WorldWideScience

Sample records for human inherited diseases

  1. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... tant role in cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and in several diseases including type ... between epigenetic DNA modifications and human life span has also been shown .... penetrance mutation that is age dependent especially when compared with the ..... on healthy aging and longevity. Immunity Aging ...

  2. Elusive inheritance: Transgenerational effects and epigenetic inheritance in human environmental disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Suzanne N; Tang, Wan-Yee; Wang, Zhibin

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone modification, histone variants and nucleosome positioning, and noncoding RNAs regulate cell-, tissue-, and developmental stage-specific gene expression by influencing chromatin structure and modulating interactions between proteins and DNA. Epigenetic marks are mitotically inherited in somatic cells and may be altered in response to internal and external stimuli. The idea that environment-induced epigenetic changes in mammals could be inherited through the germline, independent of genetic mechanisms, has stimulated much debate. Many experimental models have been designed to interrogate the possibility of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance and provide insight into how environmental exposures influence phenotypes over multiple generations in the absence of any apparent genetic mutation. Unexpected molecular evidence has forced us to reevaluate not only our understanding of the plasticity and heritability of epigenetic factors, but of the stability of the genome as well. Recent reviews have described the difference between transgenerational and intergenerational effects; the two major epigenetic reprogramming events in the mammalian lifecycle; these two events making transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of environment-induced perturbations rare, if at all possible, in mammals; and mechanisms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in non-mammalian eukaryotic organisms. This paper briefly introduces these topics and mainly focuses on (1) transgenerational phenotypes and epigenetic effects in mammals, (2) environment-induced intergenerational epigenetic effects, and (3) the inherent difficulties in establishing a role for epigenetic inheritance in human environmental disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Bayzigitov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

  4. Human inherited diseases with altered mechanisms for DNA repair and mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of human diseases involving clinical symptoms of increased cancer risk, and disorders of the central nervous system, and of hematopoietic, immunological, ocular, and cutaneous tissues and embryological development have defects in biochemical pathways for excision repair of damaged DNA. Excision repair has multiple branches by which damaged nucleotides, bases, and cross-links are excised and requires cofactors that control the access of repair enzymes to damage in DNA in chromatin. Diseases in which repair defects are a consistent feature of their biochemistry include xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia and Fanconi's anemia.

  5. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-13

    Eye Diseases Hereditary; Retinal Disease; Achromatopsia; Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; Bassen-Kornzweig Syndrome; Batten Disease; Best Disease; Choroidal Dystrophy; Choroideremia; Cone Dystrophy; Cone-Rod Dystrophy; Congenital Stationary Night Blindness; Enhanced S-Cone Syndrome; Fundus Albipunctatus; Goldmann-Favre Syndrome; Gyrate Atrophy; Juvenile Macular Degeneration; Kearns-Sayre Syndrome; Leber Congenital Amaurosis; Refsum Syndrome; Retinitis Pigmentosa; Retinitis Punctata Albescens; Retinoschisis; Rod-Cone Dystrophy; Rod Dystrophy; Rod Monochromacy; Stargardt Disease; Usher Syndrome

  6. Vaccination via Chloroplast Genetics: Affordable Protein Drugs for the Prevention and Treatment of Inherited or Infectious Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Chan, Hui-Ting; Pasoreck, Elise K

    2016-11-23

    Plastid-made biopharmaceuticals treat major metabolic or genetic disorders, including Alzheimer's, diabetes, hypertension, hemophilia, and retinopathy. Booster vaccines made in chloroplasts prevent global infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, malaria, cholera, and polio, and biological threats, such as anthrax and plague. Recent advances in this field include commercial-scale production of human therapeutic proteins in FDA-approved cGMP facilities, development of tags to deliver protein drugs to targeted human cells or tissues, methods to deliver precise doses, and long-term stability of protein drugs at ambient temperature, maintaining their efficacy. Codon optimization utilizing valuable information from sequenced chloroplast genomes enhanced expression of eukaryotic human or viral genes in chloroplasts and offered unique insights into translation in chloroplasts. Support from major biopharmaceutical companies, development of hydroponic production systems, and evaluation by regulatory agencies, including the CDC, FDA, and USDA, augur well for advancing this novel concept to the clinic and revolutionizing affordable healthcare.

  7. Adaptive optics imaging of inherited retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Michalis; Kalitzeos, Angelos; Patterson, Emily J; Dubra, Alfredo; Carroll, Joseph; Michaelides, Michel

    2017-11-15

    Adaptive optics (AO) ophthalmoscopy allows for non-invasive retinal phenotyping on a microscopic scale, thereby helping to improve our understanding of retinal diseases. An increasing number of natural history studies and ongoing/planned interventional clinical trials exploit AO ophthalmoscopy both for participant selection, stratification and monitoring treatment safety and efficacy. In this review, we briefly discuss the evolution of AO ophthalmoscopy, recent developments and its application to a broad range of inherited retinal diseases, including Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa and achromatopsia. Finally, we describe the impact of this in vivo microscopic imaging on our understanding of disease pathogenesis, clinical trial design and outcome metrics, while recognising the limitation of the small cohorts reported to date. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Experimental Models of Inherited PrP Prion Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2017-11-01

    The inherited prion protein (PrP) prion disorders, which include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia, constitute ∼10%-15% of all PrP prion disease cases in humans. Attempts to generate animal models of these disorders using transgenic mice expressing mutant PrP have produced variable results. Although many lines of mice develop spontaneous signs of neurological illness with accompanying prion disease-specific neuropathological changes, others do not. Furthermore, demonstrating the presence of protease-resistant PrP species and prion infectivity-two of the hallmarks of the PrP prion disorders-in the brains of spontaneously sick mice has proven particularly challenging. Here, we review the progress that has been made toward developing accurate mouse models of the inherited PrP prion disorders. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. The inherited basis of human radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Certain individuals cannot tolerate 'conventional' doses of radiation therapy. This is known to be true of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia and ligase IV deficiency. Although in vitro testing may not correlate completely with clinical radiosensitivity, fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from patients with both of these disorders have been clearly shown to be radiosensitive. Using a colony survival assay (CSA) to test lymphoblastoid cells after irradiation with 1 Gy, a variety of other genetic disorders have been identified as strong candidates for clinical radiosensitivity, such as Nijmegen breakage syndrome, Mre11 deficiency, and Fanconi's anemia. These data are presented and considered as a starting-point for the inherited basis of human radiosensitivity

  10. A human model for multigenic inheritance : Phenotypic expression in Hirschsprung disease requires both the RET gene and a new 9q31 locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolk, S; Pelet, A; Hofstra, RMW; Angrist, M; Salomon, R; Croaker, D; Buys, CHCM; Lyonnet, S; Chakravarti, A

    2000-01-01

    Reduced penetrance in genetic disorders may be either dependent or independent of the genetic background of gene carriers. Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) demonstrates a complex pattern of inheritance with approximate to 50% of familial cases being heterozygous for mutations in the receptor tyrosine

  11. The inherited basis of human radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatti, R.A. [Univ. of California, School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Experimental Pathology

    2001-11-01

    Certain individuals cannot tolerate 'conventional' doses of radiation therapy. This is known to be true of patients with ataxia-telangiectasia and ligase IV deficiency. Although in vitro testing may not correlate completely with clinical radiosensitivity, fibroblasts and lymphoblasts from patients with both of these disorders have been clearly shown to be radiosensitive. Using a colony survival assay (CSA) to test lymphoblastoid cells after irradiation with 1 Gy, a variety of other genetic disorders have been identified as strong candidates for clinical radiosensitivity, such as Nijmegen breakage syndrome, Mre11 deficiency, and Fanconi's anemia. These data are presented and considered as a starting-point for the inherited basis of human radiosensitivity.

  12. Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Genetics & Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of inherited mutations can cause PIDDs. Autosomal Dominant Credit: National Library of Medicine In this example, ... Hill, Ph.D. History Dr. Joseph J. Kinyoun: Father of the NIH Kinyoun: NIH Podcast – July 2012 ...

  13. Translocation and gross deletion breakpoints in human inherited disease and cancer II: Potential involvement of repetitive sequence elements in secondary structure formation between DNA ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzhanova, Nadia; Abeysinghe, Shaun S; Krawczak, Michael; Cooper, David N

    2003-09-01

    Translocations and gross deletions are responsible for a significant proportion of both cancer and inherited disease. Although such gene rearrangements are nonuniformly distributed in the human genome, the underlying mutational mechanisms remain unclear. We have studied the potential involvement of various types of repetitive sequence elements in the formation of secondary structure intermediates between the single-stranded DNA ends that recombine during rearrangements. Complexity analysis was used to assess the potential of these ends to form secondary structures, the maximum decrease in complexity consequent to a gross rearrangement being used as an indicator of the type of repeat and the specific DNA ends involved. A total of 175 pairs of deletion/translocation breakpoint junction sequences available from the Gross Rearrangement Breakpoint Database [GRaBD; www.uwcm.ac.uk/uwcm/mg/grabd/grabd.html] were analyzed. Potential secondary structure was noted between the 5' flanking sequence of the first breakpoint and the 3' flanking sequence of the second breakpoint in 49% of rearrangements and between the 5' flanking sequence of the second breakpoint and the 3' flanking sequence of the first breakpoint in 36% of rearrangements. Inverted repeats, inversions of inverted repeats, and symmetric elements were found in association with gross rearrangements at approximately the same frequency. However, inverted repeats and inversions of inverted repeats accounted for the vast majority (83%) of deletions plus small insertions, symmetric elements for one-half of all antigen receptor-mediated translocations, while direct repeats appear only to be involved in mediating simple deletions. These findings extend our understanding of illegitimate recombination by highlighting the importance of secondary structure formation between single-stranded DNA ends at breakpoint junctions. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Genetic Testing for Inherited Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pedigree. A pedigree ( Figure 2 ) is a family tree that shows who has and who does not have the condition of interest. It is drawn to organize information about the medical history of family members, to illustrate who is affected, to identify the pattern of inheritance, and to identify who ...

  15. Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Lippert, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In ancient Egypt inheritance was conveyed either through the legal order of succession, favoring sonsover daughters, children over siblings, and older over younger, or through written declarations thatallowed for individualized arrangements. Adoption was the common means by which a childlessperson could acquire an heir. The initial tendency towards a sole heir (preferably the eldest son) wasreplaced by the division of parental property among all children, although the eldest son continued top...

  16. Genetic testing and counselling in inherited eye disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Jensen, Hanne; Timshel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genetics have made genetic testing in patients with inherited eye disease increasingly accessible, and the initiation of clinical intervention trials makes it increasingly clinically relevant. Based on a multidisciplinary collaboration between ophthalmologists and clinical geneticists...

  17. Who's your daddy?: paternal inheritance of metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Suehiro, Harumi; Cardona, Connie

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation. Recent data, both from humans and experimental models, demonstrate that paternal obesity and undernutrition result in epigenetic reprogramming of male germ cells, notably altered DNA methylation, histone retention, and expression of small noncoding RNAs and transfer RNA fragments. Novel mechanisms have also been identified, such as epididymal transport vesicles, seminal fluid hormones and metabolites, and a unique seminal fluid microbiome. Paternal nutritional and other perturbations are linked to risk of metabolic disease and obesity in offspring. Germ cell-dependent mechanisms have recently been linked to these intergenerational effects. Nongenetic, paternal inheritance of chronic disease has important implications for public health, and may provide novel opportunities for multigenerational disease prevention.

  18. Rare inherited kidney diseases: challenges, opportunities, and perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devuyst, O.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Remuzzi, G.; Schaefer, F.; Bindels, R.J.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    At least 10% of adults and nearly all children who receive renal-replacement therapy have an inherited kidney disease. These patients rarely die when their disease progresses and can remain alive for many years because of advances in organ-replacement therapy. However, these disorders substantially

  19. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Clinical Trial Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    diseases and dry AMD; • Established patient databases at the University of Utah and University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey CTECs, classified...Scholl: Emily Fletcher, Rupert Strauss, Yulia Wolfson, Stacey Seabrook Wilmer Biostatistics Center: Ann Ervin, Beatriz Munoz Reading Center

  20. [Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare inherited heart disease.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Tfelt-Hansen, 1jacob; Olesen, Morten S

    2010-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a rare inherited heart disease, which can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in patients with a structurally normal heart. The age of onset is usually between two and 12 years and the initial symptom is frequently syncope...

  1. Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Eric E; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmental insults, such as exposure to toxicants or nutritional abnormalities, can lead to epigenetic changes that are in turn related to increased susceptibility to disease. The focus of this review is on the transgenerational inheritance of such epigenetic abnormalities (epimutations), and how it is that these inherited epigenetic abnormalities can lead to increased disease susceptibility, even in the absence of continued environmental insult. Observations of environmental toxicant specificity and exposure-specific disease susceptibility are discussed. How epimutations are transmitted across generations and how epigenetic changes in the germline are translated into an increased disease susceptibility in the adult is reviewed with regard to disease etiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Disease Clinical Trial Network. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Stargardt disease, and Usher syndrome represent the predominant forms of inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and are estimated to affect...working with Oxford Biomedica and a separate project with academic investigators on gene therapy for Usher lb syndrome (deaf-blindness due to a gene...s. The NEER Network will also develop standard protocols for data collection, mainta i n and expand patient databases, classified by genotype and

  3. Seizures in dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarea, Aline; Charbonnier, Camille; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Nicolas, Gaël; Rousseau, Stéphane; Borden, Alaina; Pariente, Jeremie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pasquier, Florence; Formaglio, Maite; Martinaud, Olivier; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Sarazin, Marie; Croisile, Bernard; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Claire; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Gabelle, Audrey; Chamard, Ludivine; Blanc, Frédéric; Sellal, François; Paquet, Claire; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier; Wallon, David

    2016-08-30

    To assess seizure frequency in a large French cohort of autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) and to determine possible correlations with causative mutations. A national multicentric study was performed in patients with ADEOAD harboring a pathogenic mutation within PSEN1, PSEN2, APP, or a duplication of APP, and a minimal follow-up of 5 years. Clinical, EEG, and imaging data were systematically recorded. We included 132 patients from 77 families: 94 PSEN1 mutation carriers (MCs), 16 APP duplication carriers, 15 APP MCs, and 7 PSEN2 MCs. Seizure frequency was 47.7% after a mean follow-up of 8.4 years (range 5-25). After 5-year follow-up and using a Cox model analysis, the percentages of patients with seizures were respectively 19.1% (10.8%-26.7%) for PSEN1, 28.6% (0%-55.3%) for PSEN2, 31.2% (4.3%-50.6%) for APP duplications, and no patient for APP mutation. APP duplication carriers showed a significantly increased seizure risk compared to both APP MCs (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.55 [95% confidence interval 1.87-16.44]) and PSEN1 MCs (HR = 4.46 [2.11-9.44]). Among all PSEN1 mutations, those within the domains of protein hydrophilic I, transmembrane II (TM-II), TM-III, TM-IV, and TM-VII were associated with a significant increase in seizure frequency compared to other domains (HR = 4.53 [1.93-10.65], p = 0.0005). Seizures are a common feature of ADEOAD. In this population, risk was significantly higher in the APP duplication group than in all other groups. Within PSEN1, 5 specific domains were associated with a higher seizure risk indicating specific correlations between causative mutation and seizures. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. [Preimplantation genetic diagnosis and monogenic inherited eye diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavatá, L; Ďuďáková, Ľ; Trková, M; Soldátová, I; Skalická, P; Kousal, B; Lišková, P

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an established application of genetic testing in the context of in vitro fertilization. PGD is an alternative method to prenatal diagnosis which aims to prevent the transmission of an inherited disorder to the progeny by implanting only embryos that do not carry genetic predisposition for a particular disease. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of eye disorders for which PGD has been carried out. The European literature search focused on best practices, ethical issues, risks and results of PGD for inherited eye disorders. PGD is performed for a number of ocular disorders; a prerequisite for its application is however, the knowledge of a disease-causing mutation(s). The main advantage of this method is that the couple is not exposed to a decision of whether or not to undergo an abortion. Qualified counselling must be provided prior to the PGD in order to completely understand the risk of disability in any child conceived, consequences of disease manifestation, and advantages as well as limitations of this method. In the group of non-syndromic eye diseases and diseases in which ocular findings dominate, PGD has been performed in European countries for aniridia, choroideremia, congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles, Leber congenital amaurosis, ocular albinism, retinitis pigmentosa, X-linked retinoschisis, Stargardt disease, blepharophimosis-ptosis-inverse epicanthus syndrome and retinoblastoma. Sexing for X-linked or mitochondrial diseases has been carried out for blue cone monochromatism, choroideremia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, macular dystrophy (not further specified), Norrie disease, X-linked congenital stationary night blindness, X-linked retinoschisis and nystagmus (not further specified). In recent years, there has been an increase in potential to use PGD. The spectrum of diseases for this method has widened to include severe inherited eye diseases

  5. Psychosocial impact of inherited and autoimmune blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaranjali V. Jain, B Med Sci (Hons MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inherited and autoimmune blistering diseases are rare, chronic, and often severe disorders that have the potential to significantly affect patients’ quality of life. The effective management of these conditions requires consideration of the physical, emotional, and social aspects of the disease. Self-esteem is integral to patients’ ability to cope with their illness, participate in treatment, and function in society. This article discusses quality-of-life studies of patients with blistering diseases with a particular focus on self-esteem issues that patients may face.

  6. Methylation-mediated deamination of 5-methylcytosine appears to give rise to mutations causing human inherited disease in CpNpG trinucleotides, as well as in CpG dinucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper David N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cytosine-guanine (CpG dinucleotide has long been known to be a hotspot for pathological mutation in the human genome. This hypermutability is related to its role as the major site of cytosine methylation with the attendant risk of spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5mC to yield thymine. Cytosine methylation, however, also occurs in the context of CpNpG sites in the human genome, an unsurprising finding since the intrinsic symmetry of CpNpG renders it capable of supporting a semi-conservative model of replication of the methylation pattern. Recently, it has become clear that significant DNA methylation occurs in a CpHpG context (where H = A, C or T in a variety of human somatic tissues. If we assume that CpHpG methylation also occurs in the germline, and that 5mC deamination can occur within a CpHpG context, then we might surmise that methylated CpHpG sites could also constitute mutation hotspots causing human genetic disease. To test this postulate, 54,625 missense and nonsense mutations from 2,113 genes causing inherited disease were retrieved from the Human Gene Mutation Database http://www.hgmd.org. Some 18.2 per cent of these pathological lesions were found to be C → T and G → A transitions located in CpG dinucleotides (compatible with a model of methylation-mediated deamination of 5mC, an approximately ten-fold higher proportion than would have been expected by chance alone. The corresponding proportion for the CpHpG trinucleotide was 9.9 per cent, an approximately two-fold higher proportion than would have been expected by chance. We therefore estimate that ~5 per cent of missense/nonsense mutations causing human inherited disease may be attributable to methylation-mediated deamination of 5mC within a CpHpG context.

  7. Non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A; Beedle, Alan S

    2007-02-01

    That there is a heritable or familial component of susceptibility to chronic non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease is well established, but there is increasing evidence that some elements of such heritability are transmitted non-genomically and that the processes whereby environmental influences act during early development to shape disease risk in later life can have effects beyond a single generation. Such heritability may operate through epigenetic mechanisms involving regulation of either imprinted or non-imprinted genes but also through broader mechanisms related to parental physiology or behaviour. We review evidence and potential mechanisms for non-genomic transgenerational inheritance of 'lifestyle' disease and propose that the 'developmental origins of disease' phenomenon is a maladaptive consequence of an ancestral mechanism of developmental plasticity that may have had adaptive value in the evolution of generalist species such as Homo sapiens. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inherited metabolic liver diseases in infants and children: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Barić

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inborn errors of metabolism, which affect the liver are a large, continuously increasing group of diseases. Their clinical onset can occur at any age, from intrauterine period presenting as liver failure already at birth to late adulthood. Inherited metabolic disorders must be considered in differential diagnosis of every unexplained liver disease. Specific diagnostic work-up for either their confirmation or exclusion should start immediately since any postponing can result in delayed diagnosis and death or irreversible disability. This can be particularly painful while many inherited metabolic liver diseases are relatively easily treatable if diagnosed on time, for instance galactosemia or hereditary fructose intolerance by simple dietary means. Any unexplained liver disease, even one looking initially benign, should be considered as a potential liver failure and therefore should deserve proper attention. Diagnosis in neonates is additionally complicated because of the factors which can mask liver disease, such as physiological neonatal jaundice, normally relatively enlarged liver and increased transaminases at that age. In everyday practice, in order to reveal the etiology, it is useful to classify and distinguish some clinical patterns which, together with a few routine, widely available laboratory tests (aminotransferases, prothrombine time, albumin, gammaGT, total and conjugated bilirubin, ammonia, alkaline phosphatase and glucose make the search for the cause much easier. These patterns are isolated hyperbilirubinemia, syndrome of cholestasis in early infancy, hepatocellular jaundice, Reye syndrome, portal cirrhosis and isolated hepatomegaly. Despite the fact that some diseases can present with more than one pattern (for instance, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as infantile cholestasis, but also as hepatocellular jaundice, and that in some disesases one pattern can evolve into another (for instance, Wilson disease from hepatocellular

  9. Autosomal dominant inheritance Caffey-Silverman disease hyperostosis corticalis infantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogoyski, A.; Jakubowska, K.; Tronowska, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    A case of Caffey-Silverman disease is described in an infant aged 4.5 months. The case was erroneously diagnosed in the initial stage of the disease as osteitis. The correct diagnosis was established after radiological examination of the skeleton. The pathological lesions involved the mandible, both clavicles, all ribs, left shoulder blade, both radial bones and left ulna. Follow-up radiological examination after 12 months demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of the previously observed skeletal changes. At the age of 18 months the condition of the child was good and its development was normal. Radiological changes indicating past Caffey-Silverman disease were disclosed in the mother and maternal grandmother of the child. This indicates an autosomal dominant type of inheritance of the disease. (Author)

  10. Clinical neurogenetics: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Psychiatric symptoms often manifest years before overt neurologic signs in patients with inherited neurodegenerative disease. The most frequently cited example of this phenomenon is the early onset of personality changes in "presymptomatic" Huntington patients. In some cases the changes in mood and cognition are even more debilitating than their neurologic symptoms. The goal of this article is to provide the neurologist with a concise primer that can be applied in a busy clinic or private practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Mode of Inheritance of Scheuermann’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaidman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mode of Scheuermann’s disease inheritance and its phenotypic traits in probands and their relatives were studied in 90 pedigrees (90 probands and 385 relatives. The disorder was identified as a genetically related pathology inherited by autosomal dominant type, controlled by a mutant major gene, as a kyphotic deformity without signs of vertebral bodies’ anomaly and torsion. Morphological and biochemical studies showed disturbance in the structure of vertebral growth plate anterior aspects at the level of deformity, defects in proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, and change in proteoglycan spectrum in cells and matrix. Twelve candidate genes were studied in chondrocytes isolated from vertebral growth plates of patients with Scheuermann’s disease. The study results included disorder in the IHH gene expression and preservation of the expression of PAX1, two aggrecan isoforms, link protein, types I and II collagen, lumican, versican, growth hormone and growth factor receptor genes, and proliferation gene. Preservation of the SOX9 gene (transcription gene probably indicates posttranscriptional genetic disorders. The study is under way.

  12. Maternal inheritance and mitochondrial DNA variants in familial Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeiffer Ronald F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial function is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD and may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD, but the causes of mitochondrial impairment in PD are unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction is recapitulated in cell lines expressing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA from PD patients, implicating mtDNA variants or mutations, though the role of mtDNA variants or mutations in PD risk remains unclear. We investigated the potential contribution of mtDNA variants or mutations to the risk of PD. Methods We examined the possibility of a maternal inheritance bias as well as the association between mitochondrial haplogroups and maternal inheritance and disease risk in a case-control study of 168 multiplex PD families in which the proband and one parent were diagnosed with PD. 2-tailed Fisher Exact Tests and McNemar's tests were used to compare allele frequencies, and a t-test to compare ages of onset. Results The frequency of affected mothers of the proband with PD (83/167, 49.4% was not significantly different from the frequency of affected females of the proband generation (115/259, 44.4% (Odds Ratio 1.22; 95%CI 0.83 - 1.81. After correcting for multiple tests, there were no significant differences in the frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroups or of the 10398G complex I gene polymorphism in PD patients compared to controls, and no significant associations with age of onset of PD. Mitochondrial haplogroup and 10398G polymorphism frequencies were similar in probands having an affected father as compared to probands having an affected mother. Conclusions These data fail to demonstrate a bias towards maternal inheritance in familial PD. Consistent with this, we find no association of common haplogroup-defining mtDNA variants or for the 10398G variant with the risk of PD. However, these data do not exclude a role for mtDNA variants in other populations, and it remains possible that other inherited mitochondrial DNA variants, or somatic m

  13. Peripheral neuropathy in complex inherited diseases: an approach to diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Alexander M; Carr, Aisling S; Devine, Helen; Chandrashekar, Hoskote; Pelayo-Negro, Ana Lara; Pareyson, Davide; Shy, Michael E; Scherer, Steven S; Reilly, Mary M

    2017-10-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in patients with complex inherited neurological diseases and may be subclinical or a major component of the phenotype. This review aims to provide a clinical approach to the diagnosis of this complex group of patients by addressing key questions including the predominant neurological syndrome associated with the neuropathy, for example, spasticity, the type of neuropathy and the other neurological and non-neurological features of the syndrome. Priority is given to the diagnosis of treatable conditions. Using this approach, we associated neuropathy with one of three major syndromic categories: (1) ataxia, (2) spasticity and (3) global neurodevelopmental impairment. Syndromes that do not fall easily into one of these three categories can be grouped according to the predominant system involved in addition to the neuropathy, for example, cardiomyopathy and neuropathy. We also include a separate category of complex inherited relapsing neuropathy syndromes, some of which may mimic Guillain-Barré syndrome, as many will have a metabolic aetiology and be potentially treatable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. DNA mutation motifs in the genes associated with inherited diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Růžička

    Full Text Available Mutations in human genes can be responsible for inherited genetic disorders and cancer. Mutations can arise due to environmental factors or spontaneously. It has been shown that certain DNA sequences are more prone to mutate. These sites are termed hotspots and exhibit a higher mutation frequency than expected by chance. In contrast, DNA sequences with lower mutation frequencies than expected by chance are termed coldspots. Mutation hotspots are usually derived from a mutation spectrum, which reflects particular population where an effect of a common ancestor plays a role. To detect coldspots/hotspots unaffected by population bias, we analysed the presence of germline mutations obtained from HGMD database in the 5-nucleotide segments repeatedly occurring in genes associated with common inherited disorders, in particular, the PAH, LDLR, CFTR, F8, and F9 genes. Statistically significant sequences (mutational motifs rarely associated with mutations (coldspots and frequently associated with mutations (hotspots exhibited characteristic sequence patterns, e.g. coldspots contained purine tract while hotspots showed alternating purine-pyrimidine bases, often with the presence of CpG dinucleotide. Using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, we analysed the global bending properties of two selected coldspots and two hotspots with a G/T mismatch. We observed that the coldspots were inherently more flexible than the hotspots. We assume that this property might be critical for effective mismatch repair as DNA with a mutation recognized by MutSα protein is noticeably bent.

  15. Wilson’s Disease: An Inherited, Silent, Copper Intoxication Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Merle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wilson’s disease is a rare, autosomal recessive, genetic, copper overload disease, which evokes multiple motor or neuropsychiatric symptoms and liver disease. It is the consequence of a variety of different mutations affecting the ATP7B gene. This gene encodes for a class IB, P-type, copper-transporting ATPase, which is located in the trans-Golgi network of the liver and brain, and mediates the excretion of excess copper into the bile. When functionally inactive, the excess copper is deposited in the liver, brain, and other tissues. Free copper induces oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and lowers the apoptotic threshold of the cell. The symptoms in affected persons can vary widely and usually appear between the ages of 6 years and 20 years, but there are also cases in which the disease manifests in advanced age. In this review, we discuss the considerations in diagnosis, clinical management, and treatment of Wilson’s disease. In addition, we highlight experimental efforts that address the pathogenesis of Wilson’s disease in ATP7B deficient mice, novel analytical techniques that will improve the diagnosis at an early stage of disease onset, and treatment results with copper-chelating agents.

  16. Oral health- related quality of life in patients with rare inherited diseases affecting bone and teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Haubek, Dorte

    Background X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare hereditary disease characterized by insufficient bone mineralization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is another rare inherited disease characterized by fragile bones because of defective collagen synthesis. Both diseases may have impact on teeth...

  17. Mitochondrial DNA inheritance in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zixuan; Wilson, Amanda; Xu, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    The inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly uniparental in most sexual eukaryotes. In this study, we examined the mitochondrial inheritance pattern of Cryptococcus gattii, a basidiomycetous yeast responsible for the recent and ongoing outbreak of cryptococcal infections in the US Pacific Northwest and British Columbia (especially Vancouver Island) in Canada. Using molecular markers, we analyzed the inheritance of mtDNA in 14 crosses between strains within and between divergent lineages in C. gattii. Consistent with results from recent studies, our analyses identified significant variations in mtDNA inheritance patterns among strains and crosses, ranging from strictly uniparental to biparental. For two of the crosses that showed uniparental mitochondrial inheritance in standard laboratory conditions, we further investigated the effects of the following environmental variables on mtDNA inheritance: UV exposure, temperature, and treatments with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and with the ubiquitination inhibitor ammonium chloride. Interestingly, one of these crosses showed no response to these environmental variables while the other exhibited diverse patterns ranging from complete uniparental inheritance of the MATa parent mtDNA, to biparental inheritance, and to a significant bias toward inheritance of the MATα parental mtDNA. Our results indicate that mtDNA inheritance in C. gattii differs from that in its closely related species Cryptococcus neoformans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of B-cell receptor signaling by a point mutation of adaptor protein 3BP2 identified in human inherited disease cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogi, Kazuhiro; Nakashima, Kenji; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Takeuchi, Kenji; Horiguchi, Tomoko; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2011-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of adaptor protein c-Abl-Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2, also referred to SH3BP2) positively regulates the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated signal transduction, leading to the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Here we showed the effect of the proline to arginine substitution of 3BP2 in which is the most common mutation in patients with cherubism (P418R) on B-cell receptor signaling. Comparing to the wild type, overexpression of the mutant form of 3BP2 (3BP2-P416R, corresponding to P418R in human protein) enhanced BCR-mediated activation of NFAT. 3BP2-P416R increased the signaling complex formation with Syk, phospholipase C-γ2 (PLC-γ2), and Vav1. In contrast, 3BP2-P416R could not change the association with the negative regulator 14-3-3. Loss of the association mutant that was incapable to associate with 14-3-3 could not mimic BCR-mediated NFAT activation in Syk-deficient cells. Moreover, BCR-mediated phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was not affected by P416R mutation. These results showed that P416R mutation of 3BP2 causes the gain of function in B cells by increasing the interaction with specific signaling molecules. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Hypoglycaemia related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douillard Claire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In non-diabetic adult patients, hypoglycaemia may be related to drugs, critical illness, cortisol or glucagon insufficiency, non-islet cell tumour, insulinoma, or it may be surreptitious. Nevertheless, some hypoglycaemic episodes remain unexplained, and inborn errors of metabolism (IEM should be considered, particularly in cases of multisystemic involvement. In children, IEM are considered a differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglycaemia. In adulthood, IEM-related hypoglycaemia can persist in a previously diagnosed childhood disease. Hypoglycaemia may sometimes be a presenting sign of the IEM. Short stature, hepatomegaly, hypogonadism, dysmorphia or muscular symptoms are signs suggestive of IEM-related hypoglycaemia. In both adults and children, hypoglycaemia can be clinically classified according to its timing. Postprandial hypoglycaemia can be an indicator of either endogenous hyperinsulinism linked to non-insulinoma pancreatogenic hypoglycaemia syndrome (NIPHS, unknown incidence in adults or very rarely, inherited fructose intolerance. Glucokinase-activating mutations (one family are the only genetic disorder responsible for NIPH in adults that has been clearly identified so far. Exercise-induced hyperinsulinism is linked to an activating mutation of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (one family. Fasting hypoglycaemia may be caused by IEM that were already diagnosed in childhood and persist into adulthood: glycogen storage disease (GSD type I, III, 0, VI and IX; glucose transporter 2 deficiency; fatty acid oxidation; ketogenesis disorders; and gluconeogenesis disorders. Fasting hypoglycaemia in adulthood can also be a rare presenting sign of an IEM, especially in GSD type III, fatty acid oxidation [medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD, ketogenesis disorders (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, and gluconeogenesis disorders (fructose-1,6-biphosphatase deficiency].

  20. Guanine holes are prominent targets for mutation in cancer and inherited disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    Full Text Available Single base substitutions constitute the most frequent type of human gene mutation and are a leading cause of cancer and inherited disease. These alterations occur non-randomly in DNA, being strongly influenced by the local nucleotide sequence context. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such sequence context-dependent mutagenesis are not fully understood. Using bioinformatics, computational and molecular modeling analyses, we have determined the frequencies of mutation at G • C bp in the context of all 64 5'-NGNN-3' motifs that contain the mutation at the second position. Twenty-four datasets were employed, comprising >530,000 somatic single base substitutions from 21 cancer genomes, >77,000 germline single-base substitutions causing or associated with human inherited disease and 16.7 million benign germline single-nucleotide variants. In several cancer types, the number of mutated motifs correlated both with the free energies of base stacking and the energies required for abstracting an electron from the target guanines (ionization potentials. Similar correlations were also evident for the pathological missense and nonsense germline mutations, but only when the target guanines were located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. Likewise, pathogenic splicing mutations predominantly affected positions in which a purine was located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. Novel candidate driver mutations and tissue-specific mutational patterns were also identified in the cancer datasets. We conclude that electron transfer reactions within the DNA molecule contribute to sequence context-dependent mutagenesis, involving both somatic driver and passenger mutations in cancer, as well as germline alterations causing or associated with inherited disease.

  1. Endocrine Dysfunctions in Patients with Inherited Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Şahin; Sağlam, Halil

    2016-09-01

    Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) can affect many organ systems, including the endocrine system. There are limited data regarding endocrine dysfunctions related to IMDs in adults, however, no data exist in pediatric patients with IMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate endocrine dysfunctions in patients with IMDs by assessing their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical reports of patients with IMDs who were followed by the division of pediatric metabolism and nutrition between June 2011 and November 2013. In total, 260 patients [139 males (53%) and 121 females (47%)] with an IMD diagnosis were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 5.94 (range; 0.08 to 49) years and 95.8% (249 of 260 patients) were in the pediatric age group. Growth status was evaluated in 258 patients and of them, 27 (10.5%) had growth failure, all cases of which were attributed to non-endocrine reasons. There was a significant correlation between growth failure and serum albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (p=0.002). Only three of 260 (1.1%) patients had endocrine dysfunction. Of these, one with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and another with Kearns-Sayre syndrome had diabetes, and one with glycerol kinase deficiency had glucocorticoid deficiency. Endocrine dysfunction in patients with IMDs is relatively rare. For this reason, there is no need to conduct routine endocrine evaluations in most patients with IMDs unless a careful and detailed history and a physical examination point to an endocrine dysfunction.

  2. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S.; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K.

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited ...

  3. Inheritance-mode specific pathogenicity prioritization (ISPP) for human protein coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Kwan, Johnny S H; Pan, Zhicheng; Garcia-Barcelo, Maria-Mercè; Sham, Pak Chung; Li, Miaoxin

    2016-10-15

    Exome sequencing studies have facilitated the detection of causal genetic variants in yet-unsolved Mendelian diseases. However, the identification of disease causal genes among a list of candidates in an exome sequencing study is still not fully settled, and it is often difficult to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies. The inheritance mode provides crucial information for understanding Mendelian diseases, but none of the existing gene prioritization tools fully utilize this information. We examined the characteristics of Mendelian disease genes under different inheritance modes. The results suggest that Mendelian disease genes with autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance mode are more haploinsufficiency and de novo mutation sensitive, whereas those autosomal recessive (AR) genes have significantly more non-synonymous variants and regulatory transcript isoforms. In addition, the X-linked (XL) Mendelian disease genes have fewer non-synonymous and synonymous variants. As a result, we derived a new scoring system for prioritizing candidate genes for Mendelian diseases according to the inheritance mode. Our scoring system assigned to each annotated protein-coding gene (N = 18 859) three pathogenic scores according to the inheritance mode (AD, AR and XL). This inheritance mode-specific framework achieved higher accuracy (area under curve  = 0.84) in XL mode. The inheritance-mode specific pathogenicity prioritization (ISPP) outperformed other well-known methods including Haploinsufficiency, Recessive, Network centrality, Genic Intolerance, Gene Damage Index and Gene Constraint scores. This systematic study suggests that genes manifesting disease inheritance modes tend to have unique characteristics. ISPP is included in KGGSeq v1.0 (http://grass.cgs.hku.hk/limx/kggseq/), and source code is available from (https://github.com/jacobhsu35/ISPP.git). mxli@hku.hkSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author

  4. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared bet...... of a patient's disease, in part genetically determined, and the major driver to changes in disease behaviour over time. FUNDING: International Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics Consortium members funding sources (see Acknowledgments for full list)....

  5. Understanding of and attitudes to genetic testing for inherited retinal disease: a patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, T A; Potrata, B; Ahmed, M; Hewison, J; Gale, R; Downey, L; McKibbin, M

    2013-09-01

    The views of people with inherited retinal disease are important to help develop health policy and plan services. This study aimed to record levels of understanding of and attitudes to genetic testing for inherited retinal disease, and views on the availability of testing. Telephone questionnaires comprising quantitative and qualitative items were completed with adults with inherited retinal disease. Participants were recruited via postal invitation (response rate 48%), approach at clinic or newsletters of relevant charitable organisations. Questionnaires were completed with 200 participants. Responses indicated that participants' perceived understanding of genetic testing for inherited retinal disease was variable. The majority (90%) considered testing to be good/very good and would be likely to undergo genetic testing (90%) if offered. Most supported the provision of diagnostic (97%) and predictive (92%) testing, but support was less strong for testing as part of reproductive planning. Most (87%) agreed with the statement that testing should be offered only after the individual has received genetic counselling from a professional. Subgroup analyses revealed differences associated with participant age, gender, education level and ethnicity (p<0.02). Participants reported a range of perceived benefits (eg, family planning, access to treatment) and risks (eg, impact upon family relationships, emotional consequences). Adults with inherited retinal disease strongly support the provision of publicly funded genetic testing. Support was stronger for diagnostic and predictive testing than for testing as part of reproductive planning.

  6. The hidden Niemann-Pick type C patient : Clinical niches for a rare inherited metabolic disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksz, Christian J.; Anheim, Mathieu; Bauer, Peter; Bonnot, Olivier; Chakrapani, Anupam; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; de Koning, Tom J.; Degtyareva, Anna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Doss, Sarah; Duning, Thomas; Giunti, Paola; Iodice, Rosa; Johnston, Tracy; Kelly, Dierdre; Kluenemann, Hans-Hermann; Lorenzl, Stefan; Padovani, Alessandro; Pocovi, Miguel; Synofzik, Matthis; Terblanche, Alta; Bergh, Florian Then; Topcu, Meral; Tranchant, Christine; Walterfang, Mark; Velten, Christian; Kolb, Stefan A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease of impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. Clinical symptoms are highly heterogeneous, including neurological, visceral, or psychiatric manifestations. The incidence of NP-C is under-estimated due to

  7. Mitochondrial genome inheritance and replacement in the human germline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Hayama, Tomonari; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2017-08-01

    Mitochondria, the ubiquitous power packs in nearly every eukaryotic cell, contain their own DNA, known as mtDNA, which is inherited exclusively from the mother. The number of mitochondrial genomes varies depending on the cell's energy needs. The mature oocyte contains the highest number of mitochondria of any cell type, although there is little if any mtDNA replication after fertilization until the embryo implants. This has potential repercussions for mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT; see description of currently employed methods below) used to prevent the transmission of mtDNA-based disorders. If only a few mitochondria with defective mtDNA are left in the embryo and undergo extensive replication, it might therefore thwart the purpose of MRT In order to improve the safety and efficacy of this experimental therapy, we need a better understanding of how and which mtDNA is tagged for replication versus transcription after fertilization of the oocyte. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. [Progress in research on pathogenic genes and gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Cao, Cong; Sun, Jiji; Gao, Tao; Liang, Xiaoyang; Nie, Zhipeng; Ji, Yanchun; Jiang, Pingping; Guan, Minxin

    2017-02-10

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), including retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, Cone-Rod degenerations, inherited macular dystrophy, Leber's congenital amaurosis, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy are the most common and severe types of hereditary ocular diseases. So far more than 200 pathogenic genes have been identified. With the growing knowledge of the genetics and mechanisms of IRDs, a number of gene therapeutic strategies have been developed in the laboratory or even entered clinical trials. Here the progress of IRD research on the pathogenic genes and therapeutic strategies, particularly gene therapy, are reviewed.

  9. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Dioxin (TCDD induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult-onset disease in subsequent generations following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study examined the ability of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[p]dioxin, TCDD to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to dioxin during fetal day 8 to 14 and adult-onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. The incidences of total disease and multiple disease increased in F1 and F3 generations. Prostate disease, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F1 generation dioxin lineage. Kidney disease in males, pubertal abnormalities in females, ovarian primordial follicle loss and polycystic ovary disease were increased in F3 generation dioxin lineage animals. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified 50 differentially DNA methylated regions (DMR in gene promoters. These DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and ancestral environmental exposures. Observations demonstrate dioxin exposure of a gestating female promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and sperm epimutations.

  11. The ethical framework for performing research with rare inherited neurometabolic disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    Giannuzzi, Viviana; Devlieger, Hugo; Margari, Lucia; Odlind, Viveca Lena; Ragab, Lamis; Bellettato, Cinzia Maria; D?Avanzo, Francesca; Lampe, Christina; Cassis, Linda; Cort?s-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Cazorla, ?ngels Garcia; Bari?, Ivo; Cvitanovi?-?ojat, Ljerka; Fumi?, Ksenija; Dali, Christine I

    2017-01-01

    The need for performing clinical trials to develop well-studied and appropriate medicines for inherited neurometabolic disease patients faces ethical concerns mainly raising from four aspects: the diseases are rare; include young and very young patients; the neurological impairment may compromise the capability to provide ?consent?; and the genetic nature of the disease leads to further ethical implications. This work is intended to identify the ethical provisions applicable to clinical resea...

  12. Neural/Bayes network predictor for inheritable cardiac disease pathogenicity and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Ajtai, Katalin

    2018-04-11

    The cardiac muscle sarcomere contains multiple proteins contributing to contraction energy transduction and its regulation during a heartbeat. Inheritable heart disease mutants affect most of them but none more frequently than the ventricular myosin motor and cardiac myosin binding protein c (mybpc3). These co-localizing proteins have mybpc3 playing a regulatory role to the energy transducing motor. Residue substitution and functional domain assignment of each mutation in the protein sequence decides, under the direction of a sensible disease model, phenotype and pathogenicity. The unknown model mechanism is decided here using a method combing neural and Bayes networks. Missense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are clues for the disease mechanism summarized in an extensive database collecting mutant sequence location and residue substitution as independent variables that imply the dependent disease phenotype and pathogenicity characteristics in 4 dimensional data points (4ddps). The SNP database contains entries with the majority having one or both dependent data entries unfulfilled. A neural network relating causes (mutant residue location and substitution) and effects (phenotype and pathogenicity) is trained, validated, and optimized using fulfilled 4ddps. It then predicts unfulfilled 4ddps providing the implicit disease model. A discrete Bayes network interprets fulfilled and predicted 4ddps with conditional probabilities for phenotype and pathogenicity given mutation location and residue substitution thus relating the neural network implicit model to explicit features of the motor and mybpc3 sequence and structural domains. Neural/Bayes network forecasting automates disease mechanism modeling by leveraging the world wide human missense SNP database that is in place and expanding. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Current and future therapies for inherited cholestatic liver diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woerd, Wendy L.; Houwen, Roderick Hj; van de Graaf, Stan Fj

    2017-01-01

    Familial intrahepatic cholestasis (FIC) comprises a group of rare cholestatic liver diseases associated with canalicular transport defects resulting predominantly from mutations in ATP8B1, ABCB11 and ABCB4. Phenotypes range from benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC), associated with

  14. Contribution of inherited heart disease to sudden cardiac death in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nynke; Tan, Hanno L.; Clur, Sally-Ann; Alders, Mariel; van Langen, Irene M.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND. In children aged 1 to 18 years, the causes of sudden cardiac death may remain unresolved when autopsy results are negative. Because inherited cardiac diseases are likely, cardiologic and genetic investigations of relatives may still yield the diagnosis in these cases. Moreover, these

  15. Establishment and evolution of the Australian Inherited Retinal Disease Register and DNA Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roach, John N; McLaren, Terri L; Paterson, Rachel L; O'Brien, Emily C; Hoffmann, Ling; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Lamey, Tina M

    2013-07-01

    Inherited retinal disease represents a significant cause of blindness and visual morbidity worldwide. With the development of emerging molecular technologies, accessible and well-governed repositories of data characterising inherited retinal disease patients is becoming increasingly important. This manuscript introduces such a repository. Participants were recruited from the Retina Australia membership, through the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists, and by recruitment of suitable patients attending the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital visual electrophysiology clinic. Four thousand one hundred ninety-three participants were recruited. All participants were members of families in which the proband was diagnosed with an inherited retinal disease (excluding age-related macular degeneration). Clinical and family information was collected by interview with the participant and by examination of medical records. In 2001, we began collecting DNA from Western Australian participants. In 2009 this activity was extended Australia-wide. Genetic analysis results were stored in the register as they were obtained. The main outcome measurement was the number of DNA samples (with associated phenotypic information) collected from Australian inherited retinal disease-affected families. DNA was obtained from 2873 participants. Retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease and Usher syndrome participants comprised 61.0%, 9.9% and 6.4% of the register, respectively. This resource is a valuable tool for investigating the aetiology of inherited retinal diseases. As new molecular technologies are translated into clinical applications, this well-governed repository of clinical and genetic information will become increasingly relevant for tasks such as identifying candidates for gene-specific clinical trials. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2012 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  16. The Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD): a database for DNA variations related to inherited disorders and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoute, Hicham; Nahili, Halima; Abidi, Omar; Gabi, Khalid; Rouba, Hassan; Fakiri, Malika; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2014-03-01

    National and ethnic mutation databases provide comprehensive information about genetic variations reported in a population or an ethnic group. In this paper, we present the Moroccan Genetic Disease Database (MGDD), a catalogue of genetic data related to diseases identified in the Moroccan population. We used the PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases to identify available articles published until April 2013. The Database is designed and implemented on a three-tier model using Mysql relational database and the PHP programming language. To date, the database contains 425 mutations and 208 polymorphisms found in 301 genes and 259 diseases. Most Mendelian diseases in the Moroccan population follow autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (74.17%) and affect endocrine, nutritional and metabolic physiology. The MGDD database provides reference information for researchers, clinicians and health professionals through a user-friendly Web interface. Its content should be useful to improve researches in human molecular genetics, disease diagnoses and design of association studies. MGDD can be publicly accessed at http://mgdd.pasteur.ma.

  17. Population newborn screening for inherited metabolic disease: current UK perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A; Pollitt, R J

    1999-06-01

    Some of the generally accepted criteria for screening programmes are inappropriate for newborn metabolic screening as they ignore the family dimension and the importance of timely genetic information. Uncritical application of such criteria creates special difficulties for screening by tandem mass spectrometry, which can detect a range diseases with widely different natural histories and responsiveness to treatment. Further difficulties arise from increasing demands for direct proof of the effects of screening on long-term morbidity and mortality. The randomized controlled trial is held to be the gold standard, but for ethical and practical reasons it will be impossible to achieve for such relatively rare diseases. This approach also oversimplifies the complex matrix of costs and benefits of newborn metabolic screening. A more workable approach could involve Bayesian synthesis, combining quantitative performance data from carefully designed prospective pilot studies of screening with existing experience of the natural history, diagnosis, and management of the individual disorders concerned.

  18. Combined immunodeficiency and Epstein-Barr virus-induced B cell malignancy in humans with inherited CD70 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolhassani, Hassan; Edwards, Emily S. J.; Ikinciogullari, Aydan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we describe four patients from two unrelated families of different ethnicities with a primary immunodeficiency, predominantly manifesting as susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related diseases. Three patients presented with EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma...... is a novel cause of combined immunodeficiency and EBV-associated diseases, reminiscent of inherited CD27 deficiency. Overall, human CD70-CD27 interactions therefore play a nonredundant role in T and B cell-mediated immunity, especially for protection against EBV and humoral immunity....

  19. Endocrine manifestations related to inherited metabolic diseases in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vantyghem Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are recessive, genetically transmitted diseases and are classified into 3 main groups according to their mechanisms: cellular intoxication, energy deficiency, and defects of complex molecules. They can be associated with endocrine manifestations, which may be complications from a previously diagnosed IEM of childhood onset. More rarely, endocrinopathies can signal an IEM in adulthood, which should be suspected when an endocrine disorder is associated with multisystemic involvement (neurological, muscular, hepatic features, etc.. IEM can affect all glands, but diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism are the most frequent disorders. A single IEM can present with multiple endocrine dysfunctions, especially those involving energy deficiency (respiratory chain defects, and metal (hemochromatosis and storage disorders (cystinosis. Non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter and sometimes hypoparathyroidism should steer the diagnosis towards a respiratory chain defect. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is frequent in haemochromatosis (often associated with diabetes, whereas primary hypogonadism is reported in Alström disease and cystinosis (both associated with diabetes, the latter also with thyroid dysfunction and galactosemia. Hypogonadism is also frequent in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (with adrenal failure, congenital disorders of glycosylation, and Fabry and glycogen storage diseases (along with thyroid dysfunction in the first 3 and diabetes in the last. This is a new and growing field and is not yet very well recognized in adulthood despite its consequences on growth, bone metabolism and fertility. For this reason, physicians managing adult patients should be aware of these diagnoses.

  20. Inherited dyslipidaemic disorders contributing to coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaullah, S.; Ahmed, Z.; Rehman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Lipoprotein (a) [Lp (a)] is an established independent risk factor for premature myocardial infarction (MI)/coronary artery disease (CAD). The study was conducted to determine the value of Lp (a) in prediction of CAD or MI in the offspring at risk. A total of 160 subjects were investigated. Serum Lp (a) was measured by ELISA, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and HDL-Cholesterol by enzymatic colorimetric methods using standard kits. Differences in levels of total Lp (a) and cholesterol were observed between patients and controls. Both Lp (a) (16.23+-1.95 mg/dL) and cholesterol (175.00+-7.60 mg/dL) of group A (patients) were higher than the corresponding controls. However an opposite trend in results was noted for serum HDL-Cholesterol in patients vs. controls.: Persons found to have elevated levels of Lp (a) should focus on controlling the known modifiable risk factor for heart disease, especially smoking, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hypertension and sedentary life style. (author)

  1. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification- and scoring-based prioritization methods in determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI) methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors' could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation.

  2. Data mining and Pattern Recognizing Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiru Iddamalgoda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately determining the responsible genetic factors for prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification and scoring based prioritization methods for determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors’ could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation

  3. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  4. Data mining and Pattern Recognizing Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiru Iddamalgoda; Partha Sarathi Das; Partha Sarathi Das; Achala Aponso; Vijayaraghava Seshadri Sundararajan; Prashanth Suravajhala; Prashanth Suravajhala; Prashanth Suravajhala; Jayaraman K Valadi

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately determining the responsible genetic factors for prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern r...

