WorldWideScience

Sample records for human intermediate reticular

  1. The ascending reticular activating system from pontine reticular formation to the hypothalamus in the human brain: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2015-03-17

    The ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) is responsible for regulation of consciousness. Precise evaluation of the ARAS is important for diagnosis and management of patients with impaired consciousness. In the current study, we attempted to reconstruct the portion of the ARAS from the pontine reticular formation (RF) to the hypothalamus in normal subjects, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A total of 31 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. DTI scanning was performed using 1.5-T, and the ARAS from the pontine RF to the hypothalamus was reconstructed. Values of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tract volume of the ARAS from the pontine RF to the hypothalamus were measured. In all subjects, the ARAS from the pontine RF to the hypothalamus originated from the RF at the level of the mid-pons, where the trigeminal nerve could be seen, ascended through the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain anterolaterally to the anterior commissure level, and then terminated into the hypothalamus. No significant differences in DTI parameters were observed between the left and right hemispheres and between males and females (phypothalamus in normal subjects using DTI. We believe that the reconstruction methodology and the results of this study would be useful to clinicians involved in the care of patients with impaired consciousness and researchers in studies of the ARAS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Taiwanese Propolis Derivative Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress and Activating Transcription Factor-3 in Human Hepatoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fat-Moon Suk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activating transcription factor-(ATF- 3, a stress-inducible transcription factor, is rapidly upregulated under various stress conditions and plays an important role in inducing cancer cell apoptosis. NBM-TP-007-GS-002 (GS-002 is a Taiwanese propolin G (PPG derivative. In this study, we examined the antitumor effects of GS-002 in human hepatoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells in vitro. First, we found that GS-002 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in dose-dependent manners. Several main apoptotic indicators were found in GS-002-treated cells, such as the cleaved forms of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. GS-002 also induced endoplasmic reticular (ER stress as evidenced by increases in ER stress-responsive proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153, phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, phosphorylated protein endoplasmic-reticular-resident kinase (PERK, and ATF-3. The induction of ATF-3 expression was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in GS-002-treated cells. Furthermore, we found that GS-002 induced more cell apoptosis in ATF-3-overexpressing cells. These results suggest that the induction of apoptosis by the propolis derivative, GS-002, is partially mediated through ER stress and ATF-3-dependent pathways, and GS-002 has the potential for development as an antitumor drug.

  3. A Novel Microtubule-Disrupting Agent Induces Endoplasmic Reticular Stress-Mediated Cell Death in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Te Ho

    Full Text Available Here, we present evidence of a novel microtubule-disrupting agent, N-deacetyl-N-(chromone-2-carbonyl-thiocolchicine (TCD, exhibiting potent antitumor activity (with IC50 values in the nanomolar range against hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Cell cycle analysis revealed that TCD induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest in a dose- and time-dependent manner in both Hep-J5 and Mahlavu HCC cell lines. TCD also induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and caused DNA damage. Mechanistically, TCD activated protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticular kinase and several transcription factors, including activating transcription factor (ATF 6, ATF4, ATF3, and the CCAAT-enhancer binding protein homologous protein. These data clearly demonstrate that the antitumor activity of TCD is mechanistically linked to its capacity to trigger both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cell death via endoplasmic reticular stress pathway. The potent antitumor activity of TCD was similarly demonstrated in a hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft model, where 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of TCD significantly arrested Hep-J5 and Mahlavu tumor growth. Our finding suggests that TCD is a promising therapeutic agent against hepatocellular carcinoma; further translational assessment of its clinical usage is warranted.

  4. Aging alters functionally human dermal papillary fibroblasts but not reticular fibroblasts: a new view of skin morphogenesis and aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Mine

    Full Text Available Understanding the contribution of the dermis in skin aging is a key question, since this tissue is particularly important for skin integrity, and because its properties can affect the epidermis. Characteristics of matched pairs of dermal papillary and reticular fibroblasts (Fp and Fr were investigated throughout aging, comparing morphology, secretion of cytokines, MMPs/TIMPs, growth potential, and interaction with epidermal keratinocytes. We observed that Fp populations were characterized by a higher proportion of small cells with low granularity and a higher growth potential than Fr populations. However, these differences became less marked with increasing age of donors. Aging was also associated with changes in the secretion activity of both Fp and Fr. Using a reconstructed skin model, we evidenced that Fp and Fr cells do not possess equivalent capacities to sustain keratinopoiesis. Comparing Fp and Fr from young donors, we noticed that dermal equivalents containing Fp were more potent to promote epidermal morphogenesis than those containing Fr. These data emphasize the complexity of dermal fibroblast biology and document the specific functional properties of Fp and Fr. Our results suggest a new model of skin aging in which marked alterations of Fp may affect the histological characteristics of skin.

  5. Human Lymph Node-Derived Fibroblastic and Double-Negative Reticular Cells Alter Their Chemokines and Cytokines Expression Profile Following Inflammatory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Patricia; Palomino, Diana Torres; Alvarenga, Heliene; Almeida, Camila Bononi; Pasqualim, Denise Cunha; Cury, Adriano; Salvalaggio, Paolo Rogério; De Vasconcelos Macedo, Antonio Luiz; Andrade, Maria Claudina; Aloia, Thiago; Bromberg, Silvio; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Rocha, Fernanda Agostini; Marti, Luciana C.

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) is a secondary lymphoid organ with highly organized and compartmentalized structure. LNs harbor B, T, and other cells among fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs). FRCs are characterized by both podoplanin (PDPN/gp38) expression and by the lack of CD31 expression. FRCs are involved in several immune response processes but mechanisms underlying their function are still under investigation. Double-negative cells (DNCs), another cell population within LNs, are even less understood. They do not express PDPN or CD31, their localization within the LN is unknown, and their phenotype and function remain to be elucidated. This study evaluates the gene expression and cytokines and chemokines profile of human LN-derived FRCs and DNCs during homeostasis and following inflammatory stimuli. Cytokines and chemokines secreted by human FRCs and DNCs partially diverged from those identified in murine models that used similar stimulation. Cytokine and chemokine secretion and their receptors expression levels differed between stimulated DNCs and FRCs, with FRCs expressing a broader range of chemokines. Additionally, dendritic cells demonstrated increased migration toward FRCs, possibly due to chemokine-induced chemotaxis since migration was significantly decreased upon neutralization of secreted CCL2 and CCL20. Our study contributes to the understanding of the biology and functions of FRCs and DNCs and, accordingly, of the mechanisms involving them in immune cells activation and migration. PMID:28261205

  6. 15,16-Dihydrotanshinone I, a Compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Induces Apoptosis through Inducing Endoplasmic Reticular Stress in Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Te Chuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available 5,16-dihydrotanshinone I (DHTS is extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (tanshen root and was found to be the most effective compound of tanshen extracts against breast cancer cells in our previous studies. However, whether DHTS can induce apoptosis through an endoplasmic reticular (ER stress pathway was examined herein. In this study, we found that DHTS significantly inhibited the proliferation of human prostate DU145 carcinoma cells and induced apoptosis. DHTS was able to induce ER stress as evidenced by the upregulation of glucose regulation protein 78 (GRP78/Bip and CAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein/growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (CHOP/GADD153, as well as increases in phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1 mRNA splicing forms. DHTS treatment also caused significant accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α, indicating that DHTS might be a proteasome inhibitor that is known to induce ER stress or enhance apoptosis caused by the classic ER stress-dependent mechanism. Moreover, DHTS-induced apoptosis was reversed by salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor. Results suggest that DHTS can induce apoptosis of prostate carcinoma cells via induction of ER stress and/or inhibition of proteasome activity, and may have therapeutic potential for prostate cancer patients.

  7. Development of human skin equivalents mimicking skin aging : contrast between papillary and reticular fibroblasts as a lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janson, D.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of human skin equivalents that show characteristics of skin aging. The type of skin equivalent used was a fibroblast derived matrix equivalent, in which the dermal compartment is generated by fibroblasts and thus is fully of human origin. Two strategies are

  8. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Scholte, H.S.; Groen, I.I.A.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ghebreab, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible

  9. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ramakrishnan; H.S. Scholte; I.I.A. Groen; A.W.M. Smeulders; S. Ghebreab

    2015-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HM

  10. Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance.

  11. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandan eRamakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2 and V3. However BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  12. Visual dictionaries as intermediate features in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Kandan; Scholte, H Steven; Groen, Iris I A; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Ghebreab, Sennay

    2014-01-01

    The human visual system is assumed to transform low level visual features to object and scene representations via features of intermediate complexity. How the brain computationally represents intermediate features is still unclear. To further elucidate this, we compared the biologically plausible HMAX model and Bag of Words (BoW) model from computer vision. Both these computational models use visual dictionaries, candidate features of intermediate complexity, to represent visual scenes, and the models have been proven effective in automatic object and scene recognition. These models however differ in the computation of visual dictionaries and pooling techniques. We investigated where in the brain and to what extent human fMRI responses to short video can be accounted for by multiple hierarchical levels of the HMAX and BoW models. Brain activity of 20 subjects obtained while viewing a short video clip was analyzed voxel-wise using a distance-based variation partitioning method. Results revealed that both HMAX and BoW explain a significant amount of brain activity in early visual regions V1, V2, and V3. However, BoW exhibits more consistency across subjects in accounting for brain activity compared to HMAX. Furthermore, visual dictionary representations by HMAX and BoW explain significantly some brain activity in higher areas which are believed to process intermediate features. Overall our results indicate that, although both HMAX and BoW account for activity in the human visual system, the BoW seems to more faithfully represent neural responses in low and intermediate level visual areas of the brain.

  13. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  14. Palmitic Acid-Induced Neuron Cell Cycle G2/M Arrest and Endoplasmic Reticular Stress through Protein Palmitoylation in SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Hsuan Hsiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with elevated saturated fatty acids (SFAs in the brain. An increase in SFAs, especially palmitic acid (PA, triggers neuron cell apoptosis, causing cognitive function to deteriorate. In the present study, we focused on the specific mechanism by which PA triggers SH-SY5Y neuron cell apoptosis. We found that PA induces significant neuron cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data further showed that G2/M arrest is involved in elevation of endoplasmic reticular (ER stress according to an increase in p-eukaryotic translation inhibition factor 2α, an ER stress marker. Chronic exposure to PA also accelerates beta-amyloid accumulation, a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease. Interestingly, SFA-induced ER stress, G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis were reversed by treatment with 2-bromopalmitate, a protein palmitoylation inhibitor. These findings suggest that protein palmitoylation plays a crucial role in SFA-induced neuron cell cycle G2/M arrest, ER stress and apoptosis; this provides a novel strategy for preventing SFA-induced neuron cell dysfunction.

  15. Palmitic acid-induced neuron cell cycle G2/M arrest and endoplasmic reticular stress through protein palmitoylation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Lin, Ching-I; Liao, Hsiang; Chen, Yue-Hua; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang

    2014-11-13

    Obesity-related neurodegenerative diseases are associated with elevated saturated fatty acids (SFAs) in the brain. An increase in SFAs, especially palmitic acid (PA), triggers neuron cell apoptosis, causing cognitive function to deteriorate. In the present study, we focused on the specific mechanism by which PA triggers SH-SY5Y neuron cell apoptosis. We found that PA induces significant neuron cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase in SH-SY5Y cells. Our data further showed that G2/M arrest is involved in elevation of endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress according to an increase in p-eukaryotic translation inhibition factor 2α, an ER stress marker. Chronic exposure to PA also accelerates beta-amyloid accumulation, a pathological characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, SFA-induced ER stress, G2/M arrest and cell apoptosis were reversed by treatment with 2-bromopalmitate, a protein palmitoylation inhibitor. These findings suggest that protein palmitoylation plays a crucial role in SFA-induced neuron cell cycle G2/M arrest, ER stress and apoptosis; this provides a novel strategy for preventing SFA-induced neuron cell dysfunction.

  16. Reticular pattern detection in dermoscopy: an approach using Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Machado

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermoscopy is a non-invasive in vivo imaging technique, used in dermatology in feature identification, among pigmented melanocytic neoplasms, from suspicious skin lesions. Often, in the skin exam is possible to ascertain markers, whose identification and proper characterization is difficult, even when it is used a magnifying lens and a source of light. Dermoscopic images are thus a challenging source of a wide range of digital features, frequently with clinical correlation. Among these markers, one of particular interest to diagnosis in skin evaluation is the reticular pattern. Methods This paper presents a novel approach (avoiding pre-processing, e.g. segmentation and filtering for reticular pattern detection in dermoscopic images, using texture spectral analysis. The proposed methodology involves a Curvelet Transform procedure to identify features. Results Feature extraction is applied to identify a set of discriminant characteristics in the reticular pattern, and it is also employed in the automatic classification task. The results obtained are encouraging, presenting Sensitivity and Specificity of 82.35% and 76.79%, respectively. Conclusions These results highlight the use of automatic classification, in the context of artificial intelligence, within a computer-aided diagnosis strategy, as a strong tool to help the human decision making task in clinical practice. Moreover, the results were obtained using images from three different sources, without previous lesion segmentation, achieving to a rapid, robust and low complexity methodology. These properties boost the presented approach to be easily used in clinical practice as an aid to the diagnostic process.

  17. The critical iron-oxygen intermediate in human aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Denisov, Ilia G; Grinkova, Yelena V; Sligar, Stephen G

    2009-09-11

    Aromatase (CYP19) is the target of several therapeutics used for breast cancer treatment and catalyzes the three-step conversion of androgens to estrogens, with an unusual C-C cleavage reaction in the third step. To better understand the CYP19 reaction, the oxy-ferrous complex of CYP19 with androstenedione substrate was cryotrapped, characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, and cryoreduced to generate the next reaction cycle intermediate. EPR analysis revealed that the initial intermediate observed following cryoreduction is the unprotonated g(1)=2.254 peroxo-ferric intermediate, which is stable up to 180K. Upon gradual cryoannealing, the low-spin (g(1)=2.39) product complex is formed, with no evidence for accumulation of the g(1)=2.30 hydroperoxo-ferric intermediate. The relative stabilization of the peroxo-ferric heme and the lack of observed hydroperoxo-ferric heme distinguish CYP19 from other P450s, suggesting that the proton delivery pathway is more hindered in CYP19 than in most other P450s.

  18. Identification of intermediate cell types by keratin expression in the developing human prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y; Smedts, F; Debruyne, FMJ; de la Rosette, JJMCH; Schalken, JA

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The secretory acini of the adult human prostate contain basal, luminal, and intermediate types of exocrine cells. Intermediate cells are thought to play an important role in normal growth and neoplastic transformation. In this study we investigated whether this cell type is present in

  19. Identification of intermediate cell types by keratin expression in the developing human prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y; Smedts, F; Debruyne, FMJ; de la Rosette, JJMCH; Schalken, JA

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The secretory acini of the adult human prostate contain basal, luminal, and intermediate types of exocrine cells. Intermediate cells are thought to play an important role in normal growth and neoplastic transformation. In this study we investigated whether this cell type is present in ea

  20. Comparative analyses of histological and material properties of reticular dermis derived from human, swine and rats%人、猪、大鼠来源网状层真皮组织学及材料学表征的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永虎; 宋国栋; 左海斌; 贾军; 马印东; 范春节; 李培龙

    2014-01-01

    背景:课题组以往研究证实,猪边腹部网状层真皮质地柔软,伸展性也较其他部位好,适合作为异种脱细胞真皮的制作材料,但将其与人网状层真皮和大鼠网状层真皮进行组织形态学和材料学表征的系统对比未见相关报道。目的:研究猪边腹部、大鼠背部与人网状层真皮在组织学、生物力学、分子结构和热稳定性等方面的差异。方法:取人、猪边腹部、Wistar大鼠背部网状层真皮标本并大体观察,石蜡切片后行苏木精-伊红染色、苦味酸-天狼星红染色,显微照相后用图像分析软件测量分析;样本真空干燥并复水后用电子拉伸机测量其力学性能并计算杨氏模量;真空干燥后的样品研碎后用傅里叶红外光谱仪及同步热分析仪分析测量。结果与结论:猪边腹部网状层真皮胶原纤维束直径与人网状层真皮无差异,大鼠背部胶原纤维束较人网状层真皮细(P 0.05)。3种网状层真皮杨氏模量差异无显著性意义。大鼠网状层真皮胶原蛋白分子有较多的氢键参与,人较少,猪介于两者之间;大鼠网状层真皮热稳定性较好,人和猪次之。%BACKGROUND:Previous studies of our research group have confirmed that the texture of porcine reticular dermis at lateral ventral part is softer and has more extensibility than other parts. Therefore, it may serve as the raw material of xenogenic aceluar dermal matrix. However, its comparison with human and rat reticular dermis has not been reported systematicaly in aspects of histomorphology and material characterization. OBJECTIVE:To compare the reticular dermis from the lateral region of porcine abdomen and rat dorsal part with the reticular dermis from human in histology, biomechanics, molecular structure, thermal stability and other properties. METHODS:The reticular dermis samples were taken from adult human, the lateral region of porcine abdomen, the back of rats

  1. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA-positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador.

  2. Preoptic hypnogenic area and reticular activating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, F

    1973-06-01

    The stimulation, in the encéphale isolé cat, of the basal preoptic hypnogenic area be brief electrical pulses evokes bilaterally an extracellular positive (P) field potential of 20 to 60 msec duration in the brain stem and thalamic activating ascending reticular system. The properties of this P wave have led to consider it as the extracellular and abbreviated counterpart of an hyperpolarizing postsynaptic inhibitory process which, by the functional depression it exerts on the arousal system, would be instrumental in the induction and maintenance of synchronized sleep. The positive field potential response of the reticular system shows the same recruiting build-up and amplitude modulation, and the same sensibility to amphetamine and to barbiturates, as the cortical potential of diffuse distribution which is evoked simultaneously. It is strychnine--and picrotoxin--resistant. Preoptic stimulation exerts, within a 100 msec interval, a strong suppressive effect on the excitatory response evoked in the n. centromedian by a mesencephalic reticular testing shock. On the other hand, the application of the latter as a conditioning stimulus results in a marked increase of the amplitude of the P wave response of the CM to a testing preoptic shock. A negative feedback interpretation of this interaction is suggested. No clear evidence of a tonic functioning of the preoptic hypnogenic structure could be found in experiments involving the production of small bilateral lesions in the basal preoptic area in the encéphale isolé cat. Reasons limiting the interpretation of this negative result are given. The functional significance, on the basis of experimental data, of the diffuse cortical synchronization produced by the low frequency stimulation of the basal preoptic area and of other hypnogenic structures is discussed.

  3. The Reticular Cell Network : A Robust Backbone for Immune Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Textor, Johannes; Mandl, Judith N; de Boer, Rob J

    2016-01-01

    Lymph nodes are meeting points for circulating immune cells. A network of reticular cells that ensheathe a mesh of collagen fibers crisscrosses the tissue in each lymph node. This reticular cell network distributes key molecules and provides a structure for immune cells to move around on. During inf

  4. Effects of trunk-to-head rotation on the labyrinthine responses of rat reticular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barresi, M; Grasso, C; Bruschini, L; Berrettini, S; Manzoni, D

    2012-11-08

    Vestibulospinal reflexes elicited by head displacement become appropriate for body stabilization owing to the integration of neck input by the cerebellar anterior vermis. Due to this integration, the preferred direction of spinal motoneurons' responses to animal tilt rotates by the same angle and by the same direction as the head over the body, which makes it dependent on the direction of body displacement rather than on head displacement. It is known that the cerebellar control of spinal motoneurons involves the reticular formation. Since the preferred directions of corticocerebellar units' responses to animal tilt are tuned by neck rotation, as occuring in spinal motoneurons, we investigated whether a similar tuning can be observed also in the intermediate station of reticular formation. In anaesthetized rats, the activity of neurons in the medullary reticular formation was recorded during wobble of the whole animal at 0.156 Hz, a stimulus that tilted the animal's head by a constant amplitude (5°), in a direction rotating clockwise or counter clockwise over the horizontal plane. The response gain and the direction of tilt eliciting the maximal activity were evaluated with the head and body axes aligned and during a maintained body-to-head displacement of 5-20° over the horizontal plane, in either direction. We found that the neck displacement modified the response gain and/or the average activity of most of the responsive neurons. Rotation of the response direction was observed only in a minor percentage of the recorded neurons. The modifications of reticular neurons' responses were different from those observed in the P-cells of the cerebellar anterior vermis, which rarely showed gain and activity changes and often exhibited a rotation of their response directions. In conclusion, reticular neurons take part in the neck tuning of vestibulospinal reflexes by transforming a head-driven sensory input into a body-centred postural response. The present findings

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins of human cells: unique and cross-reacting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, A M; Vogel, A M

    1982-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the intermediate filament proteins of different human cells. The reactivity of these antibodies with the different classes of intermediate filament proteins was determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cultured cells, immunologic indentification on SDS polyacrylamide gels ("wester blot" experiments), and immunoperoxidase assays on intact tissues. The following four antibodies are described: (a) an antivimentin antibody generated against human fibroblast cytoskeleton; (b), (c) two antibodies that recognize a 54-kdalton protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells; and (d) an antikeratin antibody made to stratum corneum that recognizes proteins of molecular weight 66 kdaltons and 57 kdaltons. The antivimentin antibody reacts with vimentin (58 kdaltons), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and keratins from stratum corneum, but does not recognize hepatoma intermediate filaments. In immunofluorescence assays, the antibody reacts with mesenchymal cells and cultured epithelial cells that express vimentin. This antibody decorates the media of blood vessels in tissue sections. One antihepatoma filament antibody reacts only with the 54 kdalton protein of these cells and, in immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase assays, only recognizes epithelial cells. It reacts with almost all nonsquamous epithelium. The other antihepatoma filament antibody is much less selective, reacting with vimentin, GFAP, and keratin from stratum corneum. This antibody decorates intermediate filaments of both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. The antikeratin antibody recognizes 66-kdalton and 57-kdalton proteins in extracts of stratum corneum and also identifies proteins of similar molecular weights in all cells tested. However, by immunofluorescence, this antibody decorates only the intermediate filaments of epidermoid carcinoma cells. When assayed on tissue sections, the antibody reacts with squamous epithelium and some, but not all

  6. Unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-Tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SRABANI TARAPHDER; PUSPITA HALDER; TANMOY KUMAR PAUL; SATYAJIT KHATUA

    2017-07-01

    The mutant His-107-Tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) is highly unstable and has long been linked to a misfolding disease known as carbonic anhydrase deficiency syndrome (CADS). High temperature unfolding trajectories of the mutant are obtained from classical molecular dynamics simulationsand analyzed in a multi-dimensional property space.When projected along a reaction coordinate these trajectories yield four distinguishable sets of structures that map qualitatively to folding intermediates of this mutant postulated earlier from experiments.We present in this article a detailed analysis of representative structures and proton transfer activity of these intermediates. It is also suggested that under suitable experimental conditions, these intermediates may be distinguished using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy.

  7. Multiple unfolding intermediates of human placental alkaline phosphatase in equilibrium urea denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H C; Chang, G G

    2001-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme with a typical alpha/beta hydrolase fold. The conformational stability of the human placental alkaline phosphatase was examined with the chemical denaturant urea. The red shifts of fluorescence spectra show a complex unfolding process involving multiple equilibrium intermediates indicating differential stability of the subdomains of the enzyme. None of these unfolding intermediates were observed in the presence of 83 mM NaCl, indicating the importance of ionic interactions in the stabilization of the unfolding intermediates. Guanidinium chloride, on the other hand, could stabilize one of the unfolding intermediates, which is not a salt effect. Some of the unfolding intermediates were also observed in circular dichroism spectroscopy, which clearly indicates steady loss of helical structure during unfolding, but very little change was observed for the beta strand content until the late stage of the unfolding process. The enzyme does not lose its phosphate-binding ability after substantial tertiary structure changes, suggesting that the substrate-binding region is more resistant to chemical denaturant than the other structural domains. Global analysis of the fluorescence spectral change demonstrated the following folding-unfolding process of the enzyme: N I(1) I(2) I(3) I(4) I(5) D. These discrete intermediates are stable at urea concentrations of 2.6, 4.1, 4.7, 5.5, 6.6, and 7.7 M, respectively. These intermediates are further characterized by acrylamide and/or potassium iodide quenching of the intrinsic fluorescence of the enzyme and by the hydrophobic probes, 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid and 4,4'-dianilino-1,1'-binaphthyl-5,5'-disulfonic acid. The stepwise unfolding process was interpreted by the folding energy landscape in terms of the unique structure of the enzyme. The rigid central beta-strand domain is surrounded by the peripheral alpha-helical and coil structures, which are marginally stable toward a chemical

  8. Populated intermediates in the thermal unfolding of the human telomeric quadruplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert D; Buscaglia, Robert; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2012-10-10

    Thermal denaturation profiles of several model oligonucleotides of the human telomere DNA sequence including d[A(GGGTTA)(3)GGG] (Tel22) were determined using circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence of adenine → 2-aminopurine analogs, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to monitor the unfolding process at specific locations within the quadruplex. The resulting optical spectra vs temperature data matrices were analyzed by singular value decomposition (SVD) to ascertain the minimum number of species required to reproduce the unfolding spectral profiles. Global nonlinear least-squares fitting of the SVD amplitude vectors was used to estimate thermodynamic parameters and optical spectra of all species for a series of unfolding mechanisms that included one-, two-, and three-step sequential pathways F ⇌ I(n) ⇌ U, n = 0, 1, or 2) as well as two mechanisms with spectroscopically distinct starting structures (F(1) and F(2)). The CD and FRET data for Tel22 unfolding between 4 and 94 °C in 25 mM KCl were best described by a sequential unfolding model with two intermediates, while the 2-aminopurine analogs required one intermediate. The higher melting intermediate I(2) had a transition midpoint temperature (T(m)) of 61 °C and a CD spectrum with a maximum and minimum at ~265 and ~245 nm, respectively. The fluorescence emission spectra of the 2-aminopurine and FRET derivatives suggest greater solvent exposure of the 5'-AGGGTTA- segment in the intermediate compared to the folded state. The spectroscopic properties of the 61 °C intermediate suggest that it may be a triple helical structure.

  9. Reticular Formation and Pain: The Past and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the reticular formation (RF in the transmission and modulation of nociceptive information has been extensively studied. The brainstem RF contains several areas which are targeted by spinal cord afferents conveying nociceptive input. The arrival of nociceptive input to the RF may trigger alert reactions which generate a protective/defense reaction to pain. RF neurons located at the medulla oblongata and targeted by ascending nociceptive information are also involved in the control of vital functions that can be affected by pain, namely cardiovascular control. The RF contains centers that belong to the pain modulatory system, namely areas involved in bidirectional balance (decrease or enhancement of pain responses. It is currently accepted that the imbalance of pain modulation towards pain facilitation accounts for chronic pain. The medullary RF has the peculiarity of harboring areas involved in bidirectional pain control namely by the existence of specific neuronal populations involved in antinociceptive or pronociceptive behavioral responses, namely at the rostroventromedial medulla (RVM and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (VLM. Furthermore the dorsal reticular nucleus (also known as subnucleus reticularis dorsalis; DRt may enhance nociceptive responses, through a reverberative circuit established with spinal lamina I neurons and inhibit wide-dynamic range (WDR neurons of the deep dorsal horn. The components of the triad RVM-VLM-DRt are reciprocally connected and represent a key gateway for top-down pain modulation. The RVM-VLM-DRt triad also represents the neurobiological substrate for the emotional and cognitive modulation of pain, through pathways that involve the periaqueductal gray (PAG-RVM connection. Collectively, we propose that the RVM-VLM-DRt triad represents a key component of the “dynamic pain connectome” with special features to provide integrated and rapid responses in situations which are life

  10. Inducers & Organizers in Human Fetal and Adult Lymphoid Tissues : the characterization of RORC+ innate lymphoid cells and RANKL+ marginal reticular cells in human fetal and adult secondary lymphoid organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hoorweg (Kerim)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The human immune system harbors the potential to generate novel lymphoid organs within inflamed tissues during disease. These tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) resemble lymph nodes and can contain segregated T and B cell areas, germinal centers, high endothelial venules a

  11. A thalamic reticular networking model of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Byoung-Kyong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract [Background] It is reasonable to consider the thalamus a primary candidate for the location of consciousness, given that the thalamus has been referred to as the gateway of nearly all sensory inputs to the corresponding cortical areas. Interestingly, in an early stage of brain development, communicative innervations between the dorsal thalamus and telencephalon must pass through the ventral thalamus, the major derivative of which is the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN. The TRN occupies a striking control position in the brain, sending inhibitory axons back to the thalamus, roughly to the same region where they receive afferents. [Hypotheses] The present study hypothesizes that the TRN plays a pivotal role in dynamic attention by controlling thalamocortical synchronization. The TRN is thus viewed as a functional networking filter to regulate conscious perception, which is possibly embedded in thalamocortical networks. Based on the anatomical structures and connections, modality-specific sectors of the TRN and the thalamus appear to be responsible for modality-specific perceptual representation. Furthermore, the coarsely overlapped topographic maps of the TRN appear to be associated with cross-modal or unitary conscious awareness. Throughout the latticework structure of the TRN, conscious perception could be accomplished and elaborated through accumulating intercommunicative processing across the first-order input signal and the higher-order signals from its functionally associated cortices. As the higher-order relay signals run cumulatively through the relevant thalamocortical loops, conscious awareness becomes more refined and sophisticated. [Conclusions] I propose that the thalamocortical integrative communication across first- and higher-order information circuits and repeated feedback looping may account for our conscious awareness. This TRN-modulation hypothesis for conscious awareness provides a comprehensive rationale regarding

  12. Recombination analysis of intermediate human adenovirus type 53 in Japan by complete genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hisatoshi; Aoki, Koki; Ishida, Susumu; Ohno, Shigeaki; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Tsuguto; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Masako; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Koyanagi, Kanako O; Watanabe, Hidemi; Suzutani, Tatsuo

    2011-06-01

    Human adenovirus type 53 (HAdV-53) has commonly been detected in samples from epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) patients in Japan since 1996. HAdV-53 is an intermediate virus, containing hexon-chimeric, penton base and fiber structures similar to HAdV-22 and -37, HAdV-37 and HAdV-8, respectively. HAdV-53-like intermediate strains were first isolated from EKC samples in Japan in the 1980s. Here, the complete genome sequences of three such HAdV-53-like intermediate strains (870006C, 880249C and 890357C) and four HAdV-53 strains were determined, and their relationships were analysed. The seven HAdV strains were classified into three groups, 870006C/880249C, 890357C and the four HAdV-53 strains, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of the partial and complete genome sequences. HAdV strains within the same group showed the highest nucleotide identities (99.87-100.00 %). Like HAdV-53, the hexon loop 1 and 2 regions of 870006C, 880249C and 890357C showed the highest identity with HAdV-22. However, these strains did not show a hexon-chimeric structure similar to HAdV-22 and -37, or a penton base similar to HAdV-37. The fiber genes of 870006C and 880249C were identical to that of HAdV-37, but not HAdV-8. Thus, the three intermediate HAdVs isolated in the 1980s were similar to each other but not to HAdV-53. The recombination breakpoints were inferred by the Recombination Detection Program (rdp) using whole-genome sequences of these seven HAdV and of 12 HAdV-D strains from GenBank. HAdV-53 may have evolved from intermediate HAdVs circulating in the 1980s, and from HAdV-8, -22 and -37, by recombination of sections cut at the putative breakpoints.

  13. Cloning, expression, and chromosomal assignment of the human mitochondrial intermediate peptidase gene (MIPEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, A; Buck, E A; Peretz, S; Sirugo, G; Rinaldo, P; Isaya, G

    1997-03-15

    The mitochondrial intermediate peptidase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (YMIP) is a component of the yeast mitochondrial protein import machinery critically involved in the biogenesis of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. This leader peptidase removes specific octapeptides from the amino terminus of nuclear-encoded OXPHOS subunits and components of the mitochondrial genetic apparatus. To address the biologic role of the human peptidase [MIPEP gene, HMIP polypeptide], we have initiated its molecular and functional characterization. A full-length cDNA was isolated by screening a human liver library using a rat MIP (RMIP) cDNA as a probe. The encoded protein contained a typical mitochondrial leader peptide and showed 92 and 54% homology to RMIP and YMIP, respectively. A survey of human mitochondrial protein precursors revealed that, similar to YMIP, HMIP is primarily involved in the maturation of OXPHOS-related proteins. Northern analysis showed that the MIPEP gene is differentially expressed in human tissues, with the highest levels of expression in the heart, skeletal muscle, and pancreas, three organ systems that are frequently affected in OXPHOS disorders. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the MIPEP locus was assigned to 13q12. This information offers the possibility of testing the potential involvement of HMIP in the pathophysiology of nuclear-driven OXPHOS disorders.

  14. Determination of monomethylarsonous acid, a key arsenic methylation intermediate, in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, X C; Ma, M; Cullen, W R; Aposhian, H V; Lu, X; Zheng, B

    2000-01-01

    In this study we report on the finding of monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)] in human urine. This newly identified arsenic species is a key intermediate in the metabolic pathway of arsenic biomethylation, which involves stepwise reduction of pentavalent to trivalent arsenic species followed by oxidative addition of a methyl group. Arsenic speciation was carried out using ion-pair chromatographic separation of arsenic compounds with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. Speciation of the inorganic arsenite [As(III)], inorganic arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid [MMA(V)], dimethylarsinic acid [DMA(V)], and MMA(III) in a urine sample was complete in 5 min. Urine samples collected from humans before and after a single oral administration of 300 mg sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS) were analyzed for arsenic species. MMA(III) was found in 51 out of 123 urine samples collected from 41 people in inner Mongolia 0-6 hr after the administration of DMPS. MMA(III )in urine samples did not arise from the reduction of MMA(V) by DMPS. DMPS probably assisted the release of MMA(III) that was formed in the body. Along with the presence of MMA(III), there was an increase in the relative concentration of MMA(V) and a decrease in DMA(V) in the urine samples collected after the DMPS ingestion. PMID:11102289

  15. A novel intermediate in transcription initiation by human mitochondrial RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yaroslav I; Agaronyan, Karen; Cheung, Alan C M; Anikin, Michael; Cramer, Patrick; Temiakov, Dmitry

    2014-04-01

    The mitochondrial genome is transcribed by a single-subunit T7 phage-like RNA polymerase (mtRNAP), structurally unrelated to cellular RNAPs. In higher eukaryotes, mtRNAP requires two transcription factors for efficient initiation-TFAM, a major nucleoid protein, and TFB2M, a transient component of mtRNAP catalytic site. The mechanisms behind assembly of the mitochondrial transcription machinery and its regulation are poorly understood. We isolated and identified a previously unknown human mitochondrial transcription intermediate-a pre-initiation complex that includes mtRNAP, TFAM and promoter DNA. Using protein-protein cross-linking, we demonstrate that human TFAM binds to the N-terminal domain of mtRNAP, which results in bending of the promoter DNA around mtRNAP. The subsequent recruitment of TFB2M induces promoter melting and formation of an open initiation complex. Our data indicate that the pre-initiation complex is likely to be an important target for transcription regulation and provide basis for further structural, biochemical and biophysical studies of mitochondrial transcription.

  16. Reproducible isolation of lymph node stromal cells reveals site-dependent differences in fibroblastic reticular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Fletcher

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Within lymph nodes, non-hematopoietic stromal cells organize and interact with leukocytes in an immunologically important manner. In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, several recent studies have shown that lymph node stromal cells shape the naïve T cell repertoire, expressing self-antigens which delete self-reactive T cells in a unique and non-redundant fashion. A fundamental role in peripheral tolerance, in addition to an otherwise extensive functional portfolio, necessitates closer study of lymph node stromal cell subsets using modern immunological techniques; however this has not routinely been possible in the field, due to difficulties reproducibly isolating these rare subsets. Techniques were therefore developed for successful ex vivo and in vitro manipulation and characterization of lymph node stroma. Here we discuss and validate these techniques in mice and humans, and apply them to address several unanswered questions regarding lymph node composition. We explored the steady-state stromal composition of lymph nodes isolated from mice and humans, and found that marginal reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells required lymphocytes for their normal maturation in mice. We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. Similarly, transcriptional profiling of FRCs revealed changes in cytokine production from these sites. Together, these methods permit highly reproducible stromal cell isolation, sorting, and culture.

  17. Reticular type parotid myoepithelial carcinoma: an intriguing variant and mimicker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizun-Nisa; Kazi, Javed Iqbal; Jamal, Saba

    2013-05-01

    Myoepithelial carcinoma, the malignant counterpart of benign myoepithelioma, is one of the rarest salivary gland neoplasms. It is composed almost exclusively of tumour cells with myoepithelial differentiation, characterized by infiltrative growth and potential for metastasis. We herein, report a case of myoepithelial carcinoma in a 50 years old male with reticular morphology. Reticular variant of myoepithelial carcinoma may be mistaken for a variety of benign and malignant epithelial and mesenchymal tumours including mixed tumour (pleomorphic adenoma), adenoid cystic carcinoma, basal cell adenoma and epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma. Complete surgical excision is the mainstay of therapy. The role of radiation therapy and chemotherapy is not yet established. Awareness of this variant is emphasized to prevent misdiagnosis.

  18. Alterations in 32P-labelled intermediates during flux activation of human platelet glycolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Jan Willem N.; Driver, H.A.; Dangelmaier, C.A.; Holmsen, H.

    1984-01-01

    Using a newly developed isotopic tracer technique for the measurement of 32P-labelled intermediates in glycolysis and nucleotide metabolism in platelets, we studied the variations in 32P-labelled intermediates during activation of the glycolytic flux by cyanide and platelet-activating agents. The ma

  19. Interaction between leucocytes and human spermatozoa influencing reactive oxygen intermediates release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Monika; Sanocka, Dorota; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2004-04-01

    The relationship between the presence of white blood cells (WBCs) and the fertilizing potential of human semen is still an open question. It is well known that the presence of leucocytes in human semen can be related to the production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI). Semen samples were obtained from 15 normozoospermic men and leucocytes were isolated from heparinized blood drawn from 15 volunteers. Lucigenin and luminol-mediated chemiluminescence assays were used to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by non-activated or activated leucocytes through 12-myristate-13-acetate or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyalanine (FMLP) before the addition of spermatozoa isolated by swim-up or Percoll procedures. All spermatozoal fractions used in this study were characterized by defining their motility, morphology and viability. The levels of ROS formation by non-activated as well as stimulated leucocytes were significantly decreased after addition of swim-up separated spermatozoa (p levels changed depending on the type of inducing factor used for oxidative burst. Then, spermatozoa selected by swim-up procedure although with only slightly higher viability and morphology than sperm obtained from 90% Percoll fraction clearly exhibited much higher capacity to inhibit ROI secretion by receptor-stimulated leucocytes (FMLP-activation) than Percoll fractionated sperm. Such results may indicate that within normal semen may exist sperm subpopulations with different biochemical mechanisms controlling the interaction between spermatozoa and contaminating leucocytes. When ROI levels contained in normozoospermic semen are dependent on the WBCs activation, it seems that spermatozoa with preserved normal functional competence are able to defend themselves against leucocytes-derived ROI. Also for normozoospermic ejaculates, swim-up sperm may improve semen antioxidant characteristics when comparing with Percoll (90%) separated sperm. It may help for optimal sperm preparation

  20. The reticular network contributes to the staging of idiopathic lung fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeska Irina Stoia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspect of reticular fibers is not considered in the current classifications of lung fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the distribution and the architecture of the reticular fibers for potential use as a tissue marker of fibrosis severity. We included in our study 25 pulmonary samples obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy surgery (VATS from a number of 20 cases. The cases were subdivided according to four criteria into: degree II, III and IV. We noticed no significant changes in the reticular network from interalveolar septa to the cases scored with 0, an accumulation of reticular fibers in the interalveolar septa (stage II, the condensation and thick bundles with network disorganization in all areas affected by fibrosis (stage III, partial to full depletion of reticular fibers (stage IV. Depletion of reticular fibers was constantly associated with advanced fibrosis stages.

  1. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates in human monocytes by tumour cells and their role in spontaneous monocyte cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytar, B; Siedlar, M; Woloszyn, M; Ruggiero, I; Pryjma, J; Zembala, M

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined the ability of human monocytes to produce reactive oxygen intermediates after a contact with tumour cells. Monocytes generated oxygen radicals, as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production, after stimulation with the tumour, but not with untransformed, cells. The use of specific oxygen radical scavengers and inhibitors, superoxide dismutase, catalase, dimethyl sulphoxide and deferoxamine as well as the myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide, indicated that chemiluminescence was dependent on the production of superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical and the presence of myeloperoxidase. The tumour cell-induced chemiluminescent response of monocytes showed different kinetics from that seen after activation of monocytes with phorbol ester. These results indicate that human monocytes can be directly stimulated by tumour cells for reactive oxygen intermediate production. Spontaneous monocyte-mediated cytotoxicity towards cancer cells was inhibited by superoxide dismutase, catalase, deferoxamine and hydrazide, implicating the role of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical and hypohalite. We wish to suggest that so-called ‘spontaneous’ tumoricidal capacity of freshly isolated human monocytes may in fact be an inducible event associated with generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and perhaps other toxic mediators, resulting from a contact of monocytes with tumour cells. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10070862

  2. Mining the Human Phenome Using Allelic Scores That Index Biological Intermediates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia

    2013-01-01

    aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we...... indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first...

  3. Ultrastructural localization of extracellular matrix proteins of the lymph node cortex: evidence supporting the reticular network as a pathway for lymphocyte migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobocinski Gregg P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lymph node (LN is a crossroads of blood and lymphatic vessels allowing circulating lymphocytes to efficiently recognize foreign molecules displayed on antigen presenting cells. Increasing evidence indicates that after crossing high endothelial venules, lymphocytes migrate within the node along the reticular network (RN, a scaffold of fibers enwrapped by fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC. Light microscopy has shown that the RN contains specific extracellular matrix (ECM proteins, which are putative molecular "footholds" for migration, and are known ligands for lymphocyte integrin adhesion receptors. Results To investigate whether ECM proteins of the RN are present on the outer surface of the FRC and are thus accessible to migrating lymphocytes, ultrastructural immunohistochemical staining of cynomolgus monkey LN was performed using antibodies to human ECM proteins that were successfully employed at the light microscopic level. The fibrillar collagens I and III were observed primarily within the reticular network fibers themselves. In contrast, the matrix proteins laminin, fibronectin, collagen IV, and tenascin were observed within the reticular fibers and also on the outer membrane surface of the FRC. Conclusions These findings suggest a molecular basis for how the RN functions as a pathway for lymphocyte migration within the lymph node.

  4. Mining the Human Phenome Using Allelic Scores That Index Biological Intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Jo A Brion; Evans, David M.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Munafò, Marcus; Whitfield, John B; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Martin, Nicholas G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel

    2013-01-01

    It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological inte...

  5. Coexpression of intermediate filaments in normal and neoplastic human tissues: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggi, G; Dell'Orto, P; Braidotti, P; Coggi, A; Viale, G

    1989-01-01

    The current view that coexpression of intermediate filaments (IFs) must be considered a bizarre and unpredictable phenomenon, which seriously jeopardizes the use of their localization in diagnostic applications, is critically reviewed in light of the evidence so far acquired by investigations in vivo and in vitro. A less dogmatic approach, which considers IF expression the result of a series of interactions between cells and their microenvironment instead of a function of their histogenesis, not only justifies the complex variety of coexpressions observed in normal and neoplastic tissues but also confirms the usefulness of IF expression in diagnostic applications and offers new opportunities for investigations, with special regard to immunoelectron microscopy.

  6. Separation of the valence intermediates of human haemoglobin by high-performance chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzacchini, E; Fermo, I; Rovida, E; Colombo, R; Samaja, M

    1987-06-26

    Investigations into the properties of haemoglobin often require the isolation of the valence intermediates (alpha o2 beta+)2 and (alpha+ beta o2)2. Chromatofocusing with an anion-exchange gel (Mono PTM; Pharmacia, particle size 10 micron) in an HR5/20 column at various temperatures (10-25 degrees C) provides an excellent method for this task. A linearly decreasing pH gradient (8 to 7, generated by Polybuffer 96, Pharmacia) eluted sequentially the species methaemoglobin, (alpha o2 beta+)2, (alpha+ beta o2)2 and oxygenated haemoglobin. Calibration graphs help in quantitative analyses. This method is simpler and less time consuming and provides a similar or even better resolution than the traditional ion-exchange or isoelectric focusing methods.

  7. Giant axonal neuropathy alters the structure of keratin intermediate filaments in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Asfia; Alsop, Richard J; Negishi, Atsuko; Kreplak, Laurent; Fudge, Douglas; Kuczmarski, Edward R; Goldman, Robert D; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2017-04-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) follows an autosomal recessive genetic inheritance and impedes the peripheral and central nervous system due to axonal swellings that are packed with neurofilaments. The patients display a number of phenotypes, including hypotonia, muscle weakness, decreased reflexes, ataxia, seizures, intellectual disability, pale skin and often curled hair. We used X-ray diffraction and tensile testing to determine potential changes to the structure of keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) in the hair of patients with GAN. A statistically significant decrease in the 47 and the 27 Å diffraction signals were observed. Tensile tests determined that the hair was slightly stiffer, stronger and more extensible in GAN patients. These results suggest that the structure of keratin IFs in hair is altered in GAN, and the findings are compatible with an increased positional disorder of the keratin tetramers within the hair fibres. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  9. Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M

    2008-04-01

    Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di- and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1.

  10. Arecoline inhibits intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human glioblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung; Huang, Yan-Ming; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Kai; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-07-05

    Arecoline (ARE) is an alkaloid-type natural product from areca nut. This compound has numerous pharmacological and toxicological effects. Whether this agent interacts with ion channels to perturb functional activity of cells remains unknown. The effects of ARE on ionic currents were studied in glioma cell lines (U373 and U87MG) using patch-clamp technique. Like TRAM-34(1-[(2-chlorophenyl)-diphenylmethyl]pyrazole), ARE suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell voltage-gated K(+) currents in U373 cells elicited by a ramp voltage clamp. In cell-attached configuration, ARE did not modify the single-channel conductance of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKCa) channels; however, it did reduce channel activity. Its inhibition of IKCa channels was accompanied by a significant lengthening in the slow component of mean closed time of IKCa channels. Based on minimal kinetic scheme, the dissociation constant (KD) required for ARE-mediated prolongation of mean closed time was 11.2µM. ARE-induced inhibition of IKCa channels was voltage-dependent. Inability of ARE to perturb the activity of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels was seen. Under current-clamp recordings, ARE depolarized the membrane of U373 cells and DCEBIO reversed ARE-induced depolarization. Similarly, ARE suppressed IKCa-channel activities in oral keratinocytes. This study provides the evidence that ARE block IKCa channels in a concentration, voltage and state-dependent manner. ARE-induced block of IKCa channels is unrelated to the binding of muscarinic receptors. The effects of ARE on these channels may partially be responsible for the underlying cellular mechanisms by which it influences the functional activities of glioma cells or oral keratinocytes, if similar findings occur in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On the reticular construction concept of covalent organic frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binit Lukose

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of reticular chemistry is investigated to explore the applicability of the formation of Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs from their defined individual building blocks. Thus, we have designed, optimized and investigated a set of reported and hypothetical 2D COFs using Density Functional Theory (DFT and the related Density Functional based tight-binding (DFTB method. Linear, trigonal and hexagonal building blocks have been selected for designing hexagonal COF layers. High-symmetry AA and AB stackings are considered, as well as low-symmetry serrated and inclined stackings of the layers. The latter ones are only slightly modified compared to the high-symmetry forms, but show higher energetic stability. Experimental XRD patterns found in literature also support stackings with highest formation energies. All stacking forms vary in their interlayer separations and band gaps; however, their electronic densities of states (DOS are similar and not significantly different from that of a monolayer. The band gaps are found to be in the range of 1.7–4.0 eV. COFs built of building blocks with a greater number of aromatic rings have smaller band gaps.

