for simulating endovascular intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seiichi; Arai, Fumihito; Fukuda, Toshio; Negoro, Makoto; Irie, Keiko; Takahashi, Ikuo

    2005-01-01

    An in vitro patient-tailored reproduction model of cerebral artery, a hardware platform for simulating endovascular intervention for making diagnoses and surgical trainings is presented. 3-D configuration of vessel lumen is reproduced as vessel model with 13 microm modeling resolution, using CT and MRI information. Physical characteristics of cerebral artery, such as elastic modulus and friction coefficient, are also reproduced. We also propose a novel method to visualize stress condition on vessel wall using photoelastic effect. Consequently, it should be helpful for clinical applications, academic researches and other various purposes.

  15. HIT, hallucination focused integrative treatment as early intervention in psychotic adolescents with auditory hallucinations : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, JA; van de Willige, G

    Objective: Early intervention in psychosis is considered important in relapse prevention. Limited results of monotherapies prompt to development of multimodular programmes. The present study tests feasibility and effectiveness of HIT, an integrative early intervention treatment for auditory

  16. Feasibility of a Supplemental Phonological Awareness Intervention via Telepractice for Children with Hearing Loss: A Preliminary Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sue Ann S Lee; Brittany Hall; Sherry Sancibrian

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine the feasibility of a telepractice intervention to improve phonological awareness skills in children with hearing loss as compared to a conventional in-person intervention...

  17. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and

  18. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  19. Can life coaching improve health outcomes? - A systematic review of intervention studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammentorp, Jette; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Angel, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    limited number of solid studies, this review can only present tendencies for patient outcomes and a preliminary description of an effective life coaching intervention. The coaching method used in these studies aims to improve self-efficacy and self-empowerment. This may explain why the studies including......BACKGROUND In recent years, coaching has received special attention as a method to improve healthy lifestyle behaviours. The fact that coaching has found its way into healthcare and may provide new ways of engaging the patients and making them accountable for their health, justifies the need...... between health coaching and life coaching. In this review, we will only focus on the latter method and on that basis assess the health related outcomes of life coaching. METHODS Intervention studies using quantitative or qualitative methods to evaluate the outcome of the life coach interventions were...

  20. Prevention of hand eczema among Danish hairdressing apprentices: an intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnhøj, Anne; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2012-01-01

    for this study and delivered by teachers specially trained in the prevention of hand eczema; the other half received normal training and served as a control group. All apprentices completed self-administered questionnaires including questions regarding hand eczema, use of gloves and degree of wet work, and were......ObjectivesTo investigate whether an evidence-based intervention could reduce the incidence of hand eczema in a cohort of Danish hairdressing apprentices during their training, as hairdressing apprentices are known to have a high risk of developing hand eczema.MethodsThis study was a clinically...... controlled, prospective intervention study. Within 2 weeks of starting their training, 502 hairdressing apprentices were enrolled in the study on occupational hand eczema. Approximately half of the apprentices were assigned to an intervention group and received an evidence-based training program developed...

  1. MONOAMINE OXIDASE: RADIOTRACER DEVELOPMENT AND HUMAN STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER,J.S.; LOGAN,J.; VOLKOW,N.D.; WANG,G.J.; MACGREGOR,R.R.; DING,Y.S.

    2000-09-28

    PET is uniquely capable of providing information on biochemical transformations in the living human body. Although most of the studies of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have focused on measurements in the brain, the role of peripheral MAO as a phase 1 enzyme for the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics is gaining attention (Strolin Benedetti and Tipton, 1998; Castagnoli et al., 1997.). MAO is well suited for this role because its concentration in organs such as kidneys, liver and digestive organs is high sometimes exceeding that in the brain. Knowledge of the distribution of the MAO subtypes within different organs and different cells is important in determining which substrates (and which drugs and xenobiotics) have access to which MAO subtypes. The highly variable subtype distribution with different species makes human studies even more important. In addition, the deleterious side effects of combining MAO inhibitors with other drugs and with foodstuffs makes it important to know the MAO inhibitory potency of different drugs both in the brain and in peripheral organs (Ulus et al., 2000). Clearly PET can play a role in answering these questions, in drug research and development and in discovering some of the factors which contribute to the highly variable MAO levels in different individuals.