  5. A Dutch family with autosomal recessively inherited lower motor neuron predominant motor neuron disease due to optineurin mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, Emma; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; van Maarle, Merel C.; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of motor neuron disease (MND) patients report a familial predisposition for MND. Autosomal recessively inherited MND is less common and is most often caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. In 2010, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in the optineurin

  6. Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of vinclozolin induced mouse adult onset disease and associated sperm epigenome biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Covert, Trevor R; Haque, Md M; Settles, Matthew; Nilsson, Eric E; Anway, Matthew D; Skinner, Michael K

    2012-12-01

    The endocrine disruptor vinclozolin has previously been shown to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in the rat. The current study was designed to investigate the transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on the mouse. Transient exposure of the F0 generation gestating female during gonadal sex determination promoted transgenerational adult onset disease in F3 generation male and female mice, including spermatogenic cell defects, testicular abnormalities, prostate abnormalities, kidney abnormalities and polycystic ovarian disease. Pathology analysis demonstrated 75% of the vinclozolin lineage animals developed disease with 34% having two or more different disease states. Interestingly, the vinclozolin induced transgenerational disease was observed in the outbred CD-1 strain, but not the inbred 129 mouse strain. Analysis of the F3 generation sperm epigenome identified differential DNA methylation regions that can potentially be utilized as epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational exposure and disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ethical framework for performing research with rare inherited neurometabolic disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannuzzi, Viviana; Devlieger, Hugo; Margari, Lucia; Odlind, Viveca Lena; Ragab, Lamis; Bellettato, Cinzia Maria; D'Avanzo, Francesca; Lampe, Christina; Cassis, Linda; Cortès-Saladelafont, Elisenda; Cazorla, Ángels Garcia; Barić, Ivo; Cvitanović-Šojat, Ljerka; Fumić, Ksenija; Dali, Christine I; Bartoloni, Franco; Bonifazi, Fedele; Scarpa, Maurizio; Ceci, Adriana

    2017-03-01

    The need for performing clinical trials to develop well-studied and appropriate medicines for inherited neurometabolic disease patients faces ethical concerns mainly raising from four aspects: the diseases are rare; include young and very young patients; the neurological impairment may compromise the capability to provide 'consent'; and the genetic nature of the disease leads to further ethical implications. This work is intended to identify the ethical provisions applicable to clinical research involving these patients and to evaluate if these cover the ethical issues. Three searches have been performed on the European regulatory/legal framework, the literature and European Union-funded projects. The European legal framework offers a number of ethical provisions ruling the clinical research on paediatric, rare, inherited diseases with neurological symptoms. In the literature, relevant publications deal with informed consent, newborn genetic screenings, gene therapy and rights/interests of research participants. Additional information raised from European projects on sharing patients' data from different countries, the need to fill the gap of the regulatory framework and to improve information to stakeholders and patients/families. Several recommendations and guidelines on ethical aspects are applicable to the inherited neurometabolic disease research in Europe, even though they suffer from the lack of a common ethical approach. What is Known: • When planning and conducting clinical trials, sponsors and researchers know that clinical trials are to be performed according to well-established ethical rules, and patients should be aware about their rights. • In the cases of paediatric patients, vulnerable patients unable to provide consent, genetic diseases' further rules apply. What is New: • This work discusses which ethical rules apply to ensure protection of patient's rights if all the above-mentioned features coexist. • This work shows available data and

  8. Panel-Based Clinical Genetic Testing in 85 Children with Inherited Retinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel L; Parry, Neil R A; Barton, Stephanie J; Campbell, Christopher; Delaney, Claire M; Ellingford, Jamie M; Hall, Georgina; Hardcastle, Claire; Morarji, Jiten; Nichol, Elisabeth J; Williams, Lindsi C; Douzgou, Sofia; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Ramsden, Simon C; Sharma, Vinod; Biswas, Susmito; Lloyd, I Chris; Ashworth, Jane L; Black, Graeme C; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I

    2017-07-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of genetic testing in a pediatric population with inherited retinal disease (IRD). Single-center retrospective case series. Eighty-five unrelated children with a diagnosis of isolated or syndromic IRD who were referred for clinical genetic testing between January 2014 and July 2016. Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination, accompanied by electrodiagnostic testing (EDT) and dysmorphologic assessment where appropriate. Ocular and extraocular features were recorded using Human Phenotype Ontology terms. Subsequently, multigene panel testing (105 or 177 IRD-associated genes) was performed in an accredited diagnostic laboratory, followed by clinical variant interpretation. Diagnostic yield and clinical usefulness of genetic testing. Overall, 78.8% of patients (n = 67) received a probable molecular diagnosis; 7.5% (n = 5) of these had autosomal dominant disease, 25.4% (n = 17) had X-linked disease, and 67.2% (n = 45) had autosomal recessive disease. In a further 5.9% of patients (n = 5), a single heterozygous ABCA4 variant was identified; all these participants had a spectrum of clinical features consistent with ABCA4 retinopathy. Most participants (84.7%; n = 72) had undergone EDT and 81.9% (n = 59) of these patients received a probable molecular diagnosis. The genes most frequently mutated in the present cohort were CACNA1F and ABCA4, accounting for 14.9% (n = 10) and 11.9% (n = 8) of diagnoses respectively. Notably, in many cases, genetic testing helped to distinguish stationary from progressive IRD subtypes and to establish a precise diagnosis in a timely fashion. Multigene panel testing pointed to a molecular diagnosis in 84.7% of children with IRD. The diagnostic yield in the study population was significantly higher compared with that in previously reported unselected IRD cohorts. Approaches similar to the one described herein are expected to become a standard component of care in pediatric ophthalmology

  9. Old diseases and contemporary crisis. Inherited blood disorders in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudevin, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This contribution draws on ethnographic research conducted in Oman on inherited blood disorders (IBD). By interpreting results from population genomics studies that trace mutation processes over centuries of human activities, lay-representations of IBD often consider them historical evidence. The perceived spread of IBD in Oman may thus provide unusual historical depth in a country where past conflicts have been erased from historiography and representations of time are politically prescribed. Through the notions of crisis and diversification, this contribution shows how IBD's chronicity challenges the healthcare system and became a national issue, politically labelled as urgent. The paper casts light on several aspects of contemporary Omani society: it first addresses the dynamics of disease taxonomies - although biomedically described in the early twentieth century, IBD were not individualized within local nosologies until the 1970s. Secondly, it shows how biomedical knowledge about IBD led to diversification within the healthcare system, through the introduction of clinical genetics, genomics, and community genetics. Thirdly, it attempts to broach modalities of the biopower exerted by the Omani regime over its citizens: IBD are targeted by various public health measures that jeopardize patients' autonomy by aiming to control their bodies through their matrimonial behaviour. In addition, two aspects of the intersections between Omani social hierarchy and IBD are noteworthy: the creation of a patients' association that constitutes a potential disturbance of the social order; and the way IBD mutations traced by genomics are considered direct historical documents that challenge representations of the recently crafted 'Omanity' in a context of regional concern regarding national identities' durability.

  10. Data-driven models of dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, Neil P; Young, Alexandra L; Cash, David M; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Fagan, Anne M; Morris, John C; Bateman, Randall J; Fox, Nick C; Schott, Jonathan M; Alexander, Daniel C

    2018-03-22

    Dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease is widely hoped to hold the key to developing interventions for sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease. We use emerging techniques in generative data-driven disease progression modelling to characterize dominantly-inherited Alzheimer's disease progression with unprecedented resolution, and without relying upon familial estimates of years until symptom onset. We retrospectively analysed biomarker data from the sixth data freeze of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network observational study, including measures of amyloid proteins and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, regional brain volumes and cortical thicknesses, brain glucose hypometabolism, and cognitive performance from the Mini-Mental State Examination (all adjusted for age, years of education, sex, and head size, as appropriate). Data included 338 participants with known mutation status (211 mutation carriers in three subtypes: 163 PSEN1, 17 PSEN2, and 31 APP) and a baseline visit (age 19-66; up to four visits each, 1.1 ± 1.9 years in duration; spanning 30 years before, to 21 years after, parental age of symptom onset). We used an event-based model to estimate sequences of biomarker changes from baseline data across disease subtypes (mutation groups), and a differential equation model to estimate biomarker trajectories from longitudinal data (up to 66 mutation carriers, all subtypes combined). The two models concur that biomarker abnormality proceeds as follows: amyloid deposition in cortical then subcortical regions (∼24 ± 11 years before onset); phosphorylated tau (17 ± 8 years), tau and amyloid-β changes in cerebrospinal fluid; neurodegeneration first in the putamen and nucleus accumbens (up to 6 ± 2 years); then cognitive decline (7 ± 6 years), cerebral hypometabolism (4 ± 4 years), and further regional neurodegeneration. Our models predicted symptom onset more accurately than predictions that used familial estimates: root mean squared error of 1

  11. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: Era of Molecular Diagnostics for Inherited Skin Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John A

    2017-05-01

    The discovery of pathogenic mutations in inherited skin diseases represents one of the major landmarks of late 20th century molecular genetics. Mutation data can provide accurate diagnoses, improve genetic counseling, help define disease mechanisms, establish disease models, and provide a basis for translational research and testing of novel therapeutics. The process of detecting disease mutations, however, has not always been straightforward. Traditional approaches using genetic linkage or candidate gene analysis have often been limited, costly, and slow to yield new insights, but the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has altered the landscape of current gene discovery and mutation detection approaches. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A novel method for objective vision testing in canine models of inherited retinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhart, Patricia M; Gearhart, Chris C; Petersen-Jones, Simon M

    2008-08-01

    The use of canine models of retinal disease in the development of therapeutic strategies for inherited retinal disorders is a growing area of research. To evaluate accurately the success of potential vision-enhancing treatments, reliable methods for objectively assessing visual function in canine models is necessary. A simple vision-testing device was constructed that consisted of a junction box with four exit tunnels. Dogs were placed in the junction box and given one vision-based choice for exit. The first-choice tunnel and time to exit were recorded and analyzed. Two canine models of retinal disease with distinct molecular defects, a null mutation in the gene encoding the alpha subunit of rod cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE6A), and a null mutation in the gene encoding a retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein (RPE65) were tested and compared to those in unaffected dogs. With the use of bright light versus dim red light, the test differentiated between unaffected dogs and dogs affected with either mutation with a high degree of certainty. The white-light intensity series showed a significantly different performance between the unaffected and affected dogs. A significant difference in performance was detected between the dogs with each mutation. The results indicate that this novel canine vision-testing method is an accurate and sensitive means of distinguishing between unaffected dogs and dogs affected with two different forms of inherited retinal disease and should be useful as a means of assessing response to therapy in future studies.

  13. Inherited Disease Genetics Improves the Identification of Cancer-Associated Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyang Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of biologically significant variants in cancer genomes is critical to therapeutic discovery, but it is limited by the statistical power needed to discern driver from passenger. Independent biological data can be used to filter cancer exomes and increase statistical power. Large genetic databases for inherited diseases are uniquely suited to this task because they contain specific amino acid alterations with known pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms. However, no rigorous method to overlay this information onto the cancer exome exists. Here, we present a computational methodology that overlays any variant database onto the somatic mutations in all cancer exomes. We validate the computation experimentally and identify novel associations in a re-analysis of 7362 cancer exomes. This analysis identified activating SOS1 mutations associated with Noonan syndrome as significantly altered in melanoma and the first kinase-activating mutations in ACVR1 associated with adult tumors. Beyond a filter, significant variants found in both rare cancers and rare inherited diseases increase the unmet medical need for therapeutics that target these variants and may bootstrap drug discovery efforts in orphan indications.

  14. Knockin mouse with mutant Gα11 mimics human inherited hypocalcemia and is rescued by pharmacologic inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roszko, Kelly L; Bi, Ruiye; Gorvin, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    in patients with autosomal-dominant hypocalcemia type 2 (ADH2), an inherited disorder of hypocalcemia, low parathyroid hormone (PTH), and hyperphosphatemia. We have generated knockin mice harboring the point mutation GNA11 c.C178T (p.Arg60Cys) identified in ADH2 patients. The mutant mice faithfully replicated...... human ADH2. They also exhibited low bone mineral density and increased skin pigmentation. Treatment with NPS 2143, a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR), increased PTH and calcium concentrations in WT and mutant mice, suggesting that the gain-of-function effect of GNA11...

  15. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamosh, Ada; Scott, Alan F; Amberger, Joanna S; Bocchini, Carol A; McKusick, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely knowledgebase of human genes and genetic disorders compiled to support human genetics research and education and the practice of clinical genetics. Started by Dr Victor A. McKusick as the definitive reference Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/) is now distributed electronically by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, where it is integrated with the Entrez suite of databases. Derived from the biomedical literature, OMIM is written and edited at Johns Hopkins University with input from scientists and physicians around the world. Each OMIM entry has a full-text summary of a genetically determined phenotype and/or gene and has numerous links to other genetic databases such as DNA and protein sequence, PubMed references, general and locus-specific mutation databases, HUGO nomenclature, MapViewer, GeneTests, patient support groups and many others. OMIM is an easy and straightforward portal to the burgeoning information in human genetics.

  16. Validation of Ion TorrentTM Inherited Disease Panel with the PGMTM Sequencing Platform for Rapid and Comprehensive Mutation Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer E. Mustafa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick and accurate molecular testing is necessary for the better management of many inherited diseases. Recent technological advances in various next generation sequencing (NGS platforms, such as target panel-based sequencing, has enabled comprehensive, quick, and precise interrogation of many genetic variations. As a result, these technologies have become a valuable tool for gene discovery and for clinical diagnostics. The AmpliSeq Inherited Disease Panel (IDP consists of 328 genes underlying more than 700 inherited diseases. Here, we aimed to assess the performance of the IDP as a sensitive and rapid comprehensive gene panel testing. A total of 88 patients with inherited diseases and causal mutations that were previously identified by Sanger sequencing were randomly selected for assessing the performance of the IDP. The IDP successfully detected 93.1% of the mutations in our validation cohort, achieving high overall gene coverage (98%. The sensitivity for detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs and short Indels was 97.3% and 69.2%, respectively. IDP, when coupled with Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM, delivers comprehensive and rapid sequencing for genes that are responsible for various inherited diseases. Our validation results suggest the suitability of this panel for use as a first-line screening test after applying the necessary clinical validation.

  17. Lamarck rises from his grave: parental environment-induced epigenetic inheritance in model organisms and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Huijie; Sun, Zhongsheng

    2017-11-01

    Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism. In certain circumstances, these effects can be transmitted across several generations through epigenetic (i.e. non-DNA sequence-based rather than mutational) modifications. In this review, we summarize recent evidence on epigenetic inheritance from parental environment-induced developmental and physiological alterations in nematodes, fruit flies, zebrafish, rodents, and humans. The epigenetic modifications demonstrated to be both susceptible to modulation by environmental cues and heritable, including DNA methylation, histone modification, and small non-coding RNAs, are also summarized. We particularly focus on evidence that parental environment-induced epigenetic alterations are transmitted through both the maternal and paternal germlines and exert sex-specific effects. The thought-provoking data presented here raise fundamental questions about the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. In particular, the means that define the specificity of the response to parental experience in the gamete epigenome and that direct the establishment of the specific epigenetic change in the developing embryos, as well as in specific tissues in the descendants, remain obscure and require elucidation. More precise epigenetic assessment at both the genome-wide level and single-cell resolution as well as strategies for breeding at relatively sensitive periods of development and manipulation aimed at specific epigenetic modification are imperative for identifying parental

  18. Identification of Inherited Retinal Disease-Associated Genetic Variants in 11 Candidate Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Galuh D N; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Khan, M Imran; Hamel, Christian P; Bocquet, Béatrice; Manes, Gaël; Quinodoz, Mathieu; Ali, Manir; Toomes, Carmel; McKibbin, Martin; El-Asrag, Mohammed E; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Inglehearn, Chris F; Black, Graeme C M; Hoyng, Carel B; Cremers, Frans P M; Roosing, Susanne

    2018-01-10

    Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) display an enormous genetic heterogeneity. Whole exome sequencing (WES) recently identified genes that were mutated in a small proportion of IRD cases. Consequently, finding a second case or family carrying pathogenic variants in the same candidate gene often is challenging. In this study, we searched for novel candidate IRD gene-associated variants in isolated IRD families, assessed their causality, and searched for novel genotype-phenotype correlations. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 11 probands affected with IRDs. Homozygosity mapping data was available for five cases. Variants with minor allele frequencies ≤ 0.5% in public databases were selected as candidate disease-causing variants. These variants were ranked based on their: (a) presence in a gene that was previously implicated in IRD; (b) minor allele frequency in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database (ExAC); (c) in silico pathogenicity assessment using the combined annotation dependent depletion (CADD) score; and (d) interaction of the corresponding protein with known IRD-associated proteins. Twelve unique variants were found in 11 different genes in 11 IRD probands. Novel autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance patterns were found for variants in Small Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U5 Subunit 200 ( SNRNP200 ) and Zinc Finger Protein 513 ( ZNF513 ), respectively. Using our pathogenicity assessment, a variant in DEAH-Box Helicase 32 ( DHX32 ) was the top ranked novel candidate gene to be associated with IRDs, followed by eight medium and lower ranked candidate genes. The identification of candidate disease-associated sequence variants in 11 single families underscores the notion that the previously identified IRD-associated genes collectively carry > 90% of the defects implicated in IRDs. To identify multiple patients or families with variants in the same gene and thereby provide extra proof for pathogenicity, worldwide data sharing is needed.

  19. The immigration delay disease: adermatoglyphia-inherited absence of epidermal ridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Bettina; Fuchs, Dana; Sprecher, Eli; Itin, Peter

    2011-05-01

    In the digital age, personal identification by fingerprints (epidermal ridges) has become more frequent and is often required for biometric passports. The more fingerprints are analyzed, the more variants in their formation are documented. Individuals completely missing fingerprints as an isolated finding are extremely rare. Only 4 kindreds have been described to date, with additional clinical features in most cases. We describe a female patient with missing epidermal ridges on the fingers, palms, toes, and soles as an isolated feature. Absent fingerprints, or adermatoglyphia, were inherited over 4 generations of her family in an autosomal dominant fashion. We present the clinical features of the index patient, and compare the case with previous reports in the literature. Because of problems in personal identification, this embryologic malformation caused the patient significant difficulties when traveling to other countries, which is why we name it the immigration delay disease. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. APOE AND ALZHEIMER DISEASE: A MAJOR GENE WITH SEMI-DOMINANT INHERITANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genin, Emmanuelle; Hannequin, Didier; Wallon, David; Sleegers, Kristel; Hiltunen, Mikko; Combarros, Onofre; Bullido, Maria J; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; Berr, Claudine; Pasquier, Florence; Dubois, Bruno; Tognoni, Gloria; Fiévet, Nathalie; Brouwers, Nathalie; Bettens, Karolien; Arosio, Beatrice; Coto, Eliecer; Zompo, Maria Del; Mateo, Ignacio; Epelbaum, Jacques; Frank-Garcia, Ana; Helisalmi, Seppo; Porcellini, Elisa; Pilotto, Alberto; Forti, Paola; Ferri, Raffaele; Scarpini, Elio; Siciliano, Gabriele; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sorbi, Sandro; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Valdivieso, Fernando; Vepsäläinen, Saila; Alvarez, Victoria; Bosco, Paolo; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Panza, Francesco; Nacmias, Benedetta; Bossù, Paola; Hanon, Olivier; Piccardi, Paola; Annoni, Giorgio; Seripa, Davide; Galimberti, Daniela; Licastro, Federico; Soininen, Hilkka; Dartigues, Jean-François; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Lambert, Jean Charles; Amouyel, Philippe; Campion, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) dependent lifetime risks (LTRs) for Alzheimer Disease (AD) are currently not accurately known and odds ratios (ORs) alone are insufficient to assess these risks. We calculated AD lifetime risk in 7,351 cases and 10,132 controls from Caucasian ancestry using Rochester (USA) incidence data. At the age of 85 the LTR of AD without reference to APOE genotype was 11% in males and 14% in females. At the same age, this risk ranged from 51% for APOE44 male carriers to 60% for APOE44 female carriers, and from 23% for APOE34 male carriers to 30% for APOE34 female carriers, consistent with semi-dominant inheritance of a moderately penetrant gene. Using PAQUID (France) incidence data, estimates were globally similar except that at age 85 the LTRs reached 68% and 35 % for APOE 44 and APOE 34 female carriers, respectively. These risks are more similar to those of major genes in Mendelian diseases, such as BRCA1 in breast cancer, than those of low-risk common alleles identified by recent GWAS in complex diseases. In addition, stratification of our data by age- groups clearly demonstrates that APOE4 is a risk factor not only for late- onset but for early- onset AD as well. Together, these results urge a reappraisal of the impact of APOE in Alzheimer disease. PMID:21556001

  1. Inborn Errors of Metabolism with Hypoglycemia Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis : Glycogen Storage Diseases and Inherited Disorders of Gluconeogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinstein, David A.; Steuerwald, Ulrike; De Souza, Carolina F. M.; Derks, Terry G. J.

    Although hyperinsulinism is the predominant inherited cause of hypoglycemia in the newborn period, inborn errors of metabolism are the primary etiologies after 1 month of age. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism often present with hypoglycemia when fasting occurs. The presentation, diagnosis, and

  2. Molecular and Bioenergetic Differences between Cells with African versus European Inherited Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups: Implications for Population Susceptibility to Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. Cristina; Chwa, Marilyn; Atilano, Shari R.; Falatoonzadeh, Payam; Ramirez, Claudio; Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Cáceres del Carpio, Javier; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Boyer, David S.; Kuppermann, Baruch D.; Vawter, Marquis P.; Jazwinski, S. Michal; Miceli, Michael V.; Wallace, Douglas C.; Udar, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The geographic origins of populations can be identified by their maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. This study compared human cybrids (cytoplasmic hybrids), which are cell lines with identical nuclei but mitochondria from different individuals with mtDNA from either the H haplogroup or L haplogroup backgrounds. The most common European haplogroup is H while individuals of maternal African origin are of the L haplogroup. Despite lower mtDNA copy numbers, L cybrids had higher expression levels for nine mtDNA-encoded respiratory complex genes, decreased ATP turnover rates and lower levels of ROS production, parameters which are consistent with more efficient oxidative phosphorylation. Surprisingly, GeneChip arrays showed that the L and H cybrids had major differences in expression of genes of the canonical complement system (5 genes), dermatan/chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis (5 genes) and CCR3 signaling (9 genes). Quantitative nuclear gene expression studies confirmed that L cybrids had (a) lower expression levels of complement pathway and innate immunity genes and (b) increased levels of inflammation-related signaling genes, which are critical in human diseases. Our data support the hypothesis that mtDNA haplogroups representing populations from different geographic origins may play a role in differential susceptibilities to diseases. PMID:24200652

  3. Human prion diseases in The Netherlands : clinico-pathological, genetic and molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders that can be sporadic, inherited or acquired by infection. In humans, TSEs comprise three major groups showing a wide phenotypic heterogeneity: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD),

  4. Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer T; Kong, Dong; Hoerner, Christian R; Loncarek, Jadranka

    2017-01-01

    Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next. PMID:28906251

  5. Centriole triplet microtubules are required for stable centriole formation and inheritance in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer T; Kong, Dong; Hoerner, Christian R; Loncarek, Jadranka; Stearns, Tim

    2017-09-14

    Centrioles are composed of long-lived microtubules arranged in nine triplets. However, the contribution of triplet microtubules to mammalian centriole formation and stability is unknown. Little is known of the mechanism of triplet microtubule formation, but experiments in unicellular eukaryotes indicate that delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin, two less-studied tubulin family members, are required. Here, we report that centrioles in delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin null mutant human cells lack triplet microtubules and fail to undergo centriole maturation. These aberrant centrioles are formed de novo each cell cycle, but are unstable and do not persist to the next cell cycle, leading to a futile cycle of centriole formation and disintegration. Disintegration can be suppressed by paclitaxel treatment. Delta-tubulin and epsilon-tubulin physically interact, indicating that these tubulins act together to maintain triplet microtubules and that these are necessary for inheritance of centrioles from one cell cycle to the next.

  6. Human growth hormone stabilizes walking and improves strength in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if daily low-dose treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (somatropine) can stabilize or improve muscle strength and walking capability in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy. The patient was treated with daily injections of somatropine, except...... for a 6-month pause, over a period of 4.5 years. Efficacy was assessed by repeated muscle dynamometry tests and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT). Strength improved in most muscle groups on treatment, deteriorated in the 6-month off treatment, and improved again when treatment was resumed. The 6MWT stabilized...... during the initial 18-month treatment period, then deteriorated in the 6 months off treatment and improved to pre-trial levels when treatment was resumed. The findings suggest that supplementation with somatropine, within physiological ranges, may improve muscle strength and stabilize walking capability...

  7. Spectrum analysis of common inherited metabolic diseases in Chinese patients screened and diagnosed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lianshu; Han, Feng; Ye, Jun; Qiu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Huiwen; Gao, Xiaolan; Wang, Yu; Ji, Wenjun; Gu, Xuefan

    2015-03-01

    Information concerning inherited metabolic diseases in China is scarce. We investigated the prevalence and age distributions of amino acid, organic acid, and fatty acid oxidation disorders in Chinese patients. Blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines (tandem mass spectrometry) were measured in 18,303 patients with suspected inherited metabolic diseases. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, blood levels of amino acids or acylcarnitines, urinary organic acid levels (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry), and (in some) gene mutation tests. Inherited metabolic diseases were confirmed in 1,135 patients (739 males, 396 females). Median age was 12 months (1 day to 59 years). There were 28 diseases: 12 amino acid disorders (580 patients, 51.1%), with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) being the most common; nine organic acidemias (408 patients, 35.9%), with methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) as the most common; and seven fatty acid oxidation defects (147 patients, 13.0%), with multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) being the most common. Onset was mainly at 1-6 months for citrin deficiency, 0-6 months for MMA, and in newborns for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). HPA was common in patients aged 1-3 years, and MADD was common in patients >18 years. In China, HPA, citrin deficiency, MMA, and MADD are the most common inherited disorders, particularly in newborns/infants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. New and emerging technologies for the treatment of inherited retinal diseases: a horizon scanning review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J; Ward, D; Michaelides, M; Moore, A T; Simpson, S

    2015-09-01

    The horizon scanning review aimed to identify new and emerging technologies in development that have the potential to slow or stop disease progression and/or reverse sight loss in people with inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). Potential treatments were identified using recognized horizon scanning methods. These included a combination of online searches using predetermined search terms, suggestions from clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups, and contact with commercial developers. Twenty-nine relevant technologies were identified. These included 9 gene therapeutic approaches, 10 medical devices, 5 pharmacological agents, and 5 regenerative and cell therapies. A further 11 technologies were identified in very early phases of development (typically phase I or pre-clinical) and were included in the final report to give a complete picture of developments 'on the horizon'. Clinical experts and patient and carer focus groups provided helpful information and insights, such as the availability of specialised services for patients, the potential impacts of individual technologies on people with IRDs and their families, and helped to identify additional relevant technologies. This engagement ensured that important areas of innovation were not missed. Most of the health technologies identified are still at an early stage of development and it is difficult to estimate when treatments might be available. Further, well designed trials that generate data on efficacy, applicability, acceptability, and costs of the technologies, as well as the long-term impacts for various conditions are required before these can be considered for adoption into routine clinical practice.

  9. Whole Genome Sequencing Increases Molecular Diagnostic Yield Compared with Current Diagnostic Testing for Inherited Retinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingford, Jamie M; Barton, Stephanie; Bhaskar, Sanjeev; Williams, Simon G; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; O'Sullivan, James; Lamb, Janine A; Perveen, Rahat; Hall, Georgina; Newman, William G; Bishop, Paul N; Roberts, Stephen A; Leach, Rick; Tearle, Rick; Bayliss, Stuart; Ramsden, Simon C; Nemeth, Andrea H; Black, Graeme C M

    2016-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of whole genome sequencing (WGS) with targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of inherited retinal disease (IRD). Case series. A total of 562 patients diagnosed with IRD. We performed a direct comparative analysis of current molecular diagnostics with WGS. We retrospectively reviewed the findings from a diagnostic NGS DNA test for 562 patients with IRD. A subset of 46 of 562 patients (encompassing potential clinical outcomes of diagnostic analysis) also underwent WGS, and we compared mutation detection rates and molecular diagnostic yields. In addition, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the 2 techniques to identify known single nucleotide variants (SNVs) using 6 control samples with publically available genotype data. Diagnostic yield of genomic testing. Across known disease-causing genes, targeted NGS and WGS achieved similar levels of sensitivity and specificity for SNV detection. However, WGS also identified 14 clinically relevant genetic variants through WGS that had not been identified by NGS diagnostic testing for the 46 individuals with IRD. These variants included large deletions and variants in noncoding regions of the genome. Identification of these variants confirmed a molecular diagnosis of IRD for 11 of the 33 individuals referred for WGS who had not obtained a molecular diagnosis through targeted NGS testing. Weighted estimates, accounting for population structure, suggest that WGS methods could result in an overall 29% (95% confidence interval, 15-45) uplift in diagnostic yield. We show that WGS methods can detect disease-causing genetic variants missed by current NGS diagnostic methodologies for IRD and thereby demonstrate the clinical utility and additional value of WGS. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The hidden Niemann-Pick type C patient: clinical niches for a rare inherited metabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksz, Christian J; Anheim, Mathieu; Bauer, Peter; Bonnot, Olivier; Chakrapani, Anupam; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; de Koning, Tom J; Degtyareva, Anna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Doss, Sarah; Duning, Thomas; Giunti, Paola; Iodice, Rosa; Johnston, Tracy; Kelly, Dierdre; Klünemann, Hans-Hermann; Lorenzl, Stefan; Padovani, Alessandro; Pocovi, Miguel; Synofzik, Matthis; Terblanche, Alta; Then Bergh, Florian; Topçu, Meral; Tranchant, Christine; Walterfang, Mark; Velten, Christian; Kolb, Stefan A

    2017-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, inherited neurodegenerative disease of impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. Clinical symptoms are highly heterogeneous, including neurological, visceral, or psychiatric manifestations. The incidence of NP-C is under-estimated due to under-recognition or misdiagnosis across a wide range of medical fields. New screening and diagnostic methods provide an opportunity to improve detection of unrecognized cases in clinical sub-populations associated with a higher risk of NP-C. Patients in these at-risk groups ("clinical niches") have symptoms that are potentially related to NP-C, but go unrecognized due to other, more prevalent clinical features, and lack of awareness regarding underlying metabolic causes. Twelve potential clinical niches identified by clinical experts were evaluated based on a comprehensive, non-systematic review of literature published to date. Relevant publications were identified by targeted literature searches of EMBASE and PubMed using key search terms specific to each niche. Articles published in English or other European languages up to 2016 were included. Several niches were found to be relevant based on available data: movement disorders (early-onset ataxia and dystonia), organic psychosis, early-onset cholestasis/(hepato)splenomegaly, cases with relevant antenatal findings or fetal abnormalities, and patients affected by family history, consanguinity, and endogamy. Potentially relevant niches requiring further supportive data included: early-onset cognitive decline, frontotemporal dementia, parkinsonism, and chronic inflammatory CNS disease. There was relatively weak evidence to suggest amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or progressive supranuclear gaze palsy as potential niches. Several clinical niches have been identified that harbor patients at increased risk of NP-C.

  11. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...

  12. SUMA Technology and Newborn Screening Tests for Inherited Metabolic Diseases in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Carlos González Reyes PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ultramicroanalytic system (SUMA, created in the 1980s, is a complete system of reagents and instrumentation to perform ultramicroassays combining the sensitivity of the micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests with the use of ultramicrovolumes. This technology permitted establishing large-scale newborn screening programs (NSPs for metabolic and endocrine disorders in Cuba. This article summarizes the main results of the implementation during the 30 years of SUMA technology in NSP for 5 inherited metabolic diseases, using ultramicroassays developed at the Department of Newborn Screening at the Immunoassay Center. Since 1986, SUMA technology has been used in the Cuban NSP for congenital hypothyroidism, initially studying thyroid hormone in cord serum samples. In 2000, a decentralized program for the detection of hyperphenylalaninemias using heel dried blood samples was initiated. These successful experiences permitted including protocols for screening congenital adrenal hyperplasia, galactosemia, and biotinidase deficiency in 2005. A program for the newborn screening of CH using the thyroid-stimulating hormone Neonatal ultramicro-ELISA was fully implemented in 2010. Nowadays, the NSP is supported by a network of 175 SUMA laboratories. After 30 years, more than 3.8 million Cuban newborns have been screened, and 1002 affected children have been detected. Moreover, SUMA technology has been presented in Latin America for over 2 decades and has contributed to screen around 17 million newborns. These results prove that developing countries can develop appropriate diagnostic technologies for making health care accessible to all.

  13. "To perpetuate blindness!": attitudes of UK patients with inherited retinal disease towards genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrata, Barbara; McKibbin, Martin; Lim, Jennifer Nw; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-07-01

    Availability and accuracy of genetic testing in ophthalmology has increased yet the benefits are unclear especially for those conditions where cure or treatments are limited. To explore attitudes to and patients' understanding of possible advantages and disadvantages of genetic testing for inherited retinal disease, we undertook focus groups in three West Yorkshire towns in the UK. Most of our participants had retinitis pigmentosa and one of the focus groups consisted of participants from (British) Asian ethnic background. Here, we report only those attitudes which were common in all three focus groups. Some of the attitudes have already been reported in the literature. Novel findings include attitudes held towards informed choice and life planning, particularly among more severely affected participants. For example, participants appreciated that genetic testing increases informed choice and enables life planning, but these understandings tended to be in a specific sense: informed choice whether to have children and family planning in order to prevent illness recurrence. We conclude that even though these patients are not a homogeneous group, their attitudes tend to be underpinned by deep anxiety of passing their visual impairment onto their children. In this respect, they differ importantly from a small minority of the deaf who would prefer to have children with hearing loss, and from the more general population who do not believe that blindness is a "severe" enough disability to warrant avoiding having children.

  14. Genes and inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelton, L A; Peters, K F

    2001-10-01

    The information gained from the Human Genome Project and related genetic research will undoubtedly create significant changes in healthcare practice. It is becoming increasingly clear that nurses in all areas of clinical practice will require a fundamental understanding of basic genetics. This article provides the oncology nurse with an overview of basic genetic concepts, including inheritance patterns of single gene conditions, pedigree construction, chromosome aberrations, and the multifactorial basis underlying the common diseases of adulthood. Normal gene structure and function are introduced and the biochemistry of genetic errors is described.

  15. Clinical approach to inherited metabolic diseases in the neonatal period: a 20-year survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saudubray, J. M.; Ogier, H.; Bonnefont, J. P.; Munnich, A.; Lombes, A.; Hervé, F.; Mitchel, G.; Poll The, B.; Specola, N.; Parvy, P.

    1989-01-01

    Every newborn with unexplained neurological deterioration, ketosis, metabolic acidosis or hypoglycaemia should be suspected of having an inherited error of intermediary metabolism. Many of these conditions can be diagnosed clinically with the aid of simple laboratory investigations. Since a

  16. Cohesin and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinglan; Krantz, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominant multisystem disorder caused by a disruption of cohesin function. The cohesin ring complex is composed of four protein subunits and more than 25 additional proteins involved in its regulation. The discovery that this complex also has a fundamental role in long-range regulation of transcription in Drosophila has shed light on the mechanism likely responsible for its role in development. In addition to the three cohesin proteins involved in CdLS, a second multisystem, recessively inherited, developmental disorder, Roberts-SC phocomelia, is caused by mutations in another regulator of the cohesin complex, ESCO2. Here we review the phenotypes of these disorders, collectively termed cohesinopathies, as well as the mechanism by which cohesin disruption likely causes these diseases. PMID:18767966

  17. Disease-specific hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Luo, Changying; Luo, Chengjuan; Wang, Jianmin; Li, Benshang; Ding, Lixia; Chen, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) using an optimized conditioning regimen is essential for the long-term survival of patients with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFS). We report HSCT in 24 children with Fanconi anemia (FA, n = 12), Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA, n = 7), and dyskeratosis congenita (DC, n = 5) from a single HSCT center. The graft source was peripheral blood stem cells (n = 19) or cord blood stem cells (n = 5). FA and DC patients received reduced-intensity conditioning, while DBA patients had myeloablative conditioning. The median numbers of infused mononuclear cells and CD34+ cells were 14.20 × 10 8 /kg and 4.3 × 10 6 /kg, respectively. The median time for neutrophil and platelet recovery was 12 and 18 days, respectively. Complete donor engraftment was achieved in 23 of 24 patients. There was one primary graft failure. During a median follow-up of 27.5 months (range, 2-130 months), the overall survival in all patients was 95.8%. The incidence of grade II-III acute graft versus host disease (GvHD) and chronic GvHD was 29.2% and 16.7%, respectively. We conclude that HSCT can be a curative option for patients with IBMFS. Modification of the conditioning regimen based on the type of disease may lead to encouraging long-term outcomes.

  18. Inherited prion disease A117V is not simply a proteinopathy but produces prions transmissible to transgenic mice expressing homologous prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A Asante

    Full Text Available Prions are infectious agents causing fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. In humans, these have sporadic, acquired and inherited aetiologies. The inherited prion diseases are caused by one of over 30 coding mutations in the human prion protein (PrP gene (PRNP and many of these generate infectious prions as evidenced by their experimental transmissibility by inoculation to laboratory animals. However, some, and in particular an extensively studied type of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS caused by a PRNP A117V mutation, are thought not to generate infectious prions and instead constitute prion proteinopathies with a quite distinct pathogenetic mechanism. Multiple attempts to transmit A117V GSS have been unsuccessful and typical protease-resistant PrP (PrP(Sc, pathognomonic of prion disease, is not detected in brain. Pathogenesis is instead attributed to production of an aberrant topological form of PrP, C-terminal transmembrane PrP ((CtmPrP. Barriers to transmission of prion strains from one species to another appear to relate to structural compatibility of PrP in host and inoculum and we have therefore produced transgenic mice expressing human 117V PrP. We found that brain tissue from GSS A117V patients did transmit disease to these mice and both the neuropathological features of prion disease and presence of PrP(Sc was demonstrated in the brains of recipient transgenic mice. This PrP(Sc rapidly degraded during laboratory analysis, suggesting that the difficulty in its detection in patients with GSS A117V could relate to post-mortem proteolysis. We conclude that GSS A117V is indeed a prion disease although the relative contributions of (CtmPrP and prion propagation in neurodegeneration and their pathogenetic interaction remains to be established.

  19. Inherited prion disease A117V is not simply a proteinopathy but produces prions transmissible to transgenic mice expressing homologous prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Smidak, Michelle; Tomlinson, Andrew; Grimshaw, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Hamdan, Shyma; Powell, Caroline; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2013-01-01

    Prions are infectious agents causing fatal neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. In humans, these have sporadic, acquired and inherited aetiologies. The inherited prion diseases are caused by one of over 30 coding mutations in the human prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) and many of these generate infectious prions as evidenced by their experimental transmissibility by inoculation to laboratory animals. However, some, and in particular an extensively studied type of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) caused by a PRNP A117V mutation, are thought not to generate infectious prions and instead constitute prion proteinopathies with a quite distinct pathogenetic mechanism. Multiple attempts to transmit A117V GSS have been unsuccessful and typical protease-resistant PrP (PrP(Sc)), pathognomonic of prion disease, is not detected in brain. Pathogenesis is instead attributed to production of an aberrant topological form of PrP, C-terminal transmembrane PrP ((Ctm)PrP). Barriers to transmission of prion strains from one species to another appear to relate to structural compatibility of PrP in host and inoculum and we have therefore produced transgenic mice expressing human 117V PrP. We found that brain tissue from GSS A117V patients did transmit disease to these mice and both the neuropathological features of prion disease and presence of PrP(Sc) was demonstrated in the brains of recipient transgenic mice. This PrP(Sc) rapidly degraded during laboratory analysis, suggesting that the difficulty in its detection in patients with GSS A117V could relate to post-mortem proteolysis. We conclude that GSS A117V is indeed a prion disease although the relative contributions of (Ctm)PrP and prion propagation in neurodegeneration and their pathogenetic interaction remains to be established.

  20. An automated microfluidic DNA microarray platform for genetic variant detection in inherited arrhythmic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Hong; Chang, Yu-Shin; Juang, Jyh-Ming Jimmy; Chang, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Lu, Tzu-Pin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Chuang, Eric Y; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2018-03-12

    In this study, we developed an automated microfluidic DNA microarray (AMDM) platform for point mutation detection of genetic variants in inherited arrhythmic diseases. The platform allows for automated and programmable reagent sequencing under precise conditions of hybridization flow and temperature control. It is composed of a commercial microfluidic control system, a microfluidic microarray device, and a temperature control unit. The automated and rapid hybridization process can be performed in the AMDM platform using Cy3 labeled oligonucleotide exons of SCN5A genetic DNA, which produces proteins associated with sodium channels abundant in the heart (cardiac) muscle cells. We then introduce a graphene oxide (GO)-assisted DNA microarray hybridization protocol to enable point mutation detection. In this protocol, a GO solution is added after the staining step to quench dyes bound to single-stranded DNA or non-perfectly matched DNA, which can improve point mutation specificity. As proof-of-concept we extracted the wild-type and mutant of exon 12 and exon 17 of SCN5A genetic DNA from patients with long QT syndrome or Brugada syndrome by touchdown PCR and performed a successful point mutation discrimination in the AMDM platform. Overall, the AMDM platform can greatly reduce laborious and time-consuming hybridization steps and prevent potential contamination. Furthermore, by introducing the reciprocating flow into the microchannel during the hybridization process, the total assay time can be reduced to 3 hours, which is 6 times faster than the conventional DNA microarray. Given the automatic assay operation, shorter assay time, and high point mutation discrimination, we believe that the AMDM platform has potential for low-cost, rapid and sensitive genetic testing in a simple and user-friendly manner, which may benefit gene screening in medical practice.

  1. Plastics derived endocrine disruptors (BPA, DEHP and DBP induce epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity, reproductive disease and sperm epimutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Manikkam

    Full Text Available Environmental compounds are known to promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease in subsequent generations (F1-F3 following ancestral exposure during fetal gonadal sex determination. The current study was designed to determine if a mixture of plastic derived endocrine disruptor compounds bisphenol-A (BPA, bis(2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP and dibutyl phthalate (DBP at two different doses promoted epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease and associated DNA methylation epimutations in sperm. Gestating F0 generation females were exposed to either the "plastics" or "lower dose plastics" mixture during embryonic days 8 to 14 of gonadal sex determination and the incidence of adult onset disease was evaluated in F1 and F3 generation rats. There were significant increases in the incidence of total disease/abnormalities in F1 and F3 generation male and female animals from plastics lineages. Pubertal abnormalities, testis disease, obesity, and ovarian disease (primary ovarian insufficiency and polycystic ovaries were increased in the F3 generation animals. Kidney and prostate disease were only observed in the direct fetally exposed F1 generation plastic lineage animals. Analysis of the plastics lineage F3 generation sperm epigenome previously identified 197 differential DNA methylation regions (DMR in gene promoters, termed epimutations. A number of these transgenerational DMR form a unique direct connection gene network and have previously been shown to correlate with the pathologies identified. Observations demonstrate that a mixture of plastic derived compounds, BPA and phthalates, can promote epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The sperm DMR provide potential epigenetic biomarkers for transgenerational disease and/or ancestral environmental exposures.

  2. Electrocardiographic manifestations of inherited heart diseases – a sports cardiologist’s point ofview. Part 2. Ion channel diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Krenc

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with an undiagnosed cardiovascular disease. Medical evaluations, including a resting electrocardiogram, conducted before and during physical training, enable the identification of still asymptomatic athletes with life-threatening heart diseases and help to protect them from sudden cardiac death. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is estimated at two cases for each 100,000 young athletes per year and it is 2–4 times higher when compared with non-athletes. The most common causes of sudden cardiac death in athletes younger than 35 are cardiomyopathies: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three to four per cent of young athletes who die suddenly have no evidence of a structural heart disease, and the cause of their cardiac arrest is primarily electrical heart diseases, such as inherited cardiac ion channel defects (channelopathies, including long and short QT syndromes, Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia The clinical courses of all these channelopathies are highly varied. They can be asymptomatic. In certain cases, episodic syncope or aborted cardiac arrest can occur. Sudden cardiac death, especially during physical exercise, can be the first sign. The aim of this article was to provide some information helpful in the recognition of electrocardiographic changes in genetic ion channel diseases, especially in the context of the prevention of sudden cardiac events in young athletes.

  3. Biology and therapy of inherited retinal degenerative disease: insights from mouse models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veleri, Shobi; Lazar, Csilla H.; Chang, Bo; Sieving, Paul A.; Banin, Eyal; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Retinal neurodegeneration associated with the dysfunction or death of photoreceptors is a major cause of incurable vision loss. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in discovering genes and genetic defects that lead to retinal diseases. The primary focus has now shifted to uncovering disease mechanisms and designing treatment strategies, especially inspired by the successful application of gene therapy in some forms of congenital blindness in humans. Both spontaneous and laboratory-generated mouse mutants have been valuable for providing fundamental insights into normal retinal development and for deciphering disease pathology. Here, we provide a review of mouse models of human retinal degeneration, with a primary focus on diseases affecting photoreceptor function. We also describe models associated with retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction or synaptic abnormalities. Furthermore, we highlight the crucial role of mouse models in elucidating retinal and photoreceptor biology in health and disease, and in the assessment of novel therapeutic modalities, including gene- and stem-cell-based therapies, for retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:25650393

  4. Biology and therapy of inherited retinal degenerative disease: insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobi Veleri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neurodegeneration associated with the dysfunction or death of photoreceptors is a major cause of incurable vision loss. Tremendous progress has been made over the last two decades in discovering genes and genetic defects that lead to retinal diseases. The primary focus has now shifted to uncovering disease mechanisms and designing treatment strategies, especially inspired by the successful application of gene therapy in some forms of congenital blindness in humans. Both spontaneous and laboratory-generated mouse mutants have been valuable for providing fundamental insights into normal retinal development and for deciphering disease pathology. Here, we provide a review of mouse models of human retinal degeneration, with a primary focus on diseases affecting photoreceptor function. We also describe models associated with retinal pigment epithelium dysfunction or synaptic abnormalities. Furthermore, we highlight the crucial role of mouse models in elucidating retinal and photoreceptor biology in health and disease, and in the assessment of novel therapeutic modalities, including gene- and stem-cell-based therapies, for retinal degenerative diseases.

  5. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Sand?e, P.; Kondrup, S. V.; Bennett, P. C.; Forkman, B.; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H. F.; Serpell, J. A.; Lund, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease...

  6. Annotating the human genome with Disease Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, John D; Flatow, Jared; Holko, Michelle; Lin, Simon M; Kibbe, Warren A; Zhu, Lihua (Julie); Danila, Maria I; Feng, Gang; Chisholm, Rex L

    2009-01-01

    Background The human genome has been extensively annotated with Gene Ontology for biological functions, but minimally computationally annotated for diseases. Results We used the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) MetaMap Transfer tool (MMTx) to discover gene-disease relationships from the GeneRIF database. We utilized a comprehensive subset of UMLS, which is disease-focused and structured as a directed acyclic graph (the Disease Ontology), to filter and interpret results from MMTx. The results were validated against the Homayouni gene collection using recall and precision measurements. We compared our results with the widely used Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) annotations. Conclusion The validation data set suggests a 91% recall rate and 97% precision rate of disease annotation using GeneRIF, in contrast with a 22% recall and 98% precision using OMIM. Our thesaurus-based approach allows for comparisons to be made between disease containing databases and allows for increased accuracy in disease identification through synonym matching. The much higher recall rate of our approach demonstrates that annotating human genome with Disease Ontology and GeneRIF for diseases dramatically increases the coverage of the disease annotation of human genome. PMID:19594883

  7. New clinical molecular diagnostic methods for congenital and inherited heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, Jan Dh; Pósafalvi, Anna; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S.; Sinke, Richard J.; van Tintelen, J. Peter

    2011-01-01

    For patients with congenital and inherited heart disorders, causative mutations are often not identified owing to limitations of current screening techniques. Identifying the mutation is of major importance for genetic counseling of patients and families, facilitating the diagnosis in people at risk

  8. Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 as a predisposing risk factor for the development of angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Annie; Dubuc, Isabelle; Morissette, Guillaume; Sedlak, Ruth H; Jerome, Keith R; Flamand, Louis

    2015-06-30

    Inherited chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus-6 (iciHHV-6) results in the germ-line transmission of the HHV-6 genome. Every somatic cell of iciHHV-6+ individuals contains the HHV-6 genome integrated in the telomere of chromosomes. Whether having iciHHV-6 predisposes humans to diseases remains undefined. DNA from 19,597 participants between 40 and 69 years of age were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of iciHHV-6. Telomere lengths were determined by qPCR. Medical records, hematological, biochemical, and anthropometric measurements and telomere lengths were compared between iciHHV-6+ and iciHHV-6- subjects. The prevalence of iciHHV-6 was 0.58%. Two-way ANOVA with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on continuous outcomes. Two-way logistic regression with a Holm-Bonferroni correction was used to determine the effects of iciHHV6, sex, and their interaction on disease prevalence. Of 50 diseases monitored, a single one, angina pectoris, is significantly elevated (3.3×) in iciHHV-6+ individuals relative to iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.017; 95% CI, 1.73-6.35). When adjusted for potential confounding factors (age, body mass index, percent body fat, and systolic blood pressure), the prevalence of angina remained three times greater in iciHHV-6+ subjects (P = 0.015; 95%CI, 1.23-7.15). Analyses of telomere lengths between iciHHV-6- without angina, iciHHV-6- with angina, and iciHHV-6+ with angina indicate that iciHHV-6+ with angina have shorter telomeres than age-matched iciHHV-6- subjects (P = 0.006). Our study represents, to our knowledge, the first large-scale analysis of disease association with iciHHV-6. Our results are consistent with iciHHV-6 representing a risk factor for the development of angina.

  9. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  10. [Approach of gene medical treatment in neurological diseases with the neurologist's. "Approach of support to the patients with inherited and incurable neurological diseases"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Takanori; Sawada, Jin-ichi; Toda, Tatsushi

    2009-11-01

    Advancements in medical genetics have increased access to genetic diagnosis in clinical neurology and accompanying genetic counseling. However, its use has not yet spread and the frequency of general biochemistry inspection in medical treatment and by patients remains low. Many problems remain for doctors, though sociocultural and other various causes exist. Thus, a network of care specialists for inherited and incurable neurological diseases has been established, consisting of multi-occupational categories in medical treatment, health, and welfare such as clinical inheritance specialists, psychiatrists, public health nurses, and medical social workers, to meet the rise in availability of such methods. Businesses in areas such as training, consultation, and field research have arisen. An educational campaign for neurologists who have taken a central role in treatment of inherited and incurable neurological diseases, and related information have been disseminated to those working in fields related to regional welfare of neurological medicine, and patients are now supported totally by team and regional counseling. These new developments in support systems for inherited and incurable neurological diseases, have steadily achieved the respective goals. We aim to promote its evolution to a more advanced network to promote the independence of individual patients in the future.

  11. UCB Transplant of Inherited Metabolic Diseases With Administration of Intrathecal UCB Derived Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-15

    Adrenoleukodystrophy; Batten Disease; Mucopolysaccharidosis II; Leukodystrophy, Globoid Cell; Leukodystrophy, Metachromatic; Neimann Pick Disease; Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease; Sandhoff Disease; Tay-Sachs Disease; Brain Diseases, Metabolic, Inborn; Alpha-Mannosidosis; Sanfilippo Mucopolysaccharidoses

  12. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Kenneth B; Delpire, Eric

    2013-04-15

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes.

  13. Molecular biology of human muscle disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, P.W.; Epstein, H.F. (Baylor Coll. of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The molecular revolution that is transforming the entire biomedical field has had far-reaching impact in its application to inherited human muscle disease. The gene for Duchenne muscular dystrophy was one of the first cloned without knowledge of the defective protein product. This success was based upon the availability of key chromosomal aberrations that provided molecular landmarks for the disease locus. Subsequent discoveries regarding the mode of expression for this gene, the structure and localization of its protein product dystrophin, and molecular diagnosis of affected and carrier individuals constitute a paradigm for investigation of human genetics. Finding the gene for myotonic muscular dystrophy is requiring the brute force approach of cloning several million bases of DNA, identifying expressed sequences, and characterizing candidate genes. The gene that causes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been found serendipitously to be one of the genetic markers on chromosome 14, the {beta} myosin heavy chain.

