WorldWideScience

Sample records for human inhabitants eco-tourism

  1. Religious Eco-Tourism and Human Civilization in the 21st Century%宗教生态旅游与21世纪人类文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锡盛; 朱国斌; 字振华

    2000-01-01

    Tourism has been closely related to religion since ancient times. Religious eco-tourism is the result of tourism development into the 21st century, in the course of which man tries to perfect himself and create new civilization. Religious eco-tourism, particularly Buddhist eco-tourism, will become a fashionable industry of the 21st century because it attaches great importance to the harmonious co-existence between man and nature, the agreeable human relations, and the improvement of man himself.%旅游自古以来就与宗教有较为密切的关系。宗教生态旅游的提出,是人类跨入21世纪发展旅游业并对人类如何完善自身、创建新型文明思考的产物。与重视人与自然、人与人的和谐发展,重视人类自我完善相适应,宗教生态旅游尤其是佛教生态旅游将成为21世纪的时尚旅游。

  2. Construction of Eco-tourism Sites Based on the Experience of Eco-tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Lingtong Grand Canyon in Jingxi County, Baise City, Guangxi, China as a research object, the face-to-face questionnaire survey on tourist is carried out, in order to obtain the basic situation of the interviewees, as well as their expectation for the eco-tourism experience. Factor analysis method is adopted to test the interviewees′ expectation of the eco-tourism experience. Result shows that eco-tourism experience of tourist is mainly reflected in the ecological leisure experience, the ecological tourism experience, the ecological experience in scenic spot, and the self-realization experience. Analysis on the recognition of the expectation for eco-tourism experience shows that the interviewees′ expectations of the eco-tourism experience are in the order of the ecological experience in scenic spot, the eco-tourism experience, the ecological leisure experience, and the self-realization experience. Difference analysis on the interviewees′ expectations for the eco-tourism experience is carried out by market segmentation. Result shows that there are significant differences in the demand of eco-tourism experience among different types of tourisms. According to the investigation result, countermeasures for the construction and marketing of eco-tourism sites are put forward.

  3. [Comprehensive evaluation of eco-tourism resources in Yichun forest region of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Maozhu; Hu, Haiqing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Lijun

    2006-11-01

    By using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and Delphi method, a total of 30 representative evaluation factors in the aspects of tourism resources quantity, environmental quantity, tourism conditions, and tourism functions were chosen to build up a comprehensive quantitative evaluation model to evaluate the eco-tourism resources of Yichun forest region in Northeast China. The results showed that in Yichun forest region, the natural eco-tourism resources were superior to the humanity resources. On the regional distribution of favorable level eco-tourism resources quantity, 4 sites were very prominent, i.e., north (Jiayin) -center (Yichun) -east (Jinshantun) -south (Tieli). As for the distribution of eco-tourism resources type, it was basically in the sequence of north (Jiayin, Tangwang River, Wuying) -center (Yichun, Shangganling) -east (Jinshantun, Meixi) -south (Teli, Dailing). Based on the above analyses, Yichun forest region could be divided into four tourism areas, i.e., the south, the east, the central, and the north. Aimed at the special features of each area, the initial development directions were introduced.

  4. Jixi:A Promising Eco-Tourism City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    LOCATED in southeastern Heilongjiang Province and bordering Russia to the east, Jixi City administerssix districts and the three county-level cities of Jidong, Hulin and Mishan. Within its boundary is Xingkai Lake with all its natural wonders, and the city has worked hard to build on this elemental advantage, and become a unique eco-tourism destination.

  5. Elk viewing in Pennsylvania: an evolving eco-tourism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Michael J. Powell

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Pennsylvania Game Commission established an Elk Viewing Area within Pennsylvania's elk range. The viewing area has become the focus for a developing eco-tourism system. During the four years of operation, a research team from Penn State has measured the number of visitors, their expenditure patterns, and other parameters of their visit. The trends...

  6. 关于吉林省生态旅游产品开发的研究%Research on Jilin Eco-tourism Products' Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景翊; 孙虹飞; 王蕊

    2011-01-01

    Eco-tourism,which is based on the human reflection on the relationship between tourism and environment,is an important way to realize the sustainable development of tourism destinations.There are distinctive and various types of eco-tourism resources in Jilin Province,so that it has the unique condition of developing eco-tourism.Combining with the current status of eco-tourism resources in Jilin Province,this article researches and explores the eco-tourism product development.%生态旅游是以人类对旅游与环境相互关系的反思为基础的实现旅游目的地的可持续发展的重要途径。吉林省生态旅游资源类型多样、特色鲜明,拥有开展生态旅游得天独厚的条件。本文结合吉林省生态旅游资源现状,对生态旅游产品的开发进行了研究和探讨。

  7. Advantage and forecast for eco-tourism development in Saihanba national forest park%国家森林公园发展塞罕坝生态旅游的优势与前景预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云国

    2013-01-01

      本文分析了塞罕坝开展生态旅游的旅游优势、自然景观优势、人文景观优势、生物景观优势,并对生态旅游前景预测,旨在为国内森林公园的生态旅游资源开发提供借鉴。%  This paper analysis that the development of eco-tourism required tourism advantages,Natural landscape advantages, Human landscape and biological landscape for eco-tourism development in Saihanba national forest park, And prospect forecast of eco-tourism, to provide reference for eco-tourism development in domestic forest park.

  8. Eco-Tourism Development Strategy Balurannational Park in the Regency of Situbondo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Adil; Moeljadi

    2015-01-01

    Baluran National Park in the regency of Situbondo, East Java-Indonesia, highly prospective for development of sustainable tourism that can improve the welfare of local people. The suitable tourism type is eco-tourism with local people involvement. The purposes of this study are: 1) To know the local people involvement in eco-tourism development;…

  9. The potential for eco-tourism in the Gishwati Forest Reserve: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential for eco-tourism in the Gishwati Forest Reserve: An alternative use of the ... This study was conducted in late 2010 for the Gishwati Area Conservation ... communities, and that they should assist in conserving the natural areas.

  10. Review on Eco-tourism Development Modes of Biosphere Reserves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Xianghui; CHU Jianmin; ZHU Xueling

    2006-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the current situation and existing problems in the development of eco-tourism carried out by biosphere reserves in China, this paper discussed the development of global biosphere reserve and a set of development criteria about eco-tourism. According to the current tourism development of Baotianman Biosphere Reserve, a development mode for eco-tourism was gotten , in which such aspects as the function division, development process, establishment of facility, constitution of organization, community participation and sustainable management of biosphere reserve were taken into account, and the establishment of public education and environmental protection facility were considered as a vital characteristic of eco-tourism of biosphere reserves.

  11. Development of Landscape Architecture through Geo-eco-tourism in Tropical Karst Area to Avoid Extractive Cement Industry for Dignified and Sustainable Environment and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanti, Pita A. B.; Agus, Cahyono

    2017-08-01

    Karst areas in Indonesia amounted to 154,000 km2, potentially for extractive cement and wall paint industries. Exploitation of karst caused serious problems on the environment, health and social culture of the local community. Even though, karst region as a natural and cultural world heritage also have potential environmental services such as water resources, carbon sink, biodiversity, unique landscapes, natural caves, natural attractions, archaeological sites and mystic areas. Landscape architectural management of in the concept of blue revolution through the empowerment of land resources (soil, water, minerals) and biological resources (plant, animal, human), not only have adding value of economy aspect but also our dignified and sustainable environment and life through health, environmental, social, cultural, technological and management aspects. Geo-eco-tourism offers the efficiency of investment, increased creative innovation, increased funding, job creation, social capital development, stimulation of the socio-entrepreneurship in community. Community based geo-eco-tourism in Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta rapidly growing lately due to the local government banned the exploitation of karst. Landscape architecture at the caves, white sand beaches, cliffs in karst areas that beautiful, artistic and have special rare natural architecture form of stalactite and stalagmite, become the new phenomenal interested object of geo-eco-tourism. Many hidden nature objects that had been deserted and creepy could be visited by many local and foreign tourists. Landscape architectural management on hilltops with a wide view of the universe and fresh, sunset and sunrise, the clouds country are a rare sight for modern community. Local cultural attractions, local culinary, home stay with local communities will be an added attraction, but the infrastructure and human resources should be developed. Traveler photographs that widespread rapidly through social media and mass media became a

  12. ECO-TOURISM SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH PV TECHNOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAVIND C. V

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the Economic Transformation program the Malaysian Government aims to consider tourism as one of the major contributors to the country’s economy and as an industry that imbibe on the principles of environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The growing challenges in the prevention of expansion in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture, and over-exploitation of the natural resources, have made ecotourism extremely popular as a solution for developing tourism sites. Ecotourism attracts many people who wish not only to explore natural wonders but also to protect them for future generations. Most of the ecotourism sites are presumably situated far from the conventional energy resources and thus transporting electricity to those areas are discussed as inefficient and unsustainable. However, solar Photo-voltaic (PV system is clean and alternative energy to suffice the energy demands of eco-tourist sites. This paper puts statements of the energy demand in global and its impact on the traditional fossil fuels and proposes PV as an alternative renewable technology pertaining to the eco-tourism application. The paper especially focuses on solar PV systems which not only could supply the energy demand of tourist sites but can also maintain the image of the ecotourism. A case of a model lodge is used for the study, through the energy demand analysis. A comprehensive review on the PV architecture is presented that derive interest in the implementation of such structure for the case presented.

  13. Strategies of the Game on the Use of BOT Model for the Eco-tourism Enterprises in the Infrastructure Development of Ecological Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peitao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on BOT model in the eco-tourism infrastructure and from the perspective of the Eco-tourism Enterprises, this article analyzes the game of the concession periods, the game of the costs and the game between the two to achieve the Maximization of Eco-tourism Enterprises’ profits by using some related theories and methods.

  14. Strategies of the Game on the Use of BOT Model for the Eco-tourism Enterprises in the Infrastructure Development of Ecological Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Peitao; Wang Shuai; Zhou Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on BOT model in the eco-tourism infrastructure and from the perspective of the Eco-tourism Enterprises, this article analyzes the game of the concession periods, the game of the costs and the game between the two to achieve the Maximization of Eco-tourism Enterprises’ profits by using some related theories and methods.

  15. Strategies of the Game on the Use of BOT Model for the Eco-tourism Enterprises in the Infrastructure Development of Ecological Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Peitao; Wang Shuai; Zhou Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on BOT model in the eco-tourism infrastructure and from the perspective of the Eco-tourism Enterprises, this article analyzes the game of the concession periods, the game of the costs and the game between the two to achieve the Maximization of Eco-tourism Enterprises’ profits by using some related theories and methods.

  16. Eco-tourism services in light of new clusters and application of intellectual property rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vukašin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary eco-tourism includes the basic principles of sustainable development and actively contributes to the preservation of natural and cultural heritage of a specific area by involving the residents of local communities in the planning, development and distribution of generated revenues. It is based on the abundance of biodiversity (particularly rare and endemic species, the traditional knowledge and folklore tradition of a specific area. Products and services that are specific to this form of tourism have always been on the verge of being both beneficial and harmful for the identity of a particular area. Yet, one of the current solutions for attaining good economic results of eco-tourism is grouping all available resources within a particular local community for the purpose of promoting its distinctive features and diversity. In this paper, the author discusses a significant trend of forming eco-tourism clusters and points out to the contemporary solutions aimed at protecting the genetic resources, traditional knowledge and folklore of local communities within tourism services. The development of intellectual property protection, whose goal is to preserve traditional knowledge and skills of certain local communities, has a significant impact on the development of eco-tourism as well as on the increase of its competitiveness in the global market.

  17. Analysis of Eco-tourism Planning%浅析生态旅游规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈吉韵

    2012-01-01

    How to vigorously develop the tourism industry without natural resources damage has always been the key study for the development of tourism in China and the world, so eco-tourism plan comes into being. This article describes the course of development of China's eco-tourism planning and the actual case of eco-tourism planning, and concludes the prospects and outlook of the development of eco-tourism planning.%如何在不破坏自然资源的前提下,大力发展旅游业,一直都是中国和世界旅游业发展的重点研究问题,生态旅游规划应运而生.本文介绍了我国生态旅游规划的发展历程,以及我国生态旅游规划的实际案例,最后提出对我国发展生态旅游规划的前景和展望.

  18. Wild Places, Wildlife, and Eco-Tourism: Outdoor Leadership Demands in the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Sally A. G.

    This paper discusses wilderness preservation as related to outdoor leadership and explains how eco-tourism can promote preservation. Although historically, the wilderness in the United States was largely destroyed in the name of progress, our cultural heritage evolved from that wilderness. The Wilderness Act was the first legislation in the…

  19. 六盘山生态旅游区水质变化对人类旅游活动干扰的动态响应%Dynamic Response of Water Quality Change in the Liupan Mountain Eco-Tourism Area to the Human-Induced Tourism Disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美风; 席建超; 葛全胜

    2011-01-01

    Tourism has multi-scale effects on the environment.As an important landscape element of tourist destination and characterization of tourism sustainable development,the water environment has received extensive attention.The Liupan Mountain ecological tourism area is located in the boundary of Shaanxi Province,Gansu Province and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in northwestern China,showing a fragile environment and sensitivity to human activities.Based on dynamic monitoring data of water quality in the tourist season(from May to October),this study comprehensively analyzed the response of water quality change to human-induced tourism disturbance over the region by establishing the Water Organoleptic Index(WQI),Water Eutrophic Index(WEI),Water Healthy Index(WHI),and Tourism Water Environment Disturbance Index(TWEDI) from the dual perspectives of the tourism water environment disturbance index and Limits of Acceptable Change(LAC) in the eco-tourism area.Results show that:1) in the tourist season,most indicators of water quality are within the national evaluation criteria of Class II ground water while a few indicators lie in Class III ground water.The tourism water quality disturbance index value is 3 or 4 in some sections,which reflects that the disturbance has been a serious disturbance level.2) At different sampling points of the tourism area,changes in water quality indicators have been obviously different.The water quality of the tourist core area(mainly for sightseeing) maintains a normal level.However,with the tourism way(mainly leisure) changing gradually from the upstream to the downstream,the disturbance on water quality increases accordingly;the most dramatic change happens near the hotel reception area and the folk village.3) The LCA of tourists on water turbidity is 8.95 NTU,which demonstrates that tourists have a high requirement on water quality for eco-tourism areas and are sensitive to water quality change.4) The

  20. The Analysis and Quality Improvement of Eco-Tourism Services by Using the Supply-Demand Interface Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Gheorghe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Supply-Demand Interface Platform is the key to the improvement of eco-tourism services in Romania. In the present paper, I have presented the modus operandi of this Supply-Demand Interface Platform, the advanages and disadvantages offered to the accommodation units that wish to use this IT model, as well as the advanages and disadvantages for the beneficiaries of the eco-tourism services provided by these units (accommodation services, catering, transportation, guidance services.

  1. Landscape ecological assessment and eco-tourism development in the South Dongting Lake Wetland, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    As an important resource and the liying environment of mankind, wetland has become gradually a highlight, strongly concerned andintensively studied by scientists and sociologists.The governments in the world and the whole society have been paying more and more attentionon it.The Dongting Lake of China is regarded as an internationally important wetland.For a rational development and protection of thewetland, an investigation and studied on its resources and its value to tourism in the South Dongting Lake was conducted, to create anassessment system of the ecological landscapes, and to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the value of wetland landscape to the eco-tourism.The results showed that the scenic value of the South Dongting Lake Wetland satisfied the criterion of AAAA grade of China nationalscenic attraction.The eco-tourism value of the landscape cultures in the South Dongting Lake Wetland was discussed with emphasis.It wereformulated that a principle and frame of sustainable exploitation of the wetland landscapes and it was proposed as well that establishing aWetland Park and developing eco-tourism in the South Dongting Lake.Wetland is a fragile ecosystem with low resistance to the impact of theexploitation.Thus, we must pay intensively attention to the influence of exploitation on the landscape, take the ecological risk in account toemploy a right countermeasure and avoid the negative affection.

  2. 银川市生态旅游发展现状及对策%Development of eco-tourism in Yinchuan and some countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春悦; 张磊; 纪振奇

    2009-01-01

    At present,Eco-tourism as the fashionable tourism in the world,has attracted people's attention,which because it Harmonious between human and environment,also sustainable development of ecological environment.The ecological environment in Yinchuan,has great improvement by its regions and nationality.At the same time,there are some problems in practical operation.Under the efforts of management of departments,developers and the local residents,the Eco-tourism of Yinchuan face a broader prospect than before.%生态旅游作为现阶段世界性的时尚旅游,因倡导人和环境的和谐性和生态环境的可持续发展性吸引了人们的目光.银川市生态旅游凭借其地域性和民族性等生态资源取得了显著的成绩,与此同时,亦在实际操作中存在一定的问题,在管理部门、开发商和当地居民的三重努力下,银川市的生态旅游面临着更广阔的发展前景.

  3. Landscape ecological assessment and eco-tourism development in the South Dongting Lake Wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Wang, Bao-zhong

    2003-03-01

    As an important resource and the living environment of mankind, wetland has become gradually a highlight, strongly concerned and intensively studied by scientists and sociologists. The governments in the world and the whole society have been paying more and more attention on it. The Dongting Lake of China is regarded as an internationally important wetland. For a rational development and protection of the wetland, an investigation and studied on its resources and its value to tourism in the South Dongting Lake was conducted, to create an assessment system of the ecological landscapes, and to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the value of wetland landscape to the ecotourism. The results showed that the scenic value of the South Dongting Lake Wetland satisfied the criterion of AAAA grade of China national scenic attraction. The eco-tourism value of the landscape cultures in the South Dongting Lake Wetland was discussed with emphasis. It were formulated that a principle and frame of sustainable exploitation of the wetland landscapes and it was proposed as well that establishing a Wetland Park and developing eco-tourism in the South Dongting Lake Wetland is a fragile ecosystem with low resistance to the impact of the exploitation. Thus, we must pay intensively attention to the influence of exploitation on the landscape, take the ecological risk in account to employ a right countermeasure and avoid the negative affection.

  4. If Leviathan Has a Face, Does Gaia Have a Soul?: Incorporating Environmental Education in Marine Eco-tourism Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a model for structuring marine eco-tourism programs to capitalize on a range of cognitive states experienced by tourists in a novel marine environment setting. The model is demonstrated in the context of a whalewatch trip in Hawaii. Discusses questions about the suitability and effectiveness of the model. (Author/MDH)

  5. Monitoring of Hygienic-Sanitary State of River Sana as a Precondition for Protection of Pollution and Development of Eco-Tourism in the Municipality of Bihac

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jasmina Cepic

    2009-01-01

    ... is the development of eco-tourism. By regular control of water quality of river Una in the upper and middle course, we would get a clear insight into the status of possible contamination, determine the critical point, and take...

  6. Possibilities to Improve the Quality of Accommodation and Eco-Tourism Services throught the Online Software of the Housing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Alina GHEORGHE

    2012-01-01

    The problem of eco-tourism services represent an actual topic for specialists in Romania or abroad, due to excessive modernization, because natural traditions and values of the area with tourism potential were forgotten. In this paper, I shall present an acquisition modality for accommodation services which comes to suppor the customer and will lead to improvements in the field of accommodation services offered by companies engaged in this field.

  7. 生态旅游的发展:存在问题与实现途径%Eco-tourism Development:Problems and Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉钧

    2012-01-01

      指出了生态旅游发展中存在的问题,提出了将社区参与作为开展生态旅游的实现途径,并强调在生态旅游规划实施后需要不断采取完善措施。生态旅游追求的是旅游业、自然保护和地方经济发展的协调与统一。在合理运营过程中,需要保护自然生态系统以满足生态旅游资源的持续存在。最后提出今后国内生态旅游的发展还需要注意3方面的问题:即将生态旅游与一般性旅游区别开来、坚持生态旅游的原则及严格生态旅游的标准。%  This paper points out the problems in the development of eco-tourism, proposes the ways to carry out eco-tourism by community, and streses the importance of improvement after eco-tourism planning is realized. Eco-tourism endeavors to seek the coordination and unity between tourism, nature conservation and local economy development. In the reasonable management process, natural resources should be preserved to sustain a healthy development of eco-tourism. Therefore, the paper indicates that eco-tourism should be differentiated from the general tourism and that principles and strict standards for eco-tourism should be well-implemented.

  8. Financial sources of small and medium enterprises for agribusiness and eco-tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Pero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing business growth of the SME sector and entrepreneurship, due to its characteristics, is in a specific position. The previously dominant model of financing and the lack of specific funding sources in Serbia, further complicate the possible solutions that lead to accelerated growth. In order to solve the accumulated problems of the transition process, it is essential that countries improve economic policy towards SMEs in the agribusiness and eco-tourism activities, and to facilitate the conditions for starting a business for entrepreneurs. In order for someone to invest capital he requires a guarantees from the state, since the state is not able to give them it's necessary to open agencies whose task would be to monitor the activities of these companies, to collect accounting information on the status and trends of invested capital, income and expenses, the number of employees and trends by sectors and to provide such information to entrepreneurs. Other than that, the state has to work on solving all barriers, as for domestic, so for foreign enterprises and work on the plan of safe realization of products and services, in country and outside, which will automatically increase the number of SME and the number of employed. This will increase the life standard of citizens in the long run.

  9. 与生态旅游相关的几个概念比较研究%Comparative Study of Several Concepts Related to Eco-tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞林

    2012-01-01

    面对旅游开发与环境保护的冲突,人类开始从生态学的角度寻求旅游发展的道路,倡导旅游业的可持续发展.本文在阐述了生态旅游、绿色旅游、低碳旅游、可持续旅游几个相关概念的产生以及内涵的基础上,分析了其区别和联系.%Facing the inflict between the tourism development and environment protect, humans have been looking for the paths to the development of tourism industry from the point of ecology, and advocating sustainable development of tourism. The following paper firstly illustrates the production and the content of a few related concepts, inculding, eco -tourism, green tourism, low -carbon tourism and sustainable tourism, and then analyzes the different and relations of them.

  10. The potentials for development of eco-tourism in region Posavina inferior, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When we talk about the Serbian touristic zones, what we usually have in mind and what we point out are the mountainous zones of the national parks. But there exists a plain zone with exceptional natural potentials for the development of eco-tourism. Still adequate attention has not been paid to it neither performed an appropriate touristic evaluation. We are talking about the zone of POSAVINA. A big, navigable river, numerous meanders, river islands, effluents, marshes and swamps rich in flora and fauna, create a remarkable natural environment, quite close to the big cities and international highways that has not been adequately evaluated in the fields of ecotourism. This study is a result of our intention to pay public attention to the natural potentials for the formation of an ecotouristic zone in the lower Posavina in Serbia, which is at the same time the most beautiful and in the ecological sense the most interesting part of the river Sava. In this section (206.5 km Sava is very much alike a winding thread beaded with fantastic marsh terrains with rare floral and animal species, which are typical for this kind of biothop. Posavina in Serbia contains a whole chain of attractive zones and places, from the hunting forest of Bosut and Morović to the Ada Ciganlija. Natural complexes in their original state or slightly changed are an important eco-tourist resource in Posavina. They all should be to keep ecological balance, but at the same time to satisfied the rising ecological needs. Though some natural objects are protected, still it is not enough, and “the touristic digression”, i.e. degradation of environment, is higher and higher. In future ecostrategic planning, Posavina should be treated systematically, as a single ecotouristic zone. The red line of this zone is the river Sava that could be transformed into a single water ecopath. As a conclusion we could say that a complete protection of all marsh and water ecosystems in Posavina is

  11. 武陵山区生态旅游区域协作研究%The Research on Region-collaboration of Eco-tourism in Wuling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋芳; 张旺

    2014-01-01

    Eco-tourism is the hot issues of industry and academia on tourism. Implementing eco-tourism of regional cooperation is one of the effective ways about regional sustainable development. Based on its poorly traffic location, flimsiness ecological conditions, lower savings capacity, divided administrative regions and fuzzy collaboration consciousness, the article discussed the drive mechanisms, the base, the pathway and the key points of cooperation as the eco -tourism collaboration of the Wuling mountains, focused on the cooperation patterns and organizational structure as well as the“a pole, a axes, three radiation belt, three associated regions” of space development arrangement. This purpose is designed to establish the overall image of eco-tourism about Wuling mountains, create regional eco -tourism brand, extend eco-tourism industry chain, enhance driving effects and radiation ability of eco-tourism.%开展生态旅游的区域协作是实现区域可持续发展的有效途径之一。文章以武陵山区为研究对象,基于其不便的交通区位、脆弱的生态条件、低下的积蓄能力、分治的行政区域和模糊的协作意识,论述了大武陵生态旅游协作区合作的动力机制、合作基础、合作途径和合作要点,重点探讨了生态旅游协作的模式和组织架构,以及“一极、一轴线、三条辐射带、三个关联地区”的空间发展格局,旨在树立武陵山区的生态旅游整体形象,打造区域生态旅游品牌,延伸生态旅游产业链条,增强生态旅游辐射能力和带动效应。

  12. The Discussion on Eco-tourism Development of Hainan Province%海南生态旅游发展刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗彬

    2012-01-01

    生态旅游因其环保、可持续发展等优势,已成为发展旅游业的新的经济增长点,对于志在打造国际旅游岛的海南省,发展新颖、环保的生态旅游显得尤为重要。%For its advantages of environmental protection and sustainable development, eco-tourism has already become a new eco- nomic growth point in tourism development. Therefore, it is of particular importance to develop innovative and environmentally friendly eco-tourism for Hainan Province, which is aimed at building an international tourism island.

  13. Prioritization of Eco-tourism Attractions (The target villages of Charmahal O Bakhtiar province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rahimi

    2012-01-01

    of eco-tourism resources in Yinhun forest region of northeast china. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, 17(11:2163-9Jia, Li, Hong, Gan and Shengkui, Cheng (2007: Evaluation of regional tourism competitiveness: a case study of southwestChina, Ecological Economy (20073:393-404Law, Christopher (1996: urban tourism attraction visitors to larg cities, Mansell. Poblishing Limited, London.

  14. 生态旅游规划中的品牌理论%The Brand Theory Based on the Planning of the Eco-tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方聪慧

    2012-01-01

      Tourism planning in China is gradually developing,but there are still many problems.This article reveals the necessary of rand theory.Accordding to contact the content and related explanations and characteristic of the tour planning,the article puts forward the con-tent of eco-tourism brand,the construction strategy and management of eco-tourism brand,promoting the overall planning of eco-tourism more scientific and rational.%  中国旅游规划正逐步发展至成熟,但仍存在许多问题,显示出旅游规划中品牌理论的必要性。通过联系旅游品牌规划的概念与特征,总结提出了生态旅游规划中的品牌内涵,生态旅游产品品牌创建策略与管理模式,促进生态旅游总体规划更科学合理的发展。

  15. The Enlightenment of the Present Situation of the Development of Eco- tourism in Japan%日本生态旅游发展现状对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙辉

    2016-01-01

    “生态旅游”,简而言之,就是倡导爱护环境的旅游。“生态旅游”一经提出,便迅速席卷全球。但是,目前我国“生态旅游”法规不健全、相关管理人才匮乏、民众缺乏生态意识。而日本“生态旅游”经过30多年的发展,法规健全、管理规范、民众生态意识较强。对比分析中、日两国“生态旅游”,借鉴日本的发展经验,以此促进中国“生态旅游”得到更长远的发展。%“Eco-tourism”, briefly saying, is a way to advocate people protecting the environment during their trip. On proposing this notion, it has rapidly swept all over the world. However, with the Chinese lacking eco-tourism consciousness and China being deficient in talented manager of this matter, up till now the eco-tourism system is not sound in our country. By contrast, more than 30 years has witnessed the development of eco-tourism in Japan, which makes it possess a sound eco-tourism system, and normative management. Moreover, a strong sense of eco-tourism has deeply and profoundly routed in every Japanese heart. This paper, by making comparative analysis about eco-tourism between China and Japan, and drawing lessons from Japan, is to promote China to make further development in eco-tourism.

  16. A GROWING DILEMMA OF TOURISM DIFFUSION AND SUSTAINABILITY: WOWS AND WOES FOR BANGLADESH ECO-TOURISM!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shoeb-Ur-Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the emerging and fastest growing industries in the world today. It is well said that every twelve tourists creates a new job. Current study discusses the diffusive nature of tourism that demands an inclusion of the concept “sustainability” which in turn creates the impression for “ecotourism”. Afterward the study tries to find out ecotourism possibility to explore and potential challenges with special context of Bangladesh tourism industry. The concept of ecotourism adds the concern for environment as well as socio-economic status. Ecotourism must be promoted for sustainable development by establishing a durable productive base that allows the local inhabitants and ecotourism service providers to enjoy rising standards of living and environmental conservation. This paper provides an idea of how different tourism destinations, especially ecotourism become an effective tool for the sustainable development in Bangladesh. Secondary data were used to address the objectives in this study. However, some marketing strategies are pointed out as recommendations based on which several action programs could be taken for establishing as well as standardizing Bangladesh as an eye-catching ecotourism destination.

  17. Research on the Wetland Eco-Tourism Projects Design of Heilongjiang River%基于界江黑龙江的湿地生态旅游项目设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庾晓红; 刘佳; 张欣晔; 邵景林

    2013-01-01

    Based on the systematical and scientific investigation of Maolanhekou wetland tourism resources and landscape, using ecological design method, eco-tourism project of Maolanhekou wetland park should be designed focusing on typical wetland landscape, rich animal and plant resources and dense human landscape, for realizing the sustainable of tourism development based on the protecting wetland ecological tourism resources and promoting the economical and social development.%在充分调查的基础上,以典型的湿地自然景观、丰富的动植物资源和浓厚的人文生态景观为核心,采用生态设计的理念,初步规划设计了黑龙江茅兰河口湿地公园生态旅游项目,以期在保护湿地生态旅游资源的基础上,实现旅游开发的可持续性,促进地方经济、社会发展.

  18. Impact of Agricultural Eco-tourism Economy on Regional Tourism Economy%农业生态旅游经济的发展对地区旅游经济的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑薇

    2011-01-01

    分析了农业生态旅游经济的特点,以农业生态旅游发展相对较好的地区取得的经济效益为例,分析了农业生态旅游的经济效益,进而从旅游市场、旅游产业宏观和微观经济效益两个方面分析了农业生态旅游对地区旅游经济的影响.结果表明,发展农业生态旅游经济对于促进地区旅游经济的发展具有重要的促进作用.%The paper analyzes the characteristics of agricultural eco-tourism economy and the economic benefits of agricultural eco-tourism, and then expounds the impact of agricultural eco-tourism on regional tourism economy from the macro and micro economic benefits of tourism market and industry. The results indicate that agricultural eco-tourism economy could propel the development of regional tourism economy.

  19. Environmental Problems during Development of Agricultural Eco-tourism%农业生态旅游发展中的环境问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖军华

    2011-01-01

    基于农业生态旅游发展在促进农村经济社会发展、构建和谐新农村中的重要作用,分析了其在发展过程中产生的环境问题,指出农业生态旅游的盲目开发严重破坏了资源和生态环境,旅游基础设施的建设和城市化倾向破坏了农村特有的自然景观,针对环境现状研究了造成环境破坏的原因,主要在于农业生态旅游发展缺乏政府的引导和支持、缺乏科学的发展规划和管理体制,且旅游经营者和旅游者环保意识淡薄.在此基础上总结出农业生态旅游发展应该遵循可持续发展、开发与保护同步进行、旅游发展与环境保护相协调的原则,理清了农业生态旅游发展的理路,强调应制订科学合理的发展规划,加强政府的宏观管理,建立和完善生态补偿机制,并且努力培养公民的环保意识.%As agricultural eco-tourism development played a vital role in promoting rural economic and social development and constructing new harmonious countryside, the paper had analyzed environmental problems produced during its development, pointed out that blind development of agricultural eco-tourism had seriously destroyed resources and ecological environment and that tourist infrastructure construction and urbanization had ruined rural unique natural landscape. In view of current situation of environment, it also studied reasons causing environmental disruption, which lied in insufficient guidance and support of government, deficient scientific development planning and management system,and poor environmental consciousness of tourist operators and tourists. On this basis, it summarized that agricultural eco-tourism development should follow principles of sustainable development, synchronization between development and protection, and coordination between tourism development and environmental protection. It concluded proper ways to develop agricultural eco-tourism, and emphasized that it should draw up

  20. Lead levels in human teeth from the inhabitants of Mexico City from three different historical periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansilla, J.; Solis, C.; Chavez, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia, Direccion de Antropologia Fisica, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Human teeth from pre-Columbian, colonial and contemporary population groups were analyzed by PIXE in order to evaluate the lead contents in the inhabitants of Mexico City through different historical periods. Lead contents showed significant differences among the three groups, in Pre-Columbian teeth no lead was found, colonial teeth showed higher lead levels than contemporary ones. This results suggest that the native americans had no exposure to this toxic metal. The lead-glaze pottery introduced by the Spaniards, utilized in pottery and lead pipes, was the main source of lead in the colonial period. In recent teeth the deposited lead is mainly due to the absorption from the contaminated atmosphere. (Author)

  1. The Research of International Collaborative Eco-Tourism Development Based on the National Park%基于国家公园的生态旅游发展国际合作研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻江平

    2012-01-01

    中国与东盟水陆相连,文化相近,双方国家公园发展存在很多的共性和个性.通过对双方国家公园内生态旅游发展现状的分析,发现双方在地理区位、文化认同以及国家公园的发展理念上都存在着开展生态旅游合作的广泛基础.双方可在学术交流,客源互送、管理人员交流与培训、生态旅游产品合作开发、构建国家公园无障碍生态旅游圈等方面加强合作,并相应地构建平等互利的合作交流机制.%China and ASEAN is linked with land and water and their culture is similar, the two sides' National Park' s development has many commonalities and individualities. Through the status of the two sides' national park eco-tourism development, the author finds that the two sides have broad-based eco-tourism cooperation in geographical location, cultural identity and National Park development concepts. The article further suggests that both sides can strengthen cooperate in areas of academic exchange, sending tourists, management exchange and training, eco-tourism products, building the barrier-free eco-tourism circles and so on, and build equality and mutual benefit cooperation and exchange mechanism.

  2. Research on Environmental Capacity of Eco-Tourism Area Based on Nonlinear Theory%基于非线性理论的生态旅游景区环境容量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲玲

    2011-01-01

    如何平衡日益增长的游客数量与生态旅游景区环境容量之间的关系,已成为制约生态旅游可持续发展的瓶颈.基于非线性理论,建立游客数量与生态旅游景区环境容量的二元模式,获得对现实具有重要警示意义的平衡态.主要结论有: (1)生态旅游景区环境容量能否增加,开发与管理是否科学化与生态化是关键条件; (2)游客的生态意识对生态旅游景区的环境容量起到催化剂作用,将加速提高或减少景区的环境承载力; (3)平衡态景区环境容量与游客数量一致,表明合理控制游客数量,是决定生态旅游能否持续发展的前提; (4)只有同时采取控制游客数量与改善生态旅游景区的自然、社会、经济环境的措施,才能逐步实现生态旅游景区环境容量最终的稳定状态.%Balance between tourists' continuing growth and environmental capacity of eco-tourism area has become the bottleneck problem to eco-tourism sustainable development. Based on nonlinear theory, a new binary model describing the relationship between tourist number and environmental capacity of eco-tourism area is established. Though equilibrium analysis, main results were obtained: 1) The process of development and management must be scientific and ecological, which is the key condition of environmental capacity; 2) Ecological awareness of tourists will play a catalytic role in increasing or decreasing the ecological carrying capacity of eco-tourism area; 3) Equilibrium of the environmental capacity of eco-tourism area is equal to tourist quantity, indicating that the reasonable control of tourist number is prerequisite for sustainable development of eco-tourism; 4) Only we take effective measures to control tourist quantity on the one hand, and improve the natural, social, and economic environment on the other hand, the final steady state of the environmental capacity of eco-tourism area will be gradually achieved.

  3. 生态文明视阈中的丹江口库区生态旅游开发%On the Development of Eco-tourism Surrounding the Danjiangkou Reservoir Area in the Perspective of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄二平

    2012-01-01

    生态旅游是当今世界旅游业的一种新潮流,是人类“返璞归真”、“回归自然”的本性需要。它以可持续发展为理念,以统筹人与自然和谐为准则,以保护生态环境为前提,倡导人与自然高度和谐的生态文明。生态文明是生态旅游的灵魂,生态旅游是生态文明的栽体。丹江口库区应依托自身良好的自然生态环境和独特的人文生态系统,以生态文明理论为指导,广泛普及生态环保教育,大力发展生态旅游,进而实现库区经济、社会、生态的可持续发展。%Ecological tourism is a new trend in today's world tourism industry, which caters to such human needs as “returning to innocence and simplicity” and “returning to nature”. Taking sustainable development as it princi- pal concept, harmonious relationship between man and nature as its guideline, and conservation of environment as its premise, eco-tourism advocates a kind of ecological civilization in which man and nature enjoy a high degree of harmonious coexistence. Ecological civilization is the soul of ecological tourism, while ecological tourism is the car- rier of ecological civilization. Therefore, relying on its distinct natural ecological environment and unique humanis- tic ecosystem, and under the guidance of ecological civilization theories, it is advisable that the Danjiangkou reser- voir area should extensively promote popular environmental education and vigorously develop ecological tourism so as to achieve the sustainable development of the reservoir area economically, socially and ecologically.

  4. 福建生态旅游景区经营模式及其创新探讨%Study on the Innovation of Fujian Eco-tourism Spots Management Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶晶

    2015-01-01

    T he paper analyzes the m anagem ent pattern of Fujian eco-tourism areas, including the W uyi pattern and D ajinhu pattern. It suggests to learn advanced experience on the m anagem ent system from som e developed counties such as the U . S. , C anada, A strialia. T he article puts forw ard the innovative w ay to m anage eco-tourism areas. T hey are the m anagem ent pattern of "national park plus volunteer" (P.V ),"governm ent plus com pany plus com m unity" (G .C .C ), "governm ent plus eco-tourism association plus tourism com pany plus tourism agency"(G .A .C .T ).%在剖析福建生态旅游景区主要的经营模式———武夷山模式、大金湖模式基础上,借鉴美国、加拿大、澳大利亚等国家公园的经营模式,提出生态旅游景区创新的经营模式,即:“国家公园+志愿者”(P.V )模式、“政府+企业+社区”(G.C.C)模式、“政府+生态旅游协会+生态旅游公司+旅行社”(G.A.C.T)模式。

  5. 基于弹性理论的黑龙江省生态旅游产品定价分析%Apply Theory of Elasticity to the Heilongjiang Province Eco-tourism Product Pricing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘之月; 李臣; 万志芳

    2015-01-01

    Elastic theory has been applied to different fields. Through the research on the economic theory, the elasticity theory can provide reference for the eco-tourism pricing. Reasonable pricing to achieve win-win scenic revenue and tourist satisfaction, based on the analysis of the value of the eco-tourism scenic spot and the impact factor , the paper creates the demand elasticity of the ecological tourism in Heilongjiang province, and analyzes the elasticity of different tourism products, combined with demand theory, make corresponding adjustment for Heilongjiang province's eco-tourism product pricing strategy, put forward ecological scenic spot pricing in the process of development and pay attention to the problem.%弹性理论已经应用到不同的领域。通过对经济学理论的研究发现,弹性理论可以为生态旅游定价提供参考。合理的定价能够实现景区收益与游客满意的双赢,在分析生态旅游景区定价意义和影响因素的基础之上创建黑龙江省生态旅游需求弹性,分析不同旅游产品的弹性,结合需求理论,对黑龙江省生态旅游产品的定价策略作出相应的调整,提出生态景区定价和发展过程中的注意问题。

  6. The Eco-tourism Resources Investigation and Model Discussion for Li-river Scenic Spot%漓江风景区生态旅游资源开发调查及模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍青青; 王金叶

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status of community residents participating Eco-tourism resources development in Li-river core sce-nic spot.Based on Murphy′s tourism community strategic mode and combining with the actual situation of the Lijiang river scenic ar-ea,eco-tourism natural resource model is established from four aspects of commercial operation mode,profit distribution model envi-ronmental protection mode and management mode.The construction of this pattern,on the one hand,helps Guilin li-river scenic spot Eco-tourism resources development and utilization protectively, on the other hand,provides a reference model for Guilin li-river sce-nic spot of community participation in tourism development.%在对漓江风景区核心段居民参与生态旅游资源开发情况进行调查分析的基础上,依据墨菲( Peter.E.Murphy)提出的旅游社区发展战略模式,结合漓江风景区的实际情况,从景区商业经营、居民利益分配、漓江生态环境保护和风景名胜区管理4个方面分析和探讨了漓江风景区核心段居民参与生态旅游资源开发的模式。这种模式的构建,一方面有助于桂林漓江风景区生态旅游资源保护性开发利用,另一方面可为漓江风景区社区居民参与旅游开发提供借鉴。

  7. Model and Application of Eco-tourism Environment Capacity in Nanyigou Scenic Spot of Linzhi%林芝南伊沟景区生态旅游环境容量模型及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马守春; 张敏; 张长耀

    2013-01-01

    根据生态旅游环境容量计算的“木桶原理”或权重因素,在建立生态旅游环境容量评价指标体系的基础上,结合林芝地区米林县南伊沟景区的调查数据,建立或修改完善了自然条件方面生态旅游环境容量的数学模型,对相关指标的旅游环境容量进行了测算。结果表明,目前植被、道路交通、服务设施等是景区旅游业发展的主要制约因素,藉此提出了提高植被、停车场、住宿设施环境容量等建议。%According to the “cask principle” or the weighting factor which calculated from eco-tourism environment capacity , based on the evaluation index system of eco-tourism environment capacity , and re-ferring to relevant survey data of Nanyigou scenic spot in Milin County of Linzhi area , the mathematical model of eco-tourism environment capacity in the natural conditions has been created and modified , rele-vant index of tourism environment capacity also been calculated .Results showed that the vegetation , road traffic , service facilities were the main factors that restricted the development of Nanyigou scenic tourism . Suggestions to raise the capacity of vegetation , parking lot , accommodation facilities and so on have been put forward .

  8. Eld’s Deer Translocated to Human-Inhabited Areas Become Nocturnal

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Duo; Teng, Liwei; Cui, Fangjie; Zeng, Zhigao; Bravery, Benjamin D.; Zhang, Qiong; Song, Yanling

    2010-01-01

    As human populations expand and nonhuman animals decline, understanding the interactions between people and wildlife is essential. For endangered species, appreciating the effect of human disturbance can be important for their conservation. However, a human disturbance angle is often absent from ecological research, despite growing evidence of the negative impact of nonfatal human interference. Here, we monitored Hainan Eld’s deer living within a reserve and translocated animals living amongs...

  9. Uptake of human pharmaceuticals in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) inhabiting a wastewater-impacted river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsleichter, James; Szabo, Nancy J

    2013-07-01

    The presence of human pharmaceuticals in sewage-impacted ecosystems is a growing concern that poses health risks to aquatic wildlife. Despite this, few studies have investigated the uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in aquatic organisms. In this study, the uptake of 9 APIs from human drugs was examined and compared in neonate bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) residing in pristine (Myakka River) and wastewater-impacted (Caloosahatchee River) tributaries of Florida's Charlotte Harbor estuary. The synthetic estrogen used in human contraceptives (17α-ethynylestradiol) and 6 of the selective serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine) used in human antidepressants were observed at detectable and, in some cases, quantifiable levels in plasma of Caloosahatchee River sharks. Comparatively, only venlafaxine was detected in the plasma of a single Myakka River shark at a level below the limit of quantitation. These results suggest that sharks residing in wastewater-impacted habitats accumulate APIs, a factor that may pose special risks to C. leucas since it is one of few shark species to regularly occupy freshwater systems. Further research is needed to determine if the low levels of API uptake observed in Caloosahatchee River bull sharks pose health risks to these animals.

  10. Elephant movement patterns in relation to human inhabitants in and around the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Cook

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of humans and African elephants (Loxodonta africana in the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park can create situations of potential human–elephant conflict. Such conflict will likely be exacerbated as elephant and human populations increase, unless mitigation measures are put in place. In this study we analysed the movement patterns of 13 collared adult African elephants from the northern Kruger National Park over a period of eight years (2006–2014. We compared the occurrence and displacement rates of elephant bulls and cows around villages in the Limpopo National Park and northern border of the Kruger National Park across seasons and at different times of the day. Elephants occurred close to villages more often in the dry season than in the wet season, with bulls occurring more frequently around villages than cows. Both the bulls and the cows preferred to use areas close to villages from early evening to midnight, with the bulls moving closer to villages than the cows. These results suggest that elephants, especially the bulls, are moving through the studied villages in Mozambique and Zimbabwe at night and that these movements are most common during the drier months when resources are known to be scarce.Conservation implications: Elephants from the Kruger National Park are moving in close proximity to villages within the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park. Resettlement of villages within and around the park should therefore be planned away from elephant seasonal routes to minimise conflict between humans and elephants.

  11. Comparison of organochlorine pesticide levels in human adipose tissue of inhabitants from Veracruz and Puebla, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Valencia Quintana, R; Corona, C A; Herrero, M; Sánchez, K; Aguirre, H; Aldave, I A; Gomez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of insecticide properties of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) and HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane), they have provided great benefits to humans in sanitary actions to combat the spread of infection-borne disease vectors. Public Health Programs in Mexico used DDT and HCH until 1999 as the insecticides of choice to control disease-transmitting organisms. Because of their persistence and accumulative properties, organochlorine pesticides bioconcentrate in lipids of the human body, reflecting the rate of environmental exposure. Eighty human abdominal adipose tissue samples from Veracruz and 80 samples from Puebla were analyzed and the obtained results were compared among both populations. The results from Veracruz showed higher contamination levels (mg/kg on lipid base) compared to Puebla: beta-HCH, 0.072 vs. 0.029; pp'DDE (Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), 2.364 vs. 0.726; op'DDT, 0.022 vs. 0.025; pp'DDT, 0.192 vs. 0.061; and Sigma-DDT, 2.589 vs. 0.806. The population from Veracruz and from Puebla divided by sex, origin, and cause of death presented no statistical differences. The comparison between sexes (women and men groups) at Veracruz and Puebla indicated significantly higher levels in Veracruz and statistical significant differences. Calculating possible risks (odds ratios, OR), pp'DDE (OR = 5.04) and op'DDT (OR = 2.93) revealed significantly higher risk for the Veracruz population. The study indicated prolonged DDT exposure of Mexicans caused by the past sanitary use and persistence of its residues in soils and air.