  2. Group intervention for burnout in parents of chronically ill children - a small-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Caisa; Åman, Jan; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Lindahl Norberg, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Long-term stress leading to burnout symptoms is prevalent in parents of chronically ill children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a group intervention by measuring changes in self-rated clinical burnout and performance-based self-esteem. In addition, the parental perceptions of the acceptability of the intervention were explored. Previously, we have explored the prevalence of clinical burnout in parents of patients 1-18 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the county of Örebro. All parents who exhibited clinical burnout symptoms in accordance with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) were then invited to participate in a group intervention, which was evaluated in the present small-scale study. The group intervention consisted of eight sessions over a 12-week period, including education about behaviour, cognition and symptoms associated with burnout, intending to help the parents to develop adequate strategies for coping with and reducing stress. We evaluated the effect of the intervention in terms of self-rated clinical burnout and performance-based self-esteem (PBSE). In addition, the acceptability of the intervention was evaluated by analyses of recruitment and retention and self-reports from parents. Sixteen parents (13 of children with TIDM and three of children with IBD) out of 104 reporting clinical burnout participated in the intervention. All participants completed the intervention, and the mean attendance rate at all sessions was 90%. Parents' subjective evaluations were mainly positive, and SMBQ (p = 0.01) and PBSE scale (p = 0.04) measurements were significantly reduced, which effects remained 6 months after completion of the intervention. Despite the small-scale study, we consider that this intervention for parents with clinical burnout was appreciated and well accepted. The significant reduction in clinical burnout symptoms requires further evaluation in randomised

  3. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  4. Developing effective animal-assisted intervention programs involving visiting dogs for institutionalized geriatric patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Borgi, Marta; Terranova, Livia; Chiarotti, Flavia; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    An ever increasing interest in the therapeutic aspects of the human-animal bond has led to a proliferation of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) involving dogs. However, most of these programs lack a solid methodological structure, and basic evaluative research is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the value of dog-assisted interventions as an innovative tool to increase quality of life in the geriatric population. Nineteen patients (men and women) with a mean age of 85 years participated in the study. Interactions between patients and visiting dogs occurred either in a social situation (socialization sessions) or in a therapeutic context (physical therapy sessions). We derived and characterized a specific ethogram of elderly-dog interactions aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of visiting dogs in improving mood, catalyzing social interactions and reducing their everyday apathetic state. Cortisol levels were also measured in the saliva, and depressive state was evaluated. Overall, results show a time-dependent increase in social behaviour and spontaneous interactions with the dogs. Dog-mediated interactions affected the daily increase in cortisol levels, thus having an 'activational effect', in contrast to the apathetic state of institutionalized elderly. Dog-mediated intervention programs appear to be promising tools to improve the social skills and enrich the daily activities of the institutionalized elderly. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Occupational cataracts and lens opacities in interventional cardiology. The O'CLOC study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Sophie; Bertrand, Alexandre; Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Lab. of Epidemiology

    2010-07-01

    Interventional cardiologists are repeatedly and acutely exposed to scattered ionizing radiation (X-rays) during their diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. These exposures may cause damages to the eye lenses and induce early cataracts known as radiation-induced cataracts. The O'CLOC study is an ongoing epidemiological study designed to test the hypothesis of an increased risk of cataract among interventional cardiologists as compared with unexposed cardiologists. This paper summarizes a detailed article on the O'CLOC study protocol that has been published elsewhere. (orig.)

  6. Variation in effect of intervention studies in research on sickness absence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soegaard H

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hans Joergen SoegaardResearch Unit West, Centre for Psychiatric Research, Aarhus University Hospital, RisskovBackground: Intervention studies in sickness absence research demonstrate a low effect and ambiguous results in reducing sickness absence and improving work status. The aim of this study was to determine if the effect of interventions is related to type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria used, and impact of the scientific quality of the studies.Methods: Based on a structured review of 57 studies, short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects were analyzed with regard to the type of intervention, target population, inclusion criteria, and scientific quality of the studies.Results: The overall result was that the effect rate was low, ie, about 20% for short-term effect (up to 6 months and medium-term effect (6–12 months, and 40% for long-term effect (≥12 months. Interventions using stress reduction were most effective with regard to short-term and medium-term effects, whereas collaborative care was most effective for long-term effects. The effects were related to the inclusion criteria and, to a minor degree, to the scientific quality of the studies.Conclusion: In the field of sickness absence research, more attention should be paid to the interrelationship between the types of interventions, target populations, and inclusion criteria for the studies. Larger studies of high methodological quality are needed. Steps should be taken to standardize outcome measures.Keywords: nonparticipation, sickness absence, return to work, controlled trial, review

  7. The Impact of Different Degrees of Feedback on Physical Activity Levels: A 4-Week Intervention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Van Hoye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessing levels of physical activity (PA and providing feedback about these levels might have an effect on participant’s PA behavior. This study discusses the effect of different levels of feedback—from minimal to use of a feedback display and coach—on PA over a 4-week intervention period. PA was measured at baseline, during and immediately after the intervention. Participants (n = 227 were randomly assigned to a Minimal Intervention Group (MIG-no feedback, Pedometer Group (PG-feedback on steps taken, Display Group (DG-feedback on steps, minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and energy expenditure or Coaching Group (CoachG-same as DG with need-supportive coaching. Two-way ANCOVA showed no significant Group × Time interaction effect for the different PA variables between the MIG and PG. Also no differences emerged between PG and DG. As hypothesized, CoachG had higher PA values throughout the intervention compared with DG. Self-monitoring using a pedometer resulted in more steps compared with a no-feedback condition at the start of the intervention. However, adding individualized coaching seems necessary to increase the PA level until the end of the intervention.