  14. Overexpression of Human-Derived DNMT3A Induced Intergenerational Inheritance of Active DNA Methylation Changes in Rat Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguo Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is the major focus of studies on paternal epigenetic inheritance in mammals, but most previous studies about inheritable DNA methylation changes are passively induced by environmental factors. However, it is unclear whether the active changes mediated by variations in DNA methyltransferase activity are heritable. Here, we established human-derived DNMT3A (hDNMT3A transgenic rats to study the effect of hDNMT3A overexpression on the DNA methylation pattern of rat sperm and to investigate whether this actively altered DNA methylation status is inheritable. Our results revealed that hDNMT3A was overexpressed in the testis of transgenic rats and induced genome-wide alterations in the DNA methylation pattern of rat sperm. Among 5438 reliable loci identified with 64 primer-pair combinations using a methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism method, 28.01% showed altered amplified band types. Among these amplicons altered loci, 68.42% showed an altered DNA methylation status in the offspring of transgenic rats compared with wild-type rats. Further analysis based on loci which had identical DNA methylation status in all three biological replicates revealed that overexpression of hDNMT3A in paternal testis induced hypermethylation in sperm of both genotype-negative and genotype-positive offspring. Among the differentially methylated loci, 34.26% occurred in both positive and negative offspring of transgenic rats, indicating intergenerational inheritance of active DNA methylation changes in the absence of hDNM3A transmission. Furthermore, 75.07% of the inheritable loci were hyper-methylated while the remaining were hypomethylated. Distribution analysis revealed that the DNA methylation variations mainly occurred in introns and intergenic regions. Functional analysis revealed that genes related to differentially methylated loci were involved in a wide range of functions. Finally, this study demonstrated that active DNA methylation

  15. Homozygosity mapping and targeted sanger sequencing reveal genetic defects underlying inherited retinal disease in families from pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleeha Maria

    Full Text Available Homozygosity mapping has facilitated the identification of the genetic causes underlying inherited diseases, particularly in consanguineous families with multiple affected individuals. This knowledge has also resulted in a mutation dataset that can be used in a cost and time effective manner to screen frequent population-specific genetic variations associated with diseases such as inherited retinal disease (IRD.We genetically screened 13 families from a cohort of 81 Pakistani IRD families diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA, retinitis pigmentosa (RP, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB, or cone dystrophy (CD. We employed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array analysis to identify homozygous regions shared by affected individuals and performed Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes located in the sizeable homozygous regions. In addition, based on population specific mutation data we performed targeted Sanger sequencing (TSS of frequent variants in AIPL1, CEP290, CRB1, GUCY2D, LCA5, RPGRIP1 and TULP1, in probands from 28 LCA families.Homozygosity mapping and Sanger sequencing of IRD-associated genes revealed the underlying mutations in 10 families. TSS revealed causative variants in three families. In these 13 families four novel mutations were identified in CNGA1, CNGB1, GUCY2D, and RPGRIP1.Homozygosity mapping and TSS revealed the underlying genetic cause in 13 IRD families, which is useful for genetic counseling as well as therapeutic interventions that are likely to become available in the near future.

  16. Novel mutation in TSPAN12 leads to autosomal recessive inheritance of congenital vitreoretinal disease with intra-familial phenotypic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Moran; Levanon, Erez Y; Hujeirat, Yasir; Khayat, Morad; Pe'er, Jacob; Shalev, Stavit

    2014-12-01

    Developmental malformations of the vitreoretinal vasculature are a heterogeneous group of conditions with various modes of inheritance, and include familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), and Norrie disease. We investigated a large consanguineous kindred with multiple affected individuals exhibiting variable phenotypes of abnormal vitreoretinal vasculature, consistent with the three above-mentioned conditions and compatible with autosomal recessive inheritance. Exome sequencing identified a novel c.542G > T (p.C181F) apparently mutation in the TSPAN12 gene that segregated with the ocular disease in the family. The TSPAN12 gene was previously reported to cause dominant and recessive FEVR, but has not yet been associated with other vitreoretinal manifestations. The intra-familial clinical variability caused by a single mutation in the TSPAN12 gene underscores the complicated phenotype-genotype correlation of mutations in this gene, and suggests that there are additional genetic and environmental factors involved in the complex process of ocular vascularization during embryonic development. Our study supports considering PFV, FEVR, and Norrie disease a spectrum of disorders, with clinical and genetic overlap, caused by mutations in distinct genes acting in the Norrin/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predispos...

  18. Prenatal molecular diagnosis of inherited neuromuscular diseases: Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy type 1 and spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Gabriella; Ruggiero, Raffaella; Savarese, Maria; Savarese, Giovanni; Tremolaterra, Maria Roberta; Salvatore, Francesco; Carsana, Antonella

    2013-12-01

    Neuromuscular disease is a broad term that encompasses many diseases that either directly, via an intrinsic muscle disorder, or indirectly, via a nerve disorder, impairs muscle function. Here we report the experience of our group in the counselling and molecular prenatal diagnosis of three inherited neuromuscular diseases, i.e., Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). We performed a total of 83 DMD/BMD, 15 DM1 and 54 SMA prenatal diagnoses using a combination of technologies for either direct or linkage diagnosis. We identified 16, 5 and 10 affected foetuses, respectively. The improvement of analytical procedures in recent years has increased the mutation detection rate and reduced the analytical time. Due to the complexity of the experimental procedures and the high, specific professional expertise required for both laboratory activities and the related counselling, these types of analyses should be preferentially performed in reference molecular diagnostic centres.

  19. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Human genetics of infectious diseases: a unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the dominant paradigm in the human genetics of infectious diseases postulates that rare monogenic immunodeficiencies confer vulnerability to multiple infectious diseases (one gene, multiple infections), whereas common infections are associated with the polygenic inheritance of multiple susceptibility genes (one infection, multiple genes). Recent studies, since 1996 in particular, have challenged this view. A newly recognised group of primary immunodeficiencies predisposing the individual to a principal or single type of infection is emerging. In parallel, several common infections have been shown to reflect the inheritance of one major susceptibility gene, at least in some populations. This novel causal relationship (one gene, one infection) blurs the distinction between patient-based Mendelian genetics and population-based complex genetics, and provides a unified conceptual frame for exploring the molecular genetic basis of infectious diseases in humans. PMID:17255931

  1. To inherit heritage or to inherit inheritance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Krivošejev

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is one of the few, if not the only country in the world that, at ratification and translation of the term „baština“– heritage which appears in two significant and related international conventions of UNESCO, used different terms: „baština“– „heritage“, with regard to the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, and „nasledje“ –inheritance in the Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. One of the reasons for the subsequent rejection of the term heritage could lay in the opinion that it was the case of (end of 20th and beginning of the 21st century political bureaucratic introduction of an old, forgotten word, which also contains the notion of gender incorrectness based on pointing out the inheritance through the male line, which could be in conflict with international law. The views expressed in this paper suggest the unsustainability of these claims, as well as greater suitability of the term „baština“– heritage. Namely, the ratification of the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was done as early as in 1974, and since then the term „baština“– heritage was used, its new introduction into use on the basis of recent daily political aspirations cannot be the case. At the same time inheritance through the male line is encountered with the use of the Latin word „patrimonium“, which is the basis for the terms used in the official translation of the UNESCO-listed conventions in French and Spanish: „patrimoine“ and „patrimonio“ (and other Roman languages so that the use of the term „baština“ –heritage cannot be a violation of international legal norms. Finally, bearing in mind the fact that, in general, use of languages is impossible to achieve complete gender purism, it is necessary to emphasize that in contrast to the term „nasledje“ – inheritance, the

  2. Linking Microbiota to Human Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, F

    2015-01-01

    The human gut microbiota encompasses a densely populated ecosystem that provides essential functions for host development, immune maturation, and metabolism. Alterations to the gut microbiota have been observed in numerous diseases, including human metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2...

  3. in Human Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways are strictly coordinated by several mechanisms to regulate adequate innate immune responses. Recent lines of evidence indicate that the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family proteins, originally identified as negative-feedback regulators in cytokine signaling, are involved in the regulation of TLR-mediated immune responses. SOCS1, a member of SOCS family, is strongly induced upon TLR stimulation. Cells lacking SOCS1 are hyperresponsive to TLR stimulation. Thus, SOCS1 is an important regulator for both cytokine and TLR-induced responses. As an immune organ, the liver contains various types of immune cells such as T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and Kupffer cells and is continuously challenged with gut-derived bacterial and dietary antigens. SOCS1 may be implicated in pathophysiology of the liver. The studies using SOCS1-deficient mice revealed that endogenous SOCS1 is critical for the prevention of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancers. Recent studies on humans suggest that SOCS1 is involved in the development of various liver disorders in humans. Thus, SOCS1 and other SOCS proteins are potential targets for the therapy of human liver diseases.

  4. Inheritance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss spleen size and correlation with bacterial cold water disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious disease causes substantial loss in aquaculture and selective breeding for increased innate resistance offers an attractive strategy for controlling disease. In 2005, the NCCCWA implemented a selective breeding program to increase rainbow trout survival following challenge with Flavobacte...

  5. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke; Schumm, L Philip; Zeissig, Sebastian; Ahmad, Tariq; Andersen, Vibeke; Andrews, Jane M; Annese, Vito; Brand, Stephan; Brant, Steven R; Cho, Judy H; Daly, Mark J; Dubinsky, Marla; Duerr, Richard H; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Franke, Andre; Gearry, Richard B; Goyette, Philippe; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hov, Johannes R; Huang, Hailang; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Kupcinskas, Limas; Lawrance, Ian C; Lee, James C; Satsangi, Jack; Schreiber, Stephan; Théâtre, Emilie; van der Meulen-de Jong, Andrea E; Weersma, Rinse K; Wilson, David C; Parkes, Miles; Vermeire, Severine; Rioux, John D; Mansfield, John; Silverberg, Mark S; Radford-Smith, Graham; McGovern, Dermot P B; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Lees, Charlie W

    2016-01-09

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. This study included patients from 49 centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype-phenotype associations across 156,154 genetic variants. We generated genetic risk scores by combining information from all known inflammatory bowel disease associations to summarise the total load of genetic risk for a particular phenotype. We used these risk scores to test the hypothesis that colonic Crohn's disease, ileal Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis are all genetically distinct from each other, and to attempt to identify patients with a mismatch between clinical diagnosis and genetic risk profile. After quality control, the primary analysis included 29,838 patients (16,902 with Crohn's disease, 12,597 with ulcerative colitis). Three loci (NOD2, MHC, and MST1 3p21) were associated with subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease, mainly disease location (essentially fixed over time; median follow-up of 10·5 years). Little or no genetic association with disease behaviour (which changed dramatically over time) remained after conditioning on disease location and age at onset. The genetic risk score representing all known risk alleles for inflammatory bowel disease showed strong association with

  6. Lipid metabolism in myelinating glial cells: lessons from human inherited disorders and mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrast, Roman; Saher, Gesine; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Verheijen, Mark H G

    2011-03-01

    The integrity of central and peripheral nervous system myelin is affected in numerous lipid metabolism disorders. This vulnerability was so far mostly attributed to the extraordinarily high level of lipid synthesis that is required for the formation of myelin, and to the relative autonomy in lipid synthesis of myelinating glial cells because of blood barriers shielding the nervous system from circulating lipids. Recent insights from analysis of inherited lipid disorders, especially those with prevailing lipid depletion and from mouse models with glia-specific disruption of lipid metabolism, shed new light on this issue. The particular lipid composition of myelin, the transport of lipid-associated myelin proteins, and the necessity for timely assembly of the myelin sheath all contribute to the observed vulnerability of myelin to perturbed lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the uptake of external lipids may also play a role in the formation of myelin membranes. In addition to an improved understanding of basic myelin biology, these data provide a foundation for future therapeutic interventions aiming at preserving glial cell integrity in metabolic disorders.

  7. Infantile Refsum disease: an inherited peroxisomal disorder. Comparison with Zellweger syndrome and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Saudubray, J. M.; Ogier, H. A.; Odièvre, M.; Scotto, J. M.; Monnens, L.; Govaerts, L. C.; Roels, F.; Cornelis, A.; Schutgens, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Three patients affected by infantile Refsum disease are described with mental retardation, minor facial dysmorphia, chorioretinopathy, sensorineural hearing deficit, hepatomegaly, failure to thrive and hypocholesterolaemia. Initially, only an accumulation of phytanic acid was thought to be present.

  8. Inherited Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Beckert, J.

    2008-01-01

    How to regulate the transfer of wealth from one generation to the next has been hotly debated among politicians, legal scholars, sociologists, economists, and philosophers for centuries. Bequeathing wealth is a vital ingredient of family solidarity. But does the reproduction of social inequality through inheritance square with the principle of equal opportunity? Does democracy suffer when family wealth becomes political power? The first in-depth, comparative study of the development of inheri...

  9. Inherited Cardiac Diseases Caused by Mutations in the Nav1.5 Sodium Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2009-01-01

    form of arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation (AF). In this comprehensive review, we describe the functional role of Nav1.5 and its associated proteins in propagation and depolarization both in a normal- and in a pathophysiological setting. Furthermore, several of the arrhythmogenic diseases, such as long...

  10. Prominent scapulae mimicking an inherited myopathy expands the phenotype of CHD7-related disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Grady, Gina L.; Ma, Alan; Sival, Deborah; Wong, Monica T. Y.; Peduto, Tony; Menezes, Manoj P.; Young, Helen; Waddell, Leigh; Ghaoui, Roula; Needham, Merrilee; Lek, Monkol; North, Kathryn N.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Clarke, Nigel F.

    CHD7 variants are a well-established cause of CHARGE syndrome, a disabling multi-system malformation disorder that is often associated with deafness, visual impairment and intellectual disability. Less severe forms of CHD7-related disease are known to exist, but the full spectrum of phenotypes

  11. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, M. Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant) specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (

  12. Primer in Genetics and Genomics, Article 4-Inheritance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lisa B; Chiatti, Beth Desaretz

    2017-07-01

    Since the completion of the Human Genome Project, much has been uncovered about inheritance of various illnesses and disorders. There are two main types of inheritance: Mendelian and non-Mendelian. Mendelian inheritance includes autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and Y-linked inheritance. Non-Mendelian inheritance includes mitochondrial and multifactorial inheritance. Nurses must understand the types of inheritance in order to identify red flags that may indicate the possibility of a hereditary disorder in a patient or family.

  13. Diagnostic value of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in childhood inherited neurometabolic brain diseases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmakci, Handan; Pekcevik, Yeliz; Yis, Uluc; Unalp, Aycan; Kurul, Semra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate parenchymal diffusion properties and metabolite ratios in affected brain tissues of inherited neurometabolic brain diseases with an overview of the current literature about the diagnostic data of both techniques in childhood inherited metabolic brain diseases. The study group was consisting, 19 patients (15 males, 4 females; mean age, 54 months (4.5 years); age range, 1-171 months (14.25 years)) diagnosed with inherited neurometabolic brain disease. Single- and multivoxel proton MRS was carried out and NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Glx/Cr ratios were calculated. Presence of lactate peak and abnormal different peaks were noted. ADC values were calculated from brain lesions. Results are compared with age and sex matched normal subjects. Elevated NAA/Cr ratio (Canavan disease), galactitol peak (galactosemia) at 3.7 ppm, branched chain amino acids (Maple syrup urine disease-MSUD) at 0.9 ppm were seen on different diseases. In Leigh disease and MSUD restricted diffusion was detected. Different diffusion properties were seen only in one Glutaric aciduria lesions. NAA/Cr ratios and calculated ADC values were significantly different from normal subjects (p < 0.05). DWI combined with MRS are complementary methods to routine cranial MRI for evaluating neurometabolic diseases which can give detailed information about neurochemistry of affected brain areas.

  14. Diagnostic value of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in childhood inherited neurometabolic brain diseases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmakci, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.t [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Pekcevik, Yeliz [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yis, Uluc [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Unalp, Aycan [Behcet Uz Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Kurul, Semra [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate parenchymal diffusion properties and metabolite ratios in affected brain tissues of inherited neurometabolic brain diseases with an overview of the current literature about the diagnostic data of both techniques in childhood inherited metabolic brain diseases. The study group was consisting, 19 patients (15 males, 4 females; mean age, 54 months (4.5 years); age range, 1-171 months (14.25 years)) diagnosed with inherited neurometabolic brain disease. Single- and multivoxel proton MRS was carried out and NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Glx/Cr ratios were calculated. Presence of lactate peak and abnormal different peaks were noted. ADC values were calculated from brain lesions. Results are compared with age and sex matched normal subjects. Elevated NAA/Cr ratio (Canavan disease), galactitol peak (galactosemia) at 3.7 ppm, branched chain amino acids (Maple syrup urine disease-MSUD) at 0.9 ppm were seen on different diseases. In Leigh disease and MSUD restricted diffusion was detected. Different diffusion properties were seen only in one Glutaric aciduria lesions. NAA/Cr ratios and calculated ADC values were significantly different from normal subjects (p < 0.05). DWI combined with MRS are complementary methods to routine cranial MRI for evaluating neurometabolic diseases which can give detailed information about neurochemistry of affected brain areas.

  15. Human toddlers' attempts to match two simple behaviors provide no evidence for an inherited, dedicated imitation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S Jones

    Full Text Available Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism - an "active intermodal matching " (AIM mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others' actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements- bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child's repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup. Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models' movements (hitting the object, through trying (but failing to reproduce the model's arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word 'elbow' imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age.

  16. Human Toddlers’ Attempts to Match Two Simple Behaviors Provide No Evidence for an Inherited, Dedicated Imitation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan S.

    2012-01-01

    Influential theories of imitation have proposed that humans inherit a neural mechanism – an “active intermodal matching “ (AIM) mechanism or a mirror neuron system - that functions from birth to automatically match sensory input from others’ actions to motor programs for performing those same actions, and thus produces imitation. To test these proposals, 160 1- to 2½-year-old toddlers were asked to imitate two simple movements– bending the arm to make an elbow, and moving the bent elbow laterally. Both behaviors were almost certain to be in each child’s repertoire, and the lateral movement was goal-directed (used to hit a plastic cup). Thus, one or both behaviors should have been imitable by toddlers with a functioning AIM or mirror neuron system. Each child saw the two behaviors repeated 18 times, and was encouraged to imitate. Children were also asked to locate their own elbows. Almost no children below age 2 imitated either behavior. Instead, younger children gave clear evidence of a developmental progression, from reproducing only the outcome of the models’ movements (hitting the object), through trying (but failing) to reproduce the model’s arm posture and/or the arm-cup relations they had seen, to accurate imitation of arm bending by age 2 and of both movements by age 2½. Across age levels, almost all children who knew the word ‘elbow’ imitated both behaviors: very few who did not know the word imitated either behavior. The evidence is most consistent with a view of early imitation as the product of a complex system of language, cognitive, social, and motor competencies that develop in infancy. The findings do not rule out a role for an inherited neural mechanism, but they suggest that such a system would not by itself be sufficient to explain imitation at any age. PMID:23251500

  17. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proo...

  18. OMIM.org: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®), an online catalog of human genes and genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberger, Joanna S; Bocchini, Carol A; Schiettecatte, François; Scott, Alan F; Hamosh, Ada

    2015-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM(®), is a comprehensive, authoritative and timely research resource of curated descriptions of human genes and phenotypes and the relationships between them. The new official website for OMIM, OMIM.org (http://omim.org), was launched in January 2011. OMIM is based on the published peer-reviewed biomedical literature and is used by overlapping and diverse communities of clinicians, molecular biologists and genome scientists, as well as by students and teachers of these disciplines. Genes and phenotypes are described in separate entries and are given unique, stable six-digit identifiers (MIM numbers). OMIM entries have a structured free-text format that provides the flexibility necessary to describe the complex and nuanced relationships between genes and genetic phenotypes in an efficient manner. OMIM also has a derivative table of genes and genetic phenotypes, the Morbid Map. OMIM.org has enhanced search capabilities such as genome coordinate searching and thesaurus-enhanced search term options. Phenotypic series have been created to facilitate viewing genetic heterogeneity of phenotypes. Clinical synopsis features are enhanced with UMLS, Human Phenotype Ontology and Elements of Morphology terms and image links. All OMIM data are available for FTP download and through an API. MIMmatch is a novel outreach feature to disseminate updates and encourage collaboration. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Regional brain metabolite abnormalities in inherited prion disease and asymptomatic gene carriers demonstrated in vivo by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldman, A.D.; Cordery, R.J.; Godbolt, A.; Rossor, M.N. [University College London, Dementia Research Group, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Division of Neuroscience and Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); MacManus, D.G. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Clinical Neurology, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Collinge, J. [University College London, MRC Prion Unit, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the gene which codes for prion protein (PrP), leading to proliferation of abnormal PrP isomers in the brain and neurodegeneration; they include Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). We studied two patients with symptomatic inherited prion disease (P102L) and two pre-symptomatic P102L gene carriers using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time spectra were acquired from the thalamus, caudate region and frontal white matter, metabolite levels and ratios were measured and z-scores calculated for individual patients relative to age-matched normal controls. MRS data were compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging. One fCJD case had generalised atrophy and showed increased levels of myo-inositol (MI) in the thalamus (z=3.7). The other had decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (z=4) and diffuse signal abnormality in the frontal white matter. Both asymptomatic gene carriers had normal imaging, but increased frontal white matter MI (z=4.3, 4.1), and one also had increased MI in the caudate (z=5.3). Isolated MI abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers are a novel finding and may reflect early glial proliferation, prior to significant neuronal damage. MRS provides potential non-invasive surrogate markers of early disease and progression in inherited prion disease. (orig.)

  20. Regional brain metabolite abnormalities in inherited prion disease and asymptomatic gene carriers demonstrated in vivo by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldman, A.D.; Cordery, R.J.; Godbolt, A.; Rossor, M.N.; MacManus, D.G.; Collinge, J.

    2006-01-01

    Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the gene which codes for prion protein (PrP), leading to proliferation of abnormal PrP isomers in the brain and neurodegeneration; they include Gerstmann-Straeussler-Scheinker disease (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD). We studied two patients with symptomatic inherited prion disease (P102L) and two pre-symptomatic P102L gene carriers using quantitative magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Short echo time spectra were acquired from the thalamus, caudate region and frontal white matter, metabolite levels and ratios were measured and z-scores calculated for individual patients relative to age-matched normal controls. MRS data were compared with structural magnetic resonance imaging. One fCJD case had generalised atrophy and showed increased levels of myo-inositol (MI) in the thalamus (z=3.7). The other had decreased levels of N-acetylaspartate (z=4) and diffuse signal abnormality in the frontal white matter. Both asymptomatic gene carriers had normal imaging, but increased frontal white matter MI (z=4.3, 4.1), and one also had increased MI in the caudate (z=5.3). Isolated MI abnormalities in asymptomatic gene carriers are a novel finding and may reflect early glial proliferation, prior to significant neuronal damage. MRS provides potential non-invasive surrogate markers of early disease and progression in inherited prion disease. (orig.)

  1. Inheritance of black sigatoka disease resistance in plantain-banana (Musa spp.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R; Vuylsteke, D

    1994-10-01

    Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet), an airborne fungal leaf-spot disease, is a major constraint to plantain and banana (Musa spp.) production world-wide. Gaining further knowledge of the genetics of host-plant resistance will enhance the development of resistant cultivars, which is considered to be the most appropriate means to achieve stable production. Genetic analysis was conducted on 101 euploid (2x, 3x and 4x) progenies, obtained from crossing two susceptible triploid plantain cultivars with the resistant wild diploid banana 'Calcutta 4'. Segregating progenies, and a susceptible reference plantain cultivar, were evaluated over 2 consecutive years. Three distinct levels of host response to black sigatoka were defined as follows: susceptible ( 10). Segregation ratios for resistance at the 2x level fitted a genetic model having one major recessive resistance allele (bs 1) and two independent alleles with additive effects (bsr 2 and bsr 3). A similar model explains the results at the 4x level assuming that the favourable resistance alleles have a dosage effect when four copies of them are present in their respective loci (bs i (4) ). The proposed model was further validated by segregation data of S 1 progenies. Mechanisms of black sigatoka resistance are discussed in relation to the genetic model.

  2. Genetic Correction of Stem Cells in the Treatment of Inherited Diseases and Focus on Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bernerd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Somatic stem cells ensure tissue renewal along life and healing of injuries. Their safe isolation, genetic manipulation ex vivo and reinfusion in patients suffering from life threatening immune deficiencies (for example, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID have demonstrated the efficacy of ex vivo gene therapy. Similarly, adult epidermal stem cells have the capacity to renew epidermis, the fully differentiated, protective envelope of our body. Stable skin replacement of severely burned patients have proven life saving. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a devastating disease due to severe defects in the repair of mutagenic DNA lesions introduced upon exposure to solar radiations. Most patients die from the consequences of budding hundreds of skin cancers in the absence of photoprotection. We have developed a safe procedure of genetic correction of epidermal stem cells isolated from XP patients. Preclinical and safety assessments indicate successful correction of XP epidermal stem cells in the long term and their capacity to regenerate a normal skin with full capacities of DNA repair.

  3. Genetic Correction of Stem Cells in the Treatment of Inherited Diseases and Focus on Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouanet, Sophie; Warrick, Emilie; Gache, Yannick; Scarzello, Sabine; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Bernerd, Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Somatic stem cells ensure tissue renewal along life and healing of injuries. Their safe isolation, genetic manipulation ex vivo and reinfusion in patients suffering from life threatening immune deficiencies (for example, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)) have demonstrated the efficacy of ex vivo gene therapy. Similarly, adult epidermal stem cells have the capacity to renew epidermis, the fully differentiated, protective envelope of our body. Stable skin replacement of severely burned patients have proven life saving. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a devastating disease due to severe defects in the repair of mutagenic DNA lesions introduced upon exposure to solar radiations. Most patients die from the consequences of budding hundreds of skin cancers in the absence of photoprotection. We have developed a safe procedure of genetic correction of epidermal stem cells isolated from XP patients. Preclinical and safety assessments indicate successful correction of XP epidermal stem cells in the long term and their capacity to regenerate a normal skin with full capacities of DNA repair. PMID:24113582

  4. Maternal age effect and severe germ-line bottleneck in the inheritance of human mitochondrial DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolledo-Jaramillo, Boris; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Stoler, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The manifestation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases depends on the frequency of heteroplasmy (the presence of several alleles in an individual), yet its transmission across generations cannot be readily predicted owing to a lack of data on the size of the mtDNA bottleneck during oogenesis......, an order of magnitude higher than for nuclear DNA. Notably, we found a positive association between the number of heteroplasmies in a child and maternal age at fertilization, likely attributable to oocyte aging. This study also took advantage of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to validate heteroplasmies...... and confirm a de novo mutation. Our results can be used to predict the transmission of disease-causing mtDNA variants and illuminate evolutionary dynamics of the mitochondrial genome....

  5. Biochemical properties of mammalian TREX1 and its association with DNA replication and inherited inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas; Barnes, Deborah E; Yang, Yun-Gui; Robins, Peter

    2009-06-01

    The major DNA-specific 3'-5' exonuclease of mammalian cells is TREX1 (3' repair exonuclease 1; previously called DNase III). The human enzyme is encoded by a single exon and, like many 3' exonucleases, exists as a homodimer. TREX1 degrades ssDNA (single-stranded DNA) more efficiently than dsDNA (double-stranded DNA), and its catalytic properties are similar to those of Escherichia coli exonuclease X. However, TREX1 is only found in mammals and has an extended C-terminal domain containing a leucine-rich sequence required for its association with the endoplasmic reticulum. In normal S-phase and also in response to genotoxic stress, TREX1 at least partly redistributes to the cell nucleus. In a collaborative project, we have demonstrated TREX1 enzyme deficiency in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Subsequently, we have shown that AGS1 cells exhibit chronic ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated)-dependent checkpoint activation, and these TREX1-deficient cells accumulate ssDNA fragments of a distinct size generated during DNA replication. Other groups have shown that the syndromes of familial chilblain lupus as well as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the distinct neurovascular disorder retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy, can be caused by dominant mutations at different sites within the TREX1 gene.

  6. Could inherited predisposition drive non-obese fatty liver disease? Results from German tertiary referral centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Marcin; Bantel, Heike; Rau, Monika; Schattenberg, Jörn M; Grünhage, Frank; Pathil, Anita; Demir, Münevver; Kluwe, Johannes; Boettler, Tobias; Weber, Susanne N; Geier, Andreas; Lammert, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequent among obese individuals with metabolic syndrome. Variants PNPLA3 p.I148M, TM6SF2 p.E167K and MBOAT7 rs641738 are associated with higher liver fat contents. Here we analyzed 63 biopsied non-obese, non-diabetic patients with NAFLD (39 men, age: 20-72 years) recruited within the German NAFLD CSG program. The frequencies of the PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7 polymorphisms were compared with the remaining patients in the NAFLD CSG cohort and with a control population (n = 174). Serum CK18-M30 was measured by ELISA. In non-obese NAFLD patients, the frequency of the PNPLA3 p.I148M allele (74.6%), but not of the TM6SF2 or MBOAT7 polymorphisms, was significantly (P < 0.05) higher as compared to the other patients in the NAFLD CSG cohort (54.9%) or controls (40.2%). The presence of the minor PNPLA3 p.I148M risk allele increased the risk of developing NAFLD (OR = 3.29, P < 0.001) and was associated with higher steatosis, fibrosis, and serum CK18-M30 levels (all P < 0.05). According to the population attributable fraction (PAF), 49.8% of NAFLD cases could be eliminated if the PNPLA3 mutation was absent. The MBOAT7 polymorphism was more frequent (P = 0.019) in patients with severe hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, PNPLA3, and to a lesser extent, MBOAT7 variants are associated with NAFLD risk and modulate liver injury in non-obese patients without diabetes.

  7. Inherited hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, I M

    1976-03-01

    Familial hypothyroidism results from both thyroidal and extrathyroidal dysfunction. Specific intrathyroidal abnormalities in thyroid hormone synthesis causing goitrous hypothyroidism are iodide trap defect, organification defect, "coupling" defect, iodoprotein defect, and dehalogenase defect. The diagnostic studies for each are outlined utilizing radioiodine(131I) studies. Other causes of cretinism include failure of the thyroid gland to respond to TSH and lack of pituitary TSH (or hypothalamic TRH). The syndrome of peripheral resistance to thyroid hormone is discussed. The diagnosis of inherited hypothyrodism rests on an adequate family history and measurement of both T4 and TSH levels which can be determined in cord blood or peripheral blood from the infant. The importance of early treatment of hypothyroidism in the neonatal period to prevent brain damage is emphasized. The rec:nt discovery of the importance of reverse T3 (RT3) in fetal thyroid metabolism is described, and the possibility of amniocentesis as an aid in prenatal diagnosis is considered. The place of intrauterine administration of thyroid hormone to the fetus at risk from hypothyroidism is uncertain at this time and requires carefully controlled studies and long-term follow-up.

  8. Influenza as a human disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Influenza as a human disease. Commonly perceived as a mild disease, affects every one, sometimes a couple of times in a year. Globally, seasonal influenza epidemics result in about three to five million yearly cases of severe illness and about 250,000 to 500,000 yearly ...

  9. Human communicable diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The rising incidence of malaria and tuberculosis in sub-Saharan Africa is causing great hardship, not only to the individuals affected but also to the economies of the countries where they are rife. Both diseases are becoming more resistant to the drugs that are currently available for treatment and drug resistant strains are posing a global threat. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is responding by sponsoring a programme to build technical competency in molecular and radioisotope-based techniques. (IAEA)

  10. Non-traditional inheritance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the last few years, several non-traditional forms of inheritance have been recognized. These include mosaicism, cytoplasmic inheritance, uniparental disomy, imprinting, amplification/anticipation, and somatic recombination. Genomic imprinting (GI) is the dependence of the phenotype on the sex of the transmitting parent. GI in humans seems to involve growth, behaviour, and survival in utero. The detailed mechanism of genomic imprinting is not known, but it seems that some process is involved in turning a gene off; this probably involves two genes, one of which produces a product that turns a gene off, and the gene that is itself turned off. The process of imprinting (turning off) may be associated with methylation. Erasure of imprinting can occur, and seems to be associated with meiosis. 10 refs

  11. Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells: implications for human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    La Morgia, Chiara; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, there was the seminal discovery of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs) as a new class of photoreceptors that subserve the photoentrainment of circadian rhythms and other non-image forming functions of the eye. Since then, there has been a growing research...... interest on these cells, mainly focused on animal models. Only recently, a few studies have started to address the relevance of the mRGC system in humans and related diseases. We recently discovered that mRGCs resist neurodegeneration in two inherited mitochondrial disorders that cause blindness, i...

  12. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  13. Understanding our genetic inheritance: The US Human Genome Project, The first five years FY 1991--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-04-01

    The Human Genome Initiative is a worldwide research effort with the goal of analyzing the structure of human DNA and determining the location of the estimated 100,000 human genes. In parallel with this effort, the DNA of a set of model organisms will be studied to provide the comparative information necessary for understanding the functioning of the human genome. The information generated by the human genome project is expected to be the source book for biomedical science in the 21st century and will by of immense benefit to the field of medicine. It will help us to understand and eventually treat many of the more than 4000 genetic diseases that affect mankind, as well as the many multifactorial diseases in which genetic predisposition plays an important role. A centrally coordinated project focused on specific objectives is believed to be the most efficient and least expensive way of obtaining this information. The basic data produced will be collected in electronic databases that will make the information readily accessible on convenient form to all who need it. This report describes the plans for the U.S. human genome project and updates those originally prepared by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) and the National Research Council (NRC) in 1988. In the intervening two years, improvements in technology for almost every aspect of genomics research have taken place. As a result, more specific goals can now be set for the project.

  14. Network-based analysis of genotype-phenotype correlations between different inheritance modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Dapeng; Li, Chuanxing; Zhang, Shaojun; Lu, Jianping; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wang, Shiyuan; Zhou, Meng

    2014-11-15

    Recent studies on human disease have revealed that aberrant interaction between proteins probably underlies a substantial number of human genetic diseases. This suggests a need to investigate disease inheritance mode using interaction, and based on which to refresh our conceptual understanding of a series of properties regarding inheritance mode of human disease. We observed a strong correlation between the number of protein interactions and the likelihood of a gene causing any dominant diseases or multiple dominant diseases, whereas no correlation was observed between protein interaction and the likelihood of a gene causing recessive diseases. We found that dominant diseases are more likely to be associated with disruption of important interactions. These suggest inheritance mode should be understood using protein interaction. We therefore reviewed the previous studies and refined an interaction model of inheritance mode, and then confirmed that this model is largely reasonable using new evidences. With these findings, we found that the inheritance mode of human genetic diseases can be predicted using protein interaction. By integrating the systems biology perspectives with the classical disease genetics paradigm, our study provides some new insights into genotype-phenotype correlations. haodapeng@ems.hrbmu.edu.cn or biofomeng@hotmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Two Novel Mutations Associated With Ataxia-Telangiectasia Identified Using an Ion AmpliSeq Inherited Disease Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Kuznetsova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T, or Louis-Bar syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder associated with immunodeficiency. For families with at least one affected child, timely A-T genotyping during any subsequent pregnancy allows the parents to make an informed decision about whether to continue to term when the fetus is affected. Mutations in the ATM gene, which is 150 kb long, give rise to A-T; more than 600 pathogenic variants in ATM have been characterized since 1990 and new mutations continue to be discovered annually. Therefore, limiting genetic screening to previously known SNPs by PCR or hybridization with microarrays may not identify the specific pathogenic genotype in ATM for a given A-T family. However, recent developments in next-generation sequencing technology offer prompt high-throughput full-length sequencing of genomic fragments of interest. This allows the identification of the whole spectrum of mutations in a gene, including any novel ones. We report two A-T families with affected children and current pregnancies. Both families are consanguineous and originate from Caucasian regions of Russia and Azerbaijan. Before our study, no ATM mutations had been identified in the older children of these families. We used ion semiconductor sequencing and an Ion AmpliSeq™ Inherited Disease Panel to perform complete ATM gene sequencing in a single member of each family. Then we compared the experimentally determined genotype with the affected/normal phenotype distribution in the whole family to provide unambiguous evidence of pathogenic mutations responsible for A-T. A single novel SNP was allocated to each family. In the first case, we found a mononucleotide deletion, and in the second, a mononucleotide insertion. Both mutations lead to truncation of the ATM protein product. Identification of the pathogenic mutation in each family was performed in a timely fashion, allowing the fetuses to be tested and diagnosed. The parents chose to

  16. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Transfer RNA and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Abbott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological mutations in tRNA genes and tRNA processing enzymes are numerous and result in very complicated clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA genes are hotspots for pathological mutations and over 200 mt-tRNA mutations have been linked to various disease states. Often these mutations prevent tRNA aminoacylation. Disrupting this primary function affects protein synthesis and the expression, folding, and function of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations manifest in a wide panoply of diseases related to cellular energetics, including COX deficiency (cytochrome C oxidase, mitochondrial myopathy, MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers, and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Diseases caused by mt-tRNA mutations can also affect very specific tissue types, as in the case of neurosensory non-syndromic hearing loss and pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, mitochondrial heteroplasmy plays a role in disease severity and age of onset as well. Not surprisingly, mutations in enzymes that modify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are also linked to a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. In addition to compromised aminoacylation of the tRNAs, mutated modifying enzymes can also impact tRNA expression and abundance, tRNA modifications, tRNA folding, and even tRNA maturation (e.g., splicing. Some of these pathological mutations in tRNAs and processing enzymes are likely to affect non-canonical tRNA functions, and contribute to the diseases without significantly impacting on translation. This chapter will review recent literature on the relation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNA, and enzymes that process tRNAs, to human disease. We explore the mechanisms involved in the clinical presentation of these various diseases with an emphasis on neurological disease.

  18. Transfer RNA and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jamie A; Francklyn, Christopher S; Robey-Bond, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Pathological mutations in tRNA genes and tRNA processing enzymes are numerous and result in very complicated clinical phenotypes. Mitochondrial tRNA (mt-tRNA) genes are "hotspots" for pathological mutations and over 200 mt-tRNA mutations have been linked to various disease states. Often these mutations prevent tRNA aminoacylation. Disrupting this primary function affects protein synthesis and the expression, folding, and function of oxidative phosphorylation enzymes. Mitochondrial tRNA mutations manifest in a wide panoply of diseases related to cellular energetics, including COX deficiency (cytochrome C oxidase), mitochondrial myopathy, MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), and MELAS (mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes). Diseases caused by mt-tRNA mutations can also affect very specific tissue types, as in the case of neurosensory non-syndromic hearing loss and pigmentary retinopathy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Importantly, mitochondrial heteroplasmy plays a role in disease severity and age of onset as well. Not surprisingly, mutations in enzymes that modify cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs are also linked to a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. In addition to compromised aminoacylation of the tRNAs, mutated modifying enzymes can also impact tRNA expression and abundance, tRNA modifications, tRNA folding, and even tRNA maturation (e.g., splicing). Some of these pathological mutations in tRNAs and processing enzymes are likely to affect non-canonical tRNA functions, and contribute to the diseases without significantly impacting on translation. This chapter will review recent literature on the relation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic tRNA, and enzymes that process tRNAs, to human disease. We explore the mechanisms involved in the clinical presentation of these various diseases with an emphasis on neurological disease.

  19. Human and animal evidence of potential transgenerational inheritance of health effects: An evidence map and state-of-the-science evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vickie R; Boyles, Abee L; Pelch, Katherine E; Holmgren, Stephanie D; Shapiro, Andrew J; Blystone, Chad R; Devito, Michael J; Newbold, Retha R; Blain, Robyn; Hartman, Pamela; Thayer, Kristina A; Rooney, Andrew A

    2018-06-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest early life exposures result in adverse effects in offspring who were never directly exposed; this phenomenon is termed "transgenerational inheritance." Given concern for public health implications for potential effects of exposures transmitted to subsequent generations, it is critical to determine how widespread and robust this phenomenon is and to identify the range of exposures and possible outcomes. This scoping report examines the evidence for transgenerational inheritance associated with exposure to a wide range of stressors in humans and animals to identify areas of consistency, uncertainty, data gaps, and to evaluate general risk of bias issues for the transgenerational study design. A protocol was developed to collect and categorize the literature into a systematic evidence map for transgenerational inheritance by health effects, exposures, and evidence streams following the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) approach for conducting literature-based health assessments. A PubMed search yielded 63,758 unique records from which 257 relevant studies were identified and categorized into a systematic evidence map by evidence streams (46 human and 211 animal), broad health effect categories, and exposures. Data extracted from the individual studies are available in the Health Assessment Workspace Collaborative (HAWC) program. There are relatively few bodies of evidence where multiple studies evaluated the same exposure and the same or similar outcomes. Studies evaluated for risk of bias generally had multiple issues in design or conduct. The evidence mapping illustrated that risk of bias, few studies, and heterogeneity in exposures and endpoints examined present serious limitations to available bodies of evidence for assessing transgenerational effects. Targeted research is suggested to addressed inconsistencies and risk of bias issues identified, and thereby establish more robust bodies of evidence to

  20. Constraints of behavioural inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roubtsova, E.E.; Roubtsov, S.A.; Oquendo, F.; Warboys, B.; Morrison, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach to component inheritance and reuse which closes the gap between architectural design and process-oriented approaches. To apply inheritance checks in design and verification of a system, one should consider an inheritance relation as a property of the system and specify it as

  1. Inheritance of resistance to cotton blue disease Herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmério Pupim Junior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of cotton blue disease resistance by cotton plants. Populations derived from the CD 401 and Delta Opal resistant varieties were evaluated, through a greenhouse test with artificial inoculation by viruliferous aphids. Cotton blue disease resistance is conditioned by one dominant gene, both in CD 401 and Delta Opal varieties.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a herança da resistência do algodoeiro à doença-azul. Populações derivadas das variedades resistentes CD 401 e Delta Opal foram avaliadas em casa de vegetação, por meio da inoculação de pulgões virulíferos. A resistência à doença-azul do algodoeiro é condicionada por um gene dominante, tanto em 'DC 401' quanto em 'Delta Opal'.

  2. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  3. Inherited myopathies and muscular dystrophies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardamone, Michael; Darras, Basil T.; Ryan, Monique M.

    The inherited myopathies and muscular dystrophies are a diverse group of muscle diseases presenting with common complaints and physical signs: weakness, motor delay, and respiratory and bulbar dysfunction. The myopathies are caused by genetic defects in the contractile apparatus of muscle, and

  4. Proteins aggregation and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Many human diseases and the death of most supercentenarians are related to protein aggregation. Neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporallobar degeneration, etc. Such diseases are due to progressive loss of structure or function of neurons caused by protein aggregation. For example, AD is considered to be related to aggregation of Aβ40 (peptide with 40 amino acids) and Aβ42 (peptide with 42 amino acids) and HD is considered to be related to aggregation of polyQ (polyglutamine) peptides. In this paper, we briefly review our recent discovery of key factors for protein aggregation. We used a lattice model to study the aggregation rates of proteins and found that the probability for a protein sequence to appear in the conformation of the aggregated state can be used to determine the temperature at which proteins can aggregate most quickly. We used molecular dynamics and simple models of polymer chains to study relaxation and aggregation of proteins under various conditions and found that when the bending-angle dependent and torsion-angle dependent interactions are zero or very small, then protein chains tend to aggregate at lower temperatures. All atom models were used to identify a key peptide chain for the aggregation of insulin chains and to find that two polyQ chains prefer anti-parallel conformation. It is pointed out that in many cases, protein aggregation does not result from protein mis-folding. A potential drug from Chinese medicine was found for Alzheimer's disease. (paper)

  5. Legal Portion in Russian Inheritance Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inshina, Roza; Murzalimova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe the right to inherit as one of the basic human rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the Russian Federation. The state has set rules according to which after a person's death, his or her property is inherited by other persons. The Russian civil legislation establishes the institution of legal portions that is…

  6. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  7. Inherited Retinal Degenerative Clinical Trial Network. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) through the conduct of clinical trials and other...design and conduct of effective and efficient clinical trials for inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases and dry AMD; • Limited number and...linica l trial in the NEER network for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, and the ProgSTAR studies for Stargardt disease ) . As new interventions b

  8. Human genetics of infectious diseases: between proof of principle and paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaïs, Alexandre; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2009-09-01

    The observation that only a fraction of individuals infected by infectious agents develop clinical disease raises fundamental questions about the actual pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Epidemiological and experimental evidence is accumulating to suggest that human genetics plays a major role in this process. As we discuss here, human predisposition to infectious diseases seems to cover a continuous spectrum from monogenic to polygenic inheritance. Although many studies have provided proof of principle that infectious diseases may result from various types of inborn errors of immunity, the genetic determinism of most infectious diseases in most patients remains unclear. However, in the future, studies in human genetics are likely to establish a new paradigm for infectious diseases.

  9. Ethics of Inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Guibet Lafaye , Caroline

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Both in the U.S. and in France, inheritance is probably the main factor of wealth concentration among the richest part of the population, and of its intergenerational reproduction. In so far as wealth is an opportunity, a reform of inheritance tax could be a mean to ensure a fairer distribution of opportunities in the society. Many reforms of inheritance systems have been conceived at least since Bentham. The identification and the analysis of ethical properties of ref...

  10. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  11. My Retina Tracker™: An On-line International Registry for People Affected with Inherited Orphan Retinal Degenerative Diseases and their Genetic Relatives - A New Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joan K; Bromley, Russell L; Mansfield, Brian C

    2016-01-01

    My Retina Tracker™ is a new on-line registry for people affected with inherited orphan retinal degenerative diseases, and their unaffected, genetic relatives. Created and supported by the Foundation Fighting Blindness, it is an international resource designed to capture the disease from the perspective of the registry participant and their retinal health care providers. The registry operates under an Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved protocol and allows sharing of de-identified data with participants, researchers and clinicians. All participants sign an informed consent that includes selecting which data they wish to share. There is no minimum age of participation. Guardians must sign on behalf of minors, and children between the ages of 12 to 17 also sign an informed assent. Participants may compare their disease to others in the registry using graphical interpretations of the aggregate registry data. Researchers and clinicians have two levels of access. The first provides an interface to interrogate all data fields registrants have agreed to share based on their answers in the IRB informed consent. The second provides a route to contact people in the registry who may be eligible for studies or trials, through the Foundation.

  12. Alterations in sperm DNA methylation, non-coding RNA expression, and histone retention mediate vinclozolin-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Maamar, Millissia; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Beck, Daniel; McBirney, Margaux; Nilsson, Eric; Klukovich, Rachel; Xie, Yeming; Tang, Chong; Yan, Wei; Skinner, Michael K

    2018-04-01

    Epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation can be induced by several toxicants, such as vinclozolin. This phenomenon can involve DNA methylation, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) and histone retention, and/or modification in the germline (e.g. sperm). These different epigenetic marks are called epimutations and can transmit in part the transgenerational phenotypes. This study was designed to investigate the vinclozolin-induced concurrent alterations of a number of different epigenetic factors, including DNA methylation, ncRNA, and histone retention in rat sperm. Gestating females (F0 generation) were exposed transiently to vinclozolin during fetal gonadal development. The directly exposed F1 generation fetus, the directly exposed germline within the fetus that will generate the F2 generation, and the transgenerational F3 generation sperm were studied. DNA methylation and ncRNA were altered in each generation rat sperm with the direct exposure F1 and F2 generations being distinct from the F3 generation epimutations. Interestingly, an increased number of differential histone retention sites were found in the F3 generation vinclozolin sperm, but not in the F1 or F2 generations. All three different epimutation types were affected in the vinclozolin lineage transgenerational sperm (F3 generation). The direct exposure generations (F1 and F2) epigenetic alterations were distinct from the transgenerational sperm epimutations. The genomic features and gene pathways associated with the epimutations were investigated to help elucidate the integration of these different epigenetic processes. Our results show that the three different types of epimutations are involved and integrated in the mediation of the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomenon.

  13. [Mitochondria inheritance in yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fizikova, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The review is devoted to the main mechanisms of mitochondria inheritance in yeast Saccharonmyces cerevisiae. The genetic mechanisms of functionally active mitochondria inheritance in eukaryotic cells is one of the most relevant in modem researches. A great number of genetic diseases are associated with mitochondria dysfunction. Plasticity of eukaryotic cell metabolism according to the environmental changes is ensured by adequate mitochondria functioning by means of ATP synthesis coordination, reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis regulation and is an important factor of cell adaptation to stress. Mitochondria participation in important for cell vitality processes masters the presence of accurate mechanisms of mitochondria functions regulation according to environment fluctuations. The mechanisms of mitochondria division and distribution are highly conserved. Baker yeast S. cerevisiae is an ideal model object for mitochondria researches due to energetic metabolism lability, ability to switch over respiration to fermentation, and petite-positive phenotype. Correction of metabolism according to the environmental changes is necessary for cell vitality. The influence of respiratory, carbon, amino acid and phosphate metabolism on mitochondria functions was shown. As far as the mechanisms that stabilize functions of mitochondria and mtDNA are highly conserve, we can project yeast regularities on higher eukaryotes systems. This makes it possible to approximate understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of a great number of human diseases.

  14. Inheritance versus parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This position paper argues that inheritance and parameterization differ in their fundamental structure, even though they may emulate each other in many ways. Based on this, we claim that certain mechanisms, e.g., final classes, are in conflict with the nature of inheritance, and hence causes...

  15. Light and inherited retinal degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Paskowitz, D M; LaVail, M M; Duncan, J L

    2006-01-01

    Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summ...

  16. Protein structure analysis of mutations causing inheritable diseases. An e-Science approach with life scientist friendly interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venselaar, H.; Beek, T.A.H. te; Kuipers, R.K.P.; Hekkelman, M.L.; Vriend, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many newly detected point mutations are located in protein-coding regions of the human genome. Knowledge of their effects on the protein's 3D structure provides insight into the protein's mechanism, can aid the design of further experiments, and eventually can lead to the development of

  17. Protein structure analysis of mutations causing inheritable diseases. An e-Science approach with life scientist friendly interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venselaar, H.; Beek, T.A.H.; Kuipers, R.K.P.; Hekkelman, M.L.; Vriend, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many newly detected point mutations are located in protein-coding regions of the human genome. Knowledge of their effects on the protein's 3D structure provides insight into the protein's mechanism, can aid the design of further experiments, and eventually can lead to the development of

  18. Congenital and inherited neurologic diseases in dogs and cats: Legislation and its effect on purchase in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Passantino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many of the congenital neurologic diseases can result in incapacity or death of the animal. Some of them, such as idiopathic epilepsy and hydrocephalus, exhibit breed or familial predisposition and a genetic basis was proved or suggested. Some diseases can be presumptively diagnosed after a detailed signalment (breed predisposition, history (e.g. family history because many of these defects have familial tendencies, and through physical exam; other diagnostic methods (radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance, electrophysiologic tests, etc. can provide supportive evidence for the congenital defect and help to confirm the diagnosis. Some cases can lead to civil law-suits when the lesions are congenital, but not easily recognizable, or when the lesions are hereditary but tend to became manifest only after some time (more than 12 months after the date of purchase, e.g., after the vice-free guarantee period has expired. Moreover, quite frequently an early diagnosis is not made because there are delays in consulting the veterinarian or the general practitioner veterinarian does not perceive subtle signs. This study was designed to focus on the medico-legal aspects concerning the buying and selling in Italy of dogs and cats affected by congenital and hereditary neurologic diseases that could constitute vice in these animals. While adequate provisions to regulate in detail the various aspects of pet sale have still to be drawn up by legislators, it may be helpful to involve breeders, by obliging them by contract to extend guarantees in the case of hereditary lesions, including neurologic diseases.

  19. Effects of a naturally occurring amino acid substitution in bovine PrP: a model for inherited prion disease in a natural host species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most common hereditary prion disease is human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) associated with a mutation in the prion gene (PRNP) resulting in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at position 200 (E200K) in the prion protein. Models of E200K CJD in transgenic mice have proven interesting but h...

  20. Safe Dynamic Multiple Inheritance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2002-01-01

    Multiple inheritance and similar mechanisms are usually only supported at compile time in statically typed languages. Nevertheless, dynamic multiple inheritance would be very useful in the development of complex systems, because it allows the creation of many related classes without an explosion...... in the size and level of redundancy in the source code. In fact, dynamic multiple inheritance is already available. The language gbeta is statically typed and has supported run-time combination of classes and methods since 1997, by means of the combination operator '&'. However, with certain combinations...

  1. Inherited epidermolysis bullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Jo-David

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inherited epidermolysis bullosa (EB encompasses a number of disorders characterized by recurrent blister formation as the result of structural fragility within the skin and selected other tissues. All types and subtypes of EB are rare; the overall incidence and prevalence of the disease within the United States is approximately 19 per one million live births and 8 per one million population, respectively. Clinical manifestations range widely, from localized blistering of the hands and feet to generalized blistering of the skin and oral cavity, and injury to many internal organs. Each EB subtype is known to arise from mutations within the genes encoding for several different proteins, each of which is intimately involved in the maintenance of keratinocyte structural stability or adhesion of the keratinocyte to the underlying dermis. EB is best diagnosed and subclassified by the collective findings obtained via detailed personal and family history, in concert with the results of immunofluorescence antigenic mapping, transmission electron microscopy, and in some cases, by DNA analysis. Optimal patient management requires a multidisciplinary approach, and revolves around the protection of susceptible tissues against trauma, use of sophisticated wound care dressings, aggressive nutritional support, and early medical or surgical interventions to correct whenever possible the extracutaneous complications. Prognosis varies considerably and is based on both EB subtype and the overall health of the patient.