  12. Coherence and frequency in the reticular activating system (RAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James; Simon, Christen; Beck, Paige; Urbano, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in the reticular activating system (RAS) exhibit (1) electrical coupling mainly in GABAergic cells, and (2) gamma band activity in virtually all of the cells. Specifically, cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf), and pontine dorsal subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD) (1) show electrical coupling, and (2) all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanism behind electrical coupling is important because the stimulant modafinil was shown to increase electrical coupling. We also provide recent findings demonstrating that all cells in the PPN and Pf have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential to gamma band activity. On the other hand, all SubCD, and some PPN, cells manifested sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. We speculate that continuous sensory input will modulate coupling and induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the processes of preconscious awareness, and provide the essential stream of information for the formulation of many of our actions.

  13. Sleep Duration Varies as a Function of Glutamate and GABA in Rat Pontine Reticular Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christopher J.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2011-01-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) is a component of the ascending reticular activating system and plays a role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The PnO receives glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from many brain regions that regulate behavioral state. Indirect, pharmacological evidence has suggested that glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling within the PnO alters traits that characterize wakefulness and sleep. No previous studies have simultaneously measur...

  14. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  15. Identification of the Main Intermediate Precursor of l-Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Human Biological Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sotgia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A capillary electrophoresis coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (CE–MS/MS has been used to make a qualitative determination of hercynine—the main precursor of l-ergothioneine biosynthesis—in some key human biological specimens, such as urine, whole blood, plasma, and saliva. From semiquantitative analysis results, the highest concentrations of hercynine were detected in saliva and whole blood, whereas much lower concentrations were measured in urine and plasma. Whole blood was the biological matrix with the highest concentration of l-ergothioneine followed by plasma, saliva, and urine. The antioxidant effects attributed to l-ergothioneine, along with its peculiar antioxidant mechanism, offer a possible explanation for the presence of the hercynine, as well as its concentration, in the considered biological matrices.

  16. Gamma band activity in the reticular activating system (RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Urbano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review considers recent evidence showing that cells in three regions of the reticular activating system (RAS exhibit gamma band activity, and describes the mechanisms behind such manifestation. Specifically, we discuss how cells in the mesopontine pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, intralaminar parafascicular nucleus (Pf, and pontine Subcoeruleus nucleus dorsalis (SubCD all fire in the beta/gamma band range when maximally activated, but no higher. The mechanisms behind this ceiling effect have been recently elucidated. We describe recent findings showing that every cell in the PPN have high threshold, voltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channels that are essential, while N-type calcium channels are permissive, to gamma band activity. Every cell in the Pf also showed that P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels are responsible for this activity. On the other hand, every SubCD cell exhibited sodium-dependent subthreshold oscillations. A novel mechanism for sleep-wake control based on well-known transmitter interactions, electrical coupling, and gamma band activity is described. The data presented here on inherent gamma band activity demonstrates the global nature of sleep-wake oscillation that is orchestrated by brainstem-thalamic mechanism, and questions the undue importance given to the hypothalamus for regulation of sleep-wakefulness. The discovery of gamma band activity in the RAS follows recent reports of such activity in other subcortical regions like the hippocampus and cerebellum. We hypothesize that, rather than participating in the temporal binding of sensory events as seen in the cortex, gamma band activity manifested in the RAS may help stabilize coherence related to arousal, providing a stable activation state during waking and paradoxical sleep. Most of our thoughts and actions are driven by preconscious processes. We speculate that continuous sensory input will induce gamma band activity in the RAS that could participate in the

  17. Reticular dysgenesis: international survey on clinical presentation, transplantation, and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, Manfred; Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Pannicke, Ulrich; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Porta, Fulvio; Gennery, Andrew R; Slatter, Mary; Cowan, Morton J; Stepensky, Polina; Al-Mousa, Hamoud; Al-Zahrani, Daifulah; Pai, Sung-Yun; Al Herz, Waleed; Gaspar, Hubert B; Veys, Paul; Oshima, Koichi; Imai, Kohsuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Noroski, Lenora M; Wulffraat, Nico M; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Muramatsu, Hideki; Al Hilali, Mariam; Moshous, Despina; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Schuetz, Catharina; Jacobsen, Eva-Maria; Schulz, Ansgar S; Schwarz, Klaus; Fischer, Alain; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Cavazzana, Marina

    2017-05-25

    Reticular dysgenesis (RD) is a rare congenital disorder defined clinically by the combination of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), agranulocytosis, and sensorineural deafness. Mutations in the gene encoding adenylate kinase 2 were identified to cause the disorder. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only option to cure this otherwise fatal disease. Retrospective data on clinical presentation, genetics, and outcome of HSCT were collected from centers in Europe, Asia, and North America for a total of 32 patients born between 1982 and 2011. Age at presentation was <4 weeks in 30 of 32 patients (94%). Grafts originated from mismatched family donors in 17 patients (55%), from matched family donors in 6 patients (19%), and from unrelated marrow or umbilical cord blood donors in 8 patients (26%). Thirteen patients received secondary or tertiary transplants. After transplantation, 21 of 31 patients were reported alive at a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (range: 0.6-23.6 years). All patients who died beyond 6 months after HSCT had persistent or recurrent agranulocytosis due to failure of donor myeloid engraftment. In the absence of conditioning, HSCT was ineffective to overcome agranulocytosis, and inclusion of myeloablative components in the conditioning regimens was required to achieve stable lymphomyeloid engraftment. In comparison with other SCID entities, considerable differences were noted regarding age at presentation, onset, and type of infectious complications, as well as the requirement of conditioning prior to HSCT. Although long-term survival is possible in the presence of mixed chimerism, high-level donor myeloid engraftment should be targeted to avoid posttransplant neutropenia. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Membrane Bistability in Thalamic Reticular Neurons During Spindle Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Steriade, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The thalamic reticular (RE) nucleus is a major source of inhibition in the thalamus. It plays a crucial role in regulating the excitability of thalamocortical networks and in generating some sleep rhythms. Current-clamp intracellular recordings of RE neurons in cats under barbiturate anesthesia revealed the presence of membrane bistability in ~20% of neurons. Bistability consisted of two alternate membrane potentials, separated by ~17–20 mV. While non-bistable (common) RE neurons fired rhythmic spike-bursts during spindles, bistable RE neurons fired tonically, with burst modulation, throughout spindle sequences. Bistability was strongly voltage dependent and only expressed under resting conditions (i.e. no current injection). The transition from the silent to the active state was a regenerative event that could be activated by brief depolarization, whereas brief hyperpolarizations could switch the membrane potential from the active to the silent state. These effects outlasted the current pulses. Corticothalamic stimulation could also switch the membrane potential from silent to active states. Addition of QX-314 in the recording micropipette either abolished or disrupted membrane bistability, suggesting INa(p) to be responsible for its generation. Thalamocortical cells presented various patterns of spindling that reflected the membrane bistability in RE neurons. Finally, experimental data and computer simulations predicted a role for RE neurons’ membrane bistability in inducing various patterns of spindling in target thalamocortical cells. We conclude that membrane bistability of RE neurons is an intrinsic property, likely generated by INa(p) and modulated by cortical influences, as well as a factor that determines different patterns of spindle rhythms in thalamocortical neurons. PMID:15331618

  19. Thalamic reticular impairment underlies attention deficit in Ptchd1(Y/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael F; Wimmer, Ralf D; Schmitt, L Ian; Feng, Guoping; Halassa, Michael M

    2016-04-07

    Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.

  20. Reticular dysgenesis–associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissone, Alberto; Weinacht, Katja Gabriele; la Marca, Giancarlo; Bishop, Kevin; Giocaliere, Elisa; Jagadeesh, Jayashree; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Dobbs, Kerry; Al-Herz, Waleed; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Kirby, Martha; Wincovitch, Stephen; Simon, Karen Lyn; Itan, Yuval; DeVine, Alex; Schlaeger, Thorsten; Schambach, Axel; Sood, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, Ak2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in ak2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD. PMID:26150473

  1. The human nucleus of the solitary tract: visceral pathways revealed with an "in vitro" postmortem tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, D A; Underwood, M D; Mann, J J; Anwar, M; Arango, V

    2000-03-15

    Visceral relay neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) regulate behavior and autonomic reflex functions. NTS projections have been extensively characterized in animal studies but not in humans. For the first time, NTS fiber trajectories in the human medulla oblongata were revealed with an "in vitro" postmortem tracing method. Local intramedullary pathways were labeled by direct pressure injections of free horseradish peroxidase centered on the medial subnucleus at a level adjacent to true obex. Labeled elements were resolved by peroxidase histochemistry as a dark brown intracellular reaction product. A prominent transtegmental system of axons emerged from the NTS injection sites and entered the intermediate reticular zone, a region corresponding to an autonomic reflex center in other mammals. A medial system of axons arched across the dorsomedial reticular formation toward the dorsal medullary raphe and projected ventrally toward the nucleus gigantocellularis. A small lateral fiber trajectory coursed towards the dorsomedial zone of spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Presumptive terminals appeared as dustings of fine punctate processes within the NTS, dorsomotor nucleus and reticular formation. NTS projections in humans resemble those identified in other mammals including primates. Axonal tracing studies predict that visceral impulses in humans may transmit over evolutionarily conserved pathways involved in autonomic feedback control and stress adaptation.

  2. Neurons in the thalamic reticular nucleus are selective for diverse and complex visual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eVaingankar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All visual signals the cortex receives are influenced by the perigeniculate sector of the thalamic reticular nucleus, which receives input from relay cells in the lateral geniculate and provides feedback inhibition in return. Relay cells have been studied in quantitative depth; they behave in a roughly linear fashion and have receptive fields with a stereotyped centre-surround structure. We know far less about reticular neurons. Qualitative studies indicate they simply pool ascending input to generate nonselective gain control. Yet the perigeniculate is complicated; local cells are densely interconnected and fire lengthy bursts. Thus, we employed quantitative methods to explore the perigeniculate, using relay cells as controls. By adapting methods of spike-triggered averaging and covariance analysis for bursts, we identified both first and second order features that build reticular receptive fields. The shapes of these spatiotemporal subunits varied widely; no stereotyped pattern emerged. Companion experiments showed that the shape of the first but not second order features could be explained by the overlap of On and Off inputs to a given cell. Moreover, we assessed the predictive power of the receptive field and how much information each component subunit conveyed. Linear-nonlinear models including multiple subunits performed better than those made with just one; further each subunit encoded different visual information. Model performance for reticular cells was always lesser than for relay cells, however, indicating that reticular cells process inputs nonlinearly. All told, our results suggest that the perigeniculate encodes diverse visual features to selectively modulate activity transmitted downstream

  3. Evaluation of enantioselective binding of propanocaine to human serum albumin by ultrafiltration and electrokinetic chromatography under intermediate precision conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Gómez, María Amparo; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador; Medina-Hernández, María José

    2012-03-15

    Stereoselectivity in protein binding can have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of chiral drugs. In this paper, the enantioselective binding of propanocaine (PRO) enantiomers to human serum albumin (HSA), the most relevant plasmatic protein in view of stereoselectivity, has been evaluated by incubation and ultrafiltration of racemic PRO-HSA mixtures and chiral analysis of the bound and unbound fractions by electrokinetic chromatography using HSA as chiral selector. Experimental conditions for the separation of PRO enantiomers using HSA as chiral selector and electrokinetic chromatography have been optimised. Affinity constants and protein binding in percentage (PB) were obtained for both enantiomers of PRO, as well as the enantioselectivity (ES) to HSA. Data were obtained in two independent working sessions (days). The influence of the session and fraction processed factors were examined. A univariate direct-estimation approach was used facilitating outliers' identification and statistical comparison. Non-linear fitting of data was used to verify the stoichiometry and affinity estimations obtained by the direct approach. Robust statistics were applied to obtain reliable estimations of uncertainty, accounting for the factors (day and processed fraction), thus representing intermediate precision conditions. Mimicking in vivo experimental conditions, information unapproachable by in vivo experiments was obtained for PRO enantiomers interacting with HSA. For the first (E1) and the second (E2) eluted PRO enantiomers the results were: 1:1 stoichiometry, medium affinity constants, logK(E1)=3.20±0.16 and log K(E2)=3.40±0.14, medium protein binding percentage, PB=48.7 and 60.1% for E1 and E2, respectively, and moderate but significant enantioselectivity, ES=K(E2)/K(E1)=1.5±0.3.

  4. Role of endoplasmic reticular stress in aortic endothelial apoptosis induced by intermittent/persistent hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-yuan; SHANG Jin; LIU Hui-guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence shows that hypoxia can induce endothelial apoptosis,however the mechanism is still unknown.We hypothesized whether intermittent or persistent hypoxia could induce endoplasmic reticular stress,leading to endothelial apoptosis.Methods Twenty-four 8-week male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups:normoxia (NC) group,intermittent hypoxia (IH) group and persistent hypoxia (PH) group.TUNEL staining was performed to detect aortic arch endotheliar apoptosis,and immunohistochemistry for BIP,CHOP and caspase12 to test protein expression;human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of the line ECV304 were cultured (with or without taurodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) 10 mmol/L,100 mmol/L) and divided into four groups:NC group (20.8% O2 for 4 hours),PH1 group (5% O2 for 4 hours),PH2 group (5% O2 for 12 hours) and IH group (20.8% O2 and 5% O2 alternatively for 8 hours).Annexin V-fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis in each group.The expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12 were detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR.Result Intermittent and persistent hypoxia could increase the rate of endothelium apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12 compared with the control,induction by intermittent hypoxia was slightly higher than persistent hypoxia.In the HUVEC experiment,TUDCA significantly reduced apoptosis and the expressions of GRP78,CHOP and caspase12.Conclusion Hypoxia,especially intermittent,can induce endothelial cell apoptosis possibly through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway,which can be attenuated by taurodeoxycholic acid.

  5. The clinical utility of reticular basement membrane thickness measurements in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mastrigt, Esther; Vanlaeken, Leonie; Heida, Fardou; Caudri, Daan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Timens, Wim; Rottier, Bart L.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Pijnenburg, Marielle W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickness is one of the pathological features of asthma and can be measured in endobronchial biopsies. We assessed the feasibility of endobronchial biopsies in a routine clinical setting and investigated the clinical value of RBM thickness measurements fo

  6. Interactions between fibroblastic reticular cells and B cells promote mesenteric lymph node lymphangiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Lalit Kumar; Karempudi, Praneeth; Luther, Sanjiv A; Ludewig, Burkhard; Harris, Nicola L

    2017-08-28

    Lymphatic growth (lymphangiogenesis) within lymph nodes functions to promote dendritic cell entry and effector lymphocyte egress in response to infection or inflammation. Here we demonstrate a crucial role for lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR) signaling to fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) by lymphotoxin-expressing B cells in driving mesenteric lymph node lymphangiogenesis following helminth infection. LTβR ligation on fibroblastic reticular cells leads to the production of B-cell-activating factor (BAFF), which synergized with interleukin-4 (IL-4) to promote the production of the lymphangiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C, by B cells. In addition, the BAFF-IL-4 synergy augments expression of lymphotoxin by antigen-activated B cells, promoting further B cell-fibroblastic reticular cell interactions. These results underlie the importance of lymphotoxin-dependent B cell-FRC cross talk in driving the expansion of lymphatic networks that function to promote and maintain immune responsiveness.The growth of lymph nodes in response to infection requires lymphangiogenesis. Dubey et al. show that the mesenteric lymph node lymphangiogenesis upon helminth infection depends on the signaling loop between the B and fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), whereby the FRCs respond to lymphotoxin secreted by B cells by releasing B cell activating factor.

  7. The nature and function of fibroblastoid reticular cells in the hemopoietic stroma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Piersma (Aldert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe experimental work of this thesis, described in the appendix papers, is aimed at characterization of the nature and function of fibroblastic reticular cells in the hemopoietic stroma. A number of experimental models was employed to elucidate different aspects of these cells. In the fi

  8. Impact of intake water temperatures on reticular temperatures of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, J M; Grott, M W; Einstein, M E; Schutz, M M

    2008-10-01

    Automatic temperature recording may allow early detection of disease, estrus, heat stress, and the onset of calving. The phase IV Cattle Temperature Monitoring System (MaGiiX Inc., Post Falls, ID) utilizes a passive bolus equipped with a temperature sensor, a stationary panel reader to query the bolus, and software to collect, analyze, and display data. One potential limitation to collection of reticular temperatures is the effect of water temperature and consumption on recorded temperatures. Two replicated 3 x 3 Latin square experiments were conducted at the Purdue Dairy Research and Education Center to assess the impact of water intake on reticular temperatures using the Cattle Temperature Monitoring System. Nine high-producing, mid-lactation, second-parity cows with low somatic cell counts were selected. Before administering a water treatment, access to feed and water was restricted for at least 2 h. Baseline reticular temperatures were established from measurements before water intake. In experiment 1, treatments were 25.2 kg of hot water (34.3 degrees C +/- 1.0), warm water (18.2 degrees C +/- 0.4), or cold water (7.6 degrees C +/- 0.4). In experiment 2, treatments were 18.9 kg of body-temperature water (38.9 degrees C +/- 0.2), cold water (5.1 degrees C +/- 0.4), or control (no water). Following water intake, reticular temperatures were collected for 3 h. In experiment 1, an initial dramatic decrease in reticular temperature was observed followed by a gradual increase toward baseline. Least squares means for maximum drop in temperature were 8.5 +/- 0.5, 6.9 +/- 0.5, and 2.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C for cold, warm, and hot water treatments, respectively. Yet at 3 h, reticular temperatures did not return to the baseline. In experiment 2, control cows remained within the baseline confidence interval through the observation period, and cows receiving body temperature water experienced an initial decrease in temperature (0.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) with a return to within the

  9. Gamma-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission in the pontine reticular formation modulates hypnosis, immobility, and breathing during isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Watson, Christopher J; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2008-12-01

    Many general anesthetics are thought to produce a loss of wakefulness, in part, by enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission. However, GABAergic neurotransmission in the pontine reticular formation promotes wakefulness. This study tested the hypotheses that (1) relative to wakefulness, isoflurane decreases GABA levels in the pontine reticular formation; and (2) pontine reticular formation administration of drugs that increase or decrease GABA levels increases or decreases, respectively, isoflurane induction time. To test hypothesis 1, cats (n = 5) received a craniotomy and permanent electrodes for recording the electroencephalogram and electromyogram. Dialysis samples were collected from the pontine reticular formation during isoflurane anesthesia and wakefulness. GABA levels were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography. For hypothesis 2, rats (n = 10) were implanted with a guide cannula aimed for the pontine reticular formation. Each rat received microinjections of Ringer's (vehicle control), the GABA uptake inhibitor nipecotic acid, and the GABA synthesis inhibitor 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Rats were then anesthetized with isoflurane, and induction time was quantified as loss of righting reflex. Breathing rate was also measured. Relative to wakefulness, GABA levels were significantly decreased by isoflurane. Increased power in the electroencephalogram and decreased activity in the electromyogram caused by isoflurane covaried with pontine reticular formation GABA levels. Nipecotic acid and 3-mercaptopropionic acid significantly increased and decreased, respectively, isoflurane induction time. Nipecotic acid also increased breathing rate. Decreasing pontine reticular formation GABA levels comprises one mechanism by which isoflurane causes loss of consciousness, altered cortical excitability, muscular hypotonia, and decreased respiratory rate.

  10. Interactions of short-acting, intermediate-acting and pre-mixed human insulins with free radicals--Comparative EPR examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczyk, Paweł; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Ramos, Paweł; Mencner, Łukasz; Olczyk, Krystyna; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-07-25

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to examine insulins interactions with free radicals. Human recombinant DNA insulins of three groups were studied: short-acting insulin (Insuman Rapid); intermediate-acting insulins (Humulin N, Insuman Basal), and pre-mixed insulins (Humulin M3, Gensulin M50, Gensulin M40, Gensulin M30). The aim of an X-band (9.3GHz) study was comparative analysis of antioxidative properties of the three groups of human insulins. DPPH was used as a stable free radical model. Amplitudes of EPR lines of DPPH as the paramagnetic free radical reference, and DPPH interacting with the individual tested insulins were compared. For all the examined insulins kinetics of their interactions with free radicals up to 60 min were obtained. The strongest interactions with free radicals were observed for the short-acting insulin - Insuman Rapid. The lowest interactions with free radicals were characteristic for intermediate-acting insulin - Insuman Basal. The pre-mixed insulins i.e. Humulin M3 and Gensulin M50 revealed the fastest interactions with free radicals. The short acting, intermediate acting and premixed insulins have been found to be effective agents in reducing free radical formation in vitro and should be further considered as potential useful tools in attenuation of oxidative stress in diabetic patients.

  11. Austropeplea ollula (Pulmonata: Lymnaeidae): A new molluscan intermediate host of a human intestinal fluke, Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younghun; Park, Yun-Kyu; Hwang, Myung-Ki

    2001-01-01

    Three freshwater snail species of the family Lymnaeidae have been reported from Korea, Radix auricularia coreana, Austropeplea ollula and Fossaria truncatula. Out of 3 lymnaeid snail species, A. ollula was naturally infected with the Echinostoma cinetorchis cercariae (infection rate = 0.7%). In the experiments with the laboratory-bred snails, F. truncatula as well as A. ollula was also susceptible to the E. cinetorchis miracidia with infection rates of 25% and 40%, respectively. All of three lymnaeid snail species exposed to the E. cinetorchis cercariae were infected with the E. cinetorchis metacercariae. It is evident that A. ollula acts as the first molluscan intermediate host of E. cinetorchis in Korea, and F. truncatula may be a possible candidate for the first intermediate host of this intestinal fluke. Also, three lymnaeid snail species targeted were experimentally infected with E. cinetorchis metacercariae. PMID:11590915

  12. Reticular synthesis of porous molecular 1D nanotubes and 3D networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, A. G.; Little, M. A.; Pulido, A.; Chong, S. Y.; Holden, D.; Chen, L.; Morgan, C.; Wu, X.; Cheng, G.; Clowes, R.; Briggs, M. E.; Hasell, T.; Jelfs, K. E.; Day, G. M.; Cooper, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic control over pore size and pore connectivity is the crowning achievement for porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The same level of control has not been achieved for molecular crystals, which are not defined by strong, directional intermolecular coordination bonds. Hence, molecular crystallization is inherently less controllable than framework crystallization, and there are fewer examples of 'reticular synthesis', in which multiple building blocks can be assembled according to a common assembly motif. Here we apply a chiral recognition strategy to a new family of tubular covalent cages to create both 1D porous nanotubes and 3D diamondoid pillared porous networks. The diamondoid networks are analogous to MOFs prepared from tetrahedral metal nodes and linear ditopic organic linkers. The crystal structures can be rationalized by computational lattice-energy searches, which provide an in silico screening method to evaluate candidate molecular building blocks. These results are a blueprint for applying the 'node and strut' principles of reticular synthesis to molecular crystals.

  13. A comparative analysis of reticular crack on ceramic plate driven by thermal shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, XiangHong; Sheng, ShiLong; Tian, Cheng; Yuan, WenJun

    2016-07-01

    Reticular crack is generally found on the surface of ceramic material that has been subjected to a thermal-shock condition. In the present study, a quantitative effect of thermal shock and quench temperature has been studied and investigated. Experimental tests were carried out to characterize the reticular crack that has been found in the Ge Kiln, which is a famous art of the ancient Chinese culture. After comparative analysis between thermal-shock cracks and the glaze crack patterns of the Ge Kiln porcelain, it is found that this study is expected to provide a powerful tool for recurrence of the long-lost firing and cooling process of the Ge Kiln porcelain.

  14. Reticulospinal neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation of the monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, S T; Davidson, A G; Buford, J A

    2009-11-10

    Recent neurophysiological studies indicate a role for reticulospinal neurons of the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) in motor preparation and goal-directed reaching in the monkey. Although the macaque monkey is an important model for such investigations, little is known regarding the organization of the PMRF in the monkey. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of reticulospinal neurons in the macaque. Bilateral injections of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) were made into the cervical spinal cord. A wide band of retrogradely labeled cells was found in the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and labeled cells continued rostrally into the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC) and into the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO). Additional retrograde tracing studies following unilateral cervical spinal cord injections of cholera toxin subunit B revealed that there were more ipsilateral (60%) than contralateral (40%) projecting cells in Gi, while an approximately 50:50 ratio contralateral to ipsilateral split was found in PnC and more contralateral projections arose from PnO. Reticulospinal neurons in PMRF ranged widely in size from over 50 microm to under 25 microm across the major somatic axis. Labeled giant cells (soma diameters greater than 50 microm) comprised a small percentage of the neurons and were found in Gi, PnC and PnO. The present results define the origins of the reticulospinal system in the monkey and provide an important foundation for future investigations of the anatomy and physiology of this system in primates.

  15. Feed-forward and feedback projections of midbrain reticular formation neurons in the cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie ePerkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaze changes involving the eyes and head are orchestrated by brainstem gaze centers found within the superior colliculus (SC, paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF, and medullary reticular formation (MdRF. The mesencephalic reticular formation (MRF also plays a role in gaze. It receives a major input from the ipsilateral SC and contains cells that fire in relation to gaze changes. Moreover, it provides a feedback projection to the SC and feed-forward projections to the PPRF and MdRF. We sought to determine whether these MRF feedback and feed-forward projections originate from the same or different neuronal populations by utilizing paired fluorescent retrograde tracers in cats. Specifically, we tested: 1. whether MRF neurons that control eye movements form a single population by injecting the SC and PPRF with different tracers, and 2. whether MRF neurons that control head movements form a single population by injecting the SC and MdRF with different tracers. In neither case were double labeled neurons observed, indicating that feedback and feed-forward projections originate from separate MRF populations. In both cases, the labeled reticulotectal and reticuloreticular neurons were distributed bilaterally in the MRF. However, neurons projecting to the MdRF were generally constrained to the medial half of the MRF, while those projecting to the PPRF, like MRF reticulotectal neurons, were spread throughout the mediolateral axis. Thus, the medial MRF may be specialized for control of head movements, with control of eye movements being more widespread in this structure.

  16. Galanin neurons in the intermediate nucleus (InM) of the human hypothalamus in relation to sex, age, and gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Ligtenberg, Lisette; Kruijver, Frank P M; Swaab, Dick F

    2011-10-15

    The intermediate nucleus (InM) in the preoptic area of the human brain, also known as the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) and the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus-1 (INAH-1) is explored here. We investigated its population of galanin-immunoreactive (Gal-Ir) neurons in relation to sex, age, and gender identity in the postmortem brain of 77 subjects. First we compared the InM volume and number of Gal-Ir neurons of 22 males and 22 females in the course of aging. In a second experiment, we compared for the first time the InM volume and the total and Gal-Ir neuron number in 43 subjects with different gender identities: 14 control males (M), 11 control females (F), 10 male-to-female (MtF) transsexual people, and 5 men who were castrated because of prostate cancer (CAS). In the first experiment we found a sex difference in the younger age group ( 45 years. In the second experiment the MtF transsexual group presented an intermediate value for the total InM neuron number and volume that did not seem different in males and females. Because the CAS group did not have total neuron numbers that were different from the intact males, the change in adult circulating testosterone levels does not seem to explain the intermediate values in the MtF group. Organizational and activational hormone effects on the InM are discussed.

  17. Long chain fatty acids and related pro-inflammatory, specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators and their intermediates in preterm human milk during the first month of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D T; Palac, H L; Baillif, V; Van Goethem, E; Dubourdeau, M; Van Horn, L; Martin, C R

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure longitudinal quantities of the long chain fatty acids, their biologically active terminal metabolites and related intermediates (also called oxylipins) in preterm human milk expressed during the first month of lactation. In a prospective cohort, breast milk was collected throughout the first month of lactation in 30 women who delivered preterm infants. Eighteen bioactive lipids and their intermediates were quantified via solid phase extraction and LC-MS/MS. Analysis by GC-FID quantified the fatty acid precursors. Arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) milk concentrations significantly declined throughout the first month. Oxylipin concentrations did not change during lactation. Positive associations existed between ARA and thromboxane B2, eicosapentaenoic acid and 18-hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid, and between DHA and PDX and 14- and 17-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids. DHA concentrations were 1.5 times higher and 14-HDHA was 1.7 times higher in milk from women taking DHA supplements. This investigation showed conditionally essential fatty acids, ARA and DHA, decreased in preterm milk, suggesting a need to supplement their intake for the breast milk-fed preterm infant. Positive associations between parent fatty acids, bioactive lipids and intermediates, as well as sensitivity of milk to maternal fatty acid intake, support consideration of a comprehensive approach to providing fatty acids for preterm infants through both maternal and infant supplementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Ogawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency

  19. Structural Characterization of a Human-Type Corrinoid Adenosyltransferase Confirms That Coenzyme B[subscript 12] Is Synthesized through a Four-Coordinate Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Maurice, Martin; Mera, Paola; Park, Kiyoung; Brunold, Thomas C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Rayment, Ivan (UW)

    2008-11-18

    ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferases (ACAs) catalyze the transfer of the 5{prime}-deoxyadenosyl moiety from ATP to the upper axial ligand position of cobalamin in the synthesis of coenzyme B{sub 12}. For the ACA-catalyzed reaction to proceed, cob(II)alamin must be reduced to cob(I)alamin in the enzyme active site. This reduction is facilitated through the generation of a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate on the enzyme. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a human-type ACA from Lactobacillus reuteri with a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin bound in the enzyme active site and with the product, adenosylcobalamin, partially occupied in the active site. The assembled structures represent snapshots of the steps in the ACA-catalyzed formation of the cobalt-carbon bond of coenzyme B{sub 12}. The structures define the corrinoid binding site and provide visual evidence for a base-off, four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate. The complete structural description of ACA-mediated catalysis reveals the molecular features of four-coordinate cob(II)alamin stabilization and provides additional insights into the molecular basis for dysfunction in human patients suffering from methylmalonic aciduria.

  20. Alteration of nuclear matrix-intermediate filament system and differential expression of nuclear matrix proteins during human hepatocarcinoma cell differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Tang; Jing-Wen Niu; Dong-Hui Xu; Zhi-Xing Li; Qi-Fu Li; Jin-An Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the association between the configurational and compositional changes of nuclear matrix and the differentiation of carcinoma cells.METHODS: Cells cultured with or without 5 × 10-3mmol/L of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) on Nickel grids were treated by selective extraction and prepared for whole mount observation under electron microscopy. The samples were examined under transmission electron microscope. Nuclear matrix proteins were selectively extracted and subjected to subcellular proteomics study. The protein expression patterns were analyzed by PDQuest software. Spots of differentially expressed nuclear matrix proteins were excised and subjected to in situ digestion with trypsin.The peptides were analyzed by matrix-assisted laserdesorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Data were submitted for database searching using Mascot tool (www. Matrixscience.com).RESULTS: The nuclear matrix (NM) and intermediate filament (IF) in SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells were found relatively sparse and arranged irregularly.The nuclear lamina was non-uniform, and two kinds of filaments were not tightly connected. After induction for differentiation by HMBA, the NM-IF filaments were concentrated and distributed uniformly. The heterogeneous population of filaments, including highly branched utrathin filaments could also be seen in the regular meshwork. The connection between the two kinds of filaments and the relatively thin, condensed and sharply demarcated lamina composed of intermediatesized filaments was relatively fastened. Meanwhile, 21NM proteins changed remarkably during SMMC-7721cell differentiation. Four proteins, I.e. Mutant Pyst1,hypothetical protein, nucleophosmin1, and LBP were downregulated, whereas four other proteins, eIF6, p44subunit, β-tubulin, and SIN3B were upregulated with the last one, SR2/ASF found only in the differentiated SMMC-7721 cells.CONCLUSION: The induced differentiation of SMMC-7721cells by HMBA is

  1. [Immunohistochemical research on human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins. Cancer of the breast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Ermilova, V D; Litvinova, L V; Bannikov, G A

    1986-01-01

    Immunomorphologic study of 29 breast cancer cases using monoclonal antibodies to proteins of intermediate filaments shown to differentiate the lining epithelium from myoepithelium in the non-proliferating epithelial structures of the mamma, has shown the cells in the majority of tumours (according to the International WHO Classification defined as infiltrating ductal, lobular, and tubular cancer forms) to contain prekeratin (PK) C12, specific for normal lining epithelium, but not for the myoepithelium. In cases of cancer with chondroid metaplasia (a malignant variant of the so-called "mixed tumour") the cells contained PK E3, vimentin and structural myosin, normally specific for myoepithelium. The cell heterogenicity in PK C12 content or its absence noted in the infiltrating cancers with predominance of a solid component can indicate a high degree of tumour anaplasia. It is concluded that usage of monoclonal antibodies to PK C12, invariably found in the cells of fibrotic invasion foci, can be a useful indicator for early diagnosis of infiltrative tumour growth.

  2. Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: Similar thickness, yet different composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen JW Liesker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeroen JW Liesker1, Nick H Ten Hacken1, Mieke Zeinstra-Smith2, Steven R Rutgers1, Dirkje S Postma1, Wim Timens21Department of Pulmonology; 2Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Background: Reticular basement membrane (RBM thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. Objective: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. Methods: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1] 92% predicted, and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV1 60% predicted, and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively. Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined.Results: Mean (SD RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3 vs 6.0 (1.8 μm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9 and 4.8 (1.2 μm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p 0.05.Conclusion: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. Keywords: reticular basement membrane thickness, reticular basement membrane composition, asthma, biopsy, COPD, remodeling

  3. Two classes of excitatory synaptic responses in rat thalamic reticular neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, Charlotte; Huguenard, John R

    2016-09-01

    The thalamic reticular nucleus (nRt), composed of GABAergic cells providing inhibition of relay neurons in the dorsal thalamus, receives excitation from the neocortex and thalamus. The two excitatory pathways promoting feedback or feedforward inhibition of thalamocortical neurons contribute to sensory processing and rhythm generation. While synaptic inhibition within the nRt has been carefully characterized, little is known regarding the biophysics of synaptic excitation. To characterize the functional properties of thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections to the nRt, we recorded minimal electrically evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents from nRt cells in vitro. A hierarchical clustering algorithm distinguished two types of events. Type 1 events had larger amplitudes and faster kinetics, largely mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, whereas type 2 responses had more prominent N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor contribution. Type 1 responses showed subnormal axonal propagation and paired pulse depression, consistent with thalamocortical inputs. Furthermore, responses kinetically similar to type 1 events were evoked by glutamate-mediated activation of thalamic neurons. Type 2 responses, in contrast, likely arise from corticothalamic inputs, with larger NMDA conductance and weak Mg(2+)-dependent block, suggesting that NMDA receptors are critical for the cortical excitation of reticular neurons. The long-lasting action of NMDA receptors would promote reticular cell burst firing and produce powerful inhibitory output to relay neurons proposed to be important in triggering epilepsy. This work provides the first complete voltage-clamp analysis of the kinetics and voltage dependence of AMPA and NMDA responses of thalamocortical and corticothalamic synapses in the nRt and will be critical in optimizing biologically realistic neural network models of thalamocortical circuits relevant to sensory processing and

  4. Experimental co-expression of vimentin and keratin intermediate filaments in human breast cancer cells results in phenotypic interconversion and increased invasive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, M J; Seftor, E A; Seftor, R E; Trevor, K T

    1997-02-01

    The expression of intermediate filament proteins is remarkably tissue specific, which suggests that the intermediate filament type(s) present in cells is somehow related to their biological function. However, in some cancers, particularly malignant breast carcinoma, there is a strong indication that vimentin is co-expressed with keratins, thus presenting as a dedifferentiated or interconverted (between epithelial and mesenchymal) phenotype. In the present study, we recapitulated the interconverted phenotype by developing stable transfectants of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, termed MoVi clones, to express both vimentin and keratins. Overexpression of vimentin in these cells led to augmentation of motility and invasiveness in vitra. These activities could be transiently down-regulated by vimentin antisense oligonucleotides in MoVi clones and MDA-MB-231 cells (which constitutively co-express keratins and vimentin). Furthermore, in the MoVi experimental transfectants expressing the highest percentage of vimentin-positive cells, their proliferative capacity, clonogenic potential, and tumorigenicity increased. However, the metastatic ability of the MoVi transfectants remained unchanged compared with MCF-7neo controls. The MDA-MB-231 cells metastasized to axillary lymph nodes in a SCID mouse model. Finally, we explored the possibility that potential changes could occur with respect to cell surface integrins. These studies revealed a decrease in the alpha 2- and alpha 3-containing promiscuous integrins, in addition to beta 1 containing integrins, concomitant with an increase in the alpha 6-containing laminin receptor integrin. Further functional analysis of the alpha 6 observation showed an increase in the baptotactic migration of MoVi transfectants toward a laminin substrate. From these data, it is postulated that the ability to co-express vimentin and keratins confers a selective advantage to breast cancer cells in their interpretation of signaling cues from the

  5. Terminations of reticulospinal fibers originating from the gigantocellular reticular formation in the mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the projections of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and its neighbors--the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi), the alpha/ventral part of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GiA/V), and the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi)--to the mouse spinal cord by injecting the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the Gi, DPGi, GiA/GiV, and LPGi. The Gi projected to the entire spinal cord bilaterally with an ipsilateral predominance. Its fibers traveled in both the ventral and lateral funiculi with a greater presence in the ventral funiculus. As the fibers descended in the spinal cord, their density in the lateral funiculus increased. The terminals were present mainly in laminae 7-10 with a dorsolateral expansion caudally. In the lumbar and sacral cord, a considerable number of terminals were also present in laminae 5 and 6. Contralateral fibers shared a similar pattern to their ipsilateral counterparts and some fibers were seen to cross the midline. Fibers arising from the DPGi were similarly distributed in the spinal cord except that there was no dorsolateral expansion in the lumbar and sacral segments and there were fewer fiber terminals. Fibers arising from GiA/V predominantly traveled in the ventral and lateral funiculi ipsilaterally. Ipsilaterally, the density of fibers in the ventral funiculus decreased along the rostrocaudal axis, whereas the density of fibers in the lateral funiculus increased. They terminate mainly in the medial ventral horn and lamina 10 with a smaller number of fibers in the dorsal horn. Fibers arising from the LPGi traveled in both the ventral and lateral funiculi and the density of these fibers in the ventral and lateral funiculi decreased dramatically in the lumbar and sacral segments. Their terminals were present in the ventral horn with a large portion of them terminating in the motor neuron columns. The present study is the first demonstration

  6. Effect of human glutathione S-transferases on glutathione-dependent inactivation of cytochrome P450-dependent reactive intermediates of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragovic, Sanja; Boerma, Jan Simon; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Commandeur, Jan N M

    2013-11-18

    Idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions due to the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been proposed to be caused by the generation of reactive acyl glucuronides and oxidative metabolites. For the oxidative metabolism of diclofenac by cytochromes P450 at least five different reactive intermediates have been proposed previously based on structural identification of their corresponding GSH-conjugates. In the present study, the ability of four human glutathione S-transferases (hGSTs) to catalyze the GSH-conjugation of the different reactive intermediates formed by P450s was investigated. Addition of pooled human liver cytosol and recombinant hGSTA1-1, hGSTM1-1, and hGSTP1-1 to incubations of diclofenac with human liver microsomes or purified CYP102A1M11 L437N as a model system significantly increased total GSH-conjugation. The strongest increase of total GSH-conjugation was observed by adding hGSTP1-1, whereas hGSTM1-1 and hGSTA1-1 showed lower activity. Addition of hGSTT1-1 only showed a minor effect. When considering the effects of hGSTs on GSH-conjugation of the different quinoneimines of diclofenac, it was found that hGSTP1-1 showed the highest activity in GSH-conjugation of the quinoneimine derived from 5-hydroxydiclofenac (5-OH-DF). hGSTM1-1 showed the highest activity in inactivation of the quinoneimine derived from 4'-hydroxydiclofenac (4'-OH-DF). Separate incubations with 5-OH-DF and 4'-OH-DF as substrates confirmed these results. hGSTs also catalyzed GSH-conjugation of the o-iminemethide formed by oxidative decarboxylation of diclofenac as well as the substitution of one of the chlorine atoms of DF by GSH. hGSTP1-1 showed the highest activity for the formation of these minor GSH-conjugates. These results suggest that hGSTs may play an important role in the inactivation of DF quinoneimines and its minor reactive intermediates especially in stress conditions when tissue levels of GSH are decreased.

  7. Foreign body-induced changes in the reticular contraction pattern of sheep observed with M-mode ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, A.A.; Sucupira, M.C.A.; Nunes, G.R.; Hagen, S.C.F.

    2015-01-01

    In the pre-experimental period of a clinical trial, an apparently clinically healthy sheep fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulas showed changes in the reticular contraction pattern visualized in M-mode ultrasonogram. Radiographic examination revealed a blunt metal screw in its reticulum. By the time change in the reticular motility through the ultrasound examination was detected, the animal had still not expressed any behavioral changes. A description of the clinical case, follow-up of the findings and laboratory data, like white blood cell count, serum pepsinogen and fibrinogen concentrations, were presented. The foreign body was removed through the ruminal cannula and reticular contraction tended to normal. An association of the contraction pattern with measured clinical data was possible, leading to the conclusion that use of M-mode ultrasonography has a potential application in similar clinical situations. PMID:26623361

  8. Foreign body-induced changes in the reticular contraction pattern of sheep observed with M-mode ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Morgado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the pre-experimental period of a clinical trial, an apparently clinically healthy sheep fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulas showed changes in the reticular contraction pattern visualized in M-mode ultrasonogram. Radiographic examination revealed a blunt metal screw in its reticulum. By the time change in the reticular motility through the ultrasound examination was detected, the animal had still not expressed any behavioral changes. A description of the clinical case, follow-up of the findings and laboratory data, like white blood cell count, serum pepsinogen and fibrinogen concentrations, were presented. The foreign body was removed through the ruminal cannula and reticular contraction tended to normal. An association of the contraction pattern with measured clinical data was possible, leading to the conclusion that use of M-mode ultrasonography has a potential application in similar clinical situations.

  9. First phenotypic description of Fasciola hepatica/Fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M V; Valero, M A; El Sayed, M; Ashrafi, K; El Wakeel, A; Mohamed, M Y; Desquesnes, M; Curtale, F; Mas-Coma, S

    2008-01-01

    Fasciola gigantica is the main fasciolid species in Africa; however, F. hepatica and F. gigantica overlap in some countries. Egypt deserves mentioning because of the emerging situation of human fascioliasis in the Nile Delta area. The morphometric characteristics of fasciolid adults infecting the main livestock species present in the Nile Delta human endemic area are analyzed through a computer image analysis system (CIAS) on the basis of standardized measurements known to be useful for the differentiation of both fasciolid species. This is the first time that such a study is performed in an African country and, therefore, the results are compared to (i) F. hepatica (European Mediterranean area) and F. gigantica (Burkina Faso) standard populations, i.e. geographical areas where both species do not co-exist, and (ii) F. hepatica and F. gigantica populations from geographical areas where both species do co-exist, including the presence of intermediate forms (Iran). Results indicate the presence of F. hepatica, F. gigantica and intermediate forms (Fasciola sp.) in Egypt for the first time, and demonstrate the usefulness of CIAS for the phenotypic characterization of liver fluke adults from a concrete fascioliasis endemic area. Body roundness, body length over body width, and distance between the ventral sucker and the posterior end of the body provide useful tools for studying inter- and intraspecific morphological diversity in Fasciola adults. The application of these markers to specimens from geographical areas where F. hepatica and F. gigantica co-exist, such as in Egypt and Iran, suggest a strong population-level variation in Fasciola adult morphology.

  10. Striatum and globus pallidus control the electrical activity of reticular thalamic nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Nelson; Oviedo-Chávez, Aldo; Alatorre, Alberto; Ríos, Alain; Barrientos, Rafael; Delgado, Alfonso; Querejeta, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    Through GABAergic fibers, globus pallidus (GP) coordinates basal ganglia global function. Electrical activity of GP neurons depends on their membrane properties and afferent fibers, including GABAergic fibers from striatum. In pathological conditions, abnormal electrical activity of GP neurons is associated with motor deficits. There is a GABAergic pathway from the GP to the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTn) whose contribution to RTn neurons electrical activity has received little attention. This fact called our attention because the RTn controls the overall information flow of thalamic nuclei to cerebral cortex. Here, we study the spontaneous electrical activity of RTn neurons recorded in vivo in anesthetized rats and under pharmacological activation or inhibition of the GP. We found that activation of GP predominantly diminishes the spontaneous RTn neurons firing rate and its inhibition increases their firing rate; however, both activation and inhibition of GP did not modified the burst index (BI) or the coefficient of variation (CV) of RTn neurons. Moreover, stimulation of striatum predominantly diminishes the spiking rate of GP cells and increases the spiking rate in RTn neurons without modifying the BI or CV in reticular neurons. Our data suggest a GP tight control over RTn spiking activity.

  11. De novo engineering of reticular connective tissue in vivo by silk fibroin nonwoven materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Ilaria; Freddi, Giuliano; Minic, Jasminka; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2005-05-01

    Biologically tolerated biomaterials are the focus of intense research. In this work, we examined the biocompatibility of three-dimensional (3D) nonwovens of sericin-deprived, Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF) in beta-sheet form implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of C57BL6 mice, using sham-operated mice as controls. Both groups of mice similarly healed with no residual problem. Macroarray analysis showed that an early (day 3) transient expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) mRNA, but not of the mRNAs encoding for 22 additional proinflammatory cytokines, occurred solely at SF-grafted places, where no remarkable infiltration of macrophages or lymphocytes subsequently happened. Even an enduring moderate increase in total cytokeratins without epidermal hyperkeratosis and a transient (days 10-15) upsurge of vimentin occurred exclusively at SF-grafted sites, whose content of collagen type-I, after a delayed (day 15) rise, ultimately fell considerably under that proper of sham-operated places. By day 180, the interstices amid and surfaces of the SF chords, which had not been appreciably biodegraded, were crammed with a newly produced tissue histologically akin to a vascularized reticular connective tissue, while some macrophages but no lymphocytic infiltrates or fibrous capsules occurred in the adjoining tissues. Therefore, SF nonwovens may be excellent candidates for clinical applications since they both enjoy a long-lasting biocompatibility, inducing a quite mild foreign body response, but no fibrosis, and efficiently guide reticular connective tissue engineering.

  12. Microstructural changes in memory and reticular formation neural pathway after simple concussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ouyang; Rongyue Shi; Yuhui Xiao; Jiarong Meng; Yihe Guo; Guangming Lu

    2012-01-01

    Patients with concussion often present with temporary disturbance of consciousness.The microstructural and functional changes in the brain associated with concussion,as well as the relationship with transient cognitive disorders,are currently unclear.In the present study,a rabbit model of simple concussion was established.Magnetic resonance-diffusion tensor imaging results revealed that the corona radiata and midbrain exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy values in the neural pathways associated with memory and the reticular formation.In addition,the apparent diffusion coefficient values were significantly increased following injury compared with those before injury.Following a 1-hour period of quiet rest,the fractional anisotropy values significantly increased,and apparent diffusion coefficient values significantly decreased,returning to normal pre-injury levels.In contrast,the fractional anisotropy values and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the corpus callosum,thalamus and hippocampus showed no statistical significant alterations following injury.These findings indicate that the neural pathways associated with memory and the reticular formation pathway exhibit reversible microstructural white matter changes when concussion occurs,and these changes are exhibited to a different extent in different regions.

  13. Sleep duration varies as a function of glutamate and GABA in rat pontine reticular formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher J; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2011-08-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) is a component of the ascending reticular activating system and plays a role in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The PnO receives glutamatergic and GABAergic projections from many brain regions that regulate behavioral state. Indirect, pharmacological evidence has suggested that glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling within the PnO alters traits that characterize wakefulness and sleep. No previous studies have simultaneously measured endogenous glutamate and GABA from rat PnO in relation to sleep and wakefulness. The present study utilized in vivo microdialysis coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence to test the hypothesis that concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the PnO vary across the sleep/wake cycle. Concentrations of glutamate and GABA were significantly higher during wakefulness than during non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Regression analysis revealed that decreases in glutamate and GABA accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the duration of non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep episodes. These data provide novel support for the hypothesis that endogenous glutamate and GABA in the PnO contribute to the regulation of sleep duration.