  12. Developing forest eco-tourism resources in Shangsi based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)%基于SWOT-AHP法的上思县森林生态旅游资源开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄圣霞

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨上思县森林生态旅游资源的开发策略,为上思县及广西其他地区开发森林生态旅游资源提供参考.[方法]对上思县森林生态旅游资源进行SWOT分析,构建递阶层次结构体系和判断矩阵,确定区位优势、自然景观优势等各层次指标权重,使用层次评价法(AHP)进行评价.[结果]上思县森林生态旅游自然景观资源丰富,指标值为0.506;具备政府支持与引导的良好机遇,指标值为0.439;处于环境压力的威胁及交通基础设施薄弱的劣势,其指标值分别为0.475和0.408.[建议]上思县生态旅游资源开发应采取实力型开发战略,坚持生态保护优先原则,突出当地特色开发多元化特色项目,把握政府的引导与支持,提高服务水平,走低碳可持续发展的开发经营之路.%[Objective]The developmental strategy of forest eco-tourism resources in Shangsi was studied to provide scientific references for forest eco-tourism development in Shangsi County and other areas in Guangxi.[Method]The forest ecotourism development in Shangsi County was first analyzed using SWOT (S-Strength,W-Weakness,O-Opportunity,T-Threat),and then AHP was applied to make assessments of location advantage and scenery advantage based on hierarchy structure system and judgment matrix.[Result]The index value of 0.506 meant Shangsi was rich in forest eco-tourism resources.The governmental support and guidance with the index value of 0.439 presented neat opportunities of governmental support and guide to Shangsi.However,the weaknesses of Shangsi involved environment pressure (0.475),limited capital and uncompleted infrastructure (0.408).According to the barycentric coordinate axis,it was known that edgy development strategy should be adopted.[Suggestion]For sustainable low-carbon development with sublime service,the government should give priority to ecological protection,help improve tourism brand and develop special multi-featured programs.

  13. The Necessity for Development of Community Participating in Eco-Tourism and Sustainable Development Countermeasures in Damingshan National Nature Reserve of Guangxi%大明山自然保护区发展社区参与生态旅游的必要性及可持续发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁家善

    2013-01-01

    运用社区参与和生态旅游可持续发展的相关理论,针对保护区现阶段社区参与的现状,从管理者和社区居民两方面探讨生态旅游可持续发展的必要性,并提出相应对策,为大明山自然保护区开展社区参与生态旅游及其管理提供理论参考.%By using relevant principles of community participation and eco-tourism sustainable development,aiming at the community participation status,the necessity of eco-tourism sustainable development was discussed from manager and residents,corresponding countermeasures were put forward,which will provide theoretical reference for carrying out community participating in eco-tourism and management in Damingshan Nature Reserve.

  14. 基于IPA方法的上海崇明岛生态旅游评价研究%Study of Eco-tourism Evaluation in Shanghai Chongming Island Based on IPA Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立龙

    2013-01-01

    生态旅游是以环境友好为特点的一种新兴旅游形式,IPA(important and performance analysis)即“重要性与满意度评价分析方法”,是一个广泛应用于对研究对象进行综合评价的重要方法。本文以崇明为例,开展游客对崇明生态旅游的满意度及相关要素的重要性评价研究,比较它们的差异,在此基础上,构建崇明生态旅游感知评价的IPA四象限图,旨在为发展崇明生态旅游提供对策。研究得出:“高重要性、低满意度”的重点改进区域包括六个要素,分别是“专业人才缺乏”,“人员素质不高”、“村民保护意识不强”、“管理水平低下”、“卫生状况堪忧”、“垃圾处理设施不全”。%Ecological tourism is the emerging forms of tourism which is environmentally friendly , the IPA (important and performance analysis) is "the importance and satisfaction evaluation method", which is widely used on evaluating the object of research. This paper took Chongming as an example, study on evaluating visitors’s satisfaction and related factors of importance of eco-tourism as well as comparing their differences, on this basis, IPA’s four quadrant diagram of eco-tourism evaluation of perception was constructed, which aimed at offering the countermeasures for development of ecological tourism in Chongming. In a conclusion,the key improving area which is high importance and low performance including six elements:absence of professional faculty, low quality of staff, weak protection awareness in villagers, low level of management, bad condition of hygiene, lack of garbage facilities.

  15. 基于DEA的滨海生态旅游效率研究--以宁波市为例%The Efficiency Evaluation and Analysis of Eco-tourism in Coastal Zone Based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA):A Case Study in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒卫英; 方磊; 张水芳

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated and analyzed the efficiency of eco-tourism in coastal zone , including six counties and cities in Ningbo by using a non-parametric methodology known as the data envelopment analysis (DEA), evaluation index and scoring method in combination. The results showed that the eco-tourism in downtown area, Yuyao, Fenghua, Xiangshan was efficient, and that in Cixi, Ninghai was inefficient. The study showed that the total tourism revenue and total number of tourists were closely related to the inputs of the city. Among the inputs indexes of efficient counties , the employment in tertiary industries is the biggest contributor to the efficiency of eco-tourism , while the total tourism revenue contributes as much as the total number of tourists to that. In general , input utilization rate of eco-tourism in coastal zone in Ningbo is to be improved to cut back the inputs and to increase outputs. Optimization scheme of inefficient cities, input/output contribution of efficient cities, efficiency frontier of eco-tourism in coastal zone were analyzed.%文章使用数据包络分析法(DEA),结合滨海型生态旅游区评价指标及评价计分方法,选择宁波市6个县市区作为研究对象,进行滨海生态旅游DEA无效的优化方案、有效县市因素贡献值、旅游效率前沿等研究。结果表明:市区、余姚、奉化、象山等四个县市效率有效;慈溪、宁海等2个县市效率无效。在有效县市各指标中,第三产业从业人数是对县市滨海生态旅游有效贡献最大的投入指标,旅游总收入、旅游总人数对县市滨海生态旅游有效贡献相当。总体而言,无论是人力资源还是财力资源,宁波市滨海生态旅游相关投入利用率仍有待提高。

  16. The Mass Base of "Peasant Music" Eco-tourism in Yejia Village, Jingyuan County, Ningxia%宁夏泾源县冶家村"农家乐"生态旅游的群众基础分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白光珍; 闫兴富

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the questionnaire survey and interview, the management status of "Peasant Music" Eeo-tourism of Yejia Village, Jingyuan County in Ningxia southern mountain area is analyzed. It was found that the "Peasant Music" Eco-tourism has achieved good economic and social benefits, has a good mass base, and is a good model of building a new socialist countryside in Southern Ningxia.%在问卷调查和个案访谈基础上,对宁夏南部山区的泾源县冶家村"农家乐"生态旅游经营现状进行了分析.结果发现,冶家村"农家乐"生态旅游已取得良好的经济效益和社会效益,具有较好的群众基础,是宁南山区社会主义新农村建设的良好模式.

  17. Tectonics and soil edaphics as controls on animal migrations and early human inhabitance in the Kenya Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kübler, Simon; Rucina, Stephen; Reynolds, Sally; Fürgut, Felix; Bailey, Geoffrey; King, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Animal movements in the tectonically active East African Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and soil nutrient distribution (soil edaphics). These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. Our study in the Kenya Rift shows that soil edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of early hominin sites. We carried out field analysis at Olorgesailie and Kariandusi, two key hominin sites in the southern and central Kenya Rift, respectiveley. Based on studying the relationship between the geology, tectonics and soil development we identified 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled a large number of soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediments of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. Ultimately, we created palaeoenvironmental and spatio-temporal reconstructions for interpreting human land use and exploitation of large mammals in the Kenya Rift for the relevant time frame of approximately 1 Ma BP. At Olorgesailie the hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by volcanic flows and alluvial fans from Mt. Olorgesailie and was released by the fault motion leading to deep river incision and exposure of the site. To the west and the north steep fault scarps bound the playa forming a natural barrier for animals. Field observations and information from local shepherds suggest that the abundant trachytes at the valley floor produce poor soils whereas the soils developed on lacustrine and alluvial sediments close to the hominin site provide much more attractive grazing sites for present-day animals

  18. Unique Efforts for Harmonious Inhabitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wind Blew

    2007-01-01

    @@ Inhabitation,or human settlemem,has bcome a hot issue thatis attracting a lot of attention around the world,from both the rich and the poor.After all,who doesn't want to have a good living environment?

  19. Eco-tourism System and Its Sustainable Development of Yinchuan National Wetland Park in Ningxia Province%宁夏银川国家湿地公园的生态旅游系统及其可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立彪; 闫兴富

    2009-01-01

    Wetland park is a wetland ecosystem with the functions of biodiversity conservation, coo-tourism and environmental education. In this paper, the connotation of coo-tourism system of Yinchuan national wetland park, including eco-tourists, eco-tourism resources, eco-tourism industry and eeo-tourism environment were analyzed. The countermeasures of wetland resource development and utilization and the sustainable development of wetland eeo-tourism system on the wetland biodiversity conservation, environmental management of wetland eeo-tourism, talent cultivation, functional divisions of wetland park and tourism culture are suggested.%湿地公园是指兼具生物多样性保护、生态旅游、环境教育等多种功能的湿地生态系统.本文分析了宁夏银川国家湿地公园生态旅游系统的内涵:生态旅游者、生态旅游资源、生态旅游业、生态旅游环境;从湿地生物多样性保护、湿地生态旅游的环境管理、人才培训、公园的功能分区、旅游文化等方面,提出了园区湿地资源的开发利用及湿地生态旅游系统可持续发展的对策.

  20. On Ecological and Environmental Protection of Water Source Area in South-to-North Middle Line Water Diversion Project under Eco-Tourism%生态旅游背景下的南水北调中线水源区生态环境保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付景保; 高军波

    2013-01-01

    Ecological and environmental problems of water source area in South-to-North middle line water diversion project have become the focus of attention widely. To study the ecological and environmental protection of the water source area has important practical significance from the perspective of the eco-tourism. By using field investigation and document analysis method, on the basis of studying ecological environment overview and eco-tourism development in water source area, the articles summed up the eco-tourism is a strategic choice industry to promote the protection of the ecological environment in the water source area, and proposed some development countermeasures like we should strengthen the government's macroeconomic and scientific management about protection work of the ecological environment of the water area; and should adjust the industrial structure, and actively develop eco-tourism; to carry out soil and water conservation, Green Jiangshan construction, to create a good environment for eco-tourism; and strengthen civic education on environmental protection, improve environmental protection awareness; re-layout the new residents area conducive to environmental protection with the new rural transformation; to establish well-detection environment system and compensation mechanism of ecology and water resource.%南水北调中线工程水源区生态环境问题已成为目前广为关注的热点.从生态旅游的视角研究水源区生态环境保护具有重要的现实意义.文章通过实地调查与文献分析方法,在研究水源区生态环境概况及生态旅游发展的基础上,总结了生态旅游是促进水源区生态环境保护的战略性选择产业,并提出了水源区生态环境保护工作要加强政府宏观管理,进行依法管理、科学管理;要大力调整产业结构,积极发展生态旅游业;要开展水土保持、绿化江山建设,营造良好的生态旅游环境;要加强公民环保教育,提高环保

  1. Human gut-on-a-chip inhabited by microbial flora that experiences intestinal peristalsis-like motions and flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Huh, Dongeun; Hamilton, Geraldine; Ingber, Donald E

    2012-06-21

    Development of an in vitro living cell-based model of the intestine that mimics the mechanical, structural, absorptive, transport and pathophysiological properties of the human gut along with its crucial microbial symbionts could accelerate pharmaceutical development, and potentially replace animal testing. Here, we describe a biomimetic 'human gut-on-a-chip' microdevice composed of two microfluidic channels separated by a porous flexible membrane coated with extracellular matrix (ECM) and lined by human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells that mimics the complex structure and physiology of living intestine. The gut microenvironment is recreated by flowing fluid at a low rate (30 μL h(-1)) producing low shear stress (0.02 dyne cm(-2)) over the microchannels, and by exerting cyclic strain (10%; 0.15 Hz) that mimics physiological peristaltic motions. Under these conditions, a columnar epithelium develops that polarizes rapidly, spontaneously grows into folds that recapitulate the structure of intestinal villi, and forms a high integrity barrier to small molecules that better mimics whole intestine than cells in cultured in static Transwell models. In addition, a normal intestinal microbe (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) can be successfully co-cultured for extended periods (>1 week) on the luminal surface of the cultured epithelium without compromising epithelial cell viability, and this actually improves barrier function as previously observed in humans. Thus, this gut-on-a-chip recapitulates multiple dynamic physical and functional features of human intestine that are critical for its function within a controlled microfluidic environment that is amenable for transport, absorption, and toxicity studies, and hence it should have great value for drug testing as well as development of novel intestinal disease models.

  2. Impact of the AD 79 explosive eruption on Pompeii, II. Causes of death of the inhabitants inferred by stratigraphic analysis and areal distribution of the human casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, Giuseppe; Perrotta, Annamaria; Scarpati, Claudio; De Carolis, Ernesto; Patricelli, Giovanni; Ciarallo, Annamaria

    2003-08-01

    Detailed descriptions of the effects of explosive eruptions on urban settlements available to volcanologists are relatively rare. Apart from disease and starvation, the largest number of human deaths caused by explosive eruptions in the twentieth century are due to pyroclastic flows. The relationship between the number of victims related to a specific hazard and the presence of urban settlements in the area covered by the eruption has been shown. However, pyroclastic falls are also extremely dangerous under certain conditions. These conclusions are based on archaeological and volcanological studies carried out on the victims of the well-known AD 79 eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed and buried the Roman city of Pompeii. The stratigraphic level in the pyroclastic deposit and the location of all the casualties found are described and discussed. The total number of victims recovered during the archaeological excavations amounts to 1150. Of these, 1044 well recognisable bodies plus an additional group of 100 individuals were identified based on the analysis of several groups of scattered bones. Of the former, 394 were found in the lower pumice lapilli fall deposit and 650 in the upper stratified ash and pumice lapilli pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) deposits. In addition, a tentative evaluation suggests that 464 corpses may still be buried in the unexcavated part of the city. According to the reconstruction presented in this paper, during the first phase of the eruption (August 24, AD 79) a huge quantity of pumice lapilli fell on Pompeii burying the city under 3 m of pyroclastic material. During this eruptive phase, most of the inhabitants managed to leave the city. However, 38% of the known victims were killed during this phase mainly as a consequence of roofs and walls collapsing under the increasing weight of the pumice lapilli deposit. During the second phase of the eruption (August 25, AD 79) 49% of the total victims were on the roadways and 51% inside

  3. Eco-Tourism Disturbance of the Wuyishan Natural Heritage Vegetation Landscape%生态旅游开发对世界双遗产地植被景观的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春英; 张春玲; 郑少峰

    2012-01-01

    采用景观视觉敏感度、植被景观优势度倒数、平均分维数的倒数、景观斑块数量破碎度、景观聚合度倒数、景观多样性指数倒数、建筑面积比及道路廊道密度指数8个指标构建了生态旅游干扰评价模型,评价分析了生态旅游对武夷山世界自然遗产地植被景观的干扰,并首次利用改进单纯形投影寻踪法来对8个模型指标因子进行聚类分级和检验其贡献度水平.结果表明:生态旅游对武夷山世界自然遗产地中大竹岚、先峰岭、挂敦、双溪口景区景观系统干扰较轻,对桃园峪、黄岗山、双泉寺、麻雀观鸟和罗家洞景区干扰较严重,对坳头农家度假村和三岗景区干扰最严重.8个指标表征干扰强度的贡献率的从大到小的顺序为:视觉敏感度指数=植被景观优势度倒数=平均分维数的倒数>道密度指标>景观多样性指数倒数>景观斑块数量破碎度>建筑面积比>景观聚合度倒数.%Using St-c index, MD index, MFD index, FN1 index, MAI index, MSHDI index, AR index and RU index, the evaluate model of eco-tourism disturbance was created, with the evaluate model, tourism disturbance of the Wuyishan Natural Heritage vegetation landscape was studied, furthermore, Cluster degree and contribution rate of 8 model indices were analyzed by using MSM-PP for the first time. The result showed that; the Dazulan, the xianfengling, the Guadun and the Shuangxikou scenery spots were disturbed lest seriously; the Taoyuanyu, the Luojiadong, the Shuangquansi, the Masu, the Xianfengling and the Huangganshan scenery spots were disturbed less seriously; the Aotou and the Sangang scenery spots were disturbed most seriously. Evaluate disturbance contribution rate of 8 model indices was list as blow; St-c index = MD index = MFD index > RU index > MSHDI index > FN, index > AR index and > MAI index.

  4. From Planning To Achieve Tangible Results——The Wang Mang Township Agricultural Eco-Tourism Park Project Conceptual Planning and Practice%从策划走向策动——王莽乡农业生态观光园的概念规划与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 田露; 马智远

    2012-01-01

    With the development of sightseeing agricultural,there springing up the construction of Agricultural EcoTourism Park in most parts of China.This peper takes the Wang Mang Township Agricultural Eco-Tourism Park project as an example.In the beginning of the project planning,through research and analysis, through the integration of multiple favourable factors,combined with the positioning characteristics of the development mode,the project plan to guide development planning,let resource advantages into full play and make rational use,and in the planning and design,follow the prominent features of sustainable development and the principle of geographical,as far as possible the original style of the environment,as far as possible to maintain the original appearance of the environment,maximize the use of status quo to the benefit of local people.%随着观光型农业的发展,我国大部分地区兴起了关于农业生态观光园的建设。本文以王莽乡农业生态观光园项目为例,通过对王莽乡多方有利因素的整合,结合特色发展模式及定位,在项目概念规划中制定特色鲜明的规划理念,以策划引导发展,以策划推动发展,使优势资源充分发挥并合理利用,并且在规划设计中,遵循可持续发展以及地域特征突出原则,尽可能保持原有风貌环境,最大化利用现状,从而造福当地百姓。

  5. Identification and phylogenetic characterization of a human T-cell leukaemia virus type I isolate from a native inhabitant (Rapa Nui) of Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkura, S; Yamashita, M; Cartier, L; Tanabe, D G; Hayami, M; Sonoda, S; Tajima, K

    1999-08-01

    Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is endemic in Melanesia, one of the three ethnogeographic regions of the Pacific; in the other two regions, Polynesia and Micronesia, the incidence of the virus is relatively low. In an effort to gain new insights into the prevalence of HTLV-I in the Pacific region, we did a seroepidemiological survey on Easter Island, which is located on the eastern edge of Polynesia. Of 138 subjects surveyed, including 108 Rapa Nui (the native inhabitants of this island), we identified one HTLV-I-seropositive Rapa Nui. The new HTLV-I isolate derived from this carrier (E-12) was phylogenetically analysed to ascertain the origin and past dissemination of HTLV-I in the island. The analysis demonstrated that isolate E-12 belongs to subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan group, and that it differs from HTLV-Is found in Melanesia, which are highly divergent variants. In subgroup A, E-12 grouped with South American HTLV-Is including those from Amerindians. This result suggests that this isolate originated in South America rather than in Melanesia.

  6. SWOT Analysis of Eco-tourism Development in Cycas Panzhihuaensis National Nature Reserves and Development Strategy%攀枝花苏铁国家级自然保护区生态旅游开发SWOT分析及开发策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖启航

    2011-01-01

    The SWOT analysis was applied to the eco-tourism development conditions in Cycas Panzhihuaensis national natural reserves by combinations of quantitative and qualitative. It was concluded that Panzhihua ecological tourism development should take opportunity and advantage strategies and exert their advantages. Some development strategies were proposed, such as following government, reconstructing image, assembling resources, cultivating market, and improving competence so as to build fine, perfect image and overcome disadvantages, balance work and tourism and realize win-win situation%运用定性与定量相结合的方法,对攀枝花苏铁国家级自然保护区生态旅游开发进行了SWOT分析,得出该区生态旅游开发应采取"抓住机遇,乘势发展"的战略,并提出发挥优势、打造精品,完善自身、克服劣势,工旅协调、互促共赢,政府主导、重塑形象,整合资源、培育市场,多方着手、提升竞争力等开发策略.

  7. Effects on non-human species inhabiting areas with enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geras' kin, Stanislav A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: stgeraskin@gmail.com; Evseeva, Tatiana I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Belykh, Elena S. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Majstrenko, Tatiana A. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Michalik, Boguslaw [Central Mining Institute, Pl. Gwarkow 1, 40-166 Katowice (Poland); Taskaev, Anatoliy I. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    Results of long-term radioecological investigations in areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the north of Russia are summarized. Deleterious changes within animal and plant populations inhabiting areas with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the Komi Republic were revealed. These changes are expressed in enhanced levels of mutagenesis, destructive processes in the tissues of animals, disturbances of reproductive functions and reduced offspring viability. Compensatory processes, resulting in animal and plant survival under extremely adverse conditions of radium and uranium-radium contamination, were observed as well. However, obvious signs of adaptation failed to be detected. The findings suggest that adverse somatic and genetic effects are possible in plants and animals in the dose range observed at sites with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. In contrast, different plant species inhabiting an area with an enhanced level of natural radioactivity in the taiga zone of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) reveal a stimulation of growth processes, photosynthesis, endogenous low molecular weight antioxidant synthesis as well as adaptive response. It is apparent from the data presented that naturally occurring differences in terrestrial radiation level could be of genetic and ecological consequence.

  8. Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, N.; Abe, K.; Komuro, K.; Oda, M.

    1972-11-01

    The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

  9. The Nature of Inhabited Planets and their Inhabitants

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Earth-like planets are expected to provide the greatest opportunity for the detection of life beyond the Solar System. This notion stems from an assumption that the Earth constitutes a simple random sample amongst inhabited planets. However, in the event that other intelligent species exist, our planet should not be considered a fair sample. Just as a person's country of origin is a biased sample among countries, so too their planet of origin is a biased sample among planets. The strength of this effect can be substantial: over 98% of the world's population live in a country larger than the median. Any variable which influences either the population size or birth rate is susceptible to selection bias. In the context of a simple model where the mean population density is invariant to planet size, we infer that an inhabited planet selected at random (such as our nearest neighbour) has a radius r<1.2 r_Earth (95% confidence bound). If the range of habitable radii is sufficiently broad, most inhabited planets ...

  10. 灰色聚类算法在济西湿地生态旅游多层次综合评价中的应用%Gray Clustering Algorithms Applied Research of Multi-level Comprehensive Evaluation of Wetland Eco-tourism in the West of Jinan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红霞; 张安妮; 周方勇

    2013-01-01

      利用灰色聚类算法从地理条件、旅游资源和区域位置3个方面对济南西部湿地发展生态旅游进行了综合评价。结果表明,济南西部湿地在水体质量、文化古迹、交通条件等5个指标上评价为优类;在自然生态、土地开发、城镇分布等10个指标上评价为良类;在基础设施指标上评价为中类。说明其区域位置优于旅游资源,旅游资源优于地理条件,该结果可为济西湿地未来创造品牌,实现生态保护与经济发展的互动,建立可持续性的发展模式提供了依据。%  Using the gray clustering algorithm, Jinan western wetland developing eco-tourism from the geographical conditions, tourism resources and regional location was conducted on a comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the quality of water body, the cultural monuments, traffic conditions were evaluated as gifted class; assessment was good in the ten indicators including the natural ecology, land development and urban distribution class; class in this indicator evaluation infrastructure. The results indicated that the regional position was superior to tourism resources, the tourism resources was better than the geographical condi-tions. The results could provide basis to create the Jixi wetlands brand value in the future, ec-ological protection and economic development, and to create a sustainable to real live the in-structive of development model.

  11. Inotodiol inhabits proliferation and induces apoptosis through modulating expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2, and bax in human cervical cancer HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Yang, Shu-Yan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom that has been used as an effective agent to treat various diseases such as diabetes, tuberculosis and cancer. Inotodiol, an included triterpenoid shows significant anti-tumor effect. However, the mechanisms have not been well documented. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of inotodiol on proliferation and apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. HeLa cells were treated with different concentrations of inotodiol. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferating ability, flow cytometry (FCM) was employed for cell cycle analysis and cell apoptosis, while expression of cyclinE, p27, bcl-2 and bax was detected by immunocytochemistry. Proliferation of HeLa cells was inhibited by inotodiolin a dose-dependent manner at 24h (r=0.9999, pHeLa cells was detected after treatment and the apoptosis rate with the concentration and longer incubation time (r=1.0, pHeLa cells and induced apoptosis in vitro. The mechanisms may be related to promoting apoptosis through increasing the expression of bax and cutting bcl-2 and affecting the cell cycle by down-regulation the expression of cyclin E and up-regulation of p27. The results further indicate the potential value of inotodiol for treatment of human cervical cancer.

  12. The Inhabitance Paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability" to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have put theoretically impressive boundaries on this: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using exactly that kind of model, I'll show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", temperate climate and a post-runaway climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. Furthermore, the radial extent of the temperature climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres. The width of the habitable zone is determined by the atmospheric inventories of di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Yet Earth teaches us that these abundances are very heavily influenced (perhaps even controlled) by biology. This is paradoxical: the habitable zone seeks to define the region a planet should be capable of harbouring life; yet whether the planet is inhabited will determine whether the climate may be habitable at any given distance from the star. This matters, because future life detection missions may use habitable zone boundaries in mission design. A historical view of solar system exploration helps frame the problem; robotic exploration of the outer solar system revealed the un-imagined nature of the Jovian and Saturnian moons, whilst showing that the Venusian jungle died long ago. Prediction will fall to data but the unexpected may emerge. To soften that fall we should revise the paradigm of habitability to acknowledge that habitability depends on inhabitance; for life as we know it is a planetary scale--and planet dominating--phenomenon.

  13. Heavy metal distribution in tissues of six fish species included in human diet, inhabiting freshwaters of the Nature Park "Hutovo Blato" (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has-Schön, Elizabeta; Bogut, Ivan; Rajković, Valentina; Bogut, Stjepan; Cacić, Milan; Horvatić, Janja

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify heavy metal (mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) concentration in tissues (muscles, liver, kidney, gills, and gonads) of six fish species (carp: Cyprinus carpio, tench: Tinca tinca, pumpkinseed: Lepomis gibosus, prussian carp: Carassius auratus gibelio, hasselquist: Salmo dentex, eel: Anguilla anguilla) from the freshwaters of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and determine whether they are potentially harmful for human health if included in the diet. Fish were angled from the Svitava Lake in the second part of August of the year 2003, and fish tissues were stored at -18 degrees C until analysis. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in the Veterinary Institute Brno, Czech Republic, and expressed as mg.kg(-1) of wet tissue. Concentration of mercury, lead, and arsenic in most tissues of all analyzed fish types is lower than the maximal allowed concentration (MAC) in most countries. Cadmium concentration is also low in muscles and gonads, but kidney, liver, and gill concentrations exceed MAC value in most countries. Hasselquist, an endemic type for that region, differs from other fish types in the fact that it has very low cadmium concentration in liver and kidney, but the highest concentration of arsenic in most tissues, especially muscles. In muscles and gonads of all fish types analyzed, Pb is present in higher concentration than Cd, whereas in liver, gills, and particularly kidney, the situation is opposite, suggesting diverse metabolic pathways and unequal bioaccumulation of these two metals in different fish tissues. Although the region of the Nature Park Hutovo Blato in Bosnia and Herzegovina is not an agricultural territory, the intensive agricultural activities in the neighboring regions already result in high cadmium concentration in inner organs of fish species analyzed. Therefore, fish types in the freshwaters of the Park may be included in the human diet

  14. Modeling high resolution space-time variations in energy demand/CO2 emissions of human inhabited landscapes in the United States under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, A. V.; Gurney, K. R.

    2010-12-01

    With urban and exurban areas now accounting for more than 50% of the world's population, projected to increase 20% by 2050 (UN World Urbanization Prospects, 2009), urban-climate interactions are of renewed interest to the climate change scientific community (Karl et. al, 1988; Kalnay and Cai, 2003; Seto and Shepherd, 2009). Until recently, climate modeling efforts treated urban-human systems as independent of the earth system. With studies pointing to the disproportionately large influence of urban areas on their surrounding environment (Small et. al, 2010), modeling efforts have begun to explicitly account for urban processes in land models, like the CLM 4.0 urban layer, for example (Oleson.et. al, 2008, 2010). A significant portion of the urban energy demand comes from the space heating and cooling requirement of the residential and commercial sectors - as much as 51% (DOE, RECS 2005) and 11% (Belzer, D. 2006) respectively, in the United States. Thus, these sectors are both responsible for a significant fraction of fossil fuel CO2 emissions and will be influenced by a changing climate through changes in energy use and energy supply planning. This points to the possibility of interactive processes and feedbacks with the climate system. Space conditioning energy demand is strongly driven by external air temperature (Ruth, M. et.al, 2006) in addition to other socio-economic variables such as building characteristics (age of structure, activity cycle, weekend/weekday usage profile), occupant characteristics (age of householder, household income) and energy prices (Huang, 2006; Santin et. al, 2009; Isaac and van Vuuren, 2009). All of these variables vary both in space and time. Projections of climate change have begun to simulate changes in temperature at much higher resolution than in the past (Diffenbaugh et. al, 2005). Hence, in order to understand how climate change and variability will potentially impact energy use/emissions and energy planning, these two

  15. 旅游者排污行为与旅游区水环境干扰模式研究——以六盘山生态旅游区为例%Emissions from the Tourism Industry and Patterns of Environmental Disturbance in the Liupan Mountain Eco-Tourism Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵美风; 席建超

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is the main factor driving regional water environmental change in eco-tourism areas. Using Liupan Mountain as a case study, we analyzed emissions resulting from various forms of tourism and respective patterns of water quality disturbance using participant observation, questionnaires and comparative analysis. We found that tourist accommodation releases the most emission pollution, tourism catering ranks second and sightseeing is third. Per capita TN, TP, COD and BOD5 for tourist accommodation is up to 4.03g/d, 0.66g/d, 37.59g/d and 8.72g/d, more than ten times that for sightseeing. The Tourist Activities Disturbance Index (TADI) per person of various oriented types falls systematically: business meeting-oriented tourists(l)〉leisure vacation-oriented tourists (0.57) 〉scientific investigation-oriented tourists (0.19) 〉 sightseeing-oriented tourists (0). The TADI of the amount tourists of various types falls systematically: leisure vacation-oriented tourists (1)〉 business meeting-oriented tourists (0.51) 〉 sightseeing-oriented tourists (0.33) 〉scientific investigation-oriented tourists(0). Business meeting-oriented tourists, leisure vacation-oriented tourists, scientific investigation-oriented tourists and sightseeing-oriented tourists show a pattern of declining requirements for tourist accommodation and catering and discharge sewage. TADI has a certain consistency with water quality change, which can be used as a simple and effective indicator to evaluate tourism system response to disturbance. The Liupan Mountain eco-tourism area remains in an important strategic transition period. In this period, sightseeing tourism is the base and business-meeting tourism and leisure vacation tourism will be a developing focus into the future. Water environment problems in the tourist areas will become more prominent. Thus, it is urgent that effective measures are taken to solve the deterioration of water quality in the tourist area resulting from tourism

  16. Study of the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in areas inhabited by the Baiku Yao minority in Guangxi%广西白裤瑶地区居民肠道寄生虫感染现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋智华; 吴钦华; 李树林; 张鸿满; 司国爱; 黄福明; 谭裕光; 江河; 张陆娟; 阮廷清; 欧松

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解广西白裤瑶少数民族地区居民肠道寄生虫感染情况,为进一步防治策略制定和实施提供依据.方法 收集白裤瑶聚居区居民的一般人口学情况,采集粪便标本,采用改良加藤厚涂片法和生理盐水涂片法对粪样进行检查. 结果 调查广西白裤瑶聚居地居民671人,肠道寄生虫感染386人.感染率57.53%,其中白裤瑶居民感染率71.02%.检出9种肠道寄生虫,钩虫感染率33.68%,蛔虫感染率24.89%.鞭虫感染率9.84%,人芽囊原虫感染率10.87%,蓝氏贾第鞭毛虫感染率1.15%,结肠内阿米巴原虫感染率4.45%,溶组织内阿米巴原虫感染率1.65%,其他寄生虫感染率0.33%.不同年龄、不同民族居民的感染率差异有统计学意义. 结论 肠道寄生虫感染仍是广西山区农村尤其是少数民族地区突出的公共卫生问题.%Objective To investigate the prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the areas inhabited by the Baiku Yao minority in Guangxi Province and provide scientific evidence for prevention and control strategies. Methods Demographic data on people in areas inhabited by the Haiku Yao minority were collected along with fecal samples. The Kato-Katz technique and a normal saline smear were used to test fecal samples. Results Of the 671 people screened for intestinal parasites, 386 people were infected with intestinal parasites. The total rate of infection was 57. 53%, and the rate of infection among Baiku Yao was 71. 02%. Nine types of intestinal parasites were found. Of the people infected, 33. 68% were infected with hookworms, 24. 89% were infected with roundworms, 33. 68% were infected with whipw-orms, 10. 87% were infected with Blastocystis hominis, 1. 15% were infected with Giardia lamblia, 4. 45% were infected with Entamoeba coli,1 .65% were infected with Entamoeba histolytica, and 0. 33% were infected with other protozoa. There were significant differences in infection among different age

  17. Eco-tourism potential along the Indian coasts

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    in India for creating awareness in education, research, conservation, sustainable utilization and management of flora and fauna. India has several biosphere reserves, marine parks and sanctuaries having different eco-biological components and uniqueness...

  18. Eco Tourism Contribution to Sustainable Development in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Rãbonþu Cecilia Irina; Babucea Ana Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is the relationship between tourism and environment, with particular reference to the ways of protecting tourist areas characterized by fragile ecosystems, such as parks and beaches. This paper analyzes and tries to show that environmental protection is not only a legal obligation in relation to the hydro-geology of the territory, but could also become an important tool for strengthening a tourist area. Green Tourism is one of the recently entered words in our vocabula...

  19. 风景旅游区规划设计新模式——“大区小镇”呀诺达热带雨林生态旅游区%New Planning and Design Approach for Scenic and Tourist Area-Yanoda Tropical Eco-Tourism Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃中; 张毅; 唐艳红

    2012-01-01

    在快速的旅游业发展进程和风景度假区开发建设中,建设并不总是遵循“最佳设计”原则.旅游业和地产业的发展常常要以风景文化资源损失为代价,景区、景点、度假区的发展主要是通过当地居民的搬迁来获得发展空间,而三亚呀诺达热带雨林旅游度假区打破这一传统的规划设计理念,其规划设计及建设过程尝试了一套新的模式.设计团队对项目区域进行了自然、人文、政治层面的全面分析,鼓励原住民的参与,与政府、开发方、设计方共同形成愿景,并将整个大区划分为不同等级分别对待,将不宜耕田的地块划为一期,提供示范区具体设计和设计导则,在保证原住民基本不搬迁的前提下形成具有特色的小镇风格旅游度假区,发扬当地黎峒文化,收到良好的生态、社会、经济等多方面综合效益.%Recent development trends have not allowed "best design practices" to be observed, especially in the rush to develop a thriving tourism industry, make use of scenic areas, and build a modernized resort network. Additionally, in order to make way for housing complexes and other lucrative venues, people have been relocated despite of their objections. A recent project, Yanoda Tropical Park in Sanya, Hainan breaks these sociologically and ecologically unsound patterns. Yanoda Tropical Park sets the standard for future eco-tourism projects. The design team thoroughly assessed the area's natural, cultural, and social resources, inviting the locals, developer, and government officials to participate in the planning process, to come up an agreeable vision for the area's future plan. The site was divided into four quadrants according to the level of developmental restriction. Phase 1 was to be located on what was considered undesirable land for farming. Design guidelines also provide for future development. The project is a progressive blend of ideas involving local residents into the

  20. Occurrence of root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on root parsley pathogens inhabiting seeds were conducted during 1981-1988 and in 1993. Filter paper method with prefreezing and keeping under light was used. Each test sample comprised 500 seeds. Pathogenicity of collected fungal isolates was tested following two laboratory methods. 238 seed samples were studied. 18 fungal species were found but only 7 proved to be important pathogens of root parsley. The most common inhabitants of root parsley seeds were Alternaria spp. A.allernata occurred on 74,8% of seeds but only a few isolates showed to be slightly pathogenic while A.petroselini and A.radicina were higly pathogenic and inhabited 11,4 and 4,2% of seeds, respectively. The second group of important pathogens were species of Fusarium found on 3,9% of seeds. F.avenaceum dominated as it comprised 48% of Fusarium isolates, the next were as follow: F.culmorum - 20%, F.equiseti - 15%, F.solani - 8%, F.oxysporum - 7% and F.dimerum -2%. Some fungi like Botrytis cinerea, Septoria petroselini and Phoma spp. inhabited low number of seeds, respectively O,4; 0,5 and 0,8%, but they were highly pathogenic to root parsley. The fungi: Bipolaris sorokiniana, Drechslera biseptata, Stemphylium botryosum and Ulocludium consortiale showed slight pathogenicity. They were isolated from 3,8% of seeds.

  1. EPR tooth dosimetry of SNTS area inhabitants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholom, Sergey [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Desrosiers, Marc [Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Bouville, Andre; Luckyanov, Nicholas [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chumak, Vadim [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Melnikova str., 53, Kiev (Ukraine); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: ssimon@mail.nih.gov

    2007-07-15

    The determination of external dose to teeth of inhabitants of settlements near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) was conducted using the EPR dosimetry technique to assess radiation doses associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from the test site. In this study, tooth doses have been reconstructed for 103 persons with all studied teeth having been formed before the first nuclear test in 1949. Doses above those received from natural background radiation, termed 'accident doses', were found to lie in the range from zero to approximately 2 Gy, with one exception, a dose for one person from Semipalatinsk city was approximately 9 Gy. The variability of reconstructed doses within each of the settlements demonstrated heterogeneity of the deposited fallout as well as variations in lifestyle. The village mean external gamma doses for residents of nine settlements were in the range from a few tens of mGy to approximately 100 mGy.

  2. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  3. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, J. I.; Salazar, J. F.; Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Poveda, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet) how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  4. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Zuluaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ, defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  5. [Selenium status of the inhabitants in the Kaluga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkina, N A; Mal'tsev, G Iu; Bogdanov, N G; Vlaskina, S G; Alekseeva, I A; Khotimchenko, S A

    1995-01-01

    The human Se status of 8 areas of Kaluga region was studied. The mean serum Se levels 94 mg/l was significantly lower in the south compared to the northern area 126 mg/l. Areas with radioactive pollution possessed higher percentage of persons with low serum Se concentration than in regions without the pollution. Negative influence of radiation on serum Se level was confirmed also by epidemiological data for workers of Chernobil NNP (65 mg/l-workers attending to the reactor and 69 mg/l-for other employees). The same phenomenon was observed for males of Tula region who had taken part in the liquidation of an accident on the Chernobil NNP compared to other inhabitants of Tula region (78 mg/l and 89 mg/l correspondingly). The lowest antioxidant status (serum vitamin E, C and Se concentrations) in towns of Kaluga region with radioactive pollution possessed males of less than 60 years old.

  6. The size distribution of inhabited planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Fergus

    2016-02-01

    Earth-like planets are expected to provide the greatest opportunity for the detection of life beyond the Solar system. However, our planet cannot be considered a fair sample, especially if intelligent life exists elsewhere. Just as a person's country of origin is a biased sample among countries, so too their planet of origin may be a biased sample among planets. The magnitude of this effect can be substantial: over 98 per cent of the world's population live in a country larger than the median. In the context of a simple model where the mean population density is invariant to planet size, we infer that a given inhabited planet (such as our nearest neighbour) has a radius r planets hosting advanced life, but also for those which harbour primitive life forms. Further, inferences may be drawn for any variable which influences population size. For example, since population density is widely observed to decline with increasing body mass, we conclude that most intelligent species are expected to exceed 300 kg.

  7. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  8. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebensteiner, Martin; Stams, Alfons; Lomans, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of (per)chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen. In recent years it was demonstrated that (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that (per)chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs. We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs. A. fulgidus turned out to be able to use perchlorate as terminal electron acceptor for growth with lactate (Liebensteiner et al 2013). Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. fulgidus possesses a novel perchlorate reduction pathway. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon. The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. Liebensteiner MG, Pinkse MWH, Schaap PJ, Stams AJM and Lomans BP (2013) Archaeal (per)chlorate reduction at high temperature, a matter of abiotic-biotic reactions. Science 340: 85-87

  9. The inhabited environment, infrastructure development and advanced urbanization in China’s Yangtze River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Kammen, Daniel M.; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship among the inhabited environment, infrastructure development and environmental impacts in China’s heavily urbanized Yangtze River Delta region. Using primary human environment data for the period 2006-2014, we examine factors affecting the inhabited environment and infrastructure development: urban population, GDP, built-up area, energy consumption, waste emission, transportation, real estate and urban greenery. Then we empirically investigate the impact of advanced urbanization with consideration of cities’ differences. Results from this study show that the growth rate of the inhabited environment and infrastructure development is strongly influenced by regional development structure, functional orientations, traffic network and urban size and form. The effect of advanced urbanization is more significant in large and mid-size cities than huge and mega cities. Energy consumption, waste emission and real estate in large and mid-size cities developed at an unprecedented rate with the rapid increase of economy. However, urban development of huge and mega cities gradually tended to be saturated. The transition development in these cities improved the inhabited environment and ecological protection instead of the urban construction simply. To maintain a sustainable advanced urbanization process, policy implications included urban sprawl control polices, ecological development mechanisms and reforming the economic structure for huge and mega cities, and construct major cross-regional infrastructure, enhance the carrying capacity and improvement of energy efficiency and structure for large and mid-size cities.

  10. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...

  11. Fire and EMS Districts - MDC_FDStationTerritoryInhabited

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue (MDFR) Fire District Station Territories clipped to the extent of inhabited areas. This layer is intended...

  12. Phylogeny of rock-inhabiting fungi related to Dothideomycetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruibal, C.; Gueidan, C.; Selbmann, L.; Gorbushina, A.A.; Crous, P.W.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Muggia, L.; Grube, M.; Isola, D.; Schoch, C.L.; Staley, J.T.; Lutzoni, F.; Hoog, de G.S.

    2009-01-01

    The class Dothideomycetes (along with Eurotiomycetes) includes numerous rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF), a group of ascomycetes that tolerates surprisingly well harsh conditions prevailing on rock surfaces. Despite their convergent morphology and physiology, RIF are phylogenetically highly diverse in Do

  13. An Approach from Inhabitation to Shared Housing in Niquitao, Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Cuervo-Calle, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    At academic level, there is a constant interest in evaluating the epistemological constructs of the human habitat. One concept that contributes to this construction is the term "inhabiting". This article is divided into three parts. The first provides a theoretical and conceptual framework for the concept of dwelling. In the second part, these contributions are contrasted with dwelling in tenement houses in the Niquitao sector of the city of Medellin, Colombia. The third part evaluates some o...

  14. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Morais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%, of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8% and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%, tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  15. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  16. From occupying to inhabiting - a change in conceptualising comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffari, Svenja D.; Matthews, Ben

    2009-11-01

    ; secondly, that it promotes technologies that treat environmental parameters as variables for our manipulation, rather than opportunities to reflect on, and adjust our own (temporal human) fit with our environment. Borrowing from Cole et al. [4], we argue for technologies that enable users to inhabit rather than occupy the built environment.

  17. Origins of inhabitants from the 16th century Sala (Sweden) silver mine cemetery – a lead isotope perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, T. Douglas; Frei, Robert; Bäckström, Ylva

    2017-01-01

    however. Here we utilize lead isotopes as an additional isotopic tracer to identify origins. The lead isotope investigations pinpoint several areas outside of the Sala region where some of the inhabitants originated. In addition, the study documents the benefits of using lead isotopes in human...... these grave types, as well as harsh conditions of life. Strontium and oxygen isotopes have been used previously to investigate the place of origin of the cemetery inhabitants and clear differences among the types of graves were seen in the isotope results. Place of origin was more difficult to ascertain...

  18. POSITIONING ECO-TOURISM FOR IMPROVING DESTINATION IMAGE OF BALI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Bagus Rai Utama

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism attractions in this study include: (1 Bali Marine Park, (2 Bali Elephant Safari Park, (3 Bali Barat (West Bali National Park, (4 Bali Butterfly Park, (5 Bali Reptile Park, (6 Sangeh Monkey Forest, (7 Ubud Botanic Garden, and (8 Bali Botanic Garden based on the attributes of “facility, attractiveness, accessibility, and service”. This study utilized quantitative method, specifically exploratory research method and conclusive research method based on previous research and existing theories, in order to achieve the research objectvies with the goal to generate new findings. Based on multidimensional scaling analysis, the perception of Bali Botanic Garden is similar to that of Sangeh Monkey Forest and Bali Barat National Park. While not in the same category as Bali Botanic Garden, the similarity coordinate of Ubud Botanic Garden is so close that it is a considerable competitor to Bali Botanic Garden. The ecotourism attractions perceived to have similarities are Bali Butterfly Park and Ubud Botanic Garden. Another grouping based on similarity are Bali Marine Park and Bali Elephant Safari Park, whose similarity coordinates are quite distant from the other ecotourism attractions.

  19. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  20. Inhabiting Latino Politics: How Colleges Shape Students' Political Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Daisy Verduzco

    2015-01-01

    To comply with ideals of multiculturalism and diversity, postsecondary institutions incorporate Latino students into distinct campus cultures. These cultures influence how students interact with one another, the university community at large, and communities outside of campus, ultimately shaping how students inhabit Latino politics. Drawing on…

  1. Wood-inhabiting dematiaceous Hyphomycetes in the Kampinos National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of investigations of wood-inhabiting fungal communities in several forest associations arę presented. The populations of these fungi on the wood of Carpinus betulus, Quercus robur, Betula verrucosa, Tilia cordata and Pinus sylvestris are also analyzed.

  2. The freshwater crab, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae), as perceived by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater crabs are key elements of the aquatic biota of streams, rivers, lakes, and dams because of their ecological and economic importance. Considering that Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828) is an important source of food for the human settlements that inhabit the places of its occurrence, this article records, for the first time, an ethnocarcinological study carried out with the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, Bahia State. Data were obtained from February to June 2005 by m...

  3. Reference values of olfactory function for Mexico City inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarneros, Marco; Hudson, Robyn; López-Palacios, Martha; Drucker-Colín, René

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory testing is useful in the differential diagnosis of age-related pathologies. To provide baseline reference values for clinical use in Mexico City we investigated the relation between olfactory capabilities and the principal population parameters of age, sex, and smoking habits in a large sample of healthy inhabitants. We applied the internationally recognized and commercially available Sniffin' Sticks test battery to 916 men and women from across the adult life span. The Sniffin' Sticks test evaluates three key aspects of olfactory function: 1) ability to detect an odor, 2) to discriminate between odors, and 3) to identify odors. We found a significant decline in olfactory function from the 5th decade of age, and that detection threshold was the most sensitive measure of this. We did not find a significant difference between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers. In confirmation of our previous studies of the negative effect of air pollution on olfactory function, Mexico City inhabitants had poorer overall performance than corresponding subjects previously tested in the neighboring but less polluted Mexican state of Tlaxcala. Although we basically confirm findings on general demographic patterns of olfactory performance from other countries, we also demonstrate the need to take into account local cultural, environmental and demographic factors in the clinical evaluation of olfactory performance of Mexico City inhabitants. The Sniffin' Sticks test battery, with some adjustment of stimuli to correspond to Mexican culture, provides an easily administered means of assessing olfactory health. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nutritional habits of the inhabitants of the island of Vis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Sasa

    2009-12-01

    The island of Vis belongs to middle Dalmatian group of islands with caracteristics Mediterranean climate. The assumption was that the dominant diet of the inhabitants is also Mediterranean. Such diet is considered to be one of the best for the prevention of many complex and chronic diseases, as confirmed by numerous studies in different parts of the World. This study showed a shift in dietary habits in the direction of a more globalized diet. Such sudden shift may prove to be an important trigger for the development of complex diseases such as diabetes melitus type 2, cardiovascular diseases, gout, as well as certain types of cancer.