  2. MAPPIN: a method for annotating, predicting pathogenicity and mode of inheritance for nonsynonymous variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosalia, Nehal; Economides, Aris N; Dewey, Frederick E; Balasubramanian, Suganthi

    2017-10-13

    Nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) constitute about 50% of known disease-causing mutations and understanding their functional impact is an area of active research. Existing algorithms predict pathogenicity of nsSNVs; however, they are unable to differentiate heterozygous, dominant disease-causing variants from heterozygous carrier variants that lead to disease only in the homozygous state. Here, we present MAPPIN (Method for Annotating, Predicting Pathogenicity, and mode of Inheritance for Nonsynonymous variants), a prediction method which utilizes a random forest algorithm to distinguish between nsSNVs with dominant, recessive, and benign effects. We apply MAPPIN to a set of Mendelian disease-causing mutations and accurately predict pathogenicity for all mutations. Furthermore, MAPPIN predicts mode of inheritance correctly for 70.3% of nsSNVs. MAPPIN also correctly predicts pathogenicity for 87.3% of mutations from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study with a 78.5% accuracy for mode of inheritance. When tested on a larger collection of mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database, MAPPIN is able to significantly discriminate between mutations in known dominant and recessive genes. Finally, we demonstrate that MAPPIN outperforms CADD and Eigen in predicting disease inheritance modes for all validation datasets. To our knowledge, MAPPIN is the first nsSNV pathogenicity prediction algorithm that provides mode of inheritance predictions, adding another layer of information for variant prioritization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  4. Diagnostic Value of Subjective Memory Complaints Assessed with a Single Item in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Disease: Results of the DIAN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Laske

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We examined the diagnostic value of subjective memory complaints (SMCs assessed with a single item in a large cross-sectional cohort consisting of families with autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (ADAD participating in the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN. Methods. The baseline sample of 183 mutation carriers (MCs and 117 noncarriers (NCs was divided according to Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR scale into preclinical (CDR 0; MCs: n=107; NCs: n=109, early symptomatic (CDR 0.5; MCs: n=48; NCs: n=8, and dementia stage (CDR ≥ 1; MCs: n=28; NCs: n=0. These groups were subdivided by the presence or absence of SMCs. Results. At CDR 0, SMCs were present in 12.1% of MCs and 9.2% of NCs (P=0.6. At CDR 0.5, SMCs were present in 66.7% of MCs and 62.5% of NCs (P=1.0. At CDR ≥ 1, SMCs were present in 96.4% of MCs. SMCs in MCs were significantly associated with CDR, logical memory scores, Geriatric Depression Scale, education, and estimated years to onset. Conclusions. The present study shows that SMCs assessed by a single-item scale have no diagnostic value to identify preclinical ADAD in asymptomatic individuals. These results demonstrate the need of further improvement of SMC measures that should be examined in large clinical trials.

  5. Protein structure analysis of mutations causing inheritable diseases. An e-Science approach with life scientist friendly interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venselaar, Hanka; Te Beek, Tim A H; Kuipers, Remko K P; Hekkelman, Maarten L; Vriend, Gert

    2010-11-08

    Many newly detected point mutations are located in protein-coding regions of the human genome. Knowledge of their effects on the protein's 3D structure provides insight into the protein's mechanism, can aid the design of further experiments, and eventually can lead to the development of new medicines and diagnostic tools. In this article we describe HOPE, a fully automatic program that analyzes the structural and functional effects of point mutations. HOPE collects information from a wide range of information sources including calculations on the 3D coordinates of the protein by using WHAT IF Web services, sequence annotations from the UniProt database, and predictions by DAS services. Homology models are built with YASARA. Data is stored in a database and used in a decision scheme to identify the effects of a mutation on the protein's 3D structure and function. HOPE builds a report with text, figures, and animations that is easy to use and understandable for (bio)medical researchers. We tested HOPE by comparing its output to the results of manually performed projects. In all straightforward cases HOPE performed similar to a trained bioinformatician. The use of 3D structures helps optimize the results in terms of reliability and details. HOPE's results are easy to understand and are presented in a way that is attractive for researchers without an extensive bioinformatics background.

  6. Protein structure analysis of mutations causing inheritable diseases. An e-Science approach with life scientist friendly interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekkelman Maarten L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many newly detected point mutations are located in protein-coding regions of the human genome. Knowledge of their effects on the protein's 3D structure provides insight into the protein's mechanism, can aid the design of further experiments, and eventually can lead to the development of new medicines and diagnostic tools. Results In this article we describe HOPE, a fully automatic program that analyzes the structural and functional effects of point mutations. HOPE collects information from a wide range of information sources including calculations on the 3D coordinates of the protein by using WHAT IF Web services, sequence annotations from the UniProt database, and predictions by DAS services. Homology models are built with YASARA. Data is stored in a database and used in a decision scheme to identify the effects of a mutation on the protein's 3D structure and function. HOPE builds a report with text, figures, and animations that is easy to use and understandable for (biomedical researchers. Conclusions We tested HOPE by comparing its output to the results of manually performed projects. In all straightforward cases HOPE performed similar to a trained bioinformatician. The use of 3D structures helps optimize the results in terms of reliability and details. HOPE's results are easy to understand and are presented in a way that is attractive for researchers without an extensive bioinformatics background.

  7. Genetic human prion disease modelled in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M; Cardova, Alzbeta; Wolf, Hanna; Pradl, Lydia; Vorberg, Ina; Jackson, Walker S; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2017-09-20

    Inherited human prion diseases, such as fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrP Sc , an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrP C , in the brain of affected individuals. PrP Sc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease. Increasingly, Drosophila has been used to model human neurodegenerative disease. An important unanswered question is whether genetic prion disease with concomitant spontaneous prion formation can be modelled in Drosophila We have used pUAST/PhiC31-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to generate Drosophila transgenic for murine or hamster PrP (prion protein) that carry single-codon mutations associated with genetic human prion disease. Mouse or hamster PrP harbouring an FFI (D178N) or fCJD (E200K) mutation showed mild Proteinase K resistance when expressed in Drosophila Adult Drosophila transgenic for FFI or fCJD variants of mouse or hamster PrP displayed a spontaneous decline in locomotor ability that increased in severity as the flies aged. Significantly, this mutant PrP-mediated neurotoxic fly phenotype was transferable to recipient Drosophila that expressed the wild-type form of the transgene. Collectively, our novel data are indicative of the spontaneous formation of a PrP-dependent neurotoxic phenotype in FFI- or CJD-PrP transgenic Drosophila and show that inherited human prion disease can be modelled in this invertebrate host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M Muksitul; Holder, Lawrence B; Skinner, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant) specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm) epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and methoxychlor (MXC) exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation data set showed a 100% prediction accuracy for all the DDT-MXC sperm epimutations. Observations further elucidate the genomic features associated with transgenerational germline epimutations and identify a genome

  9. Current perspectives on mitochondrial inheritance in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianping Xu,1,2 He Li2 1Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; 2The Key Laboratory for Non-Wood Forest Cultivation and Conservation of the Federal Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The mitochondrion is an essential organelle of eukaryotes, generating the universal energy currency, adenosine triphosphate, through oxidative phosphorylation. However, aside from generation of adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria have also been found to impact a diversity of cellular functions and organ system health in humans and other eukaryotes. Thus, inheriting and maintaining functional mitochondria are essential for cell health. Due to the relative ease of conducting genetic and molecular biological experiments using fungi, they (especially the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used as model organisms for investigating the patterns of inheritance and intracellular dynamics of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial inheritance patterns in fungi has contributed to our broad understanding of the genetic, cellular, and molecular controls of mitochondrial inheritance and their evolutionary implications. In this review, we briefly summarize the patterns of mitochondrial inheritance in fungi, describe the genes and processes involved in controlling uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance in sexual crosses in basidiomycete yeasts, and provide an overview of the molecular and cellular processes governing mitochondrial inheritance during asexual budding in S. cerevisiae. Together, these studies reveal that complex regulatory networks and molecular processes are involved in ensuring the transmission of healthy mitochondria to the progeny. Keywords: uniparental inheritance, biparental inheritance, mating type, actin cable, mitochore, mitochondrial partition 

  10. Mathematical Modeling for Inherited Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anis, Saima; Khan, Madad; Khan, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    We introduced a new nonassociative algebra, namely, left almost algebra, and discussed some of its genetic properties. We discussed the relation of this algebra with flexible algebra, Jordan algebra, and generalized Jordan algebra.

  11. How Is Wilson Disease Inherited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News & Announcements Wilson's Warriors Events Back The Big WOW 2018 Annual Conference WDA Publications Back Downloads Corporate Sponsorship Forms Membership Forms Resources The Big WOW Newsletters News Copper Connection Newsletter Resources Centers of ...

  12. Animal models for human genetic diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharif Sons

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity .... and gene targeting in embryonic stem cells) has been a powerful tool in .... endonucleases that are designed to make a doublestrand.

  13. Roentgenosemiotics and diagnosis of human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Modern concepts concerning roentgenologic semiotics, diagnosis of almost all the human diseases as well as the features of roentgenologic examintion of organs and systems are described. Roentgenologic symptoms and syndroms are systematized and standardized by anatomy branches. 48 refs

  14. Human Sex Determination at the Edge of Ambiguity: INHERITED XY SEX REVERSAL DUE TO ENHANCED UBIQUITINATION AND PROTEASOMAL DEGRADATION OF A MASTER TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Yang, Yanwu; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2016-10-14

    A general problem is posed by analysis of transcriptional thresholds governing cell fate decisions in metazoan development. A model is provided by testis determination in therian mammals. Its key step, Sertoli cell differentiation in the embryonic gonadal ridge, is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in human SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis leading to XY female development (Swyer syndrome). Here, we have characterized an inherited mutation compatible with either male or female somatic phenotypes as observed in an XY father and XY daughter, respectively. The mutation (a crevice-forming substitution at a conserved back surface of the SRY high mobility group box) markedly destabilizes the domain but preserves specific DNA affinity and induced DNA bend angle. On transient transfection of diverse human and rodent cell lines, the variant SRY exhibited accelerated proteasomal degradation (relative to wild type) associated with increased ubiquitination; in vitro susceptibility to ubiquitin-independent ("default") cleavage by the 20S core proteasome was unchanged. The variant's gene regulatory activity (as assessed in a cellular model of the rat embryonic XY gonadal ridge) was reduced by 2-fold relative to wild-type SRY at similar levels of mRNA expression. Chemical proteasome inhibition restored native-like SRY expression and transcriptional activity in association with restored occupancy of a sex-specific enhancer element in principal downstream gene Sox9, demonstrating that the variant SRY exhibits essentially native activity on a per molecule basis. Our findings define a novel mechanism of impaired organogenesis, accelerated ubiquitin-directed proteasomal degradation of a master transcription factor leading to a developmental decision poised at the edge of ambiguity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Inheritance is Specialisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torgersen, Mads

    2002-01-01

    How can we get a simpler but much more general subclass construct? This position paper takes a "specialisationist" approach to inheritance. Old SIMULA virtues are restored to prominence, but boiled with new unificational ingredients to obtain a substrate of specialisation. Ever since the advent...... of Smalltalk there has been a strong tension in the object-oriented community between two opposing views of the role of inheritance: as an incremental modification mechanism or as a vehicle for conceptual modelling. Madsen [5] and many others characterise the two approaches as the “American ” and “Scandinavian......” schools, respectively. Nowadays, such a geographical terminology hardly remains valid (if ever it was), but the tension remains: should we strive for maximal flexibility of inheritance, to improve the possibilities for later unanticipated reuse, or should we attend above all to the conceptual integrity...

  16. Protein Misfolding and Human Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter Gerd; Vang, Søren

    2006-01-01

    phenylketonuria, Parkinson's disease, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency, familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Despite the differences, an emerging paradigm suggests that the cellular effects of protein misfolding provide a common framework that may contribute...

  17. Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeliger, Harold I; Lipinski, Boguslaw

    2015-03-01

    The onset of human degenerative diseases in humans, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, neurodevelopmental disease and neurodegenerative disease has been shown to be related to exposures to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and others, as well as to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol-A and other aromatic lipophilic species. The onset of these diseases has also been related to exposures to transition metal ions. A physiochemical mechanism for the onset of degenerative environmental disease dependent upon exposure to a combination of lipophilic aromatic hydrocarbons and transition metal ions is proposed here. The findings reported here also, for the first time, explain why aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit greater toxicity than aliphatic hydrocarbons of equal carbon numbers.

  18. Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliger Harold I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The onset of human degenerative diseases in humans, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, neurodevelopmental disease and neurodegenerative disease has been shown to be related to exposures to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and others, as well as to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol-A and other aromatic lipophilic species. The onset of these diseases has also been related to exposures to transition metal ions. A physiochemical mechanism for the onset of degenerative environmental disease dependent upon exposure to a combination of lipophilic aromatic hydrocarbons and transition metal ions is proposed here. The findings reported here also, for the first time, explain why aromatic hydrocarbons exhibit greater toxicity than aliphatic hydrocarbons of equal carbon numbers.

  19. Human diseases associated with defective DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, E.C.; Ehmann, U.K.; Williams, J.I.

    1979-01-01

    The observations on xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells in culture were the first indications of defective DNA repair in association with human disease. Since then, a wealth of information on DNA repair in XP, and to a lesser extent in other diseases, has accumulated in the literature. Rather than clarifying the understanding of DNA repair mechanisms in normal cells and of defective DNA repair in human disease, the literature suggests an extraordinary complexity of both of the phenomena. In this review a number of discrete human diseases are considered separately. An attempt was made to systematically describe the pertinent clinical features and cellular and biochemical defects in these diseases, with an emphasis on defects in DNA metabolism, particularly DNA repair. Wherever possible observations have been correlated and unifying hypotheses presented concerning the nature of the basic defect(s) in these diseases. Discussions of the following diseases are presented: XP, ataxia telangiectasia; Fanconi's anemia; Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome; Bloom's syndrome, Cockayne's syndrome; Down's syndrome; retinoblastoma; chronic lymphocytic leukemia; and other miscellaneous human diseases with possble DNA repair defects

  20. Molecular Pathology of Human Prion Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions in humans and animals. In this review, we summarize the molecular background of phenotypic variability, relation of prion protein (PrP to other proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases, and pathogenesis of neuronal vulnerability. PrP exists in different forms that may be present in both diseased and non-diseased brain, however, abundant disease-associated PrP together with tissue pathology characterizes prion diseases and associates with transmissibility. Prion diseases have different etiological background with distinct pathogenesis and phenotype. Mutations of the prion protein gene are associated with genetic forms. The codon 129 polymorphism in combination with the Western blot pattern of PrP after proteinase K digestion serves as a basis for molecular subtyping of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Tissue damage may result from several parallel, interacting or subsequent pathways that involve cellular systems associated with synapses, protein processing, oxidative stress, autophagy, and apoptosis.

  1. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  2. Melatonin and human mitochondrial diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Sharafati-Chaleshtori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the main causative factors in a wide variety of complications such as neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, aging process, and septic shock. Decrease in respiratory complex activity, increase in free radical production, increase in mitochondrial synthase activity, increase in nitric oxide production, and impair in electron transport system and/or mitochondrial permeability are considered as the main factors responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction. Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, is selectively taken up by mitochondria and acts as a powerful antioxidant, regulating the mitochondrial bioenergetic function. Melatonin increases the permeability of membranes and is the stimulator of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. It also acts as an inhibitor of lipoxygenase. Melatonin can cause resistance to oxidation damage by fixing the microsomal membranes. Melatonin has been shown to retard aging and inhibit neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia/reperfusion, septic shock, diabetes, cancer, and other complications related to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study, other than introducing melatonin, was to present the recent findings on clinical effects in diseases related to mitochondrial dysfunction including diabetes, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, and diseases related to brain function.

  3. Plebotomine Vectors of Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-30

    incriminated as vectors of Leishmania mexicana among rodents and/or humans from Mexico to the Amazon Basin. Specimens referable to L. olmeca olmeca...in the format similar to that given for the species group baityi included in this report. Additional phlebotomines from Tanzania, Brazil, Peru and...species group baityi included in this report. Additional phlebotomines from Tanzania, Brazil, Peru and Venezuela were slide-mounted and added to the

  4. Genomic uracil and human disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Lars; Pena Diaz, Javier; Kavli, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    Uracil is present in small amounts in DNA due to spontaneous deamination of cytosine and incorporation of dUMP during replication. While deamination generates mutagenic U:G mismatches, incorporated dUMP results in U:A pairs that are not directly mutagenic, but may be cytotoxic. In most cells, mut...... retroviral infections. Ung(-/-) mice have a similar phenotype and develop B-cell lymphomas late in life. However, there is no evidence indicating that UNG deficiency causes lymphomas in humans....

  5. Genome-Wide Locations of Potential Epimutations Associated with Environmentally Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease Using a Sequential Machine Learning Prediction Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Muksitul Haque

    Full Text Available Environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation involves germline transmitted epimutations. The primary epimutations identified involve altered differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs. Different environmental toxicants have been shown to promote exposure (i.e., toxicant specific signatures of germline epimutations. Analysis of genomic features associated with these epimutations identified low-density CpG regions (<3 CpG / 100bp termed CpG deserts and a number of unique DNA sequence motifs. The rat genome was annotated for these and additional relevant features. The objective of the current study was to use a machine learning computational approach to predict all potential epimutations in the genome. A number of previously identified sperm epimutations were used as training sets. A novel machine learning approach using a sequential combination of Active Learning and Imbalance Class Learner analysis was developed. The transgenerational sperm epimutation analysis identified approximately 50K individual sites with a 1 kb mean size and 3,233 regions that had a minimum of three adjacent sites with a mean size of 3.5 kb. A select number of the most relevant genomic features were identified with the low density CpG deserts being a critical genomic feature of the features selected. A similar independent analysis with transgenerational somatic cell epimutation training sets identified a smaller number of 1,503 regions of genome-wide predicted sites and differences in genomic feature contributions. The predicted genome-wide germline (sperm epimutations were found to be distinct from the predicted somatic cell epimutations. Validation of the genome-wide germline predicted sites used two recently identified transgenerational sperm epimutation signature sets from the pesticides dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and methoxychlor (MXC exposure lineage F3 generation. Analysis of this positive validation

  6. Inheritance of leukemia in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao

    1991-01-01

    Since Gardner et al. reported an increased incidence of leukemia among children of workers of a nuclear reactor in Sellafield, UK, there have been a number of discussions on the possibility of increased incidence of leukemia among children born from parents exposed to radiation or chemical agents. In this present paper, apart from the leukemia incidence in children from atomic bomb survivors which was discussed by Dr. Yoshimoto, familial leukemia, i.e., a cluster of leukemia among family members within four genetic relations, was discussed with special reference to the age distribution, type of leukemia and consanguinity. Leukemia in twin and leukemias in individuals with congenital anomalies with or without chromosome abnormalities were also discussed. (author)

  7. Using a minigene approach to characterize a novel splice site mutation in human F7 gene causing inherited factor VII deficiency in a Chinese pedigree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wang, X; Ding, Q; Fu, Q; Dai, J; Lu, Y; Xi, X; Wang, H

    2009-11-01

    Factor VII deficiency which transmitted as an autosomal recessive disorder is a rare haemorrhagic condition. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular genetic defect and determine its functional consequences in a Chinese pedigree with FVII deficiency. The proband was diagnosed as inherited coagulation FVII deficiency by reduced plasma levels of FVII activity (4.4%) and antigen (38.5%). All nine exons and their flanking sequence of F7 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the proband and the PCR products were directly sequenced. The compound heterozygous mutations of F7 (NM_000131.3) c.572-1G>A and F7 (NM_000131.3) c.1165T>G; p.Cys389Gly were identified in the proband's F7 gene. To investigate the splicing patterns associated with F7 c.572-1G>A, ectopic transcripts in leucocytes of the proband were analyzed. F7 minigenes, spanning from intron 4 to intron 7 and carrying either an A or a G at position -1 of intron 5, were constructed and transiently transfected into human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, followed by RT-PCR analysis. The aberrant transcripts from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele were not detected by ectopic transcription study. Sequencing of the RT-PCR products from the mutant transfectant demonstrated the production of an erroneously spliced mRNA with exon 6 skipping, whereas a normal splicing occurred in the wide type transfectant. The aberrant mRNA produced from the F7 c.572-1G>A mutant allele is responsible for the factor VII deficiency in this pedigree.

  8. Polycystins, calcium signaling, and human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, Patrick; Padilla, Francoise; Osorio, Nancy; Coste, Bertrand; Raoux, Matthieu; Crest, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a major, inherited nephropathy affecting over 1:1000 of the worldwide population. It is a systemic condition with frequent hepatic and cardiovascular manifestations in addition to the progressive development of fluid-filled cysts from the tubules and collecting ducts of affected kidneys. The pathogenesis of cyst formation is currently thought to involve increased proliferation of epithelial cells, mild dedifferentiation, and fluid accumulation. In the past decade, study of ADPKD led to the discovery of a unique family of highly complex proteins, the polycystins. Loss-of-function mutations in either of two polycystin proteins, polycystin-1 or polycystin-2, give rise to ADPKD. These proteins are thought to function together as part of a multiprotein complex that may initiate Ca 2+ signals, directing attention to the regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ as a possible misstep that participates in cyst formation. Here we review what is known about the Ca 2+ signaling functions of polycystin proteins and focus on findings that have significantly advanced our physiological insight. Special attention is paid to the recently discovered role of these proteins in the mechanotransduction of the renal primary cilium and the model it suggests

  9. Disease modeling using human induced pluripotent stem cells: lessons from the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieseck, Richard L; Colquhoun, Jennifer; Hannan, Nicholas R F

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have the capacity to differentiate into any of the hundreds of distinct cell types that comprise the human body. This unique characteristic has resulted in considerable interest in the field of regenerative medicine, given the potential for these cells to be used to protect, repair, or replace diseased, injured, and aged cells within the human body. In addition to their potential in therapeutics, hPSCs can be used to study the earliest stages of human development and to provide a platform for both drug screening and disease modeling using human cells. Recently, the description of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) has allowed the field of disease modeling to become far more accessible and physiologically relevant, as pluripotent cells can be generated from patients of any genetic background. Disease models derived from hIPSCs that manifest cellular disease phenotypes have been established to study several monogenic diseases; furthermore, hIPSCs can be used for phenotype-based drug screens to investigate complex diseases for which the underlying genetic mechanism is unknown. As a result, the use of stem cells as research tools has seen an unprecedented growth within the last decade as researchers look for in vitro disease models which closely mimic in vivo responses in humans. Here, we discuss the beginnings of hPSCs, starting with isolation of human embryonic stem cells, moving into the development and optimization of hIPSC technology, and ending with the application of hIPSCs towards disease modeling and drug screening applications, with specific examples highlighting the modeling of inherited metabolic disorders of the liver. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Legal Position and Factual Situation of Women Participation to Inheritance in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    LL.M. Egzonis Hajdari

    2014-01-01

    The right to inheritance represents one of the basic human rights. As such this right is regulated by the law. The Law on Inheritance in Kosovo regulates substantially, all the issues related to inheritance. In this context, this Law contains numerous rules that proclaim full equality of women with men to inheritance. Regardless of equality proclaimed by law practical reality of life indicates a different situation. This reality proves that women participation to inheritance nevertheless ...

  11. Defining the Human Macula Transcriptome and Candidate Retinal Disease Genes UsingEyeSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Ebright, Jessica N.; Zavodni, Zachary J.; Yu, Ling; Wang, Tianyuan; Daiger, Stephen P.; Wistow, Graeme; Boon, Kathy; Hauser, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop large-scale, high-throughput annotation of the human macula transcriptome and to identify and prioritize candidate genes for inherited retinal dystrophies, based on ocular-expression profiles using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Methods Two human retina and two retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid SAGE libraries made from matched macula or midperipheral retina and adjacent RPE/choroid of morphologically normal 28- to 66-year-old donors and a human central retina longSAGE library made from 41- to 66-year-old donors were generated. Their transcription profiles were entered into a relational database, EyeSAGE, including microarray expression profiles of retina and publicly available normal human tissue SAGE libraries. EyeSAGE was used to identify retina- and RPE-specific and -associated genes, and candidate genes for retina and RPE disease loci. Differential and/or cell-type specific expression was validated by quantitative and single-cell RT-PCR. Results Cone photoreceptor-associated gene expression was elevated in the macula transcription profiles. Analysis of the longSAGE retina tags enhanced tag-to-gene mapping and revealed alternatively spliced genes. Analysis of candidate gene expression tables for the identified Bardet-Biedl syndrome disease gene (BBS5) in the BBS5 disease region table yielded BBS5 as the top candidate. Compelling candidates for inherited retina diseases were identified. Conclusions The EyeSAGE database, combining three different gene-profiling platforms including the authors’ multidonor-derived retina/RPE SAGE libraries and existing single-donor retina/RPE libraries, is a powerful resource for definition of the retina and RPE transcriptomes. It can be used to identify retina-specific genes, including alternatively spliced transcripts and to prioritize candidate genes within mapped retinal disease regions. PMID:16723438

  12. Human Induced Pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives for disease modeling and therapeutic applications in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, C.; Hall, V.; Freude, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have recently been generated for various inherited diseases. These hiPSC have the capacity to differentiate into any given cell type withthe help of small compounds and growth factors aiding the process. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) several specific...... neural subpopulations in the brain are more susceptible to degeneration and apoptosis and hiPSCs can be used in order to generate these subpopulations in cell culture dishes via directed differentiation. Subsequently these cells can be used to optimize small compound screens to identify novel drug......, followed by a description of the methods used to generate isogenic controls. We will also discuss the possibilities and limitations of current neural differentiation protocols for AD to obtain relevant neuronal subtypes. In the end we will elaborate on the possibilities and current issues of hiPSC for cell...

  13. [Diseases transmitted through water for human consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Dentamaro, M

    2003-01-01

    The water for human consumption maintains a biological risk and can transmit diseases. The classical waterborne and the presently frequent diseases caused by protozoi Giardia and Cryptosporidium are considered and Arcobacter butzleri, a new waterborne pathogen, is described. Many measures have been adopted by institutions to ensure the quality of the drinking water. Managers and public health operators is working in order to verify the efficiency of more suitable indicators for its monitoring.

  14. Modeling human disease using organotypic cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiger, Pawel J; Jensen, Kim B

    2016-01-01

    animal models and in vitro cell culture systems. However, it has been exceedingly difficult to model disease at the tissue level. Since recently, the gap between cell line studies and in vivo modeling has been narrowing thanks to progress in biomaterials and stem cell research. Development of reliable 3D...... culture systems has enabled a rapid expansion of sophisticated in vitro models. Here we focus on some of the latest advances and future perspectives in 3D organoids for human disease modeling....

  15. A PGC-1α- and muscle fibre type-related decrease in markers of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle of humans with inherited insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Skov, Vibe; Petersson, Stine Juhl

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes is related to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial oxidative metabolism is impaired in muscle of patients with inherited insulin resistance and defective...

  16. Mouse Chromosome Engineering for Modeling Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weyden, Louise; Bradley, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur frequently in humans and can be disease-associated or phenotypically neutral. Recent technological advances have led to the discovery of copy-number changes previously undetected by cytogenetic techniques. To understand the genetic consequences of such genomic changes, these mutations need to be modeled in experimentally tractable systems. The mouse is an excellent organism for this analysis because of its biological and genetic similarity to humans, and the e...

  17. Genetic engineering and therapy for inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Sharlene; Davis, Jennifer; Westfall, Margaret; Metzger, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac myofilaments consist of a highly ordered assembly of proteins that collectively generate force in a calcium-dependent manner. Defects in myofilament function and its regulation have been implicated in various forms of acquired and inherited human heart disease. For example, during cardiac ischemia, cardiac myocyte contractile performance is dramatically downregulated due in part to a reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium under acidic pH conditions. Over the last several years, the thin filament regulatory protein, troponin I, has been identified as an important mediator of this response. Mutations in troponin I and other sarcomere genes are also linked to several distinct inherited cardiomyopathic phenotypes, including hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathies. With the cardiac sarcomere emerging as a central player for such a diverse array of human heart diseases, genetic-based strategies that target the myofilament will likely have broad therapeutic potential. The development of safe vector systems for efficient gene delivery will be a critical hurdle to overcome before these types of therapies can be successfully applied. Nonetheless, studies focusing on the principles of acute genetic engineering of the sarcomere hold value as they lay the essential foundation on which to build potential gene-based therapies for heart disease.

  18. Transgenic mice expressing human glucocerebrosidase variants: utility for the study of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Angela; Hemmelgarn, Harmony; Melrose, Heather L; Hein, Leanne; Fuller, Maria; Clarke, Lorne A

    2013-08-01

    Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessively inherited storage disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase, acid β-glucosidase. The disease manifestations seen in Gaucher patients are highly heterogeneous as is the responsiveness to therapy. The elucidation of the precise factors responsible for this heterogeneity has been challenging as the development of clinically relevant animal models of Gaucher disease has been problematic. Although numerous murine models for Gaucher disease have been described each has limitations in their specific utility. We describe here, transgenic murine models of Gaucher disease that will be particularly useful for the study of pharmacological chaperones. We have produced stable transgenic mouse strains that individually express wild type, N370S and L444P containing human acid β-glucosidase and show that each of these transgenic lines rescues the lethal phenotype characteristic of acid β-glucosidase null mice. Both the N370S and L444P transgenic models show early and progressive elevations of tissue sphingolipids with L444P mice developing progressive splenic Gaucher cell infiltration. We demonstrate the potential utility of these new transgenic models for the study of Gaucher disease pathogenesis. In addition, since these mice produce only human enzyme, they are particularly relevant for the study of pharmacological chaperones that are specifically targeted to human acid β-glucosidase and the common mutations underlying Gaucher disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  20. Primatology. Human diseases threaten great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, D

    2000-08-25

    Researchers are uncovering disturbing evidence that scientists and tourists are infecting wild primates with human pathogens. In response, ape specialists, including the American Society of Primatologists, are now calling for stricter health standards for researchers and tourists. They are also urging researchers to learn how to diagnose disease in their study animals.

  1. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  2. Emerging arboviral human diseases in Southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Southern Europe is characterized by unique landscape and climate which attract tourists, but also arthropod vectors, some of them carrying pathogens. Among several arboviral diseases that emerged in the region during the last decade, West Nile fever accounted for high number of human cases and fatalities, while Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever expanded its geographic distribution, and is considered as a real threat for Europe. Viruses evolve rapidly and acquire mutations making themselves stronger and naive populations more vulnerable. In an effort to tackle efficiently the emerging arboviral diseases, preparedness and strategic surveillance are needed for the early detection of the pathogen and containment and mitigation of probable outbreaks. In this review, the main human arboviral diseases that emerged in Southern Europe are described. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in human evolution and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D C

    1994-09-13

    Germ-line and somatic mtDNA mutations are hypothesized to act together to shape our history and our health. Germ-line mtDNA mutations, both ancient and recent, have been associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. Mildly to moderately deleterious germ-line mutations, like neutral polymorphisms, have become established in the distant past through genetic drift but now may predispose certain individuals to late-onset degenerative diseases. As an example, a homoplasmic, Caucasian, tRNA(Gln) mutation at nucleotide pair (np) 4336 has been observed in 5% of Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease patients and may contribute to the multifactorial etiology of these diseases. Moderately to severely deleterious germ-line mutations, on the other hand, appear repeatedly but are eliminated by selection. Hence, all extant mutations of this class are recent and associated with more devastating diseases of young adults and children. Representative of these mutations is a heteroplasmic mutation in MTND6 at np 14459 whose clinical presentations range from adult-onset blindness to pediatric dystonia and basal ganglial degeneration. To the inherited mutations are added somatic mtDNA mutations which accumulate in random arrays within stable tissues. These mutations provide a molecular clock that measures our age and may cause a progressive decline in tissue energy output that could precipitate the onset of degenerative diseases in individuals harboring inherited deleterious mutations.

  4. Human endogenous retroviruses in neurologic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses are pathogenic - in other species than the human. Disease associations for Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs) are emerging, but so far an unequivocal pathogenetic cause-effect relationship has not been established. A role for HERVs has been proposed in neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases as diverse as multiple sclerosis (MS) and schizophrenia (SCZ). Particularly for MS, many aspects of the activation and involvement of specific HERV families (HERV-H/F and HERV-W/MSRV) have been reported, both for cells in the circulation and in the central nervous system. Notably envelope genes and their gene products (Envs) appear strongly associated with the disease. For SCZ, for ALS, and for HIV-associated dementia (HAD), indications are accumulating for involvement of the HERV-K family, and also HERV-H/F and/or HERV-W. Activation is reasonably a prerequisite for causality as most HERV sequences remain quiescent in non-pathological conditions, so the importance of regulatory pathways and epigenetics involved in regulating HERV activation, derepression, and also involvement of retroviral restriction factors, is emerging. HERV-directed antiretrovirals have potential as novel therapeutic paradigms in neurologic disease, particularly in MS. The possible protective or ameliorative effects of antiretroviral therapy in MS are substantiated by reports that treatment of HIV infection may be associated with a significantly decreased risk of MS. Further studies of HERVs, their role in neurologic diseases, and their potential as therapeutic targets are essential. © 2016 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  6. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.A. Bijvoet (Agnes); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); H. van Hirtum (Hans); M.A. Kroos (Marian); E.H. van de Kamp; O. Schoneveld; P. Visser (Pim); J.P. Brakenhoff (Just); M. Weggeman (Miranda); E.J.J.M. van Corven (Emiel); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal

  7. The nuclear envelopathies and human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The nuclear envelope (NE consists of two membrane layers that segregate the nuclear from the cytoplasmic contents. Recent progress in our understanding of nuclear-lamina associated diseases has revealed intriguing connections between the envelope components and nuclear processes. Here, we review the functions of the nuclear envelope in chromosome organization, gene expression, DNA repair and cell cycle progression, and correlate deficiencies in envelope function with human pathologies.

  8. Humanized Mouse Model of Ebola Virus Disease Mimics the Immune Responses in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Brian H; Spengler, Jessica R; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Khristova, Marina L; Sealy, Tara K; Coleman-McCray, JoAnn D; Martin, Brock E; Dodd, Kimberly A; Goldsmith, Cynthia S; Sanders, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-03-01

    Animal models recapitulating human Ebola virus disease (EVD) are critical for insights into virus pathogenesis. Ebola virus (EBOV) isolates derived directly from human specimens do not, without adaptation, cause disease in immunocompetent adult rodents. Here, we describe EVD in mice engrafted with human immune cells (hu-BLT). hu-BLT mice developed EVD following wild-type EBOV infection. Infection with high-dose EBOV resulted in rapid, lethal EVD with high viral loads, alterations in key human antiviral immune cytokines and chemokines, and severe histopathologic findings similar to those shown in the limited human postmortem data available. A dose- and donor-dependent clinical course was observed in hu-BLT mice infected with lower doses of either Mayinga (1976) or Makona (2014) isolates derived from human EBOV cases. Engraftment of the human cellular immune system appeared to be essential for the observed virulence, as nonengrafted mice did not support productive EBOV replication or develop lethal disease. hu-BLT mice offer a unique model for investigating the human immune response in EVD and an alternative animal model for EVD pathogenesis studies and therapeutic screening. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  9. The role of chemerin in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Stojek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is not merely a storage depot of triacylglycerols but also a major endocrine organ. Its cells, including adipocytes, synthesize and secrete a range of biologically active molecules termed adipokines. Adipokines that display the properties of cytokines are often called adipocytokines. In recent years there has been increasing interest in a new adipokine called chemerin. Chemerin is a protein synthesized mostly by the adipose tissue and the liver as inactive pre-pro-chemerin. After the intracellular hydrolytic cutting off of the 20-amino-acid N-terminal polypeptide, it is secreted into the bloodstream as inactive pro-chemerin. Biologically active chemerin is then derived from pro-chemerin after cleavage of the C-terminal fragment by serum proteases involved in inflammation, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Proteolytic cleavage leads to formation of several chemerin-derived peptides, both biologically active (often with opposing functions and inactive.Within the last decade, there has been a growing number of publications regarding the role of chemerin in human disease. It seems to be implicated in the inflammatory response, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and alimentary tract disorders. The article presents the most recent information on the role of chemerin in human disease, and specifically alimentary tract disorders. The available evidence suggests that chemerin is an important link between adipose tissue mass, metabolic processes, the immune system and inflammation, and therefore plays a major role in human pathophysiology.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: CLN10 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundation CLIMB: Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases March of Dimes: Neonatal Death The ... Sources for This Page Anderson GW, Goebel HH, Simonati A. Human pathology in NCL. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Nov;1832( ...

  11. Insect Peptides - Perspectives in Human Diseases Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowanski, Szymon; Adamski, Zbigniew; Lubawy, Jan; Marciniak, Pawel; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Slocinska, Malgorzata; Spochacz, Marta; Szymczak, Monika; Urbanski, Arkadiusz; Walkowiak-Nowicka, Karolina; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Insects are the largest and the most widely distributed group of animals in the world. Their diversity is a source of incredible variety of different mechanisms of life processes regulation. There are many agents that regulate immunology, reproduction, growth and development or metabolism. Hence, it seems that insects may be a source of numerous substances useful in human diseases treatment. Especially important in the regulation of insect physiology are peptides, like neuropeptides, peptide hormones or antimicrobial peptides. There are two main aspects where they can be helpful, 1) Peptides isolated from insects may become potential drugs in therapy of different diseases, 2) A lot of insect peptide hormones show structural or functional homology to mammalian peptide hormones and the comparative studies may give a new look on human disorders. In our review we focused on three group of insect derived peptides: 1) immune-active peptides, 2) peptide hormones and 3) peptides present in venoms. In our review we try to show the considerable potential of insect peptides in searching for new solutions for mammalian diseases treatment. We summarise the knowledge about properties of insect peptides against different virulent agents, anti-inflammatory or anti-nociceptive properties as well as compare insect and mammalian/vertebrate peptide endocrine system to indicate usefulness of knowledge about insect peptide hormones in drug design. The field of possible using of insect delivered peptide to therapy of various human diseases is still not sufficiently explored. Undoubtedly, more attention should be paid to insects due to searching new drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Mice, humans and haplotypes--the hunt for disease genes in SLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, R J; Fernando, M M A; Vyse, T J

    2006-09-01

    Defining the polymorphisms that contribute to the development of complex genetic disease traits is a challenging, although increasingly tractable problem. Historically, the technical difficulties in conducting association studies across the entire human genome are such that murine models have been used to generate candidate genes for analysis in human complex diseases, such as SLE. In this article we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach and specifically address some assumptions made in the transition from studying one species to another, using lupus as an example. These issues include differences in genetic structure and genetic organisation which are a reflection on the population history. Clearly there are major differences in the histories of the human population and inbred laboratory strains of mice. Both human and murine genomes do exhibit structure at the genetic level. That is to say, they comprise haplotypes which are genomic regions that carry runs of polymorphisms that are not independently inherited. Haplotypes therefore reduce the number of combinations of the polymorphisms in the DNA in that region and facilitate the identification of disease susceptibility genes in both mice and humans. There are now novel means of generating candidate genes in SLE using mutagenesis (with ENU) in mice and identifying mice that generate antinuclear autoimmunity. In addition, murine models still provide a valuable means of exploring the functional consequences of genetic variation. However, advances in technology are such that human geneticists can now screen large fractions of the human genome for disease associations using microchip technologies that provide information on upwards of 100,000 different polymorphisms. These approaches are aimed at identifying haplotypes that carry disease susceptibility mutations and rely less on the generation of candidate genes.

  13. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  14. Endangered species: mitochondrial DNA loss as a mechanism of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Alan; Garcia, Iraselia; Gaytan, Norma; Jones, Edith; Maldonado, Alicia; Gilkerson, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small maternally inherited DNA, typically present in hundreds of copies in a single human cell. Thus, despite its small size, the mitochondrial genome plays a crucial role in the metabolic homeostasis of the cell. Our understanding of mtDNA genotype-phenotype relationships is derived largely from studies of the classical mitochondrial neuromuscular diseases, in which mutations of mtDNA lead to compromised mitochondrial bioenergetic function, with devastating pathological consequences. Emerging research suggests that loss, rather than mutation, of mtDNA plays a major role across a range of prevalent human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and aging. Here, we examine the 'rules' of mitochondrial genetics and function, the clinical settings in which loss of mtDNA is an emerging pathogenic mechanism, and explore mtDNA damage and its consequences for the organellar network and cell at large. As extranuclear genetic material arrayed throughout the cell to support metabolism, mtDNA is increasingly implicated in a host of disease conditions, opening a range of exciting questions regarding mtDNA and its role in cellular homeostasis.

  15. The anti-inflammatory peptide stearyl-norleucine-VIP delays disease onset and extends survival in a rat model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goursaud, Stéphanie; Schäfer, Sabrina; Dumont, Amélie O; Vergouts, Maxime; Gallo, Alessandro; Desmet, Nathalie; Deumens, Ronald; Hermans, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has potent immune modulatory actions that may influence the course of neurodegenerative disorders associated with chronic inflammation. Here, we show the therapeutic benefits of a modified peptide agonist stearyl-norleucine-VIP (SNV) in a transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (mutated superoxide dismutase 1, hSOD1(G93A)). When administered by systemic every-other-day intraperitoneal injections during a period of 80 days before disease, SNV delayed the onset of motor dysfunction by no less than three weeks, while survival was extended by nearly two months. SNV-treated rats showed reduced astro- and microgliosis in the lumbar ventral spinal cord and a significant degree of motor neuron preservation. Throughout the treatment, SNV promoted the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 as well as neurotrophic factors commonly considered as beneficial in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis management (glial derived neuroptrophic factor, insulin like growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor). The peptide nearly totally suppressed the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and repressed the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators interleukin-1β, nitric oxide and of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α likely accounted for the observed down-regulation of nuclear factor kappa B that modulates the transcription of genes specifically involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sod1 and the glutamate transporter slc1a2). In line with this, levels of human superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA and protein were decreased by SNV treatment, while the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter-1 was promoted. Considering the large diversity of influences of this peptide on both clinical features of the disease and associated biochemical markers, we propose that SNV or related peptides may constitute promising candidates for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

  16. Finding aroma clues in the human breath to diagnose diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson

    2016-01-01

    History of human odor analysis in disease diagnosis The use of the sense of smell as an indicator of human disease probably originated with Hippocrates (circa 400 BC). Early medical practitioners recognized that the presence of human diseases changed the odors released from the body and breath. Physicians once relied heavily on their sense of smell to provide useful...

  17. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  18. Holistic approach to human health and disease: life circumstances and inner processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Human body is dinamic, energetic system under the influences of food intake, environment, interpersonal relationships, inheritance, culture and human activities. The environmental and psychosocioeconomic factors affect the individual's health altering the performance of biological systems effecting disease risk and disease progression. The concerns in modern society are more and more devoted to stress and its influences on health. Life span is extended but the quality of life, well-being and productivity usually do not follow that extention. Body is a flow of energy and dynamic communications with inside and outside environment. The way to improve health is to address its social determinants. Only in sinergy the questions about disease and health could be better understood. It is not enough to diagnose illness, important is to diagnose circumstances and environmental influences that consequently lead to disease. Emotional disruptions make base for physical disruptions. Social gradient and stress involving personal life and work is a significant factor in physical and mental illness. The best indicator of the successful social policy result is the sense of well-being of the inhabitants. Holistic approach to a patient and discussions about the influences in patient's life can lead to a better health outcome. Anthropology studies people's habits, means and conditions of life and can be the bridge between the medicine and the life circumstances that put people's health at risk providing important insights into health and disease and assist in public health policies, preventive measures and health improvement of the populations.

  19. Linking human diseases to animal models using ontology-based phenotype annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Washington

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientists and clinicians who study genetic alterations and disease have traditionally described phenotypes in natural language. The considerable variation in these free-text descriptions has posed a hindrance to the important task of identifying candidate genes and models for human diseases and indicates the need for a computationally tractable method to mine data resources for mutant phenotypes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that ontological annotation of disease phenotypes will facilitate the discovery of new genotype-phenotype relationships within and across species. To describe phenotypes using ontologies, we used an Entity-Quality (EQ methodology, wherein the affected entity (E and how it is affected (Q are recorded using terms from a variety of ontologies. Using this EQ method, we annotated the phenotypes of 11 gene-linked human diseases described in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM. These human annotations were loaded into our Ontology-Based Database (OBD along with other ontology-based phenotype descriptions of mutants from various model organism databases. Phenotypes recorded with this EQ method can be computationally compared based on the hierarchy of terms in the ontologies and the frequency of annotation. We utilized four similarity metrics to compare phenotypes and developed an ontology of homologous and analogous anatomical structures to compare phenotypes between species. Using these tools, we demonstrate that we can identify, through the similarity of the recorded phenotypes, other alleles of the same gene, other members of a signaling pathway, and orthologous genes and pathway members across species. We conclude that EQ-based annotation of phenotypes, in conjunction with a cross-species ontology, and a variety of similarity metrics can identify biologically meaningful similarities between genes by comparing phenotypes alone. This annotation and search method provides a novel and efficient means to identify

  20. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  1. Compiler generation based on grammar inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Mostert, Rene; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of grammar inheritance is introduced. Grammar inheritance is a structural organization of grammar rules by which a grammar inherits rules from ancestor grammars or may have its own rules inherited by descendant grammars. Grammar inheritance supports reusability and extensibility of

  2. The human prion diseases. A review with special emphasis on new variant CJD and comments on surveillance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keohane, C

    2012-02-03

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases represent a new group of diseases with unique clinical and neuropathological features, the transmission of which is both genetic and infectious. The responsible agent is unconventional and appears to be largely composed of a glycoprotein, the prion protein PrP. This is normally present on different cells. In prion diseases, it becomes converted to the pathogenic form PrPres which is resistant to proteinase and accumulates within the brain and this process is accompanied by the development of spongiform change, gliosis and neuronal loss. The human prion diseases include Kuru a progressive cerebellar degeneration with late dementia affecting Fore tribes in New-Guinea, now almost extinct, regarded as being related to cannibalism. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is the more frequent human prion disease. Its incidence is approximately one case per million per year. Four variants are now recognized: sporadic, familial, iatrogenic and the new variant. The latter represents a distinct clinico-pathological entity. It is now widely accepted that it is due to the same agent responsible for Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy in cattle. Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease is a very rare inherited disorder due to a number of different mutations in the PRP gene, characterized by abundant deposits of plaque PrPres in the cerebral grey matter. Fatal familial insomnia is another inherited disorder due to a mutation at codon 178 of the PRP gene associated with methionine on codon 129 of the mutant allele. The main neuropathological change is neuronal loss in the thalamus with little or no spongiosis and usually no PrPres deposition. Following the emergence of new variant CJD in 1996, surveillance of all forms of prion diseases has been now been actively introduced in many European nations in order to determine the true incidence and geographic distribution of these rare disorders in humans.

  3. Most of rare missense alleles in humans are deleterious:implications for evolution of complex disease and associationstudies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryukov, Gregory V.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.

    2006-10-24

    The accumulation of mildly deleterious missense mutations inindividual human genomes has been proposed to be a genetic basis forcomplex diseases. The plausibility of this hypothesis depends onquantitative estimates of the prevalence of mildly deleterious de novomutations and polymorphic variants in humans and on the intensity ofselective pressure against them. We combined analysis of mutationscausing human Mendelian diseases, human-chimpanzee divergence andsystematic data on human SNPs and found that about 20 percent of newmissense mutations in humans result in a loss of function, while about 27percent are effectively neutral. Thus, more than half of new missensemutations have mildly deleterious effects. These mutations give rise tomany low frequency deleterious allelic variants in the human populationas evident from a new dataset of 37 genes sequenced in over 1,500individual human chromosomes. Surprisingly, up to 70 percent of lowfrequency missense alleles are mildly deleterious and associated with aheterozygous fitness loss in the range 0.001-0.003. Thus, the low allelefrequency of an amino acid variant can by itself serve as a predictor ofits functional significance. Several recent studies have reported asignificant excess of rare missense variants in disease populationscompared to controls in candidate genes or pathways. These studies wouldbe unlikely to work if most rare variants were neutral or if rarevariants were not a significant contributor to the genetic component ofphenotypic inheritance. Our results provide a justification for thesetypes of candidate gene (pathway) association studies and imply thatmutation-selection balance may be a feasible mechanism for evolution ofsome common diseases.

  4. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A; Ong, Albert C M; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at initiation of treatment with evidence of rapidly progressing disease. In this paper, on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups of Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice, we aim to provide guidance for making the decision as to which ADPKD patients to treat with tolvaptan. The present position statement includes a series of recommendations resulting in a hierarchical decision algorithm that encompasses a sequence of risk-factor assessments in a descending order of reliability. By examining the best-validated markers first, we aim to identify ADPKD patients who have documented rapid disease progression or are likely to have rapid disease progression. We believe that this procedure offers the best opportunity to select patients who are most likely to benefit from tolvaptan, thus improving the benefit-to-risk ratio and cost-effectiveness of this treatment. It is important to emphasize that the decision to initiate treatment requires the consideration of many factors besides eligibility, such as contraindications, potential adverse events, as well as patient motivation and lifestyle factors, and requires shared decision-making with the patient. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  5. Does Customary Law Discriminate Balinese Women’s Inheritance Rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Christine Ndun

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a stereotype with regard to the rights of the Balinese women on inheriting under the Balinese tradi-tional customary law. It is generally assumed that the law discriminates Balinese women as well as against the human rights principle of equality. This article analyzes the contemporary problems of such issue and would demonstrate the actual principles, rules and practices, including the essential concept of the rights under the Balinese traditional customary law of inheritance. This issue has been explored under a normative legal approach where the resources are primarily taken from the relevant national legal instruments and court decisions, instead of textbooks and journals. An interview has also been commenced for clarifying some aspects of the issue. This article concludes that there has been a generally misleading on viewing the Balinese customary law as discriminating women on an inheritance issue, as in fact, the law also provides rules for supporting women’s rights for inheriting. The law in a certain way has properly preserved the right of women for inheriting in which women under the law have also enjoyed rights for inheriting, especially the daughter and widow. In contrast, the Balinese men that are generally perceived as the ultimate gender enjoying privileges rights to inherit, in the practice of inheritance in the traditional community are also subject to some discrimination. The law has provided a set of rule of inheritance both for men and women where they are subject to certain equal rule and condition. The law also clarifies that both genders are enjoying equal rights on inheritance in a certain portion and situation binding under the principle of balancing between rights and obligation for each side.

  6. Polydactyly in Development, Inheritance, and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Axel; Müller, Gerd B

    2017-03-01

    The occurrence of supernumerary digits or toes in humans and other tetrapods has attracted general interest since antiquity and later influenced scientific theories of development, inheritance, and evolution. Seventeenth-century genealogical studies of polydactyly were at the beginning of an understanding of the rules of inheritance. Features of polydactyly were also part of the classical disputes on the nature of development, including the preformation-versus-epigenesis and the atavism-versus-malformation debates. In the evolutionary domain, polydactyly was used in the criticism of the gradualist account of variation underlying Darwin’s theory. Today, extra digit formation plays a role in the conceptualization of gene regulation and pattern formation in vertebrate limb evolution. Recent genetic, experimental, and modeling accounts of extra digit formation highlight the existence of nongradual transitions in phenotypic states, suggesting a distinction between continuous and discontinuous variation in evolution. Unless otherwise noted, all translations are our own.