  14. CACNA1H missense mutations associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis alter Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel activity and reticular thalamic neuron firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Lazniewska, Joanna; Blesneac, Iulia; Pamphlett, Roger; Weiss, Norbert

    2016-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. In a recent study by Steinberg and colleagues, 2 recessive missense mutations were identified in the Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel gene (CACNA1H), in a family with an affected proband (early onset, long duration ALS) and 2 unaffected parents. We have introduced and functionally characterized these mutations using transiently expressed human Cav3.2 channels in tsA-201 cells. Both of these mutations produced mild but significant changes on T-type channel activity that are consistent with a loss of channel function. Computer modeling in thalamic reticular neurons suggested that these mutations result in decreased neuronal excitability of thalamic structures. Taken together, these findings implicate CACNA1H as a susceptibility gene in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  15. [Immunohistochemical study of human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins (nonproliferating epithelial structures in breast dysplasia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Litvinova, L V; Ermilova, V D; Bannikov, G A

    1985-01-01

    An immunohistochemical analysis of nonproliferating epithelial structures was carried out in 10 samples of human breast dysplasia and in 4 samples of tissue surrounding mammary gland carcinoma. Monoclonal mouse antibodies against individual prekeratins of rat monolayer epithelial antibodies of clone C12 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 49 kilodalton and antibodies of clone E3 against rat prekeratin with the molecular mass 40 kilodalton-monoclonal antibodies against vimentin (clone 30), as well as polyclonal antibodies against smooth muscle myosin and against the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin were used. The lining epithelium of all glandular structures reacted only with C12 antibodies. Two variants of myoepithelial cells containing myosin were detected. Variant I contains myosin and vimentin and is localized in intralobular ducts. Variant 2 contains myosin and prekeratin, recognized by E3 antibodies and is found in extralobular ducts.

  16. Morphological patterns of the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior intermediate parietal sulcus of Jensen in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2014-12-22

    Distinct parts of the intraparietal sulcal cortex contribute to sensorimotor integration and visual spatial attentional processing. A detailed examination of the morphological relations of the different segments of the complex intraparietal sulcal region in the human brain in standard stereotaxic space, which is a prerequisite for detailed structure-to-function studies, is not available. This study examined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the related sulcus of Jensen in magnetic resonance imaging brain volumes registered in the Montreal Neurological Institute stereotaxic space. It was demonstrated that the IPS is divided into two branches: the anterior ramus and the posterior ramus of the IPS, often separated by a submerged gyral passage. The sulcus of Jensen emerges between the anterior and posterior rami of the IPS, and its ventral end is positioned between the first and second caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus. In a small number of brains, the sulcus of Jensen may merge superficially with the first caudal branch of the superior temporal sulcus. The above morphological findings are discussed in relation to previously reported functional neuroimaging findings and provide the basis for future exploration of structure-to-function relations in the posterior parietal region of individual subjects.

  17. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Li, Lin [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Jiang, Shibo, E-mail: sjiang@nybloodcenter.org [Lindsley F. Kimball Research Institute, New York Blood Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  18. Efficient and rapid induction of human iPSCs/ESCs into nephrogenic intermediate mesoderm using small molecule-based differentiation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Toshikazu; Mae, Shin-ichi; Kurose, Yuko; Uesugi, Motonari; Ohta, Akira; Yamanaka, Shinya; Osafune, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    The first step in developing regenerative medicine approaches to treat renal diseases using pluripotent stem cells must be the generation of intermediate mesoderm (IM), an embryonic germ layer that gives rise to kidneys. In order to achieve this goal, establishing an efficient, stable and low-cost method for differentiating IM cells using small molecules is required. In this study, we identified two retinoids, AM580 and TTNPB, as potent IM inducers by high-throughput chemical screening, and established rapid (five days) and efficient (80% induction rate) IM differentiation from human iPSCs using only two small molecules: a Wnt pathway activator, CHIR99021, combined with either AM580 or TTNPB. The resulting human IM cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types that constitute adult kidneys, and to form renal tubule-like structures. These small molecule differentiation methods can bypass the mesendoderm step, directly inducing IM cells by activating Wnt, retinoic acid (RA), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways. Such methods are powerful tools for studying kidney development and may potentially provide cell sources to generate renal lineage cells for regenerative therapy.

  19. Efficient and rapid induction of human iPSCs/ESCs into nephrogenic intermediate mesoderm using small molecule-based differentiation methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Araoka

    Full Text Available The first step in developing regenerative medicine approaches to treat renal diseases using pluripotent stem cells must be the generation of intermediate mesoderm (IM, an embryonic germ layer that gives rise to kidneys. In order to achieve this goal, establishing an efficient, stable and low-cost method for differentiating IM cells using small molecules is required. In this study, we identified two retinoids, AM580 and TTNPB, as potent IM inducers by high-throughput chemical screening, and established rapid (five days and efficient (80% induction rate IM differentiation from human iPSCs using only two small molecules: a Wnt pathway activator, CHIR99021, combined with either AM580 or TTNPB. The resulting human IM cells showed the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types that constitute adult kidneys, and to form renal tubule-like structures. These small molecule differentiation methods can bypass the mesendoderm step, directly inducing IM cells by activating Wnt, retinoic acid (RA, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP pathways. Such methods are powerful tools for studying kidney development and may potentially provide cell sources to generate renal lineage cells for regenerative therapy.

  20. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non-human

  1. Reticular and myxoid non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an unusual case mimicking a salivary gland carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Fredrik; Vijayadwaja, Desai; Loh, Kwok Seng; Tan, Kong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of non-keratinizing carcinoma of the nasopharynx (NK-NPC) with an unusual histopathological pattern. The neoplastic cells were arranged in anastomosing cords embedded in a stroma which contained a significant component of alcian blue-positive myxoid substance forming a reticular pattern. These histopathological features gave an initial impression of a salivary gland-type carcinoma. On immunohistochemistry the tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1-3 and 5/6) and p63 and there was strong and diffuse nuclear positivity for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA on in situ hybridization. This case highlights the histomorphological variability of NK-NPC. Awareness of the histological spectrum of NK-NPC is important in clinical practice and this is not always adequately highlighted in currently used standard textbooks of Head and Neck Pathology.

  2. Hacia una perspectiva reticular de la teoría sociológica

    OpenAIRE

    Requena Santos, Félix

    2000-01-01

    En este artículo se propone un enfoque de explicación integrada e integradora de la teoría sociológica. Para ello, apoyándonos en el esquema conceptual de Ritze r, se ha const ruido un modelo que permite ver las diferentes teorías sociológicas desde el punto de vista de la influencia y de las carencias que tienen unas sobre otras. De esta forma, el resultado es una perspectiva reticular de la teoría sociológica. No es un modelo completo, sino un esquema para la incorporación sucesiva de las d...

  3. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Jun; Bomze, David; Cremasco, Viviana; Scandella, Elke; Stein, Jens V.; Turley, Shannon J.; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses. PMID:27415420

  4. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novkovic, Mario; Onder, Lucas; Cupovic, Jovana; Abe, Jun; Bomze, David; Cremasco, Viviana; Scandella, Elke; Stein, Jens V; Bocharov, Gennady; Turley, Shannon J; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs) and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses.

  5. Graph Theory-Based Analysis of the Lymph Node Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novkovic, Mario; Onder, Lucas; Bocharov, Gennady; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2017-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs have developed segregated niches that are able to initiate and maintain effective immune responses. Such global organization requires tight control of diverse cellular components, specifically those that regulate lymphocyte trafficking. Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) form a densely interconnected network in lymph nodes and provide key factors necessary for T cell migration and retention, and foster subsequent interactions between T cells and dendritic cells. Development of integrative systems biology approaches has made it possible to elucidate this multilevel complexity of the immune system. Here, we present a graph theory-based analysis of the FRC network in murine lymph nodes, where generation of the network topology is performed using high-resolution confocal microscopy and 3D reconstruction. This approach facilitates the analysis of physical cell-to-cell connectivity, and estimation of topological robustness and global behavior of the network when it is subjected to perturbation in silico.

  6. Topological Small-World Organization of the Fibroblastic Reticular Cell Network Determines Lymph Node Functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Novkovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs form the cellular scaffold of lymph nodes (LNs and establish distinct microenvironmental niches to provide key molecules that drive innate and adaptive immune responses and control immune regulatory processes. Here, we have used a graph theory-based systems biology approach to determine topological properties and robustness of the LN FRC network in mice. We found that the FRC network exhibits an imprinted small-world topology that is fully regenerated within 4 wk after complete FRC ablation. Moreover, in silico perturbation analysis and in vivo validation revealed that LNs can tolerate a loss of approximately 50% of their FRCs without substantial impairment of immune cell recruitment, intranodal T cell migration, and dendritic cell-mediated activation of antiviral CD8+ T cells. Overall, our study reveals the high topological robustness of the FRC network and the critical role of the network integrity for the activation of adaptive immune responses.

  7. Projections from the oral pontine reticular nucleus to the spinal cord of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Huazheng; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated projections of the mouse oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) to the spinal cord by (a) injecting a retrograde tracer fluoro-gold (FG) to the lumbar cord and (b) an anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) to PnO. We found that PnO projects to the entire spinal cord with an ipsilateral predominance. PnO fibers mainly travel in the ipsilateral ventral funiculus in the entire cord, terminating in laminae 7-10 with a lower density of fibers and boutons in lower segments. A small number of fibers travel in the contralateral ventral funiculus in the cervical cord with a similar terminating pattern to the ipsilateral counterpart. The present study is the first demonstration of PnO fiber terminals in the mouse spinal cord. This pathway might be responsible for muscle atonia during REM sleep, but needs physiological research to confirm this.

  8. Reticular activating system of a central pattern generator: premovement electrical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus A; Trejo, Argelia; Linares, Pablo; Alva, J Manuel; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2013-10-01

    For the first time, here we characterize a bulbar reticular activating system (RAS) of neurons in decerebrate, deafferented and decerebellated cats producing a premovement electrical potential that we named obex slow potential (OSP). The OSP occurs about 0.8 ± 0.4 sec prior to the onset of a fictive-scratching-episode. Here, we describe two classes of bulbar neurons, off-on, which are silent but exhibit a 80 ± 56 Hz firing discharge at the beginning of (and during) the OSP, and on-off interneurons, with a 27 ± 14 Hz firing activity that stops at the beginning of (and during) the OSP. We suggest that these OSP-associated neurons belong to a descending RAS, which contributes to the activation of the spinal central pattern generators.

  9. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Naonori Masuda, Masashi Kojima, Mariko Yamashita, Tomo Nishi, Nahoko Ogata Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To compare the choroidal structure beneath the macular area in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD and age-matched controls.Methods: This study was performed at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Twenty eyes of 14 patients (82.3±4.2 years, mean ± standard deviation with RPD and 35 eyes of 20 age-matched controls (81.5±6.0 years were studied. The choroidal structure was determined by binarizing the images obtained by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in all patients and controls. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas were quantified by the binarization method.Results: The total choroidal area of the eyes with RPD was significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, unpaired t-test. Both the luminal and stromal areas in eyes with RPD were significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, paired t-test, but there was no significant difference in the luminal/stromal ratio between eyes with RPD and control eyes.Conclusion: The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas in eyes with RPD were smaller than those of the control eyes. The reduction of the choroidal luminal and stromal areas may be due to a loss of the oxygen demand of the choroid due to RPE dysfunction. Keywords: reticular pseudodrusen, age-related macular degeneration, choroidal structure, binarization method

  11. Volatile anesthetic action in a computational model of the thalamic reticular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Allan; Miotke, Sam A

    2009-05-01

    Although volatile anesthetics (VAs) modulate the activity of multiple ion channels, the process whereby one or more of these effects are integrated to produce components of the general anesthetic state remains enigmatic. Computer models offer the opportunity to examine systems level effects of VA action at one or more sites. Motivated by the role of the thalamus in consciousness and sensory processing, a computational model of the thalamic reticular nucleus was used to determine the collective impact on model behavior of VA action at multiple sites. A computational model of the thalamic reticular nucleus was modified to permit VA modulation of its ion channels. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine how multiple sites interact. VA modulation of either T-type Ca(2+) channels or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors led to increased network synchrony. VA modulation of both further increased network synchronization. VA-induced decrements in Ca(2+) current permitted greater impact of inhibitory currents on membrane potential, but at higher VA concentrations the decrease in Ca(2+) current led to a decreased number of spikes in the burst generating the inhibitory signal. MAC-awake (the minimum alveolar concentration at which 50% of subjects will recover consciousness) concentrations of both isoflurane and halothane led to similar levels of network synchrony in the model. Relatively modest VA effects at both T-type Ca(2+) channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors can substantially alter network behavior in a computational model of a thalamic nucleus. The similarity of network behavior at MAC-awake concentrations of different VAs is consistent with a contribution of the thalamus to VA-induced unconsciousness through action at these channels.

  12. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  13. The Inhibition by Oxaliplatin, a Platinum-Based Anti-Neoplastic Agent, of the Activity of Intermediate-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels in Human Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Han Huang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (OXAL is a third-generation organoplatinum which is effective against advanced cancer cells including glioma cells. How this agent and other related compounds interacts with ion channels in glioma cells is poorly understood. OXAL (100 µM suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell K+ currents (IK; and, either DCEBIO or ionomycin significantly reversed OXAL-mediated inhibition of IK in human 13-06-MG glioma cells. In OXAL-treated cells, TRAM-34 did not suppress IK amplitude in these cells. The intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (IKCa channels subject to activation by DCEBIO and to inhibition by TRAM-34 or clotrimazole were functionally expressed in these cells. Unlike cisplatin, OXAL decreased the probability of IKCa-channel openings in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 67 µM. No significant change in single-channel conductance of IKCa channels in the presence of OXAL was demonstrated. Neither large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels nor inwardly rectifying K+ currents in these cells were affected in the presence of OXAL. OXAL also suppressed the proliferation and migration of 13-06-MG cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OXAL reduced IKCa-channel activity in LoVo colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, the inhibition by OXAL of IKCa channels would conceivably be an important mechanism through which it acts on the functional activities of glioma cells occurring in vivo.

  14. Desmin phosphorylation by Cdk1 is required for efficient separation of desmin intermediate filaments in mitosis and detected in murine embryonic/newborn muscle and human rhabdomyosarcoma tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makihara, Hiroyuki; Inaba, Hironori; Enomoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Hiroki; Tomono, Yasuko; Ushida, Kaori; Goto, Mitsuo; Kurita, Kenichi; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Kasahara, Kousuke; Goto, Hidemasa; Inagaki, Masaki

    2016-09-23

    Desmin is a type III intermediate filament (IF) component protein expressed specifically in muscular cells. Desmin is phosphorylated by Aurora-B and Rho-kinase specifically at the cleavage furrow from anaphase to telophase. The disturbance of this phosphorylation results in the formation of unusual long bridge-like IF structures (IF-bridge) between two post-mitotic (daughter) cells. Here, we report that desmin also serves as an excellent substrate for the other type of mitotic kinase, Cdk1. Desmin phosphorylation by Cdk1 loses its ability to form IFs in vitro. We have identified Ser6, Ser27, and Ser31 on murine desmin as phosphorylation sites for Cdk1. Using a site- and phosphorylation-state-specific antibody for Ser31 on desmin, we have demonstrated that Cdk1 phosphorylates desmin in entire cytoplasm from prometaphase to metaphase. Desmin mutations at Cdk1 sites exhibit IF-bridge phenotype, the frequency of which is significantly increased by the addition of Aurora-B and Rho-kinase site mutations to Cdk1 site mutations. In addition, Cdk1-induced desmin phosphorylation is detected in mitotic muscular cells of murine embryonic/newborn muscles and human rhabdomyosarcoma specimens. Therefore, Cdk1-induced desmin phosphorylation is required for efficient separation of desmin-IFs and generally detected in muscular mitotic cells in vivo.

  15. Small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J Paul; Michel, Martin C; Tate, Simon N; Trezise, Derek J

    2004-06-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in human tissues and their cellular localisation in samples of colon and corpus cavernosum. SK1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in neuronal tissues. SK2 mRNA distribution was restricted but more widespread than SK1, and was detected in adrenal gland, brain, prostate, bladder, liver and heart. SK3 mRNA was detected in almost every tissue examined. It was highly expressed in brain and in smooth muscle-rich tissues including the clitoris and the corpus cavernosum, and expression in the corpus cavernosum was upregulated up to 5-fold in patients undergoing sex-change operations. IK1 mRNA was present in surface-rich, secretory and inflammatory cell-rich tissues, highest in the trachea, prostate, placenta and salivary glands. In detailed immunohistochemical studies of the colon and the corpus cavernosum, SK1-like immunoreactivity was observed in the enteric neurons. SK3-like immunoreactivity was observed strongly in smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. IK1-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in inflammatory cells and enteric neurons of the colon, but absent in corpus cavernosum. These distinctive patterns of distribution suggest that these channels are likely to have different biological functions and could be specifically targeted for a number of human diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

  16. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  17. Atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica Electrocorticographic study of the rats's bram after lesioning of the midbrain reticular formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram utilizados 73 ratos em preparações agudas e crônicas, nas quais lesamos a formação reticular mesencefálica com corrente contínua (3,5 a 4,0 mA durante 5 a 10 segundos. O eletródio ativo era implantado estereotàxicamente segundo as coordenadas de König e Klippel. As lesões eram feitas parcial ou totalmente, uni ou bilateralmente, e em todos os animais procedeu-se ao controle histológico das áreas lesadas, usando-se o método de Weil. O registro da atividade elétrica cortical foi feito com polígrafo Beckman de 4 canais, utilizando-se derivações bipolares curtas (1mm com eletródios esféricos de platina. As experiências permitiram as seguintes conclusões: 1 — As características eletrofisiológicas dos fusos que ocorrem após lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica são muito semelhantes às dos fusos espontâneos e barbitúricos, inclusive quanto à projeção cortical. Quanto à duração dos potenciais que os constituem, contudo, notamos que a faixa de variação era mais centuada (20 a 80 ms, o que pode ser atribuído à maior complexidade dos potenciais do cérebro isolado, possivelmente pela falta de ação cronadora da formação reticular sobre o sistema sincronizador talâmico. 2 — Os mecanismos envolvidos na gênese dos fusos do sono barbitúrico ou espontâneo e os do cérebro isolado são, pelo menos em parte, dependentes do bloqueio da formação reticular mesencefálica. 3 — A formação reticular mesencefálica ativa preferencialmente o hemisfério cerebral homolateral; o contingente cruzado talvez seja mobilizado somente quando estímulos alertantes intensos atingem o tegmento mesencefálico. 4 — Além da formação reticular mesencefálica deve haver outros mecanismos ativadores corticais, visto que, em preparações agudas de cérebro isolado, observamos: a surtos de curta duração de atividade dessincronizada; b oscilações freqüentes do ECoG durante o registro

  18. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  19. Glycinergic Pathways of the Central Auditory System and Adjacent Reticular Formation of the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chyren

    The development of techniques to visualize and identify specific transmitters of neuronal circuits has stimulated work on the characterization of pathways in the rat central nervous system that utilize the inhibitory amino acid glycine as its neurotransmitter. Glycine is a major inhibitory transmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem of vertebrates where it satisfies the major criteria for neurotransmitter action. Some of these characteristics are: uneven distribution in brain, high affinity reuptake mechanisms, inhibitory neurophysiological actions on certain neuronal populations, uneven receptor distribution and the specific antagonism of its actions by the convulsant alkaloid strychnine. Behaviorally, antagonism of glycinergic neurotransmission in the medullary reticular formation is linked to the development of myoclonus and seizures which may be initiated by auditory as well as other stimuli. In the present study, decreases in the concentration of glycine as well as the density of glycine receptors in the medulla with aging were found and may be responsible for the lowered threshold for strychnine seizures observed in older rats. Neuroanatomical pathways in the central auditory system and medullary and pontine reticular formation (RF) were investigated using retrograde transport of tritiated glycine to identify glycinergic pathways; immunohistochemical techniques were used to corroborate the location of glycine neurons. Within the central auditory system, retrograde transport studies using tritiated glycine demonstrated an ipsilateral glycinergic pathway linking nuclei of the ascending auditory system. This pathway has its cell bodies in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) and projects to the ventrocaudal division of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VLL). Collaterals of this glycinergic projection terminate in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO). Other glycinergic pathways found were afferent to the VLL and have their origin

  20. Interaction of angiogenically stimulated intermediate CD163+ monocytes/macrophages with soft hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks with elastic moduli matched to that of human arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anke; Kratz, Karl; Hiebl, Bernhard; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2012-03-01

    The cell population of peripheral blood monocytes/macrophages (MO) is heterogeneous: The majority of the MO are CD14++ CD16- and named "classical" (= MO1). Furthermore, two other subpopulations were described: CD14++ CD16+ ("intermediate" = MO2) and CD14+ CD16++ ("non-classical" = MO3). It is reported that MO2 possess anti-inflammatory properties and express the MO lineage marker CD163. On a hydrophilic neutrally charged acrylamide-based hydrogel human intermediate (CD14++ CD16+ ), angiogenically stimulated CD163++ monocytes/macrophages (aMO2) maintained a proangiogenic and noninflammatory status for at least 14 days. Here, we explored whether this aMO2 subset adhered to hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks (cPnBA) and also remained in its proangiogenic and noninflammatory status. Because substrate elasticity can impact adherence, morphology, and function of cells, cPnBAs with different Young's modulus (250 and 1100 kPa) were investigated, whereby their elasticity was tailored by variation of the cross-linker content and matched to the elasticity of human arteries. The cPnBAs exhibited similar surface properties (e.g., surface roughness), which were maintained after ethylene oxide sterilization and exposure in serum-free cell culture medium for 18 h at 37°C. aMO2 were seeded on cPnBA samples (1.7 × 10(5) cells/1.33 cm(2) ) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM high glucose) supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF-A(165) , 10 ng/mL) and fetal calf serum (10 vol%) for 3 and 72 h. On both polymeric samples (n = 3 each), the numbers of adherent cells per unit area were significantly higher (P glass, 3 h: 6 ± 3 cells/mm(2) , 72 h: 130 ± 83 cells/mm(2) ) and showed a typically spread morphology. The mRNA expression profile of the aMO2 was not influenced by the substrate elasticity. In the supernatant of aMO2 on cPnBA0250, significantly less VEGF-A(165) product was found than expected based on

  1. Induction of reactive oxygen intermediates-dependent programmed cell death in human malignant ex vivo glioma cells and inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor production by taurolidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, Roksana; Kubota, Hisashi; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Eugster, Hans-Pietro; Könü, Dilek; Möhler, Hanns; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Frei, Karl

    2005-06-01

    Taurolidine, a derivative of the amino acid taurin, was recently found to display a potent antineoplastic effect both in vitro and in vivo. The authors therefore initiated studies to assess the potential antineoplastic activity of taurolidine in human glioma cell lines and in ex vivo malignant cell cultures. They also studied the mechanisms that induce cell death and the impact of taurolidine on tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Cytotoxicity and clonogenic assays were performed using crystal violet staining. In the cytotoxicity assay 100% of glioma cell lines (eight of eight) and 74% of ex vivo glioma cultures (14 of 19) demonstrated sensitivity to taurolidine, with a mean median effective concentration (EC50) of 51 +/- 28 microg/ml and 56 +/- 23 microg/ml, respectively. Colony formation was inhibited by taurolidine, with a mean EC50 of 7 +/- 3 microg/ml for the cell lines and a mean EC50 of 3.5 +/- 1.7 microg/ml for the ex vivo glioma cultures. On observing this high activity of taurolidine in both assays, the authors decided to evaluate its cell death mechanisms. Fragmentation of DNA, externalization of phosphatidylserine, activation of poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential followed by a release of apoptosis-inducing factor, and typical apoptotic features were found after taurolidine treatment. Cell death was preceded by the generation of reactive O2 intermediates, which was abrogated by N-acetylcysteine but not by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone. Moreover, taurolidine also induced suppression of VEGF production on the protein and messenger RNA level, as shown by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Given all these findings, taurolidine may be a promising new agent in the treatment of malignant gliomas; it displays a combination of antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities, inducing tumor cell

  2. Identification of putative unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-tyr of human carbonic anhydrase II in a multidimensional property space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Puspita; Taraphder, Srabani

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we develop an extensive search procedure of the multi-dimensional folding energy landscape of a protein. Our aim is to identify different classes of structures that have different aggregation propensities and catalytic activity. Following earlier studies by Daggett et al. [Jong, D. D.; Riley, R.: Alonso, D.O.: Dagett, V. J. Mol. Biol. 2002, 319, 229], a series of high temperature all-atom classical molecular simulation studies has been carried out to derive a multi-dimensional property space. Dynamical changes in these properties are then monitored by projecting them along a one-dimensional reaction coordinate, dmean . We have focused on the application of this method to partition a wide array of conformations of wild type human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II) and its unstable mutant His-107-Tyr along dmean by sampling a 35-dimensional property space. The resultant partitioning not only reveals the distribution of conformations corresponding to stable structures of HCA II and its mutant, but also allows the monitoring of several partially unfolded and less stable conformations of the mutant. We have investigated the population of these conformations at different stages of unfolding and collected separate sets of structures that are widely separated in the property space. The dynamical diversity of these sets are examined in terms of the loading of their respective first principal component. The partially unfolded structures thus collected are qualitatively mapped on to the experimentally postulated light molten globule (MGL) and molten globule (MG) intermediates with distinct aggregation propensities and catalytic activities. Proteins 2016; 84:726-743. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Electrically evoked reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in mice with alpha tectorin C1509G mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical coupling between the tectorial membrane and the hair bundles of outer hair cells is crucial for stimulating mechanoelectrical transduction channels, which convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signal, and for transmitting outer hair cell-generated force back to the basilar membrane to boost hearing sensitivity. It has been demonstrated that the detached tectorial membrane in mice with C1509G alpha tectorin mutation caused hearing loss, but enhanced electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. To understand how the mutated cochlea emits sounds, the reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations were measured in the electrically stimulated cochlea in this study. The results showed that the electrically evoked basilar membrane vibration decreased dramatically while the reticular lamina vibration and otoacoustic emissions exhibited no significant change in C1509G mutation mice. This result indicates that a functional cochlear amplifier and a normal basilar membrane vibration are not required for the outer hair cell-generated sound to exit the cochlea.

  4. Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naonori; Kojima, Masashi; Yamashita, Mariko; Nishi, Tomo; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare the choroidal structure beneath the macular area in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched controls. Methods This study was performed at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Twenty eyes of 14 patients (82.3±4.2 years, mean ± standard deviation) with RPD and 35 eyes of 20 age-matched controls (81.5±6.0 years) were studied. The choroidal structure was determined by binarizing the images obtained by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in all patients and controls. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas were quantified by the binarization method. Results The total choroidal area of the eyes with RPD was significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, unpaired t-test). Both the luminal and stromal areas in eyes with RPD were significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, paired t-test), but there was no significant difference in the luminal/stromal ratio between eyes with RPD and control eyes. Conclusion The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas in eyes with RPD were smaller than those of the control eyes. The reduction of the choroidal luminal and stromal areas may be due to a loss of the oxygen demand of the choroid due to RPE dysfunction. PMID:28490860

  5. Post-implantation erythema in 3 patients and a review of reticular telangiectatic erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Savina; Taylor, James S; Billings, Steven D; Honari, Golara; Sood, Apra

    2011-05-01

    The appearance of erythematous, blanchable patches or plaques overlying an implant suggests possible reticular telangiectatic erythema (RTE). RTE is a benign reactive cutaneous manifestation that can present following the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or intrathecal infusion pump in an otherwise asymptomatic, non-infectious patient. To demonstrate the variety in clinical presentation of patients presenting with RTE or similar patch test-negative post-implantation erythema. After institutional board approval had been obtained, patient information was obtained from electronic medical record files, which included surgical reports, pathology reports, and notes from outpatient encounters. We report post-implantation erythema following insertion of an elbow prosthesis, a knee prosthesis, and a spinal cord stimulator, which have not previously been cited as aetiologies of RTE. Owing to the delayed onset and variable recovery, RTE remains a diagnostic challenge. RTE should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with erythema over the site of a previously implanted device. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. The mechanism of noradrenergic alpha 1 excitatory modulation of pontine reticular formation neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, D R; McCarley, R W; Greene, R W

    1994-11-01

    The alpha 1 adrenergic receptor occurs in all major divisions of the CNS and is thought to play a role in all behaviors influenced by norepinephrine (NE). In the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF), the proposed site of adrenergic enhancement of startle responses (Davis, 1984), alpha 1 agonists excite most neurons (Gerber et al., 1990). We here report that alpha 1 excitation results from a reduction of a voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium current, not previously recognized as ligand-modulated. The calcium sensitivity is suggested by its antagonism with Mg2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, low concentrations of tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin. The voltage sensitivity of this conductance falls within the membrane potential range critical to action potential generation. Based on this voltage sensitivity, the change in repetitive firing characteristics may be predicted according to a mathematical model of the mPRF neuronal electrophysiology. The predicted response to a 50% decrease in the phenylephrine (PE)-sensitive conductance is similar to the observed responses, with respect to both the current response under voltage-clamp conditions and alterations of the AHP and frequency/current curve. In contrast, modeling a reduction of a voltage-insensitive leak current predicts none of these changes. Thus, the noradrenergic reduction of this current depolarizes the membrane, increases the likelihood of an initial response to depolarizing input, and increases firing rate during sustained depolarization in a manner consistent with an NE role as an excitatory neuromodulator of the mPRF.

  7. Fibroblastic reticular cells from lymph nodes attenuate T cell expansion by producing nitric oxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Siegert

    Full Text Available Adaptive immune responses are initiated when T cells encounter antigen on dendritic cells (DC in T zones of secondary lymphoid organs. T zones contain a 3-dimensional scaffold of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRC but currently it is unclear how FRC influence T cell activation. Here we report that FRC lines and ex vivo FRC inhibit T cell proliferation but not differentiation. FRC share this feature with fibroblasts from non-lymphoid tissues as well as mesenchymal stromal cells. We identified FRC as strong source of nitric oxide (NO thereby directly dampening T cell expansion as well as reducing the T cell priming capacity of DC. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS was up-regulated in a subset of FRC by both DC-signals as well as interferon-γ produced by primed CD8+ T cells. Importantly, iNOS expression was induced during viral infection in vivo in both LN FRC and DC. As a consequence, the primary T cell response was found to be exaggerated in Inos(-/- mice. Our findings highlight that in addition to their established positive roles in T cell responses FRC and DC cooperate in a negative feedback loop to attenuate T cell expansion during acute inflammation.

  8. Choroidal structure determined by binarizing optical coherence tomography images in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naonori; Kojima, Masashi; Yamashita, Mariko; Nishi, Tomo; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-01-01

    To compare the choroidal structure beneath the macular area in eyes with reticular pseudodrusen (RPD) and age-matched controls. This study was performed at Nara Medical University Hospital, Japan. Twenty eyes of 14 patients (82.3±4.2 years, mean ± standard deviation) with RPD and 35 eyes of 20 age-matched controls (81.5±6.0 years) were studied. The choroidal structure was determined by binarizing the images obtained by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography in all patients and controls. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas were quantified by the binarization method. The total choroidal area of the eyes with RPD was significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, unpaired t-test). Both the luminal and stromal areas in eyes with RPD were significantly smaller than that of control eyes (P=0.001, paired t-test), but there was no significant difference in the luminal/stromal ratio between eyes with RPD and control eyes. The total, luminal, and stromal choroidal areas in eyes with RPD were smaller than those of the control eyes. The reduction of the choroidal luminal and stromal areas may be due to a loss of the oxygen demand of the choroid due to RPE dysfunction.

  9. Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Sophie E; Farrugia, Aaron J; Astarita, Jillian L; Mourão-Sá, Diego; Jenkins, Robert P; Nye, Emma; Hooper, Steven; van Blijswijk, Janneke; Rogers, Neil C; Snelgrove, Kathryn J; Rosewell, Ian; Moita, Luis F; Stamp, Gordon; Turley, Shannon J; Sahai, Erik; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2014-10-23

    After immunogenic challenge, infiltrating and dividing lymphocytes markedly increase lymph node cellularity, leading to organ expansion. Here we report that the physical elasticity of lymph nodes is maintained in part by podoplanin (PDPN) signalling in stromal fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and its modulation by CLEC-2 expressed on dendritic cells. We show in mouse cells that PDPN induces actomyosin contractility in FRCs via activation of RhoA/C and downstream Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK). Engagement by CLEC-2 causes PDPN clustering and rapidly uncouples PDPN from RhoA/C activation, relaxing the actomyosin cytoskeleton and permitting FRC stretching. Notably, administration of CLEC-2 protein to immunized mice augments lymph node expansion. In contrast, lymph node expansion is significantly constrained in mice selectively lacking CLEC-2 expression in dendritic cells. Thus, the same dendritic cells that initiate immunity by presenting antigens to T lymphocytes also initiate remodelling of lymph nodes by delivering CLEC-2 to FRCs. CLEC-2 modulation of PDPN signalling permits FRC network stretching and allows for the rapid lymph node expansion--driven by lymphocyte influx and proliferation--that is the critical hallmark of adaptive immunity.

  10. The Neuroanatomy of the Reticular Nucleus Locus Coeruleus in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo S. Giorgi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s Disease (AD features the accumulation of β-amyloid and Tau aggregates, which deposit as extracellular plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, respectively. Neuronal Tau aggregates may appear early in life, in the absence of clinical symptoms. This occurs in the brainstem reticular formation and mostly within Locus Coeruleus (LC, which is consistently affected during AD. LC is the main source of forebrain norepinephrine (NE and it modulates a variety of functions including sleep-waking cycle, alertness, synaptic plasticity, and memory. The iso-dendritic nature of LC neurons allows their axons to spread NE throughout the whole forebrain. Likewise, a prion-like hypothesis suggests that Tau aggregates may travel along LC axons to reach out cortical neurons. Despite this timing is compatible with cross-sectional studies, there is no actual evidence for a causal relationship between these events. In the present mini-review, we dedicate special emphasis to those various mechanisms that may link degeneration of LC neurons to the onset of AD pathology. This includes the hypothesis that a damage to LC neurons contributes to the onset of dementia due to a loss of neuroprotective effects or, even the chance that, LC degenerates independently from cortical pathology. At the same time, since LC neurons are lost in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders we considered which molecular mechanism may render these brainstem neurons so vulnerable.

  11. Essential role of TNF-alpha in development of spleen fibroblastic reticular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lintao; Chen, Junying; Liu, Lina; Gao, Jianbao; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2015-02-01

    TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of secondary lymphoid tissues. Earlier studies showed that fibroblastic reticular cells express TNF-alpha receptor, suggesting that TNF-alpha may affect the development of FRCs. To test this, we analyzed the development and function of FRCs in wild-type or TNF-alpha knockout mice. We found that GP38 expression was down-regulated in the spleen of TNF-alpha knockout mice. Chemokines, mainly secreted by GP38(+) FRCs, were also down-regulated. Additionally, we found that absence of TNF-alpha decreased the homing ability to direct T cells to the spleen. However, absence of TNF-alpha did not affect the development of lymph nodes FRCs. These data reveal that TNF-alpha plays an important role in the development of spleen FRCs. Absence of TNF-alpha could cause abnormality of spleen FRCs, thereby weakening the homing ability of T cells to localize to the spleen T cell zone.

  12. The Construction of Metal-Organic Framework with Active Backbones by the Utilization of Reticular Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunwoo

    With the principles of reticular chemistry, metal-organic frameworks with ultra-high porosity, chiral-recognition unit as a chiral stationary phase, metalloporhyrins for enhanced hydrogen adsorption and an intrinsic conductivity to form porous conductors, have been prepared. This dissertation presents how the principles of reticular chemistry were utilized to achieve in the preparations of metal-organic frameworks with a large surface area and active backbones. Through the simple isoreticular (having the same framework topology) expansion from MOF-177 composed with 1,3,5-tris(4'-carboxyphenyl-)benzene (BTB3-) as the strut; MOF-200 was prepared with 4,4',4"-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(benzene-4,1-diy1))tribenzoic acid an extension from BTB3- by a phenylene unit to yield one of the most porous MOFs with a Langmuir surface area of 10,400 m2. and the lowest density of 0.22 cm3.g-1. A successful thermal polymerization reaction at 325 °C inside of the pores of highly porous MOF, MOF-177, was performed and verified the integrity of the MOF structure even after the thermal reaction. 1,4-Diphenylbutadiyne that is known to polymerize upon heating to form a conjugated backbone was impregnated via solution-diffusion into MOF-177 and then subsequently polymerized by heat to form polymer impregnated MOF-177. Characterization was carried out using powder X-ray diffraction and volumetric sorption analyzer. MOF-1020 with a linear quaterphenyl dicarboxylate-based strut was designed to contain a chiral bisbinaphthyl crown-ether moiety for alkyl ammonium resolution was precisely placed into a Zn4O(CO2)6-based cubic MOF structure. Unfortunately, the chiral resolution was not achieved due to the sensitivity and the pore environment of MOF-1020. However, an interesting phenomenon was observed, where the loss of crystallinity occurs upon solvent removal while the crystallites remain shiny and crystalline, but it readily is restored upon re-solvation of the crystallites. This rare

  13. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Muñoz

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  14. Functional morphology of unguiculiform papillae of the reticular groove in the ruminant stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Althen F; Kühnel, Wolfgang; Vives, Patricia; Wedel, Thilo

    2009-11-01

    The arrangement of the ruminant stomach in four gastric compartments with specialized mucosal papillae along the gastric groove (GG) has been previously described. However, a debate remains about functional implications of these morphological pecularities. This study was aimed to elucidate the relation between the papillar morphology and its putative functions. The GG was obtained from adult bovine stomachs (n=10) and subdivided into (1) proximal, (2) middle, (3) distal portion of the reticular groove (RG) and (4) the area of the reticulo-omasal sphincter (ROS). The specimens were processed for scanning electron microscopy and stereomicroscopy to analyze the density, shape and location of the papillae. Whereas the proximal portion of the RG was characterized by small (1.5mm), conically shaped, smooth papillae, the middle portion exhibited larger papillae (4mm) with sharp borders covered by keratin. Towards the ROS the papillae further increased in size (3-11mm) and showed compound or single processes resembling the shape of arrows, twisted hooks or thorns (unguiculliform papillae). At the ROS the unguiculliform papillae were distributed in clusters groups and along the border of the sphincter. Due to their peculiar morphological features it is suggested that unguiculliform papillae functions as a filter barrier preventing the passage of large-sized food particles into the omasum and avoiding subsequent obstruction of both the RG and the ROS. The data give further evidence that unguiculliform papillae are actively involved in the complex mechanisms of food processing taking place within the ruminant pluricavity stomach.

  15. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses.

  16. Peripheral Reticular Pigmentary Degeneration and Choroidal Vascular Insufficiency, Studied by Ultra Wide-Field Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kunho; Cho, Kyuyeon; Kang, Se Woong; Kim, Sang Jin; Kim, Jong Min

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To explore the pathogenesis of peripheral reticular pigmentary degeneration (PRPD) and its clinical significance. Methods This cross-sectional, observational study (conducted between January 2010 and May 2015) enrolled 441 eyes of 229 subjects, including 35 eyes with PRPD and 406 eyes without PRPD, which was identified by ultra-wide-field fluorescein angiography (UWFA). The distribution and angiographic circulation time of PRPD were assessed by UWFA. The frequencies of systemic and ophthalmologic comorbidities were compared between groups. Univariate and multivariate generalized estimation equation methods were used to determine the risk factors for PRPD. Results The patients with PRPD had a mean age of 75.7 ± 8.5 years (range, 59–93 years), whereas the patients without PRPD had a mean age of 60.1 ± 14.9 years (range, 9–92 years). All eyes with PRPD manifested the lesion in the superior nasal periphery with or without circumferential extension. Among those, only 16 eyes (45.7%) in the PRPD group showed distinctive features in the same location on fundus photographs. There was significant choroidal filling delay in the PRPD group when compared with the control group (1.42±1.22 vs. -0.02±1.05 seconds, P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis revealed that older age (P < 0.001), stroke (P = 0.018), ischemic optic neuropathy (P < 0.001), and age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.022) were significantly associated with PRPD. Conclusions UWFA may enhance the diagnostic sensitivity of PRPD. Choroidal vascular insufficiency with compromised systemic circulation in the elderly was related to the manifestation of PRPD. These results help to better understand the pathophysiology of PRPD. Co-existence of systemic and ophthalmic circulatory disorders should be considered in patients with PRPD. PMID:28114409

  17. Prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials precede spindle oscillations in the thalamic reticular nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea

    2004-01-01

    The thalamic reticular (RE) nucleus is a key structure in the generation of spindles, a hallmark bioelectrical oscillation during early stages of sleep. Intracellular recordings of RE neurons in vivo revealed the presence of prolonged hyperpolarizing potentials preceding spindles in a subgroup (30%) of neurons. These hyperpolarizations (6-10 mV) lasted for 200-300 ms and were present just before the onset of spontaneously occurring spindle waves. Corticothalamic volleys also were effective in generating such hyperpolarizations followed by spindles in RE neurons. A drop of up to 40% in the apparent input resistance (Rin) was associated with these hyperpolarizing potentials, suggesting an active process rather than disfacilitation. Accordingly, the reversal potential was approximately -100 mV for both spontaneous and cortically elicited hyperpolarizations, consistent with the activation of slow K+ conductances. QX-314 in the recording pipettes decreased both the amplitude and incidence of prolonged hyperpolarizations, suggesting the participation of G protein-dependent K+ currents in the generation of hyperpolarizations. Simultaneous extracellular and intracellular recordings in the RE nucleus demonstrated that some RE neurons discharged during the hyperpolarizations and, thus, may be implicated in their generation. The prolonged hyperpolarizations preceding spindles may play a role in the transition from tonic to bursting firing of RE neurons within a range of membrane potential (-60 to -65 mV) at which they set favorable conditions for the generation of low-threshold spike bursts that initiate spindle sequences. These data are further arguments for the generation of spindles within the thalamic RE nucleus. PMID:15210981

  18. Reticular Synthesis of HKUST-like tbo-MOFs with Enhanced CH4 Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Tsangarakis, Constantinos; Klontzas, Emmanuel; Tylianakis, Emmanuel; Froudakis, George; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Trikalitis, Pantelis N

    2016-02-10

    Successful implementation of reticular chemistry using a judiciously designed rigid octatopic carboxylate organic linker allowed the construction of expanded HKUST-1-like tbo-MOF series with intrinsic strong CH4 adsorption sites. The Cu-analogue displayed a concomitant enhancement of the gravimetric and volumetric surface area with the highest reported CH4 uptake among the tbo family, comparable to the best performing metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for CH4 storage. The corresponding gravimetric (BET) and volumetric surface areas of 3971 m(2) g(-1) and 2363 m(2) cm(-3) represent an increase of 115% and 47%, respectively, in comparison to the corresponding values for the prototypical HKUST-1 (tbo-MOF-1), and are 42% and 20% higher than that of tbo-MOF-2. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms revealed a high total gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptakes, reaching 372 cm(3) (STP) g(-1) and 221 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3), respectively, at 85 bar and 298 K. The corresponding working capacities between 5 and 80 bar were found to be 294 cm(3) (STP) g(-1) and 175 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) and are placed among the best performing MOFs for CH4 storage particularly at relatively low temperature. To gain insight on the mechanism accounting for the resultant enhanced CH4 storage capacity, molecular simulation study was performed and revealed the presence of very strong CH4 adsorption sites near the organic linker with similar adsorption energetics as the open metal sites. The present findings support the potential of tbo-MOFs based on the supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach as an ideal platform to further enhance the CH4 storage capacity via expansion and functionalization of the quadrangular pillars.

  19. Reticular synthesis of HKUST-like tbo MOFs with enhanced CH4 storage

    KAUST Repository

    Spanopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-12-22

    Successful implementation of reticular chemistry using a judiciously designed rigid octatopic carboxylate organic linker allowed the construction of expanded HKUST-1-like tbo-MOF series with intrinsic strong CH4 adsorption sites. The Cu-analogue displayed a concomitant enhancement of the gravimetric and volumetric surface area with the highest reported CH4 uptake among the tbo family, comparable to the best performing MOFs for CH4 storage. The corresponding gravimetric (BET) and volumetric surface area of 3971 m2 g-1 and 2363 m2 cm-3 represent an increase of respectively 115 % and 47 % in comparison to the corresponding values for the prototypical HKUST-1 (tbo-MOF-1), and 42 % and 20 % higher than tbo-MOF-2. High pressure methane adsorption isotherms revealed a high total gravimetric and volumetric CH4 uptakes, reaching 372 cm3 (STP) g-1 and 221 cm3 (STP) cm-3 respectively at 85 bar and 298 K. The corresponding working capacities between 5-80 bar were found to be 294 cm3 (STP) g-1 and 175 cm3 (STP) cm-3 and are placed among the best performing MOFs for CH4 storage particularly at relatively low temperature (e.g. 326 cm3 (STP) g-1 and 194 cm3 (STP) cm-3 at 258 K). To better understand the structure-property relationship and gain insight on the mechanism accounting for the resultant enhanced CH4 storage capacity, molecular simulation study was performed and revealed the presence of very strong CH4 adsorption sites at the vicinity of the organic linker with similar adsorption energetics as the open metal sites. The present findings supports the potential of tbo-MOFs based on the supermolecular building layer (SBL) approach as an ideal platform to further enhance the CH4 storage capacity via expansion and functionalization of the quadrangular pillars.

  20. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  1. GABAergic Transmission in Rat Pontine Reticular Formation Regulates the Induction Phase of Anesthesia and Modulates Hyperalgesia Caused by Sleep Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Nemanis, Kriste; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) contributes to the regulation of sleep, anesthesia, and pain. The role of PnO GABA in modulating these states remains incompletely understood. The present study used time to Loss and time to Resumption of Righting Response (LoRR and RoRR) as surrogate measures of loss and resumption of consciousness. This study tested three hypotheses: (1) pharmacologically manipulating GABA levels in rat PnO alters LoRR, RoRR, and nociception; (2) propof...