  5. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  6. Decision support handbook for recovery of contaminated inhabited areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Ammann, M. (STUK, Helsinki (Finland)); Backe, S. (IFE, Kjeller (Norway)); Rosen, K. (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-07-15

    The handbook is aimed at providing Nordic decision-makers and their expert advisors with required background material for the development of an optimised, operational preparedness for situations where airborne radioactive matter has contaminated a Nordic inhabited area. The focus is on the mitigation of long-term problems. It should be stressed that the information given in the handbook is comprehensive, and many details require careful consideration well in time before implementation of countermeasures in a specific area. Training sessions are therefore recommended. The handbook describes the current relevant Nordic preparedness (dissemination routes) in detail, and suggests methods for measurement of contamination and prognoses of resultant doses, and data for evaluation of countermeasures and associated waste management options. A number of non-technical aspects of contamination in inhabited areas, and of countermeasures for its mitigation, are discussed, and a series of recommendations on the application of all the handbook data in a holistic countermeasure strategy are given. A part of the handbook development has been a dialogue with end-user representatives in each of the Nordic countries, to focus the work of the specific needs of the users. (au)

  7. Immersive Environments: Using Flow and Sound to Blur Inhabitant and Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverty, Luke

    Following in the footsteps of motif-reviving, aesthetically-focused Postmodern and deconstructivist architecture, purely computer-generated formalist contemporary architecture (i.e. blobitecture) has been reduced to vast, empty sculptural, and therefore, purely ocularcentric gestures for their own sake. Taking precedent over the deliberate relation to the people inhabiting them beyond scaleless visual stimulation, the forms become separated from and hostile toward their inhabitants; a boundary appears. This thesis calls for a reintroduction of human-centered design beyond Modern functionalism and ergonomics and Postmodern form and metaphor into architecture by exploring ecological psychology (specifically how one becomes attached to objects) and phenomenology (specifically sound) in an attempt to reach a contemporary human scale using the technology of today: the physiological mind. Psychologist Dr. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's concept of flow---when one becomes so mentally immersed within the current activity and immediate surroundings that the boundary between inhabitant and environment becomes transparent through a form of trance---is the embodiment of this thesis' goal, but it is limited to only specific moments throughout the day and typically studied without regard to the environment. Physiologically, the area within the brain---the medial prefrontal cortex---stimulated during flow experiences is also stimulated by the synthesis of sound, memory, and emotion. By exploiting sound (a sense not typically focused on within phenomenology) as a form of constant nuance within the everyday productive dissonance, the engagement and complete concentration on one's own interpretation of this sensory input affords flow experiences and, therefore, a blurred boundary with one's environment. This thesis aims to answer the question: How does the built environment embody flow? The above concept will be illustrated within a ubiquitous building type---the everyday housing tower

  8. Pesticide detection in air samples from contrasted houses and in their inhabitants' hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Salquèbre, Guillaume; Millet, Maurice; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-02-15

    In order to identify associations between indoor air contamination and human exposure to pesticides, hair samples from 14 persons (9 adults and 5 children below 12 years) were collected simultaneously with the air of their 5 contrasted houses. Three houses were situated in Alsace (France), one in Lorraine (France) and one in Luxembourg (Luxembourg). Houses were located in urban (n=3), semi-urban (n=1) and rural areas (n=1). Twenty five (25) pesticides were detected at least once in indoor air samples and 20 pesticides were detected at least once in hair samples. The comparison between hair and air samples for the same sampling periods shows that pesticides detected in the two matrices were not necessarily associated. Exposure profiles varied from one home to another but also between inhabitants of the same home, suggesting that exposure can be different between inhabitants of the same home. This study demonstrated the usefulness and the complementarity of hair analysis, for the personalized biomonitoring of people exposure to pesticides, and air analysis, for the identification of airborne exposure and house contamination.

  9. Nutraceuticals Use among the Inhabitants of Penang, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir M Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Now a day people are more concerned about the nutrition and their health status. Form the last two decades a lot of progress has been seen to isolate substance of high nutrition and medicinal values from the daily consumable items. It is proved that these dietary supplements derived from plants and animals have benefits to the body or may supply the body with essential fatty acids, proteins or other nutrients which are helpful in improving body function. The especial food entities with such benefits are termed as nutraceuticals.Objective: This study aims to evaluate the use of nutraceuticals among the inhabitant of Penang, Malaysia. Furthermore, this study also aims to understand the population need for the nutraceutical use and difference in nutraceutical use among the inhabitants.Method: A cross sectional study conducted among the inhabitants of Penang using a structured twenty three item questionnaire. A non-probability sampling method was used to approach the potential participants. Chi Square test was used to test the difference between proportions. However, in the case where 2x2 tables have expected cell count less than five among 25% of the cells then Fischer exact test was preferred over Chi Square.Results: A total of seven hundred respondents were approached for their participation in this study. Of whom four hundred showed their willingness to participate in the study with a response rate of 57.1%. Majority 218 (54.5% of the respondents were female. Findings demonstrated that 267(66.8% of the respondents were familiar with the use of nutraceuticals and 282 (70.5% have used or using nutraceuticals. Most of the respondents 294 (73.6% believe that nutraceuticals are safe to use. While evaluating respondents perceptions toward the use of nutraceutical, the use of nutraceuticals to cure the medical complications was found statistically significant (x2= 21.196, df=3, p= 0.000. In addition to this other disclosed the nutraceutical

  10. Energy Consumption Information Services for Smart Home Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanzer, Michael; Fensel, Anna

    We investigate services giving users an adequate insight on his or her energy consumption habits in order to optimize it in the long run. The explored energy awareness services are addressed to inhabitants of smart homes, equipped with smart meters, advanced communication facilities, sensors and actuators. To analyze the potential of such services, a game at a social network Facebook has been designed and implemented, and the information about players' responses and interactions within the game environment has been collected and analyzed. The players have had their virtual home energy usage visualized in different ways, and had to optimize the energy consumption basing on their own perceptions of the consumption information. Evaluations reveal, in particular, that users are specifically responsive to information shown as a real-time graph and as costs in Euro, and are able to produce and share with each other policies for managing their smart home environments.

  11. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai S; Apiwathnasorn C; Leemingsawat S; Wongwit W; Overgaard HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus (Cx. gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories, and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms. Methods: Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Results: Cx. quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx. gelidus. The levels of lead were higher in the Cx. quinquefasciatus (1.08-47.47 μg/g), than in the wastewaters surface (0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the criteria for lead determination. Conclusions: The Cx.quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination, to complemente conventional techniques.

  12. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C L; Landa, E R; Updegraff, D M

    1987-09-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques.Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereasBacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth.

  13. Radionuclide monitoring in molluscs inhabiting intertidal region near a nuclear installation, Gulf of Mannar, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Feroz; Wesley, S Godwin

    2012-02-01

    Protection of non-human biota from ionizing contaminants, especially in the vicinity of nuclear installations is a very important aspect for nuclear engineers and ecologists. In this view, a baseline data on the activity concentration of (210)Po and (210)Pb were quantified in different tissues of molluscs inhabiting the intertidal region along the coast of Kudankulam. The activity concentration was noticed higher in the organs associated with digestion and metabolism. Filter feeding bivalve molluscs registered the maximum activity of (210)Po in their whole body compared to grazing gastropods. (210)Po:(210)Pb ratio was calculated to be greater than unity in most of the analysed tissues. The ecological sensitivity of molluscs to the radiation exposure and the safeness of the environment was analysed by calculating the external and internal dose rate. The hazard quotient for molluscs was lesser than the global bench mark dose rate of 10 μGyh(-1).

  14. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne AL; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the ‘true’ prevalence of S. stercoralis. PMID:27853126

  15. 1 IN TR ODU CT ION The importance of forests in improving human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-23

    Jun 23, 2005 ... 2 .8% per annum due to rapid population growth ... eco-tourism. As the main source of ... hectares in areas affected by the above problems .... ages, rapidly during middle ages, then slows again ... The Plateau has Class A type.

  16. The freshwater crab, Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Trichodactylidae, as perceived by the inhabitants of the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eraldo Medeiros Costa Neto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are key elements of the aquatic biota of streams, rivers, lakes, and dams because of their ecological and economic importance. Considering that Trichodactylus fluviatilis (Latreille, 1828 is an important source of food for the human settlements that inhabit the places of its occurrence, this article records, for the first time, an ethnocarcinological study carried out with the inhabitants of Pedra Branca county, Bahia State. Data were obtained from February to June 2005 by means of open-ended interviews using the usual techniques of ethnographical survey. Sixteen women and eleven men were interviewed. Their ages ranged from 25 to 86 years old. The results showed that the ethnocarcinological knowledge about T. fluviatilis is relatively consistent with academic knowledge. Ethnozoological studies that stress the cultural significance of freshwater crustaceans are very important, since they would represent a great contribution to the debate on biodiversity conservation in the environments these animals inhabit.

  17. Dermal insecticide residues from birds inhabiting an orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hulse, C.S.; Gentry, S.; Borges, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency conducts risk assessments of insecticide applications to wild birds using a model that is limited to the dietary route of exposure. However, free-flying birds are also exposed to insecticides via the inhalation and dermal routes. We measured azinphos-methyl residues on the skin plus feathers and the feet of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in order to quantify dermal exposure to songbirds that entered and inhabited an apple (Malus x domestica) orchard following an insecticide application. Exposure to azinphos-methyl was measured by sampling birds from an aviary that was built around an apple tree. Birds sampled at 36 h and 7-day post-application were placed in the aviary within 1 h after the application whereas birds exposed for 3 days were released into the aviary 4-day post-application. Residues on vegetation and soil were also measured. Azinphos-methyl residues were detected from the skin plus feathers and the feet from all exposure periods. Our results underscore the importance of incorporating dermal exposure into avian pesticide risk assessments.

  18. Plant feeding by a predatory mite inhabiting cassava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, S; Bakker, F M

    2002-01-01

    Plant feeding by arthropod predators may strongly affect the dynamics of bi-and tri-trophic interactions. We tested whether a predatory mite, Typhlodromalus aripo, feeds upon its host plant, cassava. This predator species is an effective biological control agent of Monoychellus tanajoa (the cassava green mite or CGM) a herbivorous mite specific to cassava. We developed a technique to detect plant feeding, based on the use of a systemic insecticide. We found that T. aripo feeds upon plant-borne material, while other predatory mite species, Neoseiulus idaeus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, do not. Subsequently, we measured survival of juveniles and adult females of T. aripo and N. idaeus, both cassava-inhabiting predator species, on cassava leaf discs. Survival of T. aripo was higher than that of N. idaeus. Thus, T. aripo was able to withstand longer periods of prey scarcity. Because CGM populations fluctuate yearly and are heterogeneously distributed within plants, plant feeding may facilitate the persistence of populations of T. aripo in cassava fields and its control of CGM outbreaks.

  19. Lead levels of Culex mosquito larvae inhabiting lead utilizing factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kitvatanachai; S; Apiwathnasorn; C; Leemingsawat; S; Wongwit; W; Overgaard; HJ

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To determine lead level primarily in Culex quinquefasciatus(Cx.quinquefasciatus), and Culex gelidus(Cx.gelidus) larvae inhabiting lead consuming factories,and to putatively estimate eco-toxicological impact of effluents from the firms.Methods:Third instars larvae were sampled by standard dipping method and lead concentrations in the larvae and their respective surrounding factory aquatic environments were determined through standard atomic absorption spectrophotometry(AAS).Results:Cx.quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species followed by Cx.gelidus.The levels of lead were higher in the Cx.quinquefasciatus(1.08-47.47μg/g),than in the wastewaters surface(0.01-0.78 μg/mL) from the factories or closer areas around factories. Other species were not reaching the.criteria for lead determination.Conclusions:The Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae can bio-accumulate the metal and can potentially serve as a biomarker of lead contamination,to complemente conventional techniques.

  20. Biometry of neotropical invertebrates inhabiting floodplain rivers: unraveling bionomy

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    Florencia Zilli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, it is widely recognized that invertebrates play key roles in neotropical floodplains and in many other environments worldwide. However, little information has been published concerning their biometry, in spite that it represents an essential tool for many different studies. Here, we provided length-mass and length-length relationships by fitting the linearized model (log10 Y = log10a + b log10 X and several mean biomass ratios ± SE for bivalves, gastropods, quironomids, ephemeropterans, oligochaetes and hirudineans. We measured, weighed, oven dried and incinerated to ashes specimens collected from 2005 to 2014 in the Paraná River, Argentina. The lineal equations had fit levels higher than 75% in most of the significant regressions. Hence, when slopes were compared, differences raised from ontogeny and phylogeny of taxa. Additionally, slopes resulted different from constants of other regions, types of environments and climates. In addition, organic matter ratios resulted significantly different among invertebrates according to their feeding types. The equations and ratios that we provided will facilitate future research on life history, productivity and energy transference in the food webs of invertebrates inhabiting floodplain wetlands and can be used as tools for planning management strategies and in restoration projects of aquatic environments.

  1. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth

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    Jan Krivanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix–producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  2. The role of novel forest ecosystems in the conservation of wood-inhabiting fungi in boreal broadleaved forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juutilainen, Katja; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiranta, Heikki; Halme, Panu

    2016-10-01

    The increasing human impact on the earth's biosphere is inflicting changes at all spatial scales. As well as deterioration and fragmentation of natural biological systems, these changes also led to other, unprecedented effects and emergence of novel habitats. In boreal zone, intensive forest management has negatively impacted a multitude of deadwood-associated species. This is especially alarming given the important role wood-inhabiting fungi have in the natural decay processes. In the boreal zone, natural broad-leaved-dominated, herb-rich forests are threatened habitats which have high wood-inhabiting fungal species richness. Fungal diversity in other broadleaved forest habitat types is poorly known. Traditional wood pastures and man-made afforested fields are novel habitats that could potentially be important for wood-inhabiting fungi. This study compares species richness and fungal community composition across the aforementioned habitat types, based on data collected for wood-inhabiting fungi occupying all deadwood diameter fractions. Corticioid and polyporoid fungi were surveyed from 67 130 deadwood particles in four natural herb-rich forests, four birch-dominated wood pastures, and four birch-dominated afforested field sites in central Finland. As predicted, natural herb-rich forests were the most species-rich habitat. However, afforested fields also had considerably higher overall species richness than wood pastures. Many rare or rarely collected species were detected in each forest type. Finally, fungal community composition showed some divergence not only among the different habitat types, but also among deadwood diameter fractions. Synthesis and applications: In order to maintain biodiversity at both local and regional scales, conserving threatened natural habitat types and managing traditional landscapes is essential. Man-made secondary woody habitats could provide the necessary resources and serve as surrogate habitats for many broadleaved deadwood

  3. Phosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust and their relation to asthma and allergies of inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, A; Saito, I; Kanazawa, A; Morimoto, K; Nakayama, K; Shibata, E; Tanaka, M; Takigawa, T; Yoshimura, T; Chikara, H; Saijo, Y; Kishi, R

    2014-02-01

    Organophosphate esters are used as additives in flame retardants and plasticizers, and they are ubiquitous in the indoor environment. Phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) are present in residential dust, but few epidemiological studies have assessed their impact on human health. We measured the levels of 11 PFRs in indoor floor dust and multi-surface dust in 182 single-family dwellings in Japan. We evaluated their correlations with asthma and allergies of the inhabitants. Tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate was detected in all samples (median value: 580 μg/g in floor dust, 111 μg/g in multi-surface dust). Tris(2-chloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) was detected at 8.69 μg/g in floor dust and 25.8 μg/g in multi-surface dust. After adjustment for potential confounders, significant associations were found between the prevalence of atopic dermatitis and the presence of TCIPP and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in floor dust [per log10 -unit, odds ratio (OR): 2.43 and 1.84, respectively]. Tributyl phosphate was significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma (OR: 2.85 in floor dust, 5.34 in multi-surface dust) and allergic rhinitis (OR: 2.55 in multi-surface dust). PFR levels in Japan were high compared with values reported previously for Europe, Asia-Pacific, and the USA. Higher levels of PFRs in house dust were related to the inhabitants' health status. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cranial suture biology of the Aleutian Island inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-04-01

    Research on cranial suture biology suggests there is biological and taxonomic information to be garnered from the heritable pattern of suture synostosis. Suture synostosis along with brain growth patterns, diet, and biomechanical forces influence phenotypic variability in cranial vault morphology. This study was designed to determine the pattern of ectocranial suture synostosis in skeletal populations from the Aleutian Islands. We address the hypothesis that ectocranial suture synostosis pattern will differ according to cranial vault shape. Ales Hrdlicka identified two phenotypes in remains excavated from the Aleutian Island. The Paleo-Aleutians, exhibiting a dolichocranic phenotype with little prognathism linked to artifacts distinguished from later inhabitants, Aleutians, who exhibited a brachycranic phenotype with a greater amount of prognathism. A total of 212 crania representing Paleo-Aleuts and Aleutian as defined by Hrdlicka were investigated for suture synostosis pattern following standard methodologies. Comparisons were performed using Guttmann analyses. Results revealed similar suture fusion patterns for the Paleo-Aleut and Aleutian, a strong anterior to posterior pattern of suture fusion for the lateral-anterior suture sites, and a pattern of early termination at the sagittal suture sites for the vault. These patterns were found to differ from that reported in the literature. Because these two populations with distinct cranial shapes exhibit similar patterns of suture synostosis it appears pattern is independent of cranial shape in these populations of Homo sapiens. These findings suggest that suture fusion patterns may be population dependent and that a standardized methodology, using suture fusion to determine age-at-death, may not be applicable to all populations.

  5. Risk Analysis of Acute Or Chronic Exposure to Arsenic of the Inhabitants in a District of Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Cristina Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The arsenic occurrence in the water constitutes a serious world health concern due to its toxicity. Depending on the intensity and duration of exposure, this element can be acutely lethal or may have a wide range of health effects in humans and animals. In Argentina, the origin of arsenic is mainly natural, and related to different geological processes. The Argentinean concern about arsenic and its influence on human health dates back to the previous century. The disease ascribed to arsenic contamination was called ‘chronic regional endemic hydroarsenism’. It is produced by the consumption of water with high levels of this element. In our study, we focused in La Matanza district, a very populated site in the Buenos Aires Province. An increasing concern of the inhabitants of the area regarding health problems was detected. In order to establish a full view of arsenic exposure in the area, several matrices and targets were analyzed. As matrices, water and soil samples were analyzed. As targets, canine and human hair was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate acute and chronically exposure to arsenic of La Matanza inhabitants.

  6. Heidegger, environmental ethics, and the metaphysics of nature: inhabiting the earth in a technological age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foltz, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies of philosophical problems concerning the human disruption and destruction of the natural environment have tended to presuppose (a) that the problems themselves are adequately defined by the natural sciences, and (b) that the proper philosophical approach is by means of an ethics that restricts itself to determining the character and limits of moral obligation. This dissertation (a) argues that modern natural science, which is expected to define the problem of an environmental crisis, itself employs a concept of nature, derived from the metaphysical tradition, that is generative of the very problems to be resolved; (b) develops, on the basis of Heidegger's rethinking of the traditional question of being, a more adequate understanding of nature; and (c) shows that the resolution of these problems can best be accomplished by means of a more broadly conceived ethics that closes the breach between theory and praxis by articulating an appropriate manner of comportment toward entities as a whole (and not soley human, nor even sentient, entities) which displays an integration of thought and action, and which Heidegger calls inhabitation or dwelling.

  7. Characterising the Welsh Roundhouse: chronology, inhabitation and landscape

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    Eleanor Ghey

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article stems from a one-year project funded by the University of Wales Board of Celtic Studies to collect and analyse all the evidence for excavated prehistoric and early historic roundhouses in Wales. The resulting dataset will serve as a resource for researchers and, through the analysis provided in this article, provide an important counterpoint to similar studies from elsewhere in Britain. The methodology of the project is presented, and the limitations of the data are discussed in detail. The principal difficulties were associated with dating the building and duration of use of individual structures, and the bias created by a few sites with large numbers of excavated structures. The analysis and interpretation of the data is presented in three sections: chronology, inhabitation and landscape, and historical overview. The emphasis on recently excavated sites with good chronological control has enabled a more confident reconstruction of the history of roundhouse occupation in Wales. This has shown that while the architectural form has relatively early origins with numbers beginning to grow after 1500 BC, it is primarily a feature of first millennium BC and early first millennium AD landscapes. During the first millennium BC, timber- and stone-built settlements are common, initially as enclosed sites, and later, by the Roman period, as both open and enclosed settlements. This is contrary to the situation in many other parts of Britain, where roundhouses and frequently field systems are dated to at least the mid-second millennium BC onwards. There were strong regional differences between regions at this time, with for instance the predominance of stone- and clay-built sites in north-west Wales and the absence of Roman period roundhouses in the north-east. The dataset derived from the project will remain as an important resource with which to research these regional differences in greater detail and to examine the implications of new

  8. Terrestrial Permafrost Models of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.

    2011-12-01

    Martian permafrost is still 100 times older. Only one terrestrial environment is close to Mars in age - volcanoes in permafrost areas. The age of volcanic deposits frozen after eruption is much younger than the age of surrounding permafrost. Culture- and culture-independent methods show the presence of viable thermophiles and their genes within pyroclastic frozen material on Deception Island, Antarctica and Kamchatka peninsula. These bacteria and archeae have not been found in permafrost outside the volcanic areas. The only way for thermophiles to get into frozen soil is through deposition during eruption, i.e. the catastrophic geological events transport microbes from the depths to the surface and they survive at subzero temperatures. The past activity of Martian volcanoes periodically burned through the frozen strata and products of eruptions rose from the depths to the surface and froze. Images taken by the Stereo Camera on board the Mars Express discovered volcanoes 2-15Myr old that date back to ages close to permafrost on Earth. Terrestrial communities might serve as a model of inhabitants for these young volcanoes. 3. The only opportunity for free water on Mars is the overcooled water brines, and halo/psychrophilc community of Arctic cryopegs, sandwiched within permafrost, represents a plausible prototype for Martian microbial life.

  9. TrapTech R-Octenol Lure Does Not Improve the Capture Rates of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Other Container-Inhabiting Species in Biogents Sentinel Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Isik; Faraji, Ary; Indelicato, Nicholas; Rochlin, Ilia

    2016-07-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and other container-inhabiting species have become important public health concerns due to the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Effective surveillance is dependent on the ability to collect a sufficient number of mosquitoes for population monitoring and pathogen isolation. The Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap supplied with a proprietary human skin lure has become the standard tool for container-inhabiting Aedes species collections worldwide. Recently, R-octenol, a single isomer of the well characterized mosquito attractant octenol, was shown to greatly improve the capture rate of some Aedes species when utilized with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet traps. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the TrapTech lure (TT lure), containing R-octenol, alone or in combination with the human skin lure in a BGS trap to capture Ae. albopictus and other species. BGS traps with human skin lures or a combination of the two lures collected approximately twice as many Ae. albopictus females compared to those with TT lures. Unlike previous studies, baiting BGS traps with TT lures did not result in increased diversity of mosquito species, or in higher numbers of other container-inhabiting Aedes species. Although human skin lures were clearly superior to TT R-octenol lures in BGS traps, R-octenol lures are more widely available and might still be used as an alternative lure, especially when Ae. albopictus populations are high.

  10. Transforming an Exposure trip to Botanical Expedition: Introducing Ecological Research thru Exposure Trip in an Eco-tourism Site

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    Bernardo C. Lunar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available – Fieldtrips can be considered as one of the three avenues through which science can be taught - through formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. An exposure trip at Bangkong Kahoy Valley Field Study Center was arranged for a class of BS Biology and BS Education students enrolled in Ecology Course. This approach purposefully transformed the usual exposure trip from being a casual site visit into a focused and productive learning experience. This transformation from exposure trip to a botanical expedition has exceeded the initial activity goals. Rather than a day off from learning, the time spent at the study center has been a meaningful opportunity to engage students in an active ecological research project while delivering valuable science content. Employing the descriptive survey design, the learning gains of the students were assessed and students were directed to do a guided reflection writing using the ORID Model of Focused Conversation. The learning gains and reflections of the students confirmed that students can collaboratively develop focused research questions, make meaning from a variety of sources, carry out a vegetation analysis and conduct surveys on socio-economic status, plant resource utilization and ecotourism assessment of the host community. As students prepared for their trip and synthesized their learning afterward, they were able to come up with very impressive and scientifically sound research outputs.

  11. An Investigation into Eco-tourism Potential of the Alamut Region of Iran using SWOT Analysis Model

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    Keivan Saeb

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research examines the potentials and limitations of tourism in the Alamut region, offering suggestions and strategies for the promotion of tourism in this region. Research methodology adopted in this study is based on analytical-descriptive approach. To formulate and establish a sound research theoretical framework as well as to review the research literature, a questionnaire tooling method was used and the results were analyzed using the SWOT technique. While introducing the tourist attraction in the province, the influential factors in the region categorized into the four headings of: strengths; weaknesses; opportunities and threats were included in our considerations and strategies or guidelines for a sustained tourism development in the region provided. The research findings, taking into consideration the present status of the Alamut region, indicate that despite the fact that the region houses a great number of ancient sites and monuments and enjoys a high level of bio-diversity resources, making it the ideal candidate to be transformed into an exemplary tourist attraction pole, it is faced with major obstacles to reach this goal. In order to remove some of the problems of the region, strategic factors were analyzed and priorities delineated. The findings indicated that a focused attention and description of the values of the region is alleviated through the holdings of seminars or meeting and conferences as well as paving the way to give cultural knowledge and understanding to prevent inflicting widespread damages to the environment; to establish hotels; to provide welfare facilities and introduce natural resources as well as historical sites and their ancient heritage.

  12. Sustainable Highland Development through Stakeholders’ Perceptions on Agro EcoTourism in Cameron Highlands: A Preliminary Finding

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    Mohd Ariffin Ati Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameron Highlands was discovered in 1885 and was developed as a hill station. It first served as a quaint retreat destination for the British residence where the urban morphology of its little town centres were strongly characterised by colonial architecture such as bungalows, institutional buildings and government offices, shophouses and market stalls. Eventually due to economic pressure and location potentials, more land was opened for tea plantations and vegetable and flower industries. Conversely, recent rapid uncontrolled developments in the built environment and agricultural sectors have tarnished its natural environment, old-world charm and historical values.\tIf this trend persists, the popularity of Cameron Highlands as a vacation destination for local and foreign visitors may be badly affected. This research paper seeks to determine the perception of local stakeholders and tourists of the development in Cameron Highlands and whether they agree that agro-ecotourism can be used as a tool to achieve sustainability in the area. This paper is an assessment of a pilot test to determine initial perceptions toward Cameron Highlands development. The pilot test sample size was 41 respondents, comprising local authorities, local communities and NGOs, as well as local and international tourists. The results showed that the majority agreed that agro-ecotourism can generate a sustainable income and preserve the environment while ensuring sustainability through fair trade.

  13. Exploring the cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus fecal microbiome, bacterial inhabitants of a worldwide pet

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    Luis David Alcaraz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus were originally endemic to Australia; now they are popular pets with a global distribution. It is now possible to conduct detailed molecular studies on cultivable and uncultivable bacteria that are part of the intestinal microbiome of healthy animals. These studies show that bacteria are an essential part of the metabolic capacity of animals. There are few studies on bird microbiomes and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the cockatiel microbiome. Methods In this paper, we analyzed the gut microbiome from fecal samples of three healthy adult cockatiels by massive sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Additionally, we compared the cockatiel fecal microbiomes with those of other bird species, including poultry and wild birds. Results The vast majority of the bacteria found in cockatiels were Firmicutes, while Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were poorly represented. A total of 19,280 different OTUs were detected, of which 8,072 belonged to the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Discussion It is relevant to study cockatiel the microbiomes of cockatiels owing to their wide geographic distribution and close human contact. This study serves as a reference for cockatiel bacterial diversity. Despite the large OTU numbers, the diversity is not even and is dominated by Firmicutes of the Erysipelotrichaceae family. Cockatiels and other wild birds are almost depleted of Bacteroidetes, which happen to be abundant in poultry-related birds, and this is probably associated with the intensive human manipulation of poultry bird diets. Some probable pathogenic bacteria, such as Clostridium and Serratia, appeared to be frequent inhabitants of the fecal microbiome of cockatiels, whereas other potential pathogens were not detected.

  14. Insights of the dental calculi microbiome of pre-Columbian inhabitants from Puerto Rico

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    Tasha M. Santiago-Rodriguez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The study of ancient microorganisms in mineralized dental plaque or calculi is providing insights into microbial evolution, as well as lifestyles and disease states of extinct cultures; yet, little is still known about the oral microbial community structure and function of pre-Columbian Caribbean cultures. In the present study, we investigated the dental calculi microbiome and predicted function of one of these cultures, known as the Saladoid. The Saladoids were horticulturalists that emphasized root-crop production. Fruits, as well as small marine and terrestrial animals were also part of the Saladoid diet. Methods Dental calculi samples were recovered from the archaeological site of Sorcé, in the municipal island of Vieques, Puerto Rico, characterized using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, and compared to the microbiome of previously characterized coprolites of the same culture, as well modern plaque, saliva and stool microbiomes available from the Human Microbiome Project. Results Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes comprised the majority of the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome. The Saladoid dental calculi microbiome was distinct when compared to those of modern saliva and dental plaque, but showed the presence of common inhabitants of modern oral cavities including Streptococcus sp., Veillonella dispar and Rothia mucilaginosa. Cell motility, signal transduction and biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites may be unique features of the Saladoid microbiome. Discussion Results suggest that the Saladoid dental calculi microbiome structure and function may possibly reflect a horticulturalist lifestyle and distinct dietary habits. Results also open the opportunity to further elucidate oral disease states in extinct Caribbean cultures and extinct indigenous cultures with similar lifestyles.

  15. Urinary excretion of uranium in adult inhabitants of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malátová, Irena; Bečková, Věra; Kotík, Lukáš

    2016-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and evaluate urinary excretion of uranium in the general public of the Czech Republic. This value should serve as a baseline for distinguishing possible increase in uranium content in population living near legacy sites of mining and processing uranium ores and also to help to distinguish the proportion of the uranium content in urine among uranium miners resulting from inhaled dust. The geometric mean of the uranium concentration in urine of 74 inhabitants of the Czech Republic was 0.091 mBq/L (7.4 ng/L) with the 95% confidence interval 0.071-0.12 mBq/L (5.7-9.6 ng/L) respectively. The geometric mean of the daily excretion was 0.15 mBq/d (12.4 ng/d) with the 95% confidence interval 0.12-0.20 mBq/d (9.5-16.1 ng/d) respectively. Despite the legacy of uranium mines and plants processing uranium ore in the Czech Republic, the levels of uranium in urine and therefore, also human body content of uranium, is similar to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA. Significant difference in the daily urinary excretion of uranium was found between individuals using public supply and private water wells as a source of drinking water. Age dependence of daily urinary excretion of uranium was not found. Mean values and their range are comparable to other countries, esp. Germany, Slovenia and USA.

  16. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz C P S; Zappes, Camilah A; Oliveira, Rafael G; Andriolo, Artur; Azevedo, Alexandre de F

    2013-01-01

    Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  17. Chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution and DNA damage in Furnas Volcano (São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal) inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana; Garcia, Patricia; Silva, Catarina; Ferreira, Teresa; Barroso, Joana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo

    2015-04-01

    Many studies in volcanic air pollution only have in consideration the acute toxic effects of gas or ash releases however the impact of chronic exposure to ground gas emissions in human health is yet poorly known. In the Azores archipelago (Portugal), São Miguel island has one of the most active and dangerous volcanoes: Furnas Volcano. Highly active fumarolic fields, hot springs and soil diffuse degassing phenomena are the main secondary volcanic phenomena that can be seen at the volcano surroundings. One of the main gases released in these diffuse degassing areas is radon (222Rn), which decay results in solid particles that readily settle within the airways. These decay particles emit alpha radiation that is capable of causing severe DNA damage that cumulatively can eventually cause cancer. Previous studies have established that chronic exposure to chromosome-damaging agents can lead to the formation of nuclear anomalies, such as micronuclei that is used for monitoring DNA damage in human populations. The present study was designed to evaluate whether chronic exposure to volcanic air pollution, associated to 222Rn, might result in DNA damage in human oral epithelial cells. A cross sectional study was performed in a study group of 142 individuals inhabiting an area where volcanic activity is marked by active fumarolic fields and soil degassing (hydrothermal area), and a reference group of 368 individuals inhabiting an area without these secondary manifestations of volcanism (non-hydrothermal area). For each individual, 1000 buccal epithelial cells were analyzed for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNc) and the frequency of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis and karyorrhexis), by using the micronucleus assay. Information on lifestyle factors and an informed consent were obtained from each participant. Assessment of indoor radon was performed with the use of radon detectors. Data were analyzed with logistic regression models, adjusted

  18. Active commuting of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas

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    Lukáš Rubín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Active commuting in terms of everyday transport to school or work can have a significant effect on physical activity. Active commuting can be influenced by the environment, and examples from abroad show that current environmental changes tend mostly to promote passive forms of commuting. A similar situation of decreasing active commuting might be expected in the Czech Republic. However, little information has been published to date about the issue of active commuting among the inhabitants of our country. Objective: The main objective of the present study is to describe the active commuting patterns of the inhabitants of Liberec city in low and high walkability areas. Methods: A total of 23,621 economically active inhabitants or students of Liberec city aged 6-87 years (34.77 ± 14.39 participated in the study. The data about commuting were retrieved from the national Population and Housing Census of 2011. Geographic information systems were used to objectively analyze the built environment and to calculate the walkability index. Results: Active commuting to/from school or work is used by 17.41% of inhabitants. Active commuting is dominated by walking (16.60% as opposed to cycling (0.81%. Inhabitants who lived in high walkability areas were more likely to actively commute than those living in low walkability areas (OR = 1.54; 95% CI [1.41, 1.68]. Conclusions: This study confirmed the findings of international studies about the effect of the built environment on active commuting among Liberec inhabitants. Active commuters are often those living near or in the city center, which is characterized by high walkability. In Liberec city, walking as a means of active commuting significantly prevails over cycling. One of the reasons might be the diverse topography of the city and the insufficiently developed cycling network.

  19. [Monkey malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) after travelling to Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroidl, Inge; Seilmaier, Michael; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bretzel, Gisela; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A case of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is described in a 52-year-old female German traveler after returning from Thailand. P. knowlesi is a parasite of macaques in Southeast Asia and has been recognized in recent years as an important and probably increasing cause of human malaria in some areas. At least 16 cases in international travelers have been published so far. This includes four cases imported to Germany. All German patients visited forested areas in Southern Thailand inhabited by the natural monkey host prior to their illness. Most cases diagnosed in endemic areas present as mild disease. However in some patients P. knowlesi may take a severe and life-threatening course. Diagnosis is usually is based on microscopy whereas rapid tests are not reliable. However, microscopic differentiation of P. knowlesi from other plasmodium species (eg, P. malariae, P. falciparum) is difficult, especially when parasitemia is low. Thus PCR methods are required for definite species determination. Changing endemicity as well as changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in areas which are considered as low endemic for malaria. Malaria has to be considered in all febrile patients returning from endemic areas. In Southeast Asia this has to include Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Especially if microscopy suggests P. falciparum/P. malariae double infection, or when results indicate P. malariae but the clinical presentation differs from that of quartan malaria (eg, daily fever), diagnostic procedures for P. knowlesi should be initiated. Currently available rapid diagnostic tests are not reliable for the detection of P. knowlesi. The definite diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection usually requires PCR techniques Changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in low prevalence areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Cholinesterase inhibition of birds inhabiting wheat fields treated with methyl parathion and toxaphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, K.R.; Baskett, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) and dickcissels (Spiza americana) inhabiting wheat fields treated with 0.67 kg AI/ha methyl parathion and 1.35 kg AI/ha toxaphene showed brain cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition compared with birds inhabiting untreated fields. Maximum inhibition occurred about five days after insecticide application. ChE activities again approached normal 10 days after treatment. ChE inhibition for dickcissels and red-winged blackbirds differed significantly (p<0.05); maximum inhibition for the former species was 74%, and for the latter, 40%. These differences could not be explained by the diets of the two species, as they were similar.

  1. Analysis of internal doses to Mole voles inhabiting the East-Ural radioactive trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, G.; Yarmoshenko, I. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation); Chibiryak, M.; Vasil' ev, A. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Substantial task of development of approaches to radiation protection of non-human biota is investigation of relationships of exposure to dose, and dose to effects. Small mammals inhabiting territory of the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) are affected to ionizing radiation for many generations after accident at Mayak plutonium production in 1957. According to results of numerous studies a number of effects of exposure are observed. It is remarkable that the revealed effects are both negative and adaptive. In particular, the analysis of the variability of morphological structures of the axial skull and lower jaw in the population of northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall.), the burrowing rodent inhabiting the EURT, is of great interest. At the same time there is no reliable assessment of the radiation doses to these animals. Earlier we developed the approach to assess internal doses to mouse-like rodents (mice and voles) caused by incorporated {sup 90}Sr, which is the main dose contributing radionuclide at the EURT. Dose assessments are based on the results of beta-radiometry of intact bone. Routine methods for measuring the activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skeleton require ashing of samples, however in morphometric studies the destruction of material should be avoided: the skulls of mole voles are stored in the environmental samples depository of IPAE. Coefficients linking results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in skull of mouse was obtained basing on comparison of results of beta-radiometry of intact bone and bone ash. Obtained coefficients cannot be directly applied for calculating activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr in mole vole skulls because they are significantly larger. Therefore the additional study is required to assess proper coefficient of conversion from beta-radiometry to activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr. Developed dose assessment procedure includes application of the published values of

  2. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia) inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolz, G; Solórzano-Morales, Á; Angelova, L; Tien, C; Fonseca, L; Bonilla, M C

    2013-01-01

    Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae) and pigeons (Columbiformes), the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia) cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales) in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  3. Chlamydia psittaci genotype B in a pigeon (Columba livia inhabiting a public place in San José, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dolz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Human chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease of avian origin caused by Chlamydia psittaci. The highest infection rates have been detected in parrots (Psittacidae and pigeons (Columbiformes, the latter most frequently carry the genotypes B and E. These genotypes have been shown to also infect humans. Because pigeons (Columba livia cohabit with humans in urban areas, C. psittaci present in the dust from dry feces of infected pigeons may be transmitted by inhalation and represent a significant public health problem. Between 2012 and 2013 a total of 120 fecal samples were collected from pigeons at four public places (Plaza de la Cultura, Parque Morazán, Parque Central de Guadalupe, Plaza de las Garantías Sociales in San José, Costa Rica. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to amplify a region of the outer membrane protein A gene of C. psittaci. Only one sample was positive in PCR and the positive sample was further subjected to sequencing and genotyping. Sequencing identified this sample as C. psittaci genotype B. This study is the first report to show the presence of this organism in pigeons of Costa Rica, and shows that the infected pigeons may represent a significant risk for humans who visit public places that are inhabited by pigeons.

  4. Deriving the number of jobs in proximity services from the number of inhabitants in French rural municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenormand, Maxime; Huet, Sylvie; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    We use a minimum requirement approach to derive the number of jobs in proximity services per inhabitant in French rural municipalities. We first classify the municipalities according to their time distance in minutes by car to the municipality where the inhabitants go the most frequently to get services (called MFM). For each set corresponding to a range of time distance to MFM, we perform a quantile regression estimating the minimum number of service jobs per inhabitant that we interpret as an estimation of the number of proximity jobs per inhabitant. We observe that the minimum number of service jobs per inhabitant is smaller in small municipalities. Moreover, for municipalities of similar sizes, when the distance to the MFM increases, the number of jobs of proximity services per inhabitant increases.

  5. Deriving the number of jobs in proximity services from the number of inhabitants in French rural municipalities

    CERN Document Server

    Lenormand, Maxime; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    We use a minimum requirement approach to derive the number of jobs in proximity services per inhabitant in French rural municipalities. We first classify the municipalities according to their time distance to the municipality where the inhabitants go the most frequently to get services (called MFM). For each set corresponding to a range of time distance to MFM, we perform a quantile regression estimating the minimum number of service jobs per inhabitant, that we interpret as an estimation of the number of proximity jobs per inhabitant. We observe that the minimum number of service jobs per inhabitant is smaller in small municipalities. Moreover, for municipalities of similar sizes, when the distance to the MFM increases, we find that the number of jobs of proximity services per inhabitant increases.

  6. On Relations Between Gini Coefficient and Inhabitants Personal Income Distribution%论基尼系数与居民个人收入分配的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德海

    2012-01-01

    学术界通常以基尼系数的大小,作为衡量居民个人收入分配是否公平的依据,是对基尼系数与居民个人收入分配之间关系的误解。一个国家基尼系数的大小,与这个国家居民的个人收入分配是否公平没有关系。马克思经济学的等价交换原则是衡量居民个人收入分配是否公平的客观标准。%Equality, equity and justice can not include the relations between Gini coefficient and inhabitants'per- sonal income distribution fully. There never any equal income distribution throughout the history of human socie- ty, for which the meaning of equality in such concepts as equal or unequal distribution is unclear. Although distri- bution of social wealth represented by Gini coefficient is determined by inhabitants'personal income distribution, Gini coefficient cant reflect a definite inhabitants'personal income distribution is fair or unfair. Only exchange of equal values in a system of market economy is fair.

  7. Human biomonitoring for Cd, Hg and Pb in blood of inhabitants of the Sacco Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia D'Ilio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. The Sacco Valley (Lazio, Italy is characterized by high density population and several industrial chemical productions that during the time had led to a substantial amount of by-products. The result was a severe environmental pollution of the area and in particular of the river Sacco. In 1991, the analysis of water and soils samples of three industrial landfills revealed the presence of organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. A research project named "Health of residents living in Sacco Valley area", coordinated by the regional Department of Epidemiology, was undertaken and financed to evaluate the state of health of the population living near those polluted areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Cd, Hg and Pb were quantified in 246 blood samples of potentially exposed residents of the Sacco Valley by quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS. RESULTS. Individuals who agreed to be sampled did not exhibit high levels of the elements. The distance from the river does not seem to be directly connected with the elements levels in blood. The contribution of these contaminants to the total intake due to ingestion of food was difficult to evaluate. The unclear trend of data would require a characterization of the polluted site with environmental sampling of different matrices.

  8. Mites (Arachnida: Acari) inhabiting coffee domatia: a short review and recent findings from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....

  9. Calculating the consequences of recovery, a European model for inhabited areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charnock, T.W.; Jones, J.A.; Singer, L.N.

    2009-01-01

    The European Model for Inhabited Areas (ERMIN) was developed to allow a user to explore different recovery options following the contamination of an urban environment with radioactive material and to refine an appropriate strategy for the whole region affected. The input data include a description...

  10. Fipronil as a larvicide against container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the laboratory, Fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th instar Aedes albopictus larvae. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting one-liter capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery, St. A...

  11. The level of awareness of inhabitants of Banat of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanov Pavle M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the pollution that leads to serious health and genetic consequences, as well as the reaction of the organism, and thus the problem of Banat becomes the priority before the inhabitants of Banat raises a dilemma: stay at the cost of survival or survive with the engagement of all forms of civil and seostkog opinion and initiatives in terms of raising environmental awareness and create control mechanisms that will actively engage in the environmental fate of Banat. This research I wanted to find out how much the inhabitants of Banat to meet specified environmental problems and environmental zagađenjem. At the same time I wanted to remark on how much pollution adversely affects all the living world. During the research, when collecting data, used the research survey instrument. Survey respondents is included in the table. Respondents are the inhabitants of Banat of different gender, age and academic qualifications. When examining used a questionnaire that contains ten questions and that the materials in the descriptive method. The results suggest that in the future, you should have the most attention paid to development and raising environmental awareness through education of permanent inhabitants of Banat programs on the protection of the environment.

  12. The Spaces and Places That Women Casual Academics (Often Fail To) Inhabit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimmins, Gail

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a research project that aims to address the binary/irony of the central physical and teaching space that women casual academics inhabit within Australian universities, against their lack of presence in the existing discourses around higher education. The invisibility of women casual academics within the discourses around…

  13. Assessment of wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes for biokraft pulping of softwood chips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wolfaardt, F

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood-inhabiting Basidiomycetes have been screened for various applications in the pulp and paper industry and it is evident that different fungi need to be used to suit the specific requirements of each application. This study assessed...

  14. Building inhabitant feedback: Creating a reflective practice for environmental design using activity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Dara Suzanne

    The way buildings are designed now, there is little feedback from use involved in the design process. Attempts to correct this problem have been made in the form of Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) for 50-years but have largely failed. POEs are the accepted method for environmental designers to collect feedback about buildings in use. They are infrequently conducted, after the building is built, in a one-time only evaluation, and not funded as part of the build process. Other products receive feedback about the design in use from online critiques. Online critiques could provide a platform for feedback from actors engaged with buildings in use for environmental designers to utilize in developing reflective design rationale to avoid adverse consequences in future designs or correct consequences in past and current designs. Since buildings constitute such a large part of the human environment, it's important to research the effects of buildings on their inhabitants. In order for environmental designers to act on feedback from situated use, designers need to have access to that feedback and all actors interacting with the building design need to have an easy, inexpensive, and accessible method to submit feedback. These needs can be addressed by utilizing modern networked and mobile computing to collect and access building feedback. The analysis presented in this dissertation is informed by a thorough evaluation of the theory of reflective practice, activity theory, environmental design, and cognitive science research. From this analysis, I developed the following contributions. First, I expanded Schon's reflective practice by combining his theory with a modified version of activity theory, using activity theory to enrich reflective practice and create Reflective Activity Systems Theory (RAST), which provides a new framework to develop design rationale based on feedback from use and a focus on the activity. Second, I suggest the design of an activity information system

  15. [Analysis of good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units of the Andalusian Health Service (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Martínez, M Eugenia; Pastor Moreno, Guadalupe; Pérez Corral, Olivia; Iriarte de Los Santos, M Teresa; Mena Jiménez, Ángel Luis; Escudero Espinosa, M Cecilia; García Romera, Inmaculada; Blanco García, Martín Germán; Martín Barato, Amelia

    To discover good practices for inhabitant participation in the clinical management units (CMUs) of the Andalusian Health Service (AHS) (Spain) and to explore the reasons perceived by CMU and AHS professionals that may influence the presence and distribution of those good practices among the CMU. Study with mixed methodology carried out in Andalusia (Spain) in two phases (2013-2015). Firstly, an online survey was delivered to the Directors of the CMUs which had set up an inhabitant participation commission. In a second phase, a qualitative study was carried out through semi-structured interviews with professionals from the Andalusian Health Service with previous experience in inhabitant participation. A descriptive analysis of the quantitative information and a semantic content analysis of the qualitative information were carried out. 530 CMUs took part in the survey. The inhabitant participation practices more often implemented in the CMUs are those related to the informing and consultation levels. Twelve professionals were interviewed in the second phase. Other practices with higher inhabitant involvement and delegation are secondary. The barriers which were identified by professionals are related to the beliefs and attitudes of the inhabitants, the professionals, the health system and the environment. The main practices for inhabitant participation in the CMUs are related to the most basic levels of participation. The method and dynamics which facilitate inhabitant empowerment within the health system are not clearly recognised. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Medical Consultation System to Support Health Care of Inhabitants through A Dialogue with Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hiroshi; Masuzawa, Hideaki

    A medical consultation system has been developed that encompasses knowledge of various specialties. The system is designed to be used by general practitioners, and inhabitants themselves. It has the characteristics of ; 1. The input task of complaints is simplified by use of multiple choice questionaires. 2. The system advices the person whether to seek medical help or not, and if so, the degree of urgency, and from what type of practitioner or specialist. 3. It supplies the doctor information regarding essential symptoms and possible diagnosis. 4. The system offer easy tools to make a medical consultation system to the specialists themselves. This system is intended as an answer to the common problem of uncertainty on the part of both inhabitants and doctors as to the area of medical speciality that applies to a given disease.