  7. Role of Carbamylated Biomolecules in Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Asim; Arif, Zarina; Alam, Khursheed

    2018-04-01

    Carbamylation (or carbamoylation) is a non-enzymatic modification of biomolecules mediated by cyanate, a dissociation product of urea. Proteins are more sensitive to carbamylation. Two major sites of carbamylation reaction are: N α -amino moiety of a protein N-terminus and the N ɛ -amino moiety of proteins' lysine residues. In kidney diseases, urea accumulates and the burden of carbamylation increases. This may lead to alteration in the structure and function of many important proteins relevant in maintenance of homeostasis. Carbamylated proteins namely, carbamylated-haemoglobin and carbamylated-low density lipoprotein (LDL) have been implicated in hypoxia and atherosclerosis, respectively. Furthermore, carbamylation of insulin, oxytocin, and erythropoietin have caused changes in the action of these hormones vis-à-vis the metabolic pathways they control. In this short review, authors have compiled the data on role of carbamylated proteins, enzymes, hormones, LDL, and so on, in human diseases. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(4):267-275, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Identification of "pathologs" (disease-related genes from the RIKEN mouse cDNA dataset using human curation plus FACTS, a new biological information extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha Luis A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal in the post-genomic era is to identify and characterise disease susceptibility genes and to apply this knowledge to disease prevention and treatment. Rodents and humans have remarkably similar genomes and share closely related biochemical, physiological and pathological pathways. In this work we utilised the latest information on the mouse transcriptome as revealed by the RIKEN FANTOM2 project to identify novel human disease-related candidate genes. We define a new term "patholog" to mean a homolog of a human disease-related gene encoding a product (transcript, anti-sense or protein potentially relevant to disease. Rather than just focus on Mendelian inheritance, we applied the analysis to all potential pathologs regardless of their inheritance pattern. Results Bioinformatic analysis and human curation of 60,770 RIKEN full-length mouse cDNA clones produced 2,578 sequences that showed similarity (70–85% identity to known human-disease genes. Using a newly developed biological information extraction and annotation tool (FACTS in parallel with human expert analysis of 17,051 MEDLINE scientific abstracts we identified 182 novel potential pathologs. Of these, 36 were identified by computational tools only, 49 by human expert analysis only and 97 by both methods. These pathologs were related to neoplastic (53%, hereditary (24%, immunological (5%, cardio-vascular (4%, or other (14%, disorders. Conclusions Large scale genome projects continue to produce a vast amount of data with potential application to the study of human disease. For this potential to be realised we need intelligent strategies for data categorisation and the ability to link sequence data with relevant literature. This paper demonstrates the power of combining human expert annotation with FACTS, a newly developed bioinformatics tool, to identify novel pathologs from within large-scale mouse transcript datasets.

  9. Fractional populations in multiple gene inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myung-Hoon; Kim, Chul Koo; Nahm, Kyun

    2003-01-22

    With complete knowledge of the human genome sequence, one of the most interesting tasks remaining is to understand the functions of individual genes and how they communicate. Using the information about genes (locus, allele, mutation rate, fitness, etc.), we attempt to explain population demographic data. This population evolution study could complement and enhance biologists' understanding about genes. We present a general approach to study population genetics in complex situations. In the present approach, multiple allele inheritance, multiple loci inheritance, natural selection and mutations are allowed simultaneously in order to consider a more realistic situation. A simulation program is presented so that readers can readily carry out studies with their own parameters. It is shown that the multiplicity of the loci greatly affects the demographic results of fractional population ratios. Furthermore, the study indicates that some high infant mortality rates due to congenital anomalies can be attributed to multiple loci inheritance. The simulation program can be downloaded from http://won.hongik.ac.kr/~mhchung/index_files/yapop.htm. In order to run this program, one needs Visual Studio.NET platform, which can be downloaded from http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/downloads/default.asp.

  10. Analogs of human genetic skin disease in domesticated animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Finch, MD

    2017-09-01

    The genetic skin diseases we will review are pigmentary mosaicism, piebaldism, albinism, Griscelli syndrome, ectodermal dysplasias, Waardenburg syndrome, and mucinosis in both humans and domesticated animals.

  11. Analysis of the robustness of network-based disease-gene prioritization methods reveals redundancy in the human interactome and functional diversity of disease-genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Guney

    Full Text Available Complex biological systems usually pose a trade-off between robustness and fragility where a small number of perturbations can substantially disrupt the system. Although biological systems are robust against changes in many external and internal conditions, even a single mutation can perturb the system substantially, giving rise to a pathophenotype. Recent advances in identifying and analyzing the sequential variations beneath human disorders help to comprehend a systemic view of the mechanisms underlying various disease phenotypes. Network-based disease-gene prioritization methods rank the relevance of genes in a disease under the hypothesis that genes whose proteins interact with each other tend to exhibit similar phenotypes. In this study, we have tested the robustness of several network-based disease-gene prioritization methods with respect to the perturbations of the system using various disease phenotypes from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database. These perturbations have been introduced either in the protein-protein interaction network or in the set of known disease-gene associations. As the network-based disease-gene prioritization methods are based on the connectivity between known disease-gene associations, we have further used these methods to categorize the pathophenotypes with respect to the recoverability of hidden disease-genes. Our results have suggested that, in general, disease-genes are connected through multiple paths in the human interactome. Moreover, even when these paths are disturbed, network-based prioritization can reveal hidden disease-gene associations in some pathophenotypes such as breast cancer, cardiomyopathy, diabetes, leukemia, parkinson disease and obesity to a greater extend compared to the rest of the pathophenotypes tested in this study. Gene Ontology (GO analysis highlighted the role of functional diversity for such diseases.

  12. Inherited leukoencephalopathies with clinical onset in middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannucci, Serena; Donnini, Ida; Pantoni, Leonardo

    2014-12-15

    The currently widespread use of neuroimaging has led neurologists to often face the problem of the differential diagnosis of white matter diseases. There are various forms of leukoencephalopathies (vascular, inflammatory and immunomediated, infectious, metabolic, neoplastic) and sometimes white matter lesions are expression of a genetic disease. While many inherited leukoencephalopathies fall in the child neurologist's interest, others may have a delayed or even a typical onset in the middle or old age. This field is rapidly growing and, in the last few years, many new inherited white matter diseases have been described and genetically defined. A non-delayed recognition of middle and old age inherited leukoencephalopathies appears important to avoid unnecessary tests and therapies in the patient and to possibly anticipate the diagnosis in relatives. The aim of this review is to provide a guide to direct the diagnostic process when facing a patient with a suspicion of an inherited form of leukoencephalopathy and with clinical onset in middle or old age. Based on a MEDLINE search from 1990 to 2013, we identified 24 middle and old age onset inherited leukoencephalopathies and reviewed in this relation the most recent findings focusing on their differential diagnosis. We provide summary tables to use as a check list of clinical and neuroimaging findings that are most commonly associated with these forms of leukoencephalopathies. When present, we reported specific characteristics of single diseases. Several genetic diseases may be suspected in patients with middle or old age and white matter abnormalities. In only few instances, pathognomonic clinical or associated neuroimaging features help identifying a specific disease. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge of the characteristics of these inherited white matter diseases appears important to improve the diagnostic work-up, optimize the choice of genetic tests, increase the number of diagnosed patients, and stimulate

  13. Application of an Image Cytometry Protocol for Cellular and Mitochondrial Phenotyping on Fibroblasts from Patients with Inherited Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula; Lund, Martin; Corydon, T J

    2015-01-01

    Cellular phenotyping of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) from patients with inherited diseases provides invaluable information for diagnosis, disease aetiology, prognosis and assessing of treatment options. Here we present a cell phenotyping protocol using image cytometry that combines measurements...... on a parallel one. We analysed HDFs from healthy individuals after treatment with various concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for different intervals, to mimic the physiological effects of oxidative stress. Our results show that cell number, viability, TRS and MMP decreased, while MSL increased both...... in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. To assess the use of our protocol for analysis of HDFs from patients with inherited diseases, we analysed HDFs from two patients with very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD), one with a severe clinical phenotype and one with a mild...

  14. The inheritance of groin hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, J; Pommergaard, H C; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Groin hernia has been proposed to be hereditary; however, a clear hereditary pattern has not been established yet. The purpose of this review was to analyze studies evaluating family history and inheritance patterns and to investigate the possible heredity of groin hernias.......Groin hernia has been proposed to be hereditary; however, a clear hereditary pattern has not been established yet. The purpose of this review was to analyze studies evaluating family history and inheritance patterns and to investigate the possible heredity of groin hernias....

  15. [Inherited primitive and secondary polycythemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, T; Boileau, J-C; Pasquet, F; Hot, A; Pavic, M

    2016-07-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders and secondary polycythemia cover most of the polycythemia cases encountered in daily practice. Inherited polycythemias are rare entities that have to be suspected when the classical causes of acquired polycythemia have been ruled out. Recent advances were made in the understanding of these pathologies, which are still little known to the physicians. This review reports the state of knowledge and proposes an algorithm to follow when confronted to a possible case of inherited polycythemia. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Diffuse glomerular nodular lesions in diabetic pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha, an inheritant diabetic gene in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Glomerular nodular lesions, known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, are a pathological hallmark of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. We have induced severe diabetes in pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1α P291fsinsC, a maturity-onset diabetes of the young type-3 (MODY3 gene in humans. In this model, glomerular pathology revealed that formation of diffuse glomerular nodules commenced as young as 1 month of age and increased in size and incidence until the age of 10 months, the end of the study period. Immunohistochemistry showed that the nodules consisted of various collagen types (I, III, IV, V and VI with advanced glycation end-product (AGE and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML deposition, similar to those in human diabetic nodules, except for collagen type I. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β was also expressed exclusively in the nodules. The ultrastructure of the nodules comprised predominant interstitial-type collagen deposition arising from the mesangial matrices. Curiously, these nodules were found predominantly in the deep cortex. However, diabetic pigs failed to show any of the features characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy; e.g., proteinuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and vascular hyalinosis. The pigs showed only Armanni-Ebstein lesions, a characteristic tubular manifestation in human diabetes. RT-PCR analysis showed that glomeruli in wild-type pigs did not express endogenous HNF1α and HNF1β, indicating that mutant HNF1α did not directly contribute to glomerular nodular formation in diabetic pigs. In conclusion, pigs harboring the dominant-negative mutant human MODY3 gene showed reproducible and distinct glomerular nodules, possibly due to AGE- and CML-based collagen accumulation. Although the pathology differed in several respects from that of human glomerular nodular lesions, the

  17. Entomologic index for human risk of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, T N; Nicholson, M C; Donnelly, E F; Matyas, B T

    1996-12-01

    An entomologic index based on density estimates of Lyme disease spirochete-infected nymphal deer ticks (lxodes scapularis) was developed to assess human risk of Lyme disease. The authors used a standardized protocol to determine tick density and infection in numerous forested sites in six Rhode Island towns. An entomologic risk index calculated for each town was compared with the number of human Lyme disease cases reported to the Rhode Island State Health Department for the same year. A strong positive relation between entomologic risk index and the Lyme disease case rate for each town suggested that the entomologic index was predictive of Lyme disease risk.

  18. Digital Inheritance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berlee, A.

    2017-01-01

    Our accumulation of assets is increasingly digital. What happens to these digital assets upon our death? In this Country Report, the topic of a digital inheritance is discussed in the context of Dutch law. It includes general rules on succession and their application to digital assets, which

  19. Nutrition, epigenetic mechanisms, and human disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maulik, Nilanjana; Maulik, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    .... The text discusses the basics of nutrigenomics and epigenetic regulation, types of nutrition influencing genetic imprinting, and the role of nutrition in modulating an individual's predisposition to disease...

  20. Body odour of monozygotic human twins: a common pattern of odorant carboxylic acids released by a bacterial aminoacylase from axilla secretions contributing to an inherited body odour type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Fabian; Natsch, Andreas

    2009-04-06

    It is currently not fully established whether human individuals have a genetically determined, individual-specific body odour. Volatile carboxylic acids are a key class of known human body odorants. They are released from glutamine conjugates secreted in axillary skin by a specific Nalpha-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase present in skin bacteria. Here, we report a quantitative investigation of these odorant acids in 12 pairs of monozygotic twins. Axilla secretions were sampled twice and treated with the Nalpha-acyl-glutamine-aminoacylase. The released acids were analysed as their methyl esters with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection. The pattern of the analytes was compared with distance analysis. The distance was lowest between samples of the right and the left axilla taken on the same day from the same individual. It was clearly greater if the same subject was sampled on different days, but this intra-individual distance between samples was only slightly lower than the distance between samples taken from two monozygotic twins. A much greater distance was observed when comparing unrelated individuals. By applying cluster and principal component analyses, a clear clustering of samples taken from one pair of monozygotic twins was also confirmed. In conclusion, the specific pattern of precursors for volatile carboxylic acids is subject to a day-to-day variation, but there is a strong genetic contribution. Therefore, humans have a genetically determined body odour type that is at least partly composed of these odorant acids.

  1. Multinational corporations and infectious disease: Embracing human rights management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H; Weiss, Mitchell G; Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    Global health institutions have called for governments, international organisations and health practitioners to employ a human rights-based approach to infectious diseases. The motivation for a human rights approach is clear: poverty and inequality create conditions for infectious diseases to thrive, and the diseases, in turn, interact with social-ecological systems to promulgate poverty, inequity and indignity. Governments and intergovernmental organisations should be concerned with the control and elimination of these diseases, as widespread infections delay economic growth and contribute to higher healthcare costs and slower processes for realising universal human rights. These social determinants and economic outcomes associated with infectious diseases should interest multinational companies, partly because they have bearing on corporate productivity and, increasingly, because new global norms impose on companies a responsibility to respect human rights, including the right to health. We reviewed historical and recent developments at the interface of infectious diseases, human rights and multinational corporations. Our investigation was supplemented with field-level insights at corporate capital projects that were developed in areas of high endemicity of infectious diseases, which embraced rights-based disease control strategies. Experience and literature provide a longstanding business case and an emerging social responsibility case for corporations to apply a human rights approach to health programmes at global operations. Indeed, in an increasingly globalised and interconnected world, multinational corporations have an interest, and an important role to play, in advancing rights-based control strategies for infectious diseases. There are new opportunities for governments and international health agencies to enlist corporate business actors in disease control and elimination strategies. Guidance offered by the United Nations in 2011 that is widely embraced

  2. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  3. Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Skeletal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruet, Emilie; Hsiao, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders affecting the bones and joints are major health problems among children and adults. Major challenges such as the genetic origins or poor diagnostics of severe skeletal disease hinder our understanding of human skeletal diseases. The recent advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (human iPS cells) provides an unparalleled opportunity to create human-specific models of human skeletal diseases. iPS cells have the ability to self-renew, allowing us to obtain large amounts of starting material, and have the potential to differentiate into any cell types in the body. In addition, they can carry one or more mutations responsible for the disease of interest or be genetically corrected to create isogenic controls. Our work has focused on modeling rare musculoskeletal disorders including fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive (FOP), a congenital disease of increased heterotopic ossification. In this review, we will discuss our experiences and protocols differentiating human iPS cells toward the osteogenic lineage and their application to model skeletal diseases. A number of critical challenges and exciting new approaches are also discussed, which will allow the skeletal biology field to harness the potential of human iPS cells as a critical model system for understanding diseases of abnormal skeletal formation and bone regeneration.

  4. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamosh, A; Scott, A F; Amberger, J; Valle, D; McKusick, V A

    2000-01-01

    Online Mendelian Inheritance In Man (OMIM) is a public database of bibliographic information about human genes and genetic disorders. Begun by Dr. Victor McKusick as the authoritative reference Mendelian Inheritance in Man, it is now distributed electronically by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Material in OMIM is derived from the biomedical literature and is written by Dr. McKusick and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere. Each OMIM entry has a full text summary of a genetic phenotype and/or gene and has copious links to other genetic resources such as DNA and protein sequence, PubMed references, mutation databases, approved gene nomenclature, and more. In addition, NCBI's neighboring feature allows users to identify related articles from PubMed selected on the basis of key words in the OMIM entry. Through its many features, OMIM is increasingly becoming a major gateway for clinicians, students, and basic researchers to the ever-growing literature and resources of human genetics. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Modeling human gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases using microphysiological culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Kira G; Bortner, James D; Falk, Gary W; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Jhala, Nirag; Yu, Jian; Martín, Martín G; Rustgi, Anil K; Lynch, John P

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal illnesses are a significant health burden for the US population, with 40 million office visits each year for gastrointestinal complaints and nearly 250,000 deaths. Acute and chronic inflammations are a common element of many gastrointestinal diseases. Inflammatory processes may be initiated by a chemical injury (acid reflux in the esophagus), an infectious agent (Helicobacter pylori infection in the stomach), autoimmune processes (graft versus host disease after bone marrow transplantation), or idiopathic (as in the case of inflammatory bowel diseases). Inflammation in these settings can contribute to acute complaints (pain, bleeding, obstruction, and diarrhea) as well as chronic sequelae including strictures and cancer. Research into the pathophysiology of these conditions has been limited by the availability of primary human tissues or appropriate animal models that attempt to physiologically model the human disease. With the many recent advances in tissue engineering and primary human cell culture systems, it is conceivable that these approaches can be adapted to develop novel human ex vivo systems that incorporate many human cell types to recapitulate in vivo growth and differentiation in inflammatory microphysiological environments. Such an advance in technology would improve our understanding of human disease progression and enhance our ability to test for disease prevention strategies and novel therapeutics. We will review current models for the inflammatory and immunological aspects of Barrett's esophagus, acute graft versus host disease, and inflammatory bowel disease and explore recent advances in culture methodologies that make these novel microphysiological research systems possible. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  6. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  7. Extracellular RNAs: development as biomarkers of human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F. Quinn

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ten ongoing studies designed to test the possibility that extracellular RNAs may serve as biomarkers in human disease are described. These studies, funded by the NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Program, examine diverse extracellular body fluids, including plasma, serum, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. The disorders studied include hepatic and gastric cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative disease, brain tumours, intracranial haemorrhage, multiple sclerosis and placental disorders. Progress to date and the plans for future studies are outlined.

  8. Disease emergence and resurgence—the wildlife-human connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Hurley, James W.; Nol, Pauline; Wesenberg, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) was organized as a global disease watchdog group to coordinate disease outbreak information and health crisis response. The World Health Organization (WHO) is the headquarters for this network. Understandably, the primary focus for WHO is human health. However, diseases such as the H5N1 avian influenza epizootic in Asian bird populations demonstrate the need for integrating knowledge about disease emergence in animals and in humans.Aside from human disease concerns, H5N1 avian influenza has major economic consequences for the poultry industry worldwide. Many other emerging diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), monkeypox, Ebola fever, and West Nile fever, also have an important wildlife component. Despite these wildlife associations, the true integration of the wildlife component in approaches towards disease emergence remains elusive. This separation between wildlife and other species’ interests is counterproductive because the emergence of zoonotic viruses and other pathogens maintained by wildlife reservoir hosts is poorly understood.This book is about the wildlife component of emerging diseases. It is intended to enhance the reader’s awareness of the role of wildlife in disease emergence. By doing so, perhaps a more holistic approach to disease prevention and control will emerge for the benefit of human, domestic animal, and free-ranging wildlife populations alike. The perspectives offered are influenced by more than four decades of my experiences as a wildlife disease practitioner. Although wildlife are victims to many of the same disease agents affecting humans and domestic animals, many aspects of disease in free-ranging wildlife require different approaches than those commonly applied to address disease in humans or domestic animals. Nevertheless, the broader community of disease investigators and health care professionals has largely pursued a separatist approach for

  9. Disease Human - MDC_CardiovascularMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of deaths due to major cardiovascular diseases per 1000 residents of Miami-Dade County in 2006.

  10. Disease Human - MDC_CLRDMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of deaths per 100,000 residents due to Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD) in Miami-Dade...

  11. G2D: a tool for mining genes associated with disease

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Wjst, Matthias; Bork, Peer; Andrade, Miguel A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Human inherited diseases can be associated by genetic linkage with one or more genomic regions. The availability of the complete sequence of the human genome allows examining those locations for an associated gene. We previously developed an algorithm to prioritize genes on a chromosomal region according to their possible relation to an inherited disease using a combination of data mining on biomedical databases and gene sequence analysis. Results We have implemented this ...

  12. Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivica Smolić

    2015-01-01

    Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)

  13. Generation of a miniature pig disease model for human Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dan; Li, Fang; Li, Qiuyan; Li, Jia; Zhao, Yaofeng; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ning

    2015-10-29

    Laron syndrome is a rare disease caused by mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), inheriting in an autosomal manner. To better understand the pathogenesis and to develop therapeutics, we generated a miniature pig model for this disease by employing ZFNs to knock out GHR gene. Three types of F0 heterozygous pigs (GHR(+/4bp), GHR(+/2bp), GHR(+/3bp)) were obtained and in which no significant phenotypes of Laron syndrome were observed. Prior to breed heterozygous pigs to homozygosity (GHR(4bp/4bp)), pig GHR transcript with the 4 bp insert was evaluated in vitro and was found to localize to the cytoplasm rather than the membrane. Moreover, this mutated transcript lost most of its signal transduction capability, although it could bind bGH. GHR(4bp/4bp) pigs showed a small body size and reduced body weight. Biochemically, these pigs exhibited significantly elevated levels of GH and decreased levels of IGF-I. These results resemble the phenotype observed in Laron patients, suggesting that these pigs could serve as an ideal model for Laron syndrome to bridge the gaps between mouse model and human.

  14. Epigenetic Inheritance Across the Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Vaughn Whipple

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  15. Epigenetic Inheritance across the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Amy V; Holeski, Liza M

    2016-01-01

    The study of epigenomic variation at the landscape-level in plants may add important insight to studies of adaptive variation. A major goal of landscape genomic studies is to identify genomic regions contributing to adaptive variation across the landscape. Heritable variation in epigenetic marks, resulting in transgenerational plasticity, can influence fitness-related traits. Epigenetic marks are influenced by the genome, the environment, and their interaction, and can be inherited independently of the genome. Thus, epigenomic variation likely influences the heritability of many adaptive traits, but the extent of this influence remains largely unknown. Here, we summarize the relevance of epigenetic inheritance to ecological and evolutionary processes, and review the literature on landscape-level patterns of epigenetic variation. Landscape-level patterns of epigenomic variation in plants generally show greater levels of isolation by distance and isolation by environment then is found for the genome, but the causes of these patterns are not yet clear. Linkage between the environment and epigenomic variation has been clearly shown within a single generation, but demonstrating transgenerational inheritance requires more complex breeding and/or experimental designs. Transgenerational epigenetic variation may alter the interpretation of landscape genomic studies that rely upon phenotypic analyses, but should have less influence on landscape genomic approaches that rely upon outlier analyses or genome-environment associations. We suggest that multi-generation common garden experiments conducted across multiple environments will allow researchers to understand which parts of the epigenome are inherited, as well as to parse out the relative contribution of heritable epigenetic variation to the phenotype.

  16. Changes in the human mitochondrial genome after treatment of malignant disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardell, Theresa M.; Ferguson, Elaine; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Borthwick, Gillian M.; Taylor, Robert W.; Jackson, Graham; Craft, Alan; Lightowlers, Robert N.; Howell, Neil; Turnbull, Douglass M.

    2003-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the only extrachromosomal DNA in human cells. The mitochondrial genome encodes essential information for the synthesis of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inherited defects of this genome are an important cause of human disease. In addition, the mitochondrial genome seems to be particularly prone to DNA damage and acquired mutations may have a role in ageing, cancer and neurodegeneration. We wished to determine if radiotherapy and chemotherapy used in the treatment of cancer could induce changes in the mitochondrial genome. Such changes would be an important genetic marker of DNA damage and may explain some of the adverse effects of treatment. We studied samples from patients who had received radiotherapy and chemotherapy for point mutations within the mtDNA control region, and for large-scale deletions. In blood samples from patients, we found a significantly increased number of point mutations compared to the control subjects. In muscle biopsies from 7 of 8 patients whom had received whole body irradiation as well as chemotherapy, the level of a specific mtDNA deletion was significantly greater than in control subjects. Our studies have shown that in patients who have been treated for cancer there is an increased level of mtDNA damage

  17. Inheritance conditions for object life cycle diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipeck, U.W.; Saake, Gunter; Hartel, Peter; Vossen, G.; Jungclaus, Ralf; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Feenstra, Remco

    Inheritance is the main principle in object-oriented design methods to support structuring and reuse of object behaviour descriptions. Most proposals restrict the formal use of inheritance to method interfaces and method effect specifcations. We propose to extend the inheritance relation to cover

  18. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  19. Inherited cardiomyopathies and sports participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, A; Pelliccia, A; Corrado, D

    2018-03-01

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death in adolescents and young adults with inherited cardiomyopathies. Many young subjects aspire to continue competitive sport after a diagnosis of cardiomyopathy and the clinician is frequently confronted with the problem of eligibility and the request of designing specific exercise programs. Since inherited cardiomyopathies are the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death during sports performance, a conservative approach implying disqualification of affected athletes from most competitive athletic disciplines is recommended by all the available international guidelines. On the other hand, we know that the health benefits of practicing recreational sports activity can overcome the potential arrhythmic risk in these patients, provided that the type and level of exercise are tailored on the basis of the specific risk profile of the underlying cardiomyopathy. This article will review the available evidence on the sports-related risk of sudden cardiac death and the recommendations regarding eligibility of individuals affected by inherited cardiomyopathies for sports activities.

  20. Clinical audit of inherited bleeding disorders in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Raihan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We did a clinical audit to determine the status of coagulation disorders in a hemophilia care center in Pakistan. Setting: Fatimid foundation blood bank and hematological diseases center, Lahore. Study Design: This is a retrospective descriptive study. Materials and Methods: All patients registered at Lahore center were included. Data was collected using a questionnaire including age, gender, diagnosis, hepatitis and human immune deficiency virus (HIV status, number of episodes of bleeding, most common site of bleeding, severity of disorder and number of transfusions required to treat the episode. Results: During the study period, a total of 923 registered patients were reviewed at Lahore center and of these, 408 patients (44.2% were on regular follow-up. Inherited bleeding disorders identified in these patients included hemophilia A, hemophilia B, vWD, factor VII deficiency, factor V deficiency, factor X deficiency, dysfibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia, factor XIII deficiency; and platelet function defects. Median age was 17 years with a range of three to 57 years. Median age at diagnosis was one year. There were 329 (80.6% males and 79 (19.3% females. The products used in these patients included factor VIII concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, cryosupernatant and platelets. Testing for transmission of viral infections was also done in these patients and one patient (0.2% was found hepatitis B positive, six patients (1.4% were hepatitis C positive and two patients (0.49% were HIV positive. Conclusion: Hemophilia A, hemophilia B and vWD are the commonly encountered inherited bleeding disorders in our patients followed by other recessively transmitted disorders with a median age of 17 years and male to female ratio of 4: 1. Most of the patients utilized services available at Fatimid foundation with good clinical results. In Pakistan, non-governmental organizations (NGOs are trying their best for providing optimal treatment

  1. Emerging role of mitophagy in human diseases and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Jee-Hyun; Yun, Jeanho

    2017-06-01

    Mitophagy is a process of selective removal of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria using autophagic machinery. Mitophagy plays an essential role in maintaining mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and defective mitophagy in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and metabolic diseases indicate a close link between human disease and mitophagy. Furthermore, recent studies showing the involvement of mitophagy in differentiation and development, suggest that mitophagy may play a more active role in controlling cellular functions. A better understanding of mitophagy will provide insights about human disease and offer novel chance for treatment. This review mainly focuses on the recent implications for mitophagy in human diseases and normal physiology. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(6): 299-307].

  2. Transgenerational inheritance of heart disorders caused by paternal bisphenol A exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombó, Marta; Fernández-Díez, Cristina; González-Rojo, Silvia; Navarro, Claudia; Robles, Vanesa; Herráez, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor used in manufacturing of plastic devices, resulting in an ubiquitous presence in the environment linked to human infertility, obesity or cardiovascular diseases. Both transcriptome and epigenome modifications lie behind these disorders that might be inherited transgenerationally when affecting germline. To assess potential effects of paternal exposure on offspring development, adult zebrafish males were exposed to BPA during spermatogenesis and mated with non-treated females. Results showed an increase in the rate of heart failures of progeny up to the F2, as well as downregulation of 5 genes involved in cardiac development in F1 embryos. Moreover, BPA causes a decrease in F0 and F1 sperm remnant mRNAs related to early development. Results reveal a paternal inheritance of changes in the insulin signaling pathway due to downregulation of insulin receptor β mRNAs, suggesting a link between BPA male exposure and disruption of cardiogenesis in forthcoming generations. - Highlights: • We examine the effects of adult male exposure to BPA on the progeny (F1 and F2). • Paternal exposure promotes similar cardiac malformations to those caused by direct exposure. • BPA applied during spermatogenesis decrease the insra and insrb transcripts in spermatozoa. • Sperm insrb transcript controls embryonic expression being the downregulation inherited by F1. • Paternal BPA exposure impairs heart development in F1 and F2 disrupting insulin signaling pathway. - Paternal bisphenol A exposure impairs cardiac development throughout generations.

  3. Inheritance of proportionate dwarfism in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, M R; Latter, B D H; Wilkins, J F; Windsor, P A

    2006-04-01

    To determine the mode of inheritance of congenital proportionate dwarfism in Angus and Angus crossbred cattle, initially detected in two commercial beef herds in northern New South Wales. Matings of normal carrier sires to unrelated cows of diverse breeds, and of one carrier sire to his unaffected daughters. An unrelated Piedmontese bull was also mated to unaffected daughters of the carrier sires. Two carrier Angus bulls and nine unaffected daughters, all of whom were completely indistinguishable from normal animals, were purchased for controlled breeding studies under known nutritional and disease conditions. Affected and carrier individuals were examined for the presence of obvious chromosomal abnormalities. Angus dwarfism has been successfully reproduced under controlled experimental conditions over successive years using unrelated dams and is undoubtedly heritable. The high frequency of occurrence of affected individuals (23/61 = 0.38 +/- .06) among the progeny of matings of the Angus sires to unrelated females of diverse breeding is not compatible with recessive inheritance, because of the negligible frequency of proportionate dwarfism in the breeds of the dams. Both paternal and maternal transmission of the defect was demonstrated, so that imprinting in the strict sense of a gene that is only expressed when received from the male parent appears not to be involved. Tested individuals showed no evidence of gross chromosomal abnormality. Dominant autosomal inheritance with incomplete penetrance was indicated by the lack of expression of the defective gene in the two Angus sires and in three unaffected daughters who produced dwarf calves from matings to the Piedmontese bull. The mode of inheritance is that of a single autosomal dominant gene with a penetrance coefficient of 0.75 +/- 0.12, estimated from the observed incidence of 23/61 affected offspring of the two carrier Angus bulls mated to unrelated dams. Simple genetic models involving either (i) an unstable

  4. Human glia can both induce and rescue aspects of disease phenotype in Huntington disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benraiss, Abdellatif; Wang, Su; Herrlinger, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The causal contribution of glial pathology to Huntington disease (HD) has not been heavily explored. To define the contribution of glia to HD, we established human HD glial chimeras by neonatally engrafting immunodeficient mice with mutant huntingtin (mHTT)-expressing human glial progenitor cells...... chimeras are hyperexcitable. Conversely, normal glia can ameliorate disease phenotype in transgenic HD mice, as striatal transplantation of normal glia rescues aspects of electrophysiological and behavioural phenotype, restores interstitial potassium homeostasis, slows disease progression and extends...

  5. Vitamins in the prevention of human diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrmann, Wolfgang, Prof; Obeid, Rima

    2011-01-01

    ... in ancient Egypt. One-sided nutrition, smoking, alcohol, genetic factors, and even geographical origin interfere with our dietary intake of the vitamins. Insufficient vitamin intake can impact our health and contribute significantly to the development of diseases. This book offers expert reviews and judgements on the role of vitamins in health and ...

  6. Inheritable and sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Carolina; Paschke, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a clinical state that results from high thyroid hormone levels which has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Excluding the autoimmune Graves disease, autonomic adenomas account for the most import cause of non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Activating germline mutations of the TSH receptor are rare etiologies for hyperthyroidism. They can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (familial or hereditary, FNAH), or may occur sporadically as a de novo condition, also called: persistent sporadic congenital non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (PSNAH). These three conditions: autonomic adenoma, FNAH and PSNAH constitute the inheritable and sporadic non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism. Particularities in epidemiology, etiology, molecular and clinical aspects of these three entities will be discussed in this review in order to guide to an accurate diagnosis allowing among others genetic counseling and presymptomatic diagnosis for the affected families. The optimal treatment based on the right diagnosis will avoid consequences of a persistent or relapsing hyperthyroidism. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exposure to Human Immunodeficiency Disease. What Precautions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic is more pronounced in sub-Saharan Africa. The ever-increasing prevalence of HIV infection and the continued improvement in clinical management has increased the likelihood of these patients being managed by healthcare workers. The aim of the review ...

  8. The Right to Property and Inheritance in the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasile

    2016-01-01

    Inheritance has for ever played an important part in human societies and it still does in certainareas of the world. The Jewish right to succession had some features that derived from thepatriarchal family, which had been thoroughly established even before the age of stateconsolidation.

  9. The Puzzle of Inheritance: Genetics and the Methods of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Mary Ann G.; Drexler, Edward; Friedman, B. Ellen; McCullough, Laurence B.; McInerney, Joseph D.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Rossiter, Belinda; Zola, John

    This instructional module contains a description of the Human Genome Project (HGP). A discussion of issues in the philosophy of science and some of the ethical, legal, and social implications of research in genetics, and a survey of fundamental genetics concepts and of new, nontraditional concepts of inheritance are also included. Six…

  10. Elucidation of the Molecular Genetic Basis of Inherited Hearing Impairment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, M.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in the human population. It affects 0.1% of all young children and by the age of 70, 30% of the population suffers from hearing loss greater than 40 dB. When early onset hearing loss is inherited, 70% is classified as nonsyndromic and 30% as

  11. The Legal Position and Factual Situation of Women Participation to Inheritance in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LL.M. Egzonis Hajdari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The right to inheritance represents one of the basic human rights. As such this right is regulated by the law. The Law on Inheritance in Kosovo regulates substantially, all the issues related to inheritance. In this context, this Law contains numerous rules that proclaim full equality of women with men to inheritance. Regardless of equality proclaimed by law practical reality of life indicates a different situation. This reality proves that women participation to inheritance nevertheless is very small. The reasons for this situation are numerous and diverse, but mostly they have to deal with the still existence in people's conscience of many customary rules, which constantly treated women as a subject of second hand. In this article a modest attempt is made to reflect besides legal aspect also the practical situation indicating the degree of women participation to inheritance in Kosovo, in all grades that she may appear as heir.

  12. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  13. Glutathione dysregulation and the etiology and progression of human diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballatori, N.; Krance, S.M.; Notenboom, S.; Shi, S.; Tieu, K.; Hammond, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in a multitude of cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, and as a result, disturbances in GSH homeostasis are implicated in the etiology and/or progression of a number of human diseases, including cancer, diseases

  14. Mosquitoes as vectors of human disease in South Africa | Jupp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While malaria is the most important mosquito-borne disease in South Africa, there are also several mosquito-borne viruses that also cause human disease. The most significant are chikungunya, West Nile, Sindbis and Rift Valley fever viruses. In this review these are compared with malaria, mainly in regard to their ecology ...

  15. A murine model of human myeloma bone disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrett, I.R.; Dallas, S.; Radl, J.; Mundy, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Myeloma causes a devastating and unique form of osteolytic bone disease. Although osteoclast activation is responsible for bone destruction, the precise mechanisms by which myeloma cells increase osteoclast activity have not been defined. An animal model of human myeloma bone disease mould help in

  16. Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bem, Reinout A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for

  17. The DNA-damage response in human biology and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Stephen P; Bartek, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    , signal its presence and mediate its repair. Such responses, which have an impact on a wide range of cellular events, are biologically significant because they prevent diverse human diseases. Our improving understanding of DNA-damage responses is providing new avenues for disease management....

  18. Inherited coagulation factor VII and X deficiencies associated with severe bleeding diathesis: Molecular genetics and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borensztajn, K.; Spek, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    The rare inherited coagulation disorders are a fascinating group of diseases that have provided us with important insights into the structure and functions of their respective deficient proteins. Factor (F)VII deficiency is the commonest of these inherited disorders of coagulation, whereas FX

  19. Inheritance tax revenue low despite surge in inheritances

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Stefan; Thiemann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Every year in Germany, an estimated 200 to 300 billion euros is gifted or inherited. Due to the extremely unequal distribution of wealth, these capital transfers are also highly concentrated. Approximately half of all transfers are less worth than 50,000 euros. Transfers of over 500,000 euros were received by one and a half percent of beneficiaries, accounting for one-third of the total transfer volume. The 0.08 percent of cases with transfers of over five million euros received 14 percent of...

  20. Positions of human dwellings affect few tropical diseases near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Some factors that possibly affect tropical disease distribution was investigated in about 500 randomize human dwellings. The studied factors include wild animals, domestic animals, wild plants, cultivated plants, nature of soil, nature of water, positions of human dwellings, nature of building material and position of animal ...

  1. Animal models for human genetic diseases | Sharif | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of human genetic diseases can be greatly aided by animal models because of their similarity to humans in terms of genetics. In addition to understand diverse aspects of basic biology, model organisms are extensively used in applied research in agriculture, industry, and also in medicine, where they are used to ...

  2. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Human gait Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimonti eDutta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available IIn this paper multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is used to study the human gait time series for normal and diseased sets. It is observed that long range correlation is primarily responsible for the origin of multifractality. The study reveals that the degree of multifractality is more for normal set compared to diseased set. However the method fails to distinguish between the two diseased sets.

  3. DEGAS: de novo discovery of dysregulated pathways in human diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ulitsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular studies of the human disease transcriptome typically involve a search for genes whose expression is significantly dysregulated in sick individuals compared to healthy controls. Recent studies have found that only a small number of the genes in human disease-related pathways show consistent dysregulation in sick individuals. However, those studies found that some pathway genes are affected in most sick individuals, but genes can differ among individuals. While a pathway is usually defined as a set of genes known to share a specific function, pathway boundaries are frequently difficult to assign, and methods that rely on such definition cannot discover novel pathways. Protein interaction networks can potentially be used to overcome these problems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present DEGAS (DysrEgulated Gene set Analysis via Subnetworks, a method for identifying connected gene subnetworks significantly enriched for genes that are dysregulated in specimens of a disease. We applied DEGAS to seven human diseases and obtained statistically significant results that appear to home in on compact pathways enriched with hallmarks of the diseases. In Parkinson's disease, we provide novel evidence for involvement of mRNA splicing, cell proliferation, and the 14-3-3 complex in the disease progression. DEGAS is available as part of the MATISSE software package (http://acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/matisse. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The subnetworks identified by DEGAS can provide a signature of the disease potentially useful for diagnosis, pinpoint possible pathways affected by the disease, and suggest targets for drug intervention.

  4. [Bartonellosis. II. Other Bartonella responsible for human diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piémont, Y; Heller, R

    1999-01-01

    In addition to Bartonella henselae, five other Bartonella species were involved in human pathology. As for B. henselae, ectoparasites seem to be responsible for the transmission of most or all these bacterial species. B. bacilliformis is responsible for Carrion's disease that occurs in some valleys of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. This disease is transmitted by biting of infected sandflies. The bacterial reservoir is constituted by humans only. That disease occurs either as an acute form with severe infectious hemolytic anemia (or Oroya fever), or as benign cutaneous tumors, also called verruga peruana. Healthy blood carriers of the bacterium exist. Trench fever was described during the First World War. This non-lethal disease is constituted of recurrent febrile attacks associated particularly with osseous pains. The causative agent of the disease is B. quintana, transmitted by the body louse. Humans seem to be the reservoir of that bacterium. In some patients, B. quintana can be responsible for endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis and chronic or recurrent bacteremia. Other human infections due to Bartonella sp. have been described: B. vinsonii, isolated from blood of small rodents, and B. elizabethae, the reservoir of which is currently unknown, can be responsible for endocardites. B. clarridgeiae (isolated from blood of 5% of pet cats and 17% of stray cats) may be responsible for human cat scratch disease. All these bartonelloses are diagnosed by non-standard blood culture or by in vitro DNA amplification or by serological testing. Their treatment requires tetracyclines or chloramphenicol or macrolides.

  5. FAMILY ANAMNESIS OF CHILDREN WITH MUTATION OF THE INHERITED HEMOCHROMATOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Polyakova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherited burdened is studied on diseases, associated with an overload iron in 41 children with frequent mutations of the inherited hemochromatosis (IG of a 1 type (C282y, H63d, S65c. Control group was made by 27 children with undiscovered frequent mutations of NG. Frequencies of iron-associated diseases are compared for 560 members of families which have children with mutations of IG and 390 members of families which have children without IG mutations. Some features of medical-genealogical anamnesis, which can be conditioned of siderosis, are exposed, and indirectly specify in the presence of mutations in the gene of HFE. So, the high frequency of oncologic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hepatocirrhosis and deaths of relatives under the age of 50 years are the foundation for research of exchange of iron and holding of molecular-genetic research of the inherited hemochromatosis. Key words: inherited hemochromatosis, heredity, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:52-56

  6. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  7. Wildlife disease prevalence in human-modified landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brearley, Grant; Rhodes, Jonathan; Bradley, Adrian; Baxter, Greg; Seabrook, Leonie; Lunney, Daniel; Liu, Yan; McAlpine, Clive

    2013-05-01

    Human-induced landscape change associated with habitat loss and fragmentation places wildlife populations at risk. One issue in these landscapes is a change in the prevalence of disease which may result in increased mortality and reduced fecundity. Our understanding of the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on the prevalence of wildlife diseases is still in its infancy. What is evident is that changes in disease prevalence as a result of human-induced landscape modification are highly variable. The importance of infectious diseases for the conservation of wildlife will increase as the amount and quality of suitable habitat decreases due to human land-use pressures. We review the experimental and observational literature of the influence of human-induced landscape change on wildlife disease prevalence, and discuss disease transmission types and host responses as mechanisms that are likely to determine the extent of change in disease prevalence. It is likely that transmission dynamics will be the key process in determining a pathogen's impact on a host population, while the host response may ultimately determine the extent of disease prevalence. Finally, we conceptualize mechanisms and identify future research directions to increase our understanding of the relationship between human-modified landscapes and wildlife disease prevalence. This review highlights that there are rarely consistent relationships between wildlife diseases and human-modified landscapes. In addition, variation is evident between transmission types and landscape types, with the greatest positive influence on disease prevalence being in urban landscapes and directly transmitted disease systems. While we have a limited understanding of the potential influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on wildlife disease, there are a number of important areas to address in future research, particularly to account for the variability in increased and decreased disease prevalence. Previous studies

  8. Dominant inheritance of cerebral gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonana, J; Sotos, J F; Romshe, C A; Fisher, D A; Elders, M J; Rimoin, D L

    1977-08-01

    Cerebral gigantism is a syndrome consisting of characteristic dysmorphic features, accelerated growth in early childhood, and variable degrees of mental retardation. Its etiology and pathogenesis have not been defined. Three families are presented with multiple affected members. The vertical transmission of the trait and equal expression in both sexes in these families indicates a genetic etiology with a dominant pattern of inheritance, probably autosomal. As in previously reported cases, extensive endocrine evaluation failed to define the pathogenesis of the accelerated growth present in this disorder.

  9. Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Naureen; Weinberger, Barry I; Hegyi, Thomas; Aleksunes, Lauren M

    2016-01-01

    Inherited disorders of hyperbilirubinemia may be caused by increased bilirubin production or decreased bilirubin clearance. Reduced hepatic bilirubin clearance can be due to defective 1) unconjugated bilirubin uptake and intrahepatic storage, 2) conjugation of glucuronic acid to bilirubin (e.g. Gilbert syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Lucey-Driscoll syndrome, breast milk jaundice), 3) bilirubin excretion into bile (Dubin-Johnson syndrome), or 4) conjugated bilirubin re-uptake (Rotor syndrome). In this review, the molecular mechanisms and clinical manifestations of these conditions are described, as well as current approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26595536

  10. [In utero thrombosis of neonates: inherited thrombophilia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Andrea; Mogyorósy, Gábor; Kiss, Csongor; Pataki, István; Amir Houshang, Shemirani; Oláh, Eva

    2009-04-19

    Thromboembolic events are relatively uncommon in childhood. It involves mainly children under one year of age and adolescents, with an incidence is 5.1/10000 live births. Authors present a course of disease of seven cases with neonatal thromboembolic events (2.5/admissions), diagnosed and treated at the Neonatal Division of Department of Pediatrics. In three of seven cases thrombosis proved to be of intrauterine origin. In each of the latter cases, inherited thrombophilia of the mothers was detected. Additional risk factors including infection could be revealed only in one case. Using in vivo and post mortem DNA analysis, mother-like-thrombophilia could not be confirmed in any of the newborns. Based on their experiences, authors suppose that undetected predisposing factors added to maternal thrombophilia can be considered as etiological factor. Authors suggest the intensive follow-up of pregnant women with thrombophilia and also their fetuses.

  11. FISH CONSUMPTION, METHYLMERCURY, AND HUMAN HEART DISEASE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIPFERT, F.W.; SULLIVAN, T.M.

    2005-09-21

    Environmental mercury continues to be of concern to public health advocates, both in the U.S. and abroad, and new research continues to be published. A recent analysis of potential health benefits of reduced mercury emissions has opened a new area of public health concern: adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, which could account for the bulk of the potential economic benefits. The authors were careful to include caveats about the uncertainties of such impacts, but they cited only a fraction of the applicable health effects literature. That literature includes studies of the potentially harmful ingredient (methylmercury, MeHg) in fish, as well as of a beneficial ingredient, omega-3 fatty acids or ''fish oils''. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently certified that some of these fat compounds that are primarily found in fish ''may be beneficial in reducing coronary heart disease''. This paper briefly summarizes and categorizes the extensive literature on both adverse and beneficial links between fish consumption and cardiovascular health, which are typically based on studies of selected groups of individuals (cohorts). Such studies tend to comprise the ''gold standard'' of epidemiology, but cohorts tend to exhibit a great deal of variability, in part because of the limited numbers of individuals involved and in part because of interactions with other dietary and lifestyle considerations. Note that eating fish will involve exposure to both the beneficial effects of fatty acids and the potentially harmful effects of contaminants like Hg or PCBs, all of which depend on the type of fish but tend to be correlated within a population. As a group, the cohort studies show that eating fish tends to reduce mortality, especially due to heart disease, for consumption rates up to about twice weekly, above which the benefits tend to level off. A Finnish cohort study showed increased mortality risks

  12. Atypical mitochondrial inheritance patterns in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Sophie; Stewart, Donald T

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominantly maternally inherited in eukaryotes. Diverse molecular mechanisms underlying the phenomenon of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mtDNA have been described, but the evolutionary forces responsible for its predominance in eukaryotes remain to be elucidated. Exceptions to SMI have been reported in diverse eukaryotic taxa, leading to the prediction that several distinct molecular mechanisms controlling mtDNA transmission are present among the eukaryotes. We propose that these mechanisms will be better understood by studying the deviations from the predominating pattern of SMI. This minireview summarizes studies on eukaryote species with unusual or rare mitochondrial inheritance patterns, i.e., other than the predominant SMI pattern, such as maternal inheritance of stable heteroplasmy, paternal leakage of mtDNA, biparental and strictly paternal inheritance, and doubly uniparental inheritance of mtDNA. The potential genes and mechanisms involved in controlling mitochondrial inheritance in these organisms are discussed. The linkage between mitochondrial inheritance and sex determination is also discussed, given that the atypical systems of mtDNA inheritance examined in this minireview are frequently found in organisms with uncommon sexual systems such as gynodioecy, monoecy, or andromonoecy. The potential of deviations from SMI for facilitating a better understanding of a number of fundamental questions in biology, such as the evolution of mtDNA inheritance, the coevolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, and, perhaps, the role of mitochondria in sex determination, is considerable.

  13. The RNAi Inheritance Machinery of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklin, George; Fields, Brandon; Wan, Gang; Becker, Diveena; Wallig, Ashley; Shukla, Aditi; Kennedy, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Gene silencing mediated by dsRNA (RNAi) can persist for multiple generations in Caenorhabditis elegans (termed RNAi inheritance). Here we describe the results of a forward genetic screen in C. elegans that has identified six factors required for RNAi inheritance: GLH-1/VASA, PUP-1/CDE-1, MORC-1, SET-32, and two novel nematode-specific factors that we term here (heritable RNAi defective) HRDE-2 and HRDE-4 The new RNAi inheritance factors exhibit mortal germline (Mrt) phenotypes, which we show is likely caused by epigenetic deregulation in germ cells. We also show that HRDE-2 contributes to RNAi inheritance by facilitating the binding of small RNAs to the inheritance Argonaute (Ago) HRDE-1 Together, our results identify additional components of the RNAi inheritance machinery whose conservation provides insights into the molecular mechanism of RNAi inheritance, further our understanding of how the RNAi inheritance machinery promotes germline immortality, and show that HRDE-2 couples the inheritance Ago HRDE-1 with the small RNAs it needs to direct RNAi inheritance and germline immortality. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Canine models of inherited bleeding disorders in the development of coagulation assays, novel protein replacement and gene therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, T C; Hough, C; Agersø, H; Ezban, M; Lillicrap, D

    2016-05-01

    Animal models of inherited bleeding disorders are important for understanding disease pathophysiology and are required for preclinical assessment of safety prior to testing of novel therapeutics in human and veterinary medicine. Experiments in these animals represent important translational research aimed at developing safer and better treatments, such as plasma-derived and recombinant protein replacement therapies, gene therapies and immune tolerance protocols for antidrug inhibitory antibodies. Ideally, testing is done in animals with the analogous human disease to provide essential safety information, estimates of the correct starting dose and dose response (pharmacokinetics) and measures of efficacy (pharmacodynamics) that guide the design of human trials. For nearly seven decades, canine models of hemophilia, von Willebrand disease and other inherited bleeding disorders have not only informed our understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of these disorders but also guided the development of novel therapeutics for use in humans and dogs. This has been especially important for the development of gene therapy, in which unique toxicities such as insertional mutagenesis, germ line gene transfer and viral toxicities must be assessed. There are several issues regarding comparative medicine in these species that have a bearing on these studies, including immune reactions to xenoproteins, varied metabolism or clearance of wild-type and modified proteins, and unique tissue tropism of viral vectors. This review focuses on the results of studies that have been performed in dogs with inherited bleeding disorders that closely mirror the human condition to develop safe and effective protein and gene-based therapies that benefit both species. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Human genomic disease variants: a neutral evolutionary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Joel T; Kim, Yuseob; Liu, Li; Markov, Glenn J; Gerold, Kristyn; Chen, Rong; Butte, Atul J; Kumar, Sudhir

    2012-08-01

    Many perspectives on the role of evolution in human health include nonempirical assumptions concerning the adaptive evolutionary origins of human diseases. Evolutionary analyses of the increasing wealth of clinical and population genomic data have begun to challenge these presumptions. In order to systematically evaluate such claims, the time has come to build a common framework for an empirical and intellectual unification of evolution and modern medicine. We review the emerging evidence and provide a supporting conceptual framework that establishes the classical neutral theory of molecular evolution (NTME) as the basis for evaluating disease- associated genomic variations in health and medicine. For over a decade, the NTME has already explained the origins and distribution of variants implicated in diseases and has illuminated the power of evolutionary thinking in genomic medicine. We suggest that a majority of disease variants in modern populations will have neutral evolutionary origins (previously neutral), with a relatively smaller fraction exhibiting adaptive evolutionary origins (previously adaptive). This pattern is expected to hold true for common as well as rare disease variants. Ultimately, a neutral evolutionary perspective will provide medicine with an informative and actionable framework that enables objective clinical assessment beyond convenient tendencies to invoke past adaptive events in human history as a root cause of human disease.

  16. Drosophila tools and assays for the study of human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrak Ugur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the internal organ systems of Drosophila melanogaster are functionally analogous to those in vertebrates, including humans. Although humans and flies differ greatly in terms of their gross morphological and cellular features, many of the molecular mechanisms that govern development and drive cellular and physiological processes are conserved between both organisms. The morphological differences are deceiving and have led researchers to undervalue the study of invertebrate organs in unraveling pathogenic mechanisms of diseases. In this review and accompanying poster, we highlight the physiological and molecular parallels between fly and human organs that validate the use of Drosophila to study the molecular pathogenesis underlying human diseases. We discuss assays that have been developed in flies to study the function of specific genes in the central nervous system, heart, liver and kidney, and provide examples of the use of these assays to address questions related to human diseases. These assays provide us with simple yet powerful tools to study the pathogenic mechanisms associated with human disease-causing genes.

  17. Research priorities for Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a review and analysis of the research landscape for three diseases - Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis - that disproportionately afflict poor and remote populations with limited access to health services. It represents the work of the disease reference group on Chagas Disease, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis (DRG3) which was established to identify key research priorities through review of research evidence and input from stakeholders' consultations. The diseases, which are caused by related protozoan parasites, are described in terms of their epidemiology and diseases burden, clinical forms and pathogenesis, HIV coinfection, diagnosis, drugs and drug resistance, vaccines, vector control, and health-care interventions. Priority areas for research are identified based on criteria such as public health relevance, benefit and impact on poor populations and equity, and feasibility. The priorities are found in the areas of diagnostics, drugs, vector control, asymptomatic infection, economic analysis of treatment and vector control methods, and in some specific issues such as surveillance methods or transmission-blocking vaccines for particular diseases. This report will be useful to researchers, policy and decision-makers, funding bodies, implementation organizations, and civil society. This is one of ten disease and thematic reference group reports that have come out of the TDR Think Tank, all of which have contributed to the development of the Global Report for Research on Infectious Diseases of Poverty, available at: www.who.int/tdr/stewardship/global_report/en/index.html.