  2. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  3. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  4. Repetitive firing properties of medial pontine reticular formation neurones of the rat recorded in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, U; Greene, R W; McCarley, R W

    1989-03-01

    1. Intracellularly recorded neurones in nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis of the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) in the in vitro slice preparation were analysed for repetitive firing properties in response to intracellularly applied constant-current pulses. 2. Three neuronal classes were defined by this procedure: (1) non-burst neurones, which had only a non-burst firing pattern; (2) low-threshold burst neurones, which had either a low-threshold burst pattern or a non-burst pattern; (3) high-threshold burst neurones, which had either a high-threshold burst pattern or a non-burst pattern. 3. Histological characterization of electrophysiologically identified mPRF neurones with carboxyfluorescein showed no definite morphological difference between the first two classes. There was a trend for low-threshold burst neurones to have larger somata. 4. The low-threshold burst was generated by a slow calcium-dependent low-threshold spike, revealed in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The size of the low-threshold spike and thus the number of fast action potentials in the low-threshold burst was controlled by at least five factors including: activation; inactivation; amplitude of low-threshold conductance available to be activated; delayed outward conductance; and early transient outward conductance. 5. The non-burst pattern examined in both non-burst and low-threshold burst neurones appeared to be controlled primarily by one or more calcium-dependent potassium conductances sensitive to the removal of calcium and tetraethyl-ammonium. In the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), the addition of antagonists to calcium-dependent potassium current revealed a slow high-threshold calcium spike which was distinguished from the low-threshold spike by its threshold, lack of inactivation (at potentials negative to -40 mV) and insensitivity to Mg2+. A long-duration after-hyperpolarization (greater than 0.5 s) was not observed in any of these cells. 6. An early transient outward

  5. The pacemaker role of thalamic reticular nucleus in controlling spike-wave discharges and spindles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Denggui; Liao, Fucheng; Wang, Qingyun

    2017-07-01

    Absence epilepsy, characterized by 2-4 Hz spike-wave discharges (SWDs), can be caused by pathological interactions within the thalamocortical system. Cortical spindling oscillations are also demonstrated to involve the oscillatory thalamocortical rhythms generated by the synaptic circuitry of the thalamus and cortex. This implies that SWDs and spindling oscillations can share the common thalamocortical mechanism. Additionally, the thalamic reticular nucleus (RE) is hypothesized to regulate the onsets and propagations of both the epileptic SWDs and sleep spindles. Based on the proposed single-compartment thalamocortical neural field model, we firstly investigate the stimulation effect of RE on the initiations, terminations, and transitions of SWDs. It is shown that the activations and deactivations of RE triggered by single-pulse stimuli can drive the cortical subsystem to behave as the experimentally observed onsets and self-abatements of SWDs, as well as the transitions from 2-spike and wave discharges (2-SWDs) to SWDs. In particular, with increasing inhibition from RE to the specific relay nucleus (TC), rich transition behaviors in cortex can be obtained through the upstream projection path, RE → TC → Cortex . Although some of the complex dynamical patterns can be expected from the earlier single compartment thalamocortical model, the effect of brain network topology on the emergence of SWDs and spindles, as well as the transitions between them, has not been fully investigated. We thereby develop a spatially extended 3-compartment coupled network model with open-/closed-end connective configurations, to investigate the spatiotemporal effect of RE on the SWDs and spindles. Results show that the degrees of activations of RE 1 can induce the rich spatiotemporal evolution properties including the propagations from SWDs to spindles within different compartments and the transitions between them, through the RE 1 → TC 1 → Cortex 1 and Cortex 1 → Cortex 2

  6. Role of the medial medullary reticular formation in relaying vestibular signals to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R. L.; Bergsman, A. E.; Holmes, M. J.; Yates, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in posture can affect the resting length of respiratory muscles, requiring alterations in the activity of these muscles if ventilation is to be unaffected. Recent studies have shown that the vestibular system contributes to altering respiratory muscle activity during movement and changes in posture. Furthermore, anatomical studies have demonstrated that many bulbospinal neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) provide inputs to phrenic and abdominal motoneurons; because this region of the reticular formation receives substantial vestibular and other movement-related input, it seems likely that medial medullary reticulospinal neurons could adjust the activity of respiratory motoneurons during postural alterations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether functional lesions of the MRF affect inspiratory and expiratory muscle responses to activation of the vestibular system. Lidocaine or muscimol injections into the MRF produced a large increase in diaphragm and abdominal muscle responses to vestibular stimulation. These vestibulo-respiratory responses were eliminated following subsequent chemical blockade of descending pathways in the lateral medulla. However, inactivation of pathways coursing through the lateral medulla eliminated excitatory, but not inhibitory, components of vestibulo-respiratory responses. The simplest explanation for these data is that MRF neurons that receive input from the vestibular nuclei make inhibitory connections with diaphragm and abdominal motoneurons, whereas a pathway that courses laterally in the caudal medulla provides excitatory vestibular inputs to these motoneurons.

  7. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...... communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across...

  8. Is reticular temperature a useful indicator of heat stress in dairy cattle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, S; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated whether reticular temperature (RT) in dairy cattle is a useful indicator of heat stress considering the effects of milk yield and water intake (WI). In total, 28 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows raised on 3 farms in Lower Saxony, Germany, were studied from March to December 2013. During the study, RT and barn climate parameters (air temperature, relative humidity) were measured continuously and individual milk yield was recorded daily. Both the daily temperature-humidity index (THI) and the daily median RT per cow were calculated. Additionally, the individual WI (amount and frequency) of 10 cows during 100d of the study was recorded on 1 farm. Averaged over all farms, daily THI ranged between 35.4 and 78.9 with a mean (±standard deviation) of 60.2 (±8.7). Dairy cows were on average (±standard deviation) 110.9d in milk (±79.3) with a mean (±standard deviation) milk yield of 35.2kg/d (±9.1). The RT was affected by THI, milk yield, days in milk, and WI. Up to a THI threshold of 65, RT remained constant at 39.2°C. Above this threshold, RT increased to 39.3°C and further to 39.4°C when THI ≥70. The correlation between THI ≥70 and RT was 0.22, whereas the coefficient ranged between r=-0.08 to +0.06 when THI <70. With increasing milk yield, RT decreased slightly from 39.3°C (<30kg/d) to 39.2°C (≥40kg/d). For daily milk yields of ≥40kg, the median RT and daily milk yield were correlated at r=-0.18. The RT was greater when dairy cows yielded ≥30kg/d and THI ≥70 (39.5°C) compared with milk yields <30kg and THI <70 (39.3°C). The WI, which averaged (±standard deviation) 11.5 l (±5.7) per drinking bout, caused a mean decrease in RT of 3.2°C and was affected by the amount of WI (r=0.60). After WI, it took up to 2h until RT reached the initial level before drinking. In conclusion, RT increased when the THI threshold of 65 was exceeded. A further increase was noted when THI ≥70. Nevertheless, the effects of WI and milk yield

  9. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE), which is defective in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy patients, is expressed in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes and associates with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipul; Pedroza, Luis A; Mace, Emily M; Seeholzer, Steven; Cotsarelis, George; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Payne, Aimee S; Orange, Jordan S

    2011-03-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) syndrome, which is caused by mutation of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, is a highly variable disease characterized by multiple endocrine failure, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and various ectodermal defects. AIRE is a transcriptional regulator classically expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Previous studies have suggested that AIRE can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells, although its cytoplasmic functions are poorly characterized. Through mass spectrometry analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitating with cytoplasmic AIRE, we identified a novel association of AIRE with the intermediate filament protein cytokeratin 17 (K17) in the THP-1 monocyte cell line. We confirmed AIRE expression in HaCaT epidermal keratinocytes, as well as its interaction with K17. Confocal microscopy of human fetal and adult scalp hair follicles demonstrated a cytoplasmic pattern of AIRE staining that moderately colocalized with K17. The cytoplasmic association of AIRE with the intermediate filament network in human epidermal and follicular keratinocytes may provide a new path to understanding the ectodermal abnormalities associated with the APECED syndrome. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MATERIALS FOR INTERMEDIATE TELUGU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KELLEY, GERALD B.

    ONE OF THE FOUR DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES RECOGNIZED BY THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION OF 1950 AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGES OF THE COUNTRY, TELUGU IS SPOKEN BY 42 MILLION PEOPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH. THESE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE DESIGNED FOR THE INTERMEDIATE STUDENT OF TELUGU AND ARE DIVIDED INTO NEWSPAPER READINGS AND DIALOGUES OF EVERYDAY CONVERSATION. SUBJECTS…

  11. Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

    2014-06-01

    The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  13. Phylogeography and genetic divergence of some lymnaeid snails, intermediate hosts of human and animal fascioliasis with special reference to lymnaeids from the Bolivian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour-Zahab, R; Pointier, J P; Jourdane, J; Jarne, P; Oviedo, J A; Bargues, M D; Mas-Coma, S; Anglés, R; Perera, G; Balzan, C; Khallayoune, K; Renaud, F

    1997-04-15

    A population genetic study using starch gel electrophoresis was performed on populations of several species of lymnaeid snails acting as intermediate hosts for Fasciola hepatica (Trematoda, Plathyhelminth). Lymnaea viatrix was collected in 16 sites from the Bolivian Northern Altiplano. L. cubensis were obtained in one site from Venezuela, one site from Guadeloupe, three sites from Cuba and one site from the Dominican Republic. L. truncatula were collected in one site from France, one from Portugal and one from Morocco. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) were determined for 282 snails at 18 loci. A complete monomorphism was encountered at each geographic site. However, among these 18 loci, 13 are polymorphic and low and high levels of genetic divergence were observed between samples. Two genotypic groups can be differentiated by their multilocus genotypes. The western genotypic group associates together samples from Venezuela, Guadeloupe, Cuba and Dominican Republic (L. cubensis) while samples from France, Portugal and Morocco (L. truncatula) belong to the eastern genotypic group. Surprisingly, the Northern Bolivian Altiplano populations (L. viatrix) do not present any genetic divergence with the Portuguese sample. Therefore, the Bolivian snails belong entirely to the eastern genetic group. Within each group slight genetic divergences were observed. These results strongly support the European origin of the lymnaeid snails from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano.

  14. [Immunomorphological research on human breast tumors using monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins. The proliferative epithelial structures in fibrocystic disease (dysplasia) and benign tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gel'shteĭn, V I; Chipysheva, T A; Ermilova, V D; Litvinova, L V; Bannikov, G A

    1986-01-01

    Proliferating epithelial structures were studied immunomorphologically in 16 cases of fibrocystic disease and benign tumours. Monoclonal antibodies were used to prekeratin (PK) C12, normally specific for the lining epithelium, to prekeratin (PK) E3 and to the protein of intermediate filaments in mesenchymal cells--vimentin, normally specific for myoepithelium. The immunofluorescent analysis of the most common proliferating structures has shown that there are elements with a variable combination of PK C12, PK E3 and vimentin among the proliferating cells. While there are cells similar to normal lining epithelium (PK C12) or myoepithelium (PK E3) and/or vimentin), many cells have no analogues either among normal cells, or among cells from ductal, lobular and tubular tumour forms. Since in the most common forms of breast cancer only cells containing PK C12 were found, the immunofluorescent study with the application of monoclonal antibodies to PK C12, PK E3 and vimentin can be recommended in difficult and dubious cases for the recognition of carcinogenic or dysplastic nature of morphologically similar proliferating structures.

  15. Effects of the intra-arterial injection of bradykinin into the limbs, upon the activity of mesencephalic reticular units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, M C; Guilbaud, G; Besson, J M

    1975-02-01

    The changes in firing rate of mesencephalic reticular units after intra-arterial injection into the limbs of a potent nociceptive agent, bradykinin, were studied in cats (unanesthetized, immobilized with flaxedil and hyperventilated). 30 per cent of the d35 studied cells were affected, 56 per cent were excited, 23 per cent inhibited and 5 per cent had mixed effects. Among the 75 excited cells, the activation of 16 of them seemed to related to the arousa- processes (group A); for 56 cells the increase seemed dire-tly dependent on the nociceptive stimulation itself (group B). The changes of firing rate were repruducible; their latencies and durations were of the same order as the latencies and duration of the nociceptive reactions and painful sensation s, which have been obtained in animals and men after bradykinin injections. The modifications induced by bradykinin administration were suppressed by Ketamin and Thiopental.

  16. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide excites medial pontine reticular formation neurons in the brainstem rapid eye movement sleep-induction zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Reiner, P B

    1999-01-01

    Although it has long been known that microinjection of the cholinergic agonist carbachol into the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF) induces a state that resembles rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, it is likely that other transmitters contribute to mPRF regulation of behavioral states. A key...... candidate is the peptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), which innervates the mPRF and induces REM sleep when injected into this region of the brainstem. To begin understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we examined the effects of VIP on mPRF cells using whole-cell patch...... conclude that VIP excites mPRF neurons by activation of a sodium current. This effect is mediated at least in part by G-protein stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A. These data suggest that VIP may play a physiological role in REM induction by its actions on mPRF neurons....

  17. Two Principles of Reticular Chemistry Uncovered in a Metal-Organic Framework of Heterotritopic Linkers and Infinite Secondary Building Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarineu, Noelle R; Schoedel, Alexander; Urban, Philipp; Morla, Maureen B; Trickett, Christopher A; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-31

    Structural diversity of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been largely limited to linkers with at most two different types of coordinating groups. MOFs constructed from linkers with three or more nonidentical coordinating groups have not been explored. Here, we report a robust and porous crystalline MOF, Zn3(PBSP)2 or MOF-910, constructed from a novel linker PBSP (phenylyne-1-benzoate, 3-benzosemiquinonate, 5-oxidopyridine) bearing three distinct types of coordinative functionality. The MOF adopts a complex and previously unreported topology termed tto. Our study suggests that simple, symmetric linkers are not a necessity for formation of crystalline extended structures and that new, more complex topologies are attainable with irregular, heterotopic linkers. This work illustrates two principles of reticular chemistry: first, selectivity for helical over straight rod secondary building units (SBUs) is achievable with polyheterotopic linkers, and second, the pitch of the resulting helical SBUs may be fine-tuned based on the metrics of the polyheterotopic linker.

  18. Cutting edge: JAM-C controls homeostatic chemokine secretion in lymph node fibroblastic reticular cells expressing thrombomodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontera, Vincent; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Zimmerli, Claudia; Bardin, Florence; Obrados, Elodie; Audebert, Stéphane; Bajenoff, Marc; Borg, Jean-Paul; Aurrand-Lions, Michel

    2011-07-15

    The development and maintenance of secondary lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, occur in a highly coordinated manner involving lymphoid chemokine production by stromal cells. Although developmental pathways inducing lymphoid chemokine production during organogenesis are known, signals maintaining cytokine production in adults are still elusive. In this study, we show that thrombomodulin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α identify a population of fibroblastic reticular cells in which chemokine secretion is controlled by JAM-C. We demonstrate that Jam-C-deficient mice and mice treated with Ab against JAM-C present significant decreases in stromal cell-derived factor 1α (CXCL12), CCL21, and CCL19 intranodal content. This effect is correlated with reduced naive T cell egress from lymph nodes of anti-JAM-C-treated mice.

  19. Estimation of rumen outflow in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets by use of reticular sampling as an alternative to sampling from the omasal canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Volden, H; Broderick, G A

    2010-03-01

    A study was conducted to compare nutrient flows determined by a reticular sampling technique with those made by sampling digesta from the omasal canal. Six lactating dairy cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a design with a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 4 periods. Treatments were 3 grass silages differing mainly in neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations: 412, 530, or 639 g/kg of dry matter, each combined with 1 of 2 levels of concentrate feed. Digesta was collected from the reticulum and the omasal canal to represent a 24-h feeding cycle. Nutrient flow was calculated using the reconstitution system based on 3 markers (Co, Yb, and indigestible NDF) and using (15)N as a microbial marker. Large and small particles and the fluid phase were recovered from digesta collected at both sampling sites. Bacterial samples from the reticulum and the omasum were separated into liquid- and particle-associated bacteria. Reticular samples were sieved through a 1-mm sieve before isolation of digesta phases and bacteria. Composition of the large particle phase differed mainly in fiber content of the digesta obtained from the 2 sampling sites. Sampling site did not affect marker concentration in any of the phases with which the markers were primarily associated. The (15)N enrichment of bacterial samples did not differ between sampling sites. The reticular and omasal canal sampling techniques gave similar estimates of marker concentrations in reconstituted digesta, estimates of ruminal flow, and ruminal digestibility values for dry matter, organic matter, starch, and N. Sampling site x diet interactions were also not significant. Concentration of NDF was 2.2% higher in reconstituted omasal digesta than in reconstituted reticular digesta. Ruminal NDF digestibility was 2.7% higher when estimated by sampling the reticulum than by sampling the omasal canal. The higher estimate of ruminal NDF digestibility with the reticular sampling technique was due to

  20. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in persons with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection using two interferon-gamma release assays and tuberculin skin test in a low human immunodeficiency virus prevalence, intermediate tuberculosis-burden country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Sy, Cheng-Len; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2016-10-01

    The risk of tuberculosis (TB) is higher in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and intravenous drug users (IDUs). We determined the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection (LTBI) in individuals with or without HIV infection, including IDUs, in a country with a low HIV prevalence, an intermediate TB burden, and a high Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine coverage using two interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) and the tuberculin skin test (TST). For this prospective, cross-sectional study, HIV-infected and -uninfected patients from a regional hospital and medical center in Taiwan were enrolled. Results of the two IGRAs [QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT)] and the TST were compared. Risk factors for positivity were analyzed. We recruited 233 patients [198 (85%) men; mean age, 39.4 years]. Most patients (74%) were BCG vaccinated. The prevalence of LTBI was estimated to be 22.8% by TST, 15.9% by QFT-G, and 20.6% by QFT-GIT. HIV-infected individuals had fewer positive QFT-GIT [7.0% vs. 28.6%, p < 0.001, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.28, p = 0.05] and TST results, and more indeterminate QFT-G responses (9.3% vs. 0.7%, p = 0.002). Concordance between IGRAs and TST was very poor in HIV-infected patients (κ < 0.05). Independent risk factors for IGRA positivity were increasing age (QFT-G: aOR = 1.98, p = 0.03; QFT-GIT: aOR = 2.00, p = 0.01) and IDUs (aOR = 4.33, p = 0.05 by QFT-G). HIV-infected persons had a significantly lower response to both IGRAs and TST. High discordance was found between the two generations of IGRAs and between IGRAs and TST. Increasing age, a known risk factor for LTBI, was significantly associated with IGRAs, but not with TST. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  2. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  3. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C; Ankowski, A M; Asaadi, J A; Ashenfelter, J; Axani, S N; Babu, K; Backhouse, C; Band, H R; Barbeau, P S; Barros, N; Bernstein, A; Betancourt, M; Bishai, M; Blucher, E; Bouffard, J; Bowden, N; Brice, S; Bryan, C; Camilleri, L; Cao, J; Carlson, J; Carr, R E; Chatterjee, A; Chen, M; Chen, S; Chiu, M; Church, E D; Collar, J I; Collin, G; Conrad, J M; Convery, M R; Cooper, R L; Cowen, D; Davoudiasl, H; De Gouvea, A; Dean, D J; Deichert, G; Descamps, F; DeYoung, T; Diwan, M V; Djurcic, Z; Dolinski, M J; Dolph, J; Donnelly, B; Dwyer, D A; Dytman, S; Efremenko, Y; Everett, L L; Fava, A; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Fleming, B; Friedland, A; Fujikawa, B K; Gaisser, T K; Galeazzi, M; Galehouse, D C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Garvey, G T; Gautam, S; Gilje, K E; Gonzalez-Garcia, M; Goodman, M C; Gordon, H; Gramellini, E; Green, M P; Guglielmi, A; Hackenburg, R W; Hackenburg, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hans, S; Harris, D; Heeger, K M; Herman, M; Hill, R; Holin, A; Huber, P; Jaffe, D E; Johnson, R A; Joshi, J; Karagiorgi, G; Kaufman, L J; Kayser, B; Kettell, S H; Kirby, B J; Klein, J R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kriske, R M; Lane, C E; Langford, T J; Lankford, A; Lau, K; Learned, J G; Ling, J; Link, J M; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L; Littlejohn, B R; Lockwitz, S; Lokajicek, M; Louis, W C; Luk, K; Lykken, J; Marciano, W J; Maricic, J; Markoff, D M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; Mauger, C; Mavrokoridis, K; McCluskey, E; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Mills, G; Mocioiu, I; Monreal, B; Mooney, M R; Morfin, J G; Mumm, P; Napolitano, J; Neilson, R; Nelson, J K; Nessi, M; Norcini, D; Nova, F; Nygren, D R; Gann, G D Orebi; Palamara, O; Parsa, Z; Patterson, R; Paul, P; Pocar, A; Qian, X; Raaf, J L; Rameika, R; Ranucci, G; Ray, H; Reyna, D; Rich, G C; Rodrigues, P; Romero, E Romero; Rosero, R; Rountree, S D; Rybolt, B; Sanchez, M C; Santucci, G; Schmitz, D; Scholberg, K; Seckel, D; Shaevitz, M; Shrock, R; Smy, M B; Soderberg, M; Sonzogni, A; Sousa, A B; Spitz, J; John, J M St; Stewart, J; Strait, J B; Sullivan, G; Svoboda, R; Szelc, A M; Tayloe, R; Thomson, M A; Toups, M; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Van de Water, R G; Vogelaar, R B; Weber, M; Weng, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; White, B R; Whitehead, L; Whittington, D W; Wilking, M J; Wilson, R J; Wilson, P; Winklehner, D; Winn, D R; Worcester, E; Yang, L; Yeh, M; Yokley, Z W; Yoo, J; Yu, B; Yu, J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  4. The application of eigensymmetries of face forms to X-ray diffraction intensities of crystals twinned by 'reticular merohedry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapper, H; Hahn, Th

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an extension of a previous treatment of `twins by merohedry' with full lattice coincidence [Σ = 1, Klapper & Hahn (2010). Acta Cryst. A66, 327-346] to `twins by reticular merohedry' with partial lattice coincidence (Σ > 1). Again, the sets of symmetrically equivalent reflections {hkl} are considered as sets of equivalent faces (face forms) {hkl}, and the behaviour of the oriented eigensymmetries of these forms under the action of a twin operation is used to determine the X-ray reflection sets, the intensities of which are affected or not affected by the twinning. The following cases are treated: rhombohedral obverse/reverse Σ3 twins, cubic Σ3 (spinel) twins, tetragonal Σ5 twins (twin elements m'(120), 2'[ ̅210]) and hexagonal Σ7 twins (m'(12 ̅30), 2'[2 ̅10]). For each case the twin laws for all relevant point groups are defined, and the twin diffraction cases A (intensity of twin-related reflection sets not affected), B1 (intensity affected), B2 (intensity affected only by anomalous scattering) and S (single, i.e. non-coincident reflection sets) are derived for all twin laws. A special treatment is provided for the cubic Σ3 twins, where the cubic face forms first have to be split into up to four rhombohedral subforms with a threefold axis along one of the four cube directions, here [111]. These subforms exhibit different twin diffraction cases analogous to those derived for the rhombohedral obverse/reverse Σ3 twins. A complete list of the split forms and their diffraction cases for all cubic point groups and all Σ3 twin elements is given. The application to crystal structure determination of crystals twinned by reticular merohedry and to X-ray topographic mapping of twin domains is discussed.

  5. The structure of a human neurofilament gene (NF-L): A unique exon-intron organization in the intermediate filament gene family.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-P. Julien (Jean-Pierre); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); K. Yazdanbakhsh; D. Flavell (David); D.N. Meijer (Dies); W.E. Mushynski

    1987-01-01

    textabstractWe have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the human gene for the neurofilament subunit NF-L. The cloned DNA contains the entire transcriptional unit and generates two mRNAs of approx. 2.6 and 4.3 kb after transfection into mouse L-cells. The NF-L gene has an unexpected

  6. Resurrecting KIR2DP1: A Key Intermediate in the Evolution of Human Inhibitory NK Cell Receptors That Recognize HLA-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Hugo G; Blokhuis, Jeroen H; Guethlein, Lisbeth A; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter

    2017-03-01

    KIR2DP1 is an inactive member of the human lineage III KIR family, which includes all HLA-C-specific receptor genes. The lethal, and only, defect in KIR2DP1 is a nucleotide deletion in codon 88. Fixed in modern humans, the deletion is also in archaic human genomes. KIR2DP1 is polymorphic, with dimorphism at specificity-determining position 44. By repairing the deletion, we resurrected 11 alleles of KIR2DP1(F) , the functional antecedent of KIR2DP1 We demonstrate how K44-KIR2DP1(F) with lysine 44 recognized C1(+)HLA-C, whereas T44-KIR2DP1(F) recognized C2(+)HLA-C. Dimorphisms at 12 other KIR2DP1(F) residues modulate receptor avidity or signaling. KIR2DP1 and KIR2DL1 are neighbors in the centromeric KIR region and are in tight linkage disequilibrium. Like KIR2DL1, KIR2DP1 contributed to CenA and CenB KIR haplotype differences. Encoded on CenA, C1-specific K44-KIR2DP1(F) were stronger receptors than the attenuated C2-specific T44-KIR2DP1(F) encoded on CenB The last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees had diverse lineage III KIR that passed on to chimpanzees but not to humans. Early humans inherited activating KIR2DS4 and an inhibitory lineage III KIR, likely encoding a C1-specific receptor. The latter spawned the modern family of HLA-C receptors. KIR2DP1(F) has properties consistent with KIR2DP1(F) having been the founder gene. The first KIR2DP1(F) alleles encoded K44-C1 receptors; subsequently KIR2DP1(F) alleles encoding T44-C2 receptors evolved. The emergence of dedicated KIR2DL2/3 and KIR2DL1 genes encoding C1 and C2 receptors, respectively, could have led to obsolescence of KIR2DP1(F) Alternatively, pathogen subversion caused its demise. Preservation of KIR2DP1(F) functional polymorphism was a side effect of fixation of the deletion in KIR2DP1(F) by micro gene conversion. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Effect of an Intermediate-Frequency Magnetic Field of 23 kHz at 2 mT on Chemotaxis and Phagocytosis in Neutrophil-Like Differentiated Human HL-60 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Koyama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about potential health risks of intermediate-frequency (IF electromagnetic fields are increasing, especially as the use of induction-heating cooktops has spread extensively in Japan and Europe. In order to investigate the properties of IF electromagnetic fields, we examined the effect of exposure to a 23-kHz IF magnetic field of 2 mT for 2, 3, or 4 h on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis using differentiated human HL-60 cells. Compared with sham exposure, exposure to the IF magnetic field had no effect on neutrophil chemotaxis or phagocytosis. Previous studies demonstrated that exposure to a 23-kHz IF magnetic field of 2 mT (about 74-times the maximum value recommended by the International Commission for Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may affect the first-line immune responses in humans. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effects of IF magnetic fields on cellular immune responses. We found that exposure to an IF magnetic field of 2 mT has minimal if any effect on either the chemotaxis or phagocytic activity of neutrophil-like human HL-60 cells.

  8. Human spleen microanatomy: why mice do not suffice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiniger, Birte S

    2015-07-01

    The microanatomical structure of the spleen has been primarily described in mice and rats. This leads to terminological problems with respect to humans and their species-specific splenic microstructure. In mice, rats and humans the spleen consists of the white pulp embedded in the red pulp. In the white pulp, T and B lymphocytes form accumulations, the periarteriolar lymphatic sheaths and the follicles, located around intermediate-sized arterial vessels, the central arteries. The red pulp is a reticular connective tissue containing all types of blood cells. The spleen of mice and rats exhibits an additional well-delineated B-cell compartment, the marginal zone, between white and red pulp. This area is, however, absent in human spleen. Human splenic secondary follicles comprise three zones: a germinal centre, a mantle zone and a superficial zone. In humans, arterioles and sheathed capillaries in the red pulp are surrounded by lymphocytes, especially by B cells. Human sheathed capillaries are related to the splenic ellipsoids of most other vertebrates. Such vessels are lacking in rats or mice, which form an evolutionary exception. Capillary sheaths are composed of endothelial cells, pericytes, special stromal sheath cells, macrophages and B lymphocytes. Human spleens most probably host a totally open circulation system, as connections from capillaries to sinuses were not found in the red pulp. Three stromal cell types of different phenotype and location occur in the human white pulp. Splenic white and red pulp structure is reviewed in rats, mice and humans to encourage further investigations on lymphocyte recirculation through the spleen.

  9. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments.

  10. Las representaciones fácticas y cognitivas del relato de entrevistas biográficas: un análisis reticular del discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozares Colina, Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to identify and to relate the factual to the cognitive dimensions of a biographical history understood as a narrative representation. It is constructed by the interviewed from the combination of both dimensions. This paper proposes reticular discourse analysis as an effective method for putting forward both dimensions in a related fashion. Through linguistics and ad hoc social network theories, the discourse from the biographical history is framed, analyzed and made relevant.

  11. SLEEP AND GABA LEVELS IN THE ORAL PART OF RAT PONTINE RETICULAR FORMATION ARE DECREASED BY LOCAL AND SYSTEMIC ADMINISTRATION OF MORPHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Christopher J.; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A.

    2006-01-01

    Morphine, a μ-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the oral pontine reticular formation (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hy...

  12. Reach-scale variation surface water quality in a reticular canal system in the lower Yangtze River Delta region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, James Andrew; Chan, Faith Ka Shun; Zhu, Fangfang; Wang, Vickie; Higgitt, David Laurence

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the spatial and temporal distribution of surface water pollution within a reticular canal system typical of those found in the lower Yangtze River Delta (YRD). For this purpose, surface water quality data was collected from a drainage canal that bisected the southeast district of Ningbo Municipality (Zhejiang) from 2013 to 2015. The sampling transect was designed to represent the change in land-use from the agriculture dominated rural hinterland, to the predominantly urban city-centre. To calculate the representative land-use fraction of each sampling location, the contributing area was defined using an uni-directional 1 km vector line-buffer around the 'upstream' section of canal. The spatial and temporal variation of EC, DO, NH3 and turbidity indicated a measureable difference between the urban and rural sections of the channel. Water quality indicators were most sensitive to urban and parkland land-use types. The study yielded an increased spatial resolution to knowledge of water-quality variability in the urban environment compared to previous studies within the YRD region. The results were used to make recommendations for the development of an effective long-term strategy for the improvement in surface water quality in this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of Hypersomnia Concurrent With Recovery of an Injured Ascending Reticular Activating System in a Stroke Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do; Chang, Chul Hoon; Jung, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    We report on a stroke patient who showed recovery of hypersomnia concurrent with the recovery of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), which was demonstrated by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).A 70-year-old female patient underwent coiling of the left ruptured posterior communicating artery after subarachnoid hemorrhage and both extraventricular drainage for management of an intraventricular hemorrhage. At 2 months after onset, when she started rehabilitation, she exhibited intact consciousness, with the full score on the Glasgow Coma Scale: 15. However, she showed severe hypersomnia: she always fell asleep without external stimulation and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (EPS) score was 24 (full score: 24, cut off for hypersomnia: 10). She underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy, including neurotropic drugs, physical therapy, and occupational therapy. Her hypersomnia has shown improvement as 14 (3 months after onset), 11 (4 months after onset), 7 (12 months after onset), and 6 (24 months after onset), respectively.On 2-month DTT, narrowing of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs was observed on both sides: in particular, among 4 neural tracts of the lower ARAS, the right lower ventral ARAS was the narrowest. By contrast, on 24-month DTT, the 4 narrowed neural tracts of both lower dorsal and ventral ARASs were thickened compared with those of 2-month DTT.Recovery of hypersomnia with recovery of an injured lower ARAS on DTT was observed in a stroke patient. Our results suggest that evaluation of the lower ARAS using DTT might be useful for stroke patients with hypersomnia.

  14. Experimental evidence and modeling studies support a synchronizing role for electrical coupling in the cat thalamic reticular neurons in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentealba, Pablo; Crochet, Sylvain; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Steriade, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    Thalamic reticular (RE) neurons are crucially implicated in brain rhythms. Here, we report that RE neurons of adult cats, recorded and stained intracellularly in vivo, displayed spontaneously occurring spikelets, which are characteristic of central neurons that are coupled electrotonically via gap junctions. Spikelets occurred spontaneously during spindles, an oscillation in which RE neurons play a leading role, as well as during interspindle lulls. They were significantly different from excitatory postsynaptic potentials and also distinct from fast prepotentials that are presumably dendritic spikes generated synaptically. Spikelets were strongly reduced by halothane, a blocker of gap junctions. Multi-site extracellular recordings performed before, during and after administration of halothane demonstrated a role for electrical coupling in the synchronization of spindling activity within the RE nucleus. Finally, computational models of RE neurons predicted that gap junctions between these neurons could mediate the spread of low-frequency activity at great distances. These experimental and modeling data suggest that electrotonic coupling within the RE nucleus plays an important role in the generation and synchronization of low-frequency (spindling) activities in the thalamus. PMID:15245484

  15. Influence of inorganic phosphate and pH on sarcoplasmic reticular ATPase in skinned muscle fibres of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, G J; Papp, Z; Zaremba, R

    1999-08-01

    1. The influence of 30 mM inorganic phosphate (Pi) and pH (6.2-7.4) on the rate of ATP utilization was determined in mechanically skinned bundles of myofibrils from the iliofibularis muscle of Xenopus laevis at approximately 5 C. 2. BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime; 10 mM) depressed isometric force production and actomyosin (AM) ATPase activity equally. Therefore sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) ATPase activity could be determined by extrapolation of the total ATPase activity to zero force. 3. The SR ATPase activity without added Pi at pH 7.1 was 42 +/- 2 % of the total ATPase activity. Addition of 30 mM Pi reduced SR ATPase activity slightly, by 9 +/- 5 %, and depressed force by 62 +/- 2 % and AM ATPase activity by 21 +/- 6 %. 4. At pH 6.2, force, SR ATPase activity and AM ATPase activity were reduced by 21 +/- 5, 61 +/- 5 and 10 +/- 4 % of their respective values at pH 7.1. 5. The SR ATPase activity at 30 mM Pi and pH 6.2 was reduced markedly to 20 +/- 6 % of the value under control conditions, suggesting that the maximum rate of Ca2+ uptake during muscle fatigue was strongly depressed. This reduction was larger than expected on the basis of the effects of Pi and pH alone.

  16. Efficacy of a combination of human recombinant erythropoietin + 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 to improve moderate to severe anaemia in low/intermediate risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Dario; Darbesio, Antonella; Giai, Valentina; Genuardi, Mariella; Dellacasa, Chiara Maria; Sorasio, Roberto; Bertini, Marilena; Boccadoro, Mario

    2009-02-01

    The efficacy of human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has generally been best in untransfused patients with 'refractory anaemia' according to the World Health Organization (WHO). We treated 63 MDS patients [excluding refractory anaemia with excess blasts, type 2 (RAEB2)] with a previously tested combination of 13-cis-retinoic acid and dihydroxylated vitamin D3 +/- 6-thioguanine in addition to rEPO. Most patients were categorized as refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and RAEB1, with intermediate 1 International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score; all had Hb <95 g/l, and 70% required regular erythrocyte transfusions. Treatment was well tolerated, and erythroid response rate according to new International Working Group criteria was 60%: 50% in RAEB1 and 64% in non-RAEB patients (P = 0.383). Response rate was not affected by transfusion requirement (63%; 58% in untransfused), IPSS and WHO Prognostic Scoring System scores, and weekly rEPO dosage (30-50 000 U vs. 80 000 U). Median response duration was 16 months. Median survival reached 14 months for RAEB1 and 55 months for non-RAEB patients, with a significant difference in the latter between responders and non-responders (median 82 months vs. 44 months; P = 0.036). Our combined therapy, independent of rEPO dosage, achieved in patients with unfavourable response predictors, a rate of anaemia improvement comparable to the best obtained in lower risk patients by high-dose rEPO.

  17. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  18. Dee-Mack Intermediate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Frank Reliford, the Principal at Dee-Mack Intermediate since 2005, is familiar to almost every child in the community. 260 Students attend Reliford's school, and their status is a point of pride: Dee-Mack Intermediate is consistently one of the highest performing schools in the state. The change in student performance correlates to the…

  19. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Clemente-Perez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV and somatostatin (SOM expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms.

  20. Visual disturbance following sclerotherapy for varicose veins, reticular veins and telangiectasias: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, T; Smith, P C; Shepherd, A; Davies, A H

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the study was to review the literature reporting visual disturbance (VD)following sclerotherapy for varicose veins. Underlying mechanisms will be discussed. A literature search of the databases Medline and Google Scholar was performed. Original articles including randomized trials, case series and case reports reporting VD in humans following sclerotherapy for varicose veins were included. Additional references were also obtained if they had been referenced in related publications. The search yielded 4948 results of which 25 reports were found to meet the inclusion criteria. In larger series with at least 500 included patients the prevalence of VD following sclerotherapy ranges from 0.09% to 2%. In most reports foam sclerotherapy was associated with VD (19); exclusive use of liquid sclerosant was reported in two cases, some reports included foam and liquid sclerosant (4). There were no persistent visual disorders reported. VD occurred with polidocanol and sodium tetradecyl sulphate in different concentrations (0.25–3%). Various forms of foam preparation including various ways of foam production and the liquid –air ratio (1 or 2 parts of liquid mixed with 3, 4 or 5 parts of air) were reported in association with the occurrence of VD. VDs following sclerotherapy for varicose veins are rare and all reported events were transient. Bubble embolism or any kind of embolism seems unlikely to be the only underlying mechanism. A systemic inflammatory response following sclerotherapy has been suggested. Further research to clarify the mechanism of action of sclerosants is required.

  1. Synthesis of an important intermediate of antagonists of the human A2A adenosine receptor%A 2A腺苷受体拮抗剂中间体与抗结剂合成方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屠美玲; 俞卫平; 冯涛; 贾继宁; 张云; 张建庭

    2016-01-01

    基于官能化的三唑并[4,5‐d]嘧啶类拮抗剂对人体内 A2A腺苷受体拮抗作用的干预治疗,能有效缓解帕金森综合征的临床症状.该类拮抗剂可以提高多巴胺神经元对纹状体多巴胺的敏感度.重点研究了三唑并[4,5‐d ]嘧啶类拮抗剂合成所需的重要中间体4‐氯‐1H‐[1,2,3]三唑并[d]嘧啶‐6‐胺的合成、表征及应用.并对该中间体进行活性拼接,制备了含呋喃基的三唑并[4,5‐d]嘧啶类拮抗剂8.%Antagonism of the human A2A receptor has been implicated as a point of therapeutic intervention in the alleviation of the symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease .That is to say ,at least in part ,this kind of antago‐nists can improve the sensitivity of the dopaminergic neurons to the residual ,and deplete levels of striatal dopamine . Herein ,we reported a novel synthesis strategy of an important intermediate (4‐chloro‐1H‐benzo[d][1 ,2 ,3]triazol‐6‐amine) of antagonists of the human A2A adenosine receptor .Additionally ,we had also prepared the adenosine receptor 8 .

  2. Elevated levels of protein-bound p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, an amino-acid-derived aldehyde generated by myeloperoxidase, are present in human fatty streaks, intermediate lesions and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, S L; Gaut, J P; Crowley, J R; Hsu, F F; Heinecke, J W

    2000-12-15

    Reactive aldehydes might have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by covalently modifying low-density lipoprotein (LDL). However, the identities of the aldehyde adducts that form on LDL in vivo are not yet clearly established. We previously demonstrated that the haem protein myeloperoxidase oxidizes proteins in the human artery wall. We also have shown that p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (pHA), the aldehyde that forms when myeloperoxidase oxidizes L-tyrosine, covalently modifies the N(epsilon)-lysine residues of proteins. The resulting Schiff base can be quantified as N(epsilon)-[2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]lysine (pHA-lysine) after reduction with NaCNBH(3). Here we demonstrate that pHA-lysine is a marker for LDL that has been modified by myeloperoxidase, and that water-soluble, but not lipid-soluble, antioxidants inhibit the modification of LDL protein. To determine whether myeloperoxidase-generated aldehydes might modify LDL in vivo, we used a combination of isotope-dilution GC-MS to quantify pHA-lysine in aortic tissues at various stages of lesion evolution. We also analysed LDL isolated from atherosclerotic aortic tissue. Comparison of normal and atherosclerotic aortic tissue demonstrated a significant elevation (more than 10-fold) of the reduced Schiff base adduct in fatty streaks, intermediate lesions and advanced lesions compared with normal aortic tissue. Moreover, the level of pHA-lysine in LDL recovered from atherosclerotic aortic intima was 200-fold that in plasma LDL of healthy donors. These results indicate that pHA-lysine, a specific covalent modification of LDL, is generated in human atherosclerotic vascular tissue. They also raise the possibility that reactive aldehydes generated by myeloperoxidase have a role in converting LDL into an atherogenic lipoprotein.

  3. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  4. Differential spike timing and phase dynamics of reticular thalamic and prefrontal cortical neuronal populations during sleep spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Richard J; Hughes, Stuart W; Jones, Matthew W

    2013-11-20

    The 8-15 Hz thalamocortical oscillations known as sleep spindles are a universal feature of mammalian non-REM sleep, during which they are presumed to shape activity-dependent plasticity in neocortical networks. The cortex is hypothesized to contribute to initiation and termination of spindles, but the mechanisms by which it implements these roles are unknown. We used dual-site local field potential and multiple single-unit recordings in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of freely behaving rats at rest to investigate thalamocortical network dynamics during natural sleep spindles. During each spindle epoch, oscillatory activity in mPFC and TRN increased in frequency from onset to offset, accompanied by a consistent phase precession of TRN spike times relative to the cortical oscillation. In mPFC, the firing probability of putative pyramidal cells was highest at spindle initiation and termination times. We thus identified "early" and "late" cell subpopulations and found that they had distinct properties: early cells generally fired in synchrony with TRN spikes, whereas late cells fired in antiphase to TRN activity and also had higher firing rates than early cells. The accelerating and highly structured temporal pattern of thalamocortical network activity over the course of spindles therefore reflects the engagement of distinct subnetworks at specific times across spindle epochs. We propose that early cortical cells serve a synchronizing role in the initiation and propagation of spindle activity, whereas the subsequent recruitment of late cells actively antagonizes the thalamic spindle generator by providing asynchronous feedback.

  5. Different cardiovascular neuron groups in the ventral reticular formation of the rostral medulla in rabbits: single neurone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, E; Ootsuka, Y; Terui, N

    2000-03-15

    To examine whether the cardiovascular neurons of the ventral medulla consist of functionally different kinds of neurons, single neuronal activity of the ventral medulla, activity of the renal sympathetic nerves (RSNA), blood flow of the ear (EarBF) and arterial pressure (AP) were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and immobilized rabbits during electrical stimulation of the aortic nerve (AN, baroreceptor afferent fibers) and electrical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) that reduced EarBF but less affected on AP and RSNA. The dorsolateral funiculus of the second cervical cord was stimulated to evoke antidromic spikes of medullary neurons. Two kinds of reticulo-spinal neurons were identified. Activities of one kind of neurons were facilitated by stimulation of DMH (latency 48.6+/-27.6 ms, n=11) but they did not respond to stimulation of the AN. Therefore, it was presumed that these neurons controlled vasomotion of the ear through the vasoconstrictor neurons in the spinal cord but did not participate in regulation of systemic AP. Activities of the other neurons were inhibited by stimulation of the AN (latency 47.8+/-8 4 ms, n=16) but they did not respond to the DMH stimulation. These neurons were identical to those reported previously as the RVLM neurons, and they contributed to regulate systemic AP but might not participate in control of cutaneous vascular movement. The former neurons were located medially to the latter in the reticular formation of the rostral ventral medulla. These results provided evidence at the single neuronal level that the cardiovascular neurons in the ventral medulla were consisted of functionally different sympatho-excitatory neurons and they were located at the different sites in the rostral ventral medulla.

  6. GABAergic transmission in rat pontine reticular formation regulates the induction phase of anesthesia and modulates hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo; Nemanis, Kriste; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2014-07-01

    The oral part of the pontine reticular formation (PnO) contributes to the regulation of sleep, anesthesia and pain. The role of PnO γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in modulating these states remains incompletely understood. The present study used time to loss and time to resumption of righting response (LoRR and RoRR) as surrogate measures of loss and resumption of consciousness. This study tested three hypotheses: (i) pharmacologically manipulating GABA levels in rat PnO alters LoRR, RoRR and nociception; (ii) propofol decreases GABA levels in the PnO; and (iii) inhibiting GABA synthesis in the PnO blocks hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. Administering a GABA synthesis inhibitor [3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA)] or a GABA uptake inhibitor [nipecotic acid (NPA)] into rat PnO significantly altered LoRR caused by propofol. 3-MPA significantly decreased LoRR for propofol (-18%). NPA significantly increased LoRR during administration of propofol (36%). Neither 3-MPA nor NPA altered RoRR following cessation of propofol or isoflurane delivery. The finding that LoRR was decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA is consistent with measures showing that extracellular GABA levels in the PnO were decreased (41%) by propofol. Thermal nociception was significantly decreased by 3-MPA and increased by NPA, and 3-MPA blocked the hyperalgesia caused by sleep deprivation. The results demonstrate that GABA levels in the PnO regulate the time for loss of consciousness caused by propofol, extend the concept that anesthetic induction and emergence are not inverse processes, and suggest that GABAergic transmission in the PnO mediates hyperalgesia caused by sleep loss.

  7. Atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-09-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram utilizados 73 ratos em preparações agudas e crônicas, nas quais lesamos a formação reticular mesencefálica com corrente contínua (3,5 a 4,0 mA durante 5 a 10 segundos. O eletródio ativo era implantado estereotàxicamente segundo as coordenadas de König e Klippel. As lesões eram feitas parcial ou totalmente, uni ou bilateralmente, e em todos os animais procedeu-se ao controle histológico das áreas lesadas, usando-se o método de Weil. O registro da atividade elétrica cortical foi feito com polígrafo Beckman de 4 canais, utilizando-se derivações bipolares curtas (1mm com eletródios esféricos de platina. As experiências permitiram as seguintes conclusões: 1 — As características eletrofisiológicas dos fusos que ocorrem após lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica são muito semelhantes às dos fusos espontâneos e barbitúricos, inclusive quanto à projeção cortical. Quanto à duração dos potenciais que os constituem, contudo, notamos que a faixa de variação era mais centuada (20 a 80 ms, o que pode ser atribuído à maior complexidade dos potenciais do cérebro isolado, possivelmente pela falta de ação cronadora da formação reticular sobre o sistema sincronizador talâmico. 2 — Os mecanismos envolvidos na gênese dos fusos do sono barbitúrico ou espontâneo e os do cérebro isolado são, pelo menos em parte, dependentes do bloqueio da formação reticular mesencefálica. 3 — A formação reticular mesencefálica ativa preferencialmente o hemisfério cerebral homolateral; o contingente cruzado talvez seja mobilizado somente quando estímulos alertantes intensos atingem o tegmento mesencefálico. 4 — Além da formação reticular mesencefálica deve haver outros mecanismos ativadores corticais, visto que, em preparações agudas de cérebro isolado, observamos: a surtos de curta duração de atividade dessincronizada; b oscilações freqüentes do ECoG durante o registro

  8. Characterization of GABAergic neurons in rapid-eye-movement sleep controlling regions of the brainstem reticular formation in GAD67-green fluorescent protein knock-in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ritchie E; McKenna, James T; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Thakkar, Mahesh M; McCarley, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that brainstem GABAergic neurons may control rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, understanding their pharmacology/physiology has been hindered by difficulty in identification. Here we report that mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the GAD67 promoter (GAD67-GFP knock-in mice) exhibit numerous GFP-positive neurons in the central gray and reticular formation, allowing on-line identification in vitro. Small (10-15 microm) or medium-sized (15-25 microm) GFP-positive perikarya surrounded larger serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic and reticular neurons, and > 96% of neurons were double-labeled for GFP and GABA, confirming that GFP-positive neurons are GABAergic. Whole-cell recordings in brainstem regions important for promoting REM sleep [subcoeruleus (SubC) or pontine nucleus oralis (PnO) regions] revealed that GFP-positive neurons were spontaneously active at 3-12 Hz, fired tonically, and possessed a medium-sized depolarizing sag during hyperpolarizing steps. Many neurons also exhibited a small, low-threshold calcium spike. GFP-positive neurons were tested with pharmacological agents known to promote (carbachol) or inhibit (orexin A) REM sleep. SubC GFP-positive neurons were excited by the cholinergic agonist carbachol, whereas those in the PnO were either inhibited or excited. GFP-positive neurons in both areas were excited by orexins/hypocretins. These data are congruent with the hypothesis that carbachol-inhibited GABAergic PnO neurons project to, and inhibit, REM-on SubC reticular neurons during waking, whereas carbachol-excited SubC and PnO GABAergic neurons are involved in silencing locus coeruleus and dorsal raphe aminergic neurons during REM sleep. Orexinergic suppression of REM during waking is probably mediated in part via excitation of acetylcholine-inhibited GABAergic neurons.