  17. Isolation and identification mould micoflora inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on isolation and identification mould inhabiting plant leaf litter had been conducted. The objective of the study was to isolate and identify mould inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java. The mould isolation was based on washing and filtering with membrane isolation method. The result showed that 39 moulds generas with 55 species varians, one group identified in class level, and three groups of unidentified mould isolates had been isolated. Taxas distributions showed that there were endophyte and phytopatogen mould isolates had been isolated such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, and Coelomycetes. However, typical soil taxa and common saprobic fungi such as Aspergillus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma remain dominated the resulted isolates.

  18. Organochlorine pesticide level differences among female inhabitants from Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H; Martínez, A J; Meza, E; Valencia Quintana, R; Zepeda, R

    2014-08-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programs and against ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides: HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'-DDE, op'-DDT and pp'-DDT in adipose tissue of female inhabitants from three Mexican states: Veracruz, Puebla and Tabasco. Data analyses indicated higher β-HCH levels in Puebla inhabitants. When comparing the mean values of the pp'-DDE concentrations among the three states, no statistically significant differences were noted. A trend of increasing concentrations of op'-DDT from Veracruz to Puebla and Tabasco was observed. Significantly higher pp'-DDT concentrations in Veracruz as compared to Puebla and Tabasco were determined. Using factorial analysis of three age categories (>30, 31-50, <51) organochlorine pesticide concentrations increases with age of participants, indicating time of exposure as a principal factor of organochlorine pesticides accumulation in adipose tissue.

  19. Trend of cancer risk of Chinese inhabitants to dioxins due to changes in dietary patterns: 1980-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Ling, Zaili; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-02-01

    Food ingestion is a major route for human exposure and body burden to dioxins. We estimated the potential influence of changes in dietary patterns in Chinese population on human health risk to 2,3,7,8-TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) over the last three decades. We performed multiple modeling scenario investigations to discriminate the contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions and changes in dietary patterns to the cancer risks (CR) to dioxins. Results showed that changes in dietary patterns, featured by decreasing consumption of total grain (including all unprocessed grains) and vegetables and increasing intake of animal-derived foodstuffs, caused increasing CR from 7.3 × 10-8 in 1980 to 1.1 × 10-7 in 2009. Varying dietary patterns contributed 17% to the CR of Chinese population in 2009 under the fixed emission in 1980. The CR to 2,3,7,8-TCDD in urban and eastern China residents was higher considerably than those who lived in rural area and western China, attributable to higher emissions, household income, and greater intake of animal-derived foodstuffs in urban and eastern China inhabitants. On the other hand, more rapid increasing trend of the CR was found in rural residents due to their more rapid increase in the consumption of fat-dominated foods as compared with urban residents.

  20. Ambient and smartphone sensor assisted ADL recognition in multi-inhabitant smart environments

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Nirmalya; Misra, Archan; Cook, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Activity recognition in smart environments is an evolving research problem due to the advancement and proliferation of sensing, monitoring and actuation technologies to make it possible for large scale and real deployment. While activities in smart home are interleaved, complex and volatile; the number of inhabitants in the environment is also dynamic. A key challenge in designing robust smart home activity recognition approaches is to exploit the users' spatiotemporal behavior and location, ...

  1. Underground Cordon by Microorganisms-Part-III Role of Soil Inhabiting Actinomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Dayal

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Certain strains of soil inhabiting actinomycetes were found to substantially corrode aluminium alloy (54-S which has bscn found tobe more resistant to bacterial or fungal corrosion in our earlier studies.These strains did not produce any corrosion on the mild steel and galvanised iron panels which were heavily corroded by bacteria and fungi. The corrosive isolates have been partialiy characterised after their isolation and purification. The extent of corrosion caused by eachstrain has been determined.

  2. Phytate Degradation by Fungi and Bacteria that Inhabit Sawdust and Coffee Residue Composts

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the pl...

  3. THE PERCEPTION OF THE JIU VALLEY INHABITANTS REGARDING THE IMPORTANCE OF FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA CAMELIA SCHMIDT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the perceptions of the Jiu Valley inhabitants regarding certain psycho – social aspects of family life as a result of an empirical study that is part of an extensive research on the families in the Jiu Valley. The research developed in this sense was an attempt to decipher and analyze the opinions of the family members on the concept of happy marriage, the important elements of family life, desirable behavior or attitudes, etc.

  4. Bacterial Endo-Symbiont Inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Baker; Kumara Shanthamma Kavitha; Huvinakola Chinnappa Yashavantha Rao; Devaraju Rakshith; Ballagere Puttaraju Harini; Komal Kumar; Sreedharamurthy Satish

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. were screened for antimicrobial potential with the aim to isolate potent bacteria bearing significant activity against test pathogens. The selected isolate was subjected to large scale fermentation to extract antimicrobial metabolite. The organic phase was reduced under vacuum pressure and crude ethyl acetate extract (10 mg/mL) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of test pathogens. The antibacterial activity was measured a...

  5. Cyphobasidium gen. nov., a new lichen-inhabiting lineage in the Cystobasidiomycetes (Pucciniomycotina, Basidiomycota, Fungi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millanes, Ana M; Diederich, Paul; Wedin, Mats

    2016-11-01

    Pucciniomycotina is a highly diverse group of fungi, showing a remarkably wide range of lifestyles and ecologies. However, lichen-inhabiting fungi are only represented by a few species included in the genera Chionosphaera and Cystobasidium, and their phylogenetic position has never been investigated. Phylogenetic analyses using the nuclear SSU, ITS, and LSU ribosomal DNA markers reveal that the lichenicolous members of Cystobasidium (C. hypogymniicola, C. usneicola) form a monophyletic group distinct from Cystobasidium and outside the Cystobasidiales. The new genus Cyphobasidium is consequently described to accommodate these lichen-inhabiting species. Cyphobasidium is characterized by producing conspicuous galls on the host lichen thalli, by having distinctive basidia that arise from a thick-walled, cup-like structure, the probasidium, that persists after the senescence of the actual basidium (meiosporangium), and by its lichenicolous occurrence on species of Hypogymnia and Usnea. Cyphobasidium is one of the few representatives of the Cystobasidiomycetes in which the sexual stage predominates in nature, whereas most species in the group are known only from an asexual yeast phase. This is the first time the position of lichen-inhabiting taxa within the Pucciniomycotina is investigated using molecular data.

  6. Ernö Goldfinger and 2 Willow Road: inhabiting the modern utopia Hampstead, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Mejía

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 1-3 Willow Road, houses built by Ernö Goldfinger facing Hampstead Heath in London, stand out as a paradigmatic example of Modernist British Architecture. Displacing traditional notions and ideals of a modernist house and of modernist inhabitation, what they ‘are’ goes somehow against to what they represent. Domesticity as well as concepts such as private and public, or exterior and interior are dislocated. Considered as one of the most distinguished manifestations of Modernity, in 2 Willow Road Modernism is suggested, but also disrupted by postmodern gestures. In a lifelong process that fills the space with collected objects, modernity is replaced by a more bourgeois environment: the atmosphere experienced in the interior is that of an inhabited collage closer to a nineteenth century dwelling. The heterogeneity of random order and arbitrary juxtapositions is, for this case, an aesthetic procedure that most likely legitimates Goldfinger’s beliefs and understanding of what life is. What 2 Willow Road actually testifies is about the romantic utopia of Modern inhabitation.

  7. Influence of inhabitant background on the physical changes of Banjarese houses: A case study in Kuin Utara settlement, Banjarmasin, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meidwinna Vania Michiani

    2016-12-01

    A research was conducted in the embryo of Banjarmasin along the Kuin riverside settlement in Kuin Utara sub-district through a door-to-door survey with a questionnaire. The exploration indicates the following: (1 the original form of all remaining houses has been altered, (2 most of the inhabitants are classified as a low-income society, (3 the different characteristics of the present inhabitants change the physical condition of houses, (4 the relationship of the current house condition to the socio-culture and economy of the inhabitants plays a prominent role in revitalizing Banjarese houses as a valuable asset.

  8. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  9. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and urogenit

  10. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Nerea; García-Baquero, Gonzalo; Halme, Panu; Ovaskainen, Otso; Salcedo, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor), forest site (random factor, nested within management type) and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site). To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet the individual

  11. Community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi across hierarchical spatial scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea Abrego

    Full Text Available For efficient use of conservation resources it is important to determine how species diversity changes across spatial scales. In many poorly known species groups little is known about at which spatial scales the conservation efforts should be focused. Here we examined how the community turnover of wood-inhabiting fungi is realised at three hierarchical levels, and how much of community variation is explained by variation in resource composition and spatial proximity. The hierarchical study design consisted of management type (fixed factor, forest site (random factor, nested within management type and study plots (randomly placed plots within each study site. To examine how species richness varied across the three hierarchical scales, randomized species accumulation curves and additive partitioning of species richness were applied. To analyse variation in wood-inhabiting species and dead wood composition at each scale, linear and Permanova modelling approaches were used. Wood-inhabiting fungal communities were dominated by rare and infrequent species. The similarity of fungal communities was higher within sites and within management categories than among sites or between the two management categories, and it decreased with increasing distance among the sampling plots and with decreasing similarity of dead wood resources. However, only a small part of community variation could be explained by these factors. The species present in managed forests were in a large extent a subset of those species present in natural forests. Our results suggest that in particular the protection of rare species requires a large total area. As managed forests have only little additional value complementing the diversity of natural forests, the conservation of natural forests is the key to ecologically effective conservation. As the dissimilarity of fungal communities increases with distance, the conserved natural forest sites should be broadly distributed in space, yet

  12. Spatial Distribution and Sampling Plans for Grapevine Plant Canopy-Inhabiting Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) Nymphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigamonti, Ivo E; Brambilla, Carla; Colleoni, Emanuele; Jermini, Mauro; Trivellone, Valeria; Baumgärtner, Johann

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the study of the spatial distribution and the design of sampling plans for estimating nymph densities of the grape leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus Ball in vine plant canopies. In a reference vineyard sampled for model parameterization, leaf samples were repeatedly taken according to a multistage, stratified, random sampling procedure, and data were subjected to an ANOVA. There were no significant differences in density neither among the strata within the vineyard nor between the two strata with basal and apical leaves. The significant differences between densities on trunk and productive shoots led to the adoption of two-stage (leaves and plants) and three-stage (leaves, shoots, and plants) sampling plans for trunk shoots- and productive shoots-inhabiting individuals, respectively. The mean crowding to mean relationship used to analyze the nymphs spatial distribution revealed aggregated distributions. In both the enumerative and the sequential enumerative sampling plans, the number of leaves of trunk shoots, and of leaves and shoots of productive shoots, was kept constant while the number of plants varied. In additional vineyards data were collected and used to test the applicability of the distribution model and the sampling plans. The tests confirmed the applicability 1) of the mean crowding to mean regression model on the plant and leaf stages for representing trunk shoot-inhabiting distributions, and on the plant, shoot, and leaf stages for productive shoot-inhabiting nymphs, 2) of the enumerative sampling plan, and 3) of the sequential enumerative sampling plan. In general, sequential enumerative sampling was more cost efficient than enumerative sampling.

  13. Regenerating the small historical centres where a large part of the inhabitants are immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ricci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to design the paths through is possible to improve historical buildings located in centers  which  show signs of abandonment  by original inhabitants and where a large part of the inhabitants are immigrants . The Italian population which remains generally lives in  the “best” areas of these run down historical centers. In Italy there are 6.989 municipalities having fewer than 10.000 inhabitants (86% of all municipalities; with a population 0f 19.000.000, they represent  32,7% of the population of Italy. In many of these centers “a chain of degradation” is showing. Their properties thus run down, they can obtain only lower rents, the only ones affordable for many immigrants. Often the private owners expect the municipal administration to upgrade the public spaces near their properties in order to enhance their value. In many of these centers  “a chain of degradation” is showing. Often the private owners expect the municipal administration to upgrade the public spaces near their properties in order to enhance their value. To regenerate and  increase the value of the real estate it is possible to follow two approaches at same time: on the one hand economizing on the costs  of the physical rehabilitation (social housing, self-recovery, etc.  and on the other improving  territory with roads, parks, infrastructures, etc. while creating services. In this way   the immigrants and their culture  may be considered a revitalisation  resource.

  14. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  15. [Detection of antibodies of Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants of north-eastern Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancewicz, S A; Januszkiewicz, A; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi among inhabitants in North Eastern Poland 1765 persons from Białystok, Lomza and Suwałki voivodships were examined. Among them 1101 persons were from high-risk of exposition to ticks group (forest workers, people living close to forests). 418 (23.68%) persons from group of 1765 had antibodies against B.b. There was no difference of incidence of antibodies against B.b. in high-risk group and the others. The results show that North Eastern Poland is the endemic region of occurrence of B.b.

  16. Endocrine status and plasma lipids in inhabitants of the northern European part of the USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A V; Bojko, J R; Ramenskaya, E B

    1991-01-01

    Inhabitants of the northern districts of the Archangelsk Region of the USSR (Nenets and natives) were examined. Hormones of the hypophysis-adrenal cortex-thyroid gland system as well as the metabolites of lipid exchange were measured during the year. Higher mean levels of TSH and T3 were found in Nenets compared to natives. Activation of the hypophysis-thyroid gland system was demonstrated in the winter period compared to the summer one. Metabolites involved in lipid exchange transport in blood remained stable in Nenets, while natives showed dynamics of the lipid exchange metabolites related to the different seasons of the year.

  17. INVESTIGATION ON THE DISASTER PREVENTION CONSCIOUSNESS OF INHABITANT FOR FLOOD HAZARD AND MEASUREMES FOR THE IMPROVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Miki; Fujii, Toshihisa; Ganzu, Yoshihide; Matsumi, Yoshiharu

    This study conducted a questionnaire survey for consciousness of residents on the disaster prevention. Additionally, an evacuation simulation model is developed to investigate the disaster situation of inhabitants under refuging by including the calculations of flood inundation. By investigating from the statistical approaches regarding the causal relation on the disaster prevention consciousness, effective policies for the disaster prevention consciousness of residents were considered. The simulation results quantitatively clarify the time required to the evacuation sites and the number of disaster victim under refuging. This simulation model will be effective to educate the citizen for a disaster prevention with the visualization.

  18. Decision aiding handbooks for managing contaminated food production systems, drinking water and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Brown, J.; Howard, B.J.;

    2010-01-01

    non-crisis conditions, to engage stakeholders and to develop local and regional plans. The handbooks can also be applied as part of the decision-aiding process to develop a recovery strategy following an incident. In addition, the handbooks are useful for training purposes and during emergency......Three handbooks have been developed, in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders to assist in the management of contaminated food production systems, inhabited areas and drinking water following a radiological incident. The handbooks are aimed at national and local authorities, central...... exercises. To realise their full potential, the handbooks should be customised at national, regional and local levels. © EDP Sciences, 2010...

  19. Abandoned spaces, mute memories: On marginalized inhabitants in the urban centres of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrobat-Virloget Katja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article focuses on degraded heritage(s and their meanings for different groups of inhabitants, interpreting it/them through the studies of dominant and silenced memories. Case-studies of chosen Slovenian urban centres illustrate the consequences of drastic population change after the Second World War and of the transformation of power relations after Slovenia’s independence which brought changes in the political-ideological and economic system. As the authors observed, memories and heritage of Italian, German and Yugoslav inhabitants are often mute and silenced within the contemporary Slovenian hegemonic/authorised heritage discourse. Consequences of changes in social relations were also recognised at the micro level in the valorisation of the socialist heritage of industrial plants and military barracks. Today, these places are left to decay as the material reminders of the unwanted (pre-WWII or socialist past or they are transformed into centres of youth culture, creative industries or administrative centres. However, such reinterpretation does not enable their former users to access them and claim them as their own heritage.

  20. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Modlinska

    Full Text Available Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  1. Molecular characterization of endolithic cyanobacteria inhabiting exposed dolomite in central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, William V; Bachofen, Reinhard; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-07-01

    The phototrophic microbial community inhabiting exposed dolomite in the alpine Piora Valley (Switzerland) forms a distinct endolithic bilayer that features adjacent red dolomite (exterior) and green dolomite (interior) layers that are c. 0.5-1 mm below the rock surface. Characterization of the community, with an emphasis on cyanobacteria, was conducted with culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Direct microscopy of green dolomite revealed four distinct morphotypes consistent with Chlorophyta genera Chlorella and Stichococcus and the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc and Calothrix, whereas only Stichococcus and Nostoc were observed in the red dolomite. Enrichment in BG-11 media resulted in the growth of Chlorella and Stichococcus. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of DNA extracted from the enrichment revealed two dominant phylotypes with sequence similarity to Chlorella osrokiniana chloroplast and the cyanobacteria genus Leptolyngbya. 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE analysis of DNA extracted directly from both layers indicated that although both layers harboured phylotypes most similar to the Cyanobacterial genera Nostoc, Chroococcidiopsis, and Microcoleus, and the Chlorophyte Stichococcus bacillaris, the two layers also harboured unique genera such as Scytonema, and Symploca (red, external layer of dolomite) and Chlorella (green, internal layer of dolomite). The unique community structure of each layer suggests a selection process directed by the pressures of the endolithic environment. We conclude that the overall composition of the phototrophic community closely resembles that of endolithic communities located in extreme habitats, suggesting that a cosmopolitan community inhabits this defined niche.

  2. Gender Difference of Cadmium-induced Renal Tubular Dysfunction for Inhabitants in Toyama,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the gender differencefor cadmium-induced renal tubular dysfunction between the male and female inhabitants. MethodsUrinary β2-microglobulin was measured in 299 male (94%) and 342 female (92%) inhabitants aged54 - 72 years,and the development of renal tubular dysfunction for 11 years was studied in the 62married couples from them. Results A significantly higher cumulative incidence was found in bothmen and women in cudmium-polluted area,showing 68. 4% in men and 64.8% in women compared to15.3 % in men and 5.9 % in women in the reference areas. Relative risk of renal tubular dysfunctionin females (11.0) was higher than males (4.5). The ratios of urinary β2-nicroglobulin and glucosewere higher in women than those in men in both the cadmium-polluted areas and the reference areas.Conclusion Although almost identical incidences were detected between men and wonen, the changesin excretion of β2-microglobulin and glucose was greater in women than those in men. These findings sug-gest that renal tubular dysfunction might be more progressive in women than that in men.

  3. Distinguishing a Hypothetical Abiotic Planet-Moon System from a Single Inhabited Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yuwei; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH4 atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O2-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low-moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet-moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH4 absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet-moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  4. Characterization of small mammal populations inhabiting the B-C cribs environs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedlund, J.D.; Rogers, L.E.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the current status of small mammal populations inhibiting the 200 Area plateau near the B-C Crib management area and to compare them with populations inhabiting a protected (control) area within the confines of the Hanford ALE Reserve. Sampling sessions were conducted over two field seasons (1974 and 1975). A total of five species was detected within intensive study areas. These included the Great Basin pocket mouse (Perognathus parvus), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster), sagebrush vole (Lagurus curtatus), and western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis). These species are probably representative of those found throughout the area at this particular elevation. Townsends ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii) also occurs in this area but did not occur on the sampling plots during the study duration. The pocket mouse was the only species present in sufficient numbers to permit a detailed analysis of population parameters. A discussion concerning the role small mammals play in mineral cycling and energy transfer processes is included along with a diagram depicting food web interrelationships for consumers inhabiting the 200 Area plateau region. Estimates of small mammal density and biomass provided in this document are needed for an overall understanding of the role biota play in the transfer of waste nuclides.

  5. Mite species inhabiting commercial bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) nests in Polish greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej, Elżbieta; Witaliński, Wojciech; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Wantuch, Marta; Moroń, Dawid; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2012-03-01

    Nests of social insects are usually inhabited by various mite species that feed on pollen, other micro-arthropods or are parasitic. Well-known negative effects of worldwide economic importance are caused by mites parasitizing honeybee colonies. Lately, attention has focused on the endoparasitic mite Locustacarus buchneri that has been found in commercial bumblebees. However, little is known of other mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests. Transportation of commercial bumblebee colonies with unwanted residents may introduce foreign mite species to new localities. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and species composition of mites associated with commercial bumblebee nests and determined if the mites are foreign species for Poland and for Europe. The study was conducted on 37 commercial bumblebee nests from two companies (Dutch and Israeli), originating from two greenhouses in southern Poland, and on 20 commercial bumblebee colonies obtained directly from suppliers. The species composition and abundance of mites inhabiting commercial bumblebee nests were determined. Seven mite species from three families were found in nests after greenhouse exploitation. The predominant mite species was Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae) that was a 100-fold more numerous than representatives of the family Laelapidae (Hypoaspis marginepilosa, H. hyatti, H. bombicolens). Representatives of Parasitidae (Parasitellus fucorum, P. crinitus, P. ignotus) were least numerous. All identified mite species are common throughout Europe, foreign species were not found. Mites were not detected in nests obtained directly from suppliers. We conclude that probably bumblebee nests are invaded by local mite species during greenhouse exploitation.

  6. Exposure of inhabitants, buildings and infrastructure to landslides – a case of five Slovenian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Peternel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of national research and innovation project MASPREM exposure maps of inhabitants, buildings and infrastructures to landslide occurrence were developed for five selected Slovenian municipalities. Maps represent an upgrade of the landslide susceptibility maps that were elaborated based on synthesis of analysis of event-based landslide inventory and field investigations. Exposure maps were developed for five municipalities: Bovec, La{ko, Slovenj Gradec, Trbovlje and Železniki. Exposure of inhabitants, construction and infrastructures to landslide occurrence was analysed using simple cross-analysis of landslide susceptibility maps at scale of 1:25,000 with locations of exposed elements. All analyses were conducted in the GIS with software tool ArcMap. Exposure maps, based on landslide susceptibility, were classified into six classes, with values ranging from one to six where class one represents areas with negligible exposure and class six areas with very high exposure to landslide occurrence. Exposure maps of selected municipalities provide the basis for further assessment of risk and consequentially better risk management.

  7. Comparative metagenomics of viral assemblages inhabiting four phyla of marine invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Michael Gudenkauf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on Earth, killing 10-20% of oceanic biomass each day. However, despite their ecological importance, viruses inhabiting many echinoderms, cnidarians, urochordates, and marine arthropods have not been investigated with significant breadth. We conducted a broad survey of the viral assemblages inhabiting these hosts through viral metagenomics and phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that different invertebrate groups harbor distinct viral assemblages. Interestingly, however, no significant difference is observed between the viral assemblages of echinoderms and arthropods. These similarities and differences may be due to cellular, immunological, geographical, and ecological differences amongst host phyla, although mechanistic determination is beyond the purview of this work. Additionally, we present evidence of the detection of several viral families that have not yet been observed in these hosts. Finally, we confirm the result of previous investigation that method of library construction significantly biases metagenomic results by altering the representation of of ssDNA and dsDNA viral genomes.

  8. DISTINGUISHING A HYPOTHETICAL ABIOTIC PLANET–MOON SYSTEM FROM A SINGLE INHABITED PLANET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tong; Tian, Feng; Wei, Wanjing; Huang, Xiaomeng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [Laboratory for Climate and Ocean-Atmosphere Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China)

    2016-02-01

    It has recently been suggested that an exomoon with a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, orbiting an abiotic Earth-mass planet with an O{sub 2}-rich atmosphere, can produce a false positive biosignature at a low–moderate spectral resolution (R = λ/Δλ ≤ 2000). If this were true, inferring the presence of life on exoplanets will be beyond our reach in the next several decades. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to compute the relevant reflection spectrum between 1 and 3.3 μm. We show that it is possible to separate the combined spectra of such planet–moon systems from an inhabited planet by multiple-band NIR observations. We suggest that future observations near the 2.3 μm CH{sub 4} absorption band at a resolution of 100 and an SNR of 10 or more may be a good way to distinguish an abiotic planet–moon system from a inhabited single planet.

  9. What Moves Them? Active Transport among Inhabitants of Dutch Deprived Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Saris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Active modes of transport like walking and cycling have been shown to be valuable contributions to daily physical activity. The current study investigates associations between personal and neighbourhood environmental characteristics and active transport among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts. Method. Questionnaires about health, neighbourhoods, and physical activity behaviour were completed by 742 adults. Data was analysed by means of multivariate linear regression analyses. Results. Being younger, female, and migrant and having a normal weight were associated with more walking for active transport. Being younger, male, and native Dutch and having a normal weight were associated with more cycling for active transport. Neighbourhood characteristics were generally not correlated with active transport. Stratified analyses, based on significant person-environment interactions, showed that migrants and women walked more when cars did not exceed maximum speed in nearby streets and that younger people walked more when speed of traffic in nearby streets was perceived as low. Among migrants, more cycling was associated with the perceived attractiveness of the neighbourhood surroundings. Discussion and Conclusion. Results indicated that among inhabitants of Dutch deprived districts, personal characteristics were associated with active transport, whereas neighbourhood environmental characteristics were generally not associated with active transport. Nevertheless, interaction effects showed differences among subgroups that should be considered in intervention development.

  10. Comparative Study of Understorey Birds Diversity Inhabiting Lowland Rainforest Virgin Jungle Reserve and Regenerated Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezyan Nor Hashim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of understorey birds inhabiting different habitats, that is, virgin jungle reserve (VJR and regenerated forest (RF, was conducted in Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve and Selangor and Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity of understorey birds in both habitats and the effects of forest regeneration on the understorey bird community. The mist-netting method was used to capture understorey birds inhabiting both habitats in both locations. Species composition and feeding guild indicated that understorey bird populations were similar in the two habitats. However, the number of secondary forest species such as Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra in VJR is increasing due to its proximity to RF. This study discovered that RFs in both study areas are not yet fully recovered. However, based on the range of species discovered, the RFs have conservation value and should be maintained because they harbour important forest species such as babblers and flycatchers. The assessment of the community structure of understorey birds in VJR and RF is important for forest management and conservation, especially where both habitats are intact.

  11. A Comparative Study on the Nonspecific Immunity of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever Inhabiting Freshwater and Seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xuying; DING Sen; WANG Fang; DONG Shuanglin

    2014-01-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly (P<0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater;whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater (P<0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  12. Metagenomic comparison of two Thiomicrospira lineages inhabiting contrasting deep-sea hydrothermal environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Brazelton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The most widespread bacteria in oxic zones of carbonate chimneys at the serpentinite-hosted Lost City hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, belong to the Thiomicrospira group of sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs. It is unclear why Thiomicrospira-like organisms thrive in these chimneys considering that Lost City hydrothermal fluids are notably lacking in hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe metagenomic sequences obtained from a Lost City carbonate chimney that are highly similar to the genome of Thiomicrospira crunogena XCL-2, an isolate from a basalt-hosted hydrothermal vent in the Pacific Ocean. Even though T. crunogena and Lost City Thiomicrospira inhabit different types of hydrothermal systems in different oceans, their genomic contents are highly similar. For example, sequences encoding the sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation pathways (including a carbon concentration mechanism of T. crunogena are also present in the Lost City metagenome. Comparative genomic analyses also revealed substantial genomic changes that must have occurred since the divergence of the two lineages, including large genomic rearrangements, gene fusion events, a prophage insertion, and transposase activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show significant genomic similarity between Thiomicrospira organisms inhabiting different kinds of hydrothermal systems in different oceans, suggesting that these organisms are widespread and highly adaptable. These data also indicate genomic processes potentially associated with the adaptation of these lineages into strikingly different habitats.

  13. Comparative study of understorey birds diversity inhabiting lowland rainforest virgin jungle reserve and regenerated forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Hashim, Ezyan; Ramli, Rosli

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of understorey birds inhabiting different habitats, that is, virgin jungle reserve (VJR) and regenerated forest (RF), was conducted in Ulu Gombak Forest Reserve and Selangor and Triang Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to assess the diversity of understorey birds in both habitats and the effects of forest regeneration on the understorey bird community. The mist-netting method was used to capture understorey birds inhabiting both habitats in both locations. Species composition and feeding guild indicated that understorey bird populations were similar in the two habitats. However, the number of secondary forest species such as Little spiderhunter (Arachnothera longirostra) in VJR is increasing due to its proximity to RF. This study discovered that RFs in both study areas are not yet fully recovered. However, based on the range of species discovered, the RFs have conservation value and should be maintained because they harbour important forest species such as babblers and flycatchers. The assessment of the community structure of understorey birds in VJR and RF is important for forest management and conservation, especially where both habitats are intact.

  14. Low effect of young afforestations on bird communities inhabiting heterogeneous Mediterranean cropland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan S. Sánchez-Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Afforestation programs such as the one promoted by the EU Common Agricultural Policy have spread tree plantations on former cropland. These afforestations attract generalist forest and ubiquitous species but may cause severe damage to open habitat species, especially birds of high conservation value. We investigated the effects of young (<20 yr tree plantations dominated by pine P. halepensis on bird communities inhabiting the adjacent open farmland habitat in central Spain. We hypothesize that pine plantations located at shorter distances from open fields and with larger surface would affect species richness and conservation value of bird communities. Regression models controlling for the influence of land use types around plantations revealed positive effects of higher distance to pine plantation edge on community species richness in winter, and negative effects on an index of conservation concern (SPEC during the breeding season. However, plantation area did not have any effect on species richness or community conservation value. Our results indicate that the effects of pine afforestation on bird communities inhabiting Mediterranean cropland are diluted by heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.

  15. [Caries of permanent dentition in medieval inhabitants of Wrocław].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniowski, Tomasz; Dabrowski, Paweł; Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra

    2011-01-01

    The study of dentition plays an important role in the reconstruction of the diet and in assessment of the overall health and living conditions of paleopopulations. The aim of this study was to determine the condition of permanent dentition of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław basing on the prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition. The material consisted of 1156 permanent teeth from 118 skulls recovered from two medieval cemeteries in Wrocław: the parish cemetery at the St. Elisabeth Church (13th-14th century) and the cemetery in Ołbin (12th-13th century). Two age classes were formed taking into account anthropologic assessment and group size. The younger class consisted of material up to the age of 35 years; the remaining skulls were assigned to the older class. The prevalence and incidence of caries was determined. The prevalence and intensity of caries was 56.91% and 15.7%, respectively. Carious lesions predominated in males and in the older age class. The prevalence and intensity of caries in permanent dentition did not differ from other medieval populations and increased with age. High prevalence of caries reflects a high proportion of carbohydrates in the diet of medieval inhabitants of Wrocław, their high socioeconomic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  16. The importance of ecosystem services for rural inhabitants in a changing cultural landscape in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Hartel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many traditional cultural landscapes evolved as coupled social-ecological systems. It is important to understand how such systems navigate novel challenges posed by globalization. To address this issue, we bring together two components of a pilot study carried out in a cultural landscape from Central Romania. The region was affected by major social and economic perturbations in the past century, affecting ethnic composition, community cohesion, land property regimes, and the management of common resources. The first component of our study investigated how rural inhabitants appreciated ecosystem services through questionnaires with 98 people in 30 villages. The second component aimed to assess the perception of people about ongoing changes in their communities through semistructured interviews with 50 people in 5 villages. Rural inhabitants particularly valued provisioning ecosystem services such as firewood, water, and crops, but also healthy soils. Rural communities were characterized by a number of social and economic issues, especially individualism, lack of trust, corruption, and poverty. People from communities with many initiatives, e.g., NGOs, associations, and active individuals, were more optimistic regarding the future of their communities than people from villages with few or no initiatives. A major challenge for cultural landscapes such as those in Central Romania is to find new, meaningful ways to keep the social and ecological systems connected. Otherwise there is a risk that (short-term socioeconomic interests may impair the provisioning of important ecosystem services.

  17. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment—A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals’ natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours. PMID:27254150

  18. Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment-A Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafał

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia is a reaction to novel food observed in many animal species, particularly omnivores, including Rattus norvegicus. A neophobic reaction is typically characterised by avoidance of novel food and the necessity to assess both its potential value and toxicity by the animal. It has been hypothesised that this reaction is not observed in rats inhabiting a changeable environment with a high level of variability with regard to food and food sources. This study was conducted in such changeable conditions and it aims to demonstrate the behaviour of wild rats R. norvegicus in their natural habitat. The rats were studied in a farm setting, and the experimental arena was demarcated by a specially constructed pen which was freely accessible to the rats. At regular intervals, the rats were given new flavour- and smell-altered foods, while their behaviour was video-recorded. The results obtained in the study seem to confirm the hypothesis that rats inhabiting a highly changeable environment do not exhibit food neophobia. The observed reaction to novel food may be connected with a reaction to a novel object to a larger extent than to food neophobia. The value of the results obtained lies primarily in the fact that the study was conducted in the animals' natural habitat, and that it investigated their spontaneous behaviours.

  19. Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airao, Central Amazon, Brazil

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    LUIZ C.P.S. ALVES

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Botos (Inia geoffrensis are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.

  20. Diversity and Activity of Communities Inhabiting Plastic Debris in the North Pacific Gyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Clemente, Tara M.; Viviani, Donn A.; Fong, Allison A.; Thomas, Kimberley A.; Kemp, Paul; Karl, David M.; White, Angelicque E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Marine plastic debris has become a significant concern in ocean ecosystems worldwide. Little is known, however, about its influence on microbial community structure and function. In 2008, we surveyed microbial communities and metabolic activities in seawater and on plastic on an oceanographic expedition through the “great Pacific garbage patch.” The concentration of plastic particles in surface seawater within different size classes (2 to 5 mm and >5 mm) ranged from 0.35 to 3.7 particles m−3 across sampling stations. These densities and the particle size distribution were consistent with previous values reported in the North Pacific Ocean. Net community oxygen production (NCP = gross primary production − community respiration) on plastic debris was positive and so net autotrophic, whereas NCP in bulk seawater was close to zero. Scanning electron microscopy and metagenomic sequencing of plastic-attached communities revealed the dominance of a few metazoan taxa and a diverse assemblage of photoautotrophic and heterotrophic protists and bacteria. Bryozoa, Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated all plastic particles, regardless of particle size. Bacteria inhabiting plastic were taxonomically distinct from the surrounding picoplankton and appeared well adapted to a surface-associated lifestyle. Genes with significantly higher abundances among plastic-attached bacteria included che genes, secretion system genes, and nifH genes, suggesting enrichment for chemotaxis, frequent cell-to-cell interactions, and nitrogen fixation. In aggregate, our findings suggest that plastic debris forms a habitat for complex microbial assemblages that have lifestyles, metabolic pathways, and biogeochemical activities that are distinct from those of free-living planktonic microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Marine plastic debris is a growing concern that has captured the general public’s attention. While the negative impacts of plastic debris on

  1. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  2. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats.

  3. The Epidemiology of Ligula intestinalis (Phylum Platyhelminthes within the Cyprinid Populations Inhabiting the Danubian Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Daniela Urdes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This prevalence study was conducted between the years 2003 and 2008. The survey aimed at assessing the occurrence of the plerocercoid Ligula intestinalis within five cyprinid populations, cyprinus carpio, carassius gibelio, hypophtalmichthys molitrix, ctenopharingodon idella and abramis brama, from four natural complexes: Sontea-Fortuna, Gorgova-Uzlina, Dunavat-Dranov and Razim-Sinoie. Of the four study sites, the highest frequency of the disease was recorded within the Razim-Sinoie lakes, probably due to an apparently higher number of piscivorous birds and copepods that may have inhabited this area during the study time period. Only A. brama and H. molitrix were found infected by the helminth, with a mean prevalence of the cases in A. brama of 16.31% and in H. molitrix of 13.06%.

  4. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern snakehead inhabiting the Cheasapeake Bay watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Densmore, Christine L.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; McAllister, Phillip; Odenkirk, John

    2013-01-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  5. Identification of largemouth bass virus in the introduced Northern Snakehead inhabiting the Chesapeake Bay watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L; Densmore, C; Hahn, C; McAllister, P; Odenkirk, J

    2013-09-01

    The Northern Snakehead Channa argus is an introduced species that now inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. During a preliminary survey for introduced pathogens possibly harbored by these fish in Virginia waters, a filterable agent was isolated from five specimens that produced cytopathic effects in BF-2 cells. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of the major capsid protein (MCP), DNA polymerase (DNApol), and DNA methyltransferase (Mtase) genes, the isolates were identified as Largemouth Bass virus (LMBV). Nucleotide sequences of the MCP (492 bp) and DNApol (419 pb) genes were 100% identical to those of LMBV. The nucleotide sequence of the Mtase (206 bp) gene was 99.5% identical to that of LMBV, and the single nucleotide substitution did not lead to a predicted amino acid coding change. This is the first report of LMBV from the Northern Snakehead, and provides evidence that noncentrarchid fishes may be susceptible to this virus.

  6. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  7. Speciation versus phenotypic plasticity in coral inhabiting barnacles: Darwin's observations in an ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokady, O; Loya, Y; Achituv, Y; Geffen, E; Graur, D; Rozenblatt, S; Brickner, I

    1999-09-01

    Speciation and phenotypic plasticity are two extreme strategic modes enabling a given taxon to populate a broad ecological niche. One of the organismal models which stimulated Darwin's ideas on speciation was the Cirripedia (barnacles), to which he dedicated a large monograph. In several cases, including the coral-inhabiting barnacle genera Savignium and Cantellius (formerly Pyrgoma and Creusia, respectively), Darwin assigned barnacle specimens to morphological "varieties" (as opposed to species) within a genus. Despite having been the subject of taxonomic investigations and revisions ever since, the significance of these varieties has never been examined with respect to host-associated speciation processes. Here we provide evidence from molecular (12S mt rDNA sequences) and micromorphological (SEM) studies, suggesting that these closely related barnacle genera utilize opposite strategies for populating a suite of live-coral substrates. Cantellius demonstrates a relatively low genetic variability, despite inhabiting a wide range of corals. The species C. pallidus alone was found on three coral families, belonging to distinct higher-order classification units. In contrast, Savignium barnacles exhibit large between- and within-species variations with respect to both micromorphology and DNA sequences, with S. dentatum "varieties" clustering phylogenetically according to their coral host species (all of which are members of a single family). Thus, whereas Savignium seems to have undergone intense host-associated speciation over a relatively narrow taxonomic range of hosts, Cantellius shows phenotypic plasticity over a much larger range. This dichotomy correlates with differences in life-history parameters between these barnacle taxa, including host-infestation characteristics, reproductive strategies, and larval trophic type.

  8. Assessment of unhealthy days of urban marginal inhabitants and effective factors in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ziaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of the quality of life (HRQOL related to health and its determinants contain aspects of quality of life that clearly affect people’s physical or mental health. One of the newest ways to assess the health and also the quality of life-related to health is the self-assessed health of the individual. The aim of the present study was assessment of unhealthy days, self-reported health status, and its influencing factors on residents of the marginalpart of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: In the current cross-sectional study, 580 citizens of the marginal regions and slum areas of Mashhad city were enrolled through cluster sampling method using governmental health care services divisions. The Persian version of the questionnaire CDC HRQOL-4 was used to measure the unhealthy days. Data was analyzed using SPSS, version 11.5, running ANOVA, chi-square, and t-tests. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In the present study, 359 persons (61% were women and the mean age of participants was 32.6±11.51 years. The means of unhealthy days, physically unhealthy days, mentally unhealthy days, and days with dysfunction were found to be 7.2, 2.8, 4.1, and 1.7 days, respectively. The unhealthiest days (physical and mental were seen in unemployed people and the best to excellent health days were seen in housewives. Conclusion: Unhealthy days and days with dysfunction were reported higher in slum inhabitants, especially female, low literacy, and housewife participants. Providing the education and employment facilities for people who live in marginal city areas might decrease the unhealthy days.Keywords: Unhealthy days; Health; Urban Marginal Inhabitants; Mashhad

  9. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  10. Monitoring of organochlorine pesticide residue levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Infanzon, R; Hernández-Chalate, F

    2011-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB, α-β-γ-HCH, pp'DDE, op'DDT and pp'DDT in 150 adipose tissue samples of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. In analyzed samples, the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE in 100% of the samples at mean 1.643 mg/kg; p,p'-DDT in 99.3.% of the samples at mean 0.227 mg/kg; β-HCH in 97.3% of the samples at mean 0.063 mg/kg; and op'DDT in 93.3% of the samples at mean 0.022 mg/kg. Comparing mean, median and geometric mean concentrations of organochlorine pesticides shows a decrease in values from mean to median and to geometric mean which points out a prevalence of lower concentrations among the total samples and the existence of occasional cases of extreme exposure expressed in range values. The pooled samples divided according to sex, showed only significant differences of pp'DDE median concentrations between sexes. The other organochlorine pesticides indicated no statistical differences between sexes, including the pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio. The samples grouped according to age, showed that the third tertile was more contaminated for both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with organochlorine pesticide levels in adipose tissue of Veracruz inhabitants. Comparing organochlorine pesticide levels between 2008 and 2010 years, a decreased tendency for β-HCH, pp'DDE, Σ-DDT and pp'DDE/pp'DDT ratio levels was observed.

  11. Organochlorine pesticide residue levels in blood serum of inhabitants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, Stefan M; Caba, M; Herrero-Mercado, M; Saldariaga-Noreña, H; Meza, E; Zepeda, R; Martínez-Valenzuela, C; Gómez Arroyo, S; Villalobos Pietrini, R

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor the levels of organochlorine pesticides HCB; α-, β-, γ-HCH; pp'DDE; op'DDT; and pp'DDT in blood serum of Veracruz, Mexico inhabitants. Organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in 150 blood serum samples that constituted that which remained after clinical analyses, using gas chromatography-electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The results were expressed as milligrams per kilogram on fat basis and micrograms per liter on wet weight. Only the following pesticides were detected: p,p'-DDE was the major organochlorine component, detected in 100% of samples at mean 15.8 mg/kg and 8.4 μg/L; p,p'-DDT was presented in 41.3.% of monitored samples at mean 3.1 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L; β-HCH was found in 48.6% of the samples at mean 4.9 mg/kg and 2.7 μg/L; op'DDT was determined to be in only 3.3% of monitored samples at mean 2.7 mg/kg and 1.4 μg/L. The pooled samples divided according to sex showed significant differences of β-HCH and pp'DDE concentrations in females. The samples grouped according to age presented the third tertile as more contaminated in both sexes, indicating age as a positively associated factor with serum organochlorine pesticide levels in Veracruz inhabitants.

  12. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of galapagos.

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    Anne Guézou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant invasions are causing habitat degradation in Galapagos. Problems are concentrated on the four inhabited islands. Plants introduced to rural areas in the humid highlands and urban areas on the arid coast act as foci for invasion of the surrounding Galapagos National Park. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present results of the most comprehensive inventory to date of alien vascular plants in the inhabited areas of Galapagos. The survey was conducted between 2002 and 2007, in 6031 properties (97% of the total on Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz Islands. In total 754 alien vascular plant taxa were recorded, representing 468 genera in 123 families. Dicotyledons represented 554 taxa, monocotyledons 183, there were 7 gymnosperms and 10 pteridophytes. Almost half (363 of the taxa were herbaceous. The most represented families were Fabaceae (sensu lato, Asteraceae and Poaceae. The three most recorded species in the humid rural areas were Psidium guajava, Passiflora edulis and Bryophyllum pinnatum, and in the dry urban areas, Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Carica papaya. In total, 264 (35% taxa were recorded as naturalized. The most common use for taxa was ornamental (52%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This extensive survey has increased the known alien vascular flora of Galapagos by 257 species, giving a ratio of alien to native taxa of 1.57:1. It provides a crucial baseline for plant invasion management in the archipelago and contributes data for meta analyses of invasion processes worldwide. A repeat of the survey in the future would act as an effective early detection tool to help avoid further invasion of the Galapagos National Park.

  13. Polymorphisms of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 in inhabitants of Astana, the capital city of Kazakhstan.

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    Alexandr B Kuranov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kazakhstan has been inhabited by different populations, such as the Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek and others. Here we investigate allelic and haplotypic polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes at DRB1, DQA1 and DQB1 loci in the Kazakh ethnic group, and their genetic relationship between world populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 157 unrelated Kazakh ethnic individuals from Astana were genotyped using sequence based typing (SBT-Method for HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Allele frequencies, neighbor-joining method, and multidimensional scaling analysis have been obtained for comparison with other world populations. Statistical analyses were performed using Arlequin v3.11. Applying the software PAST v. 2.17 the resulting genetic distance matrix was used for a multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS. Respectively 37, 17 and 19 alleles were observed at HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. The most frequent alleles were HLA-DRB1*07:01 (13.1%, HLA-DQA1*03:01 (13.1% and HLA-DQB1*03:01 (17.6%. In the observed group of Kazakhs DRB1*07:01-DQA1*02:01-DQB1*02:01 (8.0% was the most common three loci haplotype. DRB1*10:01-DQB1*05:01 showed the strongest linkage disequilibrium. The Kazakh population shows genetic kinship with the Kazakhs from China, Uyghurs, Mongolians, Todzhinians, Tuvinians and as well as with other Siberians and Asians. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The HLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci are highly polymorphic in the Kazakh population, and this population has the closest relationship with other Asian and Siberian populations.