  18. RPGR: Its role in photoreceptor physiology, human disease, and future therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaw, Roly D; Soares, Dinesh C; Wright, Alan F

    2015-09-01

    Mammalian photoreceptors contain specialised connecting cilia that connect the inner (IS) to the outer segments (OS). Dysfunction of the connecting cilia due to mutations in ciliary proteins are a common cause of the inherited retinal dystrophy retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Mutations affecting the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) protein is one such cause, affecting 10-20% of all people with RP and the majority of those with X-linked RP. RPGR is located in photoreceptor connecting cilia. It interacts with a wide variety of ciliary proteins, but its exact function is unknown. Recently, there have been important advances both in our understanding of RPGR function and towards the development of a therapy. This review summarises the existing literature on human RPGR function and dysfunction, and suggests that RPGR plays a role in the function of the ciliary gate, which controls access of both membrane and soluble proteins to the photoreceptor outer segment. We discuss key models used to investigate and treat RPGR disease and suggest that gene augmentation therapy offers a realistic therapeutic approach, although important questions still remain to be answered, while cell replacement therapy based on retinal progenitor cells represents a more distant prospect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Rare human diseases: 9p deletion syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galagan V.O.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study was to review the anamnesis, pheno - and genotype in patients with rare chromosome disorders such as 9p deletion syndrome. Genetic methods of investigation (clinical and genealogical, cytogenetic, FISH- method, paraclinical and instrumental methods of examination were used. Karyotyping was performed by the G-method of differential staining of chromosomes. Only three cases of pathology were diagnosed in the Medical Genetics Center over the last 10 years. By anamnesis data nobody in the probands’ families had bad habits, was exposed to occupational hazards, took part in the elimination of the Chernobyl accident or lived in contaminated areas. Clinical signs of diseases have not been identified in probands’ parents. All probands had trigonocephaly, bilateral epicanthal folds, ocular hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, long philtrum, flat face and nasal bridge, low set ears with malformed auricles. Two patients of three ones had exophthalmos, contracture of the second and third fingers, abnormal external genitalia. In all three cases there was monosomy of chromosome 9 of critical segment p 24. Normal karyotypes were seen in all parents, so there were three cases of new mutations of 9p deletion syndrome. Retardation of physical, psycho-spech, mental development in proband with or without congenital anomalies requires medical genetic counseling in a specialized institution. Cases of reproductive loss in anamnesis require cytogenetic investigation of fetal membranes and amniotic fluid.

  20. Infectious prion diseases in humans: cannibalism, iatrogenicity and zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïk, Stéphane; Brandel, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In contrast with other neurodegenerative disorders associated to protein misfolding, human prion diseases include infectious forms (also called transmitted forms) such as kuru, iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The transmissible agent is thought to be solely composed of the abnormal isoform (PrP(Sc)) of the host-encoded prion protein that accumulated in the central nervous system of affected individuals. Compared to its normal counterpart, PrP(Sc) is β-sheet enriched and aggregated and its propagation is based on an autocatalytic conversion process. Increasing evidence supports the view that conformational variations of PrP(Sc) encoded the biological properties of the various prion strains that have been isolated by transmission studies in experimental models. Infectious forms of human prion diseases played a pivotal role in the emergence of the prion concept and in the characterization of the very unconventional properties of prions. They provide a unique model to understand how prion strains are selected and propagate in humans. Here, we review and discuss how genetic factors interplay with strain properties and route of transmission to influence disease susceptibility, incubation period and phenotypic expression in the light of the kuru epidemics due to ritual endocannibalism, the various series iatrogenic diseases secondary to extractive growth hormone treatment or dura mater graft and the epidemics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease linked to dietary exposure to the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Channelopathies - Emerging Trends in The Management of Inherited Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Chockalingam, MBBS, MRCPCH, PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of their relative rarity, inheritable arrhythmias have come to the forefront as a group of potentially fatal but preventable cause of sudden cardiac death in children and (young adults. Comprehensive management of inherited arrhythmias includes diagnosing and treating the proband and identifying and protecting affected family members. This has been made possible by the vast advances in the field of molecular biology enabling better understanding of the genetic underpinnings of some of these disease groups, namely congenital long QT syndrome, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and Brugada syndrome. The ensuing knowledge of the genotype-phenotype correlations enables us to risk-stratify, prognosticate and treat based on the genetic test results. The various diagnostic modalities currently available to us, including clinical tools and genetic technologies, have to be applied judiciously in order to promptly identify those affected and to spare the emotional burden of a potentially lethal disease in the unaffected individuals. The therapeutic armamentarium of inherited arrhythmias includes pharmacological agents, device therapies and surgical interventions. A treatment strategy keeping in mind the risk profile of the patients, the local availability of drugs and the expertise of the treating personnel is proving effective. While opportunities for research are numerous in this expanding field of medicine, there is also tremendous scope for incorporating the emerging trends in managing patients and families with inherited arrhythmias in the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Modelling Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are being modelled in-vitro using human patient-specific, induced pluripotent stem cells and transgenic embryonic stem cells to determine more about disease mechanisms, as well as to discover new treatments for patients. Current research in modelling Alzheimer’s disease......, frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson’s disease using pluripotent stem cells is described, along with the advent of gene-editing, which has been the complimentary tool for the field. Current methods used to model these diseases are predominantly dependent on 2D cell culture methods. Outcomes reveal that only...... that includes studying more complex 3D cell cultures, as well as accelerating aging of the neurons, may help to yield stronger phenotypes in the cultured cells. Thus, the use and application of pluripotent stem cells for modelling disease have already shown to be a powerful approach for discovering more about...

  3. Osteosarcoma inheritance in two families of Scottish deerhounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillberger, John E; McAtee, Sara Ann

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common neoplastic disease in Scottish Deerhounds. For Deerhounds, a 2007 population-based study concluded that a single dominant genetic factor largely governed disease risk. For Greyhounds, Rottweilers, and Irish Wolfhounds, a 2013 genome-wide association study found multiple genetic markers in each breed, with each marker only weakly associated with the disease. We obtained from two breeders the pedigrees, age (if alive) or age at death, and osteosarcoma status for two families of Scottish Deerhounds, designated Cohorts K and T. A dog was considered unaffected only if it was osteosarcoma-free and at least 8.5 years old. We analyzed the data in two ways, by assuming either a single recessive genetic factor or a single dominant genetic factor with high penetrance. Cohort K contained 54 evaluable dogs representing 12 litters. Cohort T contained 56 evaluable dogs representing eight litters. Osteosarcoma seemed clearly heritable in both cohorts; however, having a parent with osteosarcoma raised a pup's risk of developing osteosarcoma to 38% for Cohort K but 78% for Cohort T, suggesting the possibility of different genetic risk factors in each cohort. In Cohort K, osteosarcoma inheritance fit well with a single, recessive, autosomal risk factor, although we could not rule out the possibility of a single dominant risk factor with incomplete penetrance. In Cohort T, inheritance could be explained well by a single, dominant, autosomal risk factor but was inconsistent with recessive expression. Inheritance of osteosarcoma in two Scottish Deerhound families could be explained well by a single genetic risk factor residing on an autosome, consistent with a 2007 report. In one family, inheritance was consistent with dominant expression, as previously reported. In the other family, inheritance fit better with recessive expression, although the possibility of a dominant genetic factor influenced by one or more other genetic factors could not be ruled

  4. Genetic engineering in nonhuman primates for human disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenya; Sasaki, Erika

    2018-02-01

    Nonhuman primate (NHP) experimental models have contributed greatly to human health research by assessing the safety and efficacy of newly developed drugs, due to their physiological and anatomical similarities to humans. To generate NHP disease models, drug-inducible methods, and surgical treatment methods have been employed. Recent developments in genetic and developmental engineering in NHPs offer new options for producing genetically modified disease models. Moreover, in recent years, genome-editing technology has emerged to further promote this trend and the generation of disease model NHPs has entered a new era. In this review, we summarize the generation of conventional disease model NHPs and discuss new solutions to the problem of mosaicism in genome-editing technology.

  5. Natural selection and infectious disease in human populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Elinor K.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    The ancient biological 'arms race' between microbial pathogens and humans has shaped genetic variation in modern populations, and this has important implications for the growing field of medical genomics. As humans migrated throughout the world, populations encountered distinct pathogens, and natural selection increased the prevalence of alleles that are advantageous in the new ecosystems in both host and pathogens. This ancient history now influences human infectious disease susceptibility and microbiome homeostasis, and contributes to common diseases that show geographical disparities, such as autoimmune and metabolic disorders. Using new high-throughput technologies, analytical methods and expanding public data resources, the investigation of natural selection is leading to new insights into the function and dysfunction of human biology. PMID:24776769

  6. Genome editing of human pluripotent stem cells to generate human cellular disease models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Musunuru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Disease modeling with human pluripotent stem cells has come into the public spotlight with the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2012 to Drs John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent. This discovery has opened the door for the generation of pluripotent stem cells from individuals with disease and the differentiation of these cells into somatic cell types for the study of disease pathophysiology. The emergence of genome-editing technology over the past few years has made it feasible to generate and investigate human cellular disease models with even greater speed and efficiency. Here, recent technological advances in genome editing, and its utility in human biology and disease studies, are reviewed.

  7. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Human Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Rescues Functional Deficits in R6/2 and Q140 Huntington's Disease Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack C. Reidling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder with no disease-modifying treatment. Expansion of the glutamine-encoding repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT gene causes broad effects that are a challenge for single treatment strategies. Strategies based on human stem cells offer a promising option. We evaluated efficacy of transplanting a good manufacturing practice (GMP-grade human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (hNSC line into striatum of HD modeled mice. In HD fragment model R6/2 mice, transplants improve motor deficits, rescue synaptic alterations, and are contacted by nerve terminals from mouse cells. Furthermore, implanted hNSCs are electrophysiologically active. hNSCs also improved motor and late-stage cognitive impairment in a second HD model, Q140 knockin mice. Disease-modifying activity is suggested by the reduction of aberrant accumulation of mutant HTT protein and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in both models. These findings hold promise for future development of stem cell-based therapies.

  9. Interconnectivity of human cellular metabolism and disease prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2010-12-01

    Fluctuations of metabolic reaction fluxes may cause abnormal concentrations of toxic or essential metabolites, possibly leading to metabolic diseases. The mutual binding of enzymatic proteins and ones involving common metabolites enforces distinct coupled reactions, by which local perturbations may spread through the cellular network. Such network effects at the molecular interaction level in human cellular metabolism can reappear in the patterns of disease occurrence. Here we construct the enzyme-reaction network and the metabolite-reaction network, capturing the flux coupling of metabolic reactions caused by the interacting enzymes and the shared metabolites, respectively. Diseases potentially caused by the failure of individual metabolic reactions can be identified by using the known disease-gene association, which allows us to derive the probability of an inactivated reaction causing diseases from the disease records at the population level. We find that the greater the number of proteins that catalyze a reaction, the higher the mean prevalence of its associated diseases. Moreover, the number of connected reactions and the mean size of the avalanches in the networks constructed are also shown to be positively correlated with the disease prevalence. These findings illuminate the impact of the cellular network topology on disease development, suggesting that the global organization of the molecular interaction network should be understood to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug discovery.

  10. Human prion diseases: surgical lessons learned from iatrogenic prion transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, David J; Manjila, Sunil; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Khan, Fahd; Miller, Benjamin R; Onwuzulike, Kaine; Puoti, Gianfranco; Cohen, Mark L; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Cali, Ignazio

    2016-07-01

    The human prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have captivated our imaginations since their discovery in the Fore linguistic group in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s. The mysterious and poorly understood "infectious protein" has become somewhat of a household name in many regions across the globe. From bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly identified as mad cow disease, to endocannibalism, media outlets have capitalized on these devastatingly fatal neurological conditions. Interestingly, since their discovery, there have been more than 492 incidents of iatrogenic transmission of prion diseases, largely resulting from prion-contaminated growth hormone and dura mater grafts. Although fewer than 9 cases of probable iatrogenic neurosurgical cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have been reported worldwide, the likelihood of some missed cases and the potential for prion transmission by neurosurgery create considerable concern. Laboratory studies indicate that standard decontamination and sterilization procedures may be insufficient to completely remove infectivity from prion-contaminated instruments. In this unfortunate event, the instruments may transmit the prion disease to others. Much caution therefore should be taken in the absence of strong evidence against the presence of a prion disease in a neurosurgical patient. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have devised risk assessment and decontamination protocols for the prevention of iatrogenic transmission of the prion diseases, incidents of possible exposure to prions have unfortunately occurred in the United States. In this article, the authors outline the historical discoveries that led from kuru to the identification and isolation of the pathological prion proteins in addition to providing a brief description of human prion diseases and iatrogenic forms of CJD, a brief history of prion disease nosocomial transmission

  11. Defective glycolysis and the use of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in polycystic kidney disease: from animal models to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistroni, Riccardo; Boletta, Alessandra

    2017-08-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited renal disease characterized by bilateral renal cyst formation. ADPKD is one of the most common rare disorders, accounting for ~10% of all patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ADPKD is a chronic disorder in which the gradual expansion of cysts that form in a minority of nephrons eventually causes loss of renal function due to the compression and degeneration of the surrounding normal parenchyma. Numerous deranged pathways have been identified in the cyst-lining epithelia, prompting the design of potential therapies. Several of these potential treatments have proved effective in slowing down disease progression in pre-clinical animal studies, while only one has subsequently been proven to effectively slow down disease progression in patients, and it has recently been approved for therapy in Europe, Canada and Japan. Among the affected cellular functions and pathways, recent investigations have described metabolic derangement in ADPKD as a major trait offering additional opportunities for targeted therapies. In particular, increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) has been described as a prominent feature of ADPKD kidneys and its inhibition using the glucose analogue 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) proved effective in slowing down disease progression in preclinical models of the disease. At the same time, previous clinical experiences have been reported with 2DG, showing that this compound is well tolerated in humans with minimal and reversible side effects. In this work, we review the literature and speculate that 2DG could be a good candidate for a clinical trial in humans affected by ADPKD.

  12. Bowen's Disease Associated With Two Human Papilloma Virus Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hojat; Gharaei Nejad, Kaveh; Azimi, Seyyede Zeinab; Rafiei, Rana; Mesbah, Alireza

    2017-09-01

    Bowen's disease (BD) is an epidermal in-situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Most Human Papilloma Viruses (HPV)-positive lesions in Bowen's disease are localized to the genital region or distal extremities (periungual sites) in which HPV type-16 is frequently detected. Patient was a 64-year-old construction worker for whom we detected 2 erythematous psoriasiform reticular scaly plaques on peri-umbilical and medial knee. Biopsy established the diagnosis of Bowen's disease and polymerase chain reaction assay showed HPV-6, -18 co-infection. Patient was referred for surgical excision.

  13. Human gene therapy and imaging in neurological diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Andreas H.; Winkler, Alexandra; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    Molecular imaging aims to assess non-invasively disease-specific biological and molecular processes in animal models and humans in vivo. Apart from precise anatomical localisation and quantification, the most intriguing advantage of such imaging is the opportunity it provides to investigate the time course (dynamics) of disease-specific molecular events in the intact organism. Further, molecular imaging can be used to address basic scientific questions, e.g. transcriptional regulation, signal transduction or protein/protein interaction, and will be essential in developing treatment strategies based on gene therapy. Most importantly, molecular imaging is a key technology in translational research, helping to develop experimental protocols which may later be applied to human patients. Over the past 20 years, imaging based on positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been employed for the assessment and ''phenotyping'' of various neurological diseases, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and brain gliomas. While in the past neuro-anatomical studies had to be performed post mortem, molecular imaging has ushered in the era of in vivo functional neuro-anatomy by allowing neuroscience to image structure, function, metabolism and molecular processes of the central nervous system in vivo in both health and disease. Recently, PET and MRI have been successfully utilised together in the non-invasive assessment of gene transfer and gene therapy in humans. To assess the efficiency of gene transfer, the same markers are being used in animals and humans, and have been applied for phenotyping human disease. Here, we review the imaging hallmarks of focal and disseminated neurological diseases, such as cerebral ischaemia, neurodegeneration and glioblastoma multiforme, as well as the attempts to translate gene therapy's experimental knowledge into clinical applications and the way in which this process is being promoted through the use of

  14. Effects of antibiotics on human microbiota and subsequent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Kristie M; Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Finlay, B Brett

    2014-01-01

    Although antibiotics have significantly improved human health and life expectancy, their disruption of the existing microbiota has been linked to significant side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, and increased susceptibility to subsequent disease. By using antibiotics to break colonization resistance against Clostridium, Salmonella, and Citrobacter species, researchers are now exploring mechanisms for microbiota-mediated modulation against pathogenic infection, revealing potential roles for different phyla and family members as well as microbiota-liberated sugars, hormones, and short-chain fatty acids in regulating pathogenicity. Furthermore, connections are now being made between microbiota dysbiosis and a variety of different diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, atopy, and obesity. Future advances in the rapidly developing field of microbial bioinformatics will enable researchers to further characterize the mechanisms of microbiota modulation of disease and potentially identify novel therapeutics against disease.

  15. Human heart disease : lessons from human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, E.; Mummery, C.L.; Bellin, M.

    2017-01-01

    Technical advances in generating and phenotyping cardiomyocytes from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-CMs) are now driving their wider acceptance as in vitro models to understand human heart disease and discover therapeutic targets that may lead to new compounds for clinical use. Current

  16. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junha Shin

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life-Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota-suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co-inheritance

  17. Interconnectivity of human cellular metabolism and disease prevalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Fluctuations of metabolic reaction fluxes may cause abnormal concentrations of toxic or essential metabolites, possibly leading to metabolic diseases. The mutual binding of enzymatic proteins and ones involving common metabolites enforces distinct coupled reactions, by which local perturbations may spread through the cellular network. Such network effects at the molecular interaction level in human cellular metabolism can reappear in the patterns of disease occurrence. Here we construct the enzyme-reaction network and the metabolite-reaction network, capturing the flux coupling of metabolic reactions caused by the interacting enzymes and the shared metabolites, respectively. Diseases potentially caused by the failure of individual metabolic reactions can be identified by using the known disease–gene association, which allows us to derive the probability of an inactivated reaction causing diseases from the disease records at the population level. We find that the greater the number of proteins that catalyze a reaction, the higher the mean prevalence of its associated diseases. Moreover, the number of connected reactions and the mean size of the avalanches in the networks constructed are also shown to be positively correlated with the disease prevalence. These findings illuminate the impact of the cellular network topology on disease development, suggesting that the global organization of the molecular interaction network should be understood to assist in disease diagnosis, treatment, and drug discovery

  18. Lipid metabolism in peroxisomes in relation to human disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, R. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Peroxisomes were long believed to play only a minor role in cellular metabolism but it is now clear that they catalyze a number of important functions. The importance of peroxisomes in humans is stressed by the existence of a group of genetic diseases in man in which one or more peroxisomal

  19. Gene therapy in nonhuman primate models of human autoimmune disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    t'Hart, B. A.; Vervoordeldonk, M.; Heeney, J. L.; Tak, P. P.

    2003-01-01

    Before autoimmune diseases in humans can be treated with gene therapy, the safety and efficacy of the used vectors must be tested in valid experimental models. Monkeys, such as the rhesus macaque or the common marmoset, provide such models. This publication reviews the state of the art in monkey

  20. Clinical Characteristics and Current Therapies for Inherited Retinal Degenerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahel, José-Alain; Marazova, Katia; Audo, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) encompass a large group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases that affect approximately 1 in 3000 people (>2 million people worldwide) (Bessant DA, Ali RR, Bhattacharya SS. 2001. Molecular genetics and prospects for therapy of the inherited retinal dystrophies. Curr Opin Genet Dev 11: 307–316.). IRDs may be inherited as Mendelian traits or through mitochondrial DNA, and may affect the entire retina (e.g., rod–cone dystrophy, also known as retinitis pigmentosa, cone dystrophy, cone–rod dystrophy, choroideremia, Usher syndrome, and Bardet-Bidel syndrome) or be restricted to the macula (e.g., Stargardt disease, Best disease, and Sorsby fundus dystrophy), ultimately leading to blindness. IRDs are a major cause of severe vision loss, with profound impact on patients and society. Although IRDs remain untreatable today, significant progress toward therapeutic strategies for IRDs has marked the past two decades. This progress has been based on better understanding of the pathophysiological pathways of these diseases and on technological advances. PMID:25324231

  1. [Leprosy, a pillar of human genetics of infectious diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschignard, J; Scurr, E; Alcaïs, A

    2013-06-01

    Despite a natural reservoir of Mycobacterium leprae limited to humans and free availability of an effective antibiotic treatment, more than 200,000 people develop leprosy each year. This disease remains a major cause of disability and social stigma worldwide. The cause of this constant incidence is currently unknown and indicates that important aspects of the complex relationship between the pathogen and its human host remain to be discovered. An important contribution of host genetics to susceptibility to leprosy has long been suggested to account for the considerable variability between individuals sustainably exposed to M. leprae. Given the inability to cultivate M. leprae in vitro and in the absence of relevant animal model, genetic epidemiology is the main strategy used to identify the genes and, consequently, the immunological pathways involved in protective immunity to M. leprae. Recent genome-wide studies have identified new pathophysiological pathways which importance is only beginning to be understood. In addition, the prism of human genetics placed leprosy at the crossroads of other common diseases such as Crohn's disease, asthma or myocardial infarction. Therefore, novel lights on the pathogenesis of many common diseases could eventually emerge from the detailed understanding of a disease of the shadows. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Single-Domain Antibodies As Therapeutics against Human Viral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In full-size formats, monoclonal antibodies have been highly successful as therapeutics against cancer and immune diseases. However, their large size leads to inaccessibility of some epitopes and relatively high production costs. As an alternative, single-domain antibodies (sdAbs offer special advantages compared to full-size antibodies, including smaller size, larger number of accessible epitopes, relatively low production costs and improved robustness. Currently, sdAbs are being developed against a number of viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, influenza viruses, hepatitis C virus (HCV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, and enteric viruses. Although sdAbs are very potent inhibitors of viral infections, no sdAbs have been approved for clinical use against virial infection or any other diseases. In this review, we discuss the current state of research on sdAbs against viruses and their potential as therapeutics against human viral diseases.

  3. Leveraging human-centered design in chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Pacione, Chris; Shultz, Rebecca K; Klügl, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Bridging the knowing-doing gap in the prevention of chronic disease requires deep appreciation and understanding of the complexities inherent in behavioral change. Strategies that have relied exclusively on the implementation of evidence-based data have not yielded the desired progress. The tools of human-centered design, used in conjunction with evidence-based data, hold much promise in providing an optimal approach for advancing disease prevention efforts. Directing the focus toward wide-scale education and application of human-centered design techniques among healthcare professionals will rapidly multiply their effective ability to bring the kind of substantial results in disease prevention that have eluded the healthcare industry for decades. This, in turn, would increase the likelihood of prevention by design. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxu; Lu, Yongmei; Zhou, Sen; Chen, Lifan; Xu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Climate change refers to long-term shifts in weather conditions and patterns of extreme weather events. It may lead to changes in health threat to human beings, multiplying existing health problems. This review examines the scientific evidences on the impact of climate change on human infectious diseases. It identifies research progress and gaps on how human society may respond to, adapt to, and prepare for the related changes. Based on a survey of related publications between 1990 and 2015, the terms used for literature selection reflect three aspects--the components of infectious diseases, climate variables, and selected infectious diseases. Humans' vulnerability to the potential health impacts by climate change is evident in literature. As an active agent, human beings may control the related health effects that may be effectively controlled through adopting proactive measures, including better understanding of the climate change patterns and of the compound disease-specific health effects, and effective allocation of technologies and resources to promote healthy lifestyles and public awareness. The following adaptation measures are recommended: 1) to go beyond empirical observations of the association between climate change and infectious diseases and develop more scientific explanations, 2) to improve the prediction of spatial-temporal process of climate change and the associated shifts in infectious diseases at various spatial and temporal scales, and 3) to establish locally effective early warning systems for the health effects of predicated climate change. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Rules for Islamic Inheritance Law in Indonesia Using Hybrid Rule Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosyi'ah, S.; Irfan, M.; Maylawati, D. S.; Mukhlas, O. S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with the development of human civilization in Indonesia, the changes and reform of Islamic inheritance law so as to conform to the conditions and culture cannot be denied. The distribution of inheritance in Indonesia can be done automatically by storing the rule of Islamic inheritance law in the expert system. In this study, we analyze the knowledge of experts in Islamic inheritance in Indonesia and represent it in the form of rules using rule-based Forward Chaining (FC) and Davis-Putman-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) algorithms. By hybridizing FC and DPLL algorithms, the rules of Islamic inheritance law in Indonesia are clearly defined and measured. The rules were conceptually validated by some experts in Islamic laws and informatics. The results revealed that generally all rules were ready for use in an expert system.

  6. Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes (IBMFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI IBMFS Cohort Study consists of affected individuals and their immediate families in North America who have an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS)-either one that has been specifically identified and defined, or bone marrow failure that appears to be inherited but has not yet been clearly identified as having a genetic basis.

  7. A second inheritance system: the extension of biology through culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-10-06

    By the mid-twentieth century (thus following the 'Modern Synthesis' in evolutionary biology), the behavioural sciences offered only the sketchy beginnings of a scientific literature documenting evidence for cultural inheritance in animals-the transmission of traditional behaviours via learning from others (social learning). By contrast, recent decades have seen a massive growth in the documentation of such cultural phenomena, driven by long-term field studies and complementary laboratory experiments. Here, I review the burgeoning scope of discoveries in this field, which increasingly suggest that this 'second inheritance system', built on the shoulders of the primary genetic inheritance system, occurs widely among vertebrates and possibly in invertebrates too. Its novel characteristics suggest significant implications for our understanding of evolutionary biology. I assess the extent to which this second system extends the scope of evolution, both by echoing principal properties of the primary, organic evolutionary system, and going beyond it in significant ways. This is well established in human cultural evolution; here, I address animal cultures more generally. The further major, and related, question concerns the extent to which the consequences of widespread animal cultural transmission interact with the primary, genetically based inheritance systems, shaping organic evolution.

  8. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Szramka-Pawlak, Beata; Żaba, Ryszard; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Silny, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Morphea (localized scleroderma) is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index). Material and methods Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and skin biopsies. Results In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01). Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing. PMID:28261031

  9. Human endogenous retroviruses and chosen disease parameters in morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał J. Kowalczyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphea (localized scleroderma is a relatively rare disease characterized by excessive skin fibrosis. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV are largely distributed within the human genome with hundreds of thousands of elements. The HERV have been widely studied in autoimmune disorders, yet hardly ever assessed in diseases with a good prognosis such as morphea. Aim: In this study we focus on the possible relations between the expression of chosen HERV and factors influencing the pathomechanism of the disease, such as age, sex, titres of anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as duration, activity, and severity of the disease (LoSSI index. Material and methods: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting six HERV sequences of interest were performed on samples derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and skin biopsies. Results: In PBMC we found a statistically significant negative correlation between HERV-W env expression and LoSSI index (p = 0.01. Additionally, HERV-W env was downregulated in patients with the active form of morphea. In all other cases we found no correlation whatsoever nor statistically significant differences below the p = 0.05 threshold. Conclusions : Morphea seems to be an autoimmune disease where the impact of HERV is not so apparent. It seems that probing many patients for the expression of just a few sequences is not as effective as previously expected. For initial studies of HERV in other diseases we recommend high throughput techniques such as HERV-dedicated DNA microarrays or massive parallel sequencing.

  10. A framework for annotating human genome in disease context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huisong; Cheng, Wenqing; Fu, Dong; Xia, Tian; Kibbe, Warren A; Lin, Simon M

    2012-01-01

    Identification of gene-disease association is crucial to understanding disease mechanism. A rapid increase in biomedical literatures, led by advances of genome-scale technologies, poses challenge for manually-curated-based annotation databases to characterize gene-disease associations effectively and timely. We propose an automatic method-The Disease Ontology Annotation Framework (DOAF) to provide a comprehensive annotation of the human genome using the computable Disease Ontology (DO), the NCBO Annotator service and NCBI Gene Reference Into Function (GeneRIF). DOAF can keep the resulting knowledgebase current by periodically executing automatic pipeline to re-annotate the human genome using the latest DO and GeneRIF releases at any frequency such as daily or monthly. Further, DOAF provides a computable and programmable environment which enables large-scale and integrative analysis by working with external analytic software or online service platforms. A user-friendly web interface (doa.nubic.northwestern.edu) is implemented to allow users to efficiently query, download, and view disease annotations and the underlying evidences.

  11. Differential overexpression of SERPINA3 in human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, S; Moda, F; Zattoni, M; Bistaffa, E; De Cecco, E; Rossi, M; Giaccone, G; Tagliavini, F; Haïk, S; Deslys, J P; Zanusso, G; Ironside, J W; Ferrer, I; Kovacs, G G; Legname, G

    2017-11-15

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders with sporadic, genetic or acquired etiologies. The molecular alterations leading to the onset and the spreading of these diseases are still unknown. In a previous work we identified a five-gene signature able to distinguish intracranially BSE-infected macaques from healthy ones, with SERPINA3 showing the most prominent dysregulation. We analyzed 128 suitable frontal cortex samples, from prion-affected patients (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) n = 20, iatrogenic CJD (iCJD) n = 11, sporadic CJD (sCJD) n = 23, familial CJD (gCJD) n = 17, fatal familial insomnia (FFI) n = 9, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS)) n = 4), patients with Alzheimer disease (AD, n = 14) and age-matched controls (n = 30). Real Time-quantitative PCR was performed for SERPINA3 transcript, and ACTB, RPL19, GAPDH and B2M were used as reference genes. We report SERPINA3 to be strongly up-regulated in the brain of all human prion diseases, with only a mild up-regulation in AD. We show that this striking up-regulation, both at the mRNA and at the protein level, is present in all types of human prion diseases analyzed, although to a different extent for each specific disorder. Our data suggest that SERPINA3 may be involved in the pathogenesis and the progression of prion diseases, representing a valid tool for distinguishing different forms of these disorders in humans.

  12. The evolutionary implications of epigenetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonka, Eva

    2017-10-06

    The Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (MS) forged in the mid-twentieth century was built on a notion of heredity that excluded soft inheritance, the inheritance of the effects of developmental modifications. However, the discovery of molecular mechanisms that generate random and developmentally induced epigenetic variations is leading to a broadening of the notion of biological heredity that has consequences for ideas about evolution. After presenting some old challenges to the MS that were raised, among others, by Karl Popper, I discuss recent research on epigenetic inheritance, which provides experimental and theoretical support for these challenges. There is now good evidence that epigenetic inheritance is ubiquitous and is involved in adaptive evolution and macroevolution. I argue that the many evolutionary consequences of epigenetic inheritance open up new research areas and require the extension of the evolutionary synthesis beyond the current neo-Darwinian model.

  13. Inheritance of tristyly in Oxalis tuberosa (Oxalidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trognitz, B R; Hermann, M

    2001-05-01

    Frequencies of floral morphs in progenies obtained from a complete set of diallelic crosses among three accessions of tristylous, octoploid oca (Oxalis tuberosa) were used for a Mendelian analysis of floral morph inheritance. The frequencies observed had the best fit to a model of tetrasomic inheritance with two diallelic factors, S, s and M, m, with S being epistatic over M. No explanation could be found for the unexpected formation of a small percentage of short-styled individuals in crosses between the mid-styled and the long-styled parent. For the acceptance of models of disomic and octosomic inheritance several additional assumptions would have to be made and therefore these modes of inheritance are less likely. Dosage-dependent inheritance of floral morph was rejected. Only a small frequency (36%) of the cross progenies flowered, in contrast to the greater propensity for flowering of O. tuberosa accessions held at gene banks.

  14. Ten inherited disorders in purebred dogs by functional breed groupings

    OpenAIRE

    Oberbauer, A. M.; Belanger, J. M.; Bellumori, T.; Bannasch, D. L.; Famula, T. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Analysis of 88,635 dogs seen at the University of California, Davis Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from 1995 to 2010 identified ten inherited conditions having greater prevalence within the purebred dog population as compared to the mixed-breed dog population: aortic stenosis, atopy/allergic dermatitis, gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV), early onset cataracts, dilated cardiomyopathy, elbow dysplasia, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, intervertebral disk disease (IVDD), and hepatic po...

  15. Human anthrax as a re-emerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganay, Mehmet; Demiraslan, Hayati

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores and the etiological agent is B. anthracis which is a gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming, and rod shaped bacterium. Bacillus anthracis spores are highly resistant to heat, pressure, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, chemical agents and disinfectants. For these reasons, B. anthracis spores are an attractive choice as biological agents for the use of bioweapon and/or bioterrorism. Soil is the main reservoir for the infectious agent. The disease most commonly affects wild and domestic mammals. Human are secondarily infected by contact with infected animals and contaminated animal products or directly expose to B. anthracis spores. Anthrax occurs worldwide. This infection is still endemic or hyperendemic in both animals and humans in some part of areas of the world; particularly in Middle East, West Africa, Central Asia, some part of India, South America. However, some countries are claiming free of anthrax, and anthrax has become a re-emerging disease in western countries with the intentional outbreak. Currently, anthrax is classified according to its setting as (1) naturally occurring anthrax, (2) bioterrorism-related anthrax. Vast majority of human anthrax are occurring as naturally occurring anthrax in the world. It is also a threaten disease for western countries. The aim of this paper is to review the relevant patents, short historical perspective, microbiological and epidemiological features, clinical presentations and treatment.

  16. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-04-23

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of

  17. The human oral metaproteome reveals potential biomarkers for caries disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Williamson, James; Simón-Soro, Áurea

    2015-01-01

    metabolism and immune response. We applied multivariate analysis in order to find the minimum set of proteins that better allows discrimination of healthy and caries-affected dental plaque samples, detecting seven bacterial and five human protein functions that allow determining the health status......Tooth decay is considered the most prevalent human disease worldwide. We present the first metaproteomic study of the oral biofilm, using different mass spectrometry approaches that have allowed us to quantify individual peptides in healthy and caries-bearing individuals. A total of 7771 bacterial...... and 853 human proteins were identified in 17 individuals, which provide the first available protein repertoire of human dental plaque. Actinomyces and Coryneybacterium represent a large proportion of the protein activity followed by Rothia and Streptococcus. Those four genera account for 60-90% of total...

  18. A novel human model of the neurodegenerative disease GM1 gangliosidosis using induced pluripotent stem cells demonstrates inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mi-Young; Kwak, Jae Eun; Seol, Binna; Lee, Da Yong; Jeon, Hyejin; Cho, Yee Sook

    2015-09-01

    GM1 gangliosidosis (GM1) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the lysosomal β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene. Insufficient β-gal activity leads to abnormal accumulation of GM1 gangliosides in tissues, particularly in the central nervous system, resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Here, we report an in vitro human GM1 model, based on induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology. Neural progenitor cells differentiated from GM1 patient-derived iPSCs (GM1-NPCs) recapitulated the biochemical and molecular phenotypes of GM1, including defective β-gal activity and increased lysosomes. Importantly, the characterization of GM1-NPCs established that GM1 is significantly associated with the activation of inflammasomes, which play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. Specific inflammasome inhibitors potently alleviated the disease-related phenotypes of GM1-NPCs in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate that GM1-NPCs are a valuable in vitro human GM1 model and suggest that inflammasome activation is a novel target pathway for GM1 drug development. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Prominent Optic Disc Featured in Inherited Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, M G; Bojinova, R I; Valmaggia, C; Schorderet, D F

    2017-04-01

    Background We investigated the relationship between prominent optic disc (POD) and inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD). Patients and Methods A cross-sectional consecutive study was performed in 10 children and 11 adults of 7 non-related families. We performed clinical phenotyping, including a detailed examination, fundus autofluorescence, and colour fundus and OCT imaging. Genetic testing was subsequently performed for all family members presenting retinal pathology. Results In 4 members of a 3-generation family, hyperfluorescent deposits on the surface of POD were related to a p.(L224M) heterozygous mutation in BEST1 . In the second family, one member presented deposits located on the surface on hyperaemic OD and a compound p.(R141H);(A195V) mutation in BEST1 . In the third family, POD was observed in father and child with early onset cone-rod dystrophy and a novel autosomal recessive p.(W31*) homozygous mutation in ABCA4 . In the fourth family, POD with "mulberry-like" deposits and attenuated vessels were observed in a 7-year old girl, with a mutation in USH1A , and with early onset rod-cone dystrophy, associated with hearing loss. In the fifth family, blurry OD with tortuous vessels was observed in 4 consanguineous female carriers and a hemizygous boy with a p.(R200H) mutation in the X-linked retinoschisis RS1 . In the sixth family, a mother and her son were both affected with POD and attenuated peripapillary vessels, and presented with a p.(Y836C) heterozygous mutation in TOPORS , thus confirming autosomal dominant RP. In the seventh family, in 3 family members with POD, compound p.(L541P;A1038 V);(G1961E) mutations in ABCA4 confirmed the diagnosis of Stargardt disease. Conclusions A variety of OD findings are found in a genetically heterogeneous group of IRDs. In the presence of POD, an inherited progressive photoreceptor disease should be ruled out. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Coalgebraic structure of genetic inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianjun; Li, Bai-Lian

    2004-09-01

    Although in the broadly defined genetic algebra, multiplication suggests a forward direction of from parents to progeny, when looking from the reverse direction, it also suggests to us a new algebraic structure-coalge- braic structure, which we call genetic coalgebras. It is not the dual coalgebraic structure and can be used in the construction of phylogenetic trees. Math- ematically, to construct phylogenetic trees means we need to solve equations x([n]) = a, or x([n]) = b. It is generally impossible to solve these equations inalgebras. However, we can solve them in coalgebras in the sense of tracing back for their ancestors. A thorough exploration of coalgebraic structure in genetics is apparently necessary. Here, we develop a theoretical framework of the coalgebraic structure of genetics. From biological viewpoint, we defined various fundamental concepts and examined their elementary properties that contain genetic significance. Mathematically, by genetic coalgebra, we mean any coalgebra that occurs in genetics. They are generally noncoassociative and without counit; and in the case of non-sex-linked inheritance, they are cocommutative. Each coalgebra with genetic realization has a baric property. We have also discussed the methods to construct new genetic coalgebras, including cocommutative duplication, the tensor product, linear combinations and the skew linear map, which allow us to describe complex genetic traits. We also put forward certain theorems that state the relationship between gametic coalgebra and gametic algebra. By Brower's theorem in topology, we prove the existence of equilibrium state for the in-evolution operator.

  1. Human Parasitic Diseases in Bulgaria in Between 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainova, Iskra; Harizanov, Rumen; Kaftandjiev, Iskren; Tsvetkova, Nina; Mikov, Ognyan; Kaneva, Eleonora

    2018-01-01

    Background: In Bulgaria, more than 20 autochthonous human parasitic infections have been described and some of them are widespread. Over 50 imported protozoan and helminthic infections represent diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and pose epidemiological risks due to the possibility of local transmission. Aims: To establish the distribution of autochthonous and imported parasitic diseases among the population of the country over a 2-year period (2013-2014) and to evaluate their significance in the public health system. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: We used the annual reports by regional health inspectorates and data from the National Reference Laboratory at the National Centre of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases on all individuals infected with parasitic diseases in the country. Prevalence was calculated for parasitic diseases with few or absent clinical manifestations (oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic infections). Incidence per 100.000 was calculated for diseases with an overt clinical picture or those that required hospitalisation and specialised medical interventions (e.g. surgery). Results: During the research period, parasitological studies were conducted on 1441.244 persons, and parasitic infections were diagnosed in 22.039 individuals. Distribution of various parasitic pathogens among the population displayed statistically significant differences in prevalence for some intestinal parasites (enterobiasis 0.81%, giardiasis 0.34% and blastocystosis 0.22%). For certain zoonotic diseases such as cystic echinococcosis (average incidence of 3.99 per 100.000) and trichinellosis (average incidence of 0.8 per 100.000), the incidence exceeds several times the annual incidence recorded in the European Union. Conclusion: Parasitic diseases still pose a substantial problem with social and medical impacts on the residents of our country. Improved efficiency regarding autochthonous and imported parasitic diseases is essential in providing the public

  2. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  3. Limits to human enhancement: nature, disease, therapy or betterment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-10-10

    New technologies facilitate the enhancement of a wide range of human dispositions, capacities, or abilities. While it is argued that we need to set limits to human enhancement, it is unclear where we should find resources to set such limits. Traditional routes for setting limits, such as referring to nature, the therapy-enhancement distinction, and the health-disease distinction, turn out to have some shortcomings. However, upon closer scrutiny the concept of enhancement is based on vague conceptions of what is to be enhanced. Explaining why it is better to become older, stronger, and more intelligent presupposes a clear conception of goodness, which is seldom provided. In particular, the qualitative better is frequently confused with the quantitative more. We may therefore not need "external" measures for setting its limits - they are available in the concept of enhancement itself. While there may be shortcomings in traditional sources of limit setting to human enhancement, such as nature, therapy, and disease, such approaches may not be necessary. The specification-of-betterment problem inherent in the conception of human enhancement itself provides means to restrict its unwarranted proliferation. We only need to demand clear, sustainable, obtainable goals for enhancement that are based on evidence, and not on lofty speculations, hypes, analogies, or weak associations. Human enhancements that specify what will become better, and provide adequate evidence, are good and should be pursued. Others should not be accepted.

  4. Lipidomics of human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudí, Alba; Cabré, Rosanna; Jové, Mariona; Ayala, Victoria; Gonzalo, Hugo; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2015-01-01

    Lipids stimulated and favored the evolution of the brain. Adult human brain contains a large amount of lipids, and the largest diversity of lipid classes and lipid molecular species. Lipidomics is defined as "the full characterization of lipid molecular species and of their biological roles with respect to expression of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and function, including gene regulation." Therefore, the study of brain lipidomics can help to unravel the diversity and to disclose the specificity of these lipid traits and its alterations in neural (neurons and glial) cells, groups of neural cells, brain, and fluids such as cerebrospinal fluid and plasma, thus helping to uncover potential biomarkers of human brain aging and Alzheimer disease. This review will discuss the lipid composition of the adult human brain. We first consider a brief approach to lipid definition, classification, and tools for analysis from the new point of view that has emerged with lipidomics, and then turn to the lipid profiles in human brain and how lipids affect brain function. Finally, we focus on the current status of lipidomics findings in human brain aging and Alzheimer's disease pathology. Neurolipidomics will increase knowledge about physiological and pathological functions of brain cells and will place the concept of selective neuronal vulnerability in a lipid context. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Andrew; Fiske, Laurie; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Verstegen, John; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Struck, Maggie B.; Lee, Young Mok; Chou, Janice Y.; Byrne, Barry J.; Correia, Catherine E.; Mah, Cathryn S.; Weinstein, David A.; Conlon, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size,...

  6. Are human endogenous retroviruses triggers of autoimmune diseases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Bjørn A; Villesen, Palle; Nissen, Kari K

    2016-01-01

    factors. Viruses including human endogenous retroviruses have long been linked to the occurrence of autoimmunity, but never proven to be causative factors. Endogenous viruses are retroviral sequences embedded in the host germline DNA and transmitted vertically through successive generations in a Mendelian...... manner. In this study by means of genetic epidemiology, we have searched for the involvement of endogenous retroviruses in three selected autoimmune diseases: multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis. We found that at least one human endogenous retroviral locus...

  7. Generation of a miniature pig disease model for human Laron syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Cui; Fang Li; Qiuyan Li; Jia Li; Yaofeng Zhao; Xiaoxiang Hu; Ran Zhang; Ning Li

    2015-01-01

    Laron syndrome is a rare disease caused by mutations of the growth hormone receptor (GHR), inheriting in an autosomal manner. To better understand the pathogenesis and to develop therapeutics, we generated a miniature pig model for this disease by employing ZFNs to knock out GHR gene. Three types of F0 heterozygous pigs (GHR+/4bp, GHR+/2bp, GHR+/3bp) were obtained and in which no significant phenotypes of Laron syndrome were observed. Prior to breed heterozygous pigs to homozygosity (GHR4bp/4...

  8. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system.

  9. Molecular clocks and the human condition: approaching their characterization in human physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, G A; Yang, G; Paschos, G K; Liang, X; Skarke, C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular clockworks knit together diverse biological networks and compelling evidence from model systems infers their importance in metabolism, immunological and cardiovascular function. Despite this and the diurnal variation in many aspects of human physiology and the phenotypic expression of disease, our understanding of the role and importance of clock function and dysfunction in humans is modest. There are tantalizing hints of connection across the translational divide and some correlative evidence of gene variation and human disease but most of what we know derives from forced desynchrony protocols in controlled environments. We now have the ability to monitor quantitatively ex vivo or in vivo the genome, metabolome, proteome and microbiome of humans in the wild. Combining this capability, with the power of mobile telephony and the evolution of remote sensing, affords a new opportunity for deep phenotyping, including the characterization of diurnal behaviour and the assessment of the impact of the clock on approved drug function. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Under the lash: Demodex mites in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Noreen; Kavanagh, Kevin; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2009-08-01

    Demodex mites, class Arachnida and subclass Acarina, are elongated mites with clear cephalothorax and abdomens, the former with four pairs of legs. There are more than 100 species of Demodex mite, many of which are obligatory commensals of the pilosebaceous unit of mammals including cats, dogs, sheep, cattle, pigs, goats, deer, bats, hamsters, rats and mice. Among them, Demodex canis, which is found ubiquitously in dogs, is the most documented and investigated. In excessive numbers D. canis causes the inflammatory disease termed demodicosis (demodectic mange, follicular mange or red mange), which is more common in purebred dogs and has a hereditary predisposition in breeding kennels1. Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as the most common ectoparasite in man. The larger Demodex folliculorum, about 0.3-0.4 mm long, is primarily found as a cluster in the hair follicle (Figure 1a), while the smaller Demodex brevis, about 0.2-0.3 mm long with a spindle shape and stubby legs, resides solitarily in the sebaceous gland (Figure 1b). These two species are also ubiquitously found in all human races without gender preference. The pathogenic role of Demodex mites in veterinary medicine is not as greatly disputed as in human diseases. In this article, we review the key literature and our joint research experience regarding the pathogenic potential of these two mites in causing inflammatory diseases of human skin and eye. We hope that the evidence summarized herein will invite readers to take a different look at the life of Demodex mites in several common human diseases.

  11. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2016-01-01

    The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.

  12. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    and specialization of classes (inheritance) are considered different abstractions. We present a new programming language, Lapis, that unifies inheritance and program specialization at the conceptual, syntactic, and semantic levels. This paper presents the initial development of Lapis, which uses inheritance...... with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented...

  13. Testamental inheritance: Just a legal osmosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević-Crnobrnja Jadranka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bequeath, a dispose of personal property by the last will is an example of intervention of legislation within the complex of customary law. This influence is not unusual but certainly is less frequent than the influence of customary into civil law, especially so in their interaction within inheritance. This paper therefore tries to explain this example of legal osmosis in practice. In addition, the practice in testament inheritance shows also an influence of customary law into legislation. Hence, the paper will also try to discuss a relationship between customary and civil laws and succeeding problems in inheritance at the levels of individual and that of the society.

  14. Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tupper, B O J; Keane, A J; Hall, G S; Coley, A A; Carot, J

    2003-01-01

    We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case

  15. Law & psychiatry: Murder, inheritance, and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Azgad; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2011-07-01

    Should a murderer be allowed to inherit the victim's estate? The question dates from biblical times, but most jurisdictions today have statutes in place that bar inheritance by convicted murderers. However, a special problem arises when the killer has a severe mental illness and has been found not guilty by reason of insanity. Should such people, who have not been convicted of a crime, be permitted to collect their inheritance? Jurisdictions vary in their responses, with the rules reflecting a mix of practical and moral considerations influenced by different perspectives about what determines the behavior of persons with mental illness.

  16. The relative importance of inheritances in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Marianne Lefsaker

    2014-01-01

    In a very influential paper, Piketty (2011) finds that inherited wealth is of increasing importance in France. He describes a U-shaped pattern in the long-run development of inheritance flows. Two driving factors in this development are the relative ratio of wealth of the deceased to wealth of the living, and the wealth-income ratio. In periods with high economic growth, wealth of the past is weakened and inheritances as share of national income decreases. As soon as growth declines, however,...

  17. Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells: a platform for human disease modeling and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiho; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Dongjin R; Kim, Ji Young; Huh, Yong Jun; Kim, Dae-Sung; Park, Chul-Yong; Hwang, Dong-Youn; Kim, Han-Soo; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2012-03-31

    The generation of disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from patients with incurable diseases is a promising approach for studying disease mechanisms and drug screening. Such innovation enables to obtain autologous cell sources in regenerative medicine. Herein, we report the generation and characterization of iPSCs from fibroblasts of patients with sporadic or familial diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), juvenile-onset, type I diabetes mellitus (JDM), and Duchenne type muscular dystrophy (DMD), as well as from normal human fibroblasts (WT). As an example to modeling disease using disease-specific iPSCs, we also discuss the previously established childhood cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy (CCALD)- and adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN)-iPSCs by our group. Through DNA fingerprinting analysis, the origins of generated disease-specific iPSC lines were identified. Each iPSC line exhibited an intense alkaline phosphatase activity, expression of pluripotent markers, and the potential to differentiate into all three embryonic germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. Expression of endogenous pluripotent markers and downregulation of retrovirus-delivered transgenes [OCT4 (POU5F1), SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC] were observed in the generated iPSCs. Collectively, our results demonstrated that disease-specific iPSC lines characteristically resembled hESC lines. Furthermore, we were able to differentiate PD-iPSCs, one of the disease-specific-iPSC lines we generated, into dopaminergic (DA) neurons, the cell type mostly affected by PD. These PD-specific DA neurons along with other examples of cell models derived from disease-specific iPSCs would provide a powerful platform for examining the pathophysiology of relevant diseases at the cellular and molecular levels and for developing new drugs and therapeutic regimens.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of interleukin-27 in human chronic periapical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Rong; Huang, Shi-Guang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to observe expression of IL-27 on different cells in periapical tissues of different types of human chronic periapical diseases. Periapical tissue specimens of 60 donors, including healthy control (n=20), periapical granuloma group (n=20) and radicular cysts group (n=20), were fixed in 10% buffered formalin, stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Then specimens were stained with double- immuno-fluorescence assay for identification of IL-27-tryptase (mast cells, MCs), IL-27-CD14 (mononuclear phagocyte cells, MPs) and IL-27-CD31 (endothelial cells, ECs) double-positive cells in periapical tissues. The results indicated that compared with healthy control, the densities (cells/mm 2 ) of IL-27-tryptase, IL-27-CD14 and IL-27-CD31 double-positive cells were significantly increased in human chronic periapical diseases (periapical granuloma group and radicular cysts group) ( P cysts group was significantly higher than those in periapical granuloma group ( P periapical granuloma group had no significant difference with those in radicular cysts group ( P =0.170 and 0.138, respectively). IL-27-CD14 double positive cells density achieved to peak among three cell groups in radicular cysts groups. In conclusion, IL-27 expressed in MCs, MPs and ECs of human chronic periapical diseases with different degrees. IL-27-tryptase double-positive cells may participate in pathogenic mechanism of chronic periapical diseases, especially for formation of fibrous in periapical cysts. IL-27-CD14 and IL-27-CD31 double-positive cells may participate in immunologic response to resist periapical infection, and they may play an dual role in pathogenesis and localization of periapical diseases.

  19. Regulation of Mitochondrial Genome Inheritance by Autophagy and Ubiquitin-Proteasome System: Implications for Health, Fitness, and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Hee Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria, the energy-generating organelles, play a role in numerous cellular functions including adenosine triphosphate (ATP production, cellular homeostasis, and apoptosis. Maternal inheritance of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA is universally observed in humans and most animals. In general, high levels of mitochondrial heteroplasmy might contribute to a detrimental effect on fitness and disease resistance. Therefore, a disposal of the sperm-derived mitochondria inside fertilized oocytes assures normal preimplantation embryo development. Here we summarize the current research and knowledge concerning the role of autophagic pathway and ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolysis in sperm mitophagy in mammals, including humans. Current data indicate that sperm mitophagy inside the fertilized oocyte could occur along multiple degradation routes converging on autophagic clearance of paternal mitochondria. The influence of assisted reproductive therapies (ART such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, mitochondrial replacement (MR, and assisted fertilization of oocytes from patients of advanced reproductive age on mitochondrial function, inheritance, and fitness and for the development and health of ART babies will be of particular interest to clinical audiences. Altogether, the study of sperm mitophagy after fertilization has implications in the timing of evolution and developmental and reproductive biology and in human health, fitness, and management of mitochondrial disease.