  8. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schene Aart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. Methods The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews, quantitative (survey, and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. Results A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Conclusions Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.

  9. Development of an intervention program to increase effective behaviours by patients and clinicians in psychiatric services: Intervention Mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Bauke; van Meijel, Berno; Schene, Aart; Hutschemaekers, Giel

    2010-10-25

    Health clinicians perceive certain patients as 'difficult' across all settings, including mental health care. In this area, patients with non-psychotic disorders that become long-term care users may be perceived as obstructing their own recovery or seeking secondary gain. This negative perception of patients results in ineffective responses and low-quality care by health clinicians. Using the concept of illness behaviour, this paper describes the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of a structured intervention aimed at prevention and management of ineffective behaviours by long-term non-psychotic patients and their treating clinicians. The principles of Intervention Mapping were applied to guide the development, implementation, and planned evaluation of the intervention. Qualitative (individual and group interviews), quantitative (survey), and mixed methods (Delphi-procedure) research was used to gain a broad perspective of the problem. Empirical findings, theoretical models, and existing evidence were combined to construct a program tailored to the needs of the target groups. A structured program to increase effective illness behaviour in long-term non-psychotic patients and effective professional behaviour in their treating clinicians was developed, consisting of three subsequent stages and four substantial components, that is described in detail. Implementation took place and evaluation of the intervention is being carried out. Intervention Mapping proved to be a suitable method to develop a structured intervention for a multi-faceted problem in mental health care.

  10. Accuracy and speed of robotic assisted needle interventions using a modern cone beam computed tomography intervention suite: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Boris [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Goethe University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Eichler, Katrin; Siebenhandl, Petra; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Vogl, Thomas Josef; Zangos, Stephan [Goethe University Hospital, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Czerny, Christoph [Goethe University Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To analyse the feasibility and accuracy of robotic aided interventions on a phantom when using a modern C-arm-mounted cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) device in combination with needle guidance software. A small robotic device capable of holding and guiding needles was attached to the intervention table. After acquiring a 3D data set the access path was planned on the CBCT workstation and shown on the intervention monitor. Then the robot was aligned to the live fluoroscopic image. A total of 40 punctures were randomly conducted on a phantom armed with several targets (diameter 2 mm) in single and double oblique trajectory (n = 20 each). Target distance, needle deviation and time for the procedures were analysed. All phantom interventions (n = 40) could be performed successfully. Mean target access path within the phantom was 8.5 cm (min 4.2 cm, max 13.5 cm). Average needle tip deviation was 1.1 mm (min 0 mm, max 4.5 mm), time duration was 3:59 min (min 2:07 min, max 10:37 min). When using the proposed robot device in a CBCT intervention suite, highly accurate needle-based interventional punctures are possible in a reasonable timely manner in single as well as in double oblique trajectories. (orig.)

  11. Enhancing teamwork using a creativity-focussed learning intervention for undergraduate nursing students - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, O M; Laird, E A; Reid, B B; Deeny, P G; McGarvey, H E