  14. Conceptualizations of Human Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.

    1973-01-01

    Presents six major methods by which characteristics of environments have been related to indexes of human functioning: (1) ecological dimensions; (2) behavior settings; (3) dimensions of organizational structure; and, (4) dimensions identifying the collective personal and/or behavioral characteristics of the milieu inhabitants; and two others.…

  15. The relationship between anomie and participation of Latvian inhabitants in social activities

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    Levina J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate relations between different dimensions of anomie of Latvian inhabitants and their participation in social activities, as well as to find what social activities of Latvian inhabitants best predict their sense of anomie. In this research the secondary data from the third European Quality of Life Survey (European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS, 2012 was used. The Latvian sample consisted of respondents (n = 1009, aged from 18 to 92 years (male – 34.9%, female – 65.1%. To assess anomie three subscales of anomie – Social distrust, Social isolation and Meaninglessness – were used. These subscales [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] were constructed basing on the integrative multidimensional model of anomie, developed by Ļevina, Mārtinsone and Kamerāde [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], and using questions from the third European Quality of Life Survey [7]. To measure social activities, twenty questions of the third European Quality of Life Survey were used. It was found that all three aspects of anomie – social distrust, social isolation and meaninglessness – were negatively associated with such social activities as interaction with others without doing a specific activity with them, doing an activity with others, helping others and contributing to society (civic activities. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with a brother, sister or other relative best of all predicted social distrust. Contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours, as well as with a brother, sister or other relative together with participation in social activities in a club, society, or an association and attending a meeting of a trade union, a political party or political action group best of all predicted social isolation. Meaninglessness best of all could be predicted by contact by phone, the Internet or by post with any of friends or neighbours as well as with brother, sister or other relative and by

  16. Food resource and temporal partitioning amongst a guild of predatory agroecosystem - inhabiting ant species

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    Vivek Mohan AGARWAL, Neelkamal RASTOGI

    2009-10-01

    . The agroecosystem-inhabiting ant species prey on a large number and wide variety of insect herbivores as evident from the differences in the peak foraging times and the proportion of each type of prey hunted. Overall, our results indicate that the structure of agroecosystem-inhabiting ant assemblage may be influenced by a variety of factors including competition, temporal heterogeneities, prey availability and its characteristics such as size and mobility [Current Zoology 55 (5 : –, 2009].

  17. 基于人居环境资源视角的城市旅游吸引力要素研究%On Attraction Factors of Urban Tourism from the Perspective of Inhabitant Environment Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张骏; 古风; 卢凤萍

    2011-01-01

    Humans cannot develop a harmonious relationship with the nature unless they completely recognize that they are a part of the nature system by a systemic concept of resources,which is embodied by development and utilization of inhabitant environment resources. Examining urban tourism attraction is a meaningful way to maintain and develop advantages of the inhabitant environment in a city. This may be helpful for converting them into real tourism competitiveness,manifesting urban features, and promoting urban economic development. On the one hand, what the inhabitant environment faces is the “biologic humans” and what it attempts to harmonize is the relationship between the humans and the nature. On the other hand, the inhabitant environment does face the “social humans”. According to Marxism, a society is the summation of all production relations and the organic whole of people connected with each other on the basis of substance production activities together. The composing factors of a society are humans; therefore, the inhabitant environment should also harmonize the relationship between the humans and the society,and the relationships among humans. This paper investigates the natural system, human system, as well as the social system of the inhabitant environment through analyzing the relationship between the humans and the nature, the relationships among humans, and the relationship between the humans and the society. From the perspective of the “inhabitant environment”, we adopted “the degree of harmony” to replace traditional methods to evaluate the quality and quantity of tourism resources, and formulated three hypotheses regarding the relationship between the “degree of harmony” of a city and its tourism attraction. In addition, we analyzed data collected by questionnaire surveys about tourists' apperception and preference of the degree of harmony of the tourism cities, and discussed the attraction factors for urban tourism. We put

  18. Parks beyond parks : genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering nationa

  19. Parks beyond parks : genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering

  20. Parks beyond parks : genuine community-based wildlife eco-tourism or just another loss of land for Maasai pastoralists in Kenya?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 the Kenya Wildlife Services (KWS) embarked on a "Parks beyond Parks" programme, which aimed to bring some of the benefits of wildlife tourism to the local population. Under this programme, local people were allowed to start tented camps and other tourist activities in areas bordering nationa

  1. 怒江生态旅游的发展建议%Study on the Sustainable Development of Nujiang Eco-tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春梅

    2013-01-01

    在旅游业成为许多国家或地区的重要经济产业部门乃至经济支柱产业的今天,生态旅游作为一种理想的形式,结合怒江现状,发展生态旅游是最实际,是可持续发展的。基于怒江地形复杂、气候多样、物种丰富等现状及生态旅游面临的困难,提出相应的对策建议。%Nowadays, tourism industry has become an important economic sector in many countries or regions and even the pillar industry of economy. The ecological tourism, as a form of ideal, togethering with the present situation of the Nujiang, developing ecological tourism is the most real, is sustainable development. The Nujiang is rich in biological resources and humanistic environment, has the reputation of the virgin soil. At the same time, the people living near Nujiang need developing and changing their lives, three rivers flowing natural heritage has been successful, brother state and municipal industry adjustment, Lijiang tourism swelled gradually, Diqing shangri-la tourism brand also has become more and more popular. Nujiang in the study of Lijiang and Diqing, it should also combine their states of independent innovation. To overcome difficulties and strive to building its own ecological tourism brand are the important ways to develop the Nujiang.

  2. The Complex of Scolytinae Inhabiting Persea borbonia and Persea americana in Florida: Possible Interactions with Other Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    A diverse number of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been found inhabiting Persea borbonia and P. americana in Florida during 2009 and 2010. They include the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, vector of Raffaelea lauricola, X. volvulus, X. ferrugineus, Xylosandrus crassiu...

  3. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueidan, C.; Ruibal, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schneider, H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineage

  4. "The House Is Still Named after Him": Exploring the Subjective Tensions of the Female Artist Inhabiting Cultural Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Andrea; Journeaux, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the problematic category of "things known" to be the masculine hegemony ("His House") through which we experience reality, and the challenging situation of inhabiting dichotomous frameworks of knowledge. Methods are defined within practice in work that is process led, that investigate the relationship…

  5. Comparative analysis of subjective well-being of Latvia's inhabitants in the context of economic development of European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonska J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world, during the past 10 years, when evaluating development of a particular area, there has been a tendency of taking into consideration subjective evaluation and attitude to the living conditions of inhabitants living in this area. More often these indicators are the general life satisfaction and feeling of happiness. Analysing Latvia's place in these ratings, it is possible to conclude that inhabitants of Latvia are very pessimistic in assessing their lives in this country. As surveys indicate, the economic factors have an important influence on people's subjective satisfaction. The problem of the research is that during the last two years, there has been a tendency to improvement of the economic indicators in all three Baltic States, but when comparing the closest neighbours, the Latvian inhabitants' subjective satisfaction with life is decreasing, but in Lithuania and Estonia it is increasing together with improvement of the economic situation. In this article the author suggests her own vision of the situation in relation to the arrangement of countries according to subjective indicators analysing the influence of objective socio-economic factors on subjective opinions about living conditions of the inhabitants living in Latvia and neighbouring countries.

  6. Epithermal neutron activation analysis of Cr(VI)-reducer basalt-inhabiting bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsibakhashvili, Nelly Yasonovna; Frontasyeva, Marina Vladimirovna; Kirkesali, Elena Ivanovna; Aksenova, Nadezhda Gennadievna; Kalabegishvili, Tamaz Levanovich; Murusidze, Ivana Georgievich; Mosulishvili, Ligury Mikhailovich; Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2006-09-15

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to study elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance, demonstrating that the bacteria differ in their rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 microg/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental conditions typical of the basalts. The concentrations of at least 12-19 different elements were determined in each type of bacteria simultaneously starting with the major to ultratrace elements. The range of concentrations spans over 8 orders of magnitude.

  7. Seasonal patterns in microbial communities inhabiting the hot springs of Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Brandon R; Brodie, Eoin L; Tom, Lauren M; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Huang, Qiuyuan; Wang, Shang; Hou, Weiguo; Wu, Geng; Huang, Liuquin; Hedlund, Brian P; Zhang, Chuanlun; Dijkstra, Paul; Hungate, Bruce A

    2014-06-01

    Studies focusing on seasonal dynamics of microbial communities in terrestrial and marine environments are common; however, little is known about seasonal dynamics in high-temperature environments. Thus, our objective was to document the seasonal dynamics of both the physicochemical conditions and the microbial communities inhabiting hot springs in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China. The PhyloChip microarray detected 4882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within 79 bacterial phylum-level groups and 113 OTUs within 20 archaeal phylum-level groups, which are additional 54 bacterial phyla and 11 archaeal phyla to those that were previously described using pyrosequencing. Monsoon samples (June 2011) showed increased concentrations of potassium, total organic carbon, ammonium, calcium, sodium and total nitrogen, and decreased ferrous iron relative to the dry season (January 2011). At the same time, the highly ordered microbial communities present in January gave way to poorly ordered communities in June, characterized by higher richness of Bacteria, including microbes related to mesophiles. These seasonal changes in geochemistry and community structure are likely due to high rainfall influx during the monsoon season and indicate that seasonal dynamics occurs in high-temperature environments experiencing significant changes in seasonal recharge. Thus, geothermal environments are not isolated from the surrounding environment and seasonality affects microbial ecology.

  8. Phytate degradation by fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust and coffee residue composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallh Eida, Mohamed; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting.

  9. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Bomberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp. dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp. below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems.

  10. Vélib and data: a new way of inhabiting the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Boullier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vélib bike rental system is worth analyzing in order to understand how cities move out of a model of large infrastructures towards a personal service principle connected to digital traceability and mapping of all activities. The new offer of bikes distributed all over the city creates a new map for access to mobility resources while introducing citizens to a “personal-public” device. Each feature of the system requires a very well designed information system to match the needs for bikes and to charge the users through cards (credit or transportation cards. Personal data is the essential entity that fuels the whole system and that creates potential privacy problems as well as monetization opportunities. The paper relies on a theoretical framework, called habitele, which accounts for the process of inhabiting that is now extended to the personal data ecosystem. The portability of mobile phones (and other devices such as cards creates an envelope that follows the urban citizen and equips all his activities while it makes a new layer of the city appear, adapted to the personal involvement in the urban environment

  11. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCreedy, C.D.; Glickman, L.T. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Pathobiology; Jagoe, C.H.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    1997-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for {sup 137}Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music {sup 137}Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that {sup 137}Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium {sup 137}Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative {sup 137}Cs burden of the population was 4.9 {times} 10{sup 6} Bq, representing <0.001% of the {sup 137}Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, {sup 137}Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size.

  12. Rock inhabiting potassium solubilizing bacteria from Kerala, India: characterization and possibility in chemical K fertilizer substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjanadevi, Indira Parameswaran; John, Neetha Soma; John, Kuzhivilayil Susan; Jeeva, Muthulekshmi Lajapathy; Misra, Raj Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    The role of rock inhabiting bacteria in potassium (K) solubilization from feldspar and their application in crop nutrition through substitution of fertilizer K was explored through the isolation of 36 different bacteria from rocks of a major hill station at Ponmudi in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. A comprehensive characterization of K solubilization from feldspar was achieved with these isolates which indicated that the K solubilizing efficiency increases with decrease in pH and increase in viscosity and viable cell count. Based on the level of K solubilization, two potent isolates were selected and identified as Bacillus subtilis ANctcri3 and Bacillus megaterium ANctcri7. Exopolysaccharide production, scanning electron microscopic and fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies with these efficient strains conclusively depicted the role of low pH, increase in viscosity, and bacterial attachment in K solubilization. They were also found to be efficient in phosphorus (P) solubilization, indole acetic acid production as well as tolerant to wide range of physiological conditions. Moreover, the applicability of K containing rock powder as a carrier for K solubilizing bacteria was demonstrated. A field level evaluation on the yield of a high K demanding tuberous vegetable crop, elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (dennst.) nicolson) established the possibility of substituting chemical K fertilizer with these biofertilizer candidates successfully.

  13. Dengue virus infection-enhancing antibody activities against Indonesian strains in inhabitants of central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Oddgun, Duangjai; Chantawat, Nantarat; Okabayashi, Tamaki; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Kameoka, Masanori; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Konishi, Eiji

    2016-04-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection-enhancing antibodies are a hypothetic factor to increase the dengue disease severity. In this study, we investigated the enhancing antibodies against Indonesian strains of DENV-1-4 in 50 healthy inhabitants of central Thailand (Bangkok and Uthai Thani). Indonesia and Thailand have seen the highest dengue incidence in Southeast Asia. The infection history of each subject was estimated by comparing his/her neutralizing antibody titers against prototype DENV-1-4 strains. To resolve the difficulty in obtaining foreign live viruses for use as assay antigens, we used a recombinant system to prepare single-round infectious dengue viral particles based on viral sequence information. Irrespective of the previously infecting serotype(s), most serum samples showed significantly higher enhancement titers against Indonesian DENV-2 strains than against Thai DENV-2 strains, whereas the opposite effect was observed for the DENV-3 strains. Equivalent enhancing activities were observed against both DENV-1 and DENV-4. These results suggest that the genotype has an impact on enhancing antibody activities against DENV-2 and DENV-3, because the predominant circulating genotypes of each serotype differ between Indonesia and Thailand.

  14. Evaluation of Isfahan Inhabitant Attitude About Brucellosis and Common its Herbal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghomashlooyan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis, also called Malta fever, is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or undercooked meat from infected animals, or close contact with their secretions. Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped (coccobacilli bacteria. Objectives The aim of this study is to perform an evaluation of Isfahan inhabitant attitude about brucellosis and its common herbal treatment. Patients and Methods This evaluation was a simple random sample study, which was carried out on 162 people in the city of Isfahan, Iran, by means of questionnaires. The data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows (Version 21.0. Results Of 162 people that were interviewed, 90 (55.6% patients were male and the other were female. Of these, 74 (45.7% patients were single and 88 (54.3% were married. Forty-three (26.5% participants lived in the city. The average age of participants was 11.51 ± 29.11 years. There is no significant relationship between age, gender, education level, residence, and people familiar with the disease brucellosis, herbal treatment for brucellosis (P > 0.05. Conclusions Our data suggest that the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of people in Isfahan, Iran, show no relationship with the attitude of individuals regarding brucellosis and towards common herbal treatments for the disease.

  15. Phytate Degradation by Fungi and Bacteria that Inhabit Sawdust and Coffee Residue Composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eida, Mohamed Fathallh; Nagaoka, Toshinori; Wasaki, Jun; Kouno, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Phytate is the primary source of organic phosphorus, but it cannot be directly utilized by plants and is strongly adsorbed by the soil, reducing bioavailability. Composting is a process used to improve the bioavailability of phytate in organic wastes through degradation by microorganisms. In this study, we aimed to investigate the phytate-degrading ability of fungi and bacteria that inhabit sawdust compost and coffee residue compost, and their contribution to the composting process. In the plate assay, the fungi that formed clear zones around their colonies belonged to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, Coniochaeta, Aspergillus, and Fusarium, while the bacteria belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Chitinophaga, and Rahnella. Eight fungal isolates (genera Mucor, Penicillium, Galactomyces, and Coniochaeta) and four bacterial isolates (genera Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Rahnella) were selected to evaluate phytase activity in their liquid culture and their ability to degrade phytate in organic materials composed of mushroom media residue and rice bran. The selected fungi degraded phytate in organic materials to varying degrees. Penicillium isolates showed the highest degradation ability and Coniochaeta isolate exhibited relatively high degradation ability. The clear zone diameters of these fungal isolates displayed significantly positive and negative correlations with inorganic and phytate phosphorus contents in the organic materials after incubation, respectively; however, none of the selected bacteria reduced phytate phosphorus in organic materials. It is therefore possible that fungi are major contributors to phytate degradation during composting. PMID:23100024

  16. Utilization of Herbal Medicine Among Inhabitants of an Urban Centre in North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Oluyem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined utilization of herbal medicine among inhabitants of Ilorin, North-Central Nigeria. 460 participants selected through multi-stage sampling technique were included in the study. Result showed that, Pile 20.2%, was the most treated illness with herbal medicine followed closely by malaria fever 17.7% and typhoid fever 14.9%. 46.0% of the participants utilise herbal medicine because of its efficiency in treatment while 15.8% used it because it works faster for them. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants found to affect utilization of herbal medicine were: income (p=0.001, education (p=0.0001 and occupation (p=0.0005,while those found not to affect utilization of herbal medicine were: age (p=0.5330 and sex (p=0.0054.The study recommended massive enlightenment on the dangers involved in indiscrimate use of herbal medicine, regulation of herbal medicine, provision of health insurance scheme for Nigerians and more research into herbal medicine with a view to integrating it into the modern healthcare delivery system in Nigeria.

  17. Active Microbial Communities Inhabit Sulphate-Methane Interphase in Deep Bedrock Fracture Fluids in Olkiluoto, Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Pitkänen, Petteri; Lehtinen, Anne; Itävaara, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Active microbial communities of deep crystalline bedrock fracture water were investigated from seven different boreholes in Olkiluoto (Western Finland) using bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA, dsrB, and mcrA gene transcript targeted 454 pyrosequencing. Over a depth range of 296–798 m below ground surface the microbial communities changed according to depth, salinity gradient, and sulphate and methane concentrations. The highest bacterial diversity was observed in the sulphate-methane mixing zone (SMMZ) at 250–350 m depth, whereas archaeal diversity was highest in the lowest boundaries of the SMMZ. Sulphide-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria (Sulfurimonas sp.) dominated in the SMMZ and γ-proteobacteria (Pseudomonas spp.) below the SMMZ. The active archaeal communities consisted mostly of ANME-2D and Thermoplasmatales groups, although Methermicoccaceae, Methanobacteriaceae, and Thermoplasmatales (SAGMEG, TMG) were more common at 415–559 m depth. Typical indicator microorganisms for sulphate-methane transition zones in marine sediments, such as ANME-1 archaea, α-, β- and δ-proteobacteria, JS1, Actinomycetes, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and MBGB Crenarchaeota were detected at specific depths. DsrB genes were most numerous and most actively transcribed in the SMMZ while the mcrA gene concentration was highest in the deep methane rich groundwater. Our results demonstrate that active and highly diverse but sparse and stratified microbial communities inhabit the Fennoscandian deep bedrock ecosystems. PMID:26425566

  18. [An outbreak of acute pulmonary histoplasmosis among travelers to a bat-inhabited cave in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, A; Kimura, M; Kimura, S; Shimada, K; Miyaji, M; Kaufman, L

    1995-04-01

    Histoplasmosis is known to be endemic in various parts of the world, especially in North and Latin America. In Japan, Histoplasma capsulatum has rarely been isolated from the natural environment. To date, only seven cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Japan including some that were contracted in foreign countries. Herein, we report the occurrence of acute histoplasmosis among Japanese travelers who were exposed to bat guano in a cave near Manaus, Brazil. A group of 8 Japanese travelers entered a cave for a total of 2 hours in March, 1993. All the visitors had been healthy and had no history of abnormal chest roentgenograms. From 10 to 20 days after the exposure, 7 (87.5%) of the 8 individuals developed abnormal symptoms including fever, malaise, loss of appetite, myalgia, arthralgia, chest pain and dry cough. Five (62.5%) had nodular infiltrative shadows with or without hilar lymphadenopathy in the chest roentgenograms. Eight (100%) of the individuals showed serologic evidence of histoplasmosis. Despite the small number of subjects, this high rate of infection may be related to the fact that the subjects stayed in an enclosed area where air exchange was minimal, at the end of a deep cave infested with numerous bats. The cave involved has never been documented as being endemic for histoplasmosis. The threat of H. capsulatum infection in bat-inhabited caves should be emphasized to travelers and also to physicians.

  19. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Wang, Fang; Chu, Limin; Wang, Hao; Zhong, Zhiping; Liu, Zhipei; Gao, Jianyong; Duan, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene) of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes) in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%), whereas Stramenopiles (26.65%) and Alveolates (10.84%) are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%), whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50%) and Xiaochaidan (1.15%). Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper) saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  20. TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SUMITHION (OMS-43 ON OPERATORS AND INHABITANTS IN SOUTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Motabar

    1973-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to determine the toxic effect of OMS-43 on spraymen and inhabitants. The spraying operation lasted for 30 successive days, and two teams consisting of 20 spraymen, 2 mixers, 4 foremen and team leaders were engaged in this operation. The operators were under systematic and closed clinical observation and cholinesterase determination (tintometric method during the operation as well as, in some cases, two months after. In spite of the rigid instructions given to the spraymen to follow the necessary precautions, there were 42 cases of clinical symptoms. In some individuals several relapses occurred during the operation. No complaints or cholinesterase depression was observed during the first 2- week exposure. The main clinical symptoms were headache, giddiness, nausea and abdominal cramps; some workers felt weakness. Diarrhea was reported among two cases and was treated with Enterovioform (Ciba.A drop in whole blood CHE was seen among both mixers accompanied by clinical symptoms. One of the mixers left his job when his CHE was depressed to 12.5. Out of 20 spraymen, 8 showed depression of CHE in some cases with clinical symptoms. This study showed that the use of Sumithion under local conditions (sub- tropics, hot dry season was safe for residents, but its toxic effect on operators should be considered and further toxicological investigations are requires under tropical conditions.

  1. FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY OF KIELCE SUBURBAN MUNICIPALITIES VERSUS THE STANDARD OF LIVING OF THEIR INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Gąsiorowska-Mącznik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization processes of areas located within large cities entail a number of consequences, such as a change in employment structure of inhabitants in these areas. New housing developments attract a stream of well-educated and affl uent urban dwellers, who move to the suburbs and contribute to the transformation of dominating functions in the areas located near the cities. Based on selected empirically measurable characteristics, synthetic measures were calculated for the phenomena analyzed with the use of the Hellwig method. The following functions have been included: agricultural, recreational, service, industrial, and residential. Based on the conducted analysis, it can be claimed that most of the examined municipalities are characterized by multifunctional development, with no dominant function apparent. Also, the analysis revealed the existence of three social classes in the studied areas, distinguished by a very high, high, or average standard of living of their members. The study found that the highest standard of living is typical for the municipalities where industrial and service-related functions dominate. 

  2. Biochemical characterization of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acids from two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2015-01-01

    We have screened two Nostoc species inhabiting diverse habitats for the presence of sunscreening mycosporine-like amino acid (MAA) compounds. The identification and characterization of one MAA (RT 3.1-3.8 min, λmax -334 nm) from both Nostoc species were performed using absorption spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Shinorine and porphyra-334 were commonly present in both Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 and Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-6. Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 also showed the presence of an unknown MAAs with retention time of 6.9 min and a corresponding λmax of 334 nm. Present investigation clearly demonstrated the presence of diverse profile of MAAs in the hot spring cyanobacterium in comparison to the rice field isolate. Thus, Nostoc sp. strain HKAR-2 would be a better source for the production of MAAs that can be used as a potent natural sunscreen against UV-B irradiation.

  3. Diversity of Wood-Inhabiting Polyporoid and Corticioid Fungi in Odaesan National Park, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yeongseon; Jang, Seokyoon; Lee, Jaejung; Lee, Hanbyul; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu

    2016-01-01

    Polyporoid and corticioid fungi are among the most important wood-decay fungi. Not only do they contribute to nutrient cycling by decomposing wood debris, but they are also valuable sources for natural products. Polyporoid and corticioid wood-inhabiting fungi were investigated in Odaesan National Park. Fruit bodies were collected and identified based on morphological and molecular analyses using 28S and internal transcribed spacer regions of DNA sequences. As a result, a total of 149 species, 69 genera, 22 families, and 11 orders were recognized. Half (74 species) of the species were polypores, and the other half (75 species) were corticioid fungi. Most of the species belonged to Polyporales (92 species) followed by Hymenochaetales (33 species) and Russulales (11 species). At the genus level, a high number of species was observed from Steccherinum, Hyphodontia, Phanerochaete, Postia, and Trametes. Concerning distribution, almost all the species could be found below 1,000 m, and only 20% of the species were observed from above 1,000 m. Stereum subtomentosum, Trametes versicolor, T. hirsuta, T. pubescens, Bjerkandera adusta, and Ganoderma applanatum had wide distribution areas. Deciduous wood was the preferred substrate for the collected species. Sixty-three species were new to this region, and 21 species were new to Korea, of which 17 species were described and illustrated. PMID:28154480

  4. Survival of freezing by hydrated tardigrades inhabiting terrestrial and freshwater habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Grazioso, Pasqualina; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2011-04-01

    The seasonality and unpredictability of environmental conditions at high altitudes and latitudes govern the life cycle patterns of organisms, giving rise to stresses that cause death or development of specific adaptations. Ice formation is a major variable affecting the survival of both freshwater fauna and fauna inhabiting lichens, mosses and leaf litter. Tardigrades occupy a wide range of niches in marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. The highest number of species is found in terrestrial habitats thanks to their ability to enter anhydrobiosis and cryobiosis. The cryobiotic ability of tardigrade species from polar regions is well known. Consequently, we focused our research on the ability to survive freezing in the active hydrated state using seven tardigrade species differing in phylogenetic position and collected at various altitudes and from different habitats in a temperate area. Specimens were cooled at different cooling rates (from 0.31° C min(-1) to 3.26° C min(-1)). Even though the final survival and the time required by animals to recover to active life were both inversely related to the cooling rate, highly significant interspecific differences were found. Species survival ability ranged from excellent to none. Species living in xeric habitats withstood freezing better than those living in hygrophilous habitats, while true limnic species did not exhibit any cryobiotic ability. The ability to withstand freezing seems linked to the anhydrobiotic ability. The differences in cryptobiotic performance among tardigrade species seem more influenced by selective pressures linked to local adaptation to habitat characteristics than by phylogenetic relationships.

  5. Bacterial Endo-Symbiont Inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. and Their Antimicrobial Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts inhabiting Tridax procumbens L. were screened for antimicrobial potential with the aim to isolate potent bacteria bearing significant activity against test pathogens. The selected isolate was subjected to large scale fermentation to extract antimicrobial metabolite. The organic phase was reduced under vacuum pressure and crude ethyl acetate extract (10 mg/mL was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panel of test pathogens. The antibacterial activity was measured as a zone of inhibition and compared with standard antibiotics, gentamicin and tetracycline. Similarly, antifungal activity was compared with miconazole and bavistin. Significant activity was conferred against Shigella flexneri (MTCC 731 with 27±1.5 mm zone across the disc. Partially, purification of antimicrobial metabolite with TLC-bioautography and HPLC resulted in active fraction bearing activity at Rf 0.65 and eluting between 4 and 5 retention times. The obtained results are promising enough for future purification and characterization of antimicrobial metabolite. Thus, the study attributes to the growing knowledge on endophytes as one of the rich sources of antimicrobial potentials.

  6. Fipronil as a larvicide against the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Pridgeon, Julia W; Becnel, James J; Ali, Arshad

    2009-06-01

    In the laboratory, fipronil was tested against laboratory-reared and field-collected early 4th-instars of Aedes albopictus. The insecticide was also bioassayed for activity against natural field populations of Ae. albopictus inhabiting 1-liter-capacity stone-made containers in a cemetery in St. Augustine, FL. The cemetery containers also were utilized to study initial efficacy and activity persistence of fipronil against natural populations of Ae. albopictus. The laboratory-reared larvae were 2-fold more susceptible than field-collected larvae as indicated by the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 2.6 and 6 parts per billion (ppb) for laboratory-reared and field-collected larvae, respectively. In the field bioassay, in stone-made containers, the LC50 value of Ae. albopictus larvae amounted to 57.5 ppb. In the cemetery containers, fipronil applied at 3.2 and 32 ppb gave 100% control of Ae. albopictus larvae with either rate of application for at least up to 8 wk posttreatment.

  7. Sleeping outside the box: electroencephalographic measures of sleep in sloths inhabiting a rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattenborg, Niels C; Voirin, Bryson; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Kays, Roland W; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Kuemmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-08-23

    The functions of sleep remain an unresolved question in biology. One approach to revealing sleep's purpose is to identify traits that explain why some species sleep more than others. Recent comparative studies of sleep have identified relationships between various physiological, neuroanatomical and ecological traits, and the time mammals spend in rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. However, owing to technological constraints, these studies were based exclusively on animals in captivity. Consequently, it is unclear to what extent the unnatural laboratory environment affected time spent sleeping, and thereby the identification and interpretation of informative clues to the functions of sleep. We performed the first electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings of sleep on unrestricted animals in the wild using a recently developed miniaturized EEG recorder, and found that brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus) inhabiting the canopy of a tropical rainforest only sleep 9.63 h d(-1), over 6 h less than previously reported in captivity. Although the influence of factors such as the age of the animals studied cannot be ruled out, our results suggest that sleep in the wild may be markedly different from that in captivity. Additional studies of various species are thus needed to determine whether the relationships between sleep duration and various traits identified in captivity are fundamentally different in the wild. Our initial study of sloths demonstrates the feasibility of this endeavour, and thereby opens the door to comparative studies of sleep occurring within the ecological context within which it evolved.

  8. An insight into some relevant aspects concerning eriophyoid mites inhabiting forests, ornamental trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, Marisa; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Łabanowski, Gabriel S; Simoni, Sauro; Soika, Grazyna M

    2010-07-01

    Worldwide a great variety of eriophyoid mites inhabit forest canopy trees and ornamental plants that are used in city parks, squares and boulevards. An analysis of the relevant bibliography portrays only a fragmentary knowledge and the majority of our information concerns the temperate zone. Three case studies are presented as examples of different approaches to solve problems connected with eriophyoid mites of forest and ornamental trees. The first example deals with eriophyoids of a temperate zone forest in a natural environment, focusing on conifers which represent the largest component. The second case study documents a possible approach to obtain greater knowledge and control of the bud mite species, Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa) on Cupressaceae. This is a harmless species in the natural environment which becomes a serious pest in nurseries and young stands of Cupressus sempervirens in the Mediterranean region. The final case study reports on long-term studies carried out in Poland on injurious eriophyoid species that are found in nurseries, city greenery and parks. This paper also discusses future perspectives for research on eriophyoid mites living on forest and ornamental plants.

  9. Stories with and about wall carpets. An anthropological account on the inhabitation of Ursari Romanian Roma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Racleş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the ways in which objects assist us in telling small stories about our positions in relation to our inhabited space, but also in relation to perceived dichotomised categories like us-others, the modern-the outmoded, civilized-backward. Acknowledging that narratives emerge from interactions between people, this paper is an attempt to show that an important role in the emergence of stories is played by interactions between people and objects. The wall carpets hung by Ursari Roma from a north-eastern Romanian town and the stories developed with and about these items constitute the main focus of this analysis. From an anthropological and material culture perspective, wall carpets are discussed as material presences in storytelling events and as objects of experience-centred stories that assist Roma people in negotiating and enacting their identities and belongings. Taking a cue from Georgakopoulou, who argues that narratives count on both discourses and activities (2007, home making practices and domestic activities (such as those related to the maintenance of the wall carpets are essential to this paper, as they enable an understanding of the “performative narrative of daily life” (Langellier 2004. The analysis is based on ethnographic material collected in 2014 in the aforementioned community, while the unit of analysis consists of excerpts from discussions with two Roma families, which became storytelling episodes.

  10. Influence of light quality and gassing on the vertical migration of diatoms inhabiting the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenderoth, Klaus; Rhiel, Erhard

    2004-10-01

    Diatoms inhabiting the Wadden Sea show a rhythmic migration pattern, which is superimposed by the tidal rhythm. In addition to light intensity, light quality has a pronounced influence on the upward-directed migration, thus giving some information on the nature of the relevant photoreceptors. Maximum diatom migration occurred when sediment surfaces were illuminated with blue light. The cell densities in blue light exceeded those of white light control experiments 1.8-fold. Furthermore, we registered a minor peak in the red light region, which reached approximately 60% of the white light controls. Cryptochrome and/or phototropin may thus be involved and act as photoreceptors for the vertical migration pattern. Flushing sediment surfaces of freshly mixed Wadden Sea sediments with air, O2, CO2 or N2 did not show a significant influence of O2 on the upward migration. The disappearance of diatoms from sediment surfaces which were flushed with CO2 is most probably caused by the acidification of the sediment bed.

  11. Sulfate-reducing bacteria inhabiting natural corrosion deposits from marine steel structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Païssé, Sandrine; Ghiglione, Jean-François; Marty, Florence; Abbas, Ben; Gueuné, Hervé; Amaya, José Maria Sanchez; Muyzer, Gerard; Quillet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, investigations were conducted on natural corrosion deposits to better understand the role of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the accelerated corrosion process of carbon steel sheet piles in port environments. We describe the abundance and diversity of total and metabolically active SRB within five natural corrosion deposits located within tidal or low water zone and showing either normal or accelerated corrosion. By using molecular techniques, such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis, and sequence cloning based on 16S rRNA, dsrB genes, and their transcripts, we demonstrated a clear distinction between SRB population structure inhabiting normal or accelerated low-water corrosion deposits. Although SRB were present in both normal and accelerated low-water corrosion deposits, they dominated and were exclusively active in the inner and intermediate layers of accelerated corrosion deposits. We also highlighted that some of these SRB populations are specific to the accelerated low-water corrosion deposit environment in which they probably play a dominant role in the sulfured corrosion product enrichment.

  12. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  13. Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) of Cr(VI)-reducer Basalt-inhabiting Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsibakhashvili, N Ya; Kirkesali, E I; Aksenova, N G; Kalabegishvili, T L; Murusidze, I G; Mosulishvili, L M; Holman, H Y N

    2005-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) has been applied to studying elemental composition of Cr(VI)-reducer bacteria isolated from polluted basalts from the Republic of Georgia. Cr(VI)-reducing ability of the bacteria was examined by electron spin resonance (ESR) demonstrating that the bacteria differ in the rates of Cr(VI) reduction. A well-pronounced correlation between the ability of the bacteria to accumulate Cr(V) and their ability to reduce Cr(V) to Cr(III) observed in our experiments is discussed. Elemental analysis of these bacteria also revealed that basalt-inhabiting bacteria are distinguished by relative contents of essential elements such as K, Na, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Co. A high rate of Cr(III) formation correlates with a high concentration of Co in the bacterium. ENAA detected some similarity in the elemental composition of the bacteria. The relatively high contents of Fe detected in the bacteria (140-340 $\\mu $g/g of dry weight) indicate bacterial adaptation to the environmental condition...

  14. Production of quorum-sensing-related signal molecules by epiphytic bacteria inhabiting wheat heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shigenobu; Kinkel, Linda L; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Numajiri, Nobutaka; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Koitabashi, Motoo; Suyama, Kazuo; Negishi, Hiromitsu; Tsushima, Seiya

    2006-05-01

    The production of quorum-sensing-related signal molecules (QSRMs) among culturable bacteria comprising the community on wheat heads was investigated. The taxonomic position of 186 bacterial isolates obtained from ten heads was inferred based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and their QSRM production was determined using two bioreporter strains of N-acylhomoserine lactones. Approximately 33% of isolates produced QSRMs, though the proportion of QSRM-producing isolates on a wheat head was significantly negatively correlated with population size. Most of the producing isolates were Pantoea species, most commonly Pantoea ananatis. Furthermore, the proportion of Pantoea ananatis that produced QSRMs was significantly negatively correlated with the number of bacterial genera (community richness) on each head. Finally, community richness was positively correlated with population size. Qualitative analysis using thin-layer-chromatography revealed that the QSRMs of Pantoea isolates were composed of at least two compounds. This is the first report indicating that Pantoea ananatis isolates inhabiting wheat heads are capable of producing QSRMs. QSRM production by Pantoea spp. may contribute to the predominance of this genus on wheat heads, particularly at relatively low population densities and community diversity.

  15. The life cycle of the reptile-inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C; Jones, H I

    2016-12-01

    This study elucidates the life-cycle of the reptile inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae) in Australia. Eight Varanus gouldii (Lacertilia: Varanidae), and two Christinus marmoratus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) lizards were captured in the wild. Two V. gouldii were used as controls and no experimental procedures were carried out on them. Another six V. gouldii (final host) and the two C. marmoratus (paratenic host) were treated with oral anthelmintics to remove all parasitic worms and were fed with infected live arthropods containing third stage larvae of Abbreviata hastaspicula. Faeces of V. gouldii were examined under the microscope weekly to determine whether the third stage larvae had developed into adults. Two months later, a total of 30 larvae and adults of A. hastaspicula were found in the stomachs of four experimentally-infected V. gouldii lizards. No cysts or larva were found in the C. marmoratus. This is the first study to demonstrate the life-cycle of this genus of nematode in their definitive reptile hosts.

  16. The life cycle of the reptile-inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study elucidates the life-cycle of the reptile inhabiting nematode Abbreviata hastaspicula (Spirurida: Physalopteridae: Physalopterinae in Australia. Eight Varanus gouldii (Lacertilia: Varanidae, and two Christinus marmoratus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae lizards were captured in the wild. Two V. gouldii were used as controls and no experimental procedures were carried out on them. Another six V. gouldii (final host and the two C. marmoratus (paratenic host were treated with oral anthelmintics to remove all parasitic worms and were fed with infected live arthropods containing third stage larvae of Abbreviata hastaspicula. Faeces of V. gouldii were examined under the microscope weekly to determine whether the third stage larvae had developed into adults. Two months later, a total of 30 larvae and adults of A. hastaspicula were found in the stomachs of four experimentally-infected V. gouldii lizards. No cysts or larva were found in the C. marmoratus. This is the first study to demonstrate the life-cycle of this genus of nematode in their definitive reptile hosts.

  17. [Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components in adult inhabitants of Krakow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurkowska, Magdalena; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Pach, Dorota; Krzentowska, Anna; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2006-01-01

    There are only few studies on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Polish population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome according to NCEP definition in adult inhabitants of Krakow. The study was conducted in 2004-2005 in 42 Krakow's primary health care units in patients aged over 25, not treated due to the diabetes type 2 and/or coronary artery disease, with no history of myocardial infarction or stroke. In all study participants anthropometric examination, blood pressure, fasting total cholesterol and fasting glucose were measured. In those with total cholesterol > 5.2 mmol/l additional triglicerides and HDL-cholesterol were measured. 40989 people (67.2% women and 32.8% men) aged 25 to 97 (54.1 +/- 14.1 years) were examined. In 19,4% of the examined population the MS was diagnosed (20.9% women and 16.2% men). In age group below 55 years the MS was more frequent in men than in women. Impaired glucose tolerance was found in 5394 study participants (3239 women and 2155 men). Mean systolic blood pressure was higher in men than in women (131.5 +/- 16,1 vs 127.0 +/- 17.5, p hypertriglicerydemia and newly diagnosed hypertension present in this group of men. The study results confirm the necessity of implementation of screening and early prevention of cardiovascular disease programs especially focused on younger men.

  18. Mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae inhabiting foliar tanks of Guzmania brasiliensis Ule (Bromeliaceae in central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlene Roberta da Silva Torreias

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes in the family Culicidae develop their immature forms in different environments depending on various circumstances. This study represents the first contribution to the ecological knowledge of culicids living in the bromeliad G. brasiliensis. The objectives of the study were to compare the Culicidae fauna of bromeliads in two seasonal periods, analyzing their abundance, richness and the influence of pH, conductivity and water volume, on the populations. Sampling was done at Reserva Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil between 2003 and 2005. Six samplings were done in the rainy season and six in the dry season. On each sampling day, six terrestrial and six epiphytic bromeliads, totaling 144 sampling units, were retrieved. A total of 444 immature mosquitoes were collected, distributed in the following species: Culex (Microculex stonei Lane & Whitman, Culex (Microculex chryselatus Dyar & Knab, Culex (Microculex sp., Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia autocratica Dyar & Knab and Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia splendida Bonne-Wepster & Bonne. The relationship between abundance of Culicidae and sampling period was not significant, although abundance was higher in the dry period. There were significant correlations between water volume and the abundance (p = 0.003 and richness (p = 0.001 of culicids. The pH was positively related to the occurrence of the species Wy. autocratica (p= 0.010 and Wy. splendida (p= 0.006, demonstrating the influence of this factor in the structuring of bromeliad-inhabiting communities.

  19. Genetic and nutritional characterization of some macrophytes, inhabiting the Bardawil Lagoon, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam E. Elsaied

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economical significances of macrophytes, inhabiting the Mediterranean Lagoon, Bardawil, northern Sinai, Egypt, are still ambiguous, due to lack of knowledge. This study focused on genetic and nutritional characterization of three dominant macrophyte species at Bardawil Lagoon. Genetic identifications were done through genomic DNA extraction, followed by PCR amplifications and sequencing of 18S rRNA genes of the studied species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that two of the recorded species showed homologies with the seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica and Halophila ovalis, with nucleotide identities 94.5% and 96.8%, respectively. The third species showed a unique phylogenetic lineage, representing nucleotide identity average, 86.5%, among the brown seaweeds, Heterokontophyta. Nutritional analyses indicated that the recorded seaweed-like macrophyte had the highest recommended nutritional contents, crude protein, 24.67%, with a total amino acid composition of 6.64 g/100 g protein, and carbohydrate, 38.16%, besides a calorific value of 3.063 K cal/g, among the studied macrophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize macrophyte community in Bardawil Lagoon, using both genetic and biochemical approaches.

  20. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Genetic diversity and matrilineal structure in Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Xu, Ling; Lü, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Due to their special phylogenetic position in the Euarchontoglires and close affinity to primates, tree shrews have been proposed as an alternative experimental animal to primates in biomedical research. However, the population genetic structure of tree shrews has largely remained unknown and this has hindered the development of tree shrew breeding and selection. Here we sampled 80 Chinese tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) in Kunming, China, and analyzed partial mtDNA control region sequence variation. Based on our samples and two published sequences from northern tree shrews (T. belangeri), we identified 29 substitutions in the mtDNA control region fragment (~604 bp) across 82 individuals and defined 13 haplotypes. Seventeen samples were selected for sequencing of the cytochrome b (Cyt b; 1134 bp) gene based on control region sequence variation and were analyzed in combination with 34 published sequences to solidify the phylogenetic pattern obtained from control region data. Overall, tree shrews from Kunming have high genetic diversity and present a remarkable long genetic distance to the two reported northern tree shrews outside China. Our results provide some caution when using tree shrews to establish animal models because of this apparent genetic difference. In addition, the high genetic diversity of Chinese tree shrews inhabiting Kunming suggests that systematic genetic investigations should be conducted before establishing an inbred strain for medical and biological research.

  2. Animals and their products utilized as medicines by the inhabitants surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroli DP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present ethnozoological study describes the traditional knowledge related to the use of different animals and animal-derived products as medicines by the inhabitants of villages surrounding the Ranthambhore National Park of India (Bawaria, Mogya, Meena, which is well known for its very rich biodiversity. The field survey was conducted from May to July 2005 by performing interviews through structured questionnaires with 24 informants (16 men and 8 women, who provided information regarding therapeutic uses of animals. A total of 15 animals and animal products were recorded and they are used for different ethnomedical purposes, including tuberculosis, asthma, paralysis, jaundice, earache, constipation, weakness, snake poisoning. The zootherapeutic knowledge was mostly based on domestic animals, but some protected species like the collared dove (Streptopelia sp., hard shelled turtle (Kachuga tentoria, sambhar (Cervus unicolor were also mentioned as important medicinal resources. We would suggest that this kind of neglected traditional knowledge should be included into the strategies of conservation and management of faunistic resources in the investigated area.

  3. Wolbachia infections in mosquitoes and their predators inhabiting rice field communities in Thailand and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwatanaratanabutr, Itsanun; Zhang, Chongxing

    2016-07-01

    Wolbachia are inherited, endocytoplasmic bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods. Here is the first systematic report on the study of Wolbachia infection in mosquitoes and their predators from both Thailand and China. In Thailand, 632 mosquito specimens (20 spp.) and 424 insect predators (23 spp.) were collected from the rice agroecosystem, mostly from the Central region, followed by the Northeast, the North and the South and were inhabiting rice fields, wetlands and ditches. In China, 928 mosquitoes (15 spp.) and 149 insect predators (16 spp.) were collected from rice fields along the Weishan Lake in Shandong province. Specimens were classified in the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Odonata and Hemiptera. Using wsp, ftsZ, 16S rRNA and groE gene amplifications, Wolbachia were detected in 12 mosquito spp. and 6 predator spp. from Thailand and 11 mosquito spp. and 5 predator spp. from China. The relative Wolbachia densities of these species were determined using quantitative real-time PCR. The mosquito, Aedes albopictus, and the predator, Agriocnemis femina, had the highest bacterial densities. These results imply that Wolbachia of supergroup B are distributed throughout these insects, probably via horizontal transmission in rice agroecosystems.

  4. Effects of FLONLIZER, ultraviolet sterilizer, on Legionella species inhabiting cooling tower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Urakami, I; Nakano, K; Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1987-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila in sterile distilled water was not detected after ultraviolet irradiation by FLONLIZER, a new-type sterilizer, at a flow rate of 82.5 to 364.8 liters/hr. When irradiated by FLONLIZER at a flow rate of under 324.0 liters/hr, no viable cells of legionellae, other heterotrophic bacteria and bacterivorous protozoa were detected in the cooling tower water, which was found to contain L. pneumophila. No viable cells of L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii suspended in sterile distilled water were detected after the irradiation with UV-doses of over 6.16 X 10(3) micro W.sec/cm2. At the irradiation of low UV-doses under 1.06 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, the viable count of legionellae recuperated by photoreactivation from UV-damage increased with the exposure time under a white fluorescent lamp. However, in the samples irradiated with UV-doses of over 3.52 X 10(4) micro W.sec/cm2, equal to the FLONLIZER, legionellae did not recuperate even after 18 hr illumination with a white fluorescent lamp. FLONLIZER is thus expected to act as a sterilizer which can control the legionellae inhabiting cooling tower systems placed in outdoor space.

  5. The Caucasus as an Asymmetric Semipermeable Barrier to Ancient Human Migrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Metspalu, Mait; Järve, Mari; Kutuev, Ildus; Rootsi, Siiri; Metspalu, Ene; Behar, Doron M; Varendi, Kärt; Sahakyan, Hovhannes; Khusainova, Rita; Yepiskoposyan, Levon; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Underhill, Peter A; Kivisild, Toomas; Villems, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Caucasus, inhabited by modern humans since the Early Upper Paleolithic and known for its linguistic diversity, is considered to be important for understanding human dispersals and genetic diversity in Eurasia...