  20. Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation using donors or recipients with inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joshua A; Magaret, Amalia S; Hall-Sedlak, Ruth; Mikhaylova, Anna; Huang, Meei-Li; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Hansen, John A; Jerome, Keith R; Zerr, Danielle M; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-08-24

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) species have a unique ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. Mendelian inheritance via gametocyte integration results in HHV-6 in every nucleated cell. The epidemiology and clinical effect of inherited chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (iciHHV-6) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients is unclear. We identified 4319 HCT donor-recipient pairs (8638 subjects) who received an allogeneic HCT and had archived pre-HCT peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. We screened these samples for iciHHV-6 and compared characteristics of HCT recipients and donors with iciHHV-6 with those of recipients and donors without iciHHV-6, respectively. We calculated Kaplan-Meier probability estimates and Cox proportional hazards models for post-HCT outcomes based on recipient and donor iciHHV-6 status. We identified 60 HCT recipients (1.4%) and 40 donors (0.9%) with iciHHV-6; both recipient and donor harbored iciHHV-6 in 13 HCTs. Thus, there were 87 HCTs (2%) in which the recipient, donor, or both harbored iciHHV-6. Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grades 2-4 was more frequent when recipients or donors had iciHHV-6 (adjusted hazard ratios, 1.7-1.9; P = .004-.001). Cytomegalovirus viremia (any and high-level) was more frequent among recipients with iciHHV-6 (adjusted HRs, 1.7-3.1; P = .001-.040). Inherited ciHHV-6 status did not significantly affect risk for chronic GVHD, hematopoietic cell engraftment, overall mortality, or nonrelapse mortality. Screening for iciHHV-6 could guide donor selection and post-HCT risk stratification and treatment. Further study is needed to replicate these findings and identify potential mechanisms. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Human hereditary diseases associated with elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Yosuke

    1988-01-01

    Human recessive diseases collectively known as chromosome breakage syndromes include Fanconi's anemia, Bloom's syndrome and ataxia telangiectasia. Cells from these patients show chromosome instabilities both spontaneously and following treatments with radiations or certain chemicals, where defects in DNA metabolisms are supposed to be involved. Cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia are hypersensitive to ionizing radiations, though DNA replication is less affected than in normal cells. Chromatid-type as well as chromosom-type aberrations are induced in cells irradiated in G 0 or G 1 phases. These unusual responses to radiations may provide clues for understanding the link between DNA replicative response and cellular radiosensitivity. Alterations in cellular radiosensitivity or spontaneous chromosome instabilities are observed in some patients with congenital chromosome anomalies or dominant diseases, where underlying defects may be different from those in recessive diseases. (author)

  2. DNA repair processes and their impairment in some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Some human diseases show enhanced sensitivity to the action of environmental mutagens, and among these several are known which are defective in the repair of damaged DNA. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is mainly defective in excision repair of a large variety of damaged DNA bases caused by ultraviolet light and chemical mutagens. XP involves at least 6 distinct groups, some of which may lack cofactors required for excising damage from chromatin. As a result of these defects the sensitivity of XP cells to many mutagens is increased 5- to 10-fold. Ataxia telangiectasia and Fanconi's anemia may similarly involve defects in repair of certain DNA base damage or cross-links, respectively. But most of these and other mutagen-sensitive diseases only show increases of about 2-fold in sensitivity to mutagens, and the biochemical defects in the diseases may be more complex and less directly involved in DNA repair than in XP. (Auth.)

  3. Human hereditary diseases associated with elevated frequency of chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ejima, Yosuke; Ikushima, Takaji (ed.)

    1988-07-01

    Human recessive diseases collectively known as chromosome breakage syndromes include Fanconi's anemia, Bloom's syndrome and ataxia telangiectasia. Cells from these patients show chromosome instabilities both spontaneously and following treatments with radiations or certain chemicals, where defects in DNA metabolisms are supposed to be involved. Cells from patients with ataxia telangiectasia are hypersensitive to ionizing radiations, though DNA replication is less affected than in normal cells. Chromatid-type as well as chromosom-type aberrations are induced in cells irradiated in G/sub 0/ or G/sub 1/ phases. These unusual responses to radiations may provide clues for understanding the link between DNA replicative response and cellular radiosensitivity. Alterations in cellular radiosensitivity or spontaneous chromosome instabilities are observed in some patients with congenital chromosome anomalies or dominant diseases, where underlying defects may be different from those in recessive diseases.

  4. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS. PREVENTION OF HPV-ASSOCIATED DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Shakhtakhtinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases among the population attracts attention of specialists in all countries due to frequent development of complications resulting in reproductive dysfunction. The article presents one of the urgent issues of modern medicine — papillomavirus infection, which is the most common sexually transmitted disease. 70–80% of the sexually active persons contract human papilloma virus at one point. HPV induces a broad range of oncological reproductive diseases, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer and anogenital condylomae, which are observed both in men and women. The only reliable method of preventing papillomavirus infection is vaccination. The authors present new data on the use of the quadrivalent vaccine, including a new immunization pattern for 9–14-years-old girls.

  5. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  6. Reverse engineering human neurodegenerative disease using pluripotent stem cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenbin

    2016-05-01

    With the technology of reprogramming somatic cells by introducing defined transcription factors that enables the generation of "induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)" with pluripotency comparable to that of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), it has become possible to use this technology to produce various cells and tissues that have been difficult to obtain from living bodies. This advancement is bringing forth rapid progress in iPSC-based disease modeling, drug screening, and regenerative medicine. More and more studies have demonstrated that phenotypes of adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders could be rather faithfully recapitulated in iPSC-derived neural cell cultures. Moreover, despite the adult-onset nature of the diseases, pathogenic phenotypes and cellular abnormalities often exist in early developmental stages, providing new "windows of opportunity" for understanding mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders and for discovering new medicines. The cell reprogramming technology enables a reverse engineering approach for modeling the cellular degenerative phenotypes of a wide range of human disorders. An excellent example is the study of the human neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using iPSCs. ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs), culminating in muscle wasting and death from respiratory failure. The iPSC approach provides innovative cell culture platforms to serve as ALS patient-derived model systems. Researchers have converted iPSCs derived from ALS patients into MNs and various types of glial cells, all of which are involved in ALS, to study the disease. The iPSC technology could be used to determine the role of specific genetic factors to track down what's wrong in the neurodegenerative disease process in the "disease-in-a-dish" model. Meanwhile, parallel experiments of targeting the same specific genes in human ESCs could also be performed to control

  7. Proteomic approach in human health and disease: Preventive and cure studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MM Koriem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic is a branch of science that deals with various numbers of proteins where proteins are essential human constituents. Proteomic has a lot of functions inside the human and animal living organisms. This review helps to make a thought on the importance of proteomic application in human health and disease with special reference to preventive and cure studies. The human health can be divided into physical and mental health. The physical health relates to keeping human body state in a good health and to nutritional type and environmental factors. The mental health correlates to human psychological state. The main factors that affect the status of human health are human diet, exercise and sleep. The healthy diet is very important and needs to maintain the human health. The training program exercise improves human fitness and overall health and wellness. The sleep is a vital factor to sustain the human health. The human disease indicates abnormal human condition which influences the specific human part or the whole human body. There are external and internal factors which induce human disease. The external factors include pathogens while internal factors include allergies and autoimmunity. There are 4 principle types of human diseases: (1 infectious disease, (2 deficiency disease, (3 genetic disease and (4 physiological disease. There are many and various external microbes' factors that induce human infectious disease and these agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The lack of necessary and vital dietary rudiments such as vitamins and minerals is the main cause of human deficiency disease. The genetic disease is initiated by hereditary disturbances that occur in the human genetic map. The physiological disease occurs when the normal human function body is affected due to human organs become malfunction. In conclusion, proteomic plays a vital and significant role in human health and disease.

  8. DRUMS: a human disease related unique gene mutation search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuofeng; Liu, Xingnan; Wen, Jingran; Xu, Ye; Zhao, Xin; Li, Xuan; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2011-10-01

    With the completion of the human genome project and the development of new methods for gene variant detection, the integration of mutation data and its phenotypic consequences has become more important than ever. Among all available resources, locus-specific databases (LSDBs) curate one or more specific genes' mutation data along with high-quality phenotypes. Although some genotype-phenotype data from LSDB have been integrated into central databases little effort has been made to integrate all these data by a search engine approach. In this work, we have developed disease related unique gene mutation search engine (DRUMS), a search engine for human disease related unique gene mutation as a convenient tool for biologists or physicians to retrieve gene variant and related phenotype information. Gene variant and phenotype information were stored in a gene-centred relational database. Moreover, the relationships between mutations and diseases were indexed by the uniform resource identifier from LSDB, or another central database. By querying DRUMS, users can access the most popular mutation databases under one interface. DRUMS could be treated as a domain specific search engine. By using web crawling, indexing, and searching technologies, it provides a competitively efficient interface for searching and retrieving mutation data and their relationships to diseases. The present system is freely accessible at http://www.scbit.org/glif/new/drums/index.html. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. IgY antibodies in human nutrition for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sandra; Schubert, Andreas; Zajac, Julia; Dyck, Terry; Oelkrug, Christopher

    2015-10-20

    Oral administration of preformed specific antibodies is an attractive approach against infections of the digestive system in humans and animals in times of increasing antibiotic resistances. Previous studies showed a positive effect of egg yolk IgY antibodies on bacterial intoxications in animals and humans. Immunization of chickens with specific antigens offers the possibility to create various forms of antibodies. Research shows that orally applied IgY's isolated from egg yolks can passively cure or prevent diseases of the digestive system. The use of these alternative therapeutic drugs provides further advantages: (1) The production of IgY's is a non-invasive alternative to current methods; (2) The keeping of chickens is inexpensive; (3) The animals are easy to handle; (4) It avoids repetitive bleeding of laboratory animals; (5) It is also very cost effective regarding the high IgY concentration within the egg yolk. Novel targets of these antigen specific antibodies are Helicobacter pylori and also molecules involved in signaling pathways in gastric cancer. Furthermore, also dental caries causing bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or opportunistic Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients are possible targets. Therefore, IgY's included in food for human consumption may be able to prevent or cure human diseases.

  10. Transient HEXA expression in a transformed human fetal Tay-Sachs disease neuroglial cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, M.J.; Hechtman, P.; Kaplan, F. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of GM{sub 2} ganglioside in the neurons of the central cortex. The recessively inherited disorder results from deficiency of hexosaminidase A (Hex A), a heterodimer of an {alpha} and {beta} subunit encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes. Expression of HEXA mutations in COS cells has several disadvantages including high endogenous hexosaminidase activity. We report a new transient expression system with very low endogenous Hex A activity. An SV40-transformed fetal TSD neuroglial cell line was assessed for transient expression of the HEXA gene. pCMV{alpha}, a vector incorporating the cytomegalovirus promoter with the human {alpha}-subunit cDNA insert, proved to be the most efficient expression vector. Transfection of 4x10{sup 6} cells with 5-20 {mu}g of plasmid resulted in 100 to 500-fold Hex A activity (4MUGS hydrolysis) relative to mock-transfected cells. Use of pCMV{beta}-Gal as a control for transfection efficiency indicated that 10-20% of cells were transfected. Hex A specific activity increased for at least 72 h post-transfection. This new transient expression system should greatly improve the characterization of mutations in which low levels of HEXA expression result in milder clinical phenotypes and permit studies on enzymatic properties of mutant forms of Hex A. Since the cells used are of CNS origin and synthesize gangliosides, it should also be possible to study, in culture, the metabolic phenotype associated with TSD.

  11. Autosomal dominant inheritance of Weaver syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, A; Smith, C; Rosenbloom, L; Cole, T

    1997-01-01

    Most report of Weaver syndrome have been sporadic cases and the genetic basis of the syndrome is uncertain. This report of an affected father and daughter provides evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance.

  12. Defeasible inheritance-based description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available of Artificial Intelligence Research 2013 Defeasible Inheritance-based Description Logics Giovanni Casini GCASINI@CSIR.CO.ZA Centre for Artificial Intelligence Research (CAIR), CSIR Meraka Institute and UKZN, South Africa Umberto Straccia UMBERTO...

  13. Imaging neuroreceptors in the human brain in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Frost, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    For nearly a century it has been known that chemical activity accompanies mental activity, but only recently has it been possible to begin to examine its exact nature. Positron-emitting radioactive tracers have made it possible to study the chemistry of the human brain in health and disease, using chiefly cyclotron-produced radionuclides, carbon-11, fluorine-18 and oxygen-15. It is now well established that measurable increases in regional cerebral blood flow, and glucose and oxygen metabolism accompany the mental functions of perception, cognition, emotion and motion. On 25 May 1983 the first imaging of a neuroreceptor in the human brain was accomplished with carbon-11 N-methyl spiperone, a ligand that binds preferentially to dopamine-2 receptors, 80% of which are located in the caudate nucleus and putamen. Quantitative imaging of serotonin-2, opiate, benzodiazapine and muscarinic cholinergic receptors has subsequently been accomplished. In studies of normal men and women, it has been found that dopamine and serotonin receptor activity decreases dramatically with age, such a decrease being more pronounced in men than in women and greater in the case of dopamine-2 receptors than in serotonin-2 receptors. Preliminary studies of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders suggest that dopamine-2 receptor activity is diminished in the caudate nucleus of patients with Huntington's disease. Positron tomography permits a quantitative assay of picomolar quantities of neuroreceptors within the living human brain. Studies of patients with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, acute and chronic pain states and drug addiction are now in progress. (author)

  14. Ricci inheritance symmetry in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, A.H.; Al-Dweik, A.; Zaman, F.D.; Karim, M.; Kubel, D.

    2010-01-01

    In an earlier paper (see Nuovo Cimento B, 19 (2004) 1187) it was conjectured that none of the well-known spherically symmetric static space-time solutions of the Einstein equations admit non-trivial Ricci inheritance symmetry. In this paper we discuss Ricci inheritance (R I) symmetry in three well-known non static spherically symmetric space-time metrics and show that our conjecture is also valid in non-static space-time metrics.

  15. Mammary gland cancer in a colony of beagle dogs: Inheritance, and p53 ampersand erbB-2 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.; Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, Tierney, L.A.; Lechner, J.F.; Hahn, F.F.

    1994-01-01

    One American woman in nine will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. This somber statistic translates into 182,000 new diagnoses and 46,000 deaths per year. Efforts to decrease breast cancer mortality have focused on early detection and improved treatment. Such efforts would be facilitated by the identification of individuals predisposed to the disease. A family history of the disease can increase a woman's risk for developing breast cancer by two- to six-fold. Inheritance of this disease is consistent with at least one susceptibility locus on chromosome 17 (17q12-21) with incomplete penetrance. However, other mechanisms of inherited susceptibility also contribute to the high incidence of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to characterize familial pattern of mammary cancer development in the dog colony. In addition, the expression of the p53 tumor supressor gene and c-erbB2 (p185 erbB2 ) oncogene proteins, which are frequently altered in human breast cancer, were examined in dogs susceptible and resistant to mammary cancer

  16. Drosophila as an In Vivo Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Leeanne; Berson, Amit; Bonini, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in the ageing population, neurodegenerative disease is devastating to families and poses a huge burden on society. The brain and spinal cord are extraordinarily complex: they consist of a highly organized network of neuronal and support cells that communicate in a highly specialized manner. One approach to tackling problems of such complexity is to address the scientific questions in simpler, yet analogous, systems. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been proven tremendously valuable as a model organism, enabling many major discoveries in neuroscientific disease research. The plethora of genetic tools available in Drosophila allows for exquisite targeted manipulation of the genome. Due to its relatively short lifespan, complex questions of brain function can be addressed more rapidly than in other model organisms, such as the mouse. Here we discuss features of the fly as a model for human neurodegenerative disease. There are many distinct fly models for a range of neurodegenerative diseases; we focus on select studies from models of polyglutamine disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that illustrate the type and range of insights that can be gleaned. In discussion of these models, we underscore strengths of the fly in providing understanding into mechanisms and pathways, as a foundation for translational and therapeutic research. PMID:26447127

  17. Global Considerations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylance, Jamie; Meghji, Jamilah; Miller, Robert F; Ferrand, Rashida A

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory tract infection, particularly tuberculosis, is a major cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in a dramatic increase in survival, although coverage of HIV treatment remains low in many parts of the world. There is a concurrent growing burden of chronic noninfectious respiratory disease as a result of increased survival. Many risk factors associated with the development of respiratory disease, such as cigarette smoking and intravenous drug use, are overrepresented among people living with HIV. In addition, there is emerging evidence that HIV infection may directly cause or accelerate the course of chronic lung disease. This review summarizes the clinical spectrum and epidemiology of respiratory tract infections and noninfectious pulmonary pathologies, and factors that explain the global variation in HIV-associated respiratory disease. The potential for enhancing diagnoses of noninfective chronic conditions through the use of clinical algorithms is discussed. We also consider issues in assessment and management of HIV-related respiratory disease in view of the increasing global scale up of ART. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Mercury-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Carvan

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is a ubiquitous environmental neurotoxicant, with human exposures predominantly resulting from fish consumption. Developmental exposure of zebrafish to MeHg is known to alter their neurobehavior. The current study investigated the direct exposure and transgenerational effects of MeHg, at tissue doses similar to those detected in exposed human populations, on sperm epimutations (i.e., differential DNA methylation regions [DMRs] and neurobehavior (i.e., visual startle and spontaneous locomotion in zebrafish, an established human health model. F0 generation embryos were exposed to MeHg (0, 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 nM for 24 hours ex vivo. F0 generation control and MeHg-exposed lineages were reared to adults and bred to yield the F1 generation, which was subsequently bred to the F2 generation. Direct exposure (F0 generation and transgenerational actions (F2 generation were then evaluated. Hyperactivity and visual deficit were observed in the unexposed descendants (F2 generation of the MeHg-exposed lineage compared to control. An increase in F2 generation sperm epimutations was observed relative to the F0 generation. Investigation of the DMRs in the F2 generation MeHg-exposed lineage sperm revealed associated genes in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction and actin-cytoskeleton pathways being effected, which correlate to the observed neurobehavioral phenotypes. Developmental MeHg-induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of abnormal neurobehavior is correlated with sperm epimutations in F2 generation adult zebrafish. Therefore, mercury can promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease in zebrafish, which significantly impacts its environmental health considerations in all species including humans.

  19. Does cross-generational epigenetic inheritance contribute to cultural continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembrey, Marcus E

    2018-04-01

    Human studies of cross-generational epigenetic inheritance have to consider confounding by social patterning down the generations, often referred to as 'cultural inheritance'. This raises the question to what extent is 'cultural inheritance' itself epigenetically mediated rather than just learnt. Human studies of non-genetic inheritance have demonstrated that, beyond foetal life, experiences occurring in mid-childhood before puberty are the most likely to be associated with cross-generational responses in the next generation(s). It is proposed that cultural continuity is played out along the axis, or 'payoff', between responsiveness and stability. During the formative years of childhood a stable family and/or home permits small children to explore and thereby learn. To counter disruptions to this family home ideal, cultural institutions such as local schools, religious centres and market places emerged to provide ongoing stability, holding the received wisdom of the past in an accessible state. This cultural support allows the growing child to freely indulge their responsiveness. Some of these prepubertal experiences induce epigenetic responses that also transfer molecular signals to the gametes through which they contribute to the conception of future offspring. In parallel co-evolution with growing cultural support for increasing responsiveness, 'runaway' responsiveness is countered by the positive selection of genetic variants that dampen responsiveness. Testing these ideas within longitudinal multigenerational cohorts will need information on ancestors/parents' own communities and experiences (Exposome scans) linked to ongoing Phenome scans on grandchildren; coupled with epigenome analysis, metastable epialleles and DNA methylation age. Interactions with genetic variants affecting responsiveness should help inform the broad hypothesis.

  20. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Selber-Hnatiw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics.

  1. Human Gut Microbiota: Toward an Ecology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber-Hnatiw, Susannah; Rukundo, Belise; Ahmadi, Masoumeh; Akoubi, Hayfa; Al-Bizri, Hend; Aliu, Adelekan F.; Ambeaghen, Tanyi U.; Avetisyan, Lilit; Bahar, Irmak; Baird, Alexandra; Begum, Fatema; Ben Soussan, Hélène; Blondeau-Éthier, Virginie; Bordaries, Roxane; Bramwell, Helene; Briggs, Alicia; Bui, Richard; Carnevale, Matthew; Chancharoen, Marisa; Chevassus, Talia; Choi, Jin H.; Coulombe, Karyne; Couvrette, Florence; D'Abreau, Samantha; Davies, Meghan; Desbiens, Marie-Pier; Di Maulo, Tamara; Di Paolo, Sean-Anthony; Do Ponte, Sabrina; dos Santos Ribeiro, Priscyla; Dubuc-Kanary, Laure-Anne; Duncan, Paola K.; Dupuis, Frédérique; El-Nounou, Sara; Eyangos, Christina N.; Ferguson, Natasha K.; Flores-Chinchilla, Nancy R.; Fotakis, Tanya; Gado Oumarou H D, Mariam; Georgiev, Metodi; Ghiassy, Seyedehnazanin; Glibetic, Natalija; Grégoire Bouchard, Julien; Hassan, Tazkia; Huseen, Iman; Ibuna Quilatan, Marlon-Francis; Iozzo, Tania; Islam, Safina; Jaunky, Dilan B.; Jeyasegaram, Aniththa; Johnston, Marc-André; Kahler, Matthew R.; Kaler, Kiranpreet; Kamani, Cedric; Karimian Rad, Hessam; Konidis, Elisavet; Konieczny, Filip; Kurianowicz, Sandra; Lamothe, Philippe; Legros, Karina; Leroux, Sebastien; Li, Jun; Lozano Rodriguez, Monica E.; Luponio-Yoffe, Sean; Maalouf, Yara; Mantha, Jessica; McCormick, Melissa; Mondragon, Pamela; Narayana, Thivaedee; Neretin, Elizaveta; Nguyen, Thi T. T.; Niu, Ian; Nkemazem, Romeo B.; O'Donovan, Martin; Oueis, Matthew; Paquette, Stevens; Patel, Nehal; Pecsi, Emily; Peters, Jackie; Pettorelli, Annie; Poirier, Cassandra; Pompa, Victoria R.; Rajen, Harshvardhan; Ralph, Reginald-Olivier; Rosales-Vasquez, Josué; Rubinshtein, Daria; Sakr, Surya; Sebai, Mohammad S.; Serravalle, Lisa; Sidibe, Fily; Sinnathurai, Ahnjana; Soho, Dominique; Sundarakrishnan, Adithi; Svistkova, Veronika; Ugbeye, Tsolaye E.; Vasconcelos, Megan S.; Vincelli, Michael; Voitovich, Olga; Vrabel, Pamela; Wang, Lu; Wasfi, Maryse; Zha, Cong Y.; Gamberi, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health. Emerging knowledge of the ecology of the microbiota-host synergy will have an impact on how we implement antibiotic treatment in therapeutics and prophylaxis and how we will consider alternative strategies of global remodeling of the microbiota such as fecal transplants. Here we examine the microbiota-human host relationship from the perspective of the microbial community dynamics. PMID:28769880

  2. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoki Mwabukusi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara, Burundi (Muyinga and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke. Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server–client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6, and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing

  3. Towards clinical molecular diagnosis of inherited cardiac conditions: a comparison of bench-top genome DNA sequencers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Li

    Full Text Available Molecular genetic testing is recommended for diagnosis of inherited cardiac disease, to guide prognosis and treatment, but access is often limited by cost and availability. Recently introduced high-throughput bench-top DNA sequencing platforms have the potential to overcome these limitations.We evaluated two next-generation sequencing (NGS platforms for molecular diagnostics. The protein-coding regions of six genes associated with inherited arrhythmia syndromes were amplified from 15 human samples using parallelised multiplex PCR (Access Array, Fluidigm, and sequenced on the MiSeq (Illumina and Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. Overall, 97.9% of the target was sequenced adequately for variant calling on the MiSeq, and 96.8% on the Ion Torrent PGM. Regions missed tended to be of high GC-content, and most were problematic for both platforms. Variant calling was assessed using 107 variants detected using Sanger sequencing: within adequately sequenced regions, variant calling on both platforms was highly accurate (Sensitivity: MiSeq 100%, PGM 99.1%. Positive predictive value: MiSeq 95.9%, PGM 95.5%. At the time of the study the Ion Torrent PGM had a lower capital cost and individual runs were cheaper and faster. The MiSeq had a higher capacity (requiring fewer runs, with reduced hands-on time and simpler laboratory workflows. Both provide significant cost and time savings over conventional methods, even allowing for adjunct Sanger sequencing to validate findings and sequence exons missed by NGS.MiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM both provide accurate variant detection as part of a PCR-based molecular diagnostic workflow, and provide alternative platforms for molecular diagnosis of inherited cardiac conditions. Though there were performance differences at this throughput, platforms differed primarily in terms of cost, scalability, protocol stability and ease of use. Compared with current molecular genetic diagnostic tests for inherited cardiac arrhythmias

  4. Functional modules, mutational load and human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Norann A; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-04-01

    The ability to generate a massive amount of sequencing and genotyping data is transforming the study of human genetic disorders. Driven by such innovation, it is likely that whole exome and whole-genome resequencing will replace regionally focused approaches for gene discovery and clinical testing in the next few years. However, this opportunity brings a significant interpretative challenge to assigning function and phenotypic variance to common and rare alleles. Understanding the effect of individual mutations in the context of the remaining genomic variation represents a major challenge to our interpretation of disease. Here, we discuss the challenges of assigning mutation functionality and, drawing from the examples of ciliopathies as well as cohesinopathies and channelopathies, discuss possibilities for the functional modularization of the human genome. Functional modularization in addition to the development of physiologically relevant assays to test allele functionality will accelerate our understanding of disease architecture and enable the use of genome-wide sequence data for disease diagnosis and phenotypic prediction in individuals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Lactobacillus reuteri in Human Health and Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghui Mu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri is a well-studied probiotic bacterium that can colonize a large number of mammals. In humans, L. reuteri is found in different body sites, including the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, skin, and breast milk. The abundance of L. reuteri varies among different individuals. Several beneficial effects of L. reuteri have been noted. First, L. reuteri can produce antimicrobial molecules, such as organic acids, ethanol, and reuterin. Due to its antimicrobial activity, L. reuteri is able to inhibit the colonization of pathogenic microbes and remodel the commensal microbiota composition in the host. Second, L. reuteri can benefit the host immune system. For instance, some L. reuteri strains can reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines while promoting regulatory T cell development and function. Third, bearing the ability to strengthen the intestinal barrier, the colonization of L. reuteri may decrease the microbial translocation from the gut lumen to the tissues. Microbial translocation across the intestinal epithelium has been hypothesized as an initiator of inflammation. Therefore, inflammatory diseases, including those located in the gut as well as in remote tissues, may be ameliorated by increasing the colonization of L. reuteri. Notably, the decrease in the abundance of L. reuteri in humans in the past decades is correlated with an increase in the incidences of inflammatory diseases over the same period of time. Direct supplementation or prebiotic modulation of L. reuteri may be an attractive preventive and/or therapeutic avenue against inflammatory diseases.

  6. Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Casamassimi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, transcriptome profiling has been one of the most utilized approaches to investigate human diseases at the molecular level. Through expression studies, many molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been found for several human pathologies. This number is continuously increasing thanks to total RNA sequencing. Indeed, this new technology has completely revolutionized transcriptome analysis allowing the quantification of gene expression levels and allele-specific expression in a single experiment, as well as to identify novel genes, splice isoforms, fusion transcripts, and to investigate the world of non-coding RNA at an unprecedented level. RNA sequencing has also been employed in important projects, like ENCODE (Encyclopedia of the regulatory elements and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas, to provide a snapshot of the transcriptome of dozens of cell lines and thousands of primary tumor specimens. Moreover, these studies have also paved the way to the development of data integration approaches in order to facilitate management and analysis of data and to identify novel disease markers and molecular targets to use in the clinics. In this scenario, several ongoing clinical trials utilize transcriptome profiling through RNA sequencing strategies as an important instrument in the diagnosis of numerous human pathologies.

  7. Transcriptome Profiling in Human Diseases: New Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casamassimi, Amelia; Federico, Antonio; Rienzo, Monica; Esposito, Sabrina; Ciccodicola, Alfredo

    2017-07-29

    In the last decades, transcriptome profiling has been one of the most utilized approaches to investigate human diseases at the molecular level. Through expression studies, many molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets have been found for several human pathologies. This number is continuously increasing thanks to total RNA sequencing. Indeed, this new technology has completely revolutionized transcriptome analysis allowing the quantification of gene expression levels and allele-specific expression in a single experiment, as well as to identify novel genes, splice isoforms, fusion transcripts, and to investigate the world of non-coding RNA at an unprecedented level. RNA sequencing has also been employed in important projects, like ENCODE (Encyclopedia of the regulatory elements) and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas), to provide a snapshot of the transcriptome of dozens of cell lines and thousands of primary tumor specimens. Moreover, these studies have also paved the way to the development of data integration approaches in order to facilitate management and analysis of data and to identify novel disease markers and molecular targets to use in the clinics. In this scenario, several ongoing clinical trials utilize transcriptome profiling through RNA sequencing strategies as an important instrument in the diagnosis of numerous human pathologies.

  8. Serological prevalence of human parvovirus B19 in diseases or disordersrelated to different human body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Osman; Aydin, Hakan; Uslu, Hakan

    2016-02-17

    Human parvovirus B19 is a pathogen that affects different parts of the body. We planned this study because of the lack of data on B19 seroprevalence based on different body-system diseases. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 antibodies was investigated retrospectively in 1239 patients by review of medical records from 2009-2012, according to their diseases classified under general titles in compliance with the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Parvovirus B19-specific antibodies were detected by quantitative enzyme immunoassays. The positivity rate was 27.8% for only IgG, 8.5% for only IgM, and 2.6% for both IgG and IgM. The highest positivity for IgG alone was found in musculoskeletal system and connective tissue diseases (55.9%), while the highest positivity for IgM was found in neoplasms (16.4%). The highest positivity for IgG was seen in rheumatoid arthritis (72.2%) and pregnancy (52.6%), and the highest positivity for total IgM was found in upper respiratory tract disease (21.0%) and hepatic failure (17.1%). Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was relatively low in northeastern Anatolia compared to most serological studies conducted in other regions. We think that this study has provided the first wide-ranging information on the seroprevalence of B19 in diseases and disorders of the major human body systems.

  9. Exploring the potential relevance of human-specific genes to complex disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper David N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although human disease genes generally tend to be evolutionarily more ancient than non-disease genes, complex disease genes appear to be represented more frequently than Mendelian disease genes among genes of more recent evolutionary origin. It is therefore proposed that the analysis of human-specific genes might provide new insights into the genetics of complex disease. Cross-comparison with the Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.org revealed a number of examples of disease-causing and disease-associated mutations in putatively human-specific genes. A sizeable proportion of these were missense polymorphisms associated with complex disease. Since both human-specific genes and genes associated with complex disease have often experienced particularly rapid rates of evolutionary change, either due to weaker purifying selection or positive selection, it is proposed that a significant number of human-specific genes may play a role in complex disease.

  10. Mutations that Cause Human Disease: A Computational/Experimental Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beernink, P; Barsky, D; Pesavento, B

    2006-01-11

    International genome sequencing projects have produced billions of nucleotides (letters) of DNA sequence data, including the complete genome sequences of 74 organisms. These genome sequences have created many new scientific opportunities, including the ability to identify sequence variations among individuals within a species. These genetic differences, which are known as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), are particularly important in understanding the genetic basis for disease susceptibility. Since the report of the complete human genome sequence, over two million human SNPs have been identified, including a large-scale comparison of an entire chromosome from twenty individuals. Of the protein coding SNPs (cSNPs), approximately half leads to a single amino acid change in the encoded protein (non-synonymous coding SNPs). Most of these changes are functionally silent, while the remainder negatively impact the protein and sometimes cause human disease. To date, over 550 SNPs have been found to cause single locus (monogenic) diseases and many others have been associated with polygenic diseases. SNPs have been linked to specific human diseases, including late-onset Parkinson disease, autism, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The ability to predict accurately the effects of these SNPs on protein function would represent a major advance toward understanding these diseases. To date several attempts have been made toward predicting the effects of such mutations. The most successful of these is a computational approach called ''Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant'' (SIFT). This method uses sequence conservation among many similar proteins to predict which residues in a protein are functionally important. However, this method suffers from several limitations. First, a query sequence must have a sufficient number of relatives to infer sequence conservation. Second, this method does not make use of or provide any information on protein structure, which

  11. Mitochondrial regulation of epigenetics and its role in human diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Tollefsbol, Trygve O; Singh, Keshav K

    2012-01-01

    as the sole pathogenic factor suggesting that additional mechanisms contribute to lack of genotype and clinical phenotype correlationship. An increasing number of studies have identified a possible effect on the epigenetic landscape of the nuclear genome as a consequence of mitochondrial dysfunction....... In particular, these studies demonstrate reversible or irreversible changes in genomic DNA methylation profiles of the nuclear genome. Here we review how mitochondria damage checkpoint (mitocheckpoint) induces epigenetic changes in the nucleus. Persistent pathogenic mutations in mtDNA may also lead...... to epigenetic changes causing genomic instability in the nuclear genome. We propose that "mitocheckpoint" mediated epigenetic and genetic changes may play key roles in phenotypic variation related to mitochondrial diseases or host of human diseases in which mitochondrial defect plays a primary role....

  12. Crossed wires: 3D genome misfolding in human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Heidi K; Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E

    2017-11-06

    Mammalian genomes are folded into unique topological structures that undergo precise spatiotemporal restructuring during healthy development. Here, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of how the genome folds inside the 3D nucleus and how these folding patterns are miswired during the onset and progression of mammalian disease states. We discuss potential mechanisms underlying the link among genome misfolding, genome dysregulation, and aberrant cellular phenotypes. We also discuss cases in which the endogenous 3D genome configurations in healthy cells might be particularly susceptible to mutation or translocation. Together, these data support an emerging model in which genome folding and misfolding is critically linked to the onset and progression of a broad range of human diseases. © 2017 Norton and Phillips-Cremins.

  13. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali E Willet

    Full Text Available Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant. Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses.

  14. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willet, Cali E; Makara, Mariano; Reppas, George; Tsoukalas, George; Malik, Richard; Haase, Bianca; Wade, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant). Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses.

  15. Use of rodents as models of human diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in molecular biology have significantly increased the understanding of the biology of different diseases. However, these discoveries have not yet been fully translated into improved treatments for patients with diseases such as cancers. One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. In this brief review, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases in the mouse and the preclinical studies that have already been undertaken. We will also discuss how recent improvements in imaging technologies may increase the information derived from using these GEMs during early assessments of potential therapeutic pathways. Furthermore, it is interesting to note that one of the values of using a mouse model is the very rapid turnover rate of the animal, going through the process of birth to death in a very short timeframe relative to that of larger mammalian species.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of acrolein toxicity: relevance to human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghe, Akshata; Ghare, Smita; Lamoreau, Bryan; Mohammad, Mohammad; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2015-02-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and its potential as a serious environmental health threat is beginning to be recognized. Humans are exposed to acrolein per oral (food and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and biocide use) and dermal routes, in addition to endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation). Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. This review addresses our current understanding of each pathogenic mechanism of acrolein toxicity, with emphasis on the known and anticipated contribution to clinical disease, and potential therapies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Unconventional disease agents--a danger for humans and animals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaden, O R

    1994-02-01

    The occurrence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in Great Britain in 1985/86, has focused again the public concern as well as scientific interest to the Scrapie disease of sheep and goat known more than 150 years. The agents of scrapie and BSE are characterized by unusual biological and physical-chemical properties, especially their high tenacity. Therefore, they are also designated "unconventional agents of viruses". Different theories have been proposed about their infectious characteristics--especially because of the apparent or real missing of an agent-specific nucleic acid--which are named Virinos, Prions or Nemavirus. The broad host range of Scrapie respective BSE, which includes domestic and wild ruminants, Suidae, Felidae, Mustelidae, small rodents, birds and non-primates, has created some concern since there might be an aetiological correlation between the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of man (Creutzfeld-Jakob- and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker-Disease) and that of animals. Although at present neither epidemiological nor molecular biological evidence whatsoever was proved, the hypothesis cannot be completely disproved. The probability of infection through digestive tract seems to be rather unlikely but special precautions should be taken as far as production, investigation and application of human medicine drugs of animal origin. Furthermore, research about the aetiology of "unconventional agents" and pathogenesis of resulting diseases is necessary and should be intensified in Germany. Finally, only an early intra vitam-Diagnose and in vitro detection can avoid an further spread of this new category of diseases.

  18. Bioprinted three dimensional human tissues for toxicology and disease modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Deborah G; Pentoney, Stephen L

    2017-03-01

    The high rate of attrition among clinical-stage therapies, due largely to an inability to predict human toxicity and/or efficacy, underscores the need for in vitro models that better recapitulate in vivo human biology. In much the same way that additive manufacturing has revolutionized the production of solid objects, three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is enabling the automated production of more architecturally and functionally accurate in vitro tissue culture models. Here, we provide an overview of the most commonly used bioprinting approaches and how they are being used to generate complex in vitro tissues for use in toxicology and disease modeling research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulatory Role of Small Nucleolar RNAs in Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigory A. Stepanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs are appreciable players in gene expression regulation in human cells. The canonical function of box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs is posttranscriptional modification of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs, namely, 2′-O-methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively. A series of independent studies demonstrated that snoRNAs, as well as other noncoding RNAs, serve as the source of various short regulatory RNAs. Some snoRNAs and their fragments can also participate in the regulation of alternative splicing and posttranscriptional modification of mRNA. Alterations in snoRNA expression in human cells can affect numerous vital cellular processes. SnoRNA level in human cells, blood serum, and plasma presents a promising target for diagnostics and treatment of human pathologies. Here we discuss the relation between snoRNAs and oncological, neurodegenerative, and viral diseases and also describe changes in snoRNA level in response to artificial stress and some drugs.

  20. Control of human parasitic diseases: Context and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, David H

    2006-01-01

    The control of parasitic diseases of humans has been undertaken since the aetiology and natural history of the infections was recognized and the deleterious effects on human health and well-being appreciated by policy makers, medical practitioners and public health specialists. However, while some parasitic infections such as malaria have proved difficult to control, as defined by a sustained reduction in incidence, others, particularly helminth infections can be effectively controlled. The different approaches to control from diagnosis, to treatment and cure of the clinically sick patient, to control the transmission within the community by preventative chemotherapy and vector control are outlined. The concepts of eradication, elimination and control are defined and examples of success summarized. Overviews of the health policy and financing environment in which programmes to control or eliminate parasitic diseases are positioned and the development of public-private partnerships as vehicles for product development or access to drugs for parasite disease control are discussed. Failure to sustain control of parasites may be due to development of drug resistance or the failure to implement proven strategies as a result of decreased resources within the health system, decentralization of health management through health-sector reform and the lack of financial and human resources in settings where per capita government expenditure on health may be less than $US 5 per year. However, success has been achieved in several large-scale programmes through sustained national government investment and/or committed donor support. It is also widely accepted that the level of investment in drug development for the parasitic diseases of poor populations is an unattractive option for pharmaceutical companies. The development of partnerships to specifically address this need provides some hope that the intractable problems of the treatment regimens for the trypanosomiases and

  1. Gaucher Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher disease is a rare, inherited disorder. It is a type of lipid metabolism disorder. If you ... affected. It usually starts in childhood or adolescence. Gaucher disease has no cure. Treatment options for types ...

  2. Glycogen storage disease type Ia in canines: a model for human metabolic and genetic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Andrew; Fiske, Laurie; Erger, Kirsten; Cossette, Travis; Verstegen, John; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Struck, Maggie B; Lee, Young Mok; Chou, Janice Y; Byrne, Barry J; Correia, Catherine E; Mah, Cathryn S; Weinstein, David A; Conlon, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa) is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including "lactic acidosis", larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  3. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Specht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  4. Islamic Inheritance Law (Faraid and Its Economic Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Zuleika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This paper attempts to discuss the Islamic law of inheritance (Faraid, its existence and its systematic impact to humankind. Faraid plays a fundamental role as an impetus behind the development of science, which has a great economic impact to the development of social welfare. This paper aims to increase the awareness towards the importance of Islamic law of Inheritance for knowledge development, and social prosperity of humankind. Secondly, to reveal the hikmah behind the rules set in Faraid and their economic implications. Thirdly is to emerge the consciousness for being Sharia’ compliance by revealing the secret behind His rules and its benefit for humankind.Method - Employing a qualitative method and literature reviewResult - This paper shows that from the macroeconomic perspective, Faraid systematically ensures the redistribution of wealth, and spreads the concentration of wealth in every generation. Literature reviews and information collected are employed in order to analyze and make further inferences. The literature review clarifies the magnificence of Faraid and its real contribution to human development; in economics and in other disciplines. Faraid keeps the justice in wealth distribution, protects property rights, empowers women to be involved in economic activities and as a whole, Faraid also encourages economic growth.Conclusion - Conclusively, by commissioning Faraid, the wealth is generated and returned to the factors production through many hands of who deserve it after the absence of deceased.Keywords : Islamic Inheritance Law; Faraid; Property  Rights; Distribution of Wealth

  5. Changes in bone structure of Corriedale sheep with inherited rickets: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmer, Keren E; Firth, Elwyn C; Thompson, Keith G; Marshall, Jonathan C; Blair, Hugh T

    2011-03-01

    An inherited skeletal disease with gross and microscopic features of rickets has been diagnosed in Corriedale sheep in New Zealand. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes present in tibia from sheep with inherited rickets using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. In affected sheep, scans in the proximal tibia, where metaphysis becomes diaphysis, showed significantly greater trabecular bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). The sheep with inherited rickets had significantly greater BMC and bone area in the mid-diaphysis of the proximal tibia compared to control sheep. However, BMD in the mid-diaphysis was significantly less in affected sheep than in controls, due to the greater cortical area and lower voxel density values in affected sheep. From this it was concluded that the increased strain on under-mineralised bone in sheep with inherited rickets led to increased bone mass in an attempt to improve bone strength. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ancestral dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure promotes epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ancestral environmental exposures to a variety of environmental factors and toxicants have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of adult onset disease. The present work examined the potential transgenerational actions of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) on obesity and associated disease. Methods Outbred gestating female rats were transiently exposed to a vehicle control or DDT and the F1 generation offspring bred to generate the F2 generation and F2 generation bred to generate the F3 generation. The F1 and F3 generation control and DDT lineage rats were aged and various pathologies investigated. The F3 generation male sperm were collected to investigate methylation between the control and DDT lineage male sperm. Results The F1 generation offspring (directly exposed as a fetus) derived from the F0 generation exposed gestating female rats were not found to develop obesity. The F1 generation DDT lineage animals did develop kidney disease, prostate disease, ovary disease and tumor development as adults. Interestingly, the F3 generation (great grand-offspring) had over 50% of males and females develop obesity. Several transgenerational diseases previously shown to be associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity were observed in the testis, ovary and kidney. The transgenerational transmission of disease was through both female (egg) and male (sperm) germlines. F3 generation sperm epimutations, differential DNA methylation regions (DMR), induced by DDT were identified. A number of the genes associated with the DMR have previously been shown to be associated with obesity. Conclusions Observations indicate ancestral exposure to DDT can promote obesity and associated disease transgenerationally. The etiology of disease such as obesity may be in part due to environmentally induced epigenetic transgenerational inheritance. PMID:24228800

  7. RNA FISH for detecting expanded repeats in human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Martyna O; Krzyzosiak, Wlodzimierz J

    2016-04-01

    RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a widely used technique for detecting transcripts in fixed cells and tissues. Many variants of RNA FISH have been proposed to increase signal strength, resolution and target specificity. The current variants of this technique facilitate the detection of the subcellular localization of transcripts at a single molecule level. Among the applications of RNA FISH are studies on nuclear RNA foci in diseases resulting from the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats present in different single genes. The partial or complete retention of mutant transcripts forming RNA aggregates within the nucleoplasm has been shown in multiple cellular disease models and in the tissues of patients affected with these atypical mutations. Relevant diseases include, among others, myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) with CUG repeats, Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) with CAG repeats, fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) with CGG repeats, myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) with CCUG repeats, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia (ALS/FTD) with GGGGCC repeats and spinocerebellar ataxia type 32 (SCA32) with GGCCUG. In this article, we summarize the results obtained with FISH to examine RNA nuclear inclusions. We provide a detailed protocol for detecting RNAs containing expanded CAG and CUG repeats in different cellular models, including fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells and murine and human neuronal progenitors. We also present the results of the first single-molecule FISH application in a cellular model of polyglutamine disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic Burden of Human Papillomavirus-Related Diseases in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baio, Gianluca; Capone, Alessandro; Marcellusi, Andrea; Mennini, Francesco Saverio; Favato, Giampiero

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human papilloma virus (HPV) genotypes 6, 11, 16, and 18 impose a substantial burden of direct costs on the Italian National Health Service that has never been quantified fully. The main objective of the present study was to address this gap: (1) by estimating the total direct medical costs associated with nine major HPV-related diseases, namely invasive cervical cancer, cervical dysplasia, cancer of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and head and neck, anogenital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) by providing an aggregate measure of the total economic burden attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infection. Methods For each of the nine conditions, we used available Italian secondary data to estimate the lifetime cost per case, the number of incident cases of each disease, the total economic burden, and the relative prevalence of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, in order to estimate the aggregate fraction of the total economic burden attributable to HPV infection. Results The total direct costs (expressed in 2011 Euro) associated with the annual incident cases of the nine HPV-related conditions included in the analysis were estimated to be €528.6 million, with a plausible range of €480.1–686.2 million. The fraction attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 was €291.0 (range €274.5–315.7 million), accounting for approximately 55% of the total annual burden of HPV-related disease in Italy. Conclusions The results provided a plausible estimate of the significant economic burden imposed by the most prevalent HPV-related diseases on the Italian welfare system. The fraction of the total direct lifetime costs attributable to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections, and the economic burden of noncervical HPV-related diseases carried by men, were found to be cost drivers relevant to the making of informed decisions about future investments in programmes of HPV prevention. PMID:23185412

  9. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  10. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    Mustapha & Singh (2008) SWJ:39-42. Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea. INHERITANCE OF POD COLOUR IN. COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata (L.) WALP). * MUSTAPHA, Y1. & SINGH, B. B2. 1 Department of Biological Sciences. Bayero University, Kano Nigeria. 2 Department of Genetics and Plant breeding,. G.B. Pant ...

  11. The erythrocyte membrane in human muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ruitenbeek (Willem)

    1979-01-01

    textabstractMore than 250 different forms of human neuromuscular diseases are known. They differ in age of onset, severity of weakness, rate of progression, type of inheritance, groups of muscles affected, frequency of incidence. Sometimes the clinical symptoms are not restricted to nervous

  12. Modeling human diseases: an education in interactions and interdisciplinary approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Zon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most investigators in the biomedical arena exploit one model system in the course of their careers. Occasionally, an investigator will switch models. The selection of a suitable model system is a crucial step in research design. Factors to consider include the accuracy of the model as a reflection of the human disease under investigation, the numbers of animals needed and ease of husbandry, its physiology and developmental biology, and the ability to apply genetics and harness the model for drug discovery. In my lab, we have primarily used the zebrafish but combined it with other animal models and provided a framework for others to consider the application of developmental biology for therapeutic discovery. Our interdisciplinary approach has led to many insights into human diseases and to the advancement of candidate drugs to clinical trials. Here, I draw on my experiences to highlight the importance of combining multiple models, establishing infrastructure and genetic tools, forming collaborations, and interfacing with the medical community for successful translation of basic findings to the clinic.

  13. Hepatic cholesterol ester hydrolase in human liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J B; Poon, R W

    1978-09-01

    Human liver contains an acid cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) of presumed lysosomal origin, but its significance is unknown. We developed a modified CEH radioassay suitable for needle biopsy specimens and measured hepatic activity of this enzyme in 69 patients undergoing percutaneous liver biopsy. Histologically normal livers hydrolyzed 5.80 +/- 0.78 SEM mumoles of cholesterol ester per hr per g of liver protein (n, 10). Values were similar in alcoholic liver disease (n, 17), obstructive jaundice (n, 9), and miscellaneous hepatic disorders (n, 21). In contrast, mean hepatic CEH activity was more than 3-fold elevated in 12 patients with acute hepatitis, 21.05 +/- 2.45 SEM mumoles per hr per g of protein (P less than 0.01). In 2 patients studied serially, CEH returned to normal as hepatitis resolved. CEH activity in all patients paralleled SGOT levels (r, 0.84; P less than 0.01). There was no correlation with serum levels of free or esterified cholesterol nor with serum activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for cholesterol esterification in plasma. These studies confirm the presence of CEH activity in human liver and show markedly increased activity in acute hepatitis. The pathogenesis and clinical significance of altered hepatic CEH activity in liver disease require further study.