  9. A pilot quantitative study of topographic correlation between reticular pseudodrusen and the choroidal vasculature using en face optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilraj S Grewal

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the topographic correlation between reticular pseudodrusen (RPD visualized on infrared reflectance (IR and choroidal vasculature using en-face volumetric spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. METHODS: A masked observer marked individual RPD on IR images using ImageJ (NIH, Bethesda, MD. Using the macular volume scan (Cirrus, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc, Dublin, CA, the RPE slab function was used to generate a C-scan of the most superficial choroidal vasculature. An independent masked grader created a topographic binary map of the choroidal vasculature by thresholding the en-face image, which was overlaid onto the IR map of RPD. For each IR image, ImageJ was used to generate a random set of dots as "control lesions". RESULTS: 17 eyes of 11 patients (78±13.7 years with RPD were analyzed. The average number of RPD lesions identified on IR images was 414±71.5, of which 49.6±4.3% were located overlying the choroidal vasculature, compared to 45.4±4.0% in controls (p = 0.014. 50.4±4.3% of lesions overlay the choroidal stroma, of which 76.5±3.1% were ≤3 pixels from the choroidal vessels. The percentage of RPD lesions located within ≤3 pixels from the choroidal vasculature was significantly greater than the percentage located ≥7 pixels away. (p<0.0001. Compared to controls (71.6±3.8%, RPD were more likely to be located ≤3 pixels away from choroidal vessels (p = 0.014. In contrast, control lesions were more likely to be ≥7 pixels away from choroidal vessels than RPD (9.1±1.9% vs. 4.8±1.2%, respectively, p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that RPD lesions follow the underlying choroidal vasculature. Approximately half the RPD directly overlay the choroidal vessels and the majority of the remaining lesions were ≤3 pixels (≤30 microns from the vessel edge, supporting the hypothesis that RPD maybe related to pathologic changes at the choroidal level.

  10. Reticular Chemistry and Metal-Organic Frameworks: Design and Synthesis of Functional Materials for Clean Energy Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal A.

    2017-06-01

    Gaining control over the assembly of crystalline solid-state materials has been significantly advanced through the field of reticular chemistry and metal organic frameworks (MOFs). MOFs have emerged as a unique modular class of porous materials amenable to a rational design with targeted properties for given applications. Several design approaches have been deployed to construct targeted functional MOFs, where desired structural and geometrical attributes are incorporated in preselected building units prior to the assembly process. This dissertation illustrates the merit of the molecular building block approach (MBB) for the rational construction and discovery of stable and highly porous MOFs, and their exploration as potential gas storage medium for sustainable and clean energy applications. Specifically, emphasis was placed on gaining insights into the structure-property relationships that impact the methane (CH4) storage in MOFs and its subsequent delivery. The foreseen gained understanding is essential for the design of new adsorbent materials or adjusting existing MOF platforms to encompass the desired features that subsequently afford meeting the challenging targets for methane storage in mobile and stationary applications.In this context, we report the successful use of the MBB approach for the design and deliberate construction of a series of novel isoreticular, highly porous and stable, aluminum based MOFs with the square-octahedral (soc) underlying net topology. From this platform, Al-soc-MOF-1, with more than 6000 m2/g apparent Langmuir specific surface area, exhibits outstanding gravimetric CH4 uptake (total and working capacities). It is shown experimentally, for the first time, that the Al-soc-MOF platform can address the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) challenging gravimetric and volumetric targets for the CH4 working capacity for on-board CH4 storage. Furthermore, Al-soc-MOF-1 exhibits the highest total gravimetric and volumetric uptake for carbon

  11. Evidence that adrenergic ventrolateral medullary cells are activated whereas precerebellar lateral reticular nucleus neurons are suppressed during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg M Stettner

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is generated in the brainstem by a distributed network of neurochemically distinct neurons. In the pons, the main subtypes are cholinergic and glutamatergic REMS-on cells and aminergic REMS-off cells. Pontine REMS-on cells send axons to the ventrolateral medulla (VLM, but little is known about REMS-related activity of VLM cells. In urethane-anesthetized rats, dorsomedial pontine injections of carbachol trigger REMS-like episodes that include cortical and hippocampal activation and suppression of motoneuronal activity; the episodes last 4-8 min and can be elicited repeatedly. We used this model to determine whether VLM catecholaminergic cells are silenced during REMS, as is typical of most aminergic neurons studied to date, and to investigate other REMS-related cells in this region. In 18 anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated rats, we obtained extracellular recordings from VLM cells when REMS-like episodes were elicited by pontine carbachol injections (10 mM, 10 nl. One major group were the cells that were activated during the episodes (n = 10. Their baseline firing rate of 3.7±2.1 (SD Hz increased to 9.7±2.1 Hz. Most were found in the adrenergic C1 region and at sites located less than 50 µm from dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive (DBH(+ neurons. Another major group were the silenced or suppressed cells (n = 35. Most were localized in the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN and distantly from any DBH(+ cells. Their baseline firing rates were 6.8±4.4 Hz and 15.8±7.1 Hz, respectively, with the activity of the latter reduced to 7.4±3.8 Hz. We conclude that, in contrast to the pontine noradrenergic cells that are silenced during REMS, medullary adrenergic C1 neurons, many of which drive the sympathetic output, are activated. Our data also show that afferent input transmitted to the cerebellum through the LRN is attenuated during REMS. This may distort the spatial representation of body position

  12. Gulf of Maine intermediate water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, T.S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Garfield, N. III

    1979-01-01

    The thermohaline dynamics of the Gulf of Maine are analyzed from the two year, eight cruise, data set of Colton, Marak, Nickerson, and Stoddard (1968). Six water masses are described: the Maine Surface Water, Maine Intermediate Water, and the Maine Bottom Water as interior water masses; and the Scotian Shelf Water, the Slope Water, and the Georges Bank Water as exterior water masses. Particular attention is given to the formation and disposition of the Maine Intermediate Water. Salt balance, T-S volume, and T-S drift analyses are used to provide transport and mixing estimates for the year 1966. The Slope Water entered at depth through the Northeast Channel at a rate of 2600 km/sup 3//yr; while the Scotian Shelf Water entered the surface and intermediate layers, mostly during winter intrusions, at a rate of 5200 km/sup 3//yr. The surface and intermediate layers exported a total of 7900 km/sup 3//yr in a 3:5 ratio, respectively. The Maine Intermediate Water tends to collect over the Wilkinson Basin during the stratified season, to exit via the Great South Channel during early spring, and to exit via the Northeast Channel during spring and summer. Comparisons are made between the estimated winter heat loss of 280 Ly/d and the observed heat losses of 230 Ly/d (surface layers) and 360 Ly/d (surface and intermediate layers). A limit for the Scotian Shelf Water contribution is about -70 Ly/d. It is concluded that the Maine Intermediate Water is produced locally and that it is exported in significant quantities.

  13. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  14. Intermediate filaments: from cell architecture to nanomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Harald; Bär, Harald; Kreplak, Laurent; Strelkov, Sergei V; Aebi, Ueli

    2007-07-01

    Intermediate filaments (IFs) constitute a major structural element of animal cells. They build two distinct systems, one in the nucleus and one in the cytoplasm. In both cases, their major function is assumed to be that of a mechanical stress absorber and an integrating device for the entire cytoskeleton. In line with this, recent disease mutations in human IF proteins indicate that the nanomechanical properties of cell-type-specific IFs are central to the pathogenesis of diseases as diverse as muscular dystrophy and premature ageing. However, the analysis of these various diseases suggests that IFs also have an important role in cell-type-specific physiological functions.

  15. Relaciones, redes y discurso: revisión y propuestas en torno al análisis reticular de datos textuales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lozares Colina, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace un repaso de las diferentes propuestas que dentro del ámbito de la sociología (o cercanos toman elementos de o se han inspirado en el Análisis de Redes Sociales para realizar el análisis de textos y/o discursos.A pesar de que la concepción relacionista tiene ya una cierta tradición en el análisis del discurso, no ha sido mas que a partir de la década de los ochenta que se han desarrollado propuestas que, con mayor o menor intensidad, aplican la idea y el instrumental de redes sociales al análisis de textos. No obstante, muchas propuestas no superan los problemas que llevan asociados los análisis de carácter atributivo y/o categorial. Sólo algunos procedimientos llegan a utilizar la aproximación reticular como forma de preservar la articulación, y con ello, la estructura semántica y sintáctica del texto. Al panorama de las escasas propuestas existentes que siguen esta orientación, el artículo incorpora los procedimientos (que denominados Análisis Reticular del Discurso que los autores vienen desarrollado sobre dicha perspectiva y que insisten además particularmente en el trabajo de interpretación y con-textualización del discurso.

  16. [Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the neutrophils of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood and by the monocytic-reticular cells of the cerebrospinal fluid in neuroinfections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska-Demczuk, K

    1980-01-01

    Using the method of Park et al. the author studied spontaneous and stimulated NBT reduction by neutrophil granulocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood, and by monocytic-reticular cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of the patients with bacterial and viral meningitis and meningismus. The author performed 333 investigations in 74 patients. Significantly higher mean values of the index of spontaneous and stimulated NBT reduction by the granulocytes and cerebrospinal fluid were observed in cases of bacterial meningitis as compared with the granulocytes of the peripheral blood in healthy subjects. It was demonstrated that in patients with bacterial meningitis blood and fluid granulocytes showed a similar phagocytic acitivty independent of the humoral environment. In the patients with bacterial and viral meningitis the monocytic-reticular cells the cerebrospinal fluid showed a similar, sometimes high, phagocytic activity depending on the phase and severity of the disease. On the otherhand, in most cases of meningismus these cells failed to manifest any phagocytic and bactericidal activity. In only few isolated cells in the fluid weak NBT reduction was observed. The obtained results of investigations showed the usefulness of the NBT test not only for the differential diagnosis of the aetiology of neuroinfections but also for the assessment of immune processes taking place in the nervous system.

  17. Independent and convergent signals from the pontomedullary reticular formation contribute to the control of posture and movement during reaching in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Bénédicte; Drew, Trevor

    2004-10-01

    We have addressed the nature of the postural control signals contained within the discharge activity of neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation, including reticulospinal neurons, during a reaching task in the cat. We recorded the activity of 142 neurons during ipsilateral reaching movements that required anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in the supporting limbs to maintain equilibrium. Discharge activity in 82/142 (58%) neurons was significantly increased before the onset of the reach. Most of these neurons discharged either in a phasic (22/82), tonic (10/82), or phasic/tonic (41/82) pattern. In each of these 3 groups, the onset of the discharge activity in some neurons was temporally related either to the go signal or to the onset of the movement. In many neurons, one component of the discharge sequence was better related to the go signal and another to the onset of the movement. Based on our previous behavioral study during the same task, we suggest that reticular neurons in which the discharge activity is better related to the go signal contribute to the initiation of the APAs that precede the movement. Neurons in which the discharge activity is better related to the movement signal might contribute to the initiation of the movement and to the production of the postural responses that accompany that movement. Together our results suggest the existence of neurons that signal posture and movement independently and others that encode a convergent signal that contributes to the control of both posture and movement.

  18. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  19. Organophosphate Poisoning and Intermediate Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yilmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxic effects that occur after acute organophosphate poisoning (OP can manifest three phases, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed-type polyneuropathy. Clinical signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning depend on the accumulation of acetylcholine at the nerve junction. Organophosphate poisoning causes three main clinical findings; acute cholinergic crisis consisting of muscarinic, nicotinic and central nervous system symptoms, intermediate syndrome with recurrence of cholinergic symptoms or muscle weakness without fasciculation 24-96 hours after poisoning and delayed-type polyneuropathy that can usually occur several days or weeks after acute exposure to organic phosphorus compounds. In this article, intermediate syndrome, which is a late complication, has been reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(1.000: 70-83

  20. Efeitos do pentobarbital sódico sobre a atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica Action of sodium pentobarbital on the cortical electrical activity of the rat after lesion of the midbrain reticular formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Para êste estudo foram empregados 35 ratos da raça Wistar em preparação aguda (24 com lesão bilateral e 11 com lesão unilateral da formação reticular mesencefálica e 18 preparações crônicas. O método empregado na obtenção das preparações foi descrito em trabalho anterior12. O objetivo desta série de experiências foi o de verificar de que maneira o pentobarbital interfere sobre as características da atividade elétrica cortical após lesão da formação reticular mesencefálica. Para tal, em animais preparados agudamente, foram feitas lesões progressivamente mais extensas e o barbitúrico injetado por via intravenosa em doses crescentes. A fim de testar a integridade do sistema reticular ativador ascendente, além de estímulos dolorosos intensos, aplicávamos pulsos de 5 a 10 V, 100 Hz, e 0,1 ms à formação reticular mesencefálica situada abaixo da região lesada. A ausência de reação de alerta cortical (dessincronização nos assegurava que tal sistema havia sido lesado completamente. Nas preparações crônicas o pentobarbital era injetado por via intraperitoneal. Dessas experiências concluimos o seguinte: 1. Aumento da sincronização do eletrocorticograma nos animais com lesões parciais ou totais da formação reticular mesencefálica. 2. Depressão acentuada e precoce da atividade elétrica cerebral nos ratos com lesão muito extensa (comprometendo também a porção ventrobasal do tálamo. 3. Isocronismo da atividade elétrica cortical nos dois hemisférios cerebrais. 4. O pentobarbital parece agir tanto sobre os sistemas ativadores como sobre o sincronizador do eletrocorticograma. As doses pequenas deprimem os primeiros, liberando o segundo, enquanto que as maiores bloqueiam também este último. Sòmente doses muito mais altas é que fazem desaparecer totalmente a atividade do córtex cerebral, que se mostra, portanto, mais resistente à ação da droga.This study was performed on 35 albino rats prepared for

  1. Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Radhey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5 to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.

  2. Cestina pro Pokrocile (Intermediate Czech).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Grazyna; And Others

    The textbook in intermediate Czech is designed for second-year students of the language and those who already have a basic knowledge of Czech grammar and vocabulary. It is appropriate for use in a traditional college language classroom, the business community, or a government language school. It can be covered in a year-long conventional…

  3. Learning through Literature: Geography, Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    This resource book provides specific strategies and activities for integrating the intermediate geography curriculum with related children's literature selections. The book includes the following sections: (1) "World Geography Overview"; (2) "Oceans"; (3) "Polar Regions"; (4) "Islands"; (5) "Rain Forests"; (6) "Mountains"; (7) "Forests"; (8)…

  4. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    a reduction in size, caused by crowding, virtually nothing is known about longer-lasting effects after transmission to the definitive host. This study is the first to use in vitro cultivation with feeding of adult trematodes to investigate how numbers of parasites in the intermediate host affect the size......Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... and fecundity of adult parasites. For this purpose, we examined two different infracommunities of parasites in crustacean hosts. Firstly, we used experimental infections of Maritrema novaezealandensis in the amphipod, Paracalliope novizealandiae, to investigate potential density-dependent effects in single...

  5. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  6. PERIPHERAL RETINOSCHISIS IN INTERMEDIATE UVEITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichi, Francesco; Srivastava, Sunil K; Nucci, Paolo; Baynes, Kimberly; Neri, Piergiorgio; Lowder, Careen Y

    2017-01-11

    To examine cases of intermediate uveitis complicated by retinoschisis and review the pathogenetic hypothesis. A retrospective chart review of patients with intermediate uveitis. Data were collected at three uveitis referral centers on sex, age, best-corrected visual acuity, degree of vitritis, extent and location of snowbanking, presence of hard exudates, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, and extent and nature of retinal elevations. A series of 23 eyes of 20 patients were examined; patient's age ranged from 10 years to 70 years and follow-up period from 8 months to 6 years. Twenty-two eyes had retinoschisis (95.6%), and 1 had retinoschisis associated with serous retinal detachment (4.3%). Extensive inferior pars plana exudates with snowbanking were present in 12 eyes (52.2%), whereas 3 eyes had inferior snowballs over the elevated retina. Neovascularization of the vitreous base accompanied by vitreous hemorrhage occurred in one eye. There was no coexisting macular pathology in 16 eyes, whereas 4 eyes had cystoid macular edema. The appearance of peripheral retinoschisis in this series of uncontrolled intermediate uveitis patients seems to be secondary to a complex balance between the persistent fluorescein leakage, a subclinical peripheral ischemia, and the constant low-grade vitreous inflammation that causes vitreous shrinkage and traction. The results of this study suggest that the absence of macroscopic changes in the retina does not preclude ischemic peripheral abnormalities, and the detection of a peripheral retinoschisis in an intermediate uveitis patient with active fluorescein leakage must suggest the need for a more aggressive form of treatment despite the good visual acuity.

  7. Behavior of parasite-specific effector CD8+ T cells in the brain and visualization of a kinesis-associated system of reticular fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Emma H; Harris, Tajie H; Mrass, Paulus; John, Beena; Tait, Elia D; Wu, Gregory F; Pepper, Marion; Wherry, E John; Dzierzinski, Florence; Roos, David; Haydon, Philip G; Laufer, Terri M; Weninger, Wolfgang; Hunter, Christopher A

    2009-02-20

    To understand lymphocyte behavior in the brain, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize effector CD8(+) T cells during toxoplasmic encephalitis. These cells displayed multiple behaviors with two distinct populations of cells apparent: one with a constrained pattern of migration and one with a highly migratory subset. The proportion of these populations varied over time associated with changes in antigen availability as well as T cell expression of the inhibitory receptor PD1. Unexpectedly, the movement of infiltrating cells was closely associated with an infection-induced reticular system of fibers. This observation suggests that, whereas in other tissues pre-existing scaffolds exist that guide lymphocyte migration, in the brain specialized structures are induced by inflammation that guide migration of T cells in this immune-privileged environment.

  8. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  9. Projections from the cat posterior lateral hypothalamus to the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus contain a GABAergic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Roza, Carmen; Martínez-Mena, Juana; Sánchez-Valle, María Elena; Reinoso-Suárez, Fernando

    2004-09-10

    The posterior lateral hypothalamus (PLH) has long been considered crucial to normal wakefulness while the ventral part of the oral pontine reticular nucleus (vRPO) is involved in the generation and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, to date, there is no information on the ultrastructure or neurotransmitter content of the hypothalamo-reticular projection. In the present study, we examined the morphology and synaptic organization of PLH terminals in the vRPO using PLH injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) as well as of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). Since some PLH neurons are GABAergic, we used a post-embedding immunogold technique to determine whether any anterogradely labeled terminals were GABA-immunopositive. Electron microscope analyses revealed a variety of ultrastructural features in the vRPO anterogradely labeled terminals. Although most labeled terminals (over 63%) formed symmetric synapses on vRPO somata and dendrites, others made asymmetric synapses on vRPO dendrites. The relative percentages of labeled terminals observed on large, medium and small diameter dendrites were 44.3 +/- 5.5%, 35.3 +/- 3.0% and 20.4 +/- 3.1%, respectively. Finally, post-embedding immunogold technique revealed that there are GABA-immunopositive and immunonegative components to this projection, indicating that GABA is one of the transmitters used by the PLH cells that project to the vRPO. Furthermore, most, if not all, of the GABA-labeled axon terminals formed symmetric synapsis. In conclusion, our results suggest that the PLH could modulate the physiological responses of vRPO neurons through a GABAergic pathway as well as by other inhibitory and/or excitatory pathways. Activation of the descending PLH GABAergic projection may inhibit the REM sleep-inducing neurons within the vRPO and thus contribute to the suppression of REM sleep activation during wakefulness.

  10. Role of physical anthropology in intermediate and secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Pamela C

    2005-01-01

    The role of physical anthropology in precollegiate education has been limited, but has the potential to play a vital and integral role in promoting students' understanding of themselves and others. This study describes the development, implementation, and results of a program constructed on an inquiry-based learning model that introduces middle and high school students to the content of physical anthropology. Demonstrated student learning indicates that intermediate and secondary students are capable of acquiring and applying complex content about human evolution and diversity. Program findings indicate that students frequently had previous knowledge about the hominid fossil record but little information about the significance of human biological diversity. Teaching intermediate and high school students about our common evolutionary heritage and the fact that humans exhibit clinal variation were found to be both powerful and effective content material. The fact that program participants lacked previous knowledge about the relationship between human biological diversity (illustrated in this program by light and dark skin color) and the erroneous sociocultural construction of this diversity confirmed the suspicion that this content is not being addressed in precollegiate education. Traditionally, intermediate and secondary students are taught about human variation within the context of social studies, reading, communication, and fine-arts classes. This program identifies a new paradigm for teaching about human variation. Providing students with scientific knowledge about human origins and diversity provides a constructive starting point, creating a common platform and knowledge base on which to then frame discussions about cultural variation. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  12. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  13. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...

  14. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  15. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  16. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate goals. 200.17 Section 200.17 Education... Programs Operated by Local Educational Agencies Adequate Yearly Progress (ayp) § 200.17 Intermediate goals. Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period...

  17. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  18. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middeldorp, Jinte; Kamphuis, Willem; Sluijs, Jacqueline A.; Achoui, Dalila; Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; van Tijn, Paula; Fischer, David F.; Berkers, Celia; Ovaa, Huib; Quinlan, Roy A.; Hol, Elly M.

    2009-01-01

    Increased expression of the astrocytic intermediate filament protein glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a characteristic of astrogliosis. This process occurs in the brain during aging and neurodegeneration and coincides with impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inhibition of the proteasome impairs protein degradation; therefore, we hypothesized that the increase in GFAP may be the result of impaired proteasomal activity in astrocytes. We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on GFAP expression and other intermediate filament proteins in human astrocytoma cells and in a rat brain model for astrogliosis. Extensive quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis resulted unexpectedly in a strong decrease of GFAP mRNA to Hol, E. M. Intermediate filament transcription in astrocytes is repressed by proteasome inhibition. PMID:19332645

  19. Intermediate view synthesis from stereoscopic images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Chaohui; An Ping; Zhang Zhaoyang

    2005-01-01

    A new method is proposed for synthesizing intermediate views from a pair of stereoscopic images. In order to synthesize high-quality intermediate views, the block matching method together with a simplified multi-window technique and dynamic programming is used in the process of disparity estimation. Then occlusion detection is performed to locate occluded regions and their disparities are compensated. After the projecton of the left-to-right and right-to-left disparities onto the intermediate image, intermediate view is synthesized considering occluded regions. Experimental results show that our synthesis method can obtain intermediate views with higher quality.

  20. ULTRASTRUCTURAL STUDY OF THE HEMOPOIETIC MICROENVIRONMENT IN HUMAN FETAL SPLEEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱莲; 朱萍; 李学均; 张丽; 迟凤琴; 吴振铎; 宋雁南; 张亚坤

    1994-01-01

    Reciprocal interations between hemopoietic stromal cells and immature hemopoietic cells in human spleens obtained from 20 fetuses of 10-28 weeks gestation were observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.The close association of stromal cells with immature hemopoietic cells was confirmed under the electron microscope and a preasumptive HIM(Hemopoietic inductive mocroenvironment) was visualized.In regions of immature hemopoietice cell-reticular cell,endothelial cell,macrophage and interdigitating cell contact,some communicating structures were found between the plasma membranes of adjacent cells.moreovcer,the cytoplasm of these four stromal cells were full of various kinds of organelles.These results suggest that reticular cells,endothelial cells,macrophages and interdigitating cells are component parts of the HIM of human fetal spleen and that these cells have a nurturing function in relation to hemopoietic cells.

  1. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  2. Intermediate Jacobians of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arapura, D; Arapura, Donu; Sastry, Pramathanath

    1996-01-01

    Let $SU_X(n,L)$ be the moduli space of rank n semistable vector bundles with fixed determinant L on a smooth projective genus g curve X. Let $SU_X^s(n,L)$ denote the open subset parametrizing stable bundles. We show that if g>3 and n > 1, then the mixed Hodge structure on $H^3(SU_X^s(n, L))$ is pure of type ${(1,2),(2,1)}$ and it carries a natural polarization such that the associated polarized intermediate Jacobian is isomorphic J(X). This is new when deg L and n are not coprime. As a corollary, we obtain a Torelli theorem that says roughly that $SU_X^s(n,L)$ (or $SU_X(n,L)$) determines X. This complements or refines earlier results of Balaji, Kouvidakis-Pantev, Mumford-Newstead, Narasimhan-Ramanan, and Tyurin.

  3. Intermediate inflation from rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2013-01-01

    It is possible to dualize theories based on deformed dispersion relations and Einstein gravity so as to map them into theories with trivial dispersion relations and rainbow gravity. This often leads to "dual inflation" without the usual breaking of the strong energy condition. We identify the dispersion relations in the original frame which map into "intermediate" inflationary models. These turn out to be particularly simple: power-laws modulated by powers of a logarithm. The fluctuations predicted by these scenarios are near, but not exactly scale-invariant, with a red running spectral index. These dispersion relations deserve further study within the context of quantum gravity and the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet.

  4. Technical note: A comparison of reticular and ruminal pH monitored continuously with 2 measurement systems at different weeks of early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M; Münger, A; Dohme-Meier, F

    2016-03-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis is one of the most important digestive disorders in high-yielding dairy cows fed highly fermentable diets. Monitoring of forestomach pH has been suggested as a potentially valuable tool for diagnosing subacute ruminal acidosis. The objective of the present study was to compare continuously recorded measurements of an indwelling telemetric pH sensor inserted orally in the reticulum with those obtained from a measurement system placed in the ventral sac of the rumen through a cannula. The experiment was conducted with 6 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows kept in a freestall barn. Equal numbers of cows were assigned to 2 treatment groups based on their previous lactation milk yield. Cows in treatment CON- were offered a diet consisting of only fresh herbage cut once daily, and cows in treatment CON+ got fresh herbage plus a concentrate supplement according to the individual milk yield of each cow to meet their predicted nutrient requirements. The experiment lasted from 2 wk before the predicted calving date until wk 8 of lactation. During the whole experiment, a pH value was recorded every 10 min in the reticulum using a wireless telemetry bolus including a pH sensor (eBolus, eCow Ltd., Exeter, Devon, UK), which had been applied orally using a balling gun. Simultaneously, in wk 2, before the estimated calving date and in wk 2, 4, 6, and 8 of lactation, the ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 48 h with the LRCpH measurement system (Dascor Inc., Escondido, CA) placed in the ventral sac of the rumen through the cannula. The readings of the LRCpH measurement system were summarized as an average over 10 min for statistical analysis. The recorded pH values were on average 0.24 pH units higher in the reticulum than in the rumen. The reticular pH also showed less fluctuation (overall SD 0.19 pH units) than pH profiles recorded in the rumen (overall SD 0.51 pH units). Regardless of measurement system, pH was not influenced by treatment, but varied

  5. Análisis del fenónemo de las personas sin hogar en los medios de comunicación escrita mayoritarios. Una aproximación desde el análisis reticular del discurso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz García Juan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se propone examinar algunos medios de prensa escrita de masas, en busca de el/los marco/s culturales utilizados para orientar, percibir, racionalizar y comprender el fenómeno del sinhogarismo; organizando y analizando el contenido de esto/s marco/s (conceptos, estereotipos, problemáticas asociadas, etc, y las relaciones entre ellos en forma reticular.

  6. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan J John

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  7. The Emotional Gatekeeper: A Computational Model of Attentional Selection and Suppression through the Pathway from the Amygdala to the Inhibitory Thalamic Reticular Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Yohan J; Zikopoulos, Basilis; Bullock, Daniel; Barbas, Helen

    2016-02-01

    In a complex environment that contains both opportunities and threats, it is important for an organism to flexibly direct attention based on current events and prior plans. The amygdala, the hub of the brain's emotional system, is involved in forming and signaling affective associations between stimuli and their consequences. The inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is a hub of the attentional system that gates thalamo-cortical signaling. In the primate brain, a recently discovered pathway from the amygdala sends robust projections to TRN. Here we used computational modeling to demonstrate how the amygdala-TRN pathway, embedded in a wider neural circuit, can mediate selective attention guided by emotions. Our Emotional Gatekeeper model demonstrates how this circuit enables focused top-down, and flexible bottom-up, allocation of attention. The model suggests that the amygdala-TRN projection can serve as a unique mechanism for emotion-guided selection of signals sent to cortex for further processing. This inhibitory selection mechanism can mediate a powerful affective 'framing' effect that may lead to biased decision-making in highly charged emotional situations. The model also supports the idea that the amygdala can serve as a relevance detection system. Further, the model demonstrates how abnormal top-down drive and dysregulated local inhibition in the amygdala and in the cortex can contribute to the attentional symptoms that accompany several neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Reticular Chemistry at Its Best: Directed Assembly of Hexagonal Building Units into the Awaited Metal-Organic Framework with the Intricate Polybenzene Topology, pbz-MOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alezi, Dalal; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Tsangarakis, Constantinos; Shkurenko, Aleksander; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; O Keeffe, Michael; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Trikalitis, Pantelis N

    2016-10-05

    The ability to direct the assembly of hexagonal building units offers great prospective to construct the awaited and looked-for hypothetical polybenzene (pbz) or "cubic graphite" structure, described 70 years ago. Here, we demonstrate the successful use of reticular chemistry as an appropriate strategy for the design and deliberate construction of a zirconium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with the intricate pbz underlying net topology. The judicious selection of the perquisite hexagonal building units, six connected organic and inorganic building blocks, allowed the formation of the pbz-MOF-1, the first example of a Zr(IV)-based MOF with pbz topology. Prominently, pbz-MOF-1 is highly porous, with associated pore size and pore volume of 13 Å and 0.99 cm(3) g(-1), respectively, and offers high gravimetric and volumetric methane storage capacities (0.23 g g(-1) and 210.4 cm(3) (STP) cm(-3) at 80 bar). Notably, the pbz-MOF-1 pore system permits the attainment of one of the highest CH4 adsorbed phase density enhancements at high pressures (0.15 and 0.21 g cm(-3) at 35 and 65 bar, respectively) as compared to benchmark microporous MOFs.

  9. Vitamins C and E attenuate apoptosis, beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ ATPase downregulation after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fuzhong; Yan, Chen; Patel, Ravish; Liu, Weimin; Dong, Erdan

    2006-05-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in mediating ventricular remodeling and dysfunction in heart failure (HF), but its mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. In this study we determined whether a combination of antioxidant vitamins reduced myocyte apoptosis, beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization, and sarcoplasmic reticular (SR) Ca2+ ATPase downregulation in HF after myocardial infarction (MI) and whether these effects were associated with amelioration of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction. Vitamins (vitamin C 300 mg and vitamin E 300 mg) were administered to rabbits 1 week after MI or sham operation for 11 weeks. The results showed that MI rabbits exhibited cardiac dilation and LV dysfunction measured by fractional shortening and the maximal rate of pressure rise (dP/dt), an index of contractility. These changes were associated with elevation of oxidative stress, decreases of mitochondrial Bcl-2 and cytochrome c proteins, increases of cytosolic Bax and cytochrome c proteins, caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and myocyte apoptosis, and downregulation of beta-adrenergic receptor sensitivity and SR Ca2+ ATPase. Combined treatment with vitamins C and E diminished oxidative stress, increased mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein, decreased cytosolic Bax, prevented cytochrome c release from mitochondria to cytosol, reduced caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and myocyte apoptosis, blocked beta-adrenergic receptor desensitization and SR Ca2+ ATPase downregulation, and attenuated LV dilation and dysfunction in HF after MI. The results suggest that antioxidant therapy may be beneficial in HF.

  10. Reticular Chemistry at Its Best: Directed Assembly of Hexagonal Building Units into the Awaited Metal-Organic Framework with the Intricate Polybenzene Topology, pbz-MOF

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal

    2016-10-05

    The ability to direct the assembly of hexagonal building units offers great prospective to construct the awaited and looked-for hypothetical polybenzene (pbz) or “cubic graphite” structure, described 70 years ago. Here, we demonstrate the successful use of reticular chemistry as an appropriate strategy for the design and deliberate construction of a zirconium-based metal–organic framework (MOF) with the intricate pbz underlying net topology. The judicious selection of the perquisite hexagonal building units, six connected organic and inorganic building blocks, allowed the formation of the pbz-MOF-1, the first example of a Zr(IV)-based MOF with pbz topology. Prominently, pbz-MOF-1 is highly porous, with associated pore size and pore volume of 13 Å and 0.99 cm3 g–1, respectively, and offers high gravimetric and volumetric methane storage capacities (0.23 g g–1 and 210.4 cm3 (STP) cm–3 at 80 bar). Notably, the pbz-MOF-1 pore system permits the attainment of one of the highest CH4 adsorbed phase density enhancements at high pressures (0.15 and 0.21 g cm–3 at 35 and 65 bar, respectively) as compared to benchmark microporous MOFs.

  11. A New Vaccinia Virus Intermediate Transcription Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz, Patrick; Moss, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Transcription of the vaccinia virus genome is mediated by a virus-encoded multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in conjunction with early-, intermediate-, and late-stage-specific factors. Previous studies indicated that two virus-encoded proteins (capping enzyme and VITF-1) and one unidentified cellular protein (VITF-2) are required for specific transcription of an intermediate promoter template in vitro. We have now extensively purified an additional virus-induced intermediate transcript...

  12. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  13. [Intermediate coronary care units: rationale, infrastructure, equipment, and referral criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Joaquín J; Sanz, Ginés; Guindo, Josep; García-Moll, Xavier; Bardají, Alfredo; Bueno, Héctor

    2007-04-01

    The Spanish Working Group on Coronary Artery Disease of Spanish Society of Cardiology has considered to be necessary the development of this document on the need, structure and organization of Intermediate Cardiac Care Units (ICCU). Acute coronary syndrome registries show that an important percentage of patients receive a suboptimal care, due to an inadequate management of health resources or absence of them. Intermediate cardiac care units arise to solve these challenges and to manage in an efficient way these expensive and limited resources. Their aims are: a) to provide each patient the level of care required; b) to optimize the structural, technical and human resources, and c) to make easier continuous care and care gradient. As a result, ICCU should be established as an essential part of the cardiology department aim to cardiac patients requiring monitoring and medical care superior to those available in a regular cardiac ward but whose risk does not justify the technical and human costs of a Coronary Unit. This document describes the structure (equipment, human resources, management) required to reach the goals previously reported and includes recommendations about indications of admission in a ICCU. These indications include: a) patients with NSTE-ACS with intermediate or high risk but hemodynamically stable, and b) low risk STEAMI or high risk STEAMI stabilized after an initial admission at the Coronary Unit. The admission of some patients undergoing invasive procedures or suffering non-coronary acute cardiac diseases, is also considered.

  14. Efeitos do pentobarbital sódico sobre a atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Para êste estudo foram empregados 35 ratos da raça Wistar em preparação aguda (24 com lesão bilateral e 11 com lesão unilateral da formação reticular mesencefálica e 18 preparações crônicas. O método empregado na obtenção das preparações foi descrito em trabalho anterior12. O objetivo desta série de experiências foi o de verificar de que maneira o pentobarbital interfere sobre as características da atividade elétrica cortical após lesão da formação reticular mesencefálica. Para tal, em animais preparados agudamente, foram feitas lesões progressivamente mais extensas e o barbitúrico injetado por via intravenosa em doses crescentes. A fim de testar a integridade do sistema reticular ativador ascendente, além de estímulos dolorosos intensos, aplicávamos pulsos de 5 a 10 V, 100 Hz, e 0,1 ms à formação reticular mesencefálica situada abaixo da região lesada. A ausência de reação de alerta cortical (dessincronização nos assegurava que tal sistema havia sido lesado completamente. Nas preparações crônicas o pentobarbital era injetado por via intraperitoneal. Dessas experiências concluimos o seguinte: 1. Aumento da sincronização do eletrocorticograma nos animais com lesões parciais ou totais da formação reticular mesencefálica. 2. Depressão acentuada e precoce da atividade elétrica cerebral nos ratos com lesão muito extensa (comprometendo também a porção ventrobasal do tálamo. 3. Isocronismo da atividade elétrica cortical nos dois hemisférios cerebrais. 4. O pentobarbital parece agir tanto sobre os sistemas ativadores como sobre o sincronizador do eletrocorticograma. As doses pequenas deprimem os primeiros, liberando o segundo, enquanto que as maiores bloqueiam também este último. Sòmente doses muito mais altas é que fazem desaparecer totalmente a atividade do córtex cerebral, que se mostra, portanto, mais resistente à ação da droga.

  15. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  16. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the:...

  17. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  18. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  19. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  20. INTERMEDIATE-ENERGY LIGHT SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, William

    2002-11-25

    from each port can be subdivided into several separate beams, each of which can serve an independent experimental station. All told, 50 or more scientific teams can simultaneously and independently conduct research using intense photon beams from a single intermediate-energy synchrotron radiation facility.

  1. Transmisión de cargas entre forjados y puntales en un edificio de forjado reticular de casetón perdido utilizando clareado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasch, I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests carried out during the construction of a building of flats with cast-in-place girderless hollow floor slab in Sabadell, Spain, using the shoring, clearing and striking (SCS process. Loads on shores were recorded during the different construction stages of floor slabs 1 to 6. The two first floor slabs had geometry different than the rest. The experimental results were used to analyse load transmission between slabs and shores during the construction of the building with a SCS process. The experimental results were compared with those obtained applying simplified methods that consider the real stiffness of the shoring, obtaining that the method with a better fit was the New Simplified Procedure.En el presente artículo se presentan los resultados de la instrumentación llevada a cabo durante la construcción de un edificio de viviendas resuelto con forjados reticulares de casetón perdido situado en Sabadell (España, en el que se ha empleado un proceso de cimbrado, clareado, descimbrado (CCD. Se han registrado las cargas debidas a las operaciones constructivas de CCD en puntales de los seis primeros forjados. Dichos registros han permitido analizar la transmisión de cargas entre forjados y puntales durante la construcción de este edificio, teniendo un proceso de CCD. El análisis de las medidas experimentales ha permitido concluir que la transmisión de cargas entre forjados y puntales difiere según las condiciones de contorno del vano estudiado. Asimismo, se han comparado las medidas experimentales con diversos métodos simplificados que permiten simular la operación del clareado, obteniendo que el método que mejor se ajusta es el Nuevo Procedimiento Simplificado.

  2. Aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system in a patient with mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: We report on a patient who developed aggravation of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) concurrent with aggravation of an injured ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), demonstrated by follow-up diffusion tensor tractographies (DTTs). Methods: A 42-year-old male patient experienced head trauma resulting from flexion-hyperextension injury after collision with another vehicle from behind while stopped at an intersection. The patient lost consciousness for approximately 10 seconds and experienced no post-traumatic amnesia following the accident. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 15. No specific lesion was observed on the conventional brain MRI performed at 10 weeks after onset. The patient complained of EDS after the head trauma and aggravation of EDS with passage of time. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicated abnormality with a score of 12 at 10 weeks after onset (cut-off: 10 points full mark: 24 score) and it was aggravated with a score of 18 at 16 months. Results: On 10-week DTT, decreased neural connectivity of the intralaminar thalamic nucleus to the prefrontal cortex and basal forebrain was observed in both hemispheres. However, no significant abnormality was observed in the dorsal and ventral lower ARAS. On 16-month DTT, the upper portion of the left dorsal lower ARAS showed partial tearing and the ventral lower ARAS showed thinning (both sides) and partial tearing (right side). Conclusions: Aggravation of EDS concurrent with aggravation of an injured ARAS was demonstrated in a patient with mild TBI using DTT. PMID:28121943

  3. Measuring the motor output of the pontomedullary reticular formation in the monkey: do stimulus-triggered averaging and stimulus trains produce comparable results in the upper limbs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Wendy J; Davidson, Adam G; Buford, John A

    2010-06-01

    The pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) of the monkey produces motor outputs to both upper limbs. EMG effects evoked from stimulus-triggered averaging (StimulusTA) were compared with effects from stimulus trains to determine whether both stimulation methods produced comparable results. Flexor and extensor muscles of scapulothoracic, shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints were studied bilaterally in two male M. fascicularis monkeys trained to perform a bilateral reaching task. The frequency of facilitation versus suppression responses evoked in the muscles was compared between methods. Stimulus trains were more efficient (94% of PMRF sites) in producing responses than StimulusTA (55%), and stimulus trains evoked responses from more muscles per site than from StimulusTA. Facilitation (72%) was more common from stimulus trains than StimulusTA (39%). In the overall results, a bilateral reciprocal activation pattern of ipsilateral flexor and contralateral extensor facilitation was evident for StimulusTA and stimulus trains. When the comparison was restricted to cases where both methods produced a response in a given muscle from the same site, agreement was very high, at 80%. For the remaining 20%, discrepancies were accounted for mainly by facilitation from stimulus trains when StimulusTA produced suppression, which was in agreement with the under-representation of suppression in the stimulus train data as a whole. To the extent that the stimulus train method may favor transmission through polysynaptic pathways, these results suggest that polysynaptic pathways from the PMRF more often produce facilitation in muscles that would typically demonstrate suppression with StimulusTA.

  4. Dopamine D4 receptor stimulation in GABAergic projections of the globus pallidus to the reticular thalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra reticulata of the rat decreases locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlij, David; Acosta-García, Jacqueline; Rojas-Márquez, Martín; González-Hernández, Brenda; Escartín-Perez, Erick; Aceves, Jorge; Florán, Benjamín

    2012-02-01

    Dopamine D4 receptors are localized in the GABAergic projections that globus pallidus (GP) neurons send to the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RTN), the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Deficient D4 function in this network could lead to hyperactivity and thus be important in generating some of the symptoms of ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), a condition associated with polymorphisms of dopamine D4 receptors. It is then, unexpected that systemic injections of D4 ligands have no significant effects on the motor activity of normal rats. We further examined this issue by microinjecting D4 ligands and psychostimulant drugs in relevant structures. Interstitial dopamine overflow in the RTN was increased by reverse microdialysis of both methylphenidate and methamphetamine. Intranuclear injections in the RTN of methylphenidate, methamphetamine and the selective D4 agonist PD 168,077 reduced motor activity. Intraperitoneal injection of the D4 antagonist L 745,870 blocked the effects of these intranuclear injections. Similarly, intranuclear injections of PD 168,077 in the SNr inhibited motor activity, an effect that was also blocked by intraperitoneal L 745,870. In rats with 6-OHDA induced hemiparkinsonism, intraperitoneal PD 168,077 produced ipsilateral turning behavior that was blocked by L 745,870. Our results suggest that diminished D4 signaling in GP projections could lead to increased traffic through the relay nuclei of the thalamus and hyperactivity. Hence this basal-ganglia-thalamus network may be one of the targets of the beneficial effects that psychostimulant drugs have in disorders associated with D4 receptor abnormalities. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'.

  5. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorella, Silvia; Rodrigo-Angulo, Margarita L; Núñez, Angel; Garzón, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins), mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (contributing to wakefulness) and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) nucleus (contributing to REM sleep). Anatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC, and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  6. GABA(A) receptors in the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse modulate neurochemical, electrographic, and behavioral phenotypes of wakefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, RaShonda R; Chang, Theresa; Lydic, Ralph; Baghdoyan, Helen A

    2010-09-15

    Drugs that potentiate transmission at GABA(A) receptors are widely used to enhance sleep and to cause general anesthesia. The mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that GABA(A) receptors in the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) of mouse modulate five phenotypes of arousal: sleep and wakefulness, cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) activity, acetylcholine (ACh) release in the PnO, breathing, and recovery time from general anesthesia. Microinjections into the PnO of saline (vehicle control), the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol, muscimol with the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline, and bicuculline alone were performed in male C57BL/6J mice (n = 33) implanted with EEG recording electrodes. Muscimol caused a significant increase in wakefulness and decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep. These effects were reversed by coadministration of bicuculline. Bicuculline administered alone caused a significant decrease in wakefulness and increase in NREM sleep and REM sleep. Muscimol significantly increased EEG power in the delta range (0.5-4 Hz) during wakefulness and in the theta range (4-9 Hz) during REM sleep. Dialysis delivery of bicuculline to the PnO of male mice (n = 18) anesthetized with isoflurane significantly increased ACh release in the PnO, decreased breathing rate, and increased anesthesia recovery time. All drug effects were concentration dependent. The effects on phenotypes of arousal support the conclusion that GABA(A) receptors in the PnO promote wakefulness and suggest that increasing GABAergic transmission in the PnO may be one mechanism underlying the phenomenon of paradoxical behavioral activation by some benzodiazepines.

  7. Sleep and GABA levels in the oral part of rat pontine reticular formation are decreased by local and systemic administration of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C J; Lydic, R; Baghdoyan, H A

    2007-01-05

    Morphine, a mu-opioid receptor agonist, is a commonly prescribed treatment for pain. Although highly efficacious, morphine has many unwanted side effects including disruption of sleep and obtundation of wakefulness. One mechanism by which morphine alters sleep and wakefulness may be by modulating GABAergic signaling in brain regions regulating arousal, including the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO). This study used in vivo microdialysis in unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rat to test the hypothesis that mu-opioid receptors modulate PnO GABA levels. Validation of the high performance liquid chromatographic technique used to quantify GABA was obtained by dialyzing the PnO (n=4 rats) with the GABA reuptake inhibitor nipecotic acid (500 microM). Nipecotic acid caused a 185+/-20% increase in PnO GABA levels, confirming chromatographic detection of GABA and demonstrating the existence of functional GABA transporters in rat PnO. Morphine caused a concentration-dependent decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=25 rats). Coadministration of morphine (100 microM) with naloxone (1 microM), a mu-opioid receptor antagonist, blocked the morphine-induced decrease in PnO GABA levels (n=5 rats). These results show for the first time that mu-opioid receptors in rat PnO modulate GABA levels. A second group of rats (n=6) was used to test the hypothesis that systemically administered morphine also decreases PnO GABA levels. I.v. morphine caused a significant (PPnO GABA levels relative to control i.v. infusions of saline. Finally, microinjections followed by 2 h recordings of electroencephalogram and electromyogram tested the hypothesis that PnO morphine administration disrupts sleep (n=8 rats). Morphine significantly (PPnO.

  8. Phase-dependent activity of neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus with saccharin intake in a cue-guided lever-manipulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuhei; Kato, Risako; Fujita, Satoshi; Shimada, Jun; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2017-03-01

    Neurons in the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus (rTRN) receive somatosensory and motor information and regulate neural activities of the thalamic nuclei. Previous studies showed that when activity in visual TRN neurons is suppressed prior to the visual stimuli in a visual detection task, the performance of the task improves. However, little is known about such changes in the rTRN preceding certain events. In the present study, we performed unit recordings in the rTRN in alert rats during a cue-guided lever-manipulation task in which saccharin was provided as a reward. Changes in neural activity during saccharin intake were observed in 56% (51 of 91) of the recorded neurons; the firing rates increased in 21 neurons and decreased in 23 neurons. Seven neurons both increased and decreased their firing rates during saccharin intake. Changes in firing rates during the reward-waiting stage between task termination and saccharin intake were also observed in 73% (37 of 51) of the neurons that responded to saccharin intake. Increased activity during saccharin intake did not correlate with increased activity during lever-manipulation or activity during the reward-waiting stage. However, decreased activity during saccharin intake was correlated with activity during the reward-waiting stage. These results suggest that rTRN neurons have phase-dependent changes in their activity and regulate the thalamic activities. Furthermore, the decreased activity of rTRN neurons before reward may contribute to refine somatosensory and motor information processing in the thalamic nuclei depending on the status of mind such as expectation and attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Synaptic interactions between perifornical lateral hypothalamic area, locus coeruleus nucleus and the oral pontine reticular nucleus are implicated in the stage succession during sleep-wakefulness cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eNunez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The perifornical area in the posterior lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH has been implicated in several physiological functions including the sleep-wakefulness regulation. The PeFLH area contains several cell types including those expressing orexins (Orx; also known as hypocretins, mainly located in the PeF nucleus. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the synaptic interactions between Orx neurons located in the PeFLH area and different brainstem neurons involved in the generation of wakefulness and sleep stages such as the locus coeruleus (LC nucleus (contributing to wakefulness and the oral pontine reticular nucleus (PnO nucleus (contributing to REM sleepAnatomical data demonstrated the existence of a neuronal network involving the PeFLH area, LC and the PnO nuclei that would control the sleep-wake cycle. Electrophysiological experiments indicated that PeFLH area had an excitatory effect on LC neurons. PeFLH stimulation increased the firing rate of LC neurons and induced an activation of the EEG. The excitatory effect evoked by PeFLH stimulation in LC neurons was blocked by the injection of the Orx-1 receptor antagonist SB-334867 into the LC. Similar electrical stimulation of the PeFLH area evoked an inhibition of PnO neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors because the effect was blocked by bicuculline application into the PnO. Our data also revealed that the LC and PnO nuclei exerted a feedback control on neuronal activity of PeFLH area. Electrical stimulation of LC facilitated firing activity of PeFLH neurons by activation of catecholaminergic receptors whereas PnO stimulation inhibited PeFLH neurons by activation of GABAergic receptors. In conclusion, Orx neurons of the PeFLH area seem to be an important organizer of the wakefulness and sleep stages in order to maintain a normal succession of stages during the sleep-wakefulness cycle.