  6. High soil and groundwater arsenic levels induce high body arsenic loads, health risk and potential anemia for inhabitants of northeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Masumeh; Mehrzad, Jalil; Mahmudy Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein; Afshari, Reza; Dadsetan, Ahmad; Hami, Shakiba

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic bioavailability in rock, soil and water resources is notoriously hazardous. Geogenic arsenic enters the body and adversely affects many biochemical processes in animals and humans, posing risk to public health. Chelpu is located in NE Iran, where realgar, orpiment and pyrite mineralization is the source of arsenic in the macroenvironment. Using cluster random sampling strategy eight rocks, 23 soils, 12 drinking water resources, 36 human urine and hair samples and 15 adult sheep urine and wool samples in several large-scale herds in the area were randomly taken for quantification of arsenic in rock/soil/water, wool/hair/urine. Arsenic levels in rock/soil/water and wool/hair/urine were measured using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. While arsenic levels in rocks, soils and water resources hazardously ranged 9.40-25,873.3 mg kg(-1), 7.10-1448.80 mg kg(-1) and 12-606 μg L(-1), respectively, arsenic concentrations in humans' hair and urine and sheep's wool and urine varied from 0.37-1.37 μg g(-1) and 9-271.4 μg L(-1) and 0.3-3.11 μg g(-1) and 29.1-1015 μg L(-1), respectively. Local sheep and human were widely sick and slightly anemic. Hematological examination of the inhabitants revealed that geogenic arsenic could harm blood cells, potentially resulting in many other hematoimmunological disorders including cancer. The findings warn widespread exposure of animals and human in this agroecologically and geopolitically important region (i.e., its proximity with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan) and give a clue on how arsenic could induce infectious and non-infectious diseases in highly exposed human/animals.

  7. Soil-inhabiting fungal community composition as qualitative indicator of C metabolism processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manici, L.; Ciavatta, C.; Caputo, F.

    2009-04-01

    Although fungi represent the greater part of soil microbial biomass, they play an important role in macro-aggregate formation and their carbon (C) assimilation efficiency is markedly higher than that of bacteria (Bailey et al., 2002), they have not yet been widely used as soil biological indicators. The reason is mainly due to the difficulties in application of molecular analysis tools due to limited availability of reference sequence of fungal strains in DNA database and to the low concentration of fungal DNA in soil and in isolating, enumerating and identifying groups of fungi differing for their functioning in soil and for biological characteristics. The presence of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes as the two main groups of soil-inhabiting fungi were investigated in four different cropping systems. The soil DNA of soil samples coming from twenty sites (five sites for each system), collected in two cropping systems in northern (soil organic matter - SOM content varying from 0.8 to 1.4 %) and two in southern Italy (SOM from 1.4 to 2.3%), was amplified using Ascomycete-specific primer ITS1F - ITS4A (Larena et al., 1999) and Basidiomycete-specific primer ITS1F -ITS4B (Gardes and Bruns, 1993). On the basis of soil DNA amplified with specific primers, Ascomycetes were much more represented than Basidiomycetes in the cultivated top soil. Basidiomycetes are usually reported to account for more than half of the fungal biomass in undisturbed soils. However the low ratio of Basidiomycete DNA to soil fungal DNA observed in this study could be a feature of soil fungal communities in arable soil affected by desertification problems as those of some Italian cropping systems mainly in Mediterranean area. This phenomenon could be due to soil tillage, which is well known to deeply reduce fungal biomass and to continuous incorporation into the soil of herbaceous crop residues. In fact, Ascomycetes decompose holocellulose in preference to lignin (Oslko & Takeda, 2002) and their

  8. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K; Martin, Barbara A; May, Thomas W

    2012-09-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98-58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7-50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2-20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8-30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  9. Species and genetic diversity in the genus Drosophila inhabiting the Indian subcontinent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bashisth N. Singh

    2015-06-01

    Biodiversity is the sum total of all living things on the earth with particular reference to the profound variety in structure, function and genetic constitution. It includes both number and frequency of species or genes in a given assemblage and the variety of resulting ecosystems in a region. It is usually considered at three different levels: genetic, species and ecological diversities. Genus Drosophila belongs to the family Drosophilidae (class Insecta, order Diptera), characterized by rich species diversity at global level and also in India, which is a megadiverse country. At global level, more than 1500 species have been described and several thousands estimated. Hawaiian Islands are particularly rich in species diversity with more than 500 species which provides a unique opportunity to study evolution in genus Drosophila. About 150 species of Drosophila have been reported from India. Certain species of Drosophila found in India have been investigated for genetic diversity within the species. In this regard, Drosophila ananassae is noteworthy. It is a cosmopolitan and domestic species with common occurrence in India and is endowed with many genetic peculiarities. Population genetics and evolutionary studies in this species have revealed as to how genetic diversity within a species play an important role in adaptation of populations to varying environments. In addition, the work carried on D. melanogaster, D. nasuta, D. bipectinata and certain other species in India has shown that these species vary in degree and pattern of genetic diversity, and have evolved different mechanisms for adjusting to their environments. The ecological adaptations to various kinds of stress studied in certain species of Drosophila inhabiting the Indian subcontinent are also discussed.

  10. Selenium in aquatic biota inhabiting agricultural drains in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Resource managers are concerned that water conservation practices in irrigated farmlands along the southern border of the Salton Sea, Imperial County, California, could increase selenium concentrations in agricultural drainwater and harm the desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), a federally protected endangered species. As part of a broader attempt to address this concern, we conducted a 3-year investigation to collect baseline information on selenium concentrations in seven agricultural drains inhabited by pupfish. We collected water, sediment, selected aquatic food-chain taxa (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [Chironomidae] larvae), and two poeciliid fishes (western mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna) for selenium determinations. The two fish species served as ecological surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice. Dissolved selenium ranged from 0.70 to 32.8 μg/L, with selenate as the major constituent. Total selenium concentrations in other environmental matrices varied widely among drains, with one drain (Trifolium 18) exhibiting especially high concentrations in detritus, 5.98–58.0 μg Se/g; midge larvae, 12.7–50.6 μg Se/g; mosquitofish, 13.2–20.2 μg Se/g; and mollies, 12.8–30.4 μg Se/g (all tissue concentrations are based on dry weights). Although toxic thresholds for selenium in fishes from the Salton Sea are still poorly understood, available evidence suggests that ambient concentrations of this element may not be sufficiently elevated to adversely affect reproductive success and survival in selenium-tolerant poeciliids and pupfish.

  11. Comparison of the Visual Capabilities of an Amphibious and an Aquatic Goby That Inhabit Tidal Mudflats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Tomo; Hamasaki, Sawako; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The mudskipper Periophthalmus modestus and the yellowfin goby Acanthogobius flavimanus are gobiid teleosts that both inhabit the intertidal mudflats in estuaries. While P. modestus has an amphibious lifestyle and forages on the exposed mudflat during low tide, the aquatic A. flavimanus can be found at the same mudflat at high tide. This study primarily aimed to elucidate the differential adaptations of these organisms to their respective habitats by comparing visual capacities and motor control in orienting behavior during prey capture. Analyses of retinal ganglion cell topography demonstrated that both species possess an area in the dorsotemporal region of the retina, indicating high acuity in the lower frontal visual field. Additionally, P. modestus has a minor area in the nasal portion of the retina near the optic disc. The horizontally extended specialized area in P. modestus possibly reflects the need for optimized horizontal sight on the exposed mudflat. Behavioral experiments to determine postural and eye direction control when orienting toward the object of interest revealed that these species direct their visual axes to the target situated below eye level just before a rapid approach toward it. A characteristic feature of the orienting behavior of P. modestus was that they aimed at the target by using the specialized retinal area by rotating the eye and lifting the head before jumping to attack the target located above eye level. This behavior could be an adaptation to a terrestrial feeding habitat in which buoyancy is irrelevant. This study provides insights into the adaptive mechanisms of gobiid species and the evolutionary changes enabling them to forage on land.

  12. High genetic diversity and novelty in eukaryotic plankton assemblages inhabiting saline lakes in the Qaidam basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Wang

    Full Text Available Saline lakes are intriguing ecosystems harboring extremely productive microbial communities in spite of their extreme environmental conditions. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the genetic diversity (18S rRNA gene of the planktonic microbial eukaryotes (nano- and picoeukaryotes in six different inland saline lakes located in the Qaidam Basin. The novelty level are high, with about 11.23% of the whole dataset showing <90% identity to any previously reported sequence in GenBank. At least 4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs in mesosaline lakes, while up to eighteen OTUs in hypersaline lakes show very low CCM and CEM scores, indicating that these sequences are highly distantly related to any existing sequence. Most of the 18S rRNA gene sequence reads obtained in investigated mesosaline lakes is closely related to Holozoa group (48.13%, whereas Stramenopiles (26.65% and Alveolates (10.84% are the next most common groups. Hypersaline lakes in the Qaidam Basin are also dominated by Holozoa group, accounting for 26.65% of the total number of sequence reads. Notably, Chlorophyta group are only found in high abundance in Lake Gasikule (28.00%, whereas less represented in other hypersaline lakes such as Gahai (0.50% and Xiaochaidan (1.15%. Further analysis show that the compositions of planktonic eukaryotic assemblages are also most variable between different sampling sites in the same lake. Out of the parameters, four show significant correlation to this CCA: altitude, calcium, sodium and potassium concentrations. Overall, this study shows important gaps in the current knowledge about planktonic microbial eukaryotes inhabiting Qaidam Basin (hyper saline water bodies. The identified diversity and novelty patterns among eukaryotic plankton assemblages in saline lake are of great importance for understanding and interpreting their ecology and evolution.

  13. Perceptions, preferences, and reactions of local inhabitants in Vikos-Aoos National Park, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakolis, D

    2001-11-01

    Local inhabitants' perceptions, preferences, and reactions were investigated in Vikos-Aoos National Park, 25 years after its designation. Knowledge of aims of the park and source of information about them, necessity for infrastructure, reactions to certain policies, and effectiveness of administration and management scheme were studied by means of a questionnaire survey. Personal interviews were performed by systematic sampling, which resulted in 203 cases for analysis. Most respondents said that they had knowledge of the aims of the national park, and this was positively associated with education; protection of flora and fauna was identified by most as the main aim, and the management authority (the Forest Service) ranked first in order as source of information. Tourism development of the area was seen as a positive change, and recreation facilities and improvement in accessibility were considered of high priority for development. The investigation into peoples' reactions to several possible alternative management policies revealed willingness to accept certain restrictions on their agricultural use of the land. A policy of non-intensive agriculture with compensation for loss of income, if the ecosystems of the park were in danger, seems the most acceptable. Long-term leasing of farms by the Forest Service was another policy with a high degree of acceptance, especially for certain occupational groups; those working in the secondary and tertiary sectors of economy would accept such a policy more easily than those working in the primary sector. Finally, a very large majority of the respondents expressed a preference for a new administration and management scheme with the participation of local communities in the decision-making process.

  14. Abnormalities in amphibian populations inhabiting agroecosystems in Northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M G; Kacoliris, F; Demetrio, P; Natale, G S; Bonetto, C; Ronco, A E

    2013-05-27

    The occurrence of abnormalities in amphibians has been reported in many populations, and its increase could be related to environmental pollution and habitat degradation. We evaluated the type and prevalence of abnormalities in 5 amphibian populations from agroecosystems with different degrees of agricultural disturbance (cultivated and reference areas). We detected 9 types of abnormalities, of which the most frequent were those occurring in limbs. The observed prevalence of abnormality in assessed populations from cultivated and reference areas was as follows: Rhinella fernandezae (37.1 and 10.2%, respectively), Leptodactylus latrans adults (28.1 and 9.2%) and juveniles (32.9 and 15.3%), and Hypsiboas pulchellus (11.6 and 2.8%). Scinax granulatus populations did not show abnormalities. Pseudis minuta, which was only detected in the reference area, exhibited a prevalence of 13.3%. For R. fernandezae, L. latrans, and H. pulchellus, generalized linear mixed models showed that prevalence of abnormalities was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cultivated than in reference areas. L. latrans juveniles were more vulnerable to abnormalities than adults (p < 0.05). The presence of abnormalities in some species inhabiting different agroecosystems suggests that environmental stress factors might be responsible for their occurrence. While we detected pesticides (endosulfan, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos) and lower dissolved oxygen levels in ponds of the cultivated area, no data are currently available on how other factors, such as injuries from predators and parasite infections, vary by land use. Further research will be necessary to evaluate possible causes of abnormalities detected in the present study mainly in the context of factor interactions.

  15. Prevalence of hypertension in indigenous inhabitants of traditional communities from the north of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M; Sandoval-Herrrera, F; Alvarado-Ruiz, R

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension in adults indigenous to their traditional communities from the north of Mexico. The study was based on a cross- sectional survey of inhabitants from Mexicaneros, Huicholes and Tepehuanos communities, which have not been influenced by a western lifestyle. A home interview and clinical examination that included blood pressure and anthropometric measurements of 217 men and 598 non-pregnant women aged between 35 to 64 years was carried out. Eligible indigenous subjects must have had no migratory history to partially or totally urbanised areas. Target population represented approximately 100% of the indigenous people who have spent all their life time in the community of birthplace. Age and body mass index average was 48.9+/-12.9 years and 25.6+/-5.1 kg/m2. Hypertension was identified in 56 individuals, 45 women and 11 men (prevalence 6.87%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.1-8.6). Forty-one percent of the hypertensive subjects were aware of being hypertensive. Hypertensive subjects had a higher intake of saturated fats than non-hypertensives. Salt consumption was lower than 6 g per day in subjects with and without hypertension. High intake of saturated fats (odds ratio 6.4, 95% CI 2.1-12.3; Phypertension. This study presents, for the first time, data concerning hypertension in adults who are indigenous to and living in traditional communities from Mexico. Prevalence of hypertension was lower than in the partly urbanised rural communities with a westernised lifestyle and the urban areas of Mexico.

  16. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish with different feeding habits inhabiting a shallow lake ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, María F Silva; Ondarza, Paola M; Gonzalez, Mariana; Da Cuña, Rodrigo; Meijide, Fernando; Grosman, Fabián; Sanzano, Pablo; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Miglioranza, Karina S B

    2016-04-15

    The occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment can affect organisms inhabiting aquatic systems, in particular shallow lakes that are vulnerable to environmental stressors. This study aimed to assess POPs accumulation and changes at histological and physiological levels in tissues of three fish species with different trophic habits. Gills, brain, muscle, liver and gonads of Odontesthes bonariensis, Oligosarcus jenynsii and Cyphocharax voga were collected from the shallow lake La Peregrina, located in an agricultural area from Argentina. In addition, contaminant levels in surface water (SW), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and bottom sediments (BS) were assessed. Histological lesions were evaluated in fish tissues and levels of vitellogenin (VTG) were assessed in plasma of male fish in order to correlate these alterations with the presence of POPs in the environment. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined by GC-ECD. Biotic and abiotic samples showed the same POPs distribution pattern: OCPs>PCBs>PBDEs. Although tissue distribution of OCPs was species-specific, muscle showed the lowest levels in all species. The most abundant contaminants were endosulfans, suggesting their widespread use in the area. O. bonariensis showed the highest endosulfans levels in liver (184.2-219ngg(-1)wet w), which was associated with the high SPM levels considering this species is a filter feeder. The occurrence of PCBs and PBDEs shows the ubiquity of these pollutants in the area. Histological lesions in gills and liver of O. bonariensis and O. jenynsii, might be related with the high levels of endosulfans in these organs. The detection of VTG in males warns about a possible exposure to estrogenic compounds in the environment. In conclusion, the simultaneous exposure of fish to multiple environmental pollutants leads to different alterations, so measures should be taken in

  17. Traditional Mapuche ecological knowledge in Patagonia, Argentina: fishes and other living beings inhabiting continental waters, as a reflection of processes of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigo, Juana; Ladio, Ana

    2016-12-07

    Understanding how people interpret environmental change and develop practices in response to such change is essential to comprehend human resource use. In the cosmology of the American indigenous peoples, as among the Mapuche people, freshwater systems are considered a living entity, where animals have an enormous role to play in the universe of meaning. However, human adaptive responses to freshwater system dynamics are scarcely examined. In this work a survey is carried out in three Mapuche communities of Argentine Patagonia to assess their traditional knowledge of the fishes and other non-human living beings that inhabit lakes and rivers. Both material and symbolic aspects are included, as are the differences in knowledge and use of the fishes between past and present times. Our methods were based on a quali-quantitative fieldwork approach. In-depth interviews were carried out with 36 individuals from three rural Mapuche populations in Neuquén province (Patagonia, Argentina). Free listing was used for inquiring about fish knowledge and use. Fishes were identified scientifically and ethnotaxonomically. In-depth analysis of the discourses was conducted, documenting the recognition, perception, and cultural significance of fluvial environments and their inhabitants. Quantitative survey results were analyzed with categorical statistical methods. The body of knowledge of the communities studied reflects the socio-environmental changes experienced by Patagonian freshwater bodies. According to local perception, non-human beings live in these water bodies, guarding the environment, and they should not be disturbed. At present, five different fish species are identified, three of which are exotic, having been introduced at the beginning of the 20th century by the white man. These exotic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salvelinus fontinalis) are considered ill omens, indicators of the white man's presence, and therefore their appearance presages negative events for the

  18. Demonstration of generic handbooks for assisting in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Duranova, T.

    2010-01-01

    and inhabited areas were used. Feedback from all of the demonstrations was positive with constructive criticism given on how to improve the navigation, structure and format of the handbooks. All of the key improvements highlighted during the demonstrations were taken into account and included in version 2......Two handbooks have been developed in conjunction with a wide range of stakeholders that provide assistance in the management of contaminated food production systems and inhabited areas following a radiological incident. Emergency centres in Member States not involved in the development...... of these handbooks were invited to take part in demonstration activities to establish whether the handbooks would be useful for the purposes of contingency planning and accident management. Some eight centres took part. Emergency exercises or similar events based on scenarios involving contamination of the foodchain...

  19. Adaptive response of blood lymphocytes of inhabitants residing in high background radiation areas of ramsar- micronuclei, apoptosis and comet assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Shahla; Taghavi-Dehaghani, Mahnaz; Gharaati, Mohammad R; Masoomi, Reza; Ghiassi-Nejad, Mehdi

    2006-11-01

    The hot springs in certain areas of Ramsar contain (226)Ra and (222)Rn. The effects of natural radiation on the inhabitants of these areas and the inhabitant's radiosensitivity or adaptive responses were studied. One group of volunteers from areas with high natural background radiation and another group from areas with normal background radiation were chosen as the case and control group respectively. The frequency of micronuclei, apoptosis, and DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured following gamma irradiation (4 Gy). The incidence of micronuclei in the case group was significantly lower than that in the control group while their frequency of apoptosis was higher (P sites, the individuals in the case group are more sensitive and susceptible to DNA damage. The results of micronuclei, apoptosis and repair studies suggest that an adaptive response might be induced in people residing in areas with high background radiation.

  20. Effect of exogenous extracellular polysaccharides on the desiccation and freezing tolerance of rock-inhabiting phototrophic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Emily J; Castenholz, Richard W

    2008-11-01

    Two major stresses that threaten rock-inhabiting microbial communities are desiccation and freezing; both result in a loss of liquid water in the cells. The mechanisms necessary to tolerate these extremes may be similar, but are not well understood. In both cases extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) seem to play an important role. This study examines whether the EPS released by a rock-inhabiting phototroph can have a protective effect on other members of similar and neighboring microbial communities. This interaction was modeled by adding EPS isolated from the cryptoendolithic cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. to cells of the cryptoendolithic green alga Chlorella sp. and to cells of the epilithic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. The cells were then subjected to desiccation and freezing and the survival rates were determined by vital staining, using membrane integrity as a measure of viability. The results clearly demonstrate the importance of exogenous EPS in the desiccation tolerance of both species, while mixed results were found for the freezing trials.

  1. First field record of mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Ucididae recruits co-inhabiting burrows of conspecific crabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recruits of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763, rarely encountered in the field were found co-inhabiting burrows of larger male and female conspecifics in the mangrove forest. They were located in the sediment of the inner walls and burrow plugs. Average carapace width (CW of the hosting and co-inhabiting crabs was 3.8 ± 0.20 and 0.9 ± 0.03, respectively. As shown by the size-frequency distribution, while most recruits leave the conspecific burrows after reaching 1.0 cm CW, some stay until they reach a size of 2.5 cm CW. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of recruitment patterns in this ecologically and economically important mangrove crab species. Follow-up studies are however needed to fully determine the role of conspecific burrows for juvenile habitat choice and survivorship in U. cordatus.

  2. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  3. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses; Aladejana J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and...

  4. Tools to aid the management of contaminated inhabited areas; Herramientas de ayuda a la gestion de areas habitadas contaminadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, E.; Iglesias, R.

    2013-07-01

    The complex situation posed by nuclear or radiological accidents in inhabited environments required to carefully analyze the different management options to reduce pollution in different areas. in addition to radiological factors taken into account other factors such as cost, the doses received by workers, environmental impact, waste management ... and necessarily must have mechanisms of interaction with stake holders. For all this, in the EURANOS European project they have developed tools to aid the recovery phase. (Author)

  5. [Parent-child interaction during activity and rest behavior of inhabitants of Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, R; Tittel, M; Schiefenhövel, W

    1995-01-01

    Sleep/activity patterns were continuously registered using microelectronic actometers on inhabitants of Tauwema (Papua New Guinea) who represent a traditionally living society. Results of analysis of parent-infant interactions of 4 families with infants of 1, 2, 5, and 11 months of age are presented. Results of power spectral analysis suggest that time patterns of mother-infant interactions are changing with the infants AE age. Consequences of this developmental process are discussed.

  6. Whole-organism concentration ratios in wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirth, Gillian A.; Carpenter, Julia G. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Rd, Yallambie, 3085, Victoria (Australia); Bollhoefer, Andreas [Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, GPO Box 461, Darwin, 0801 Northern Territory (Australia); Johansen, Mathew P. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee, DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Beresford, Nicholas A. [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Environmental impact assessments conducted for Australian mine sites involving naturally occurring radioactive material require an assessment of radiation doses to wildlife. Whole-organism concentration ratios (CR{sub wo}) are pivotal in these assessments and previous reviews have identified a need for a more complete and consolidated database of Australian-specific CR{sub wo} that could be used. Concern had also been expressed by some stakeholders in Australia about the suitability of the default CR{sub wo} values provided in standard biota dose models (e.g., ERICA Tool, RESRAD-BIOTA, ICRP framework) for Australian wildlife and environmental conditions. In order to address these concerns and support the implementation of best-practice standards in environmental radiological assessment, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), with support from the Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), undertook an evaluation of existing data relating to wildlife inhabiting Australian uranium mining environments. CR{sub wo} values were calculated using data from a range of original sources. These included scientific journal publications, technical reports from Australian government organisations, site-specific data from mining operators and data from baseline environmental surveys undertaken during the 1970's and 1980's. The Australian data previously included in the international Wildlife Transfer Database (WTD, www.wildlifetransferdatabase.org) were also reviewed and updated. This paper discusses the data analysis process and associated uncertainties. CR{sub wo} values are reported for uranium, thorium, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 for a range of endemic and introduced wildlife, with a focus on plants and animals from both terrestrial and freshwater environments where uranium mining has been proposed or undertaken. This has resulted in the calculation of more than 500 CR{sub wo} values for inclusion in the database

  7. The impact of preferences of inhabitants of settlements for developers activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.

    2017-08-01

    Urban community contributes to the development of any city, but it is essential that its residents can live, work and relax in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape, shaped by the functional spatial layout of streets, blocks of buildings and structures and the accompanying elements of nature and development, ensuring the rational development of urban space. The need to knowing of public expectations in relation to residence, is an important step in planning new investments by developers and construction companies. In order to carry out of research cooperation has been established with the construction company. Cooperation allowed to gain experience in the commercialization and implementation of research and carry out analysis and evaluation of spatial structures in terms of urban development and functional housing estates, with special emphasis on the needs of society. The observations focused in particular on ecological building and the necessity of the creation and development of green areas, sports and recreation to residential areas. We know that every square meter of land designated for housing carries a possible profit for the developer. The more will be built and sold apartments the more earn the investor. However, to the apartment were popular meet the demands of customers concerning not only the housing unit, but also the environment in which the building is situated. It is therefore important that the settlements were attractive and meet the social needs of society. Social needs are related to satisfying the expectations of the inhabitants of the settlements related to the comfort of the apartment, being, rest and recreation living within the zone of residence. As part of the research work carried study work and field research. They consisted gain knowledge about work organization in the enterprise and hearing the reasons and scope of the activities the developer, as well as get

  8. Building, inhabiting and «perceiving» private houses in early medieval Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi, Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article sums up the evolution of the subject of private houses and homes in Italian historiography, beginning mainly in the 1970s, when scholars began to take an interest in this subject, also thanks to the development of the modern discipline of Medieval Archeology. After identifying current lines of research, the second section analyzes the main kinds of dwellings, their geographical distribution, and their various chronologies. The third section goes on to discuss the issue of how these residential buildings were the product of particular technical skills, analyzing the characteristics of the knowledge of the people who built them, in some cases also attested to in written sources. The fourth section seeks to link specific choices of construction solution to the socio-economic context of the time, trying to establish a connection between the type of buildings that were built, the kind of life their inhabitants led, and the contemporary mentality. The last section is dedicated to a sort of final synthesis, with a brief, further examination of the various issues dealt with in the article as a whole.La primera parte del artículo hace un resumen de la evolución de las casas particulares y viviendas domésticas en la historiografía italiana a partir de los años 70, cuando los estudiosos empezaron a interesarse por el tema y también gracias al desarrollo de la disciplina moderna de arqueología medieval. Tras identificar las actuales líneas de investigación, la segunda parte analiza los principales tipos de vivienda, su distribución geográfica y diversas cronologías. La tercera aborda el concepto de las viviendas residenciales como el resultado de determinadas habilidades técnicas y analiza las características del conocimiento del pueblo que las levantó, corroborando algunos casos con fuentes documentales. La cuarta parte intenta encontrar una relación entre las decisiones tomadas en determinadas soluciones

  9. WHAT MOTIVATES CULTURAL TOURISTS? AN ANALYSIS OF BUCHAREST INHABITANTS' MOTIVATION TO VISIT THE CENTRE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravar Anamaria Sidonia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural tourism is currently one of the main driving forces of the tourist phenomena, accounting for a significant part of the world's tourist flows. Cultural tourism may take many forms, according to the motivation behind tourists' impetus to travel to a certain destination. Cultural heritage and historical sites, dance, music and theatre performances, art galleries, museums and exhibitions, religious and worship sites and ethnic traditions are the main attractions for tourists motivated by knowledge seeking, self-development and the desire to experience other cultures. Although cultural motivations play an important role in the generation of tourist flows towards cultural tourism destinations, a tourism experience is rarely generated as a result of a single motivation. The act of choosing a specific destination and tourism product is influenced by multiple motivations, not only cultural but also connected to relaxation or family. Furthermore, tourism products are rarely homogeneous – a single holiday may include experiences with cultural content as well as leisure time, sports, adventure or entertainment. Thus, culture is not always the main motivation behind cultural tourism and may in fact be less central to the decision to travel than other factors. This is particularly true in the case of destinations which dispose of various cultural assets, but whose natural tourist resources – such as landscape, climate, access to the sea – also makes them attractive for other types of tourism. The aim of this article is to show that in the case of tourist destinations where cultural attractions represent the vast majority of the areas' tourist heritage, cultural motivations remains central to the decision to travel. Furthermore, we will seek to identify the main types of cultural attractions that motivate cultural tourism in Romania by investigating Bucharest inhabitants' perception of the Centre Region, a cultural destination par excellence in

  10. Food resource and temporal partitioning amongst a guild of predatory agroecosystem-inhabiting ant species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vivek Mohan AGARWAL; Neelkamal RASTOGI

    2009-01-01

    prey. The agroecosystem-inhabifing ant species prey on a large number and wide variety of insect herbivores as evident from the differences in the peak foraging times and the proportion of each type of prey hunted. Overall, our results indicate that the structure of agroecosystem-inhabiting ant assemblage may be influenced by a variety of factors including competition, temporal heterogeneities, prey availability and its characteristics such as size and mobility [Current Zoology 55 (5) : 366 - 375, 2009].

  11. Risk Factors for and Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection among Healthy Inhabitants in Northern Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasuyuki; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Darnindro, Nikko; Puspita Hapsari, Florentina Carolin

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia is a developing country, in most of which the infection rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been reported to be high. However, the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Indonesia has been unexpectedly reported to be low. The purpose of our study was to con rm whether the prevalence of H. pylori infection is low among healthy inhabitants in Northern Jakarta by 13C-urea breath test (UBT), and to examine the association of their lifestyle/environmental factors with H. pylori infection and to identify potential routes of transmission. We recruited a total of 196 subjects from a low-income community in Northern Jakarta, Indonesia. Of them, 193 subjects who completed a questionnaire about their lifestyle/environment and had UBT were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for sex and age with 95% con dence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression model. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 15.0%. There was difference in H. pylori infection rates among Buginese (40.0%), Betawi (9.1%), Sundanese (3.7%), and Batak (9.1%). After multivariate analysis, the ORs of intake of soybean milk, cucumber more than one time a week, infrequent hand washing before meals, and alcohol consumption were 0.10 (95%CI: 0.01-0.97), 6.61 (95%CI: 1.87-23.3), 4.10 (95%CI: 1.15-14.6), and 61.9 for former drinkers (95%CI: 1.67-2300.8), respectively. Buginese (OR=7.84; 95%CI: 1.82- 33.8) and Batak ethnic groups (OR=20.1; 95%CI: 1.90-213.2) were infected more frequently, compared with Javanese. The H. pylori infection rate in this study was low, as reported previously. After we scrutinized the factors, Buginese and Batak ethnic groups eat food using ngers more frequently than Javanese, Betawi, and Sundanese. In addition, infrequent hand wash practice before meal increased the risk. Our study indicated that person-person transmission was possible in this low prevalence area. The low infection rates of H. pylori among those of Javanese, Betawi, and

  12. Comparison of Mosquito Magnet and Biogents Sentinel Traps for Operational Surveillance of Container-Inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Kawalkowski, Margaret; Ninivaggi, Dominick V

    2016-03-01

    Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a standard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, and pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure and R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), and Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

  13. Analysis of diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi retrieved from a Mediterranean forest dominated by Pinus pinaster Aiton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D'Aguanno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in a poorly investigated habitat: a Mediterranean forest dominated by maritime pine. The sampling area lies in Tocchi biogenetic Reserve, located in the province of Siena (Tuscany, Italy. The monitoring campaign was carried out in 10 permanents plots, taking note of all the fungal species found on each piece of dead wood, irrespective of size and stage of decay. Over one year of surveys, 56 taxa of wood-inhabiting fungi were recorded, among which 39 are corticoids species, 16 polypores and 1 Heterobasidiomycetes. The fungal community seems to be dominated by a small number of species, which are more abundant than the others. Moreover, there are some specific features of deadwood influencing the species composition, such as the presence of coarse woody debris at the first decay stage and fine woody debris at the late decay stages. The results allowed characterizing the wood-inhabiting fungal community in this forest reserve, broadening our knowledge on several species and providing a preliminary database for further studies in Mediterranean areas.

  14. Collective Memory and Collective Identity of Hlučín Region Inhabitants in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Kubátová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hlučín Region is a small border area in the Moravia-Silesia Region. Its history is specific. Over 25 years in the 20th century, its border shifted three times and its inhabitants’ nationality also changed three times. The region was annexed by the German Reich in 1938 and its inhabitants gained the rights of citizens of the Reich, with the obligation to enlist in the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Germany. These historical turning points and their consequences after the Second World War are part of the cultural and communicative memory of most of the local people. The purpose of the article is to show the communicative memory of Hlučín Region inhabitants and the common knowledge of 20th century historical events to be one of the important integral parts of regional identity, which is a source of regional consciousness. Hlučín Region inhabitants identify themselves strongly with their region and society. This identification results from specific culture finding its expression in shared values, faith and traditions, and from the awareness of their own specificity. As a consequence of the predominant regional endogamy, this culture is handed down from one generation to another. Strong regional consciousness based on this identification, has a positive influence on the rich communal life and possibilities of stabilization and further development of the region.

  15. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  16. Cobalt and Zinc in Toenails of Some Kano Inhabitants *J.T. Ayodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinking and eating food when cobalt is widely ... The adult human body possesses approximately ... pancreas, kidney and other body fluids such as ... tissues, thymodine kinase, pancreatic carboxyl ..... vanadium using short-time neutron.

  17. Contemporary radiation doses to mice and voles inhabiting East-Ural Radioactive Trace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Yarmoshenko, Ilia V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Starichenko, Vera I.; Chibiryak, Mikhail V. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology UB RAS, 620144, 202, 8 Marta St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) is the radioactively contaminated territory formed after accidental explosion at nuclear waste storage facility of Mayak nuclear plant in 1957. Contemporary doses were estimated for the mice and voles, that were trapped by staff of IPAE at two sites in 2000-s. The site 1 is situated directly close to the territory of the plant. Contemporary surface {sup 90}Sr contamination is 24-40 MBq/m{sup 2}. The site 2 is located as far as 6 km to the north-east from the site 1 (3.1-8.1 MBq/m{sup 2}). Fifty years after accident long-lived {sup 90}Sr is most significant contributor to terrestrial animal's exposure. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr was measured utilising developed nondestructive method of bone beta-radiometry. To estimate radiation doses the strontium biokinetic model and dosimetric model for mouse-like rodent were designed. Skeletal activity concentration of {sup 90}Sr for animals trapped at site 1: 44-1249 Bq/g, mean 592 Bq/g; at site 2: 4-124 Bq/g, mean 32 Bq/g. Following parameters were selected as indicators of exposure: whole body dose (WBD) accumulated during 45 days, skeletal dose accumulated during 45 days and WBD rate on the last day before trapping. As can be seen in the table, there is a full agreement of the radiation dose and the level of surface contamination. For the animals inhabiting the most contaminated site mean WBD rate is close to 1 mGy/day. It can be reliably concluded that considering both internal and external exposures the dose rate exceeds 1 mGr/day in average. Publication 108 ICRP suggests derived consideration reference level (DCRL) for small mammals in a range 0.1-1 mGy/day. Thus in the most contaminated part of the EURT WBD rate exceeds the upper limit of the DCRL. Radiation doses on the second site are significantly lower. Mean WBD rate is below 0.1 mGy/day. At the same time, the WBD rate exceeds 0.1 mGy/day (lower limit of the DCRL) for approximately 40 % of animals from the

  18. Assessment of knowledge and awareness of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of an urban community in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Ochanya Adio-Moses

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global warming with its attendant consequences such as extreme heat, natural disasters, poor air quality and allergens has increased health problems. The risk of injury, illness and resulting death among inhabitants are expected to be frequent and intense especially in areas with heavy industrial presence. The current low level of literacy and the socio-economic situation of Nigerians could be responsible for their low consciousness of this unpreventable changes in our climate in one hand and lack of willingness on the part of people to seek environmental health and safety information on the causes, effect and how to mitigate global warming on the other hand. This study focuses on assessment of knowledge and awareness of causes, effects and mitigating measures of global warming among inhabitants of industrial areas of Ibadan southwestern Nigeria. In this descriptive survey, purposive sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents from among the inhabitants of this area. A questionnaire with reliability co-efficient (r of 0.78 was used for data collection. Two research questions were answered and three hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Statistical methods such as Chi-square, frequency count, simple percentage and pie chart were used for data analysis. Results showed that only 20% had 34.0% had negative attitude while 81 (40.5% were indifferent, all the three hypotheses were rejected. Consequently, it was deduced that respondents have significant knowledge of global warming. In recommendation, people’s environmental health seeking behaviour should be promoted through multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and the development of inclusive environmental health and safety intervention strategies.

  19. 西双版纳亚洲象肇事原因分析及缓解对策探讨%Causes and Mitigating Strategies for Human-Elephant Conflicts in Xishuangbanna Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭贤明; 杨正斌; 王兰新; 赵建伟

    2012-01-01

    针对西双版纳人象冲突日益严重的现象,通过实地调查、数据收集整理、村寨访谈等方法,分析了1991~2010年间以亚洲象为主的野生动物为害情况.分析认为,天然林下食物减少、栖息地孤岛效应、环境容量不足、亚洲象取食习性改变、人为伤害引发的报复行为、补偿不足和思小高速公路阻隔等是造成人象冲突的主要原因.藉此提出加强生物廊道建设,开展合理的土地利用规划,进行适当的产业结构调整,加强栖息地保护,提高损失补偿额度,开展以观象为主的生态旅游活动和建立亚洲象保护管理信息系统等对策.%Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) is a serious problem to the Asian elephant conservation in Xishuangbanna. Wildlife damage cases mainly in the Asian elephant have been analyzed in this paper based on data from field observations, community interviews and other data of varied sources since 1991. The results showed that the main reason caused HEC including the decrease of natural food, habitat isolation, low carrying capacity, diet change, revenge of elephant, and the disturbance oflarge infrastructures etc. It was suggested that the HEC mitigation strategies should include the establishment of ecological corridors, regional land-use planning, adjustment of industrial structure, the promotion of habitat protection, the increase of compensation to crop damages caused by elephant, introduction of elephant-watching eco-tourism, as well as introduction of the protected area monitoring information system (MIST) for elephants conservation.

  20. A note on the occurrence of reef inhabiting, red-bellied yellow tail fusilier, Caesio cuning from outside its known geographical array

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.

    The reef inhabiting fusilier, Caesio cuning, characterized by pinkish abdomen and yellow caudal fin exhibits shoaling behaviour and is known to be geographically distributed from the Gulf of Mannar to the Vanuatu Islands in the South Pacific...

  1. Avian haemosporidian parasites infection in wild birds inhabiting Minami-daito Island of the Northwest Pacific, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi; Nii, Ryosuke; Yui, Saori; Sasaki, Emi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Sato, Yukita; Matsui, Shin; Horie, Sayaka; Akatani, Kana; Takagi, Masaoki; Sawabe, Kyoko; Tsuda, Yoshio

    2008-05-01

    Haemosporidian parasites infection among wild birds inhabiting Minami-daito Island was studied. Blood films from 183 birds representing 4 species of 4 families were examined microscopically. Avian haemosporidian parasites were detected in 3 species with an overall prevalence of 59.6%. None of the 30 Daito scops owls (Otus scops interpositus) examined were infected. Either Haemoproteus sp. or Plasmodium sp. infection was found in 14 of 31 (45.2%) Borodino islands white-eyes (Zosterops japonicus daitoensis). Plasmodium spp. were found in 94 of 102 (92.2%) bull-headed shrikes (Lanius bucephalus) and 1 of 20 (5%) tree sparrows (Passer montanus).

  2. Trombiculid mites (Hannemania sp.) in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Anura) inhabiting selected soybean and rice agroecosystems of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Junges, Celina; Bassó, Agustín; Cabagna-Zenklusen, Mariana

    2012-09-01

    Trombiculid mites are known to parasitize a variety of amphibian species; however, few comparisons of mite parasitism among sites have been made. Here, Hannemania sp. parasitism in frogs (Leptodactylus chaquensis) inhabiting agroecosystems from mideastern Argentina was described. A total of 40 adult frogs (22 females and 18 males) were analyzed to detect ectoparasite Hannemania spp. larvae. Prevalence and mean abundance of Hannemania sp. were consistently higher in frogs from the agroecosystems (rice and soybean fields) than from two reference sites. Leptodactylus chaquensis might be considered an important host species of Hannemania sp., particularly in agricultural areas.

  3. Visual privacy and family intimacy: a case study of Malay inhabitants living in two-storey low-cost terrace housing

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Hariza Hashim; Zaiton Abdul Rahim; Sharifah Norazizan Syed Abdul Rashid; Nurizan Yahaya

    2006-01-01

    The authors report on a study of visual privacy, family intimacy, and building elements of two-storey low-cost terrace housing in an urban area in Malaysia. They examine behavioural and physical regulating mechanisms used to achieve privacy among Malay Muslim inhabitants of the housing units studied. They also look at the consequences of the lack of privacy on the inhabitants over a period of time. Their findings support the premise that cultural values influence housing and that religious un...

  4. International relations and epidemics: a short expedition to places inhabited by states and mad cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltola, M

    1999-01-01

    The complex process of co-evolution between humans, their social structures and biological disease agents have from time to time established relationships between the three. Recently, one such set of paths has opened up faster and closer global connections. As new and more inclusive approaches emerge from the shadow of strict intra-disciplinary containment, it is tempting to formulate the relationship between epidemics and international relations in new terms deriving from new metaphors. The argument that components central to international relations (state, sovereignty, power) do not associate with disease can be viewed sceptically. Throughout history, epidemics have had a direct impact on political interaction by vindicating, weakening, testing, and moulding international relations. This paper examines the past relationships between epidemics and international relations, and illustrates these interactions with the example of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and its link with human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  5. High-throughput sequencing-based analysis of endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps reveals unexpectedly high fungal diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fei; Chen, Xin; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Guang-Rong; Li, Yu-Ling; Lin, Juan; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2016-09-14

    Chinese Cordyceps, known in Chinese as "DongChong XiaCao", is a parasitic complex of a fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) and a caterpillar. The current study explored the endogenetic fungal communities inhabiting Chinese Cordyceps. Samples were collected from five different geographical regions of Qinghai and Tibet, and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 sequences from each sample were obtained using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that Ascomycota was the dominant fungal phylum in Chinese Cordyceps and its soil microhabitat from different sampling regions. Among the Ascomycota, 65 genera were identified, and the abundant operational taxonomic units showed the strongest sequence similarity to Ophiocordyceps, Verticillium, Pseudallescheria, Candida and Ilyonectria Not surprisingly, the genus Ophiocordyceps was the largest among the fungal communities identified in the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. In addition, fungal communities in the soil microhabitats were clustered separately from the external mycelial cortices and fruiting bodies of Chinese Cordyceps from different sampling regions. There was no significant structural difference in the fungal communities between the fruiting bodies and external mycelial cortices of Chinese Cordyceps. This study revealed an unexpectedly high diversity of fungal communities inhabiting the Chinese Cordyceps and its microhabitats.

  6. Dung-inhabiting fungi: a potential reservoir of novel secondary metabolites for the control of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrocco, Sabrina

    2016-04-01

    Coprophilous fungi are a large group of saprotrophic fungi mostly found in herbivore dung. The number of these fungi undergoing investigation is continually increasing, and new species and genera continue to be described. Dung-inhabiting fungi play an important ecological role in decomposing and recycling nutrients from animal dung. They produce a large array of bioactive secondary metabolites and have a potent enzymatic arsenal able to utilise even complex molecules. Bioactive secondary metabolites are actively involved in interaction with and defence against other organisms whose growth can be inhibited, resulting in an enhanced ecological fitness of producer strains. Currently, these antibiotics and bioactive secondary metabolites are of interest in medicine in particular, while very little information is available concerning their potential use in agriculture. This review introduces the ecology of dung-inhabiting fungi, with particular emphasis on the production of antibiotic compounds as a means to compete with other microorganisms. Owing to the fast pace of technological progress, new approaches to predicting the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites are proposed. Coprophilous fungi should be considered as elite candidate organisms for the discovery of novel antifungal compounds, above all in view of their exploitation for crop protection. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Citizen science data reveal ecological, historical and evolutionary factors shaping interactions between woody hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Maruyama, Pietro K; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Laessøe, Thomas; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-12-01

    Woody plants host diverse communities of associated organisms, including wood-inhabiting fungi. In this group, host effects on species richness and interaction network structure are not well understood, especially not at large geographical scales. We investigated ecological, historical and evolutionary determinants of fungal species richness and network modularity, that is, subcommunity structure, across woody hosts in Denmark, using a citizen science data set comprising > 80 000 records of > 1000 fungal species on 91 genera of woody plants. Fungal species richness was positively related to host size, wood pH, and the number of species in the host genus, with limited influence of host frequency and host history, that is, time since host establishment in the area. Modularity patterns were unaffected by host history, but largely reflected host phylogeny. Notably, fungal communities differed substantially between angiosperm and gymnosperm hosts. Host traits and evolutionary history appear to be more important than host frequency and recent history in structuring interactions between hosts and wood-inhabiting fungi. High wood acidity appears to act as a stress factor reducing fungal species richness, while large host size, providing increased niche diversity, enhances it. In some fungal groups that are known to interact with live host cells in the establishment phase, host selectivity is common, causing a modular community structure. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Risky encounters with doctors? Medical diversity and health-related strategies of the inhabitants of Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkala-Gawęcka, Danuta

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces the notion of 'risky encounters', referring to the way in which contacts with doctors are commonly perceived by the inhabitants of Bishkek, the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. The author's research conducted between 2011 and 2013 revealed that most people were extremely critical of biomedical personnel, despite positive assessments of healthcare reforms expressed by experts. Owing to the prevailing distrust of doctors, their interventions are often considered risky to one's health, which strongly influences people's health-related strategies in the context of medical diversity. This perception of risk is deeply embedded in feelings of uncertainty and anxiety, which should be viewed from the more general perspective of the political, economic and social uncertainties resulting from the difficulties of the period of post-Soviet transformation. It is evident that medical diversity in Bishkek provides people in need with many non-biomedical treatment options, and a distrust of doctors significantly contributes to the popularity of complementary medicine. Economic constraints and local concepts of health, illness and efficacy are among the many other factors that play a role in therapeutic choices. However, the current paper focuses on risk, uncertainty and trust, as emotions that are central to an understanding of the health-related strategies and tactics used by the inhabitants of present-day Bishkek.

  9. The Biological Diversity and Production of Volatile Organic Compounds by Stem-Inhabiting Endophytic Fungi of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Rundell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes colonize every major lineage of land plants without causing apparent harm to their hosts. Despite their production of interesting and potentially novel compounds, endophytes—particularly those inhabiting stem tissues—are still a vastly underexplored component of microbial diversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of over 1500 fungal endophyte isolates collected from three Ecuadorian ecosystems: lowland tropical forest, cloud forest, and coastal dry forest. We sought to determine whether Ecuador’s fungal endophytes are hyperdiverse, and whether that biological diversity is reflected in the endophytes’ chemical diversity. To assess this chemical diversity, we analyzed a subset of isolates for their production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, a representative class of natural products. This study yielded a total of 1526 fungal ITS sequences comprising some 315 operational taxonomic units (OTUs, resulting in a non-asymptotic OTU accumulation curve and characterized by a Fisher’s α of 120 and a Shannon Diversity score of 7.56. These figures suggest that the Ecuadorian endophytes are hyperdiverse. Furthermore, the 113 isolates screened for VOCs produced more than 140 unique compounds. These results present a mere snapshot of the remarkable biological and chemical diversity of stem-inhabiting endophytic fungi from a single neotropical country.

  10. Relationship between dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and antioxidants level in plasma of Kraków inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarzyk, Emilia; Pietrzycka, Agata; Zając, Joanna; Morawiecka-Baranek, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Some literature data indicate that antioxidant-rich food may significantly increase antioxidants in serum and decrease the oxidative stress but results are ambiguous. The aim of this study was to estimate the total antioxidant capacity of food intake among the inhabitants of Kraków, Poland on the basis of dietary antioxidant index (DAI) and evaluation the relation between DAI and the level of antioxidants in plasma. Examination included 70 (37 women and 33 men) non-smoking inhabitants of Krakow aged 46.4 ± 13.7 years. DAI was investigated on the basis of Food Frequency Questionnaire including 145 food items. DAI was measured using the method by Benzi and expressed as FRAP (mMol/L). In plasma samples total antioxidant status (TAS) expressed as FRAP and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as a marker of lipids peroxidation were measured. The mean value of DAI of all examined persons was 46.74 ± 25.5 mMol/L (in female group: 54.13 ± 27.7 mMol/L; in male group: 37.83 ± 19.5 mMol/L; p antioxidants in daily diet (measured as DAI) might increase antioxidants defense (measured by TAC as FRAP) and decrease oxidative stress (measured by MDA concentration in plasma). The dietary modification towards higher consumption of antioxidants (especially in men) should be highlighted in prevention of diseases in which oxidative stress play considerable role.