  14. The Spanish biology/disease initiative within the human proteome project: Application to rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Romero, Cristina; Calamia, Valentina; Albar, Juan Pablo; Casal, José Ignacio; Corrales, Fernando J; Fernández-Puente, Patricia; Gil, Concha; Mateos, Jesús; Vivanco, Fernando; Blanco, Francisco J

    2015-09-08

    The Spanish Chromosome 16 consortium is integrated in the global initiative Human Proteome Project, which aims to develop an entire map of the proteins encoded following a gene-centric strategy (C-HPP) in order to make progress in the understanding of human biology in health and disease (B/D-HPP). Chromosome 16 contains many genes encoding proteins involved in the development of a broad range of diseases, which have a significant impact on the health care system. The Spanish HPP consortium has developed a B/D platform with five programs focused on selected medical areas: cancer, obesity, cardiovascular, infectious and rheumatic diseases. Each of these areas has a clinical leader associated to a proteomic investigator with the responsibility to get a comprehensive understanding of the proteins encoded by Chromosome 16 genes. Proteomics strategies have enabled great advances in the area of rheumatic diseases, particularly in osteoarthritis, with studies performed on joint cells, tissues and fluids. In this manuscript we describe how the Spanish HPP-16 consortium has developed a B/D platform with five programs focused on selected medical areas: cancer, obesity, cardiovascular, infectious and rheumatic diseases. Each of these areas has a clinical leader associated to a proteomic investigator with the responsibility to get a comprehensive understanding of the proteins encoded by Chromosome 16 genes. We show how the Proteomic strategy has enabled great advances in the area of rheumatic diseases, particularly in osteoarthritis, with studies performed on joint cells, tissues and fluids. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: HUPO 2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of heterogeneity and assumed mode of inheritance on lod scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, M; Greenberg, D A

    1992-02-01

    Heterogeneity is a major factor in many common, complex diseases and can confound linkage analysis. Using computer-simulated heterogeneous data we tested what effect unlinked families have on a linkage analysis when heterogeneity is not taken into account. We created 60 data sets of 40 nuclear families each with different proportions of linked and unlinked families and with different modes of inheritance. The ascertainment probability was 0.05, the disease had a penetrance of 0.6, and the recombination fraction for the linked families was zero. For the analysis we used a variety of assumed modes of inheritance and penetrances. Under these conditions we looked at the effect of the unlinked families on the lod score, the evaluation of the mode of inheritance, and the estimate of penetrance and of the recombination fraction in the linked families. 1. When the analysis was done under the correct mode of inheritance for the linked families, we found that the mode of inheritance of the unlinked families had minimal influence on the highest maximum lod score (MMLS) (i.e., we maximized the maximum lod score with respect to penetrance). Adding sporadic families decreased the MMLS less than adding recessive or dominant unlinked families. 2. The mixtures of dominant linked families with unlinked families always led to a higher MMLS when analyzed under the correct (dominant) mode of inheritance than when analyzed under the incorrect mode of inheritance. In the mixtures with recessive linked families, assuming the correct mode of inheritance generally led to a higher MMLS, but we observed broad variation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Being human: The role of pluripotent stem cells in regenerative medicine and humanizing Alzheimer's disease models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have the capacity to revolutionize medicine by allowing the generation of functional cell types such as neurons for cell replacement therapy. However, the more immediate impact of PSCs on treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will be through improved human AD model systems for mechanistic studies and therapeutic screening. This review will first briefly discuss different types of PSCs and genome-editing techniques that can be used to modify PSCs for disease modeling or for personalized medicine. This will be followed by a more in depth analysis of current AD iPSC models and a discussion of the need for more complex multicellular models, including cell types such as microglia. It will finish with a discussion on current clinical trials using PSC-derived cells and the long-term potential of such strategies for treating AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RAS signalling in energy metabolism and rare human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dard, L; Bellance, N; Lacombe, D; Rossignol, R

    2018-05-08

    The RAS pathway is a highly conserved cascade of protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation that is at the heart of signalling networks that govern proliferation, differentiation and cell survival. Recent findings indicate that the RAS pathway plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism via the control of mitochondrial form and function but little is known on the participation of this effect in RAS-related rare human genetic diseases. Germline mutations that hyperactivate the RAS pathway have been discovered and linked to human developmental disorders that are known as RASopathies. Individuals with RASopathies, which are estimated to affect approximately 1/1000 human birth, share many overlapping characteristics, including cardiac malformations, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial dysmorphy, cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and ocular abnormalities, hypotonia and a predisposition to developing cancer. Since the identification of the first RASopathy, type 1 neurofibromatosis (NF1), which is caused by the inactivation of neurofibromin 1, several other syndromes have been associated with mutations in the core components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. These syndromes include Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), which was formerly called LEOPARD syndrome, Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS) and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM). Here, we review current knowledge about the bioenergetics of the RASopathies and discuss the molecular control of energy homeostasis and mitochondrial physiology by the RAS pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of genotyping in inherited arrhythmia syndromes: are we getting value for the money?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, the identification of the diverse genetic basis of most important inherited arrhythmia syndromes has remarkably changed our attitude toward these life-threatening diseases. Just over 10 years ago, long-QT syndrome (LQTS) was considered one disease entity, Brugada -QT syndrome

  19. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J. W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Strains are phenotypic variants, encoded by nucleic acid sequences in chromosomal inheritance and by protein “conformations” in prion inheritance and transmission. But how is a protein “conformation” stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms? Here new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins offer structural mechanisms for prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packings (polymorphs) of β-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in a second mechanism, segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct β-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring “conformations,” capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of information by nucleic acid inheritance, including sequence specificity and recognition by non-covalent bonds. PMID:19684598

  20. Gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J; Forman, Andrea D; Pilarski, Robert; Wiesner, Georgia; Giri, Veda N

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in the capability to assess multiple genes in parallel for genetic alterations that may contribute to inherited risk for cancers in families. Thus, gene panel testing is now an option in the setting of genetic counseling and testing for cancer risk. This article describes the many gene panel testing options clinically available to assess inherited cancer susceptibility, the potential advantages and challenges associated with various types of panels, clinical scenarios in which gene panels may be particularly useful in cancer risk assessment, and testing and counseling considerations. Given the potential issues for patients and their families, gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk is recommended to be offered in conjunction or consultation with an experienced cancer genetic specialist, such as a certified genetic counselor or geneticist, as an integral part of the testing process. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  1. Simian virus 40 infection in humans and association with human diseases: results and hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Sabbioni, Silvia; Martini, Fernanda; Negrini, Massimo; Corallini, Alfredo; Tognon, Mauro

    2004-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a monkey virus that was introduced in the human population by contaminated poliovaccines, produced in SV40-infected monkey cells, between 1955 and 1963. Epidemiological evidence now suggests that SV40 may be contagiously transmitted in humans by horizontal infection, independent of the earlier administration of SV40-contaminated poliovaccines. This evidence includes detection of SV40 DNA sequences in human tissues and of SV40 antibodies in human sera, as well as rescue of infectious SV40 from a human tumor. Detection of SV40 DNA sequences in blood and sperm and of SV40 virions in sewage points to the hematic, sexual, and orofecal routes as means of virus transmission in humans. The site of latent infection in humans is not known, but the presence of SV40 in urine suggests the kidney as a possible site of latency, as it occurs in the natural monkey host. SV40 in humans is associated with inflammatory kidney diseases and with specific tumor types: mesothelioma, lymphoma, brain, and bone. These human tumors correspond to the neoplasms that are induced by SV40 experimental inoculation in rodents and by generation of transgenic mice with the SV40 early region gene directed by its own early promoter-enhancer. The mechanisms of SV40 tumorigenesis in humans are related to the properties of the two viral oncoproteins, the large T antigen (Tag) and the small t antigen (tag). Tag acts mainly by blocking the functions of p53 and RB tumor suppressor proteins, as well as by inducing chromosomal aberrations in the host cell. These chromosome alterations may hit genes important in oncogenesis and generate genetic instability in tumor cells. The clastogenic activity of Tag, which fixes the chromosome damage in the infected cells, may explain the low viral load in SV40-positive human tumors and the observation that Tag is expressed only in a fraction of tumor cells. 'Hit and run' seems the most plausible mechanism to support this situation. The small tag

  2. G protein-coupled receptor mutations and human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Hendy, Geoffrey N; Percy, Maire E; Bichet, Daniel G; Cole, David E C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in G protein-coupled receptor genes (GPCRs) disrupt GPCR function in a wide variety of human genetic diseases. In vitro strategies and animal models have been used to identify the molecular pathologies underlying naturally occurring GPCR mutations. Inactive, overactive, or constitutively active receptors have been identified that result in pathology. These receptor variants may alter ligand binding, G protein coupling, receptor desensitization and receptor recycling. Receptor systems discussed include rhodopsin, thyrotropin, parathyroid hormone, melanocortin, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRHR), adrenocorticotropic hormone, vasopressin, endothelin-β, purinergic, and the G protein associated with asthma (GPRA or neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1)). The role of activating and inactivating calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) mutations is discussed in detail with respect to familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and autosomal dominant hypocalemia (ADH). The CASR mutations have been associated with epilepsy. Diseases caused by the genetic disruption of GPCR functions are discussed in the context of their potential to be selectively targeted by drugs that rescue altered receptors. Examples of drugs developed as a result of targeting GPCRs mutated in disease include: calcimimetics and calcilytics, therapeutics targeting melanocortin receptors in obesity, interventions that alter GNRHR loss from the cell surface in idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and novel drugs that might rescue the P2RY12 receptor congenital bleeding phenotype. De-orphanization projects have identified novel disease-associated receptors, such as NPSR1 and GPR35. The identification of variants in these receptors provides genetic reagents useful in drug screens. Discussion of the variety of GPCRs that are disrupted in monogenic Mendelian disorders provides the basis for examining the significance of common

  3. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  4. Proteome analysis of human substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Cornelius J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD is the most common neurodegenerative disorder involving the motor system. Although not being the only region involved in PD, affection of the substantia nigra and its projections is responsible for some of the most debilitating features of the disease. To further advance a comprehensive understanding of nigral pathology, we conducted a tissue based comparative proteome study of healthy and diseased human substantia nigra. Results The gross number of differentially regulated proteins in PD was 221. In total, we identified 37 proteins, of which 16 were differentially expressed. Identified differential proteins comprised elements of iron metabolism (H-ferritin and glutathione-related redox metabolism (GST M3, GST P1, GST O1, including novel redox proteins (SH3BGRL. Additionally, many glial or related proteins were found to be differentially regulated in PD (GFAP, GMFB, galectin-1, sorcin, as well as proteins belonging to metabolic pathways sparsely described in PD, such as adenosyl homocysteinase (methylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (aldehyde metabolism. Further differentially regulated proteins included annexin V, beta-tubulin cofactor A, coactosin-like protein and V-type ATPase subunit 1. Proteins that were similarly expressed in healthy or diseased substantia nigra comprised housekeeping proteins such as COX5A, Rho GDI alpha, actin gamma 1, creatin-kinase B, lactate dehydrogenase B, disulfide isomerase ER-60, Rab GDI beta, methyl glyoxalase 1 (AGE metabolism and glutamine synthetase. Interestingly, also DJ-1 and UCH-L1 were expressed similarly. Furthermore, proteins believed to serve as internal standards were found to be expressed in a constant manner, such as 14-3-3 epsilon and hCRMP-2, thus lending further validity to our results. Conclusion Using an approach encompassing high sensitivity and high resolution, we show that alterations of SN in PD include many

  5. Incorporation of disease resistance from Lycopersicon peruvianum L. to cultivated tomatoes, 1: Breeding of new varieties ''Ryugyoku'' etc., having resistance to Fusarium root rot and tobacco mosaic virus inherited from L. peruvianum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, K.; Yasui, H.; Mochizuki, T.; Hida, K.; Komochi, S.

    1987-01-01

    Fusarium crown and root rot (FCR) resistance and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) resistance (Tm-2) of a wild tomato (Lycopersicon peruvianum) were incorporated into cultivated tomatoes (L. esculentum). With this material, F1 hybrid varieties 'Kagyoku, Ryugyoku' and their parental lines 'Tomato parental lines No. 4, -No. 5' were developed. In addition, 'Kagyoku, Ryugyoku' possess Fusarium wild (J1), Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and TMV (Tm-2a) resistance introduced from the other varieties. Among the resistances introduced from L. peruvianum, TMV resistance is simply inherited and stable enough. FCR resistance is basically monogenic, but the strong influence of the genetic background hinders the development of FCR resistant varieties with high quality and yield. Whereas 'Ryugyoku' which is highly resistant to FCR has less attractive fruit characters, 'Kagyoku' yields fruits of high quality with a comparatively low FCR resistance. In this report, the breeding process from interspecific hybridization to the development of F1 varieties and the methods of selection applied were described. Also the difficulties which arose in the process of incorporation of the resistance from the wild species were discussed

  6. Inheritance and heritability of resistance to citrus leprosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianel, Marinês; de Oliveira, Antonio Carlos; Cristofani, Mariângela; Filho, Oliveiro Guerreiro; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Rodrigues, Vandeclei; Astúa-Monge, Gustavo; Machado, Marcos Antônio

    2006-10-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic inheritance of resistance to leprosis, the most important viral disease of citrus in Brazil, was characterized through the phenotypic assessment of 143 hybrids resulting from crosses between tangor 'Murcott' (Citrus sinensis x C. reticulata) and sweet orange 'Pêra' (C. sinensis), considered to be resistant and susceptible to the disease, respectively. All plants were grafted onto Rangpur lime (C. limonia) and inoculated with Citrus leprosis virus, cytoplasmic type through the infestation with viruliferous mites, Brevipalpus phoenicis. The experiments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 10 replicates. Incidence and severity of the disease in leaves and stems as well as plant growth parameters (plant height and stem diameter) were recorded for 3 years after the infestation with the viruliferous mites. The average values of all variables were analyzed using principal component analysis, discriminant factorial analysis, estimation of the clonal repeatability coefficients, and frequency of the distributions of the average values for each measured variable. The principal component analysis resulted in the identification of at least two groups with resistance and susceptibility to leprosis, respectively. About 99% of all hybrids were correctly classified according to the discriminant factorial analysis. The broad-sense heritability coefficients for characteristics associated with incidence and severity of leprosis ranged from 0.88 to 0.96. The data suggest that the inheritance of resistance to leprosis may be controlled by only a few genes.

  7. Wilson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eye (jaundice) Golden-brown eye discoloration (Kayser-Fleischer rings) Fluid buildup ... is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, which means that to develop the disease you must inherit one copy of the ...

  8. Activation of IGF-1 and insulin signaling pathways ameliorate mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in Huntington's Disease human lymphoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naia, Luana; Ferreira, I Luísa; Cunha-Oliveira, Teresa; Duarte, Ana I; Ribeiro, Márcio; Rosenstock, Tatiana R; Laço, Mário N; Ribeiro, Maria J; Oliveira, Catarina R; Saudou, Frédéric; Humbert, Sandrine; Rego, A Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine repeat expansion in the huntingtin protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with energy failure plays an important role in this untreated pathology. In the present work, we used lymphoblasts obtained from HD patients or unaffected parentally related individuals to study the protective role of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) versus insulin (at low nM) on signaling and metabolic and mitochondrial functions. Deregulation of intracellular signaling pathways linked to activation of insulin and IGF-1 receptors (IR,IGF-1R), Akt, and ERK was largely restored by IGF-1 and, at a less extent, by insulin in HD human lymphoblasts. Importantly, both neurotrophic factors stimulated huntingtin phosphorylation at Ser421 in HD cells. IGF-1 and insulin also rescued energy levels in HD peripheral cells, as evaluated by increased ATP and phosphocreatine, and decreased lactate levels. Moreover, IGF-1 effectively ameliorated O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in HD lymphoblasts, which occurred concomitantly with increased levels of cytochrome c. Indeed, constitutive phosphorylation of huntingtin was able to restore the Δψm in lymphoblasts expressing an abnormal expansion of polyglutamines. HD lymphoblasts further exhibited increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels before and after exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and decreased mitochondrial Ca(2+) accumulation, being the later recovered by IGF-1 and insulin in HD lymphoblasts pre-exposed to H2O2. In summary, the data support an important role for IR/IGF-1R mediated activation of signaling pathways and improved mitochondrial and metabolic function in HD human lymphoblasts.

  9. Impacts of environment on human diseases: a web service for the human exposome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Kamphuis, Carlijn; Strak, Maciek; Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; de Jong, Kor

    2017-04-01

    The exposome is the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onwards. Identifying the contribution of the exposome to human diseases and health is a key issue in health research. Examples include the effect of air pollution exposure on cardiovascular diseases, the impact of disease vectors (mosquitos) and surface hydrology exposure on malaria, and the effect of fast food restaurant exposure on obesity. Essential to health research is to disentangle the effects of the exposome and genome on health. Ultimately this requires quantifying the totality of all human exposures, for each individual in the studied human population. This poses a massive challenge to geoscientists, as environmental data are required at a high spatial and temporal resolution, with a large spatial and temporal coverage representing the area inhabited by the population studied and the time span representing several decades. Then, these data need to be combined with space-time paths of individuals to calculate personal exposures for each individual in the population. The Global and Geo Health Data Centre is taking this challenge by providing a web service capable of enriching population data with exposome information. Our web service can generate environmental information either from archived national (up to 5 m spatial and 1 h temporal resolution) and global environmental information or generated on the fly using environmental models running as microservices. On top of these environmental data services runs an individual exposure service enabling health researchers to select different spatial and temporal aggregation methods and to upload space-time paths of individuals. These are then enriched with personal exposures and eventually returned to the user. We illustrate the service in an example of individual exposures to air pollutants calculated from hyper resolution air pollution data and various approaches to estimate space-time paths of individuals.

  10. Host control of human papillomavirus infection and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorbar, John

    2018-02-01

    Most human papillomaviruses cause inapparent infections, subtly affecting epithelial homeostasis, to ensure genome persistence in the epithelial basal layer. As with conspicuous papillomas, these self-limiting lesions shed viral particles to ensure population level maintenance and depend on a balance between viral gene expression, immune cell stimulation and immune surveillance for persistence. The complex immune evasion strategies, characteristic of high-risk HPV types, also allow the deregulated viral gene expression that underlies neoplasia. Neoplasia occurs at particular epithelial sites where vulnerable cells such as the reserve or cuboidal cells of the cervical transformation zone are found. Beta papillomavirus infection can also predispose an individual with immune deficiencies to the development of cancers. The host control of HPV infections thus involves local interactions between keratinocytes and the adaptive immune response. Effective immune detection and surveillance limits overt disease, leading to HPV persistence as productive microlesions or in a true latent state. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A mouse model for fucosidosis recapitulates storage pathology and neurological features of the milder form of the human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Wolf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fucosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder caused by the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase α-L-fucosidase, which leads to an impaired degradation of fucosylated glycoconjugates. Here, we report the generation of a fucosidosis mouse model, in which the gene for lysosomal α-L-fucosidase (Fuca1 was disrupted by gene targeting. Homozygous knockout mice completely lack α-L-fucosidase activity in all tested organs leading to highly elevated amounts of the core-fucosylated glycoasparagine Fuc(α1,6-GlcNAc(β1-N-Asn and, to a lesser extent, other fucosylated glycoasparagines, which all were also partially excreted in urine. Lysosomal storage pathology was observed in many visceral organs, such as in the liver, kidney, spleen and bladder, as well as in the central nervous system (CNS. On the cellular level, storage was characterized by membrane-limited cytoplasmic vacuoles primarily containing water-soluble storage material. In the CNS, cellular alterations included enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in various cell types, accumulation of secondary storage material and neuroinflammation, as well as a progressive loss of Purkinje cells combined with astrogliosis leading to psychomotor and memory deficits. Our results demonstrate that this new fucosidosis mouse model resembles the human disease and thus will help to unravel underlying pathological processes. Moreover, this model could be utilized to establish diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for fucosidosis.

  12. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  13. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs

  14. Art for twins: Yorùbá artists and their statues/twin research studies: twins' education and conceptions; diurnal preference; inherited eye diseases; ultrasound counseling when twins are conjoined/popular twin reports: twin sisters (the film); rare pregnancy; diet test; French twins reared apart and reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2014-06-01

    The Yorùbá of Nigeria are well known for their high twinning rate and the statues they create to commemorate deceased twins. An impressive collection of this artwork was displayed at the University of California's Fowler Museum in Los Angeles between October 13, 2013 and March 2, 2014. An overview of this exhibit is provided. Next, twin research on maternal education and conception, diurnal preference, inherited eye diseases, and ultrasound counseling for couples with conjoined twins are briefly summarized. This article concludes with a discussion of media-based items related to twins. The topics include an award-winning twin film, a rare pregnancy, a diet test, and the separation and chance reunion of monozygotic female twins.

  15. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  16. Human diseases with genetically altered DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bootsma, D.; Friedberg, E.

    1975-01-01

    DNA repair of single-strand breaks (produced by ionizing radiation) and of base damage (produced by ultraviolet (uv) light) are two repair mechanisms that most mammalian cells possess. Genetic defects in these repair mechanisms are exemplified by cells from the human premature-aging disease, progeria, which fail to rejoin single-strand breaks, and the skin disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which exhibits high actinic carcinogenesis and involves failure to repair base damage. In terms of the response of XP cells, many chemical carcinogens can be classified as either x-ray-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells can repair) or uv-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells cannot repair). The first group contains some of the more strongly carcinogenic chemicals (e.g., alkylating agents). XP occurs in at least two clinical forms, and somatic cell hybridization indicates at least three complementation groups. In order to identify cell lines from various different laboratories unambiguously, a modified nomenclature of XP lines is proposed. (U.S.)

  17. Human diseases with genetically altered DNA repair processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, J.E.; Bootsma, D.; Friedberg, E.

    1975-01-01

    DNA repair of single-strand breaks (produced by ionizing radiation) and of base damage (produced by ultraviolet (UV) light) are two repair mechanisms that most mammalian cells possess. Genetic defects in these repair mechanisms are exemplified by cells from the human premature-aging disease, progeria, which fail to rejoin single-strand breaks, and the skin disease, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), which exhibits high actinic carcinogenesis and involves failure to repair base damage. In terms of the response of XP cells, many chemical carcinogens can be classified as either X-ray-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells can repair) or UV-like (i.e., they cause damage that XP cells cannot repair). The first group contains some of the more strongly carcinogenic chemicals (e.g., alkylating agents). XP occurs in at least two clinical forms, and somatic cell hybridization indicates at least three complementation groups. In order to identify cell lines from various different laboratories unambiguously, a modified nomenclature of XP lines is proposed

  18. [Demyelinating disease and vaccination of the human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Soria, M Josefa; Hernández-González, Amalia; Carrasco-García de León, Sira; del Real-Francia, M Ángeles; Gallardo-Alcañiz, M José; López-Gómez, José L

    2011-04-16

    Primary prevention by prophylactic vaccination against the major cause of cervical cancer, the carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, is now available worldwide. Postlicensure adverse neurological effects have been described. The studies realized after the license are descriptive and limited by the difficulty to obtain the information, despite most of the statistical indexes show that the adverse effects by the vaccine of the HPV are not upper compared with other vaccines, the substimation must be considered. We describe the cases of four young women that developed demyelinating disease after the vaccination of the HPV, with a rank of time between the administration of the dose and the development of the clinical of seven days to a month, with similar symptoms with the successive doses. We have described six episodes coinciding after the vaccination. Have been described seizures, autoimmune disorders such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, transverse myelitis, or motor neuron disease, probably adverse effects following immunization by HPV vaccine. So we suggest that vaccine may trigger an immunological mechanism leading to demyelinating events, perhaps in predisposed young.

  19. Alkaptonuria is a novel human secondary amyloidogenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millucci, Lia; Spreafico, Adriano; Tinti, Laura; Braconi, Daniela; Ghezzi, Lorenzo; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Bernardini, Giulia; Amato, Loredana; Laschi, Marcella; Selvi, Enrico; Galeazzi, Mauro; Mannoni, Alessandro; Benucci, Maurizio; Lupetti, Pietro; Chellini, Federico; Orlandini, Maurizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2012-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare disease developed from the lack of homogentisic acid oxidase activity, causing homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulation that produces a HGA-melanin ochronotic pigment, of unknown composition. There is no therapy for AKU. Our aim was to verify if AKU implied a secondary amyloidosis. Congo Red, Thioflavin-T staining and TEM were performed to assess amyloid presence in AKU specimens (cartilage, synovia, periumbelical fat, salivary gland) and in HGA-treated human chondrocytes and cartilage. SAA and SAP deposition was examined using immunofluorescence and their levels were evaluated in the patients' plasma by ELISA. 2D electrophoresis was undertaken in AKU cells to evaluate the levels of proteins involved in amyloidogenesis. AKU osteoarticular tissues contained SAA-amyloid in 7/7 patients. Ochronotic pigment and amyloid co-localized in AKU osteoarticular tissues. SAA and SAP composition of the deposits assessed secondary type of amyloidosis. High levels of SAA and SAP were found in AKU patients' plasma. Systemic amyloidosis was assessed by Congo Red staining of patients' abdominal fat and salivary gland. AKU is the second pathology after Parkinson's disease where amyloid is associated with a form of melanin. Aberrant expression of proteins involved in amyloidogenesis has been found in AKU cells. Our findings on alkaptonuria as a novel type II AA amyloidosis open new important perspectives for its therapy, since methotrexate treatment proved to significantly reduce in vitro HGA-induced A-amyloid aggregates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Unexplained infertility: association with inherited thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Conti, Lucia; Turillazzi, Valentina; Sticchi, Elena; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Milanini, Maria Novella; Cozzi, Cinzia; Abbate, Rosanna; Noci, Ivo

    2012-05-01

    Unexplained infertility represents one of the most common diagnoses in fertility care. Attention is being paid to the association between inherited thrombophilia and infertility causes. In this study we investigated the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia according to infertility causes. We studied Prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, Factor V Leiden, deficiencies in protein S and C and antithrombin in 930 Caucasian infertile women referred to Fertility Center of the Department of Sciences for Woman and Child's Health, University of Florence, of whom 230 with unexplained, 195 female and 283 male infertility, and in 240 women who have conceived naturally without hormonal stimulation therapy. A significant relationship between inherited thrombophilia [OR 95%CI 1.97 (1.05-3.68), p = 0.03] and unexplained infertility was observed, whereas no association between thrombophilia and female and male infertility was found. Significantly higher prevalence of prothrombin gene mutation in unexplained infertile women in comparison to that observed in fertile women was observed (5.7% vs 2.1% p = 0.04); the prevalence of the other thrombophilia determinants was higher, even if not significantly, in the unexplained infertile group. This study demonstrates the relationship between inherited thrombophilia and unexplained infertility, thus suggesting the contribution of genetic components in modulating unexplained infertility, behind anovulation, male and tubal factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inheritance of Properties in NTU Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we consider communication situations in which utility is nontransferable. We compare this model with the more familiar model of transferable utility communication situations and point out an odd feature of the latter. We mainly focus on the inheritance of properties of the underlying

  2. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  3. Genitourinary complications as initial presentation of inherited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare disorder that presents with urological complications. We present a 6-year-old boy admitted with urological symptoms that revealed an inherited EB misdiagnosed. We also review the literature on this disorder and management of the common urological complications.

  4. 76 FR 75825 - Streamlining Inherited Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... easier. DATES: Comments must be submitted by March 5, 2012. Commenters will have 30 additional days... 1700 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20006, on official business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 5 p... deadline for most of these rules. At the same time, the Bureau wants to start reviewing the inherited...

  5. Human lipodystrophies: genetic and acquired diseases of adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeau, Jacqueline; Magré, Jocelyne; Caron-Debarle, Martine; Lagathu, Claire; Antoine, Bénédicte; Béréziat, Véronique; Lascols, Olivier; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Human lipodystrophies represent a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by generalized or partial fat loss, with fat hypertrophy in other depots when partial. Insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and diabetes are generally associated, leading to early complications. Genetic forms are uncommon: recessive generalized congenital lipodystrophies result in most cases from mutations in the genes encoding seipin or the 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate-acyltransferase 2 (AGPAT2). Dominant partial familial lipodystrophies result from mutations in genes encoding the nuclear protein lamin A/C or the adipose transcription factor PPARγ. Importantly, lamin A/C mutations are also responsible for metabolic laminopathies, resembling the metabolic syndrome and progeria, a syndrome of premature aging. A number of lipodystrophic patients remain undiagnosed at the genetic level. Acquired lipodystrophy can be generalized, resembling congenital forms, or partial, as the Barraquer-Simons syndrome, with loss of fat in the upper part of the body contrasting with accumulation in the lower part. Although their aetiology is generally unknown, they could be associated with signs of auto-immunity. The most common forms of lipodystrophies are iatrogenic. In human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, some first generation antiretroviral drugs were strongly related with peripheral lipoatrophy and metabolic alterations. Partial lipodystrophy also characterize patients with endogenous or exogenous long-term corticoid excess. Treatment of fat redistribution can sometimes benefit from plastic surgery. Lipid and glucose alterations are difficult to control leading to early occurrence of diabetic, cardio-vascular and hepatic complications. PMID:20551664

  6. Consent: a Cartesian ideal? Human neural transplantation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Manuel; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Behin, Anthony; Hervé, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The grafting of human embryonic cells in Parkinson's disease is an innovative and hopefully useful therapeutic approach. However, it still concerns a very small number of patients and is only suggested as a research protocol. We present here a study of the problems of information and consent to research within the framework of this disease in which the efficacy of medical treatment is shortlived. The only French center to use this treatment (Hôpital H. Mondor in Créteil) has received authorization from the Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique (Consultative National Committee on Ethics). Eleven patients were treated between 1991 and 1998. The study of the results of a questionnaire sent to those patients showed the difficulties met in evaluating the perception of information despite intact intellectual capacities in people "prepared to risk everything." In France, the duty to inform patients during research procedures is regulated by the Huriet Act. However, it is not easy to guarantee genuine consent when preliminary information is given to patients psychologically impaired by the slow and ineluctable course of their disease. In these borderline cases, a valid consent seems to be a myth in terms of pure autonomy when considered with the Cartesian aim of elimination of uncertainty. The relevance of this concept of genuine consent probably makes more sense as aiming at a Cartesian ideal which is perhaps more in the spirit rather than in the letter. It is in that same spirit that, from the outset, we propose to define t he practical ways of answering the patients' request for information, even sometimes after consent has been given.

  7. Legal Inheritance in the Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they

  8. Significance of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants identified by whole-genome analyses for the understanding of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitomi, Yuki; Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2017-01-01

    Human genome variation may cause differences in traits and disease risks. Disease-causal/susceptible genes and variants for both common and rare diseases can be detected by comprehensive whole-genome analyses, such as whole-genome sequencing (WGS), using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, in addition to the application of an NGS as a whole-genome analysis method, we summarize approaches for the identification of functional disease-causal/susceptible variants from abundant genetic variants in the human genome and methods for evaluating their functional effects in human diseases, using an NGS and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. We also discuss the clinical applications of the functional disease causal/susceptible variants to personalized medicine.

  9. SWJ:39-42 Inheritance of Pod Colour in Cowpea INHERITANCE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    two additional pod pigmentation genes; one conditions green pods ... Hybridization experiments were conducted in the screen house to study the pattern of inheritance of ... to breeders because its understanding could lead to the development.

  10. Recommendations for the use of tolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease : a position statement on behalf of the ERA-EDTA Working Groups on Inherited Kidney Disorders and European Renal Best Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gansevoort, Ron T; Arici, Mustafa; Benzing, Thomas; Birn, Henrik; Capasso, Giovambattista; Covic, Adrian; Devuyst, Olivier; Drechsler, Christiane; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Emma, Francesco; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Le Meur, Yannick; Massy, Ziad A; Ong, Albert C M; Ortiz, Alberto; Schaefer, Franz; Torra, Roser; Vanholder, Raymond; Więcek, Andrzej; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim

    Recently, the European Medicines Agency approved the use of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan to slow the progression of cyst development and renal insufficiency of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease stages 1-3 at

  11. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L. Allen; K. Estrada Gil (Karol); G. Lettre (Guillaume); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); C.J. Willer (Cristen); A.U. Jackson (Anne); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); S. Raychaudhuri (Soumya); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A.R. Wood (Andrew); R.J. Weyant (Robert); A.V. Segrè (Ayellet); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.H. Park; J. Yang (Joanna); D.F. Gudbjartsson (Daniel); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); J.C. Randall (Joshua); L. Qi (Lu); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); R. Mägi (Reedik); T. Pastinen (Tomi); L. Liang (Liming); I.M. Heid (Iris); J. Luan; G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); T.W. Winkler (Thomas); M.E. Goddard (Michael); K.S. Lo; C. Palmer (Cameron); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A. Johansson (Åsa); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Johnson (Toby); S. Ketkar (Shamika); P. Kraft (Peter); M. Mangino (Massimo); I. Prokopenko (Inga); D. Absher (Devin); E. Albrecht (Eva); F.D.J. Ernst (Florian); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); C. Hayward (Caroline); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); K.B. Jacobs (Kevin); J.W. Knowles (Joshua); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); K.L. Monda (Keri); O. Polasek (Ozren); M. Preuss (Michael); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); N.R. Robertson (Neil); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); J. Xu (Jianfeng); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); D.R. Nyholt (Dale); N. Pellikka (Niina); M. Perola (Markus); J.R.B. Perry (John); I. Surakka (Ida); M.L. Tammesoo; E.L. Altmaier (Elizabeth); N. Amin (Najaf); T. Aspelund (Thor); T. Bhangale (Tushar); G. Boucher (Gabrielle); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); C. Chen (Constance); L. Coin (Lachlan); M.N. Cooper (Matthew); A.L. Dixon (Anna); Q. Gibson (Quince); E. Grundberg (Elin); K. Hao (Ke); M.J. Junttila (Juhani); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J. Kettunen (Johannes); I.R. König (Inke); T. Kwan (Tony); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); D.F. Levinson (Douglas); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Müller (Martina); J.S. Ngwa; S. Purcell (Shaun); S. Rafelt (Suzanne); R.M. Salem (Rany); E. Salvi (Erika); S. Sanna (Serena); J. Shi (Jianxin); U. Sovio (Ulla); J.R. Thompson (John); M.C. Turchin (Michael); L. Vandenput (Liesbeth); D.J. Verlaan (Dominique); V. Vitart (Veronique); C.C. White (Charles); A. Ziegler (Andreas); P. Almgren (Peter); A.J. Balmforth (Anthony); H. Campbell (Harry); L. Citterio (Lorena); A. de Grandi (Alessandro); A. Dominiczak (Anna); J. Duan (Jubao); P. Elliott (Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); J.G. Eriksson (Johan); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); N. Glorioso (Nicola); S. Haiqing (Shen); A.L. Hartikainen; A.S. Havulinna (Aki); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); J. Hui (Jennie); W. Igl (Wilmar); T. Illig (Thomas); A. Jula (Antti); E. Kajantie (Eero); T.O. Kilpeläinen (Tuomas); M. Koiranen (Markku); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S. Koskinen (Seppo); P. Kovacs (Peter); J. Laitinen (Jaana); J. Liu (Jianjun); M.L. Lokki; A. Marusic (Ana); A. Maschio; T. Meitinger (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); J. Peden (John); A. Petersmann (Astrid); I. Pichler (Irene); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); A. Pouta (Anneli); M. Ridderstråle (Martin); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); A.R. Sanders (Alan); C.O. Schmidt (Carsten Oliver); J. Sinisalo (Juha); J.H. Smit (Jan); H.M. Stringham (Heather); G.B. Walters (Bragi); E. Widen (Elisabeth); S.H. Wild (Sarah); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); L. Zagato (Laura); L. Zgaga (Lina); P. Zitting (Paavo); H. Alavere (Helene); M. Farrall (Martin); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); M. Nelis (Mari); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); S. Ripatti (Samuli); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); F.S. Collins (Francis); D. Cusi (Daniele); M. den Heijer (Martin); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); P.V. Gejman (Pablo); A.S. Hall (Alistair); A. Hamsten (Anders); H.V. Huikuri (Heikki); C. Iribarren (Carlos); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); T. Kocher (Thomas); L.J. Launer (Lenore); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); O. Melander (Olle); T.H. Mosley (Thomas); A.W. Musk (Arthur); M.S. Nieminen (Markku); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); C. Ohlsson (Claes); B.A. Oostra (Ben); O. Raitakari (Olli); P.M. Ridker (Paul); J.D. Rioux (John); A. Rissanen (Aila); C. Rivolta (Carlo); H. Schunkert (Heribert); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); D.S. Siscovick (David); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); G.J. van Ommen (Gert); J. Viikari (Jorma); A.C. Heath (Andrew); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); M.A. Province (Mike); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); A.M. Arnold (Alice); L.D. Atwood (Larry); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); C. Gieger (Christian); H. Grönberg (Henrik); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); W. Hoffman (Wolfgang); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Schreiber (Stefan); M. Uda (Manuela); D. Waterworth (Dawn); A.F. Wright (Alan); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); I.E. Barroso (Inês); A. Hofman (Albert); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); M. Caulfield (Mark); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); C.S. Fox (Caroline); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.B. Hayes (Richard); M.R. Järvelin; V. Mooser (Vincent); P. Munroe (Patricia); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); T. Quertermous (Thomas); I. Rudan (Igor); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); T.D. Spector (Timothy); H. Völzke (Henry); H. Watkins (Hugh); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Groop (Leif); T. Haritunians (Talin); F.B. Hu (Frank); A. Metspalu (Andres); K.E. North (Kari); D. Schlessinger; N.J. Wareham (Nick); D.J. Hunter (David); J.R. O´Connell; D.P. Strachan (David); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); E.E. Schadt (Eric); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); N. Chatterjee (Nilanjan); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E. Ingelsson (Erik); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); K. Stefansson (Kari); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel); K.G. Ardlie (Kristin); M.N. Weedon (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMost common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits1, but these typically explain small

  12. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, Hana Lango; Estrada, Karol; Lettre, Guillaume; Berndt, Sonja I.; Weedon, Michael N.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Willer, Cristen J.; Jackson, Anne U.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ferreira, Teresa; Wood, Andrew R.; Weyant, Robert J.; Segre, Ayellet V.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Soranzo, Nicole; Park, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Jian; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Randall, Joshua C.; Qi, Lu; Smith, Albert Vernon; Maegi, Reedik; Pastinen, Tomi; Liang, Liming; Heid, Iris M.; Luan, Jian'an; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Winkler, Thomas W.; Goddard, Michael E.; Lo, Ken Sin; Palmer, Cameron; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Johansson, Asa; Zillikens, M. Carola; Feitosa, Mary F.; Esko, Tonu; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Kraft, Peter; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Ernst, Florian; Zhao, Jing Hua; Chen, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits(1), but these typically explain small fractions

  13. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lango Allen, Hana; Estrada, Karol; Lettre, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions...

  14. Effects of environmental pollutants on cellular iron homeostasis and ultimate links to human disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic disease has increased in the last several decades, and environmental pollutants have been implicated. The magnitude and variety of diseases indicate the malfunctioning of some basic mechanism underlying human health. Environmental pollutants demonstrate a capability to co...

  15. Molecular epidemiology of human oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Ramírez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, displays significant genetic variability revealed by six Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI. In this pathology, oral transmission represents an emerging epidemiological scenario where different outbreaks associated to food/beverages consumption have been reported in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Venezuela. In Colombia, six human oral outbreaks have been reported corroborating the importance of this transmission route. Molecular epidemiology of oral outbreaks is barely known observing the incrimination of TcI, TcII, TcIV and TcV genotypes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High-throughput molecular characterization was conducted performing MLMT (Multilocus Microsatellite Typing and mtMLST (mitochondrial Multilocus Sequence Typing strategies on 50 clones from ten isolates. Results allowed observing the occurrence of TcI, TcIV and mixed infection of distinct TcI genotypes. Thus, a majority of specific mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the sylvatic cycle of transmission were detected in the dataset with the foreseen presence of mitochondrial haplotypes and allelic multilocus genotypes associated to the domestic cycle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the incrimination of sylvatic genotypes in the oral outbreaks occurred in Colombia. We observed patterns of super-infection and/or co-infection with a tailored association with the severe forms of myocarditis in the acute phase of the disease. The transmission dynamics of this infection route based on molecular epidemiology evidence was unraveled and the clinical and biological implications are discussed.

  16. Vibrio cholerae Infection of Drosophilamelanogaster Mimics the Human Disease Cholera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera, the pandemic diarrheal disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, continues to be a major public health challenge in the developing world. Cholera toxin, which is responsible for the voluminous stools of cholera, causes constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, resulting in the export of ions into the intestinal lumen. Environmental studies have demonstrated a close association between V. cholerae and many species of arthropods including insects. Here we report the susceptibility of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to oral V. cholerae infection through a process that exhibits many of the hallmarks of human disease: (i death of the fly is dependent on the presence of cholera toxin and is preceded by rapid weight loss; (ii flies harboring mutant alleles of either adenylyl cyclase, Gsalpha, or the Gardos K channel homolog SK are resistant to V. cholerae infection; and (iii ingestion of a K channel blocker along with V. cholerae protects wild-type flies against death. In mammals, ingestion of as little as 25 mug of cholera toxin results in massive diarrhea. In contrast, we found that ingestion of cholera toxin was not lethal to the fly. However, when cholera toxin was co-administered with a pathogenic strain of V. cholerae carrying a chromosomal deletion of the genes encoding cholera toxin, death of the fly ensued. These findings suggest that additional virulence factors are required for intoxication of the fly that may not be essential for intoxication of mammals. Furthermore, we demonstrate for the first time the mechanism of action of cholera toxin in a whole organism and the utility of D. melanogaster as an accurate, inexpensive model for elucidation of host susceptibility to cholera.

  17. EML proteins in microtubule regulation and human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Andrew M; O'Regan, Laura; Montgomery, Jessica; Adib, Rozita; Bayliss, Richard

    2016-10-15

    The EMLs are a conserved family of microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). The founding member was discovered in sea urchins as a 77-kDa polypeptide that co-purified with microtubules. This protein, termed EMAP for echinoderm MAP, was the major non-tubulin component present in purified microtubule preparations made from unfertilized sea urchin eggs [J. Cell Sci. (1993) 104: , 445-450; J. Cell Sci. (1987) 87: (Pt 1), 71-84]. Orthologues of EMAP were subsequently identified in other echinoderms, such as starfish and sand dollar, and then in more distant eukaryotes, including flies, worms and vertebrates, where the name of ELP or EML (both for EMAP-like protein) has been adopted [BMC Dev. Biol. (2008) 8: , 110; Dev. Genes Evol. (2000) 210: , 2-10]. The common property of these proteins is their ability to decorate microtubules. However, whether they are associated with particular microtubule populations or exercise specific functions in different microtubule-dependent processes remains unknown. Furthermore, although there is limited evidence that they regulate microtubule dynamics, the biochemical mechanisms of their molecular activity have yet to be explored. Nevertheless, interest in these proteins has grown substantially because of the identification of EML mutations in neuronal disorders and oncogenic fusions in human cancers. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the expression, localization and structure of what is proving to be an interesting and important class of MAPs. We also speculate about their function in microtubule regulation and highlight how the studies of EMLs in human diseases may open up novel avenues for patient therapy. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  18. Human Environmental Disease Network: A computational model to assess toxicology of contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants associated with diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure rarely have been studied by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration of systems biology and chemical toxicology using information on chemical contaminants and their disease relationships reported in the TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships, allowing inclusion of some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such a network can be used to identify uncharacterized connections between diseases. Examples are discussed for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Additionally, this computational model allows confirmation of already known links between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between bisphenol A and behavioral disorders) and also reveals unexpected associations between chemicals and diseases (e.g., between chlordane and olfactory alteration), thus predicting which chemicals may be risk factors to human health. The proposed human EDN model allows exploration of common biological mechanisms of diseases associated with chemical exposure, helping us to gain insight into disease etiology and comorbidity. This computational approach is an alternative to animal testing supporting the 3R concept.

  19. Private inherited microdeletion/microduplications: implications in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Katzaki, Eleni; Papa, Filomena Tiziana; Sampieri, Katia; Caselli, Rossella; Uliana, Vera; Pollazzon, Marzia; Canitano, Roberto; Mostardini, Rosa; Grosso, Salvatore; Longo, Ilaria; Ariani, Francesca; Meloni, Ilaria; Hayek, Josef; Balestri, Paolo; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of array-CGH analysis is allowing the identification of novel genomic disorders. However, this new high-resolution technique is also opening novel diagnostic challenges when inherited private CNVs of unclear clinical significance are found. Oligo array-CGH analysis of 84 patients with mild to severe mental retardation associated with multiple congenital anomalies revealed 10 private CNVs inherited from a healthy parent. Three were deletions (7q31, 14q21.1, Xq25) and seven duplications (12p11.22, 12q21.31, 13q31.1, 17q12, Xp22.31, Xq28) ranging between 0.1 and 3.8Mb. Six rearrangements were not polymorphic. Four overlapped polymorphic regions to the extent of 10-61%. In one case the size was different between the proband and the healthy relative. Three small rearrangements were gene deserts. The remaining seven had a mean gene content of five (ranging from 1 to 18). None of the rearranged genes is known to be imprinted. Three disease-genes were found in three different cases: KAL1 in dupXp22.31, STS in another dupXp22.31 and TCF2 in dup17q12. The patient carrying the last duplication presents sex reversal, Peters' anomaly and renal cysts and the duplication is located 4Mb away from the HSD17B1 gene, coding a key enzyme of testosterone biosynthesis. Considering the overlap with polymorphic regions, size-identity within the family, gene content, kind of rearrangement and size of rearrangement we suggest that at least in five cases the relationship to the phenotype has not to be excluded. We recommend to maintain caution when asserting that chromosomal abnormalities inherited from a healthy parent are benign. A more complex mechanism may in fact be involved, such as a concurrent variation in the other allele or in another chromosome that influences the phenotype.

  20. PATTERN OF INHERITANCE OF IDIOPATHIC HYPERCALCIURIA IN TWO FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nickavar

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic hypercalciuria is a leading cause of frequency-dysuria syndrome in childhood. Different modes of inheritance have been suggested in this disease. This article presents the occurrence of idiopathic hypercalciuria in all children of two families. In the first family, a 5.5 year old girl with a history of renal stones and dysuria due to hypercalciuria, had two involved brothers and one sister. In the second family, hypercalciuria and medullary nephrocalcinosis were detected in two siblings who were admitted for polyuria and dysuria. Idiopathic type of hypercalciuria was diagnosed in these two families by normal laboratory exams and exclusion of other causes of normocalcemic hypercalciuria. According to the involvement of all offsprings (both sexes in these two families, it is suggested that idiopathic hypercalciuria is an autosomal dominant disease with complete penetration.

  1. Human genome-microbiome interaction: metagenomics frontiers for the aetiopathology of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Aycan; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk

    2017-04-01

    A short while ago, the human genome and microbiome were analysed simultaneously for the first time as a multi-omic approach. The analyses of heterogeneous population cohorts showed that microbiome components were associated with human genome variations. In-depth analysis of these results reveals that the majority of those relationships are between immune pathways and autoimmune disease-associated microbiome components. Thus, it can be hypothesized that autoimmunity may be associated with homeostatic disequilibrium of the human-microbiome interactome. Further analysis of human genome-human microbiome relationships in disease contexts with tailored systems biology approaches may yield insights into disease pathogenesis and prognosis.

  2. Human genome-microbiome interaction: metagenomics frontiers for the aetiopathology of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbantoglu, Ufuk

    2017-01-01

    A short while ago, the human genome and microbiome were analysed simultaneously for the first time as a multi-omic approach. The analyses of heterogeneous population cohorts showed that microbiome components were associated with human genome variations. In-depth analysis of these results reveals that the majority of those relationships are between immune pathways and autoimmune disease-associated microbiome components. Thus, it can be hypothesized that autoimmunity may be associated with homeostatic disequilibrium of the human-microbiome interactome. Further analysis of human genome–human microbiome relationships in disease contexts with tailored systems biology approaches may yield insights into disease pathogenesis and prognosis. PMID:28785422

  3. Novel approaches for diagnosing inherited platelet disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida Bermejo, José María; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús María; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2017-01-20

    Inherited platelet disorders diagnosis is based on the clinical history and bleeding assessment tools. The laboratory functional assays as well as the molecular test to identify the pathogenic genetic variant are essential to confirm the accurate diagnosis of these disorders. Nowadays, the main challenges to developing a new diagnostic system are involved in reducing the samples' volume, and faster and more helpful analysis. Moreover, there are no widely available and standardised global tests. High throughput genetic testing such as next-generation sequencing has revolutionised DNA sequencing technologies as it allows the simultaneous and faster investigation of multiple genes at a manageable cost. This technology has improved the molecular characterisation of inherited platelet disorders and has been implemented in the research studies and the clinical routine practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  5. Towards unifying inheritance and automatic program specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    with covariant specialization to control the automatic application of program specialization to class members. Lapis integrates object-oriented concepts, block structure, and techniques from automatic program specialization to provide both a language where object-oriented designs can be e#ciently implemented......Inheritance allows a class to be specialized and its attributes refined, but implementation specialization can only take place by overriding with manually implemented methods. Automatic program specialization can generate a specialized, effcient implementation. However, specialization of programs...

  6. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  7. Continuous infusion of recombinant activated factor VII for bleeding control after lobectomy in a patient with inherited factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Naoko; Isaka, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Hideaki; Maniwa, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Shoji; Takamiya, Osamu; Ohde, Yasuhisa

    2016-03-01

    Inherited factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare recessive inherited coagulation disorder with limited available information, especially in patients undergoing major thoracic surgery. In addition, an optimal management strategy for the disease has not been defined. We herein report a case involving a 61-year-old man with asymptomatic FVII deficiency who underwent a right middle and lower lobectomy to treat lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, the present report is the first to describe the use of recombinant activated FVII continuous infusion for bleeding control after a major thoracic surgery in a patient with inherited FVII deficiency.

  8. 25 CFR 91.9 - Inheritance of improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inheritance of improvements. 91.9 Section 91.9 Indians..., OSAGE RESERVATION, OKLAHOMA § 91.9 Inheritance of improvements. (a) Upon the death of the owner of... of the county courts, State of Oklahoma, and shall be subject to inheritance or bequest in accordance...

  9. Whole exome sequencing in 342 congenital cardiac left sided lesion cases reveals extensive genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander H. Li

    2017-10-01

    disease records and model organism phenotyping, in novel gene discovery for rare human disease. The results underscore the extensive genetic heterogeneity underlying non-syndromic LSLs, and posit potential novel candidate genes and complex modes of inheritance in this important group of birth defects.

  10. Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling and Gene Expression for Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease in the Dog and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg R. Markby

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Myxomatous mitral valve disease is the single most important mitral valve disease in both dogs and humans. In the case of the dog it is ubiquitous, such that all aged dogs will have some evidence of the disease, and for humans it is known as Barlow’s disease and affects up to 3% of the population, with an expected increase in prevalence as the population ages. Disease in the two species show many similarities and while both have the classic myxomatous degeneration only in humans is there extensive fibrosis. This dual pathology of the human disease markedly affects the valve transcriptome and the difference between the dog and human is dominated by changes in genes associated with fibrosis. This review will briefly examine the comparative valve pathology and then, in more detail, the transcriptomic profiling and gene expression reported so far for both species.

  11. Modeling cognition and disease using human glial chimeric mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Maiken; Windrem, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    , oligodendrocytes as well. As a result, the recipient brains may become inexorably humanized with regards to their resident glial populations, yielding human glial chimeric mouse brains. These brains provide us a fundamentally new tool by which to assess the species-specific attributes of glia in modulating human...... for studying the human-specific contributions of glia to psychopathology, as well as to higher cognition. As such, the assessment of human glial chimeric mice may provide us new insight into the species-specific contributions of glia to human cognitive evolution, as well as to the pathogenesis of human...

  12. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  13. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  14. McArdle Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalla, Alfredo; Nogales-Gadea, Gisela; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2014-01-01

    McArdle disease is arguably the paradigm of exercise intolerance in humans. This disorder is caused by inherited deficiency of myophosphorylase, the enzyme isoform that initiates glycogen breakdown in skeletal muscles. Because patients are unable to obtain energy from their muscle glycogen stores......, this disease provides an interesting model of study for exercise physiologists, allowing insight to be gained into the understanding of glycogen-dependent muscle functions. Of special interest in the field of muscle physiology and sports medicine are also some specific (if not unique) characteristics...

  15. Retinal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Linked Retinoschisis (XLRS) X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa (XLRP) Usher Syndrome Other Retinal Diseases Glossary News & Research News & Research ... central portion of the retina called the macula. Usher Syndrome Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by ...

  16. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus-vectored vaccines against human and animal infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Houqiang; Ji, Xinqin; Zhao, Jiafu

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recombinant genetic engineering techniques have brought forward a leap in designing new vaccines in modern medicine. One attractive strategy is the application of reverse genetics technology to make recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) deliver protective antigens of pathogens. In recent years, numerous studies have demonstrated that rNDV-vectored vaccines can induce quicker and better humoral and mucosal immune responses than conventional vaccines and are protective against pathogen challenges. With deeper understanding of NDV molecular biology, it is feasible to develop gene-modified rNDV vaccines accompanied by good safety, high efficacy, low toxicity and better immunogenicity. This review summarizes the development of reverse genetics technology in using NDV as a promising vaccine vector to design new vaccines for human and animal use.

  17. Metabolism and insulin signaling in common metabolic disorders and inherited insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højlund, Kurt

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes, obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are common metabolic disorders which are observed with increasing prevalences, and which are caused by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors, including increased calorie intake and physical inactivity. These metabolic disorders are all characterized by reduced plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. Quantitatively skeletal muscle is the major site of insulin resistance. Both low plasma adiponectin and insulin resistance contribute to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In several studies, we have investigated insulin action on glucose and lipid metabolism, and at the molecular level, insulin signaling to glucose transport and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle from healthy individuals and in obesity, PCOS and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we have described a novel syndrome characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia and insulin resistance. This syndrome is caused by a mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the insulin receptor gene (INSR). We have studied individuals with this mutation as a model of inherited insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes, obesity and PCOS are characterized by pronounced defects in the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, in particular glycogen synthesis and to a lesser extent glucose oxidation, and the ability of insulin to suppress lipid oxidation. In inherited insulin resistance, however, only insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis is impaired. This suggests that the defects in glucose and lipid oxidation in the common metabolic disorders are secondary to other factors. In young women with PCOS, the degree of insulin resistance was similar to that seen in middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. This supports the hypothesis of an unique pathogenesis of insulin resistance in PCOS. Insulin in physiological concentrations stimulates glucose uptake in human skeletal

  18. Pseudodominant inheritance pattern in a family with CMT2 caused by GDAP1 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Paassen, Barbara W.; Bronk, Marieke; Verhamme, Camiel; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank; van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; de Visser, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    We report a family in which an autosomal dominantly inherited Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease type 2 was suspected. The affected family members (proband, sister, father, and paternal aunt) showed intrafamilial clinical variability. The proband needed walking aids since adolescence because of

  19. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in the Eurasian dog breed - inheritance and exclusion of two candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is considered an inherited disease in several dog breeds. Affected dogs show polyphagia, weight loss and voluminous faeces of light colour due to the lack of pancreatic enzymes. In the study described herein, we performed a segregation analysis using the SINGLES ...

  20. Genetic reversion of inherited skin disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnaldo, Thierry; Sarasin, Alain

    2002-11-30

    Human epidermis is a squamous stratified epithelium whose integrity relies on balanced processes of cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In monogenic skin dermatoses, such as mecano-bullous diseases, or DNA repair deficiencies such as the xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), alterations of skin integrity may have devastating consequences as illustrated by the extremely high epidermal cancer proneness of XP patients. The lack of efficient pharmacological treatments, the easy accessibility of skin, and the possibility of long term culture and genetic manipulations ex vivo of epidermal keratinocytes, have encouraged approaches toward gene transfer and skin therapy prospects. We review here some of the human genetic disorders that exhibit major traits in skin, as well as requirements and difficulties inherent to approaches aimed at stable phenotypic correction.