  10. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  11. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  12. Biocatalysis: synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2006-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the safety and efficacy of many drug products and thus the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand for the bulk preparation of drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of the use of microorganisms and microorganism-derived enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral intermediates for drugs.

  13. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  14. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...... techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...

  15. The second national audit of intermediate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Gladman, John R F; Forsyth, Duncan R; Holditch, Claire

    2015-03-01

    Intermediate care services have developed internationally to expedite discharge from hospital and to provide an alternative to an emergency hospital admission. Inconsistencies in the evidence base and under-developed governance structures led to concerns about the care quality, outcomes and provision of intermediate care in the NHS. The National Audit of Intermediate Care was therefore established by an interdisciplinary group. The second national audit reported in 2013 and included crisis response teams, home-based and bed-based services in approximately a half of the NHS. The main findings were evidence of weak local strategic planning, considerable under-provision, delays in accessing the services and lack of mental health involvement in care. There was a very high level of positive patient experience reported across all types of intermediate care, though reported involvement with care decisions was less satisfactory.

  16. Use of dicarboxylic acids and polyphenols to attenuate reticular pH drop and acute phase response in dairy heifers fed a high grain diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, Roberta; Marchesini, Giorgio; Plaizier, Jan C; Li, Shucong; Khafipour, Ehsan; Ricci, Rebecca; Andrighetto, Igino; Segato, Severino

    2014-11-26

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of two feed additives, a fumarate-malate (FM) and a polyphenol-essential oil mixture (PM), in attenuating the drop of ruminal pH and the metabolic and immune response resulting from an excessively high grain diet. Six heifers were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square experiment and fed a low starch (LS) diet for 14 d, followed by a high starch (HS) diet for 8 d (NDF 33.6%, starch 30.0% DM). In the last 5 days of each period, barley meal was added to decrease rumen pH. During HS feeding all animals were randomly assigned to one of the following three dietary treatments: no supplement/control (CT), a daily dose of 60 g/d of FM, or 100 g/d of PM. Reticular pH was continuously recorded using wireless boluses. On d 21 of each period, rumen fluid was collected by rumenocentesis (1400 h), together with blood (0800 h) and fecal samples (0800, 1400, and 2100 h). The correlation coefficient of pH values obtained using the boluses and rumenocentesis was 0.83. Compared with CT and PM, the FM treatment led to a lower DMI. Nadir pH was lowest during CT (5.40, 5.69, and 5.62 for CT, FM and PM, respectively), confirming the effectiveness of both supplements in reducing the pH drop caused by high grain feeding. This result was confirmed by the highest average time spent daily below 5.6 pH (199, 16 and 18 min/d) and by the highest acetate to propionate ratio of the CT fed heifers. The PM decreased the concentrations of neutrophils (2.9, 3.2, and 2.8 10(9)/L) and acute phase proteins: SAA (37.1, 28.6 and 20.1 μg/mL), LBP (4.1, 3.8, and 2.9 μg/mL), and Hp (675, 695 and 601 μg/mL). Free lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were detected in blood and feces, but their concentrations were not affected by treatments, as the remaining blood variables. Data suggest that both additives could be useful in attenuating the effects of excessive grain feeding on rumen pH, but the PM supplement was more effective than FM in reducing the inflammatory response

  17. Effects of anticholinesterase agents on synaptic transmission in the in vitro and in vivo pontine reticular formation. An electrophysiological characterization of Medical Pontine Reticular Formation (MPRF) neuronal response to cholinergic and serotonergic activation. Annual report, 15 January 1989-30 September 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarley, R.W.; Greene, R.W.

    1990-10-30

    Carbachol treatment of medial pontine reticular formation neurons(mPRF) neurons resulted in depolarization associated with an increase in input resistance. The inward current elicited was dependent on extracellular potassium. Carbachol also elicited a hyperpolarization associated with a conductance increase also dependent on potassium. Muscarinic responses were relatively insensitive to pirenzepine indicating mediation by non-M1 receptors. Nicotinic agonists elicited a depolarization in 77% of neurons with an inward current and conductance increase. This response was sensitive to dihydro-B-ethroidine, an antagonist of neuromuscular type nicotinic responses. Application of soman resulted in depolarization and excitation of mPRF neurons. This action was absent in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Methacholine, responses were enhanced, consistent with mediation of the soman excitation by the blockage of esterase activity. Serotonin excited 62% of the neurons, associated with inward current. These responses had a reversal potential close to that expected for potassium, consistent with a decrease in potassium conductance. The remainder became hyperpolarized.

  18. Elogio de la ciudad reticular

    OpenAIRE

    González Capitel, Antón

    2004-01-01

    La ciudad no ha sido casi nunca un producto muy claro de decisiones racionales. Hijas de la geografía y del tiempo, las ciudades tuvieron muy a menudo una condición orgánica, cuya inconveniencia y excesiva irregularidad ha quedado frecuentemente compensada por el pintoresquismo que celebran tan a menudo diletantes y turistas. Hijas también del acontecimiento y 03 de la historia -como Rossi nos recordó lúcidamente-, de mitos y de ritos -como Rykwert ilustró con atractivo y acier...

  19. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  20. Intermediate filaments: a dynamic network that controls cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenbaum, Yosef; Aebi, Ueli

    2014-01-01

    In humans the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins is encoded by more than 70 different genes, which are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. IFs assemble into approximately 10 nm-wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. They are also required for organizing the microtubule and microfilament networks. In this review, we focus on the dynamics of IFs and how modifications regulate it. We also discuss the role of nuclear IF organization in determining nuclear mechanics as well as that of cytoplasmic IFs organization in maintaining cell stiffness, formation of lamellipodia, regulation of cell migration, and permitting cell adhesion.

  1. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  2. Outflow forces in intermediate mass star formation

    CERN Document Server

    van Kempen, T A; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; Belloche, A; Klaassen, P D; Leurini, S; Jose-Garcia, I San; Aykutalp, A; Choi, Y; Endo, A; Frieswijk, W; Harsono, D; Karska, A; Koumpia, E; van der Marel, N; Nagy, Z; Perez-Beaupuits, J P; Risacher, C; van Weeren, R J; Wyrowski, F; Yildiz, U A; Guesten, R; Boland, W; Baryshev, A

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate mass protostarsprovide a bridge between theories of low- and high-mass star formation. Emerging molecular outflows can be used to determine the influence of fragmentation and multiplicity on protostellar evolution through the correlation of outflow forces of intermediate mass protostars with the luminosity. The aim of this paper is to derive outflow forces from outflows of six intermediate mass protostellar regions and validate the apparent correlation between total luminosity and outflow force seen in earlier work, as well as remove uncertainties caused by different methodology. By comparing CO 6--5 observations obtained with APEX with non-LTE radiative transfer model predictions, optical depths, temperatures, densities of the gas of the molecular outflows are derived. Outflow forces, dynamical timescales and kinetic luminosities are subsequently calculated. Outflow parameters, including the forces, were derived for all sources. Temperatures in excess of 50 K were found for all flows, in line wi...

  3. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  4. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  5. Blue outliers among intermediate redshift quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, P; Stirpe, G M; Dultzin, D; Del Olmo, A; Martínez-Carballo, M A

    2015-01-01

    [Oiii]{\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 "blue outliers" -- that are suggestive of outflows in the narrow line region of quasars -- appear to be much more common at intermediate z (high luminosity) than at low z. About 40% of quasars in a Hamburg ESO intermediate-z sample of 52 sources qualify as blue outliers (i.e., quasars with [OIII] {\\lambda}{\\lambda}4959,5007 lines showing large systematic blueshifts with respect to rest frame). We discuss major findings on what has become an intriguing field in active galactic nuclei research and stress the relevance of blue outliers to feedback and host galaxy evolution.

  6. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  7. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs.

  8. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  9. The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawji, Edward; Schlitzer, Reiner; Dodas, Elena Masferrer; Abadie, Cyril; Abouchami, Wafa; Anderson, Robert F.; Baars, Oliver; Bakker, Karel; Baskaran, Mark; Bates, Nicholas R.; Bluhm, Katrin; Bowie, Andrew; Bown, Johann; Boye, Marie; Boyle, Edward A.; Branellec, Pierre; Bruland, Kenneth W.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Bucciarelli, Eva; Buesseler, Ken; Butler, Edward; Cai, Pinghe; Cardinal, Damien; Casciotti, Karen; Chaves, Joaquin; Cheng, Hai; Chever, Fanny; Church, Thomas M.; Colman, Albert S.; Conway, Tim M.; Croot, Peter L.; Cutter, Gregory A.; de Souza, Gregory F.; Dehairs, Frank; Deng, Feifei; Huong Thi Dieu, [Unknown; Dulaquais, Gabriel; Echegoyen-Sanz, Yolanda; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Fitzsimmons, Jessica; Fleisher, Martin; Frank, Martin; Friedrich, Jana; Fripiat, Francois; Galer, Stephen J. G.; Gamo, Toshitaka; Solsona, Ester Garcia; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Godoy, Jose Marcus; Gonzalez, Santiago; Grossteffan, Emilie; Hatta, Mariko; Hayes, Christopher T.; Heller, Maija Iris; Henderson, Gideon; Huang, Kuo-Fang; Jeandel, Catherine; Jenkins, William J.; John, Seth; Kenna, Timothy C.; Klunder, Maarten; Kretschmer, Sven; Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Laan, Patrick; Labatut, Marie; Lacan, Francois; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lannuzel, Delphine; le Moigne, Frederique; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J.; Lohan, Maeve C.; Lu, Yanbin; Masque, Pere; McClain, Charles R.; Measures, Christopher; Middag, Rob; Moffett, James; Navidad, Alicia; Nishioka, Jun; Noble, Abigail; Obata, Hajime; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Owens, Stephanie; Planchon, Frederic; Pradoux, Catherine; Puigcorbe, Viena; Quay, Paul; Radic, Amandine; Rehkaemper, Mark; Remenyi, Tomas; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Rintoul, Stephen; Robinson, Laura F.; Roeske, Tobias; Rosenberg, Mark; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Ryabenko, Evgenia; Saito, Mak A.; Roshan, Saeed; Salt, Lesley; Sarthou, Geraldine; Schauer, Ursula; Scott, Peter; Sedwick, Peter N.; Sha, Lijuan; Shiller, Alan M.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Smethie, William; Smith, Geoffrey J.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Speich, Sabrina; Stichel, Torben; Stutsman, Johnny; Swift, James H.; Tagliabue, Alessandro; Thomas, Alexander; Tsunogai, Urumu; Twining, Benjamin S.; van Aken, Hendrik M.; van Heuven, Steven; van Ooijen, Jan; van Weerlee, Evaline; Venchiarutti, Celia; Voelker, Antje H. L.; Wake, Bronwyn; Warner, Mark J.; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Wu, Jingfeng; Wyatt, Neil; Yoshikawa, Hisayuki; Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Zichen; Zieringer, Moritz; Zimmer, Louise A.; de Baar, Henricus

    2015-01-01

    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2014 (IDP2014) is the first publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2013. It consists of two parts: (1) a compilation of digital data for more than 200 trace

  10. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  11. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  12. Modern Persian: Intermediate Level, Vol. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windfuhr, Gernot; And Others

    The second of three volumes of an intergrated course in intermediate Persian is presented. This volume encompasses material appropriate for students entering the second year of Persian studies who have strong preparation in elementary Persian. Verbal skills should be on a level which will allow comprehensive discussion of a topic using simple,…

  13. Multiphase Gas in Intermediate Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C W; Charlton, J; Januzzi, B; Churchill, Chris; Mellon, Rick; Charlton, Jane

    2000-01-01

    We present 40 quasar absorption line systems at intermediate redshifts (z~1), with focus on one of the most kinematically complex known, as examples of how the unique capabilities of space-based and ground-based facilities can be combined to glean much broader insights into astrophysical systems.

  14. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  15. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  16. Teaching Vocabulary and Morphology in Intermediate Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Anthony; Kramer-Vida, Louisa; Hunt, Carolyn V.

    2015-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction of Tier 2 and Tier 3 words in intermediate-grade curricula is an important tool of literacy instruction because English is a language grafted from many roots and has not developed a one-to-one phoneme-grapheme correspondence. In addition to knowing graphemes and phonemes, students must formally learn words that cross…

  17. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond...

  18. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of cr

  19. Korean Intermediate Course. Selected Newspaper Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this material is to provide reading matter for the last phase of the Defense Language Institute's extended and intermediate courses in Korean. (See ED 024 943 for the Korean Basic Course, Lesson Units 1-112.) The content of this volume is current, introduces important vocabulary not encountered elsewhere in the courses, and calls…

  20. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  1. Intermediate Tamil: A Self-Instructional Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Harold

    This self-instructional method for learning an intermediate level of Tamil is designed to follow an elementary level such as "Conversational Tamil." The material in this text concentrates on grammatical constructions not covered in that elementary text, particularly negatives of all kinds; in addition, this text uses the same transcription and the…

  2. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  3. Synthesis of the key intermediate of ramelteon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Bao Yu; Hao Min Liu; Yu Luo; Wei Lu

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric conjugated addition of allylcopper reagents derived from an allyl Grignard reagent and CuBr·Me2S to chiral α,β-unsaturated N-acyl oxazolidinones has been achieved. The synthetic procedure was applied to the preparation of the key intermediate of the novel nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug, ramelteon.

  4. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sack; S. Watson

    2013-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  5. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA, exte

  6. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  7. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  8. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitas, Michael Marcondes de; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2016-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic or global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  9. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  10. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klos, T.B.; Alkemade, F.

    2005-01-01

    Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of the market, s

  11. Evolutionary Characteristics of China's Intermediate Manufactures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minsung Kang; Jeong-Dong Lee

    2007-01-01

    China's economic development is characterized by progressive integration with international production chains as an assembly producer. Japan and South Korea are the major partners providing intermediate products to China. The present paper analyzes the Chinese intermediate sector's present condition and evolutionary characteristics revealed in bilateral trade with Japan and South Korea. The analysis uses the framework of new trade theory represented by "intra-industry trade". Trade statistics from 1997 to 2004 are analyzed using the database published by the OECD. Results show that China's inter-industrial evolution is characterized by its expanding positioning in the manner of the flying geese development paradigm of Asian countries. Furthermore, intra-industrial evolution is characterized by a concentration on price competitiveness. The framework and results of the industrial analysis presented in this paper assist in the understanding of China's manufacturing evolution and of the policy-making decisions taken in the process.

  12. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...... functional ability permanently’. Key words: intermediate care, older people, discharge, interview, phenomenology...

  13. Is TW Pictoris really an intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, A J

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of a long ROSAT HRI observation of the candidate intermediate polar TW Pic. The power spectrum shows no sign of either the previously proposed white dwarf spin period or the proposed binary orbital period (1.996 hr and 6.06 hr respectively). The limits to the X-ray modulation are less than 0.3% in each case. In the absence of a coherent X-ray pulsation, the credentials of TW Pic for membership of the intermediate polar subclass must be suspect. We further suggest that the true orbital period of the binary may be the shorter of the two previously suggested, and that the longer period may represent a quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with the accretion disc.

  14. Emission of intermediate mass fragments during fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; de Souza, R. T.; Cornell, E.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulbert, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.; Wile, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Ternary fission in the reaction 4He + 232Th at Elab=200 MeV has been observed. Intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3fission. The widths of the energy spectra are relatively constant for neck fragments with Z>=4, suggesting little variability in the scission configurations. A linear dependence of on Z is observed for the neck IMFs. The observed trend is compared with a Coulomb trajectory model.

  15. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  16. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of credit rating analysts, and shows that this "revolving door" strengthens analysts' incentives to issue accurate ratings. The second chapter analyzes the value of experience for mutual fund managers a...

  17. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  18. Discovery of the intermediate W boson

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    Press conference on 25 January 1983 when the announcement was made of the discovery of the intermediate W boson at CERN. From right to left: Carlo Rubbia, spokesman of the UA1 experiment; Simon van der Meer, responsible for developing the stochastic cooling technique; Herwig Schopper, Director- General of CERN; Erwin Gabathuler, Research Director at CERN, and Pierre Darriulat, spokesman of the UA2 experiment, whose results confirmed those from Carlo Rubbia's experiment.

  19. Element Yields of Intermediate-Mass Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Henry, R B C

    2003-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars occupy the mass range between 0.8-8 solar masses. In this review, evolutionary models of these stars from numerous sources are compared in terms of their input physics and predicted yields. In particular, the results of Renzini & Voli, van den Hoek & Groenewegen, and Marigo are discussed. Generally speaking, it is shown that yields of He-4, C-12, and N-14 decrease with increasing metallicity, reduced mass loss rate, and increased rotation rate. Integrated yields and recently published chemical evolution model studies are used to assess the relative importance of intermediate mass and massive stars in terms of their contributions to universal element buildup. Intermediate mass stars appear to play a major role in the chemical evolution of N-14, a modest role in the case of C-12, and a small role for He-4. Furthermore, the time delay in their release of nuclear products appears to play an important part in explaining the apparent bimodality in the distribution of damped Lyman alp...

  20. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  1. 45 CFR 234.130 - Assistance in the form of institutional services in intermediate care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.130 Assistance... distinct parts. In a facility having distinct parts devoted to skilled nursing home care and intermediate... of care and treatment which a hospital or skilled nursing home (as that term is employed in title XIX...

  2. [Design of modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy system based on microcontroller unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuefei; Liu, Xianfeng; Peng, Daming

    2010-12-01

    This article is devoted to the design of a system for modulating intermediate frequency electrotherapy waveform output. Prescriptions with different output waveform combinations were produced using microcontroller unit (MCU). The rich output waveforms effectively improve tolerance of human adaptability and achieve a therapeutic effect.

  3. Hurricanes and coral reefs: The intermediate disturbance hypothesis revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, C. S.

    1993-11-01

    A review of research on the effects of hurricanes on coral reefs suggests that the intermediate disturbance hypothesis may be applicable to shallow reef zones dominated by branching or foliaceous coral species that are especially susceptible to mechanical damage from storms. Diversity ( H') increases because of an increase in evenness following destruction or removal of the species that was monopolizing the space. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis as presented by Connell focuses on changes in number of species, but should be expanded to include diversity ( H') and evenness. It should also be modified to incorporate changes in living cover and the time elapsed since disturbances of varying intensities. This hypothesis predicts that when cover is high, diversity will be low. However, research on coral reefs does not consistently demonstrate an inverse correlation of coral diversity, and coral cover. An increase in cover and decrease in diversity with depth would also be expected because deeper reef zones generally experience less disturbance. However, higher diversity (both H' and species richness) is often associated with deeper zones. The effects of hurricanes on coral reefs will depend on the temporal and spatial scales under consideration, the life history characteristics and morphology of the dominant species, the depth of the reef zone, the ecological history of the site, and the influence of any additional natural or human stresses.

  4. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  5. Comparative thallus anatomy of two Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycetes with reticulate maculae Anatomia comparada do talo de duas espécies de Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizados com máculas reticulares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Bissacot Barbosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Using conventional techniques for structural studies under conventional microscopy, polarizing light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy this work describes and compares the thallus anatomy of two Parmotrema species with reticulate maculae, previously included in the genus Rimelia: Parmotrema cetratum (Ach. Hale and P. clavuliferum (Räsänen Streimann. The data showed that the species are anatomically similar, including the presence of epicortex, the upper cortex anatomy and the characteristics of rhizines and ciliae. In the medulla of the two species there are star-shaped clusters of hyphae associated with the presence of salazinic acid. This study showed that the anatomical characteristics are constant for the Parmotrema group studied.Através de técnicas convencionais para estudos histológicos em microscopia de luz com auxílio de luz polarizada e microscopia eletrônica de varredura, é descrita e comparada a anatomia do talo de duas espécies de Parmotrema com máculas reticulares, antigamente gênero Rimelia: Parmotrema cetratum (Ach. Hale e P. clavuliferum (Räsänen Streimann. Os dados obtidos neste estudo mostram que as espécies são anatomicamente semelhantes, incluindo-se a presença de epicórtex, a anatomia do córtex superior e as características das rizinas e dos cílios. Na medula das duas espécies é possível observar a ocorrência de aglomerados de hifas em forma estrelada associados à presença de ácido salazínico medular. Este estudo indica que as características anatômicas são constantes para o grupo estudado de Parmotrema com máculas reticulares.

  6. Cryo-EM structures of two bovine adenovirus type 3 intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Lingpeng; Huang, Xiaoxing; Li, Xiaomin [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Xiong, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Sun, Wei; Yang, Chongwen; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Ying [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Liu, Hongrong [College of Physics and Information Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Huang, Xiaojun; Ji, Gang; Sun, Fei [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zheng, Congyi, E-mail: cctcc202@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Luo-jia-shan, Wuhan, Hubei 430072 (China); Zhu, Ping, E-mail: zhup@ibp.ac.cn [National Laboratory of Biomacromolecules, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Adenoviruses (Ads) infect hosts from all vertebrate species and have been investigated as vaccine vectors. We report here near-atomic structures of two bovine Ad type 3 (BAd3) intermediates obtained by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison between the two intermediate structures reveals that the differences are localized in the fivefold vertex region, while their facet structures are identical. The overall facet structure of BAd3 exhibits a similar structure to human Ads; however, BAd3 protein IX has a unique conformation. Mass spectrometry and cryo-electron tomography analyses indicate that one intermediate structure represents the stage during DNA encapsidation, whilst the other intermediate structure represents a later stage. These results also suggest that cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during, rather than after, the DNA encapsidation process. Overall, our results provide insights into the mechanism of Ad assembly, and allow the first structural comparison between human and nonhuman Ads at backbone level. - Highlights: • First structure of bovine adenovirus type 3. • Some channels are located at the vertex of intermediate during DNA encapsidation. • Protein IX exhibits a unique conformation of trimeric coiled–coiled structure. • Cleavage of precursor protein VI occurs during the DNA encapsidation process.

  7. Immuno-histochemistry and three-dimensional architecture of the intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells in mammalian hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Akira; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Kawazato, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Shimada, Tatsuo

    2014-12-01

    In mammalian hearts, Purkinje cells varied greatly in morphological appearance in different species, and were divided into three groups. Bovine Purkinje cells corresponding to group I were a large size, and had a few myofibrils and abundant intermediate filaments throughout the cytoplasm. The aim of the present study was to clarify the more detailed distribution and three-dimensional architecture of intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells. The hearts in various mammals including humans were investigated by both immuno-histochemistry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).Immuno-histochemical studies demonstrated that sheep Purkinje cells in group I had a great number of intermediate filaments of 10 nm positive for desmin antibody. Purkinje cells in group II (humans, monkeys and dogs) and group III (mice) were somewhat larger or smaller in size than myocardial cells, but also showed a strong positive reaction for desmin antibody. The saponin or NaOH treatment of cardiac tissues in sheep and humans enabled us to view intermediate filaments by SEM three-dimensionally. Intermediate filaments in sheep Purkinje cells formed a considerably delicate network, and were distributed throughout the cytoplasm. In contrast, those in human Purkinje cells were lower in density, and were present around the nucleus and between myofibrils. It was concluded that a delicate network of intermediate filaments in Purkinje cells of mammalian hearts acted as the cytoskeleton to maintain intercellular stability.

  8. Intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Tenerife, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Alonso, Aarón; Abreu-Yanes, Estefanía; Feliu, Carlos; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores; Valladares, Basilio; Foronda, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the causative agent of human angiostrongyliasis, the main clinical manifestation of which is eosinophilic meningitis. Although this parasite has been found recently in its definitive rat host in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), showing a widespread distribution over the north-east part of the island, there are no available data regarding which snail and/or slug species are acting as intermediate hosts on this island. Consequently, the objective of this work was to determine the possible role of three mollusc species, Plutonia lamarckii, Cornu aspersum and Theba pisana, as intermediate hosts of A. cantonensis in Tenerife. Between 2011 and 2014, 233 molluscs were collected from five biotopes where rats had been found previously to harbor either adult worms or antibodies against A. cantonensis, and the identification was carried out on the basis of morphological features and a LAMP technique. The prevalence of A. cantonensis larvae in the mollusc samples, based on morphological identification, was 19.3%, whereas 59 out of the 98 individuals (60.2%) analyzed by LAMP were positive. Positive results were obtained for the three mollusc species analyzed and two of the positive samples, both obtained from P. lamarckii, were confirmed as positive by 18S rRNA and ITS1 PCR. Sequence analysis of 18S rRNA PCR products showed 100% similarity with previously published A. cantonensis sequences. These results may be relevant from a public health point of view, since all the biotopes from which the samples were obtained were in inhabited areas or areas with human activity, but it is also important from the perspective of a possible transmission to other accidental hosts, such as dogs and horses, animals that are present in some of the areas analyzed.

  9. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  10. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas

    2017-07-04

    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer-type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the 'redox non-innocent' nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic application and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2N3, (RO)2P(=O)N3, ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of synthetically useful reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  12. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  13. q-Gamow States for intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Plastino, A; Zamora, D J

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [Nuc. Phys. A {\\bf 948}, (2016) 19] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit-Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized [Physica A {\\bf 388} (2009) 601] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously "detects" pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq.(3.30)

  14. The intermediate age open cluster NGC 2660

    CERN Document Server

    Sandrelli, S; Tosi, M P; Marconi, G

    1999-01-01

    We present CCD UBVI photometry of the intermediate old open cluster NGC2660, covering from the red giants region to about seven magnitudes below the main sequence turn-off. Using the synthetic Colour - Magnitude Diagram method, we estimate in a self-consistent way values for distance modulus ((m-M)0 ~= 12.2), reddening (E(B-V) ~= 0.40), metallicity ([Fe/H] about solar), and age (age ~ 1 Gyr). A 30% population of binary stars turns out to be probably present.

  15. Organophosphate poisoning: Diagnosis of intermediate syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poojara L

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate compound (OPC poisoning with suicidal intent is common in Indian ICUs. The effect of OPCs is to produce a persistent depolarization of the neuromuscular junction leading to muscle weakness. After initial recovery from cholinergic crisis, some patients have resurgence of respiratory muscle paralysis requiring continued ventilatory support. This is termed intermediate syndrome (IMS. This could be due to a change in the type of neuromuscular block to a non depolarisation block characterized by a fade on tetanic stimulation. However peripheral nerve stimulation using train-of-four ratio (TOF and/tetanus have failed to consistently show such a change. We elected to study whether electro physiological monitoring using repetitive nerve stimulation might show a decremental response during IMS. Material & Methods: This was a prospective blinded study done from April 2002 to March 2003 in our ICU. 45 consecutive patients of OPC poisoning admitted during this period were included in this study. Repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS using a train of ten at 3Hz 10Hz and 30Hz (slow , intermediate and fast speeds respectively at the median nerve was done on all patients on day 1, 4, 7 and every 4th day thereafter until discharge. Patients were ventilated until ready to wean as per our usual protocol. The results of the RNS study were not revealed to the intensivist. Results: 9 out of 45 patients required ventilation for more than 6 days and showed overt signs of intermediate syndrome - proximal muscle weakness, twitching and respiratory weakness. Only 2 patients out of the 9 had a decremental response on RNS at 3Hz indicating a post-junctional dysfunction at the motor end-plate, Both patients had consumed a very large quantity of OPC and were deeply comatose for >4 days and required ventilation for >12 days. All other patients with IMS showed no changes on RNS. The exact type of poison consumed varied with each individual patient. Conclusion: RNS

  16. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-10-01

    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the {sup 243} Am and for {sup 209} Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for {sup 243} Am are close to those for {sup 237} Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for {sup 209} Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  17. Observational constraints on dual intermediate inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, João

    2014-01-01

    We explore the observational implications of models of intermediate inflation driven by modified dispersion relations, specifically those representing the phenomenon of dimensional reduction in the ultraviolet limit. These models are distinct from the standard ones because they do not require violations of the strong energy condition, and this is reflected in their structure formation properties. We find that they can naturally accommodate deviations from exact scale-invariance. They also make clear predictions for the running of the spectral index and tensor modes, rendering the models straightforwardly falsifiable. We discuss the observational prospects for these models and the implications these may have for quantum gravity scenarios.

  18. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  19. Ligand Intermediates in Metal-Catalyzed Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladysz, John A.

    1999-07-31

    The longest-running goal of this project has been the synthesis, isolation, and physical chemical characterization of homogeneous transition metal complexes containing ligand types believed to be intermediates in the metal-catalyzed conversion of CO/H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and similar raw materials to organic fuels, feedstocks, etc. In the current project period, complexes that contain unusual new types of C{sub x}(carbide) and C{sub x}O{sub y} (carbon oxide) ligands have been emphasized. A new program in homogeneous fluorous phase catalysis has been launched as described in the final report.

  20. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    ) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short...... dynamics. This paper draws on qualitative data originating with interviews with industry representatives and can also be regarded as a preliminary approach to a broader project. The analysis distinguishes between relational capital at the intrafirm level (the network among the company's employees...

  1. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intermediate and rest stops. 37.201 Section 37.201... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes an intermediate or rest stop, a passenger with a disability, including an individual using a...

  2. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  3. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  4. Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Hernández

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial Intermediation, Monetary Uncertainty, and Bank Interest Margins This paper studies a simple model of financial intermediation in order to understand how the lending-borrowing spread or interest margin charged by financial intermediaries is determined in equilibrium in a monetary economy. The main conclusion of the paper concerns the effect on the spread of changes in the distribution of monetary innovations. Thus, changes in the monetary-policy-rule followed by the Central Bank which alter the volatility of inflation will have important effects on the interest margin and also on the amount of credit available to investors. A crosssection empirical analysis strongly supports our hypothesis:

  5. Keto-Enol Thermodynamics of Breslow Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mathias; Breugst, Martin; Neudörfl, Jörg-Martin; Sunoj, Raghavan B; Berkessel, Albrecht

    2016-04-20

    Breslow intermediates, first postulated in 1958, are pivotal intermediates in carbene-catalyzed umpolung. Attempts to isolate and characterize these fleeting amino enol species first met with success in 2012 when we found that saturated bis-Dipp/Mes imidazolidinylidenes readily form isolable, though reactive diamino enols with aldehydes and enals. In contrast, triazolylidenes, upon stoichiometric reaction with aldehydes, gave exclusively the keto tautomer, and no isolable enol. Herein, we present the synthesis of the "missing" keto tautomers of imidazolidinylidene-derived diamino enols, and computational thermodynamic data for 15 enol-ketone pairs derived from various carbenes/aldehydes. Electron-withdrawing substituents on the aldehyde favor enol formation, the same holds for N,N'-Dipp [2,6-di(2-propyl)phenyl] and N,N'-Mes [2,4,6-trimethylphenyl] substitution on the carbene component. The latter effect rests on stabilization of the diamino enol tautomer by Dipp substitution, and could be attributed to dispersive interaction of the 2-propyl groups with the enol moiety. For three enol-ketone pairs, equilibration of the thermodynamically disfavored tautomer was attempted with acids and bases but could not be effected, indicating kinetic inhibition of proton transfer.

  6. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F. (Argonne National Lab. (USA)); Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-10-09

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.).

  7. Intermediate energy neutron beams from the MURR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, R M; Herleth, W H

    1990-01-01

    Several reactors in the United States are potential candidates to deliver beams of intermediate energy neutrons for NCT. At this time, moderators, as compared to filters, appear to be the more effective means of tailoring the flux of these reactors. The objective is to sufficiently reduce the flux of fast neutrons while producing enough intermediate energy neutrons for treatments. At the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR), the code MCNP has recently been used to calculate doses in a phantom. First, "ideal" beams of 1, 35, and 1000 eV neutrons were analyzed to determine doses and advantage depths in the phantom. Second, a high quality beam that had been designed to fit in the thermal column of the MURR, was reanalyzed. MCNP calculations of the dose in phantom in this beam confirmed previous calculations and showed that this beam would be a nearly ideal one with neutrons of the desired energy and also a high neutron current. However, installation of this beam will require a significant modification of the thermal column of the MURR. Therefore, a second beam that is less difficult to build and install, but of lower neutron current, has been designed to fit in MURR port F. This beam is designed using inexpensive A1, S, and Pb. The doses calculated in the phantom placed in this beam show that it will be satisfactory for sample tests, animal tests, and possible initial patient trials. Producing this beam will require only modest modifications of the existing tube.

  8. HIV-1 DIS stem loop forms an obligatory bent kissing intermediate in the dimerization pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundigala, Hansini; Michaux, Jonathan B; Feig, Andrew L; Ennifar, Eric; Rueda, David

    2014-06-01

    The HIV-1 dimerization initiation sequence (DIS) is a conserved palindrome in the apical loop of a conserved hairpin motif in the 5'-untranslated region of its RNA genome. DIS hairpin plays an important role in genome dimerization by forming a 'kissing complex' between two complementary hairpins. Understanding the kinetics of this interaction is key to exploiting DIS as a possible human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug target. Here, we present a single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET) study of the dimerization reaction kinetics. Our data show the real-time formation and dissociation dynamics of individual kissing complexes, as well as the formation of the mature extended duplex complex that is ultimately required for virion packaging. Interestingly, the single-molecule trajectories reveal the presence of a previously unobserved bent intermediate required for extended duplex formation. The universally conserved A272 is essential for the formation of this intermediate, which is stabilized by Mg(2+), but not by K(+) cations. We propose a 3D model of a possible bent intermediate and a minimal dimerization pathway consisting of three steps with two obligatory intermediates (kissing complex and bent intermediate) and driven by Mg(2+) ions. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; Ten Brink, Uri; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  10. Intermediate thinnings as a source of energywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammallahti, K.; Laespae, O.; Nurmi, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), e-mail: kati.sammallahti@metla.fi, e-mail: otto.laspa@metla.fi, e-mail: juha.nurmi@metla.fi

    2010-07-01

    During 2008 and 2009 10 hectares of spruce stand was harvested with an energy wood method and 3,8 hectares with a conventional method. Average DBH was 21 cm, length 19 m and the number of stems per hectare was 674. The harvester productivity was in this study 10 % higher with the conventional method (36,2 m3 / ha) than with the energy wood method (32,6 m3 / ha). The second part of the study consisted baling with a Timberjack 1490D residue baler on an intermediate thinning. In 2008 residues were baled from a total area of 8,7 hectares. Total yield was 218 bales and yield per hectare was 26 bales. Yield per hour was 19,7 bales and the average time consumption per bale was 3,18 minutes. (orig.)

  11. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  12. Simulations of Oligomeric Intermediates in Prion Diseases

    CERN Document Server

    Mobley, D L; Singh, R R P; Kulkarni, R V; Slepoy, A; Mobley, David L.; Cox, Daniel L.; Singh, Rajiv R. P.; Kulkarni, Rahul V.; Slepoy, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    We extend our previous stochastic cellular automata based model for areal aggregation of prion proteins on neuronal surfaces. The new anisotropic model allow us to simulate both strong beta-sheet and weaker attachment bonds between proteins. Constraining binding directions allows us to generate aggregate structures with the hexagonal lattice symmetry found in recently observed in vitro experiments. We argue that these constraints on rules may correspond to underlying steric constraints on the aggregation process. We find that monomer dominated growth of the areal aggregate is too slow to account for some observed doubling time-to-incubation time ratios inferred from data, and so consider aggregation dominated by relatively stable but non-infectious oligomeric intermediates. We compare a kinetic theory analysis of oligomeric aggregation to spatially explicit simulations of the process. We find that with suitable rules for misfolding of oligomers, possibly due to water exclusion by the surrounding aggregate, th...

  13. [The intermediate syndrome during organophosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslama, A; Moutaouakkil, S; Charra, B; Menebhi, L

    2004-04-01

    Acute intoxication by organophosphate pesticides is frequent in Morocco. We report two cases of malathion poisoning complicated by intermediate syndrome. The purpose of this work is to describe distinctive features of this syndrome, it arises 48-96 h after the cholinergic crisis and it is characterized by respiratory paresis with difficulties of weaning from the assisted respiratory, deficit of proximal limbs, neck flexors, and cranial nerves. This syndrome coincides with the prolonged inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, and is not due to the necrosis of muscular fiber's necrosis. Both clinical and electromyographic features are explained by a combined pre- and postsynaptic dysfunction of the neuromuscular transmission. The difficulty of this syndrome lies in its rarity and also its severity, because of the respiratory failure, which justifies medical supervision in intensive care unit, for at least 96 h, in expectation for the respiratory distress, all the more cholinergic syndrome is intense.

  14. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  15. Intermediate Care Unit - defining substituyable admissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Hanne; Ekmann, Anette Addy

    Background: Elderly patients have excess risk of functional decline and development of delirium. Studies have shown that 14-27 % of hospitalizations among elderly patients are substitutable. To lower the risk of unwanted consequences of hospitalizations, we implemented an Intermediate Care Unit...... (TUE). TUE was established in collaboration between Bispebjerg Hospital and the City of Copenhagen and took in patients whose hospitalization was regarded as substitutable. TUE offered a quick diagnostic assessment by a cross sectoral team of hospital doctors and community nurses. Home care was offered...... Care Unit.' Methods: From September 17, 2012 - June 24, 2014, 969 patients were treated at TUE. We registered both demographic-, treatment- and medical data and furthermore functional related variables. We used logistic regression to test the association between a combined graded variable of EWS...

  16. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  17. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  18. Fission dynamics with systems of intermediate fissility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E Vardaci; A Di Nitto; P N Nadtochy; A Brondi; G La Rana; R Moro; M Cinausero; G Prete; N Gelli; E M Kozulin; G N Knyazheva; I M Itkis

    2015-08-01

    A 4 light charged particle spectrometer, called 8 LP, is in operation at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, for studying reaction mechanisms in low-energy heavy-ion reactions. Besides about 300 telescopes to detect light charged particles, the spectrometer is also equipped with an anular PPAC system to detect evaporation residues and a two-arm time-of-flight spectrometer to detect fission fragments. The spectrometer has been used in several fission dynamics studies using as a probe light charged particles in the fission and evaporation residues (ER) channels. This paper proposes a journey within some open questions about the fission dynamics and a review of the main results concerning nuclear dissipation and fission time-scale obtained from several of these studies. In particular, the advantages of using systems of intermediate fissility will be discussed.

  19. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  20. [Intermediate care units and noninvasive ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Heinrich F; Schönhofer, Bernd; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2006-04-15

    Intermediate care units (IMC) have been introduced to provide optimal patient management according to disease severity and to bridge the gap between intensive care (ICU) and general wards. Most patients that are referred to an IMC need monitoring and intensive analgetic treatment. Over the past years noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and weaning have emerged as important new forms of active treatment in the IMC. Most studies that have been published so far demonstrate that an IMC improves patient outcome and lowers costs, although randomized controlled trials are missing. NIV reduces mortality, the need for intubation as well as ICU and hospital length of stay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other disorders that cause respiratory failure. In many cases NIV can be performed in the IMC, a fact that reduces the number of ICU admissions, lowers costs and improves patient care. The high prevalence of pulmonary diseases and NIV emphasizes the importance of pneumologists as directors of both ICU and IMC.

  1. Precalibrating an intermediate complexity climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Neil R. [The Open University, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Cameron, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Rougier, Jonathan [University of Bristol, Department of Mathematics, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Credible climate predictions require a rational quantification of uncertainty, but full Bayesian calibration requires detailed estimates of prior probability distributions and covariances, which are difficult to obtain in practice. We describe a simplified procedure, termed precalibration, which provides an approximate quantification of uncertainty in climate prediction, and requires only that uncontroversially implausible values of certain inputs and outputs are identified. The method is applied to intermediate-complexity model simulations of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and confirms the existence of a cliff-edge catastrophe in freshwater-forcing input space. When uncertainty in 14 further parameters is taken into account, an implausible, AMOC-off, region remains as a robust feature of the model dynamics, but its location is found to depend strongly on values of the other parameters. (orig.)

  2. A traditional intermediate moisture meat: Beef cecina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cano, R; Dorantes-Alvarez, L; Hernandez-Sanchez, H; Gutierrez-Lopez, G F

    1994-01-01

    Cecina is an intermediate moisture meat produced and consumed to a large extent in Mexico. Four samples of cecina coming from different States of this country, were tested for water activity, colour, texture, fat, protein, moisture and chloride content. Sensory and microbiological analyses were also performed. Different fabrication methods for producing cecina were identified, involving large variations in the formulation of the product. There was a significant difference (P < 0·05) among samples regarding fat and chloride content, colour and texture. Differences in colour and saltiness were recorded through sensory analysis. Microbiological analysis showed higher counts than those recommended in the Mexican Official Standard for chopped and raw meat, due to poor sanitary conditions during production and marketing.

  3. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  4. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  5. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  6. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grin

    Full Text Available Withaferin A (WFA is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects.

  7. Orion ECLSS/Suit System Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barido, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The Intermediate Pressure Integrated Suit Test (IPIST) phase of the integrated system testing of the Orion Vehicle Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) technology was conducted for the Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. This test was performed in the eleven-foot human-rated vacuum chamber at the NASA Johnson Space Center by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division. This testing is the second phase of suit loop testing to demonstrate the viability of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) being developed for Orion. The IPIST configuration consisted of development hardware that included the CAMRAS, air revitalization loop fan and suit loop regulator. Two test subjects were in pressure suits at varying suit pressures. Follow-on testing, to be conducted in 2014, will utilize the same hardware with human test subjects in pressure suits at vacuum. This paper will discuss the results and findings of IPIST and will also discuss future testing.

  8. Assays to Study Consequences of Cytoplasmic Intermediate Filament Mutations: The Case of Epidermal Keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tong San; Ng, Yi Zhen; Badowski, Cedric; Dang, Tram; Common, John E A; Lacina, Lukas; Szeverényi, Ildikó; Lane, E Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the causative link between keratin mutations and a growing number of human diseases opened the way for a better understanding of the function of the whole intermediate filament families of cytoskeleton proteins. This chapter describes analytical approaches to identification and interpretation of the consequences of keratin mutations, from the clinical and diagnostic level to cells in tissue culture. Intermediate filament pathologies can be accurately diagnosed from skin biopsies and DNA samples. The Human Intermediate Filament Database collates reported mutations in intermediate filament genes and their diseases, and can help clinicians to establish accurate diagnoses, leading to disease stratification for genetic counseling, optimal care delivery, and future mutation-aligned new therapies. Looking at the best-studied keratinopathy, epidermolysis bullosa simplex, the generation of cell lines mimicking keratinopathies is described, in which tagged mutant keratins facilitate live-cell imaging to make use of today's powerful enhanced light microscopy modalities. Cell stress assays such as cell spreading and cell migration in scratch wound assays can interrogate the consequences of the compromised cytoskeletal network. Application of extrinsic stresses, such as heat, osmotic, or mechanical stress, can enhance the differentiation of mutant keratin cells from wild-type cells. To bring the experiments to the next level, 3D organotypic human cultures can be generated, and even grafted onto the backs of immunodeficient mice for greater in vivo relevance. While development of these assays has focused on mutant K5/K14 cells, the approaches are often applicable to mutations in other intermediate filaments, reinforcing fundamental commonalities in spite of diverse clinical pathologies.

  9. Efficient short step synthesis of Corey's tamiflu intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipassa, Nsiama Tienabe; Okamura, Hiroaki; Kina, Kengo; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Iwagawa, Tetsuo

    2008-03-01

    Corey's tamiflu intermediate was synthesized from a bicyclolactam adduct obtained by base-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction of N-nosyl-3-hydroxy-2-pyridone with ethyl acrylate. A compound that has the same array of functional groups with the Corey's intermediate was obtained in four steps from the DA adduct in 47% overall yield. The intermediate itself was also prepared efficiently by simply changing the protective group.

  10. Structure Characterization of the Folding Intermediates of Proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Although the native state and the fully unfolded state of proteins have been extensively studied, the folding pathway and intermediates in the protein folding process have not been thoroughly investigated.To understand the mechanisms of protein folding, the early intermediates in the protein folding process must be clearly characterized.The present paper is a mini review containing 20 references involving studies on folding intermediates of several proteins.

  11. Structure and Mechanistic Implications of a Tryptophan Synthase Quinonoid Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barends,T.; Domratcheva, T.; Kulik, V.; Blumenstein, L.; Niks, D.; Dunn, M.; Schlichting, I.

    2008-01-01

    Quinonoid intermediates play a key role in the catalytic mechanism of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. Whereas structures of other PLP-bound reaction intermediates have been determined, a high-quality structure of a quinonoid species has not been reported. We present the crystal structure of the indoline quinonoid intermediate of tryptophan synthase (see figure) and discuss its implications for the enzymatic mechanism and allosteric regulation.

  12. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Melnick, J; Toledo, I; Selman, F J; Quintana, H

    2012-01-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the Intra-Cluster Light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in-situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds onto the cluster. The models make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. However, these models also over-predict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of a dumb-bell dominated intermediate redshift (z=0.29) X-ray cluster for which we have deep MOS data obtained with the FORS2 instrument. In a previous paper we have proposed that the dumbell galaxy act as a grinding machine tearing to pieces t...

  13. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  14. Corrosion inhibitors for intermediate cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, I.; Suhr, L.

    1985-04-01

    The selected inhibitors were tested for heat and radiation stability and corrosion protection on the bench scale. Based on the results from these tests two of the products were selected, Bycoguard 81 and Bycoguard MP4S for continuing corrosion tests in an autoclave loop at 90 degrees C and 120 degrees C. Oxygen saturated deionized water with an addition of 1 ppm chloride was recirculated in the loop. Samples of copper and carbon steel were exposed to the water in the autoclave for periods up to 10 weeks. The purpose of this project was to find a substitute for hydrazine and chromates. Besides good corrosion protection qualities the toxic and environmental effect of the inhibitors should be minimal. The investigation has shown that the copper inhibitor BTA (benzotriazole) loses its corrosion protection qualities at a water temperature of 120 degrees C. The protection effects at 90 degrees C were satisfactory for both of the materials. The corrosion rates measured were 0.01 mm/y or less for the copper and carbon steel samples. The environment in the autoclave during the testing was more corrosive than is to be found in intermediate cooling systems. Due to the low corrosion rates measured the two inhibitors are to be recommended as alternatives to hydrazine and chromates.

  15. Molecular phylogeny of metazoan intermediate filament proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erber, A; Riemer, D; Bovenschulte, M; Weber, K

    1998-12-01

    We have cloned cytoplasmic intermediate filament (IF) proteins from a large number of invertebrate phyla using cDNA probes, the monoclonal antibody IFA, peptide sequence information, and various RT-PCR procedures. Novel IF protein sequences reported here include the urochordata and nine protostomic phyla, i.e., Annelida, Brachiopoda, Chaetognatha, Echiura, Nematomorpha, Nemertea, Platyhelminthes, Phoronida, and Sipuncula. Taken together with the wealth of data on IF proteins of vertebrates and the results on IF proteins of Cephalochordata, Mollusca, Annelida, and Nematoda, two IF prototypes emerge. The L-type, which includes 35 sequences from 11 protostomic phyla, shares with the nuclear lamins the long version of the coil 1b subdomain and, in most cases, a homology segment of some 120 residues in the carboxyterminal tail domain. The S-type, which includes all four subfamilies (types I to IV) of vertebrate IF proteins, lacks 42 residues in the coil 1b subdomain and the carboxyterminal lamin homology segment. Since IF proteins from all three phyla of the chordates have the 42-residue deletion, this deletion arose in a progenitor prior to the divergence of the chordates into the urochordate, cephalochordate, and vertebrate lineages, possibly already at the origin of the deuterostomic branch. Four phyla recently placed into the protostomia on grounds of their 18S rDNA sequences (Brachiopoda, Nemertea, Phoronida, and Platyhelminthes) show IF proteins of the L-type and fit by sequence identity criteria into the lophotrochozoic branch of the protostomia.