  11. [Levels of lead, cadmium and mercury in the hair of inhabitants of the Nantes and Grenoble areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, H L; Stoklov, M; Remond, D; Buffet, H; Metayer, C; Vincent, F; Corneteau, H; Faure, J

    1983-11-01

    Lead, cadmium and mercury were measured in the air of 398 inhabitants of the Grenoble area and 341 inhabitants of the Nantes area. The hair was washed with hor solution of EDTA, dissolved in nitric acid and analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentrations are 6,23 micrograms/g for lead, 0,40 microgram/g for cadmium and 1,06 microgram/g for mercury. There is no difference between found data of the two areas for lead and cadmium. Mercury levels are higher in the Nantes area. Lead content is higher in male hair than in female hair, but the difference is not significant. In the Grenoble area, mercury levels are higher in males than in females; the process is reversed in the Nantes area. We have found no relation between metal levels and age of persons, but lead content is high in the hair of people under ten. Artisans and mechanics have lead content higher than the general people, though exposed people to occupational risks is excluded. We have found to relation between metal in the hair and the size of the town. It seems that the use of tobacco is without influence. Mercury content is related to the eating of fish. It is not increased in the population because of dental amalgams.

  12. Ecological Evaluation of Cres – Lošinj Archipelago for the Purpose of Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Saganić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is ecological evaluation of the Cres-Lošinj archipelago and the way it could be used for tourism purposes. Rapid growth of population and increasing human economic activity influence the quality of the environment. That is why the concept of sustainable development has been made, as well as new kind of tourism - eco-tourism or sustainable tourism. Today there is a small number of regions with preserved nature. The Cres-Lošinj archipelago is one of them. There is a large number of preserved plant and animal species on the archipelago, as well as some rural areas with preserved local architecture. With the development of eco-tourism, this archipelago would get the image of the area with preserved and authentic natural and cultural surroundings and healthy living environment.

  13. Dose- and age-dependent cardiovascular mortality among inhabitants of the Chornobyl contaminated areas. 1988-2010 observation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Prikaschikova, K Ye; Domashevska, T Ye; Kostiuk, G V; Gubina, I G; Tereschenko, S O

    2014-09-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to conduct a descriptive epidemiological analysis of cardiovascular disease mortality among people living in contaminated areas of Ukraine with regard for total cumulative effective doses and age at the time of the Chornobyl accident. Materials and methods. Depending on respective total cumulative effective doses for 1986-2010 the people living in contaminated areas of Ukraine were divided into cohorts of those exposed to 5.6-20.99 mSv (cohort 1) and 21.00-50.99 mSv (cohort 2) radiation doses. Each one was stratified by age categories - younger than 18 years old, aged 18-39 and 40-60 respectively. Death rate (ID/10^3 person-years) and mean error (±m) were calculated and Student's test (t) was applied to estimate the mortality from cardiovascular diseases for 1988-2010 period. Results. The significantly higher (ID/10^3 person-years is 8.08 ± 0.10) cardiovascular disease mortality was revealed within 1988-2010 observation period among inhabitants of contaminated areas exposed to 21.00-50.00 mSv total effective radiation doses accumulated over 1986-2010 as compared to that in cohort 1 (ID/10^3 person-years is 6.29 ± 0.06) for the same period. In the age groups (under 18, 18-39 and 40-60 years old) exposed to 21.0-50.0 mSv doses the mortality rate was significantly higher than in the corresponding age groups of the inhabitants with 5.6-20.99 mSv exposure (1.31 ± 0.08 ID/10^3 person-years, 8.50 ± 0.19, 48.95 ± 0.33 vs 0.75 ± 0.04, 5.00 ± 0.11, 23.52 ± 0.24 respectively). In the elder age groups with higher radiation doses the mortality was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than in those with lower doses: ID/10^3 person-years was 1.31 ± 0.08 vs. 0.75 ± 0.04 (those under 18 years); 8.50 ± 0.19 vs. 5.00 ± 0,11 (those aged 18-39); 48.95 ± 0.33 vs. 23.54 ± 0.24 (people aged 40-60). Among inhabitants with higher radiation doses the mortality rates for certain groups of cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease

  14. Inhabiting the sexual landscape: toward an interpretive theory of the development of sexual orientation and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J

    2015-01-01

    Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.

  15. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Disner, Geonildo Rodrigo; Boff, Everton; Machado, Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues; Padua, Michelly de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Miranda, Gustavo Borba de

    2012-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity), with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  16. Climate Change in Africa: Impacts and Effects on the Inhabitants of the Lake Chad Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.; Tahir, S. M.; Olisa, O.

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Energy and Climate Change defined climate as the average weather experienced over a long period. This includes temperature, wind and rainfall patterns. The climate of the Earth is not static, and has changed many times in response to a variety of natural causes. Due to human activities in emmiting green house gases has resulted the Earth to get warmed by 0.74°C over the last hundred years. Around 0.4°C of this warming has occurred since the 1970s. Climate is now one of the major phenomenon threatening lives and humanity in general since the beginning of industrial revolution. Climate exerts a profound influence on the lives of poor populations in the Lake Chad region of Africa who depend on fishing and crop cultivation for livelihood and sustenance, who are unprotected against climate-related diseases, who lacked secure access to water and food and who are vulnerable to hydro meteorological hazard. The effects of climate change on the study area are many and include diminishing resources and conflicts over the available limited water resources. The Lake Chad region is a fragile area with high climate variability and extremes of weather. As this inland water is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, salt mining, as well as transportation by Nigerians, Nigeriens, Chadian and Cameroonians, it is an area of trans-boundary water conflicts. This paper examines the part played by climate change in the decline of fishery resources and livelihood activities in the Lake Chad region. Data from field studies, structured interview and secondary sources show that fish catches and livelihood activities have declined tremendously in recent times due to several factors including overexploitation and increasing demands on the aquatic resources. Findings from the study show that droughty periods have resulted in the reduction of open lake water surface from about 25,000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2,000 km2 in the 1990s. This has led to the diminishing aquatic

  17. Monitoring mercury exposure in reproductive aged women inhabiting the Tapajós river basin, Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Corvelo, Tereza Cristina; Oliveira, Érika Abdon Fiquene; de Parijós, Amanda Magno; de Oliveira, Claudia Simone Baltazar; do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola, Rosane; de Araújo, Amélia A; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Lima Silveira, Luiz Carlos; da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Among Amazonian communities, exposure to methylmercury is associated mainly with fish consumption that may affect fetal development in pregnant women. Therefore a temporal assessment was performed to assess the exposure of reproductive aged women to mercury who reside in the riparian communities of São Luís do Tapajós and Barreiras located in the Tapajós basin of the Brazilian Amazon from 1999 to 2012. The total mercury concentration in the 519 hair samples was assessed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Data analysis showed that the average total mercury concentration decreased from 1.066 to 0.743 μg/g in those years. In 1999 the proportion of volunteers with mercury levels ≥ 10 μg/g was approximately 68 %. In general, exposure to mercury decreased among women of reproductive age, but the potential risks to reproduction and human health is still an issue as 22 % of the woman continued showing high mercury levels (≥ 10 μg/g) in 2012.

  18. Seroprevalence of malaria in inhabitants of the urban zone of Antananarivo, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotomanana Fanjasoa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, is located at an altitude of over 1,200 m. The environment at this altitude is not particularly favourable to malaria transmission, but malaria nonetheless remains a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate exposure to malaria in the urban population of Antananarivo, by measuring the specific seroprevalence of Plasmodium falciparum. Methods Serological studies specific for P. falciparum were carried out with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. In a representative population of Antananarivo, 1,059 healthy volunteers were interviewed and serum samples were taken. Results The seroprevalence of IgG+IgA+IgM was 56.1% and that of IgM was 5.9%. The major risk factor associated with a positive IgG+IgA+IgM IFAT was travel outside Antananarivo, whether in the central highlands or on the coast. The abundance of rice fields in certain urban districts was not associated with a higher seroprevalence. Conclusion Malaria transmission levels are low in Antananarivo, but seroprevalence is high. Humans come into contact with the parasite primarily when travelling outside the city. Further studies are required to identify indigenous risk factors and intra-city variations more clearly.

  19. Automatic construction of 3D basic-semantic models of inhabited interiors using laser scanners and RFID sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Adan, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the automatic construction of 3D basic-semantic models of inhabited interiors using laser scanners with the help of RFID technologies. This is an innovative approach, in whose field scarce publications exist. The general strategy consists of carrying out a selective and sequential segmentation from the cloud of points by means of different algorithms which depend on the information that the RFID tags provide. The identification of basic elements of the scene, such as walls, floor, ceiling, windows, doors, tables, chairs and cabinets, and the positioning of their corresponding models can then be calculated. The fusion of both technologies thus allows a simplified 3D semantic indoor model to be obtained. This method has been tested in real scenes under difficult clutter and occlusion conditions, and has yielded promising results.

  20. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the trees Crataegus x media Bechst. in the urban green area. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Jaśkiwicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted in the years 1999-2001 in the green areas of Lublin, on the trees of Crataegus x media Bechst. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting hawthorn in the street and park sites. The studies found out the presence of four aphid species on the examined trees, namely Aphis pomi De Geer, aphids from the genus Dysaphis Börn., Ovatus crataegarius (Walk. and Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walk.. More aphid species and bigger populations were found in the street site (A as compa red with the park site (B.The weather conditions (air temperatures of over 30°C and stormy rainfalls limited the population of all aphid species. On the other hand, a mild winter and a warm spring with the rainfalls within the norm caused that the number of aphids decreased considerably.

  1. Problems associated with the seed-trap method when measuring seed dispersal in forests inhabited by Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu

    2014-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of seed/litter traps in seed dispersal ecology, several problems have arisen when using this method in forests inhabited by semi-terrestrial monkeys. The first issue is the height of the trap relative to the location where macaques spit seeds and/or defecate. For Japanese macaques in the lowland forests of Yakushima Island, southern Japan, 30-50% of the seeds emitted from cheek pouches and faeces will not be caught by seed traps, leading to underestimation of seed fall. The second issue is the attractiveness of seed traps. Macaques sometimes play with the traps, potentially affecting the results of the seed-trap method in complex ways, including both negative and positive effects. To obtain reasonable estimates of total seed dispersal, we recommend that researchers conduct the seed-trap method concurrently with monkey observations, and that they should affix traps more securely to prevent macaques from destroying the traps.

  2. EURANOS. Generic handbook for assisting in the management of contaminated inhabited areas in Europe following a radiological emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brown, J.

    industry and others who may be affected. The handbook is a living document that requires updating from time to time to remain state-of-the-art and customisation of the generic handbook is an essential part of its use within individual countries. The handbook includes management options for application...... in the early and medium-longer term phases of an incident. Sources of contamination considered in the handbook are nuclear accidents, radiological dispersion devices and satellite accidents. Inhabited areas are characterised by a number of different surfaces i.e. buildings; roads and paved areas; soils, grass...... and plants; trees and shrubs. The handbook is divided into several independent sections comprising: supporting scientific and technical information; an analysis of the factors influencing recovery; compendia of comprehensive, state-of-the-art datasheets for more than 50 management options; guidance...

  3. ETHNIC CUSTOM-SPECIFIC COSTUME OF KARCHAGI LEZGHIN INHABITANTS OF THE SOUTHERN DAGESTAN IN THE XIX TO EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfulaevich Savzihan KARAKHANOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered one of the components to the material culture, namely the ethnic custom-specific costume of the Karchaga Lezghins, one could find there the brilliant image of the cultural uniqueness, of customs and household setups of everyday life. The study explored the grounds for both similarities and differences in comparing the Karchaga Lezghins with the general body of Lezghins, and with other ethnic communities of Dagestan and the Northern Caucasus. One may observe these traits in both male and female costume, in particular, dress, shoes, headdress, jewelry, children’s wear, etc. The female highlanders of Karchaga paid particular attention to the jewels. The craftsmen manufactured these articles from iron, silver, gold and so on. Besides the locally made fabric for sewing garments, local inhabitants have bought the imported cloth, or silk, woolen cloth shawls or brocade shawls etc., manufactured at the Russian factories. 

  4. Mercury concentrations in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida: Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Titcomb, Elizabeth Murdoch; Fair, Patricia A; Stavros, Hui-Chen W; Mazzoil, Marilyn; Bossart, Gregory D; Reif, John S

    2015-08-15

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) have tissue mercury concentrations among the highest reported worldwide. Analysis of total mercury (THg) concentrations in blood collected between 2003 and 2012 showed a significant linear decrease over time (p=0.04). Significant differences in the spatial distribution of THg in resident IRL dolphins were also observed with a general gradient in concentration from north to south. Evaluation of local biogeochemistry and accumulation of mercury in prey species is needed to better understand factors influencing the distribution of Hg in the apex predator. Analyses of temporal and spatial patterns of exposure to THg in this sentinel species may have implications for both ecosystem and public health in the region.

  5. EURANOS. Generic handbook for assisting in the management of contaminated inhabited areas in Europe following a radiological emergency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisbet, A.F.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Brown, J.

    industry and others who may be affected. The handbook is a living document that requires updating from time to time to remain state-of-the-art and customisation of the generic handbook is an essential part of its use within individual countries. The handbook includes management options for application...... and plants; trees and shrubs. The handbook is divided into several independent sections comprising: supporting scientific and technical information; an analysis of the factors influencing recovery; compendia of comprehensive, state-of-the-art datasheets for more than 50 management options; guidance......The handbook for inhabited areas has been developed as a result of a series of European and UK initiatives that started in the early 1990s. It is aimed at national and local authorities, central government departments and agencies, radiation protection experts, emergency services, the water...

  6. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Odor, Peter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  7. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  8. ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND ITS REFLECTION IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF THE INHABITANTS IN A MIDDLE-SIZED TOWN (VÁC, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA MEGYERI-RUNYÓ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the role of urban environmental protection in sustainable development while analysing the factors influencing the environmental consciousness of the inhabitants of a middle-sizedtown based on a general model, together with the role of environmental consciousness in solving environmental protection problems at settlement level. My particular research focused oncharacterising the environmental state of Vác, with a population of 35000 people, and on the knowledge and environmental consciousness of the inhabitants. In the course of the representative questionnaire survey, 439 people gave assessable answers. Questions were related to the most significant environmental problems (air pollution, water contamination, sewage treatment, waste management. Answers were compared to the real situation based on measurements. Results revealedthat the knowledge of the inhabitants on local environmental problems is better than the national average. In certain relations (water contamination, sewage treatment, however, it is deficient, thusinformation transfer was studied separately as well. It can be stated that local governments should make greater efforts in order to inform inhabitants. Environmental attitude of the inhabitants can be regarded as good. Based on the general model, I analysed the tasks of the settlement to improve environmental consciousness in order to increase efficiency of urban environmental protection.

  9. Distribution, diet, and energetic condition of age-0 walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jamal H.; Zaleski, Marilyn F.; Heintz, Ron A.

    2016-10-01

    Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) are commercially and ecologically important species in Alaska waters. Little is known about their ecology after transitioning from larvae to free swimming fish until settlement to nursery habitats in the eastern Gulf of Alaska. Differences in the distribution, diet, body size, and energetic status between the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska were investigated during summer months to better understand regional and interspecific differences in life history and ecology. The composition of zooplankton prey in the diets of walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting shelf waters was more varied relative to those inhabiting the slope and basin. Body condition and total energy content of Pacific cod was greater than walleye pollock, however total energy content increased with length at a similar rate for both species. Walleye pollock inhabiting continental slope waters had higher energy stores relative to those inhabiting the continental shelf and basin, indicating an energetic advantage for individuals remaining off the shelf during summer months or potentially the advection of fish with higher energy reserves off of the shelf. Previous studies have documented the importance of energy stores for surviving winter and future studies should focus on understanding the mechanisms influencing lipid storage and somatic growth for walleye pollock and Pacific cod inhabiting the eastern and central Gulf of Alaska.

  10. Arsenic, copper, and zinc contamination in soil and wheat during coal mining, with assessment of health risks for the inhabitants of Huaibei, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Gao Ling; Lou, Lai Qing; Zhang, Shuai; Xia, Xue Wei; Cai, Qing Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to investigate arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contamination in agricultural soils and wheat crops at two areas in Huaibei, China. Area A is in the proximity of Shuoli coal mine. In area B, three coal mines and a coal cleaning plant were distributed. The potential health risk of As, Cu, and Zn exposure to the local inhabitants through consumption of wheat grains was also estimated. The results showed that significantly higher (pArsenic concentrations in wheat sampled from area A were negatively correlated with the distance from the coal mine (p<0.001). Concentrations of Cu and Zn in wheat seedlings and grains collected from area B were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in those collected from area A, with the exception of Zn in wheat seedlings. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in most wheat grain samples were above the permissible limits of Cu and Zn in edible plants set by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization. The hazard index of aggregate risk through consumption of wheat grains was 2.3-2.4 for rural inhabitants and 1.4-1.5 for urban inhabitants. The average intake of inorganic As for rural inhabitants in Huaibei was above 10 μg day(-1). These findings indicated that the inhabitants around the coal mine are experiencing a significant potential health risk due to the consumption of locally grown wheat.

  11. Wild leafy vegetables: A study of their subsistence dietetic support to the inhabitants of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao KS

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumption of greens is a major source of vitamins and micro-nutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remote rural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenous vegetables, both cultivated in kitchen gardens and wild, for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such foods is part of traditional knowledge which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. A total of 123 households in six villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve buffer zone was surveyed using a schedule to assess the knowledge, availability and consumption pattern of wild leafy vegetables. Quantity estimations were done using regular visits with informants from 30 sample households of the six study villages during the collections. Monetization was used to see the value of wild leafy vegetables harvested during a year. The diversity of wild leafy vegetables being use by the local inhabitants is 21 species belonging to 14 genera and 11 families. This is far less than that being reported to be used by the communities from Western Ghats in India and some parts of Africa. Irrespective of social or economic status all households in the study villages had the knowledge and used wild leafy vegetables. The number of households reported to consume these wild leafy vegetables is greater than the number of households reporting to harvest them for all species except for Diplazium esculentum and Phytolacca acinosa. The availability and use period varied for the species are listed by the users. The study indicated that the knowledge is eroding due to changing social values and non participation of younger generation in collection and processing of such wild leafy vegetables.

  12. Rarity of bacterial and viral meningitis in areas of Western Greece with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Ioannis; Leotsinidis, Michael; Diamantopoulos, Stavros; Makrakis, Konstantinos; Ellina, Aikaterini; Giannakopoulos, Agelos; Papanastasiou, Dimitris A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the incidence of childhood meningitis in regions with fewer than 2,000 inhabitants (rural regions) and regions with more than 2,000 inhabitants (urban regions) in the prefecture of Achaia in Western Greece during 1991-2005. Included were all 555 children hospitalized for meningitis. The criteria for bacterial meningitis were (i) positive blood/cerebralspinal fluid (CSF) culture, Gram stain, or latex agglutination and/or (ii) increased beta-glucuronidase in CSF. In case of suspected bacterial meningitis, the following findings were considered: compatible clinical and laboratory findings, and whether or not a cure was achieved with antibiotic treatment and finally resulted in negative cultures. In cases of suspected viral meningitis, compatible clinical and laboratory findings were considered, together with observation of a cure without antibiotic treatment. Only 28 of 555 meningitis patients were from rural regions. The incidence per 10,000 children in rural and urban regions, respectively, was as follows: meningitis, 1.13 and 8.99; bacterial meningitis, 0.16 and 2.40; suspected bacterial meningitis, 0.52 and 3.00; and viral meningitis, 0.44 and 3.58. The incidence ratio for bacterial, suspected bacterial, and viral meningitis in urban versus rural regions was 14.85, 5.72, and 8.10, respectively. Only 2 of the 79 cases with a confirmed causative pathogen came from rural regions. In conclusion, compared to those living in urban regions, children living in rural regions are relatively spared from bacterial and viral meningitis.

  13. Behavioral and physiological responses to subgroup size and number of people in howler monkeys inhabiting a forest fragment used for nature-based tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Melo, Adriana R; Andresen, Ellen; Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Victor; Chavira, Roberto; Schondube, Jorge; Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Cuarón, Alfredo D

    2013-11-01

    Animals' responses to potentially threatening factors can provide important information for their conservation. Group size and human presence are potentially threatening factors to primates inhabiting small reserves used for recreation. We tested these hypotheses by evaluating behavioral and physiological responses in two groups of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) at the "Centro Ecológico y Recreativo El Zapotal", a recreational forest reserve and zoo located in the Mexican state of Chiapas. Both groups presented fission-fusion dynamics, splitting into foraging subgroups which varied in size among, but not within days. Neither subgroup size nor number of people had an effect on fecal cortisol. Out of 16 behavioral response variables tested, the studied factors had effects on six: four were affected by subgroup size and two were affected by number of people. With increasing subgroup size, monkeys increased daily path lengths, rested less, increased foraging effort, and used more plant individuals for feeding. As the number of people increased, monkeys spent more time in lower-quality habitat, and less time engaged in social interactions. Although fecal cortisol levels were not affected by the factors studied, one of the monkey groups had almost twice the level of cortisol compared to the other group. The group with higher cortisol levels also spent significantly more time in the lower-quality habitat, compared to the other group. Our results suggest that particular behavioral adjustments might allow howler monkeys at El Zapotal to avoid physiological stress due to subgroup size and number of people. However, the fact that one of the monkey groups is showing increased cortisol levels may be interpreted as a warning sign, indicating that an adjustment threshold is being reached, at least for part of the howler monkey population in this forest fragment.

  14. Retrospective study on temporal and regional variations of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from inhabitants of the Minamata area, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Mineshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Tsuruta, Kazuhito; Miyamoto, Kenichiro; Akagi, Hirokatsu

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the historical time-course changes and regional distribution of methylmercury concentrations in preserved umbilical cords collected from Minamata-area inhabitants born between 1947 and 1989. The data from Miyazaki, Tottori, Akita, Tsushima (Nagasaki), Fukuoka and Tokyo were used as controls. A total of 325 data were analyzed to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution of methylmercury among inhabitants born in the Minamata area. Elevated methylmercury concentrations (>or=1 microg/g) were mainly observed in inhabitants born between 1947 and 1968. That peak coincided with the peak of acetaldehyde production in Minamata. The methylmercury concentrations started to decrease in keeping with the decline of acetaldehyde production, which ceased in 1968, and thereafter the methylmercury levels gradually decreased to the control levels. Elevated methylmercury concentrations were first observed in the districts of Minamata, followed by Izumi, Tsunagi and Ashikita, indicating the time-course-dependent regional distributions of methylmercury pollution.

  15. Behavioural adaptations to moisture as an environmental constraint in a nocturnal burrow-inhabiting Kalahari detritivore Parastizopus armaticeps Peringuey (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A.E. Rasa

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The nocturnal desert detritivore Parastiz.opus armaticeps shows differences in surface activity patterns and burrow fidelity depending on surface humidity. After rain approximately half of the beetle population, independent of sex, is highly vagile and disperses over long distances. During drought, beetles are more sedentary and show higher burrow fidelity. They also inhabit burrows that are longer and deeper than non-inhabited ones, such burrows being relatively scarce. Burrow fidelity and the adoption of a more sedentary habit during drought are considered strategies to avoid the risks of not locating a suitable burrow before sunrise and subsequent desiccation in shallow burrows.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED IN THE TERRITORIES CONTAMINATED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Vlasova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalogue of the average annual effective exposure doses of the inhabitants of the territories contaminated due to the Chernobul accident had been developed according to the method of the assessment of the average annual effective exposure doses of the settlements inhabitants. The cost-efficacy of the use of the average annual effective dose assessment method was 250 000 USD for the current 5 years. Average annual effective dose exceeded 1 mSv/year for 191 Belarus settlements from 2613. About 50 000 persons are living in these settlements.

  17. Physical activity in 25-57 year old inhabitants of the Ústí region in relation to employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Bláha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The social and health conditions in the inhabitants in the Ústí region are generally considered the worst in the Czech Republic. The high rate of unemployment there is to be considered as one of the significant factors of socio-economical status. AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between physical activity (PA in the adult population, the unemployment and other sociodemographic factors. Further, to identify information that could be used in formulating regional health policy and in the promotion of healthy and physically active lifestyle in the adult population. METHODS: In total, 467 women and 360 men aged 25-57, randomly selected, participated in the study. PA was estimated for last seven days using the IPAQ questionnaire. The PA structure included job related activities, transport, and recreational activities. Further, we estimated vigorous, moderate and walking activities. The data for each PA type and PA intensity were analyzed for the employed and the unemployed men and women. To carry out the statistical analysis, we used the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The results have confirmed that men perform more physical activity than women (both employed and unemployed at work and more vigorous PA. On the other hand, both employed and unemployed women were more physically active at home than men. Cycling as a means of transport was used most by unemployed men and walking was the highest in unemployed women. More chances to meet the recommendation of 1200 MET-min of vigorous PA in a week were found in employed men with lower education, unemployed men living in walking and cycling friendly neighborhoods and in inhabitants performing organized PA. Performing moderate PA, the chances to meet the recommendation of 1200 MET-min in a week were found in educated employed people, people living in a family house, employed people owning a dog, and employed people performing organized

  18. 从中国边民缅北伐木案看缅甸的法治%The Rule of Law in Myanmar:A Case Analysis of the Chinese Border Inhabitants Trailed due to Logging in Northern Myanmar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付文佚

    2016-01-01

    In the early of 2015, the military of Myanmar seized over 150 Chinese border inhabitants, charged them with illegal logging and sentenced with severe punishment. A few days later, the President announced amnesty and released them. The law of Myanmar has been least researched in the Asian laws. By analysis substantial and procedural rules of Myanmar, the conclusion could be drawn that arbitrary and political influence in the trial is ob-vious. Comparing on the elements of rule of law defined by the United Nations, specifically on the transparency, judicial independence, procedure justices and human rights protection, it could be found that Myanmar is far from the rule of the law. The domestic situation is highly sophisticated in Myanmar. Local minority arms have fired with the central army in the border areas. Life and property security will be in great uncertainty if Chinese border inhab-itants cross border areas, and hard to get remedy or fair trial. The lesson of this case should be learned by Chinese border inhabitants.%2015年初缅甸政府军以非法伐木为由抓获中国公民150余人并对之处以重刑,随后通过总统令进行赦免。通过对该案所涉实体与程序法律规定和法律适用的分析,本文发现该案审理随意性大,政治因素影响痕迹明显。根据联合国对法治的界定,本文深入研究缅甸法律的透明度、司法独立、程序公正和对基本人权的保护等因素,得出的结论是缅甸远远未达到法治国家的标准。缅甸国内局势异常复杂,边境地区的多个民族地方武装与缅甸政府军长期存在冲突。我国边民如非法跨越边境地区,人身和财产安全可能处于极大的不确定性中,并难以获得法律救济或公正司法,边民应以此案为鉴。

  19. Does stimulating self-care increase self-care behaviour for minor illnesses of Dutch and Turkish inhabitants of a deprived area in The Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plass, A.M.C.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Wal, G. van der

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine whether self-care behaviour increases after a self-care stimulating intervention that proved to be successful in reducing care-seeking behaviour for minor illnesses of Turkish and Dutch inhabitants of a deprived area in the Netherlands, and to s

  20. Multiple model mimicry and feeding behavior of the spider web-inhabiting damsel bug, Arachnocoris berytoides Uhler (Hemiptera: Nabidae), from Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier E. Mercado; Jorge A. Santiago-Blay

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical genus, Arachnocoris Scott groups thirteen species of specialized spider web-inhabiting damsel bugs (Nabidae) distributed from Panama to Brazil and the West Indies. We present new information on the web behavior of A. berytoides Uhler from Puerto Rico. Three different life stages were observed on the spider webs, suggesting this species likely depends on...

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus among inhabitants in Java Island, Indonesia, with a small pig population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Eiji; Sakai, Yohei; Kitai, Yoko; Yamanaka, Atsushi

    2009-05-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is maintained through a transmission cycle between amplifier swine and vector mosquitoes in a peridomestic environment. Thus, studies on natural JEV activities in an environment with a small size of pig population have been limited. Here, we surveyed antibodies against JEV in inhabitants of Jakarta and Surabaya located in Java Island (Indonesia), which has a small swine population. Overall, 2.2% of 1,211 sera collected in Jakarta and 1.8% of 1,751 sera collected in Surabaya had neutralizing antibody titers of >or= 1:160 (90% plaque reduction). All the samples with titers of >or= 1:160 against JEV were also examined for neutralizing antibodies against each of four dengue viruses to confirm that JEV antibody prevalences obtained in the present survey were not attributable to serologic cross-reactivities among flaviviruses distributed in Java. These results indicated that people in Java Island are exposed to natural JEV infections despite a small swine population.

  2. Life on the Edge-the Biology of Organisms Inhabiting Extreme Environments: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Annie R; Buckley, Bradley A; Eppley, Sarah M; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Stedman, Kenneth M; Wagner, Josiah T

    2016-10-01

    Life persists, even under extremely harsh conditions. While the existence of extremophiles is well known, the mechanisms by which these organisms evolve, perform basic metabolic functions, reproduce, and survive under extreme physical stress are often entirely unknown. Recent technological advances in terms of both sampling and studying extremophiles have yielded new insight into their evolution, physiology and behavior, from microbes and viruses to plants to eukaryotes. The goal of the "Life on the Edge-the Biology of Organisms Inhabiting Extreme Environments" symposium was to unite researchers from taxonomically and methodologically diverse backgrounds to highlight new advances in extremophile biology. Common themes and new insight that emerged from the symposium included the important role of symbiotic associations, the continued challenges associated with sampling and studying extremophiles and the important role these organisms play in terms of studying climate change. As we continue to explore our planet, especially in difficult to reach areas from the poles to the deep sea, we expect to continue to discover new and extreme circumstances under which life can persist.

  3. Tuning of photoreceptor function in three mantis shrimp species that inhabit a range of depths. I. Visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas W; Caldwell, Roy L; Erdmann, Mark V

    2002-04-01

    Visual pigments in many animal species, including stomatopod crustaceans, are adapted to the photic environments inhabited by that species. However, some species occupy a diversity of environments as adults (such as a range of depths in the ocean), and a single set of visual pigments would not be equally adaptive for all habitats in which individuals live. We characterized the visual pigment complements of three species of stomatopod crustaceans, Haptosquilla trispinosa, Gonodactylellus affinis, and Gonodactylopsis spongicola, which are unusual for this group in that each lives at depths from the subtidal to several tens of meters. Using microspectrophotometry, we determined the visual pigments in all classes of main rhabdoms in individuals of each species from shallow or deep habitats. Each species expressed the typical diversity of visual pigments commonly found in stomatopods, but there was little or no evidence of differential expression of visual pigments in animals of any species collected from different depths. Vision in these species, therefore, is not tuned to spectral characteristics of the photic environment by varying the assemblages of visual pigments appearing in their retinas.

  4. Hematologic, biochemical, and cytologic findings from apparently healthy atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Juli D; Reese, Eric; Reif, John S; Varela, René A; McCulloch, Stephen D; Defran, R H; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D; Hansen, Larry

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study was to establish reference baseline data for hematologic, biochemical, and cytologic findings in apparently healthy Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Sixty-two dolphins were captured, examined, and released during June 2003 and June 2004. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated for each parameter, and values for which published data were available, were close to or within the ranges previously reported for free-ranging bottlenose dolphins. No pathologic abnormalities were found in fecal and blowhole cytologic specimens. However, 24% (7/29) of the dolphins examined in 2003 had evidence of gastritis, which was graded as severe in 14% (4/29) of the cases. In 2004, only 4% (1/24) of dolphins sampled had evidence of mild or moderate gastritis; no severe inflammation was present. Dolphins with evidence of gastritis were 8 yr of age or older and predominantly male. Several statistically significant differences were found between males and females, between pregnant and nonpregnant animals, and between juveniles ( or =6 yr). However, the values remained within the established ranges for this species, and the differences were not likely to be of clinical significance.

  5. The symbiotic playground of lichen thalli--a highly flexible photobiont association in rock-inhabiting lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggia, Lucia; Vancurova, Lucie; Škaloud, Pavel; Peksa, Ondrej; Wedin, Mats; Grube, Martin

    2013-08-01

    The development of characteristic thallus structures in lichen-forming fungi requires the association with suitable photoautotrophic partners. Previous work suggests that fungi have a specific range of compatible photobionts and that selected algal strains are also correlated with the habitat conditions. We selected the rock-inhabiting crust lichen Protoparmeliopsis muralis, which exhibits high flexibility in algal associations. We present a geographically extended and detailed analysis of algal association patterns including thalli which host superficial algal colonies. We sampled 17 localities in Europe, and investigated the photobiont genotypic diversity within and between thalli and compared the diversity of intrathalline photobionts and externally associate algal communities between washed and unwashed thalli by single-strand conformation polymorphism analyses and ITS sequence data. The results show that (1) photobiont population within the lichen thalli is homogeneous; (2) multiple photobiont genotypes occur within single areoles and lobes of individual lichens; and (3) algal communities which superficially colonize the lichen thalli host taxa known as photobionts in unrelated lichens. Photobiont association patterns are extremely flexible in this ecologically versatile crust-forming lichen. We suggest that lichen surfaces represent a potential temporary niche for free-living stages of lichen photobionts, which could facilitate the establishment of further lichens in the proximal area.

  6. Sex pheromones of three citrus leafrollers, Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp., inhabiting the Mekong Delta of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vang, Le; Thuy, Ho Nhu; Khanh, Chau Nguyen Quoc; Son, Pham Kim; Yan, Qi; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Jinbo, Utsugi; Ando, Tetsu

    2013-06-01

    Archips atrolucens, Adoxophyes privatana, and Homona sp. are serious defoliators of citrus trees in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. In order to establish a sustainable pest-management program for the three species, their female-produced sex pheromones were investigated by GC-EAD and GC-MS analyses, and the following multi-component pheromones were identified: (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z11-14:OAc), (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (E11-14:OAc), and tetradecyl acetate (14:OAc) in a ratio of 64:32:4 for A. atrolucens; Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc) in a ratio of 92:8 for A. privatana; and Z11-14:OAc and (Z)-9-dodecenyl acetate (Z9-12:OAc) in a ratio of 96:4 for Homona sp. Each lure baited with synthetic components as a mimic of the natural pheromone attracted males of the target species specifically, indicating that each monounsaturated minor component plays a significant role for mating communication and reproductive isolation of the three species inhabiting the same citrus orchards. In an extract of the pheromone glands of A. atrolucens females, the content of 14:OAc was very low, but a synergistic effect was observed clearly when the saturated compound was mixed at the same level as the E11-14:OAc. The synthetic lures will provide useful tools for monitoring flights of adults of the three species.

  7. Is there an association between food patterns and life satisfaction among Norway's inhabitants ages 65 years and older?

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Beate; Canhão, Helena; Espnes, Geir A; Ferreira Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Gregorio, Maria João; Nguyen, Camilla; Sousa, Rute; Grønning, Kjersti

    2017-03-01

    The lack of information regarding older adults' health and lifestyles makes it difficult to design suitable interventions for people at risk of developing unhealth lifestyles. Therefore, there is a need to increase knowledge about older adults' food patterns and quality of life. Our aim was to determine associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction in Norwegian inhabitants ages 65+. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (The HUNT Study) is a large, population-based cohort study that includes data for 125 000 Norwegian participants. The cohort used for this study is wave three of the study, consisting of 11 619 participants age 65 and over. Cluster analysis was used to categorize the participants based on similarities in food consumption; two clusters were identified based on similarities regarding food consumption among participants. Significant differences between the clusters were found, as participants in the healthy food-patterns cluster had higher life satisfaction and lower anxiety and depression than those in the unhealthy food-patterns cluster. The associations among food patterns, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction among older adults show the need for increased focus on interactions among food patterns, food consumption, and life satisfaction among the elderly in order to explore how society can influence these patterns.

  8. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area.

  9. Analysis of Characteristics of Spatio-temporal Evolution of Land Use in Inhabited Islands of Pearl River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Under the support of the remote sensing and geographical information system(GIS) techniques,we acquire the land use data in 1990 and 2008 regarding 6 inhabited islands,namely Longxue Island,Hengmen Island,Weiyuan Island,Qi’ao Island,Hengqin Island and Gaolan Island in Pearl River Estuary.By using dynamic degree of land use,land use change intensity,relative change rate and other indicators,we conduct quantitative description,and thus quantitatively and qualitatively analyse characteristics of temporal evolution and law of spatial pattern change concerning land use of each island.The study indicates that in the period 1990-2008,the area of construction land and water in 6 islands increased,while the area of agricultural land and unused land increased in some islands and decreased in others.The land use change shows spatial disparity;the holistic land use change degree in Hengmen Island is higher than that of other islands;the dynamic degree of land use,intensity of land use,and relative change rate differ in different islands.

  10. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae) inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) myrmecophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Shouhei; Nagano, Yusuke; Kataoka, Yowsuke; Komatsu, Takashi; Itioka, Takao; Shimizu-Kaya, Usun; Inui, Yoko; Itino, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema) ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite) genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  11. The two-headed snake in the view of the inhabitants of Itatiaia village, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Barbosa Mateus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaenids are fossorial Squamate reptiles popularly known as two-headed snakes. They are animals poorly known in urban areas, although being present in the daily life of the rural population. Aiming to document the folk knowledge, as well as the superstitions with regard to these animals, this ethnobiological study was developed in Itatiaia village, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between April and November 2009, ecological and biological aspects of amphisbaenids were approached through interviews with 48 villagers. Only the individuals who allowed the access to their knowledge and beliefs were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the union model of several individual competences. According to the number of inhabitants who were interviewed, it is possible to say that the population classifies amphisbaenids as snakes, considering them dangerous animals, thus favoring their death whenever they are found. The ethnozoology can be used as an important tool for obtaining information about amphisbaenids and, if combined to educational activities, it may also contribute to the conservation of these animals.

  12. Detection and genotype analysis of Giardia duodenalis from asymptomatic Hungarian inhabitants and comparative findings in three distinct locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutzer, Judit; Törökné, Andrea; Szénási, Zsuzsanna; Kucsera, István; Farkas, Kata; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-03-01

    The transmission route of giardiasis not yet understood and why some infected individuals remain asymptomatic while others become quite ill. The drinking water quality is supposedly responsible for the prevalence of asymptomatic Giardia duodenalis infections in different areas, therefore asymptomatic giardiasis has been investigated in three water supply areas of Hungary: three hundred stool samples from inhabitants of Budapest, Füzér and Mátrafüred were examined by immunological and molecular methods for the presence of G. duodenalis infections. Individuals were asked to fill out a validated questionnaire at the time of stool collection and the interview covered demographic data, family life, education and travel history.In Budapest and in Mátrafüred in one stool sample G. duodenalis Assemblage A, whereas in Füzér once G. duodenalis Assemblage A, once Assemblage B and twice mixed infection were detected. We found higher prevalence rate of 4% of G. duodenalis infections of asymptomatic people in the village Füzér, where the removal of the Giardia cysts of the drinking water treatment plant was not effective. This study throws a light the need to look into the possibility of other risks of Giardia infections such as water transmission routes. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the prevalence of G. duodenalis infections in asymptomatic persons in Hungary.

  13. Comparative analysis of cyanobacteria inhabiting rocks with different light transmittance in the Mojave Desert: a Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heather D.; Baqué, Mickael; Duncan, Andrew G.; Lloyd, Christopher R.; McKay, Christopher P.; Billi, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    The Mojave Desert has been long considered a suitable terrestrial analogue to Mars in many geological and astrobiological aspects. The Silver Lake region in the Mojave Desert hosts several different rock types (talc, marble, quartz, white carbonate and red-coated carbonate) colonized by hypoliths within a few kilometres. This provides an opportunity to investigate the effect of rock type on hypolithic colonization in a given environment. Transmission measurements from 300 to 800 nm showed that the transmission of blue and UVA varied between rock types. The wavelength at which the transmission fell to 1% of the transmission at 600 nm was 475 nm for white carbonate and quartz, 425 nm for red-coated carbonate and talc and 380 nm for marble. The comparative analysis of the cyanobacterial component of hypoliths under different rocks, as revealed by sequencing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, showed no significant variation with rock type; hypoliths were dominated by phylotypes of the genus Chroococcidiopsis, although less abundant phylotypes of the genus Loriellopsis, Leptolyngbya and Scytonema occurred. The comparison of the confocal laser scanning microscopy-λ (CLSM-λ) scan analysis of the spectral emission of the photosynthetic pigments of Chroococcidiopsis in different rocks with the spectrum of isolated Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029, revealed a 10 nm red shift in the emission fingerprinting for quartz and carbonate and a 5 nm red shift for talc samples. This result reflects the versatility of Chroococcidiopsis in inhabiting dry niches with different light availability for photosynthesis.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  15. Congruence of microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation in acrobat ants (Crematogaster subgenus Decacrema, Formicidae: Myrmicinae inhabiting Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae myrmecophytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouhei Ueda

    Full Text Available A previously reported mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA phylogeny of Crematogaster (subgenus Decacrema ants inhabiting Macaranga myrmecophytes indicated that the partners diversified synchronously and their specific association has been maintained for 20 million years. However, the mtDNA clades did not exactly match morphological species, probably owing to introgressive hybridization among younger species. In this study, we determined the congruence between nuclear simple sequence repeat (SSR, also called microsatellite genotyping and mtDNA phylogeny to confirm the suitability of the mtDNA phylogeny for inferring the evolutionary history of Decacrema ants. Analyses of ant samples from Lambir Hills National park, northeastern Borneo, showed overall congruence between the SSR and mtDNA groupings, indicating that mtDNA markers are useful for delimiting species, at least at the local level. We also found overall high host-plant specificity of the SSR genotypes of Decacrema ants, consistent with the specificity based on the mtDNA phylogeny. Further, we detected cryptic genetic assemblages exhibiting high specificity toward particular plant species within a single mtDNA clade. This finding, which may be evidence for rapid ecological and genetic differentiation following a host shift, is a new insight into the previously suggested long-term codiversification of Decacrema ants and Macaranga plants.

  16. Comparison of wood-inhabiting myxomycetes in subalpine and montane coniferous forests in the Yatsugatake Mountains of Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunari; Harakon, Yuichi

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate altitudinal gradients (and resulting temperatures) that affect myxomycete biodiversity and species composition, we statistically compared myxomycete assemblages between a subalpine coniferous forest and a montane pine forest within the region of the Yatsugatake Mountains, Nagano Prefecture, Central Japan. In summer and autumn field surveys during 2003-2010, 53 myxomycete taxa (with varieties treated as species) were observed from 639 records of fruiting bodies in the subalpine forest and 32 taxa were detected from 613 records in the montane forest. There were 20 species in common between the assemblages and the percentage similarity index was 0.400. Myxomycete biodiversity was higher in the subalpine than in the montane forest. Nine myxomycete species were statistically frequent occurrences in the subalpine forest and appeared in autumn: Lamproderma columbinum, Cribraria macrocarpa, Trichia botrytis, Physarum newtonii, Diderma ochraceum, Enteridium splendens, Elaeomyxa cerifera, Trichia verrucosa, and Colloderma oculatum. Five species were restricted to appear in the subalpine forest: Cribraria purpurea, Cribraria rufa, Cribraria ferruginea, Cribraria piriformis, and Lepidoderma tigrinum. Dead wood in the subalpine forest provided a breeding habitat for specific myxomycetes that inhabit cold areas; that is those areas having geographical features of decreasing temperature and increasing elevation, such as the temperate area of Central Japan.

  17. Great unexpected differences between two populations of the intertidal crab Neohelice granulata inhabiting close but contrasting habitats (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo D. Spivak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two populations of the Southwestern Atlantic burrowing crab, Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851, are separated by only 190 km. They inhabit bays that drain into a Patagonian gulf in the southernmost limit of the geographical distribution of the species: San Antonio Bay (SAO and San José Gulf (RSJ. The population from SAO has been extensively studied, whereas that of RSJ has not. The main goal of this study is to compare the ecological and habitat characteristics of the two populations, based on samples collected on successive days during the middle of the reproductive season of the crab. The substrate of SAO is composed of a high proportion of gravel and scarce organic matter, whereas the substrate of RSJ presents twice as much silt and clay, and greater organic matter content. Crabs of both sexes were larger at RSJ. Fecundity and reproductive output were greater at RSJ. The size of females at maturity was smaller and their range was shorter at RSJ. Burrows were longer and wider at RSJ. Our results indicate that there are strong differences between the two populations, which might be correlated with local environmental differences, mainly substrate granulometry and food availability.

  18. Impact of Calcium and Magnesium in Groundwater and Drinking Water on the Health of Inhabitants of the Slovak Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, Stanislav; Cvečková, Veronika; Fajčíková, Katarína; Sedláková, Darina; Stehlíková, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate the impact of the chemical composition of groundwater/drinking water on the health of inhabitants of the Slovak Republic. Primary data consists of 20,339 chemical analyses of groundwater (34 chemical elements and compounds) and data on the health of the Slovak population expressed in the form of health indicators (HI). Fourteen HIs were evaluated including life expectancy, potential years of lost life, relative/standardized mortality for cardiovascular and oncological diseases, and diseases of the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The chemical and health data were expressed as the mean values for each of the 2883 Slovak municipalities. Artificial neural network (ANN) was the method used for environmental and health data analysis. The most significant relationship between HI and chemical composition of groundwater was documented as Ca + Mg (mmol·L−1), Ca and Mg. The following limit values were set for these most significant groundwater chemical parameters: Ca + Mg 2.9–6.1 mmol·L−1, Ca 78–155 mg·L−1 and Mg 28–54 mg·L−1. At these concentration ranges, the health of the Slovak population is the most favorable and the life expectancy is the highest. These limit values are about twice as high in comparison to the current Slovak valid guideline values for drinking water. PMID:28282877

  19. Radiation dose estimation due Pb-210 incorporation in inhabitants from Recife/PE, Brazil; Estimacao da dose de radiacao por incorporacao de Pb-210 nos ossos de habitantes de Recife/Pernambuco, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, C.E.O.; Silva, E.B.; Santos Junior, J.A., E-mail: oliveiracosta@msn.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Silva, C.M. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Departamento de Matematica

    2013-08-15

    {sup 210}Pb is an element widely distributed in the environment and when it is ingested by humans through air, water and food can cause various diseases including cancer because it is deposited in bones. Studies about assessment of the dose due to incorporation of {sup 210}Pb using the urine samples of volunteers from Recife are scarce. Thus, the purpose of this research was to estimate the radiation dose in bones of inhabitants from Recife (PE-Brazil) by incorporation of this radionuclide. For this, the concentration of {sup 210}Pb present in urine samples was determinate from 11 healthy and nonsmoker subjects. The urine samples were collected for a period of 24 hours following the procedures adopted by Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. Pb-210 was separated by ion exchange resin technique. In this method, the {sup 210}Pb was precipitated in form of PbCrO{sub 4} followed by beta counting, which were conducted in a Canberra Tennelec S5E detector. To estimate radiation dose in bones it was adopted values of retention and excretion of activity from IAEA-37. Concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in the urine samples of inhabitants from Recife varied from 82 to 712 mBq.l{sup -1}. The maximum annual dose estimated in bones for individuals from Recife was about 2.15 nSv.y{sup -1}. This value is below from the recommended dose limit for member of the general public, which corresponding to 1 mSv.a{sup -1}, representing a negligible risk for the population studied. (author)

  20. Human Being: the Next Space Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, J.

    2002-01-01

    Since forty years and after the (mythical) speech of John F Kennedy, space offers a new frontier for the human odyssey. But, for this enterprise itself, the human person constitutes without any doubt a frontier as delicate to approach than necessary to cross, if we plan to give a continuation to the Apollo missions and the permanent occupation of a station in terrestrial orbit. Without neglecting the impact of the future space programs on philosophies and cultures of the humanity which stays on Earth, we have to pay a special attention to the consequences for the astronauts of long-time and far from Earth missions of exploration. These consequences are in connection with three types of human relation: - First, the relations of the human being with the Earth. How an inhabitant of the Earth will - Then, the relations of the crew members among themselves. Today, we do not know yet - Finally, the relations of the human persons with themselves. How to manage this singular To these three types of question, we are today able to give only partial answers. However, they would not have to be drawn aside : we are conscious of the human responsibility in the success or the failure of the future missions, inhabited or not. In addition, the answers which will offer search on inhabited flights of long duration and at long distance will be able also to help to live better together on the Earth.