    2018-02-22

    A cohort of year two students (n = 181) was exposed to a transformational and experiential learning intervention in the form of team-led poster development workshops to enhance competence and interpersonal skills for working in teams. The aims of this study were to test the suitability of an amended TeamSTEPPS teamwork perceptions questionnaire (T-TPQ) for measuring the impact of the intervention on students' perceptions of team working, and to ascertain students' views about the experience. This was a two phase pilot study. Phase 1 was a repeated measures design to test the T-TPQ for evaluating the impact of the experiential intervention, and Phase 2 was a survey of students' views and opinions. Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data were performed. Our findings suggest that age and part-time employment mediate towards more positive teamwork perceptions. Teamwork perceptions increased from week 3 to week 9 of the experiential intervention, and students viewed the experience positively. This was the first time that the T-TPQ was tested for suitability for measuring the impact of an experiential learning intervention among nursing students. Despite limitations, our study indicates that the amended T-TPQ is sensitive to changes in teamwork perceptions in repeated measures design studies among nursing students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Pilot Study of Expressive Writing Intervention among Chinese Speaking Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zheng, Dianhan; Young, Lucy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Loh, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little attention has been focused on Asian American breast cancer survivor's psychological needs. No outcome based psychosocial interventions have been reported to target at this population. Expressive writing interventions have been previously shown to improve health outcomes among non-Hispanic white breast cancer populations. This pilot study aimed to test the cultural sensitivity, feasibility, and potential health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants (N=19) were asked to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings, their coping efforts, and positive thoughts and feelings regarding their experience with breast cancer each week for three weeks. Health outcomes were assessed at baseline, three, and six months after the intervention. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach (CBPR) is used. Results Expressive writing was associated with medium and large effect sizes (ηp2= 0.066~0.208) in improving multiple health outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, posttraumatic stress, intrusive thoughts, and positive affect) at follow-ups. Participants perceived the study to be valuable. The study yielded high compliance and completion rates. Conclusion Expressive writing is associated with long-term improvement of health outcomes among Chinese breast cancer survivors and has the potential to be utilized as a support strategy for minority cancer survivors. In addition, CBPR is valuable in improving feasibility and cultural sensitivity of the intervention in understudied populations. Future studies employing randomized controlled trial designs are warranted. PMID:22229930

  13. A pilot study of expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qian; Zheng, Dianhan; Young, Lucy; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Loh, Alice

    2012-09-01

    Little attention has been focused on Asian American breast cancer survivor's psychological needs. No outcome-based psychosocial interventions have been reported to target at this population. Expressive writing interventions have been previously shown to improve health outcomes among non-Hispanic White breast cancer populations. This pilot study aimed to test the cultural sensitivity, feasibility, and potential health benefits of an expressive writing intervention among Chinese-speaking breast cancer survivors. Participants (N = 19) were asked to write about their deepest thoughts and feelings, their coping efforts, and positive thoughts and feelings regarding their experience with breast cancer each week for 3 weeks. Health outcomes were assessed at baseline, 3, and 6 months after the intervention. A Community-Based Participatory Research Approach (CBPR) is used. Expressive writing was associated with medium and large effect sizes (η(p)² = 0.066∼0.208) in improving multiple health outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, posttraumatic stress, intrusive thoughts, and positive affect) at follow-ups. Participants perceived the study to be valuable. The study yielded high compliance and completion rates. Expressive writing is associated with long-term improvement of health outcomes among Chinese breast cancer survivors and has the potential to be utilized as a support strategy for minority cancer survivors. In addition, CBPR is valuable in improving feasibility and cultural sensitivity of the intervention in understudied populations. Future studies employing randomized, controlled trial designs are warranted. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Human behavioral flexibility: a psychogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalov, V M; Biryukov, S D

    1993-09-01

    Forty-seven two-children families from Moscow were used in a study to assess genetic determination of behavior flexibility, which was measured by eight laboratory tests. Flexibility is regarded as a temperament trait. There was no age- or sex-specific differentiation of human behavioral flexibility. Genetic determination of indices was used as a criterion for construct validization of flexibility tests. Factor analysis produced two principal components of flexibility: "operational flexibility" and "afferent flexibility." The study showed that a considerable part of the phenotypic variability of the flexibility indices included in different factors is under approximately equal genetic control. The flexibility factors differ in their genetic determination. In the inheritance of the first factor the leading role belongs to the additive component, whereas the dominance effects are more prominent in the second factor of flexibility.

  15. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S; Pal, Sebely

    2015-02-27

    -efficacy, goal setting and planning), and behavioural (self-reported diet intake, and physical activity involvement) measures. We also expect the intervention condition augmented with text messages to lead to statistically significant differences in the primary and secondary outcome variables at the follow up periods after controlling for baseline values. The planned trial will test the effectiveness of the theory-based HEALTHI program intervention to reduce weight and salient psychological, biomedical, and behavioural outcomes in overweight and obese adults. The study has been designed to maximise applicability to real world settings and could be integrated into existing weight management practices. ACTRN: ACTRN12613001274763. Registration date 19/11/2013.

  16. Development of a behaviour change intervention: a case study on the practical application of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of theory in implementation of complex interventions is widely recommended. A complex trial intervention, to enhance self-management support for people with osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care, needed to be implemented in the Managing Osteoarthritis in Consultations (MOSAICS) trial. One component of the trial intervention was delivery by general practitioners (GPs) of an enhanced consultation for patients with OA. The aim of our case study is to describe the systematic selection and use of theory to develop a behaviour change intervention to implement GP delivery of the enhanced consultation. Methods The development of the behaviour change intervention was guided by four theoretical models/frameworks: i) an implementation of change model to guide overall approach, ii) the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify relevant determina