  16. Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filament Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Elisabeth E; Janmey, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Purified intermediate filament (IF) proteins can be reassembled in vitro to produce polymers closely resembling those found in cells, and these filaments form viscoelastic gels. The cross-links holding IFs together in the network include specific bonds between polypeptides extending from the filament surface and ionic interactions mediated by divalent cations. IF networks exhibit striking nonlinear elasticity with stiffness, as quantified by shear modulus, increasing an order of magnitude as the networks are deformed to large strains resembling those that soft tissues undergo in vivo. Individual IFs can be stretched to more than two or three times their resting length without breaking. At least 10 different rheometric methods have been used to quantify the viscoelasticity of IF networks over a wide range of timescales and strain magnitudes. The mechanical roles of different classes of cytoplasmic IFs on mesenchymal and epithelial cells in culture have also been studied by an even wider range of microrheological methods. These studies have documented the effects on cell mechanics when IFs are genetically or pharmacologically disrupted or when normal or mutant IF proteins are exogenously expressed in cells. Consistent with in vitro rheology, the mechanical role of IFs is more apparent as cells are subjected to larger and more frequent deformations.

  17. Is T Leonis a superoutbursting intermediate polar?

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2004-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton analysis of the cataclysmic variable T Leo. The X-ray light curve shows sinusoidal variation on a period P_x equal to 0.89^{+0.14}_{-0.10} times the previously spectroscopically determined orbital period. Furthermore, we find a signal in the power spectrum at 414 sec that could be attributed to the spin period of the white dwarf. If true, T Leo would be the first confirmed superoutbursting intermediate polar IP). The spin profile is double-peaked with a peak separation of about 1/3 spin phases. This appears to be a typical feature for IPs with a small magnetic field and fast white dwarf rotation. An alternative explanation is that the 414 sec signal is a Quasi-periodic Oscillation (QPO) that is caused by mass transfer variation from the secondary, a bright region (``blob'') rotating in the disc at a radius of approximately ~9 Rwd or - more likely - a travelling wave close to the inner disc edge of a dwarf nova with a low field white dwarf. The XMM-Newton RGS spectra reveal double peak...

  18. Fluorine production in intermediate-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Mowlavi, N; Arnould, M

    1996-01-01

    The 19F production during the first dozen thermal pulses of AGB stars with (M=3,Z=0.02), (M=6,Z=0.02) and (M=3,Z=0.001) is investigated on grounds of detailed stellar models and of revised rates for 15N(a,g)19F and 18O(a,g)22Ne. These calculations confirm an early expectation that 19F {\\it is} produced in AGB thermal pulses. They also enlarge substantially these previous results by showing that the variations of the level of 19F production during the evolution is very sensitive to the maximum temperature reached at the base of the pulse. These variations are analyzed in detail, and are shown to result from a subtle balance between different nuclear effects (mainly 19F production or destruction in a pulse, and 15N synthesis during the interpulse), possibly super-imposed on dilution effects in more or less extended pulse convective tongues. Our calculations, as most others, do not predict the third dredge-up self- consistently. When parametrized, it appears that our models of intermediate-mass AGB stars are abl...

  19. Methanogenic toluene metabolism: community structure and intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, S Jane; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph W; Suflita, Joseph M; Gieg, Lisa M

    2012-03-01

    Toluene is a model compound used to study the anaerobic biotransformation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Reports indicate that toluene is transformed via fumarate addition to form benzylsuccinate or by unknown mechanisms to form hydroxylated intermediates under methanogenic conditions. We investigated the mechanism(s) of syntrophic toluene metabolism by a newly described methanogenic enrichment from a gas condensate-contaminated aquifer. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that the culture was comprised mainly of Clostridiales. The predominant methanogens affiliated with the Methanomicrobiales. Methane production from toluene ranged from 72% to 79% of that stoichiometrically predicted. Isotope studies using (13)C(7) toluene showed that benzylsuccinate and benzoate transiently accumulated revealing that members of this consortium can catalyse fumarate addition and subsequent reactions. Detection of a BssA gene fragment in this culture further supported fumarate addition as a mechanism of toluene activation. Transient formation of cresols, benzylalcohol, hydroquinone and methylhydroquinone suggested alternative mechanism(s) for toluene metabolism. However, incubations of the consortium with (18)O-H(2)O showed that the hydroxyl group in these metabolites did not originate from water and abiotic control experiments revealed abiotic formation of hydroxylated species due to reactions of toluene with sulfide and oxygen. Our results suggest that toluene is activated by fumarate addition, presumably by the dominant Clostridiales. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. 微囊性/网状神经鞘瘤的临床病理特点%Microcystic/reticular schwannoma occurring in cervical spine: report of a case with literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 王加伟; 魏红权

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the morphologic characteristics, immunophenotype and differential diagnosis of a case of microcystic/reticular schwannoma occurring in cervical spine. Methods The pathologic features and immunophenotypic profile of a case of microcystic/reticular schwannoma were studied. Immunohistochemistry was performed using EnVision two-step method. Results The patient was a 35 -year-old male and presented with a bump over the fifth cervical spine on radiologic check up. Crossly,the bump was gray-white in color, soft, well-circumscribed but non-encapsulated. The tumor measured 3.5 cm ×3.0 cm × 1. 8 cm in size. Histologically, it was composed of two distinctive components. One component resembled the conventional schwannoma but showed focally nuclear pleomorphism, reminiscent of changes in degenerating schwannoma. The other component consisted of epithelial-like cells arranged in a reticular or lacelike pattern, amongst a myxoid matrix. Immunohistochemical study showed that the tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neuron-specific enolase, focally positive for CD68, CD10 and Ki-67, and negative for pan-cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, neurofilament, carcinoembryonic antigen, smooth muscle actin, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and p53. Conclusions Microcystic/reticular schwannoma is a novel variant of schwannoma,arising mainly in internal viscera but seldom in bone. Awareness of this entity is helpful in distinction from chordoma, other mucoid tumors or sarcomas.%目的 探讨微囊性/网状神经鞘瘤的形态学和免疫表型特点及鉴别诊断.方法 收集1例发生在颈椎的微囊性/网状神经鞘瘤,根据HE切片和免疫组织化学染色观察形态学及免疫表型特点,并复习相关文献.免疫组织化学采用EnVision两步法.结果 患者男,35岁,因颈部不适就诊,影像学检查见颈5椎体破坏,肿块周围有硬化带,考虑良性病变.手

  1. Biology and Control of Snail Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in The People's Republic of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Z.J.; Ge, J; Dai, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a severe parasitic disease in The People's Republic of China and imposed considerable burden on human and domestic animal health and socioeconomic development. The significant achievement in schistosomiasis control has been made in last 60years. ....... Oncomelania hupensis as the only intermediate host of S. japonicum plays a key role in disease transmission. The habitat complexity of the snails challenges to effective control. In this review we share the experiences in control and research of O. hupensis....

  2. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos.

  3. HIV-1 gp41 Fusion Intermediate: A Target for HIV Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungen Pan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection is initiated by the binding of gp120 envelope glyco-protein to its cell receptor (CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5, followed by a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane subunit. These changes include insertion of fusion peptide into the target cell membrane and association of C-heptad repeat (CHR peptide with the N-heptad repeat (NHR trimer, a pre-hairpin fusion intermediate. A stable six-helix bundle core is then formed, bringing the viral envelope and target cell membrane into close proximity for fusion. Peptides derived from the CHR region, such as T20 and C34, inhibit HIV-1 fusion by interacting with the gp41 fusion intermediate. A number of anti-HIV-1 peptides and small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 NHR-trimer have been identified. By combining HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting different sites in the gp41 fusion intermediate, a potent synergistic effect takes place, resulting in a potential new therapeutic strategy for the HIV infection/AIDS. Here, we present an overview of the current development of anti-HIV drugs, particularly those targeting the gp41 fusion intermediate.

  4. Mapping intermediate degradation products of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Nemes, Peter; Guo, Ji

    2017-05-17

    There is widespread interest in using absorbable polymers, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), as components in the design and manufacture of new-generation drug eluting stents (DES). PLGA undergoes hydrolysis to progressively degrade through intermediate chemical entities to simple organic acids that are ultimately absorbed by the human body. Understanding the composition and structure of these intermediate degradation products is critical not only to elucidate polymer degradation pathways accurately, but also to assess the safety and performance of absorbable cardiovascular implants. However, analytical approaches to determining the intermediate degradation products have yet to be established and evaluated in a standard or regulatory setting. Hence, we developed a methodology using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to qualitatively and quantitatively describe intermediate degradation products generated in vitro from two PLGA formulations commonly used in DES. Furthermore, we assessed the temporal evolution of these degradation products using time-lapse experiments. Our data demonstrated that PLGA degradation products via heterogeneous cleavage of ester bonds are modulated by multiple intrinsic and environmental factors, including polymer chemical composition, degradants solubility in water, and polymer synthesis process. We anticipate the methodologies and outcomes presented in this work will elevate the mechanistic understanding of comprehensive degradation profiles of absorbable polymeric devices, and facilitate the design and regulation of cardiovascular implants by supporting the assessments of the associated biological response to degradation products. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  6. Incoherence in the South African Labour Market for Intermediate Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraak, Andre

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the production and employment of technically skilled labour at the intermediate level in South Africa. Three differing labour market pathways to intermediate skilling are identified. These are: the traditional apprenticeship route, the new "Learnerships" pathway (similar to the "modern…

  7. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than...

  8. An architecture for recycling intermediates in a column-store

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, M.G.; Kersten, M.L.; Nes, N.J.; Goncalves, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic recycling intermediate results to improve both query response time and throughput is a grand challenge for state-of-the-art databases. Tuples are loaded and streamed through a tuple-at-a-time processing pipeline, avoiding materialisation of intermediates as much as possible. This limits th

  9. Molecular diagnosis of intermediate and severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, B G; Lange, P;

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large.......We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large....

  10. A highly efficient synthesis of itraconazole intermediates and their analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Chong Il; Myoung, Young Chan; Choi, Ha Young; Kim, Seung Jin [Agency for Technology and Standards, Gwacheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    Itraconazole is an important drug for oral treatment of histoplasmosis and blastomycosis. Itraconazole has been the targets of many synthetic efforts due to their diverse antifungal activities. In this study, an efficient synthetic route for Itraconazole intermediates has been developed using new procedures. Also, Itraconazole analogues introducing 2- and 3-methoxy group instead of Itraconazole intermediates with 4-methoxy group were synthesized.

  11. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  12. 29 CFR 452.81 - Rights in intermediate body elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rights in intermediate body elections. 452.81 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.81 Rights in intermediate body elections. While the literal language in section 401(c) relating to distribution of campaign literature and...

  13. Leaf as a Template for Reticular TiO2 and Fex/TiO2 : Synthesis, Characterization and Photo-catalytic Activities%树叶为模板制备网状TiO2和Fex/TiO2及光催化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡莉; 张姝; 杨飞; 毕剑

    2012-01-01

    The reticular TiO2 and Fex/TiO2 photo-catalytic materials were prepared by using the leaves of phoenix tree as the template. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron mi- croscopy ( SEM), X-ray diffraction ( XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ( XPS), photoluminescence (PL) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results show that the prepared Feo o05/TiO2 was reticular. When the calcination tem- perature increases from 600 to 800 ~C, content of anatase TiO2 in reticular TiO2 and Feo 0os/TiO/prepared was de- creased and doped Fe3+ can lead to the transition of anatase to rutile phase. Compared with Degussa P25, the PL intensity of reticular TiO2 and Fex/TiO2 revealed a significant decrease, indicating that they had a low recombina- tion rate of photo-induced electrons and holes. The absorbance wavelength of obtained reticular TiO2 and Fex/TiO2 was red shift and the band gap energy was decreased. The photo-catalytic degradation of malachite green experi- ments indicated that the photo-catalytic activity of the as-prepared reticular TiO2 and Fex/TiO2 was much higher than that of commercial Degussa P25. Further investigation revealed that reticular Fe000JTiO2 has an excellent long-term stability and can be repeated used.%以梧桐树叶为模板制备了具有网状结构的TiO2和Fex/TiO2光催化材料.通过扫描电镜(SEM)、X-射线衍射(XRD)、X-射线光电子能谱(XPS)、荧光发射光谱(PL)、紫外-可见吸收光谱(UV-Vis)等对这两类光催化材料的结构和物理性能进行了表征.结果表明,以树叶为模板制得的Fe0.005/TiO2呈网状结构.在600~800℃范围内,随煅烧温度的升高,网状TiO2和Fe0.005/TiO2中锐钛型TiO2的含量减少,Fe3+的掺杂能促进锐钛型向金红石型的转变.与Degussa P25相比,网状TiO2和Fex/TiO2的荧光光谱强度明显减弱,光生电子-空穴对的复合情况得到改善;吸收光谱范围明显红移,

  14. Physical Mechanisms for Earthquakes at Intermediate Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. W.; Green, H. W.

    2001-12-01

    Conventional brittle shear failure it is strongly inhibited by pressure because it relies on local tensile failure. In contrast, plastic flow processes are thermally activated, making them sensitive functions of temperature, but their pressure dependence is only moderate. As a consequence, in Earth, faulting by unassisted brittle failure is probably restricted to depths less than ~ 30 km because the rocks flow at lower stresses than they fracture. To enable faulting at greater depths, mineral reactions must occur that generate a fluid or fluid-like solid that is much weaker than the parent assemblage. Although a variety of plastic instabilities have been and continue to be proposed to explain earthquakes at depth, dehydration embrittlement remains the only experimentally verified faulting mechanism consistent with the pressures and compositions existing at depths of 50-300km within subducting lithosphere. However, low pressure hydrous phases potentially abundant in subducting lithosphere (e.g. chlorite and antigorite) exhibit a temperature maximum in their stability, implying that the bulk volume change at depths of more than 70-100 km. becomes negative, thereby raising questions about mechanical instability upon dehydration. Further, it is now well-accepted that intermediate-depth earthquakes occur within the descending slab (double seismic zones present in several slabs dramatically demonstrate this fact), in conflict with the maximum depth of 10-12 km accepted for hydration of the lithosphere at oceanic spreading centers. Thus, on the one hand these earthquakes may be evidence that hydrous phases exist deep within subducting slabs but on the other hand, a mechanism for hydration to such depths is not known. One possibility is that large earthquakes outboard of trenches break the surface and allow hydration of the fault zone that can later dehydrate to yield earthquakes at depth, but no mechanism is known for pumping H2O into such fault zones to depths of tens of

  15. Intermediate phenotypes in schizophrenia: a selective review

    OpenAIRE

    Preston, Gilbert A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify susceptibility genes for schizophrenia and other complex psychiatric disorders are faced with the confounds of subjective clinical criteria, commonly occurring phenocopies, significant between-subject variability of candidate traits, and the likelihood of allelic and locus heterogeneity that has been shown to define the genetics of other complex human brain and somatic disorders. Additionally, research aimed at identification of the molecular origins of schizophreni...

  16. Turtle isochore structure is intermediate between amphibians and other amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Jena L; Braun, Edward L

    2008-10-01

    Vertebrate genomes are comprised of isochores that are relatively long (>100 kb) regions with a relatively homogenous (either GC-rich or AT-rich) base composition and with rather sharp boundaries with neighboring isochores. Mammals and living archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) have heterogeneous genomes that include very GC-rich isochores. In sharp contrast, the genomes of amphibians and fishes are more homogeneous and they have a lower overall GC content. Because DNA with higher GC content is more thermostable, the elevated GC content of mammalian and archosaurian DNA has been hypothesized to be an adaptation to higher body temperatures. This hypothesis can be tested by examining structure of isochores across the reptilian clade, which includes the archosaurs, testudines (turtles), and lepidosaurs (lizards and snakes), because reptiles exhibit diverse body sizes, metabolic rates, and patterns of thermoregulation. This study focuses on a comparative analysis of a new set of expressed genes of the red-eared slider turtle and orthologs of the turtle genes in mammalian (human, mouse, dog, and opossum), archosaurian (chicken and alligator), and amphibian (western clawed frog) genomes. EST (expressed sequence tag) data from a turtle cDNA library enriched for genes that have specialized functions (developmental genes) revealed using the GC content of the third-codon-position to examine isochore structure requires careful consideration of the types of genes examined. The more highly expressed genes (e.g., housekeeping genes) are more likely to be GC-rich than are genes with specialized functions. However, the set of highly expressed turtle genes demonstrated that the turtle genome has a GC content that is intermediate between the GC-poor amphibians and the GC-rich mammals and archosaurs. There was a strong correlation between the GC content of all turtle genes and the GC content of other vertebrate genes, with the slope of the line describing this relationship also

  17. Talassemia β intermediária em gestante Intermediate β thalassemia in a pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana M. Sakamoto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A talassemia β é a forma considerada clinicamente a mais importante dentre as talassemias, em virtude do grau de morbidade e mortalidade, em consequência da anemia hemolítica. O presente relato de caso refere-se a uma gestante portadora da talassemia β intermediária, identificada em programa de rastreamento de anemia hemolítica e tem como objetivo demonstrar a importância do diagnóstico precoce e adequado de uma anemia hereditária, durante o pré-natal. Ressalta também a necessidade de orientação aos portadores em relação aos seus descendentes e a eficiência do acompanhamento por uma equipe multidisciplinar especializada.β-thalassemia is clinically the most important form of thalassemia due to its high level of morbidity and mortality as a result of intense hemolytic anemia. The present case report describes the case a pregnant woman who is an intermediate β-thalassemia carrier identified in a screening program for hemolytic anemia. This work aims at showing the importance of correct and early diagnosis of inherited anemia during pregnancy. It also stresses the need of guidance for carriers in respect to their progeny and discusses the efficiency of follow ups by a multidisciplinary team during pregnancy.

  18. Sleep is related to neuron numbers in the ventrolateral preoptic/intermediate nucleus in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Ellison, Brian A; Wang, Joshua L; Yu, Lei; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Bennett, David A; Saper, Clifford B

    2014-10-01

    Fragmented sleep is a common and troubling symptom in ageing and Alzheimer's disease; however, its neurobiological basis in many patients is unknown. In rodents, lesions of the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic nucleus cause fragmented sleep. We previously proposed that the intermediate nucleus in the human hypothalamus, which has a similar location and neurotransmitter profile, is the homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but physiological data in humans were lacking. We hypothesized that if the intermediate nucleus is important for human sleep, then intermediate nucleus cell loss may contribute to fragmentation and loss of sleep in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. We studied 45 older adults (mean age at death 89.2 years; 71% female; 12 with Alzheimer's disease) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based study of ageing and dementia, who had at least 1 week of wrist actigraphy proximate to death. Upon death a median of 15.5 months later, we used immunohistochemistry and stereology to quantify the number of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons in each individual, and related this to ante-mortem sleep fragmentation. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease had fewer galaninergic intermediate nucleus neurons than those without (estimate -2872, standard error = 829, P = 0.001). Individuals with more galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons had less fragmented sleep, after adjusting for age and sex, and this association was strongest in those for whom the lag between actigraphy and death was Alzheimer's disease, and similar associations were not seen for two other cell populations near the intermediate nucleus. These data are consistent with the intermediate nucleus being the human homologue of the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. Moreover, they demonstrate that a paucity of galanin-immunoreactive intermediate nucleus neurons is accompanied by sleep fragmentation in older adults with and without Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Causes of Reticular Cracks in Ordovician Baota Formation Limestone in Southern Shaanxi%陕南奥陶系宝塔组灰岩网状裂缝成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安东; 周瑶琪; 仲岩磊; 段竟; 王子阳; 张振凯

    2012-01-01

    为了研究奥陶系宝塔组灰岩网状裂缝的形成原因,利用古生物鉴定、野外露头对比及镜下薄片观察等方法进行分析.古生物以头足类、三叶虫、介形类和棘皮类为主,偶见腕足类,未见藻类.裂缝延伸到生物化石时停止,贯穿地层顶底面但未穿透相邻地层,平面呈瘤状、龟裂纹和S曲线等,锯齿状缝合线切穿裂缝.镜下发现灰质基块内散布着泥质团块,泥质团块通过微裂隙互相连通或连通主裂缝,泥质内夹的灰质碎屑长轴沿裂缝展布,新鲜剖面灰质基块与泥质裂缝无明显界限.提出宝塔期扬子板块处于稳定克拉通沉积环境,网状裂缝是在较深水缓慢沉积的低能开阔台地环境下,由于化学分异作用灰质质点聚集、压实作用胶态粘土矿物脱水收缩、泥质随水排出时充填裂缝而形成的,为非构造成因裂缝.%Through Paleontology appraisal, outcrop contrast and under mirror slice observation methods, this paper analyzes the causes of reticular cracks. Baota Formation limestone. Ordovician. Paleontology is mainly of cephalopods (Sinoceras chinen-sis). Trilobites, ostracoda and echinodermata (Metacrinus). Occasionally including Brachiopoda, noalga. The formation is divided into two units: the lower purple and the upper celadon. The crack, stretching from the surface and bottom without penetrating the adjacent formation, stops when extended to the biological fossils. The patterns are of nodular, tortoise shell and the S curve, etc; dentate suture lines cut through the crack. Microscopic study shows that shale mass spreads in the limy matrices, with shale mass connected each other or connected to the main crack by the micro crack, the macroaxis of the limy chipping in shale exhibited along the crack. There are no obvious boundaries between limy matrices and shale crack in fresh profile. It is concluded that the Yangtze plate. Baota period was in a stable craton sedimentary environment, and

  20. Estudio de la Estructura Reticular de la Barriada de Las Palmeras, Córdoba, para la Planificación Participada de Propuestas de Convivencias Pacíficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Ramos Muslera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio participado de redes (institucionales y de base en la barriada de Las Palmeras (Córdoba, en el que se da cuenta del dinámico entramado relacional-reticular existente, constituye una herramienta básica para la Planificación Participada de Propuestas de Convivencias Pacíficas y Estrategias para el Desarrollo Local Integral de la comunidad. Además de arrojar luz sobre las diferentes redes presentes, sus relaciones, la fuerza de éstas, su jerarquía, los actores puente y el impacto de éstos en la situación convivencial imperante en la barriada, la perspectiva participativa desde la que se ha desarrollado la investigación ha facilitado la implicación de la ciudadanía en todo el proceso de reflexión, favoreciendo la asunción de las responsabilidades sociales necesarias por parte de los vecinos para la implementación de las propuestas generadoras de Convivencias Pacíficas, a través de la creación de unas estructuras de participación, reflexión y consenso, capaces de abordar autónomamente las situaciones de confrontación resultantes del conflicto.La estrategia de intervención partía de la construcción-reflexión comunitaria sobre las redes y relaciones, abordando las problemáticas sociales comunitarias e iniciando la búsqueda, desarrollo e implementación de las propuestas consensuadas capaces de generar más y mejores convivencias pacíficas.

  1. Wild Rodents as Experimental Intermediate Hosts of Lagochilascaris minor Leiper, 1909

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Machado Paçô

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 specimens of Cavia porcellus (guinea pig, 5 Dasyprocta agouti (agouti, and 22 Calomys callosus (vesper mice were inoculated with infective eggs of Lagochilascaris minor. The inoculum was prepared with embryonated eggs and orally administered to each individual animal through an esophagus probe. In parallel, 100 specimens of Felis catus domesticus were individually fed with 55-70 nodules containing 3rd-stage larvae encysted in tissues of infected rodents. Animals were examined and necropsied at different time intervals. The migration and encystment of L3 larva was observed in viscera, skeletal muscle, adipose and subcutaneous tissues from all rodents. Adult worms localized at abscesses in the cervical region, rhino, and oropharynx were recovered from domestic cats inoculated with infected rodent tissues. Through this study we can conclude that: (1 wild rodents act as intermediate hosts, characterizing this ascarid heteroxenic cycle; (2 in natural conditions rodents could possibly act as either intermediate hosts or paratenic hosts of Lagochilascaris minor; (3 despite the occurrence of an auto-infecting cycle, in prime-infection of felines (definite hosts the cycle is only completed when intermediate hosts are provided; and (4 in the wild, rodents could serve as a source of infection for humans as they are frequently used as food in regions with the highest incidence of human lagochilascariasis.

  2. Status of art report on intermediate energy nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Ouk; Chang, Jong Hwa

    1997-06-01

    Nuclear reaction data of intermediate energy ranging above 20 MeV upto a few GeV form an important ingredient of several nuclear energy application, such as medical research, astrophysics, transmutation of radioactive waste and accelerator-driven reactor. Current status of the intermediate energy nuclear data cannot satisfy the requirements of these applications. Despite the fact that theories and models with suitable parameterization and fitting to the experimental data can be used for filling gaps in the available experimental database, current theories and models for intermediate nuclear energy nuclear reaction are still under development. This report summarizes required intermediate energy nuclear data and their physical quantities for the relevant research fields. Theories/models and codes developed up to now for the intermediate nuclear reaction are also outlined and transport codes based on these models are briefly introduced in this report. Available experimental facilities and data libraries are filed and trend of activities in the foreign countries on intermediate energy nuclear data are summarized. It is hoped that this report provide a part of information for the research activity on intermediate energy nuclear data in Korea to establish its long-term plan. (author). 14 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  4. Microbial/enzymatic synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh N

    2003-11-01

    Chirality is a key factor in the efficacy of many drugs; thus, the production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. There has been an increasing awareness of the enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivity. In this article, biocatalytic processes for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates are described.

  5. Comparative genomics reveals adaptive evolution of Asian tapeworm in switching to a new intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Wang, Sen; Luo, Yingfeng; Xiao, Lihua; Luo, Xuenong; Gao, Shenghan; Dou, Yongxi; Zhang, Huangkai; Guo, Aijiang; Meng, Qingshu; Hou, Junling; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Shaohua; Yang, Meng; Meng, Xuelian; Mei, Hailiang; Li, Hui; He, Zilong; Zhu, Xueliang; Tan, Xinyu; Zhu, Xing-quan; Yu, Jun; Cai, Jianping; Zhu, Guan; Hu, Songnian; Cai, Xuepeng

    2016-01-01

    Taenia saginata, Taenia solium and Taenia asiatica (beef, pork and Asian tapeworms, respectively) are parasitic flatworms of major public health and food safety importance. Among them, T. asiatica is a newly recognized species that split from T. saginata via an intermediate host switch ∼1.14 Myr ago. Here we report the 169- and 168-Mb draft genomes of T. saginata and T. asiatica. Comparative analysis reveals that high rates of gene duplications and functional diversifications might have partially driven the divergence between T. asiatica and T. saginata. We observe accelerated evolutionary rates, adaptive evolutions in homeostasis regulation, tegument maintenance and lipid uptakes, and differential/specialized gene family expansions in T. asiatica that may favour its hepatotropism in the new intermediate host. We also identify potential targets for developing diagnostic or intervention tools against human tapeworms. These data provide new insights into the evolution of Taenia parasites, particularly the recent speciation of T. asiatica. PMID:27653464

  6. Parameters of the Disk Loaded Waveguide structure for intermediate particles acceleration in the intermediate energy range

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, V

    2013-01-01

    The Disk Loaded Waveguide (DLW) is the mostly used high frequency structure for acceleration of lightweight particles - electrons in the high energy range. In some physical experiments acceleration of more heavy particles - muons to medium energies is required. DLW parameters are considered for particle velocity 0.04 < \\beta < 1 both for the fundamental and the nearest backward spatial harmonics. Physical and technical restrictions for DLW application in the low \\beta range and lower frequency (the L-band range) are analyzed. Basing on particularities of acceleration with Traveling Wave (TW), deep optimization of DLW cells dimensions, the choice of optimal operating phase advance for each DLW section and combination of forward and backward TW modes, it is possible to create simple, cost effective acceleration system for acceleration in the velocity range 0.2 < \\beta < 1 intermediate particles, in some parameters overcoming accelerating system with RF cavities in Standing Wave (SW) mode. Design cri...

  7. Semiannually alternating exchange of intermediate waters east of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Song, Lina; Li, Yuanlong; Liu, Chuanyu; Wang, Jianing; Lin, Pengfei; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Jun; Diao, Xinyuan; Zhang, Dongxiao; Hu, Dunxin

    2016-07-01

    Intermediate water exchange in the northwest tropical Pacific is explored with the temperature, salinity, and current measurements of a mooring system deployed at 8°N, 127.05°E during 2010-2014. For the first time, prominent semiannual variability (SAV; with the maximum power at ~ 187 days) of subthermocline meridional flow along the Mindanao coast is revealed. A significant correlation between meridional flow and salinity is found at intermediate depths. This provides direct evidence for the alternating transports of South Pacific and North Pacific Intermediate Waters by northward and southward undercurrents, respectively. Further analysis with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model demonstrates that the SAV is generated locally near the western boundary, manifesting as large-scale subthermocline recirculation and leading to alternating northward and southward flows near the Mindanao coast, which plays an efficient role in the intermediate water exchange of the northwest tropical Pacific. Mechanisms underlying the observed SAV are discussed.

  8. Neck Emission of Intermediate Mass Fragments During Fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, R. T.; Chen, S. L.; Cornell, E. W.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulburt, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Wile, J. L.; Korteling, R.

    1996-05-01

    Ternary fission of heavy nuclei provides a unique opportunity to constrain models of the dissipative forces which occur during fission. We have measured neck emission of Intermediate mass fragments (IMF:3 model are made.

  9. Detection of low-populated reaction intermediates with hyperpolarized NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pernille R; Meier, Sebastian; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Duus, Jens Ø; Karlsson, Magnus; Lerche, Mathilde H

    2009-09-14

    Hyperpolarized (13)C NMR spectroscopy can provide the sensitivity and spectral resolution to detect, identify and quantify low-populated reaction intermediates, thus yielding direct chemical information on reaction mechanisms in real-time assays.

  10. Functionalization of the corrole ring: the role of isocorrole intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2011-04-14

    Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.

  11. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  12. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  13. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...... are blended into end products to minimise the total operational costs under production and storage capacity limitations. A comprehensive mixed-integer linear model is developed for the problem. The model is applied on a data set collected from a real-life case. The trade-offs between capacity limitations...... and operational costs are analysed, and the effects of different types of cost parameters and capacity limitations on the selection of intermediates and end-product recipes are investigated....

  14. Analysis of Preference Data Using Intermediate Test Statistic Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... Intermediate statistic is a link between Friedman test statistic and the multinomial statistic. The statistic is ... The null hypothesis Ho .... [7] Taplin, R.H., The Statistical Analysis of Preference Data, Applied Statistics, No. 4, pp.

  15. Banking on fewer children: financial intermediation, fertility and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, C S

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the influence of financial intermediation on fertility rate and labor allocation decisions. A panel Vector Autoregression model using three variables of interest, specifically, financial intermediation, fertility, and industrial employment data in 87 countries, was estimated. This convenient methodology allows the relationship between the variables to change over time. Findings indicate that the increase in wages led some households to shift from traditional labor intensive methods of production to modern sector firms. Since it is optimal for households in the modern sector to have fewer children then the labor allocation decision leads to a lower national fertility. Furthermore, results imply that the emergence and development of the financial intermediation sector will enhance modern sector employment and lower total fertility rates. Thus, the financial intermediation process is an important part of the overall developmental process.

  16. Assembly characteristics of plant keratin intermediate filaments in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵光伟; 杨澄; 佟向军; 翟中和

    1999-01-01

    After selective extraction and purification, plant keratin intermediate filaments were reassembled in vitro. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs showed that acidic keratins and basic keratins can assemble into dimers and further into 10 nm filaments in vitro. In higher magnification images, it can be seen that fully assembled plant keratin intermediate filaments consist of several thinner filaments of 3 nm in diameter, which indicates the formation of protofilaments in the assembly processes. One of the explicit features of plant keratin intermediate filaments is a 24—25 nm periodic structural repeat alone the axis of beth the 10 nm filaments and protofilaments. The periodic repeat is one of the fundamental characteristic of all intermediate filaments, and demonstrates the half staggered arrangement of keratin molecules within the filaments.

  17. 22 CFR 140.10 - Intermediate credit institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... as a foreign government entity. Intermediate credit institutions (“ICIs”) shall be subject to either... included in agreements with all ICIs requiring that any loan greater than $1,000 provided by the ICI to...

  18. An intermediate distribution between Gaussian and Cauchy distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Tong; Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an intermediate distribution linking the Gaussian and the Cauchy distribution. We provide the probability density function and the corresponding characteristic function of the intermediate distribution. Because many kinds of distributions have no moment, we introduce weighted moments. Specifically, we consider weighted moments under two types of weighted functions: the cut-off function and the exponential function. Through these two types of weighted functions, we can obtain weighted moments for almost all distributions. We consider an application of the probability density function of the intermediate distribution on the spectral line broadening in laser theory. Moreover, we utilize the intermediate distribution to the problem of the stock market return in quantitative finance.

  19. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  20. Control of nonenzymatic browning in intermediate-moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, K. A.; Labruza, T. P.; Warmbier, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    Series of compounds called humectants were found to decrease rate of browning when added to intermediate-moisture foods. Twenty percent level of humectant can increase shelf life of foods by factor of 5 or 6.

  1. High Throughput Screening for Drugs that Modulate Intermediate Filament Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingyuan; Groppi, Vincent E.; Gui, Honglian; Chen, Lu; Xie, Qing; Liu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins have unique and complex cell and tissue distribution. Importantly, IF gene mutations cause or predispose to more than 80 human tissue-specific diseases (IF-pathies), with the most severe disease phenotypes being due to mutations at conserved residues that result in a disrupted IF network. A critical need for the entire IF-pathy field is the identification of drugs that can ameliorate or cure these diseases, particularly since all current therapies target the IF-pathy complication, such as diabetes or cardiovascular disease, rather than the mutant IF protein or gene. We describe a high throughput approach to identify drugs that can normalize disrupted IF proteins. This approach utilizes transduction of lentivirus that expresses green-fluorescent-protein-tagged keratin 18 (K18) R90C in A549 cells. The readout is drug ‘hits’ that convert the dot-like keratin filament distribution, due to the R90C mutation, to a wildtype-like filamentous array. A similar strategy can be used to screen thousands of compounds and can be utilized for practically any IF protein with a filament-disrupting mutation, and could therefore potentially target many IF-pathies. ‘Hits’ of interest require validation in cell culture then using in vivo experimental models. Approaches to study the mechanism of mutant-IF normalization by potential drugs of interest are also described. The ultimate goal of this drug screening approach is to identify effective and safe compounds that can potentially be tested for clinical efficacy in patients. PMID:26795471

  2. On the Representation of Intermediate States in the Velocity Basis

    CERN Document Server

    Tay, B A

    2002-01-01

    We explore the implication of applying the "minimally complex" representation to study intermediate states. We propose an interpretation of the "velocity variables" used in the "minimally complex" representation so as to make the construction consistent with the kinematics of the underlying scattering process under consideration. We also show that this choice of representation advocates the use of velocity basis over momentum basis in studying intermediate states.

  3. Responding to diversity: workforce intermediation in a transitioning regional economy

    OpenAIRE

    Nichola J. Lowe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I examine workforce intermediation as a tool for regional economic transition. While most studies of workforce intermediation in the United States focus on targeted programs that work with less-advantaged socioeconomic groups, I examine strategies adopted by state-funded community colleges that have a more encompassing or universalistic mandate. Through a case study of North Carolina’s BioWork initiative I examine college-level strategies for assisting two distinct groups of job...

  4. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...band solar cell incorporating low dimensional structures made with dilute nitrogen alloys of III-V semiconductors is investigated theoretically and

  5. Intermediate energy light sources and the SSRF project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Advances in insertion device technology, top-up operation and superconducting RF cavities make it possible to generate high brightness X-ray with intermediate energy light sources, which leads a new trend in designing and constructing third generation light sources around the world. The development status and the remarkable technical features of intermediate energy light sources are reviewed, and the main SSRF properties are described in this paper.

  6. On Physical and Mechanical Behavior of Natural Marine Intermediate Deposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ming-lei; DENG Xue-jun

    2005-01-01

    Coastal structures may be built on natural sedimentary intermediate grounds, which mainly consist of silty soils and fine sandy soils. In this study, extensive field and laboratory tests were performed on the natural marine intermediate deposits to demonstrate the difference in behavior between natural marine clayey soils and natural marine intermediate deposits. The natural intermediate deposits have almost the same ratios of natural water content to liquid limit as those of the soft natural marine clays, but the former have much higher in-situ strength and sensitivity than the latter. The research results indicate that grain size distributions of soils affect significantly tip resistance obtained in field cone penetration tests. The mechanical parameters of natural marine intermediate deposits are also significantly affected by sample disturbance due to their high sensitivity and relatively large permeability. Unconfined compression shear tests largely underestimate the strength of natural marine intermediate soils. The triaxial consolidated compression shear tests with simulated in-situ confined pressure give results much better than those of uncomfined compression shear tests.

  7. Analysis of dynein intermediate chains, light intermediate chains and light chains in a cohort of hereditary peripheral neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Shelisa; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Drew, Alexander P; Shahrizaila, Nortina; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L

    2014-10-01

    The cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) gene has been increasingly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), intellectual disability and malformations of cortical development. In addition, evidence from mouse models (Loa, catabolite repressor-activator (Cra) and Sprawling (Swl)) has shown that mutations in Dync1h1 cause a range of neurodegenerative phenotypes with motor and sensory neuron involvement. In this current study, we examined the possible contribution of other cytoplasmic dynein subunits that bind to DYNC1H1 as a cause of inherited peripheral neuropathy. We focused on screening the cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chain genes in a cohort of families with inherited peripheral neuropathies. Nine genes were screened and ten variants were detected, but none was identified as pathogenic, indicating that cytoplasmic dynein intermediate, light intermediate and light chains are not a cause of neuropathy in our cohort.

  8. Honokiol induces autophagy of neuroblastoma cells through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and endoplasmic reticular stress/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and suppressing cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Wang, Weu; Chang, Ya-An; Lin, Chien-Ju; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In children, neuroblastomas are the most common and deadly solid tumor. Our previous study showed that honokiol, a small-molecule polyphenol, can traverse the blood-brain barrier and kill neuroblastoma cells. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms of honokiol-induced insults to neuroblastoma cells. Treatment of neuroblastoma neuro-2a cells with honokiol elevated the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II and induced cell autophagy in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Interestingly, pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor of autophagy, led to the simultaneous attenuation of honokiol-induced cell autophagy and apoptosis but did not influence cell necrosis. As to the mechanisms, exposure of neuro-2a cells to honokiol time-dependently decreased the amount of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Sequentially, honokiol downregulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in neuro-2a cells. Furthermore, honokiol elevated the levels of glucose-regulated protein (GpR)78, an endoplasmic reticular stress (ERS)-associated protein, and amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, reducing production of intracellular ROS using N-acetylcysteine, a scavenger of ROS, concurrently suppressed honokiol-induced cellular autophagy. Consequently, honokiol stimulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. However, pretreatment of neuro-2a cells with PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK1/2, lowered honokiol-induced autophagy. The effects of honokiol on inducing autophagy and apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells were further confirmed using mouse neuroblastoma NB41A3 cells as our experimental model. Fascinatingly, treatment of neuroblastoma neuro-2a and NB41A3 cells with honokiol for 12 h did not affect cell autophagy or apoptosis but caused significant suppression of cell migration. Taken together, this study showed that honokiol can induce

  9. Contribuição ao estudo da distribuição do aparêlho reticular de Golgi nos gânglios simpáticos do homem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandez

    1957-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos a disposição que toma o aparêlho reticular de Golgi nas células de gânglios simpáticos do homem. Estudamos 15 gânglios simpáticos humanos (3 cervicais superiores, 4 estrelados, 2 torácicos e 6 lombares impregnados com o método do nitrato de prata reduzido após fixação em formol. As figuras morfológicas observadas foram divididas em 6 tipos, tomando como base, em parte, os tipos descritas por Cajal ao estudar o aparelho de Golgi nos gânglios raquídeos: no primeiro tipo ou circunscrito, as granulações do aparelho de Golgi se localizam em um dos polos da célula; no segundo ou semilunar, as granulações se dispõem formando uma semi-esfera; no terceiro ou em ferradura, as granulações estão localizadas em forma mais dispersa que no tipo anterior; no quarto ou circular, as granulações se encontram em torno do núcleo, envolvendo-o inteiramente; no quinto, compacto, elas se encontram espalhadas por tôda a célula, sendo o núcleo invisível; no último tipo ou oposicional, as granulações se localizam em dois pontos opostos. Foram feitos cortes seriados, de 7 micra, em número de 35 para cada caso. Escolhemos um corte de cada três e contamos 100 elementos em cada caso; encontramos as seguintes percentagens para os 6 tipos considerados: 1 35,46% ± 4,66; 2 14,86% ± 3,34; 3 15,06% ± 3,33; 4 15,13% ± 2,25; 5 12,93% ± 4,02; 6 6,53% ± 2,98. Estabelecemos o índice de significação utilizando a fórmula de Student, concluindo que os valores encontrados têm significação estatística e não são resultado de mera casualidade. Como conclusão final, julgamos que nos gânglios simpáticos humanos, utilizando-se o método do nitrato de prata reduzido com fixação em formol, a modalidade circunscrita é o tipo de disposição mais freqüente do aparêlho de Golgi.

  10. Perspective: Spectroscopy and kinetics of small gaseous Criegee intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuan-Pern, E-mail: yplee@mail.nctu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry and Institute of Molecular Science, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan and Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-14

    The Criegee intermediates, carbonyl oxides proposed by Criegee in 1949 as key intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, play important roles in many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. Because direct detection of these gaseous intermediates was unavailable until recently, previous understanding of their reactions, derived from indirect experimental evidence, had great uncertainties. Recent laboratory detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH{sub 2}OO and some larger members, produced from ultraviolet irradiation of corresponding diiodoalkanes in O{sub 2}, with various methods such as photoionization, ultraviolet absorption, infrared absorption, and microwave spectroscopy opens a new door to improved understanding of the roles of these Criegee intermediates. Their structures and spectral parameters have been characterized; their significant zwitterionic nature is hence confirmed. CH{sub 2}OO, along with other products, has also been detected directly with microwave spectroscopy in gaseous ozonolysis reactions of ethene. The detailed kinetics of the source reaction, CH{sub 2}I + O{sub 2}, which is critical to laboratory studies of CH{sub 2}OO, are now understood satisfactorily. The kinetic investigations using direct detection identified some important atmospheric reactions, including reactions with NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, water dimer, carboxylic acids, and carbonyl compounds. Efforts toward the characterization of larger Criegee intermediates and the investigation of related reactions are in progress. Some reactions of CH{sub 3}CHOO are found to depend on conformation. This perspective examines progress toward the direct spectral characterization of Criegee intermediates and investigations of the associated reaction kinetics, and indicates some unresolved problems and prospective challenges for this exciting field of research.

  11. A hemi-fission intermediate links two mechanistically distinct stages of membrane fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Juha-Pekka; Shnyrova, Anna V; Sundborger, Anna C; Hortelano, Eva Rodriguez; Fuhrmans, Marc; Neumann, Sylvia; Müller, Marcus; Hinshaw, Jenny E; Schmid, Sandra L; Frolov, Vadim A

    2015-08-06

    Fusion and fission drive all vesicular transport. Although topologically opposite, these reactions pass through the same hemi-fusion/fission intermediate, characterized by a 'stalk' in which only the outer membrane monolayers of the two compartments have merged to form a localized non-bilayer connection. Formation of the hemi-fission intermediate requires energy input from proteins catalysing membrane remodelling; however, the relationship between protein conformational rearrangements and hemi-fusion/fission remains obscure. Here we analysed how the GTPase cycle of human dynamin 1, the prototypical membrane fission catalyst, is directly coupled to membrane remodelling. We used intramolecular chemical crosslinking to stabilize dynamin in its GDP·AlF4(-)-bound transition state. In the absence of GTP this conformer produced stable hemi-fission, but failed to progress to complete fission, even in the presence of GTP. Further analysis revealed that the pleckstrin homology domain (PHD) locked in its membrane-inserted state facilitated hemi-fission. A second mode of dynamin activity, fuelled by GTP hydrolysis, couples dynamin disassembly with cooperative diminishing of the PHD wedging, thus destabilizing the hemi-fission intermediate to complete fission. Molecular simulations corroborate the bimodal character of dynamin action and indicate radial and axial forces as dominant, although not independent, drivers of hemi-fission and fission transformations, respectively. Mirrored in the fusion reaction, the force bimodality might constitute a general paradigm for leakage-free membrane remodelling.

  12. A multiplex PCR for the detection of Fasciola hepatica in the intermediate snail host Galba cubensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Annia; Vázquez, Antonio A; Hernández, Hilda; Sánchez, Jorge; Marcet, Ricardo; Figueredo, Mabel; Sarracent, Jorge; Fraga, Jorge

    2015-07-30

    Fasciolosis is a snail-borne trematode infection that has re-emerged as a human disease, and is considered a significant problem for veterinary medicine worldwide. The evaluation of the transmission risk of fasciolosis as well as the efficacy of the strategies for its control could be carried out through epidemiological surveillance of the snails that act as intermediate hosts of the parasites. The present study aimed to develop the first multiplex PCR to detect Fasciola hepatica in Galba cubensis, an important intermediate host of the parasite in the Americas and especially in the Caribbean basin. The multiplex PCR was optimized for the amplification of a 340 bp fragment of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of F. hepatica rDNA, while another set of primers was designed and used to amplify a conserved segment of the nuclear 18S rDNA of the snail (451 bp), as an internal control of the reaction. The assay was able to detect up to 100 pg of the parasite even at high concentrations of snail DNA, an analytical sensitivity that allows the detection of less than a single miracidium, which is the minimal biological infestation unit. A controlled laboratory-reared G. cubensis - F. hepatica system was used for the evaluation of the developed multiplex PCR, and 100% sensitivity and specificity was achieved. This assay constitutes a novel, useful and suitable technique for the survey of fasciolosis transmission through one of the main intermediate hosts in the Western hemisphere.

  13. Insights into the Mechanism of Type I Dehydroquinate Dehydratases from Structures of Reaction Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Samuel H.; Minasov, George; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Duban, Mark-Eugene; Caffrey, Michael; Anderson, Wayne F.; Lavie, Arnon (NWU); (UIC)

    2012-02-27

    The biosynthetic shikimate pathway consists of seven enzymes that catalyze sequential reactions to generate chorismate, a critical branch point in the synthesis of the aromatic amino acids. The third enzyme in the pathway, dehydroquinate dehydratase (DHQD), catalyzes the dehydration of 3-dehydroquinate to 3-dehydroshikimate. We present three crystal structures of the type I DHQD from the intestinal pathogens Clostridium difficile and Salmonella enterica. Structures of the enzyme with substrate and covalent pre- and post-dehydration reaction intermediates provide snapshots of successive steps along the type I DHQD-catalyzed reaction coordinate. These structures reveal that the position of the substrate within the active site does not appreciably change upon Schiff base formation. The intermediate state structures reveal a reaction state-dependent behavior of His-143 in which the residue adopts a conformation proximal to the site of catalytic dehydration only when the leaving group is present. We speculate that His-143 is likely to assume differing catalytic roles in each of its observed conformations. One conformation of His-143 positions the residue for the formation/hydrolysis of the covalent Schiff base intermediates, whereas the other conformation positions the residue for a role in the catalytic dehydration event. The fact that the shikimate pathway is absent from humans makes the enzymes of the pathway potential targets for the development of non-toxic antimicrobials. The structures and mechanistic insight presented here may inform the design of type I DHQD enzyme inhibitors.

  14. Citric acid cycle intermediates as ligands for orphan G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weihai; Miao, Frederick J-P; Lin, Daniel C-H; Schwandner, Ralf T; Wang, Zhulun; Gao, Jinhai; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Ling, Lei

    2004-05-13

    The citric acid cycle is central to the regulation of energy homeostasis and cell metabolism. Mutations in enzymes that catalyse steps in the citric acid cycle result in human diseases with various clinical presentations. The intermediates of the citric acid cycle are present at micromolar concentration in blood and are regulated by respiration, metabolism and renal reabsorption/extrusion. Here we show that GPR91 (ref. 3), a previously orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), functions as a receptor for the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate. We also report that GPR99 (ref. 4), a close relative of GPR91, responds to alpha-ketoglutarate, another intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Thus by acting as ligands for GPCRs, succinate and alpha-ketoglutarate are found to have unexpected signalling functions beyond their traditional roles. Furthermore, we show that succinate increases blood pressure in animals. The succinate-induced hypertensive effect involves the renin-angiotensin system and is abolished in GPR91-deficient mice. Our results indicate a possible role for GPR91 in renovascular hypertension, a disease closely linked to atherosclerosis, diabetes and renal failure.

  15. Isoporphyrin intermediate in heme oxygenase catalysis. Oxidation of alpha-meso-phenylheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-07-11

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the alpha-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin pi-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of alpha-meso-phenylheme-IX, alpha-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and alpha-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593-42604), only the alpha-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced alpha-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation.

  16. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  17. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  18. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  19. Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data (MIXED: Repository of Durable File Format Conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Horik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS, the Dutch scientific data archive for the social sciences and humanities, is engaged in the Migration to Intermediate XML for Electronic Data (MIXED project to develop open source software that implements the smart migration strategy concerning the long-term archiving of file formats. Smart migration concerns the conversion upon ingest of specific kinds of data formats, such as spreadsheets and databases, to an intermediate XML formatted file. It is assumed that the long-term curation of the XML files is much less problematic than the migration of binary source files and that the intermediate XML file can be converted in an efficient way to file formats that are common in the future. The features of the intermediate XML files are stored in the so-called Standard Data Formats for Preservation (SDFP specification. This XML schema can be considered an umbrella as it contains existing formal descriptions of file formats developed by others. SDFP also contain schemata developed by DANS, for example, a schema for file-oriented databases. It can be used, for example, for the binary DataPerfect format, that was used on a large scale about twenty years ago, and for which no existing XML schema could be found. The software developed in the MIXED project has been set up as a generic framework, together with a number of plug-ins. It can be considered as a repository of durable file format conversions. This paper contains an overview of the results of the MIXED project.

  20. Resolution of single and double Holliday junction recombination intermediates by GEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah Punatar, Rajvee; Martin, Maria Jose; Wyatt, Haley D M; Chan, Ying Wai; West, Stephen C

    2017-01-17

    Genetic recombination provides an important mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Homologous pairing and strand exchange lead to the formation of DNA intermediates, in which sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are covalently linked by four-way Holliday junctions (HJs). Depending on the type of recombination reaction that takes place, intermediates may have single or double HJs, and their resolution is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In mitotic cells, double HJs are primarily dissolved by the BLM helicase-TopoisomeraseIIIα-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex, whereas single HJs (and double HJs that have escaped the attention of BTR) are resolved by structure-selective endonucleases known as HJ resolvases. These enzymes are ubiquitous in nature, because they are present in bacteriophage, bacteria, archaea, and simple and complex eukaryotes. The human HJ resolvase GEN1 is a member of the XPG/Rad2 family of 5'-flap endonucleases. Biochemical studies of GEN1 revealed that it cleaves synthetic DNA substrates containing a single HJ by a mechanism similar to that shown by the prototypic HJ resolvase, Escherichia coli RuvC protein, but it is unclear whether these substrates fully recapitulate the properties of recombination intermediates that arise within a physiological context. Here, we show that GEN1 efficiently cleaves both single and double HJs contained within large recombination intermediates. Moreover, we find that GEN1 exhibits a weak sequence preference for incision between two G residues that reside in a T-rich region of DNA. These results contrast with those obtained with RuvC, which exhibits a strict requirement for the consensus sequence 5'-(A)/TTT(G)/C-3'.

  1. Drosophila Dynein intermediate chain gene, Dic61B, is required for spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Fatima

    Full Text Available This study reports the identification and characterization of a novel gene, Dic61B, required for male fertility in Drosophila. Complementation mapping of a novel male sterile mutation, ms21, isolated in our lab revealed it to be allelic to CG7051 at 61B1 cytogenetic region, since two piggyBac insertion alleles, CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138 failed to complement. CG7051 putatively encodes a Dynein intermediate chain. All three mutants, ms21, CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138, exhibited absolute recessive male sterility with abnormally coiled sperm axonemes causing faulty sperm individualization as revealed by Phalloidin staining in Don Juan-GFP background. Sequencing of PCR amplicons uncovered two point mutations in ms21 allele and confirmed the piggyBac insertions in CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138 alleles to be in 5'UTR and 4(th exon of CG7051 respectively, excision of which reverted the male sterility. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes demonstrated CG7051 to be a single copy gene. RT-PCR of testis RNA revealed defective splicing of the CG7051 transcripts in mutants. Interestingly, expression of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain, α, β, γ tubulins and α-spectrin was normal in mutants while ultra structural studies revealed defects in the assembly of sperm axonemes. Bioinformatics further highlighted the homology of CG7051 to axonemal dynein intermediate chain of various organisms, including DNAI1 of humans, mutations in which lead to male sterility due to immotile sperms. Based on these observations we conclude that CG7051 encodes a novel axonemal dynein intermediate chain essential for male fertility in Drosophila and rename it as Dic61B. This is the first axonemal Dic gene of Drosophila to be characterized at molecular level and shown to be required for spermatogenesis.

  2. Optimization of intermediate cooling and intermediate heating in the gas turbine process; Optimierung der Zwischenkuehlung und der Zwischenerhitzung beim Gasturbinenprozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woerrlein, K.

    1998-07-01

    The author investigated how the thermal efficiency of the gas turbine process can be improved by intermediate cooling, intermediate heating, or combined intermediate cooling and heating. The focus was on the pressure ratios of low-pressure compressors and high-pressure turbines. The numeric calculations were carried out using real gas characteristics. The findings suggest that intermediate coling inside the compressor has much more influence on the thermal efficiency than intermediate heating inside the turbine. However, the latter is advantageous in the case of gas turbines for combined cycle operation, as the off-gas temperatures required for steam generation are reached even at relatively low turbine inlet temperatures, so that NOx emissions of the gas turbine combustion chamber will be low. It is recommended that solitary gas turbines should be operated with intermediate cooling and gas turbines in combined cycle operation with intermediate heating. [German] In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll untersucht werden, in welcher Weise sich der thermische Wirkungsgrad des Gasturbinen-Prozesses durch Zwischenkuehlung, Zwischenerhitzung bzw. Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung verbessern laesst. Dabei sollen in erster Linie die Druckverhaeltnisse von ND-Verdichter bzw. HD-Turbine bestimmt werden, bei denen Zwischenkuehlung und Zwischenerhitzung vorgenommen werden sollen, um eine optimale Verbesserung des thermischen Wirkungsgrades zu erreichen. Die numerische Durchrechnung soll mit den Stoffwerten des realen Gases durchgefuehrt werden. Die numerischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Zwischenkuehlung im Verdichter einen weit groesseren Einfluss auf den thermischen Wirkungsgrad hat als die Zwischenerhitzung in der Turbine. Letztere ist aber bei Gasturbinen fuer den Kombibetrieb von Vorteil, erreicht man doch die fuer die Dampferzeugung notwendigen Abgastemperaturen der Gasturbine schon bei relativ niedrigen Turbineneintrittstemperaturen, so dass die NO{sub x}-Emission der

  3. Neutrino Oscillations in Intermediate States.II -- Wave Packets

    CERN Document Server

    Asahara, A; Shimomura, T; Yabuki, T

    2004-01-01

    We analyze oscillations of intermediate neutrinos in terms of scattering of particles described by Gaussian wave packets. We study a scalar model as in the previous paper (I) but in realistic situations, where two particles of the initial state and final state are wave packets and neutrinos are in the intermediate state. The oscillation of the intermediate neutrino is found from the time evolution of the total transition probability between the initial state and final state. The effect of a finite lifetime and a finite relaxation time $\\tau$ are also studied. We find that the oscillation pattern depends on the magnitude of wave packet sizes of particles in the initial state and final state and the lifetime of the initial particle. For $\\Delta m^2=10^{-2}$ eV$^2$, the oscillation probability deviates from the standard formula, if the wave packet sizes are around $10^{-13}$ m for 0.4 MeV neutrino.

  4. Intermediate electrostatic field for the generalized elongation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Korchowiec, Jacek; Aoki, Yuriko

    2015-05-18

    An intermediate electrostatic field is introduced to improve the accuracy of fragment-based quantum-chemical computational methods by including long-range polarizations of biomolecules. The point charge distribution of the intermediate field is generated by a charge sensitivity analysis that is parameterized for five different population analyses, namely, atoms-in-molecules, Hirshfeld, Mulliken, natural orbital, and Voronoi population analysis. Two model systems are chosen to demonstrate the performance of the generalized elongation method (ELG) combined with the intermediate electrostatic field. The calculations are performed for the STO-3G, 6-31G, and 6-31G(d) basis sets and compared with reference Hartree-Fock calculations. It is shown that the error in the total energy is reduced by one order of magnitude, independently of the population analyses used. This demonstrates the importance of long-range polarization in electronic-structure calculations by fragmentation techniques.

  5. Replicative intermediates of maize streak virus found during leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Julia B; Shepherd, Dionne N; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind; Rybicki, Edward P; Jeske, Holger

    2010-04-01

    Geminiviruses of the genera Begomovirus and Curtovirus utilize three replication modes: complementary-strand replication (CSR), rolling-circle replication (RCR) and recombination-dependent replication (RDR). Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we now show for the first time that maize streak virus (MSV), the type member of the most divergent geminivirus genus, Mastrevirus, does the same. Although mastreviruses have fewer regulatory genes than other geminiviruses and uniquely express their replication-associated protein (Rep) from a spliced transcript, the replicative intermediates of CSR, RCR and RDR could be detected unequivocally within infected maize tissues. All replicative intermediates accumulated early and, to varying degrees, were already present in the shoot apex and leaves at different maturation stages. Relative to other replicative intermediates, those associated with RCR increased in prevalence during leaf maturation. Interestingly, in addition to RCR-associated DNA forms seen in other geminiviruses, MSV also apparently uses dimeric open circular DNA as a template for RCR.

  6. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  7. Characterization of the Partially Folded Monomeric Intermediate of Creatine Kinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴龙斗; 周海梦

    2002-01-01

    The importance of understanding the protein folding pathway and intermediates is well recognized on the basis of extensive studies of protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Creatine kinase (CK) is a typical model for studying unfolding and refolding of proteins due to several interesting properties. Recent studies on the folding of CK show that its partially folded monomeric intermediate is present kinetically and is stable at equilibrium. The present paper contains 33 References as a mini review to characterize the properties of CK from studies on the CK folding pathway. Characterization of these intermediates is an essential step toward understanding the mechanism of protein folding. Some well-determined schemes are suggested as protein folding models.

  8. Deglacial intermediate water reorganization: new evidence from the Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Romahn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of intermediate water masses in climate change and ocean circulation has been emphasized recently. In particular, Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW is thought to have acted as an active interhemispheric transmitter of climate anomalies. Here we reconstruct changes in AAIW signature and spatial and temporal evolution based on a 40 kyr time series of oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as planktic Mg/Ca based thermometry from a site in the western Indian Ocean. Our data suggest that AAIW transmitted Antarctic temperature trends to the equatorial Indian Ocean via the "oceanic tunnel" mechanism. Moreover, our results reveal that deglacial AAIW carried a signature of aged Southern Ocean deep water. We find no evidence of increased formation of intermediate waters during the deglaciation.

  9. Intermediate distance correlators in hot Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M; Vuorinen, A

    2010-01-01

    Lattice measurements of spatial correlation functions of the operators FF and FF-dual in thermal SU(3) gauge theory have revealed a clear difference between the two channels at "intermediate" distances, x ~ 1/(pi T). This is at odds with the AdS/CFT limit which predicts the results to coincide. On the other hand, an OPE analysis at short distances (x 1/(pi T)) as well as effective theory methods at long distances (x 1/(pi T)) suggest differences. Here we study the situation at intermediate distances by determining the time-averaged spatial correlators through a 2-loop computation. We do find unequal results, however the numerical disparity is small. Apart from theoretical issues, a future comparison of our results with time-averaged lattice measurements might also be of phenomenological interest in that understanding the convergence of the weak-coupling series at intermediate distances may bear on studies of the thermal broadening of heavy quarkonium resonances.

  10. Receptor- and reactive intermediate-mediated mechanisms of teratogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Peter G; Lee, Crystal J J; McCallum, Gordon P; Perstin, Julia; Harper, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely alter the development of the fetus at critical periods during pregnancy, resulting in death, or in structural and functional birth defects in the surviving offspring. This process of teratogenesis may not be evident until a decade or more after birth. Postnatal functional abnormalities include deficits in brain function, a variety of metabolic diseases, and cancer. Due to the high degree of fetal cellular division and differentiation, and to differences from the adult in many biochemical pathways, the fetus is highly susceptible to teratogens, typically at low exposure levels that do not harm the mother. Insights into the mechanisms of teratogenesis come primarily from animal models and in vitro systems, and involve either receptor-mediated or reactive intermediate-mediated processes. Receptor-mediated mechanisms involving the reversible binding of xenobiotic substrates to a specific receptor are exemplified herein by the interaction of the environmental chemical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or "dioxin") with the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which translocates to the nucleus and, in association with other proteins, binds to AH-responsive elements (AHREs) in numerous genes, initiating changes in gene transcription that can perturb development. Alternatively, many xenobiotics are bioactivated by fetal enzymes like the cytochromes P450 (CYPs) and prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) to highly unstable electrophilic or free radical reactive intermediates. Electrophilic reactive intermediates can covalently (irreversibly) bind to and alter the function of essential cellular macromolecules (proteins, DNA), causing developmental anomalies. Free radical reactive intermediates can enhance the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), resulting in oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules and/or altered signal transduction. The teratogenicity of reactive intermediates is determined to a large extent

  11. Drought impact functions as intermediate step towards drought damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmair, Sophie; Svensson, Cecilia; Prosdocimi, Ilaria; Hannaford, Jamie; Helm Smith, Kelly; Svoboda, Mark; Stahl, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    While damage or vulnerability functions for floods and seismic hazards have gained considerable attention, there is comparably little knowledge on drought damage or loss. On the one hand this is due to the complexity of the drought hazard affecting different domains of the hydrological cycle and different sectors of human activity. Hence, a single hazard indicator is likely not able to fully capture this multifaceted hazard. On the other hand, drought impacts are often non-structural and hard to quantify or monetize. Examples are impaired navigability of streams, restrictions on domestic water use, reduced hydropower production, reduced tree growth, and irreversible deterioration/loss of wetlands. Apart from reduced crop yield, data about drought damage or loss with adequate spatial and temporal resolution is scarce, making the development of drought damage functions difficult. As an intermediate step towards drought damage functions we exploit text-based reports on drought impacts from the European Drought Impact report Inventory and the US Drought Impact Reporter to derive surrogate information for drought damage or loss. First, text-based information on drought impacts is converted into timeseries of absence versus presence of impacts, or number of impact occurrences. Second, meaningful hydro-meteorological indicators characterizing drought intensity are identified. Third, different statistical models are tested as link functions relating drought hazard indicators with drought impacts: 1) logistic regression for drought impacts coded as binary response variable; and 2) mixture/hurdle models (zero-inflated/zero-altered negative binomial regression) and an ensemble regression tree approach for modeling the number of drought impact occurrences. Testing the predictability of (number of) drought impact occurrences based on cross-validation revealed a good agreement between observed and modeled (number of) impacts for regions at the scale of federal states or

  12. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ ...... is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000øC). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed abovethe equilibrium potential while no surface species can identified at SOFC anode conditions....

  13. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    CERN Document Server

    Kaloshin, A E

    2016-01-01

    We show that calculation of a scattered fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable for both final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion.

  14. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse;

    1998-01-01

    in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier......The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  15. THE CASE FOR AN INTERMEDIATE EXCHANGE RATE REGIME

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN WILLIAMSON

    2007-01-01

    The argument that any exchange rate regimes other than firmly fixed and freely floating rates were infeasible — the so-called bipolarity thesis — acquired great popularity in the wake of the Asian crisis of a decade ago, but it has almost vanished today. One reason is surely the unkind empirical evidence, which shows that intermediate regimes — measured as those where both reserve and exchange rate changes lie in an intermediate range — are not in fact tending to disappear (Levy Yeyati and St...

  16. Gravitational Radiation of Binaries Coalescence into Intermediate Mass Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 仲元红; 潘宇

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the gravitation waveforms of binaries coalescence into intermediate mass black holes (about 30 times of the solar mass). We focus on the non-spinning intermediate mass black hole located less than 100 Mpc from earth. By comparing two simulation waveforms (effective one body numerical relativity waveform (EOBNR), phenomenological waveform), we discuss the relationship between the effective distance and frequency; and through analyzing large amounts of data in event, we find that the phenomenological waveform is much smoother than EOBNR waveform, and has higher accuracy at the same effective distance.

  17. Intermediate Mass Fragments Emission in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Maurenzig, P. R.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Poggi, G.; Stefanini, A. A.; Taccetti, N.

    The collision 116Sn + 93Nb at 29.5 AMeV in direct and reverse kinematics has been studied at LNS in Catania. In particular the emission pattern in the νperp - νpar plane of Intermediate Mass Fragments with Z=3-7 (IMF's) shows that for peripheral reactions most of IMF's are emitted at velocities intermediate between those of the projectile- and target-like products. From coulomb trajectory calculations one can infere that these IMF's are produced mainly in the interaction zone, in a short time interval at the end of the target-projectile interaction.

  18. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  19. Do observations reveal accretion discs in intermediate polars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellier, C. (University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.)

    1991-08-15

    It has been proposed that intermediate polars do not accrete through discs and that they may not possess discs. Observations of eclipses and emission lines provide strong evidence that discs are present in many intermediate polars, although it is less clear whether the accretion flows through these discs. An analysis of the EXOSAT database shows that many systems have orbital and beat period modulations which are small compared to the spin-pulses, suggesting disc accretion. There are, though, exceptions, notably TX Col where dominant orbital and beat period modulations indicate discless accretion. (author).

  20. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.

    1985-04-01

    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  1. Sobre o teorema do valor intermediário

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Fabio Maia de [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the Intermediate Value Theorem and we present some applications. This kind of theorem is typical from Calculus in graduation courses. But it is easy to understand and it can be used to solve problems related to topics from high school, for example, to guarantee the existence of solutions for certain equations Neste trabalho estudamos o Teorema do Valor Intermediário e apresentamos várias aplica ções. Embora seja um teorema visto em cursos universitários, o teorema e d...

  2. Evidence of a weakly absorbing intermediate mode of aerosols in AERONET data from Saharan and Sahelian sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianelli, Scott M.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Carlson, Barbara E.; Hameed, Sultan

    2013-11-01

    Accurate retrievals of aerosol size distribution are necessary to estimate aerosols' impact on climate and human health. The inversions of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) usually retrieve bimodal distributions. However, when the inversion is applied to Saharan and Sahelian dust, an additional mode of intermediate size between the coarse and fine modes is sometimes seen. This mode explains peculiarities in the behavior of the Ångström exponent, along with the fine mode fraction retrieved using the spectral deconvolution algorithm, observed in a March 2006 dust storm. For this study, 15 AERONET sites in northern Africa and on the Atlantic are examined to determine the frequency and properties of the intermediate mode. The mode is observed most frequently at Ilorin in Nigeria. It is also observed at Capo Verde and multiple sites located within the Sahel but much less frequently at sites in the northern Sahara and the Canary Islands. The presence of the intermediate mode coincides with increases in Ångström exponent, fine mode fraction, single-scattering albedo, and to a lesser extent percent sphericity. The Ångström exponent decreases with increasing optical depth at most sites when the intermediate mode is present, but the fine mode fraction does not. Single-scattering albedo does not steadily decrease with fine mode fraction when the intermediate mode is present, as it does in typical mixtures of dust and biomass-burning aerosols. Continued investigation is needed to further define the intermediate mode's properties, determine why it differs from most Saharan dust, and identify its climate and health effects.

  3. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  4. The INTEGRAL view of intermediate long X-ray bursts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    CONCLUSIONS Most intermediate bursts are observed from low luminosity sources and are interpreted as long pure He bursts. If no H is accreted, they are consistent with the burning of a slowly accreted, thick He layer, in Ultra Compact X-ray Binaries (UCXB) where the donor star is probably a degen...

  5. An Evaluation of An Intermediate Course in Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜佳婧

    2012-01-01

      Courrsebooks are important in teaching and education. An e-valuation of a coursebook cal ed An Intermediate Course in Writing is made from the aspects of background, fitness to the curriculum, physical characters, logical characters and teachability.

  6. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  7. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  8. Bibliografia Especializada: Educacion Media (Specialized Bibliography: Intermediate Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1969

    1969-01-01

    This specialized international bibliography on various issues in intermediate education lists almost 70 articles and books, written between 1957 and 1969, in Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Chile, Spain, France, Mexico, and the United States. Articles appear in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English. Several articles were sponsored by international…

  9. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia

    2013-01-01

    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  10. Association between intermediate uveitis and toxocariasis in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Woo; Sim, Yoonseob; Jee, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the characteristics of ocular toxocariasis (OT) presenting with intermediate uveitis in the Korean population.We studied intermediate uveitis patients using ocular and systemic evaluations and a Toxocara IgG serology test.Of 50 intermediate uveitis patients, 19 were seropositive for Toxocara IgG. Of the 19 OT patients, 4 presented with recurrence within 6 months and were significantly younger than nonrecurrence patients (P = 0.009). Thirteen patients had a history of eating raw cow liver.There were 14 males and 5 females in the OT group, and 11 males and 20 females in the non-OT group (P = 0.009). There was bilateral involvement in 7 out of 19 patients in the OT group, and 20 out of 31 patients in non-OT group (P = 0.033).Intermediate uveitis patients in OT were predominately male and had more unilateral presentation than non-OT patients.

  11. The impact of liquidity regulation on bank intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonner, Clemens; Eijffinger, Sylvester C. W.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the impact of a requirement similar to the Basel III Liquidity Coverage Ratio on the bank intermediation applying Regression Discontinuity Designs. Using a unique dataset on Dutch banks, we show that a liquidity requirement causes long-term borrowing and lending rates as well as demand fo

  12. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  13. An Overview of the The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) has conducted a range of time-domain surveys since 2013. As iPTF concludes, I will review the these goals of surveys, their on-sky performance, and implications for next-generation surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility and LSST. Finally, I will describe the public data products being released.

  14. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  15. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  16. Population synthesis for low and intermediate mass binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Yungelson, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the basic principles of the population synthesis for binary stars is presented. We discuss the break-up of low and intermediate mass close binaries over different evolutionary scenarios and, as an example, briefly consider results of the population synthesis for SN Ia.

  17. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  18. An intermediate targets method for time parallelization in optimal control

    CERN Document Server

    Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method that enables to solve in parallel the Euler-Lagrange system associated with the optimal control of a parabolic equation. Our approach is based on an iterative update of a sequence of intermediate targets and gives rise independent sub-problems that can be solved in parallel. Numerical experiments show the efficiency of our method.

  19. The utility of Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate-complexity models are models which describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and/or ocean in less detail than conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs). At the same time, they go beyond the approach taken by atmospheric Energy Balance Models (EBMs) or ocean box models by

  20. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86.246-94 Section 86.246-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94...

  1. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  2. Deriving the Dividend Discount Model in the Intermediate Microeconomics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Schlaudraff, Jonathan; White, Karianne; Wills, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors show that the dividend discount model can be derived using the basic intertemporal consumption model that is introduced in a typical intermediate microeconomics course. This result will be of use to instructors who teach microeconomics to finance students in that it demonstrates the value of utility maximization in…

  3. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  4. Neutrino interactions with nucleons and nuclei at intermediate energies

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Ruso, L; Mosel, U

    2006-01-01

    We investigate neutrino-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies incorporating quasielastic scattering and Delta(1232) excitation as elementary processes, together with Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and mean-field potentials in the nuclear medium. A full coupled-channel treatment of final state interactions is achieved with a semiclassical BUU transport model. Results for inclusive reactions and nucleon knockout are presented.

  5. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Iranian Upper-Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Rezaei, Saeed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the preferred vocabulary learning strategies of Iranian upper-intermediate EFL learners. In order to identify the aforementioned group in terms of language proficiency, a TOEFL test was administered to a population of 146 undergraduate EFL students at the university of Vali-e-Asr in Rafsanjan, Iran. Those scoring above 480 were…

  6. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia

    2013-01-01

    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  7. Transmission of intermediate data rates - The Mercury experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, M. W.

    1988-12-01

    The process by which a company with no existing earth stations procured equipment which would comply with the latest specifications for intermediate data rate digital services is discussed. The various operational needs and engineering design considerations that were necessary in order for earth-station equipment to meet the requirements are described.

  8. A Memetic Algorithm for the Orienteering Problem with Intermediate Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Divsalar, Ali; Vansteenwegen, Pieter; Cattrysse, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Orienteering Problem with Intermediate facilities (OPIF) is a new variant of the orienteering problem. In this variant, the objective is to find a given number of connected trips while maximizing the sum of collected scores. OPIF has been introduced by us in a recent publication under the name of orienteering problem with hotel selection.

  9. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INTERMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  11. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  12. Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We study networks of biochemical reactions modelled by continuoustime Markov processes. Such networks typically contain many molecular species and reactions and are hard to study analytically as well as by simulation. Particularly, we are interested in reaction networks with intermediate species ...

  13. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  14. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    2000-01-01

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial in

  15. Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic active Brownian particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Christina; Leitmann, Sebastian; Franosch, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Various challenges are faced when animalcules such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, or sperms move autonomously in aqueous media at low Reynolds number. These active agents are subject to strong stochastic fluctuations, that compete with the directed motion. So far most studies consider the lowest order moments of the displacements only, while more general spatio-temporal information on the stochastic motion is provided in scattering experiments. Here we derive analytically exact expressions for the directly measurable intermediate scattering function for a mesoscopic model of a single, anisotropic active Brownian particle in three dimensions. The mean-square displacement and the non-Gaussian parameter of the stochastic process are obtained as derivatives of the intermediate scattering function. These display different temporal regimes dominated by effective diffusion and directed motion due to the interplay of translational and rotational diffusion which is rationalized within the theory. The most prominent feature of the intermediate scattering function is an oscillatory behavior at intermediate wavenumbers reflecting the persistent swimming motion, whereas at small length scales bare translational and at large length scales an enhanced effective diffusion emerges. We anticipate that our characterization of the motion of active agents will serve as a reference for more realistic models and experimental observations.

  16. Teaching Inflation Targeting: An Analysis for Intermediate Macro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carl E.

    2002-01-01

    States many central banks have adopted policies known as inflation targeting. Declares that students need experience with the implications of these policies. Provides a simple graphical device involving the output gap and the inflation rate to overcome these problems that can be used to teach intermediate macroeconomics students about inflation…

  17. Computer Literacy: Intermediate and Secondary Grades, Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    This curriculum guide outlines a course on computer literacy for junior or senior high school students reflecting the technology of the early 1980s. A chart shows computer literacy scope and sequence for students in kindergarten, grades 1-2, grades 3-6, and grades 7-9. Forty lessons for the intermediate grades and high school are then presented,…

  18. Experimental Studies of Few-nucleon Systems at Intermediate Energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephan, E.; Kistryn, St.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.

    2014-01-01

    Systems composed of 3 nucleons are a subject of precise experimental studies for many years. At the first stage the investigations were mainly focused on elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering, slowly extending to systematic measurements of the deuteron breakup reaction. Intermediate energies, below th

  19. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  20. Lifetime enhancement for multiphoton absorption in intermediate band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Anibal T.; Studart, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    A semiconductor structure consisting of two coupled quantum wells embedded into the intrinsic region of a p-i-n junction is proposed as an intermediate band solar cell with a photon ratchet state, which would lead to increasing the cell efficiency. The conduction subband of the right-hand side quantum well works as the intermediated band, whereas the excited conduction subband of the left-hand side quantum well operates as the ratchet state. The photoelectrons in the intermediate band are scattered through the thin wells barrier and accumulated into the ratchet subband. A rate equation model for describing the charge transport properties is presented. The efficiency of the current generation is analyzed by studying the occupation of the wells subbands, taking into account the charge dynamic behavior provided by the electrical contacts connected to the cell. The current generation efficiency depends essentially from the relations between the generation, recombination rates and the scattering rate to the ratchet state. The inclusion of the ratchet states led to both an increase and a decrease in the cell current depending on the transition rates. This suggests that the coupling between the intermediate band and the ratchet state is a key point in developing an efficient solar cell.

  1. Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Paar, V

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.

  2. Mitigating TCP Degradation over Intermittent Link Failures using Intermediate Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    buffering strategy, retransmission strategy, TCP state management, intermediate ac- knowledgment, custody considerations, and leader election considerations...availability are all ripe for research in strategic buffering. One final custodial area open for pursuit is a leader election protocol. Along a route with

  3. Selective insertion of sulfur dioxide reduction intermediates on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeres, Eduardo; Debacher, Nito A; Smaniotto, Alessandra; de Castro, Karen M; Benetoli, Luís O B; de Souza, Eduardo P; Moreira, Regina de F P M; Lopes, Cristiane N; Schreiner, Wido H; Canle, Moisés; Santaballa, J Arturo

    2014-04-22

    Graphite microparticles (d50 6.20 μm) were oxidized by strong acids, and the resultant graphite oxide was thermally exfoliated to graphene oxide sheets (MPGO, C/O 1.53). Graphene oxide was treated with nonthermal plasma under a SO2 atmosphere at room temperature. The XPS spectrum showed that SO2 was inserted only as the oxidized intermediate at 168.7 eV in the S 2p region. Short thermal shocks at 600 and 400 °C, under an Ar atmosphere, produced reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide as shown by the XPS spectrum and TGA analysis coupled to FTIR. MPGO was also submitted to thermal reaction with SO2 at 630 °C, and the XPS spectrum in the S 2p region at 164.0 eV showed that this time only the nonoxidized episulfide intermediate was inserted. Plasma and thermal treatment produced a partial reduction of MPGO. The sequence of thermal reaction followed by plasma treatment inserted both sulfur intermediates. Because oxidized and nonoxidized intermediates have different reactivities, this selective insertion would allow the addition of selective types of organic fragments to the surface of graphene oxide.

  4. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  5. Intermediate- and extended-range order in phosphate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Research Institute, Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Price, D.L.; Loong, Chun-Keung [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Martin, S.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-08-01

    The structure of sodium ultraphosphate glasses, (Na{sub 2}O){sub x}(P{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub 100-x} (x = 0, 10, 20), and alkali metaphosphate glasses, MePO{sub 3} (Me = Li, Na, K, Rb and Cs) have been studied by neutron diffraction. Structural features in the neutron structure factors S(Q) characteristic of intermediate-range (Q {approx_lt} 3 {angstrom}{sup -1}) order were identified. The feature of intermediate-range order in the pure phosphate glass (v-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is accounted for by the P{sub 4}O{sub 10} molecule packing model. The addition of the alkali metal modifier, Na, has drastic affect on the intermediate-range structure due to destruction of the PO{sub 4} network structure. Around x {approximately} 50 a new peak arises at lower Q than the intermediate-range order peak, which is found in the S(Q)`s of all alkali metaphosphate glasses, associated with extended-range order. The length scale of extended-range order increases with Me{sup +} size. These phenomena can be explained by the behavior of oxygen atoms. i.e. PO{sub 4} chain-like units ordering around the Me{sup +}.

  6. Experimental Echinococcus multilocularis Infection in Intermediate Hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David

    Echinococcus multilocularis is a tapeworm transmitted between canids (foxes in particular) and various species of rodents. As a zoonotic parasite, it is capable of infecting humans and is considered a serious food-borne parasitic disease. A great deal of work has been conducted on elucidating both...... the infection dynamics and the epizootiology of this disease. With regard to the former aspect, there have been experimental studies of parasite growth characteristics in ecologically relevant definitive host species but in intermediate hosts the vast majority of experimental work has been conducted on inbred...... strains of mice. These studies are principally intended to elucidate infection mechanisms and assess treatment options in humans. For this purpose inbred mice are appropriate organisms. However, such laboratory species are inappropriate for assessment of transmission in natural rodent populations...

  7. Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, Elisa; Cesca, Simone; Del Fresno, Carmen; Udias, Agustin

    2010-05-01

    Complexity of the Ibero-Magrhebian region: intermediate depth earthquakes Buforn E. (1), Cesca S.(2), del Fresno C.(3), Udías, A. (1) (1) Dpt. Geofísica y Meteorología. Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain (2) Institute of Geophysics, University of Hamburg, Germany (3) Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Madrid (Spain) The Ibero-Magrhebian region is located at the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa and it is a tectonically complex region. A sign of the complexity, is the occurrence of intermediate depth earthquakes (40Intermediate depth shocks are mostly confined within a relatively narrow region (50 km width) located East of Gibraltar, extending NNE-SSW from the Malaga (Spain) area to a region offshore the Moroccan coast. The moderate magnitude of the intermediate depth events (less than 5.5), the heterogeneity of the crustal structure in the region, and the strong influence of microseismic noise on seismic data represent significant challenges for the inversion of focal mechanism based on waveform modelling. We have estimated the focal mechanisms of 9 intermediate depth earthquakes (Mw 3.3 to 4.5) occurred in the period 2002-2009 from moment tensor inversion of broad-band data at regional distances, using the recently developed Kiwi tools. Moment tensor inversion is carried out by fitting body waves amplitude spectra, solving for strike, dip, rake, scalar moment and improving the original hypocentral depth. For each earthquake, we carry out a set of inversions, comparing results using different station subsets, seismic phases and earth models. The new obtained results, together with other selected solutions estimated previously using different methods, show a change on the stress pattern: to the west of 4.5°W, focal mechanisms show vertical tension axis, while to the east

  8. CEVADA BR 2: CULTIVAR DE CEVADA CERVEJEIRA RESISTENTE À MANCHA-RETICULAR CAUSADA POR PYRENOPHORA TERES BARLEY CULTIVAR BR 2: MALTING QUALITY AND RESISTANCE TO NET BLOTCH CAUSED BY PYRENOPHORA TERES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUCLYDES MINELLA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available A Cevada BR 2, criada pela Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT, foi lançada para cultivo em 1989. Originou-se de sete plantas selecionadas em F3 do cruzamento FM 424/TR 206, realizado em 1979, em Passo Fundo, RS. A BR 2 é uma cevada de primavera, do tipo de duas fileiras de grãos, com ciclo precoce, ampla adaptação e porte baixo. É a primeira cultivar brasileira resistente a Pyrenophora teres, agente causal da mancha-reticular, principal moléstia da cevada no Brasil. Em oito anos de avaliação no Ensaio Nacional de Cevada, conduzido em 12 locais da Região Sul, a BR 2 rendeu entre 1.621 e 4.014 kg/ha de grãos de primeira qualidade, superando a cultivar Antarctica 05 em 3% no RS e SC, em 13% no PR, e em 6% na média dos 96 experimentos (12 locais x 8 anos. Na lavoura, a BR 2 tem produzido rendimentos acima de 5.000 kg/ha. Aprovada como cervejeira em 1992, ocupou 30% da área semeada em 1993 e 90% em 1997. A BR 2 representa um marco no progresso do melhoramento genético da cevada no país, contribuindo decisivamente para o aumento da competitividade da produção doméstica.Barley cultivar BR 2 developed by the Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Trigo (CNPT was released in 1989. BR 2 traces back to seven plants selected in the F3 from the cross FM 424/TR 206 made in Passo Fundo, RS, in 1979. BR 2 is a two row spring barley with wide adaptation, earliness and short straw. It is the first Brazilian cultivar resistant to Pyrenophora teres, causal agent of net blotch, a major barley disease in Brazil. In eight years of yield testing in the National Barley Trial in twelve locations of Southern Brazil, BR 2 yielded between 1,621and 4,014 kg/ha of plump kernels, with 3%, 13% and 6% yield increase over the check cultivar Antarctica 05 in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Paraná and in the mean of 96 trials, respectively. On the farm fields, BR 2 has yielded over 5,000 kg/ha. Since its approval as a malting

  9. Intermediates in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworowski, A; Hartman, F C; Rose, I A

    1984-06-10

    At least two intermediates of the D-ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (EC 4.1.1.39) reaction were liberated in detectable amounts when the functioning enzyme from Rhodospirillum rubrum was quenched in acid. Using substrate labeled with 32P in C-1, [32P]orthophosphate (Pi) was found when the quenched solution was rapidly processed for extraction of Pi as the acid molybdate complex. Reaction with sodium borohydride under mildly alkaline conditions immediately after acid quenching of the carboxylase reaction decreased the amount of 32Pi that was observed by 68%. The compound whose degradation to Pi was prevented by reaction with sodium borohydride decomposed under both acid and neutral conditions with a half-time of about 5 min at 25 degrees C and was assigned to the beta-keto acid recently demonstrated for the spinach enzyme ( Schloss , J.V., and Lorimer , G.H. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 4691-4694). It was sufficiently stable upon neutralization to react productively with fresh enzyme. As substrate CO2 concentration was decreased below the steady state Km value, the proportion of the 32P that did not react with sodium borohydride increased, indicative of a second unstable intermediate that precedes the carboxylation step. The decomposition of the latter intermediate to Pi, which occurs with a t1/2 less than or equal to 6 ms, was prevented if I2 was present in the acid quench medium. These are properties expected of the 2,3- enediol form of ribulose bisphosphate. Both intermediates reach their maximum levels when product formation is most rapid and disappear when product formation is complete as expected of reaction intermediates.

  10. Thermal Runaway during Intermediate-Depth Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, German; Florez, Manuel; Barrett, Sarah; Beroza, Gregory; Pedraza, Patricia; Blanco, Jose; Poveda, Esteban

    2014-05-01

    Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths of 50 to 300 km in subducting lithosphere. Despite their ubiquity in earthquake catalogs, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures are expected to lead to ductile, rather than brittle deformation. There are two leading explanations for the physical mechanism that enables these earthquakes. In the first, high pore pressure from metamorphic dehydration reactions in the subducting slab reduces the effective normal stress sufficiently to enable frictional failure. In the second, slow deformation generates heat, which leads to weakening, further deformation, and a self-localizing thermal shear runaway. We use the nest of intermediate-depth earthquakes under Bucaramanga, Colombia as recorded by the digital RSNC (Red Sísmica Nacional de Colombia) regional seismic network to explore these two possibilities. We observe a combination of high stress drop and low radiation efficiency for Mw 4-5 earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest that points to the importance of thermal effects. If we assume a cm-scale fault-zone width, this combination implies a temperature increase of 600-1,000ºC during earthquake failure, which suggests that substantial shear heating, and possibly partial melting, occurs during intermediate-depth earthquake failure. Our observations support thermal shear runaway as the mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes. This mechanism could help explain differences in their behavior, such as the paucity of aftershocks, compared to shallow earthquakes. Although we have inferred these mechanisms for intermediate depth earthquakes, it's likely that they would apply for rapid deformation on the deep extensions of fault zones as well - particularly during large earthquakes, such as the 2012 Mw 8.6 strike-slip event off Sumatra, which is inferred to have ruptured well into the oceanic mantle.

  11. Levantine Intermediate Water characteristics: an astounding general misunderstanding!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Millot

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW is a warm salty water formed in one out of four main zones of dense water formation in the Mediterranean Sea. LIW spreads as a density current and first appears on a ϴ-S diagram as a sharp peak that then smoothens out, often leading to the so-called “scorpion-tail” image with a ϴ (S maximum above (below the expected core. Both maxima have always been considered, somewhat fuzzily (even by us, as LIW characteristics without having ever been analysed theoretically. We question neither the “scorpion-tail” image nor the “core-method” nor qualitative analyses of either LIW or other waters characterized by similar extrema. But data from the Strait of Gibraltar demonstrate that characterizing and/or delimiting LIW by these maxima gives LIW a much greater importance than it actually merits so all quantitative analyses of LIW musts be reconsidered. Calculations made as simple as possible to simulate a warm salty layer of intermediate water (IW mixing with waters lying above and below suggest that these maxima i can be understood only when all three waters are considered together, ii can evolve in different ways, iii generally tend to move from the core of the IW layer outwards, and hence iv can neither characterize nor delimit the IW in any way. Actual simulations with more sophisticated parameterizations are obviously needed. In addition, we suggest that what has to date been called LIW in the western basin in fact represents all intermediate waters formed in all zones of dense water formation in the eastern basin, i.e. not only Levantine waters but also, in particular, Aegean/Cretan waters. To provide a logical counterpart to WIW (Western Intermediate Water, we therefore suggest that, from the Channel of Sicily downstream, LIW should be renamed Eastern Intermediate Water (EIW.

  12. Diffusion profile of macromolecules within and between human skin layers for (trans)dermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römgens, Anne M; Bader, Dan L; Bouwstra, Joke A; Baaijens, Frank P T; Oomens, Cees W J

    2015-10-01

    Delivering a drug into and through the skin is of interest as the skin can act as an alternative drug administration route for oral delivery. The development of new delivery methods, such as microneedles, makes it possible to not only deliver small molecules into the skin, which are able to pass the outer layer of the skin in therapeutic amounts, but also macromolecules. To provide insight into the administration of these molecules into the skin, the aim of this study was to assess the transport of macromolecules within and between its various layers. The diffusion coefficients in the epidermis and several locations in the papillary and reticular dermis were determined for fluorescein dextran of 40 and 500 kDa using a combination of fluorescent recovery after photobleaching experiments and finite element analysis. The diffusion coefficient was significantly higher for 40 kDa than 500 kDa dextran, with median values of 23 and 9 µm(2)/s in the dermis, respectively. The values only marginally varied within and between papillary and reticular dermis. For the 40 kDa dextran, the diffusion coefficient in the epidermis was twice as low as in the dermis layers. The adopted method may be used for other macromolecules, which are of interest for dermal and transdermal drug delivery. The knowledge about diffusion in the skin is useful to optimize (trans)dermal drug delivery systems to target specific layers or cells in the human skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intermediate filament-co-localized molecules with myosin heavy chain epitopes define distinct cellular domains in hair follicles and epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Simon M

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins linking intermediate filaments to other cytoskeletal components have important functions in maintaining tissue integrity and cell shape. Results We found a set of monoclonal antibodies raised against specific human sarcomeric myosin heavy chain (MyHC isoforms labels cells in distinct regions of the mammalian epidermis. The antigens co-localize with intermediate filament-containing structures. A slow MyHC-related antigen is punctate on the cell surface and co-localizes with desmoplakin at desmosomal junctions of all suprabasal epidermal layers from rat fœtal day 16 onwards, in the root sheath of the hair follicle and in intercalated disks of cardiomyocytes. A fast MyHC-related antigen occurs in cytoplasmic filaments in a subset of basal cells of skin epidermis and bulb, but not neck, of hair follicles. A fast IIA MyHC-related antigen labels filaments of a single layer of cells in hair bulb. This 230 000 Mr antigen co-purifies with keratin. No obvious candidate for any of the antigens appears in the literature. Conclusions We describe a set of molecules that co-localize with intermediate filament in specific cell subsets in epithelial tissues. These antigens presumably influence intermediate filament structure or function.

  14. Management of intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism: uncertainties and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, Frederikus Albertus; Meyer, Guy; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2015-12-01

    Current guidelines on the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) recommend stratification of hemodynamically stable patients in 'low risk' and 'intermediate risk'. Validated risk scores, cardiac biomarkers, and imaging of the right ventricle all help in distinguishing both patient categories. The relevance of this risk stratification lies in the determination of the most optimal treatment for the individual patient. In this clinical review, we will discuss how patients with 'intermediate-risk' PE can be identified as well as recent advances in their therapeutic management. Based on a clinical case, we will highlight the indications for reperfusion therapy and the current experience with non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant (NOACs) in this specific patient's category.

  15. Intermediate scalings in holographic RG flows and conductivities

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Goutéraux, Blaise

    2014-01-01

    We construct numerically finite density domain-wall solutions which interpolate between two $AdS_4$ fixed points and exhibit an intermediate regime of hyperscaling violation, with or without Lifshitz scaling. Such RG flows can be realized in gravitational models containing a dilatonic scalar and a massive vector field with appropriate choices of the scalar potential and couplings. The infrared $AdS_4$ fixed point describes a new ground state for strongly coupled quantum systems realizing such scalings, thus avoiding the well-known extensive zero temperature entropy associated with $AdS_2 \\times \\mathbb{R}^2$. We also examine the zero temperature behavior of the optical conductivity in these backgrounds and identify two scaling regimes before the UV CFT scaling is reached. The scaling of the conductivity is controlled by the emergent IR conformal symmetry at very low frequencies, and by the intermediate scaling regime at higher frequencies.

  16. Transport code and nuclear data in intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Odama, Naomitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Maekawa, F.; Ueki, K.; Kosaka, K.; Oyama, Y.

    1998-11-01

    We briefly reviewed the problems of intermediate energy nuclear data file and transport codes in connection with processing of the data. This is a summary of our group in the task force on JENDL High Energy File Integral Evaluation (JHEFIE). In this article we stress the necessity of the production of intermediate evaluated nuclear data file up to 3 GeV for the application of accelerator driven transmutation (ADT) system. And also we state the necessity of having our own transport code system to calculate the radiation fields using these evaluated files from the strategic points of view to keep our development of the ADT technology completely free from other conditions outside of our own such as imported codes and data with poor maintenance or unknown accuracy. (author)

  17. Metal — metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John F Berry

    2015-02-01

    Metal–metal bonded Rh2 and Ru2 complexes having a paddlewheel-type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection. Specifically, mechanistic investigations of carbenoid and nitrenoid reactions of Rh2(II,II)-tetracarboxylate compounds have led to the observation of a metastable Rh2(II,II) carbene complex as well as a mixed-valent Rh2(II,III)-amido intermediate. Related Ru2 nitrido compounds have been studied and found to undergo intramolecular C–H amination reactions as well as intermolecular reaction with triphenylphosphine

  18. VHTR engineering design study: intermediate heat exchanger program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-11-01

    The work reported is the result of a follow-on program to earlier Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) studies. The primary use of the VHTR is to provide heat for various industrial processes, such as hydrocarbon reforming and coal gasification. For many processes the use of an intermediate heat transfer barrier between the reactor coolant and the process is desirable; for some processes it is mandatory. Various intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) concepts for the VHTR were investigated with respect to safety, cost, and engineering design considerations. The reference processes chosen were steam-hydrocarbon reforming, with emphasis on the chemical heat pipe, and steam gasification of coal. The study investigates the critically important area of heat transfer between the reactor coolant, helium, and the various chemical processes.

  19. Intermediate-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, X; Zhang, T; Li, Z; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xu; Zhang, Tianmeng; Li, Zongwei

    2004-01-01

    We present optical light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (2002er, 2002fk, 2003cg, 2003du, 2003fk). The photometric observations were performed in a set of intermediate-band filters. SNe 2002er, 2003du appear to be normal SN Ia events with similar light curve shapes, while SN 2003kf shows the behavior of a brighter SN Ia with slower decline rate after maximum. The light curves of SN 2003cg is unusual; they show a fast rise and dramatic decline near maximum and do not display secondary peak at longer wavelengths during 15-30 days after maximum light. This suggests that SN 2003cg is likely to be an intrinsically subluminous, 91bg-like SN Ia. Exploration of SN Ia feature lines through intermediate-band photometry is briefly discussed.

  20. Methods for Determining the Cellular Functions of Vimentin Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Karen M; Shumaker, Dale; Robert, Amélie; Hookway, Caroline; Gelfand, Vladimir I; Janmey, Paul A; Lowery, Jason; Guo, Ming; Weitz, David A; Kuczmarski, Edward; Goldman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The type III intermediate filament protein vimentin was once thought to function mainly as a static structural protein in the cytoskeleton of cells of mesenchymal origin. Now, however, vimentin is known to form a dynamic, flexible network that plays an important role in a number of signaling pathways. Here, we describe various methods that have been developed to investigate the cellular functions of the vimentin protein and intermediate filament network, including chemical disruption, photoactivation and photoconversion, biolayer interferometry, soluble bead binding assay, three-dimensional substrate experiments, collagen gel contraction, optical-tweezer active microrheology, and force spectrum microscopy. Using these techniques, the contributions of vimentin to essential cellular processes can be probed in ever further detail.