  1. 中国古代景观居住观%The View on Landscape Inhabitation in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映彤

    2014-01-01

    Landscape, as a form of environmental beauty, was mainly constituted by two factors of 'scenery' and 'view'. From the aesthetic perspective of landscape inhabitation, there were four forms of living space in an-cient China:first, private gardens, which are built by some grandees, have natural elements and are also very lux-urious;second, retreats away from the turmoil of the world, which are built by hermits completely unaware of what happened in the real world;third, folk residence, which is built by the common people, located in their local resi-dence with natural surroundings decorated by themselves; and fourth, ideal places, with paintings and other works of art and nature, which are built by some wise and intelligent people, show artistic conception of“great love is in-visible”and“big voice sound thin”. These four forms of living space reflect the ancient Chinese views on landscape inhabitation and attitudes towards living space. It is no doubt that this study has a practical reference for research of living forms in contemporary China.%景观作为环境美的存在形式,主要由两个方面的因素构成:一是“景”,二是“观”。在以景观居住为审美边界的视阈中,中国古代出现了四种不同的居住形式:一是达官贵人营造的,既拥有自然因素,又享受人世奢华的宅第---园林;二是隐于名山大川、安享自然的隐士居所---世外桃源;三是普通老百姓怀着对自然质朴的追求,对房前屋后美化所形成的住所---民居;四是由心意触发,借助绘画等艺术作品和自然中显现的点点滴滴,从飞花落叶中感悟到大自然“大爱无形,大音稀声”的审美意境,进入“随遇而安”人生境界的高士住宅---意所。这四种居住形式,集中体现了中国古代景观居住观,是中国古代人生观对居住空间态度的直接写照,对当代中国居住形式的研发具有现实的参考意义。

  2. Distribution of 222Rn concentration in an inhabited area adjacent to the Aja granitic heights of Hail Province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman; Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Abulfaraj, Waleed Hussain; Qutub, Maher Mohammad Taher

    2015-01-01

    Radon-222 has been measured in groundwater, dwellings, and atmosphere of an inhabited area adjacent to the granitic Aja heights of Hail province, Saudi Arabia. The measurements were carried out in the field using a RAD7 instrument. Twenty-eight water samples, collected from drilled wells scattered in the region, were analyzed. Radon-222 concentration ranged from 2.5-95 kBq m(-3) with an average value of about 30.3 kBq m(-3). The higher values were found in wells drawing water from granitic aquifers. Indoor 222Rn was measured in 20 dwellings of rural areas in Hail city and other towns. Concentrations ranged from 12-125.6 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 54.6 Bq m(-3). Outdoor air 222Rn was measured at 16 sites, with values ranging from 6.2-13.3 Bq m(-3), with an average value of 10.5 Bq m(-3). The estimated average effective dose due to inhalation of 222Rn released from water was 0.08 mSv y(-1). The estimated average annual effective dose due to indoor 222Rn was 1.35 mSv, which lies below the effective dose range (3-10 mSv) given as the recommended action level. Based on the average dose rate values, the excess lifetime cancer risk values were estimated as 69.8 × 10(-4) due to indoor radon and 13.4 × 10(-4) due to outdoor radon.

  3. PERSPECTIVES FOR FURTHER DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF CZĘSTOCHOWA AS A TOURIST RESORT - OPINIONS OF INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicjan BYLOK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the sociological research conducted among the citizens of Czestochowa concerning its development as a tourist resort. In this article some theoretical aspects of tourism marketing, city marketing, management of local government and management of settlement units are presented. The nature of Czestochowa as a potential tourist resort, mainly in the scope of its history and attractions is an important issue which is discussed in this paper.The main part of this paper is the discussion on the results of the research concerning opinions about the possible augmentation of tourist traffic within the city, the opportunities and threats for Czestochowa's development, the strengths and weaknesses of the city as a potential tourist resort and also the forms of promotion to create and raise interest among potential visitors. The presented research is a part of the process of the city's strategic development that is based on consultation with the community. Without the approval of the city's inhabitants the implementation of this strategy would be doomed to failure.The paper consists of four parts. The first one is a presentation of Czestochowa. Following this the conceptualization of the issue for analysis and theoretical problems of promoting tourism and the city are discussed. In the third part the methodology of the research is presented: the research process, sampling procedure, structure of the population under analysis. The fourth part of the paper is focused on analysing the issue of developing the tourist resort as one of the key elements of Czestochowa's marketing focus. This part also contains some considerations about the possible ways to promote the city.

  4. Root-inhabiting fungi in alien plant species in relation to invasion status and soil chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Marta L; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Nobis, Marcin; Rola, Kaja; Nobis, Agnieszka; Łakomiec, Daria; Czachura, Paweł; Zubek, Szymon

    In order to recognize interactions between alien vascular plants and soil microorganisms and thus better understand the mechanisms of plant invasions, we examined the mycorrhizal status, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization rate, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology and presence of fungal root endophytes in 37 non-native species in Central Europe. We also studied the AMF diversity and chemical properties of soils from under these species. The plant and soil materials were collected in southern Poland. We found that 35 of the species formed AM and their mycorrhizal status depended on species identity. Thirty-three taxa had AM of Arum-type alone. Lycopersicon esculentum showed intermediate AM morphology and Eragrostis albensis developed both Arum and Paris. The mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) were observed in 32 of the species, while sporangia of Olpidium spp. were found in the roots of 10. Thirteen common and worldwide occurring AMF species as well as three unidentified spore morphotypes were isolated from trap cultures established with the soils from under the plant species. Claroideoglomus claroideum, Funneliformis mosseae and Septoglomus constrictum were found the most frequently. The presence of root-inhabiting fungi and the intensity of their colonization were not correlated with soil chemical properties, plant invasion status, their local abundance and habitat type. No relationships were also found between the presence of AMF, DSE and Olpidium spp. These suggest that other edaphic conditions, plant and fungal species identity or the abundance of these fungi in soils might have an impact on the occurrence and intensity of fungal root colonization in the plants under study.

  5. Functional assays and metagenomic analyses reveals differences between the microbial communities inhabiting the soil horizons of a Norway spruce plantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Uroz

    Full Text Available In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France. The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource

  6. Archaeal Viruses Contribute to the Novel Viral Assemblage Inhabiting Oceanic, Basalt-Hosted Deep Subsurface Crustal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, O. D.; Rappe, M. S.; Jungbluth, S.; Lin, H. T.; Steward, G.

    2015-12-01

    Fluids contained in the basalt-hosted deep subsurface of the world's oceans represent one of the most inaccessible and understudied biospheres on earth. Recent improvements in sampling infrastructure have allowed us to collect large volumes of crustal fluids (~104 L) from Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits (CORKs) placed in boreholes located on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge (JdFR). We detected viruses within these fluids by TEM and epifluorescence microscopy in samples collected from 2010 to 2014. Viral abundance, determined by epifluorescence counts, indicated that concentrations of viruses in subsurface basement fluids (~105 ml-1) are lower than the overlying seawater, but are higher in abundance than microbial cells in the same samples. Analysis of TEM images revealed distinct viral morphologies (rod and spindle-shaped) that resemble the morphologies of viral families infecting archaea. There are very few, if any, direct observations of these viral morphologies in marine samples, although they have been observed in enrichment cultures and their signature genes detected in metagenomic studies from hydrothermal vents and marine sediments. Analysis of metagenomes from the JdFR crustal fluids revealed sequences with homology to archaeal viruses from the rudiviridae, bicaudaviridae and fuselloviridae. Prokaryotic communities in fluids percolating through the basaltic basement rock of the JdFR flank are distinct from those inhabiting the overlying sediments and seawater. Similarly, our data support the idea that the viral assemblage in these fluids is distinct from viral assemblages in other marine and terrestrial aquatic environments. Our data also suggest that viruses contribute to the mortality of deep subsurface prokaryotes through cell lysis, and viruses may alter the genetic potential of their hosts through the processes of lysogenic conversion and horizontal gene transfer.

  7. Study of post traumatic stress disorder among inhabitants of ancient Οlympia exposed to 2007 fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gritzani I.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is the most often studied and most frequent and debilitating psychological disturbance that occurs after natural disasters. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of fire on post traumatic stress, psychopathology and hostility among individuals who had been exposed to, and to evaluate the differences of the above psychological parameters, in contrast to those who had not experienced.Material and Method: 174 healthy individuals participated to the present study. Subjects were classified into two groups- inhabitants of ancient Olympia exposed to fire disaster and not being exposed in fire residents of Nauplio- based on their personal statements. The first group constituted of 83 individuals who reported being exposed to the fire, while the other group constituted of 91 individuals who reported not being exposed to such a traumatic experience. The questionnaire PTSD Checklist Civilian Version (PCL (Weathers, Litz, Huska & Keane, 1994, the questionnaire (SCL-90 (Derogatis, 1977 and the questionnaire (HDHQ(Caine et al. 1967 were used to gather the data. Results: Higher levels of post traumatic stress and a tendency to develop a extrapunitiveness hostile attitude were observed among participants who had reported being exposed to fire natural disaster. Psychopathology in those participants was not proved, apart from the depression subscale. Demographic factors such as middle age and female gender seemed to be correlated with PTSD, psychopathology and hostility after fire. Conclusion: Findings illustrated the multidimensional nature of natural disasters. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the range of factors associated with the development and/or persistence of PTSD or related disorders from the chronic phase of psychological reactivity.

  8. Belowground communication: impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil fungi on other soil-inhabiting organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Stephanie; Polle, Andrea; Brinkmann, Nicole

    2016-10-01

    We reviewed the impact of fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on soil-inhabiting organisms and their physiological and molecular consequences for their targets. Because fungi can only move by growth to distinct directions, a main mechanism to protect themselves from enemies or to manipulate their surroundings is the secretion of exudates or VOCs. The importance of VOCs in this regard has been significantly underestimated. VOCs not only can be means of communication, but also signals that are able to specifically manipulate the recipient. VOCs can reprogram root architecture of symbiotic partner plants or increase plant growth leading to enlarged colonization surfaces. VOCs are also able to enhance plant resistance against pathogens by activating phytohormone-dependent signaling pathways. In some cases, they were phytotoxic. Because the response was specific to distinct species, fungal VOCs may contribute to regulate the competition of plant communities. Additionally, VOCs are used by the producing fungus to attack rivaling fungi or bacteria, thereby protecting the emitter or its nutrient sources. In addition, animals, like springtails, nematodes, and earthworms, which are important components of the soil food web, respond to fungal VOCs. Some VOCs are effective repellents for nematodes and, therefore, have applications as biocontrol agents. In conclusion, this review shows that fungal VOCs have a huge impact on soil fauna and flora, but the underlying mechanisms, how VOCs are perceived by the recipients, how they manipulate their targets and the resulting ecological consequences of VOCs in inter-kingdom signaling is only partly understood. These knowledge gaps are left to be filled by future studies.

  9. CONTRIBUTON OF DIFFERENT FOODSTUFFS TО THE INTERNAL EXPOSURE OF THE RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE BRYANSK REGION IN RUSSIA AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large village Veprin of the Bryanskregion of Russiacontaminated with radionuclides as a result of the Chernobylaccident, 137Сs concentration in food products of agricultural produce and natural origin was regularly measured, local inhabitants were polled on the composition of their food ration, and 137Сs content in their bodies was at the same time measured. These results were used as the basis for calculation of annual effective doses of internal exposure to inhabitants and for reconstruction of the dose during the entire period after the accident. It will be divided into two stages: 1986–1996 yy and 1997–2012 yy. In this paper devoted to the first period (1986–1996, internal dose was reconstructed for 11 years after the accident, and the efficiency of countermeasures performed for reduction of the internal dose was assessed. The internal dose to inhabitants during the past 11 years after the accident was shown to be reduced almost twice, namely down to 35 mSv instead of the expected 70 mSv. The dose of external gamma radiation during the same time period is close to the obtained dose of internal exposure. The presence of peat and water-meadow soils in the vicinity of this village that are characterised by high transfer factors for radionuclides from soil to vegetation causes high contribution of internal exposure in the total dose of population exposure. Contribution of natural products to the internal dose grew from 6% in 1987 up to 25% in 1996. Individual content of 137Сs in the body of inhabitants reliably correlates with the consumption of milk in the early period after the accident and with consumption of forest mushrooms in the remote period.

  10. Somatosensory Psychophysical Losses in Inhabitants of Riverside Communities of the Tapajós River Basin, Amazon, Brazil: Exposure to Methylmercury Is Possibly Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Eliana Dirce Torres; Souza, Givago da Silva; da Costa, Carlos Araújo; de Araújo, Amélia Ayako Kamogari; de Oliveira, Cláudia Simone Baltazar; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Pinheiro, Maria da Conceição Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the somatosensory system of methylmercury-exposed inhabitants living in the communities of the Tapajós river basin by using psychophysical tests and to compare with measurements performed in inhabitants of the Tocantins river basin. We studied 108 subjects from Barreiras and São Luiz do Tapajós, two communities of the Tapajós river basin, State of Pará, Amazon, Brazil, aged 13-53 years old. Mercury analysis was performed in head hair samples weighting 0.1-0.2 g by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Three somatosensory psychophysical tests were performed: tactile sensation threshold, vibration sensation duration, and two-point discrimination. Semmes-Weinstein 20 monofilaments with different diameters were used to test the tactile sensation in the lower lip, right and left breasts, right and left index fingers, and right and left hallux. The threshold was the thinner monofilament perceived by the subject. Vibration sensation was investigated using a 128 Hz diapason applied to the sternum, right and left radial sides of the wrist, and right and left outer malleoli. Two trials were performed at each place. A stopwatch recorded the vibration sensation duration. The two-point discrimination test was performed using a two-point discriminator. Head hair mercury concentration was significantly higher in mercury-exposed inhabitants of Tapajós than in non-exposed inhabitants of Tocantins (p basin is a possible but not a definitely proven cause for psychophysical somatosensory losses observed in their population. Additionally, the relatively simple psychophysical measures used in this work should be followed by more rigorous measures of the same population.

  11. Trophic ecology of the seagrass-inhabiting footballer demoiselle Chrysiptera annulata (Peters, 1855); comparison with three other reef-associated damselfishes

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoint, G.; Michel, L.; Parmentier, E; Frédérich, B.

    2016-01-01

    Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution from different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming behavior, from almost non territorial to monoculture farmers. In addition, a few species inhabit seagrass meadows but, presently, none can be considered as seagrass-eating specialists. The footballer demoiselle, Chrysiptera annulata, is found in the seagrass meadows on the reef flat of the Great ...

  12. Trophic ecology of the seagrass-inhabiting footballer demoiselle Chrysiptera annulata (Peters, 1855); comparison with three other reef-associated damselfishes

    OpenAIRE

    Lepoint, Gilles; Michel, Loïc; Parmentier, Eric; Frederich, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Many damselfishes (Pomacentridae) are herbivorous or omnivorous with an important contribution of different kinds of algae in their diet. They display different levels of territoriality and farming behavior, from almost non territorial to monoculture farmers. In addition, few species inhabit seagrass meadows but, presently, none can be considered as seagrass-eating specialists. The footballer demoiselle, Chrysiptera annulata, is found in the seagrass meadows on the reef flat of the Great Reef...

  13. Reproductive and health assessment of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting a pond containing oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Richard J., E-mail: rkavanag@uoguelph.ca [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Frank, Richard A.; Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); Van Der Kraak, Glen [Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Fish were collected from a pond containing oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). ► They were compared to fish from two reference sites within the oil sands region. ► Differences in GSIs and tubercle numbers were observed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Opercula, gills, and 11-KT concentrations also differed in fish from the OSPW pond. ► Black spot and tapeworms were not observed in any of the fish from the OSPW pond. -- Abstract: Previous laboratory based studies have shown that oil sands process-affected waters (OSPWs) containing high concentrations of naphthenic acids (>25 mg/l) have adverse effects on the reproductive physiology of fish. The purpose of this study was to assess the reproductive development and health of a wild population of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) inhabiting an OSPW pond that has moderate concentrations of naphthenic acids (∼10 mg/l). Fathead minnows were collected at various times during the period of 2006 through 2008 from Demonstration Pond (OSPW) located at Syncrude Canada Ltd., and two reference sites, Beaver Creek reservoir and Poplar Creek reservoir, which are all north of Fort McMurray, AB, Canada. Condition factor, gill histopathology, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, male secondary sexual characteristics, and plasma sex steroids were examined. Depending on the time of year that fathead minnows were collected, there were differences in the condition factor, gonadosomatic indices, liver somatic indices, and secondary sexual characteristics of fathead minnows (in males) from Demonstration Pond when compared to the fathead minnows from the reference sites. In comparison to reference fish, lower concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone were measured in the plasma of male fathead minnows collected from Demonstration Pond in June 2006 and July 2007. Black spot disease and Ligula intestinalis were prevalent in fathead minnows from the reference sites but were not observed in fathead minnows

  14. Black Holes Categorization, along with the Space(s) they inhabit, to explain the Astro-Geophysical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimorelli, S. A.; Samuels, C.

    2012-04-01

    We define and categorize black holes (BH) and the space they inhabit. We describe mechanisms for their formation and mechanisms of black hole collisions and explosions/bursts, inside of the universe. These are linked to the formation of galaxies, stars, planets and planetary processes. Insight is gained regarding the formation and evolution of galaxies and the matter contained therein. Space itself must be categorized as to its purpose and properties as it relates to the various categories of black holes and processes ongoing within the space in which the processes occur. What we herein refer to as category-1 (c-1) black hole, formed the universe, by generating catagory-2 (c-2) black holes, say about 10% of which formed galaxies and 90% remain as dark matter in the form of c-2 BHs that are still evolving. C-1 BHs can explode/burst by collision or on their own, and give off great numbers (e.g., trillions) of c-2 BHs inside the universe, in c-2 space, which can become galaxies and which is the start of the universe. C-2 BHs can explode/burst and form a galaxy, containing c-3 space, filled with c-3 BHs. C-3 BHs are somewhat more modified and expanded than c-2 BHs and are formed from exploded/burst c-2 BHs on their own due to instabilities or by colliding with another c-2 BH and exploding/bursting to form gas and dust clouds peppered with c-3 BHs. Additionally, remnants from the exploded c-2 BH may include a range of sizes from minute particles that would contribute to the formation of massive gas and dust clouds peppered with the c-3 BHs; to about 10 to 20 solar masses that form large stars; and others, much smaller (tiny) stars that eventually become planets and moons. Some, eventually explode/burst inside the galaxy to produce the gas and dust clouds that we see inside the galaxy. These gas and dust clouds are peppered with c-4 BHs that eventually are seen as new stars forming in the dust clouds (described below). We envision three mechanisms (a,b,&c) for stellar

  15. Chagas disease and human migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Guhl

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Human Chagas disease is a purely accidental occurrence. As humans came into contact with the natural foci of infection might then have become infected as a single addition to the already extensive host range of Trypanosoma cruzi that includes other primates. Thus began a process of adaptation and domiciliation to human habitations through which the vectors had direct access to abundant food as well as protection from climatic changes and predators. Our work deals with the extraction and specific amplification by polymerase chain reaction of T. cruzi DNA obtained from mummified human tissues and the positive diagnosis of Chagas disease in a series of 4,000-year-old Pre-Hispanic human mummies from the northern coast of Chile. The area has been inhabited at least for 7,000 years, first by hunters, fishers and gatherers, and then gradually by more permanent settlements. The studied specimens belonged to the Chinchorro culture, a people inhabiting the area now occupied by the modern city of Arica. These were essentially fishers with a complex religious ideology, which accounts for the preservation of their dead in the way of mummified bodies, further enhanced by the extremely dry conditions of the desert. Chinchorro mummies are, perhaps, the oldest preserved bodies known to date.

  16. Taxonomy and phylogeny of new wood- and soil-inhabiting Sporothrix species in the Ophiostoma stenoceras-Sporothrix schenckii complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meyer, E.M.; de Beer, Z.W.; Summerbell, R.C.; Moharram, A.M.; de Hoog, G.S.; Vismer, H.F.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Sporothrix, one of the anamorph genera of Ophiostoma, includes the important human pathogen S. schenckii and various fungi associated with insects and sap stain of wood. A survey of fungi from wood utility poles in South Africa yielded two distinct groups of Sporothrix isolates from different geogra

  17. Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain CEIB S5-1, a Rhizosphere-Inhabiting Bacterium with Potential in Bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Hernández-Mendoza, Armando; Rojas-Espinoza, Luis Enrique; Popoca-Ursino, Elida Carolina; Ortiz-Hernández, María Laura; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ramos Quintana, Fernando; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered an opportunistic pathogen from humans and may cause disease in plants. A bioprospection from a plaguicide-contaminated agricultural field in Mexico identified several methyl parathion-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cenocepacia strain CEIB S5-1, which gave us clues into ecological biodiversity.

  18. Burkholderia cenocepacia Strain CEIB S5-1, a Rhizosphere-Inhabiting Bacterium with Potential in Bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ocampo, Fernando; Lozano-Aguirre Beltrán, Luis Fernando; Hernández-Mendoza, Armando; Rojas-Espinoza, Luis Enrique; Popoca-Ursino, Elida Carolina; Ortiz-Hernández, María Laura; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Ramos Quintana, Fernando; Dantán-González, Edgar

    2015-03-05

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is considered an opportunistic pathogen from humans and may cause disease in plants. A bioprospection from a plaguicide-contaminated agricultural field in Mexico identified several methyl parathion-degrading bacteria. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cenocepacia strain CEIB S5-1, which gave us clues into ecological biodiversity.

  19. NIH Human Microbiome Project defines normal bacterial makeup of the body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbes inhabit just about every part of the human body, living on the skin, in the gut, and up the nose. Sometimes they cause sickness, but most of the time, microorganisms live in harmony with their human hosts, providing vital functions essential for

  20. Determinants and Impacts Of Human Mobility Dynamics In The Western Highlands Of Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankou, C.M.; Iongh, de H.H.; Persoon, G.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyses human mobility among inhabitants of Cameroon‘s most populous region, the Western Highlands of Cameroon. In other to capture the impact of various determinants on human mobility, a comparative study was conducted through household and field surveys in three villages in the region

  1. Scuttle Flies (Diptera: Phoridae) Inhabiting Rabbit Carcasses Confined to Plastic Waste Bins in Malaysia Include New Records and an Undescribed Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuha, Raja M.; Huong-Wen, See; Disney, R. Henry L.; Omar, Baharudin

    2017-01-01

    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies’ inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4–5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4–7 (replicate 1) and days 5–33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2–40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the

  2. ANWR progress report number FY84-11: Ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The report covers the ecology of brown bears inhabiting the coastal plain and adjacent foothills and mountains of the northeastern portion of the Arctic National...

  3. Assimilation of metal ions bound to porphyrins or porphyrin-peptides by vibrio vulnificus, a human pathogen inhabiting estuarine and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Shin-ichi; Sasaki, Tomoko; Kaku, Nahoko; Inoue, Takaharu; Uozumi, Natsuki; Maehara, Yoko; Nakao, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    Vibrio vulnificus, a ubiquitous microorganism in aquatic environments, causes serious septicemia to the immunocompromised host. In addition to protoheme, this species can utilize Fe-TCPP [ferric tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine] as an iron source. In the present study, heme c bound covalently to the protein in cytochrome c, as well as the Fe-TCPP complex formed with a nanopeptide with a high affinity, was found to be useful iron sources for V. vulnificus. This bacterium was also revealed to use Zn-TCPP as a single zinc source. However, other metalloporphyrins such as Mn-TCPP and Pt-TCPP delayed the bacterial growth in the broth containing Fe-TCPP, suggesting interference in the iron assimilation. These results indicate that V. vulnificus may acquire metal ions from both free and peptide-bound metalloporphyrins.

  4. Accumulation of heavy metals and human health risk assessment via the consumption of freshwater fish Mastacembelus armatus inhabiting, thermal power plant effluent loaded canal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javed, Mehjbeen; Usmani, Nazura

    2016-01-01

    ... (186.19 mg/kg dry weight), Ni (58.98 mg/kg dry weight), Cu (41.36 mg/kg dry weight), Co (9.06 mg/kg dry weight) and Mn (9.03 mg/kg dry weight). Estimated daily intake of heavy metals was calculated by mean fish consumption rate...

  5. Planning and Design of Jintai Eco-tourism Garden Grape in Nanchong%南充市金台现代生态葡萄观光园规划设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田梦; 张建林

    2011-01-01

    从农业生态性出发,运用景观和生态理念,从规划设计的角度探讨了南充市金台现代生态葡萄园实现生态性与观光性相融合的策略,系统性地提出了生态规划措施,期望为生态葡萄观光园的规划提供一定的参考价值.%Based on ecological agriculture, use landscape and ecological concepts, from the perspective of planning and design to discuss Nanchong Jintai vineyards to achieve the integration of ecological and tourism, systematically proposed ecological planning measures and expect to provide some reference value.

  6. The development and planning of eco-tourism in the "Sanjiangyuan" areas in Qinghai Province%三江源地区生态旅游规划初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵霞

    2005-01-01

    三江源地区生态环境脆弱,生态战略地位重要,是国内外关注的热点;通过分析生态环境现状,指出发展生态旅游业是实现该地区社会、经济、环境可持续发展的有效途径,提出了发展生态旅游的总体思路、规划目标和规划分区以及相应的保障措施.

  7. A Study of the Sustainable Development of Eco-tourism in Wuyishan Nature Protection Areas%武夷山自然保护区生态旅游可持续发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张完英

    2007-01-01

    分析了武夷山自然保护区发展生态旅游的有利条件,调查了保护区的生态旅游发展现状,指出保护区生态旅游可持续发展的制约因素,在此基础上提出了武夷山自然保护区生态旅游可持续发展的对策.

  8. 丽江市九子海村生态旅游运营保障对策研究%A Research on Safeguarding Eco -Tourism Development in Jiuzihai Village of Lijiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小川; 杨发昌; 和丽萍; 王建南; 孔德平

    2012-01-01

    针对丽江市九子海生态旅游开发过程中可能出现的野生生物生存受到威胁、自然环境可能被破坏的情况,根据该地区的自然生境现状,结合未来生态旅游发展的预期,提出九子海生态旅游运营的保障措施,包括:九子海村主体功能区划分、旅游合作社运营与管理机制、运用生态补偿政策、每日最大旅游人数限制(≤200人)、提高本地村民环保意识、草句核心区放牧限制和核心区外围农田农作物种植引导等措施。%Based on the analysis of current situation and expectation of developing ecotourism in Jiuzihai Village of Lijiang City under the current conditions of the local natural habitats, the countermeasures are proposed to safe- guard the local ecotourism development. These measures include development priority zoning of Jiuzihai Village, operation and management scheme of the local tourism cooperation, ecological service payment, daily allowed maximum tourist ( ≤200 persons), environmental awareness building of the local villagers, prohibition of pasturing in the core zone of the alpine meadow and guiding the crop cultivation outside the core zone.

  9. Basic Principles On Management Plan of Eco-tourism in Natural Conservation Areas%自然保护区生态旅游管理规划的基本原则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋莲; 孙韧

    2003-01-01

    针对在自然保护区发展生态旅游存在许多问题,诸如自然环境破坏、自然资源匮乏、环境污染、生物多样性减少、管理不完善等问题,提出了在自然保护区发展生态旅游的基本原则.

  10. A Leaf-Inhabiting Endophytic Bacterium, Rhodococcus sp. KB6, Enhances Sweet Potato Resistance to Black Rot Disease Caused by Ceratocystis fimbriata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chi Eun; Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Kwon, Suk Yoon; An, Donghwan; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-03-01

    Rhodococcus species have become increasingly important owing to their ability to degrade a wide range of toxic chemicals and produce bioactive compounds. Here, we report isolation of the Rhodococcus sp. KB6, which is a new leaf-inhabiting endophytic bacterium that suppresses black rot disease in sweet potato leaves. We determined the 7.0 Mb draft genome sequence of KB6 and have predicted 19 biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, including heterobactins, which are a new class of siderophores. Notably, we showed the first internal colonization of host plants with Rhodococcus sp. KB6 and discuss its potential as a biocontrol agent for sustainable agriculture.

  11. Effect of repeated application of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) inhabiting selected water canals in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Viranga K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2008-04-01

    Health status of feral Nile tilapia following repeated applications of fenthion as a mosquito larvicide to selected water canals in Sri Lanka was assessed. With three spray applications of fenthion to the study sites at weekly intervals at the concentration recommended for mosquito control, condition factor and brain acetylcholinesterase activity of the fish were depressed in a time dependent manner. Prominent histopathological alterations displayed were gill hyperplasia and telangiectasis and vacoulation of hepatocytes. Observed ill health effects of fenthion on the fish demonstrate probable ecological risk to the fish populations inhabiting the water canals which receive repeated inputs of fenthion.

  12. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  13. Manganese concentration in human saliva using NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewgoy, Hugo R., E-mail: hugorl@usp.br [Universidade Bandeirante Anhanguera (UNIBAN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B.; Medeiros, Ilca M.M.A.; Medeiros, Jose A.G. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this investigation the Manganese levels in human whole saliva were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique for the proposition of an indicative interval. The measurements were performed considering gender and lifestyle factors of Brazilian inhabitants (non-smokers, non-drinkers and no history of toxicological exposure). The results emphasize that the indicative interval is statistically different by gender. These data are useful for identifying or preventing some diseases in the Brazilian population. (author)

  14. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  15. Water-quality reconnaissance of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia, 1984-85

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.; Takasaki, K.J.

    1996-01-01

    A reconnaissance of ground-water quality in 24 inhabited outer islands in Chuuk State was made between January 1984 and October 1985. Most of the islands are part of low-lying coral atolls within the Western, Namonuito, Hall, and Mortlock Island Groups. A total of 648 wells were located and sampled for temperature and specific conductance. A few miscellaneous sites such as taro patches also were sampled. The nitrate concentration was determined for 308 water samples. To develop a relation between specific conductance and chloride concentration, the chloride concentration was determined for 63 water samples. In addition, 21 water samples were analyzed for major and trace constituent ion concentrations. Chloride and nitrate are the primary constituents affecting the potability of ground water in the inhabited outer islands of Chuuk State. The source of chloride in ground water is seawater, whereas nitrate is derived fro plant and animal waste materials. The chloride concentrations in many well waters exceed the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water, particularly in wells near the shoreline or on small islands. In addition, the nitrate concentrations in some well waters exceeded the World Health Organization guideline for drinking water.

  16. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors of Lassa seropositivity in inhabitants of the forest region of Guinea: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solen Kernéis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. The reservoir host of the virus is a multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis. Prevalence estimates of Lassa virus antibodies in humans vary greatly between studies, and the main modes of transmission of the virus from rodents to humans remain unclear. We aimed to (i estimate the prevalence of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibodies (LV IgG in the human population of a rural area of Guinea, and (ii identify risk factors for positive LV IgG. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. In April 2000, all individuals one year of age and older living in three prefectures located in the tropical secondary forest area of Guinea (Gueckedou, Lola and Yomou were sampled using two-stage cluster sampling. For each individual identified by the sampling procedure and who agreed to participate, a standardized questionnaire was completed to collect data on personal exposure to potential risk factors for Lassa fever (mainly contact with rodents, and a blood sample was tested for LV IgG. A multiple logistic regression model was used to determine risk factors for positive LV IgG. A total of 1424 subjects were interviewed and 977 sera were tested. Prevalence of positive LV Ig was of 12.9% [10.8%-15.0%] and 10.0% [8.1%-11.9%] in rural and urban areas, respectively. Two risk factors of positive LV IgG were identified: to have, in the past twelve months, undergone an injection (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8 [1.1-3.1], or lived with someone displaying a haemorrhage (OR = 1.7 [1.1-2.9]. No factors related to contacts with rats and/or mice remained statistically significant in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underlines the potential importance of person-to-person transmission of Lassa fever, via close contact in the same household or nosocomial exposure.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria t...

  19. SUBJECTIVE HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF ADULT INHABITANTS OF TOWNS LOCATED IN THE VICINITY OF WIND FARMS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Mroczek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development of wind power industry is beneficial both for human beings and their environment, even so it causes anxiety of people living near wind farms. It is highly related to insufficient information on the effect of wind farms on human health. The aim of this study was to assess subjective health, existing problems and health behaviours demonstrated by the residents of places located near wind farms. Materials of methods. The study was performed in January and February 2009. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of the Norwegian version of The SF-36 General Health Questionnaire, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS for health assessment, and author’s questions. Information was obtained from 343 respondents, whose average age was 45 years. Out of them 57% had a job, while 12% were unemployed. All respondents were country dwellers. Results: General health was assessed as excellent or very good by 30%, as bad by 10.8%. One-fourth of respondents observed the worsening of their health. Some 59.2% claimed that wind farms were over 1500 m from their houses; people living in the shortest distance form a wind mill (700 m constituted 8%. One-third thought that windmills were safe for health; 69.1% did not regard windmills beneficial to themselves, and 2.6% could not see any advantages for the local community. Overweight and obesity were found in 42.34%, and 96.8% suffered from chronic diseases. Conclusions: 1. Subjective quality of life assessment depends directly on internal conditions of an individual. Construction of wind farms is not evaluated as an investment that changes the life of an individual. It is thought to have no effect on the assessment of health or its worsening. 2. Risk behaviours in the group examined do not differ from those observed in the general population. The factors which make the behaviours different are gender, age below 65 and occupational inactivity.

  20. Quantitative ecological risk assessment of inhabitants exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S.; Hattayanone, M.; Pinyakong, O.; Viyakarn, V.; Chavanich, S. A.; Bo, C.; Khumsup, C.; Kittikoon, I.; Hirunyatrakul, P.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to conduct a quantitative ecological risk assessment of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in terrestrial soils of King George Island, Antarctica. Generally, the average PAH concentrations detected in King George Terrestrial Soils (KGS) were appreciably lower than those of World Marine Sediments (WMS) and World Terrestrial Soils (WTS), highlighting the fact that Antarctica is one of the most pristine continents in the world. The total concentrations of twelve probably carcinogenic PAHs (ΣPAHs: a sum of Phe, An, Fluo, Pyr, B[a]A, Chry, B[b]F, B[k]F, B[a]P, Ind, D[a,h]A and B[g,h,i]P) were 3.21 ± 1.62 ng g-1, 5749 ± 4576 ng g-1, and 257,496 ± 291,268 ng g-1, for KGS, WMS and WTS, respectively. In spite of the fact that KGS has extremely low ΣPAHs in comparison with others, the percentage contribution of Phe is exceedingly high with the value of 50%. By assuming that incidental ingestion and dermal contact are two major exposure pathways responsible for the adverse human health effects, the cancer and non-cancer risks from environmental exposure to PAHs were carefully evaluated based on the ;Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment in Superfund Remedy Selection Decisions; memorandum provided by US-EPA. The logarithms of cancer risk levels of PAH contents in KGS varied from -11.1 to -7.18 with an average of -7.96 ± 7.73, which is 1790 times and 80,176 times lower than that of WMS and WTS, respectively. All cancer risk levels of PAH concentrations observed in KGS are significantly (p < 0.001) lower than those of WMS and WTS. Despite the Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station fire occurred in February 25th, 2012, both the cancer and non-cancer risks of environmental exposure to PAHs were found in ;acceptable level;.

  1. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the shrubs of Pinus mugo Turra in the green areas of Lublin. Part I. The population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożenna Jaśkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were conducted on the shrubs of mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra in the years 1999-2001. Observations were performed on the plants growing in the green areas of Lublin in two sites: a street site (A and a park one (B. The purpose of the studies was to establish the species composition and the population dynamics of aphids inhabiting dwarf mountain pine. The studies on the shrubs of the mountain pine found out the presence of four species of aphids: Cinara pini L., Schizolachnus pineti F., Eulachnus rileyi (Will. and Pineus pini (Ratz.. Among those, only C. pini occurred in both sites in each of the studied years. Weather conditions had an effect on the development of aphid population. A delayed period of vegetation, air temperatures above 30°C as well as stormy rainfalls considerably limited the population of aphids.

  2. PARAMETERS OF THE DIETARY PATTERN AND BEHAVIOR OF THE BRYANSK REGION INHABITANTS IN MAY 1986, INFLUENCING THE EVALUATION OF THE DOSE RECEIVED DUE TO THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zvonova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the poll on the lifestyle and nutrition of the population of the most contaminated areas of the Bryansk and Tula regions during the initial period after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant are presented in the article. The poll was held at the beginning of 1987. Mean values of numeric factors were derived form the results of processing of questionnaires received from 8500 persons, namely: value of milk daily consumption depending on the age and place of residence, the date of the dairy cattle grazing starting, time of milk consumption termination in May 1986, time spent by the person outdoors and in the dwelling, data on the leaving of the contaminated territory. Obtained information is used for the clarification of models for the internal and external exposure dose calculation and for personalization of the dose estimations for the individual inhabitants.

  3. Studies on Antineoplastic Constituents from Marine Bryozoan Bugula neritina Inhabiting South China Sea (Ⅲ): Isolation and Structural Elucidation of Bryostatins 10, 11 and 18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林厚文; 易杨华; 姚新生; 吴厚铭

    2001-01-01

    Six active compounds are isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina,inhabiting the Nanwan Bay in the South China Sea, using the bioassay-guided method with a combination of extraction and partitionation with suitable solvents as well as multiple column chromatographies ( Sephadex LH-20, ODS and preparative HPLC).Their structures are identified as known bryostatins-bryostatins 4, 5, 6, 10, 11 and 18 through intensive analysis of the data of high resolution 2D NMR (600 MHz, DQF-COSY,TOCSY, HMQC and ROESY) and ESI-MS. Among them, bryostatins 10, 11 and 18 are for the first time obtained from this bryozoan in the South China Sea and they show significant antineoplastic activities in vitro.

  4. The Measurable and the Real Quality of Life in the City. Urban regeneration as a technological correlation of resources, spaces and inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks at urban regeneration beginning from the notion of the exclusive qualities of the contemporary city: selective, closed, introspective, and inaccessible. Focusing on the tactical/metadesign phase of the urban regeneration process and referring to the paradigms of resilience and bio-psycho-social inclusion, the paper proposes a technological design vision to recompose the qualities of the ‘common good’ known as the city into an inclusive, open, communicative and accessible reality. Operating through technological-environmental interfaces and need-based/ enabling macro-requirements, the paper considers the urban system as an inhabitable organism characterised by differences, tensions and balances between the apparatuses of the city, within a matrix of widespread quality. 

  5. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis LM2303, a biocontrol strain isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-10

    Bacillus velezensis LM2303 is a biocontrol strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against plant pathogens, isolated from the dung of wild yak inhabited Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Here we present its complete genome sequence, which consists of a single, circular chromosome of 3,989,393bp with a 46.68% G+C content. Genome analysis revealed genes encoding specialized functions for the biosynthesis of antifungal metabolites and antibacterial metabolites, the promotion of plant growth, the alleviation of oxidative stress and nutrient utilization. And the biosynthesis of antimicrobial metabolites in strain LM2303 was confirmed by biochemical analysis, while its plant growth promoting traits were confirmed by inoculation tests. Our results will establish a better foundation for further studies and biocontrol application of B. velezensis LM2303. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender-Specific Associations between Perceived Neighbourhood Walkability and Meeting Walking Recommendations When Walking for Transport and Recreation for Czech Inhabitants over 50 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pelclová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the different effects that the built environment may have on the physical activity behaviours of men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the gender differences in meeting walking recommendations in relation to perceived neighbourhood walkability attributes within the active transportation and leisure-time domains for Czech inhabitants over 50 years of age. The sample included 1,417 men and 1,422 women who were randomly selected. The Abbreviated Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS was used to obtain information about the perceived environment. The self-administered long version of the IPAQ was used to assess physical activity levels. When walking for transport, men living in neighbourhoods with high street connectivity (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.04–2.9 and higher traffic and crime safety (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.02–1.6 and women living in neighbourhoods with high proximity (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04–1.77 and high neighbourhood aesthetics (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04–1.76 were more likely to meet recommended levels of walking. No environmental attributes were found to significantly influence the accomplishment of walking recommendations by men or women when walking for leisure. The study results indicate the gender-specific associations between transportation-related walking and the environment factors. The consideration of those factors in the design of gender-specific walking interventions for Czech inhabitants may help the interventions to be more effective in promotion of physical activity.

  7. Gender-specific associations between perceived neighbourhood walkability and meeting walking recommendations when walking for transport and recreation for Czech inhabitants over 50 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelclová, Jana; Frömel, Karel; Cuberek, Roman

    2013-12-30

    Few studies have investigated the different effects that the built environment may have on the physical activity behaviours of men and women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the gender differences in meeting walking recommendations in relation to perceived neighbourhood walkability attributes within the active transportation and leisure-time domains for Czech inhabitants over 50 years of age. The sample included 1,417 men and 1,422 women who were randomly selected. The Abbreviated Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (ANEWS) was used to obtain information about the perceived environment. The self-administered long version of the IPAQ was used to assess physical activity levels. When walking for transport, men living in neighbourhoods with high street connectivity (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.04-2.9) and higher traffic and crime safety (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.02-1.6) and women living in neighbourhoods with high proximity (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04-1.77) and high neighbourhood aesthetics (OR = 1.36, CI = 1.04-1.76) were more likely to meet recommended levels of walking. No environmental attributes were found to significantly influence the accomplishment of walking recommendations by men or women when walking for leisure. The study results indicate the gender-specific associations between transportation-related walking and the environment factors. The consideration of those factors in the design of gender-specific walking interventions for Czech inhabitants may help the interventions to be more effective in promotion of physical activity.

  8. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Pyzik, Adam; Szuplewska, Magdalena; Matlakowska, Renata; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Schlüter, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland). It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by extremophilic bacteria and fungi. Kupfershiefer black shale and samples of water, bottom and mineral sediments from the underground (below 600 m) Lubin mine were taken and 20 bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. All exhibited multi-resistant and hypertolerant phenotypes to heavy metals. We analyzed the plasmidome of these strains in order to evaluate the diversity and role of mobile DNA in adaptation to the harsh conditions of the mine environment. Experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 11 extrachromosomal replicons were performed. Three plasmids, including a broad-host-range replicon containing a Tn3 family transposon, carried genes conferring resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, mercury and zinc. Functional analysis revealed that the resistance modules exhibit host specificity, i.e., they may increase or decrease tolerance to toxic ions depending on the host strain. The other identified replicons showed diverse features. Among them we identified a catabolic plasmid encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of histidine and vanillate, a putative plasmid-like prophage carrying genes responsible for NAD biosynthesis, and two repABC-type plasmids containing virulence-associated genes. These findings provide an unique molecular insight into the pool of extrachromosomal replicons and highlight their role in the biology and adaptation of extremophilic bacteria inhabiting terrestrial deep subsurface. PMID:26074880

  9. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz eDziewit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland. It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by extremophilic bacteria and fungi. Kupfershiefer black shale and samples of water, bottom and mineral sediments from the underground (below 600 m Lubin mine were taken and twenty bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. All exhibited multi-resistant and hypertolerant phenotypes to heavy metals. We analyzed the plasmidome of these strains in order to evaluate the diversity and role of mobile DNA in adaptation to the harsh conditions of the mine environment. Experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 11 extrachromosomal replicons were performed. Three plasmids, including a broad-host-range replicon containing a Tn3 family transposon, carried genes conferring resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, mercury and zinc. Functional analysis revealed that the resistance modules exhibit host specificity, i.e. they may increase or decrease tolerance to toxic ions depending on the host strain. The other identified replicons showed diverse features. Among them we identified a catabolic plasmid encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of histidine and vanillate, a putative plasmid-like prophage carrying genes responsible for NAD biosynthesis, and two repABC-type plasmids containing virulence-associated genes. These findings provide an unique molecular insight into the pool of extrachromosomal replicons and highlight their role in the biology and adaptation of extremophilic bacteria inhabiting terrestrial deep subsurface.

  10. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evseeva, T.; Majstrenko, T. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation); Geras' kin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology RAAS, 249020 Obninsk, Kaluga region (Russian Federation); Brown, J.E., E-mail: Justin.brown@nrpa.no [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Grini naeringspark 13, 1332 Osteras (Norway); Belykh, E. [Institute of Biology, Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division RAS, Kommunisticheskaya 28, 167982 Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and {sup 226}Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles = 5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  11. Diversity and role of plasmids in adaptation of bacteria inhabiting the Lubin copper mine in Poland, an environment rich in heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Pyzik, Adam; Szuplewska, Magdalena; Matlakowska, Renata; Mielnicki, Sebastian; Wibberg, Daniel; Schlüter, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    The Lubin underground mine, is one of three mining divisions in the Lubin-Glogow Copper District in Lower Silesia province (Poland). It is the source of polymetallic ore that is rich in copper, silver and several heavy metals. Black shale is also significantly enriched in fossil organic matter in the form of long-chain hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, thiophenes and metalloporphyrins. Biological analyses have revealed that this environment is inhabited by extremophilic bacteria and fungi. Kupfershiefer black shale and samples of water, bottom and mineral sediments from the underground (below 600 m) Lubin mine were taken and 20 bacterial strains were isolated and characterized. All exhibited multi-resistant and hypertolerant phenotypes to heavy metals. We analyzed the plasmidome of these strains in order to evaluate the diversity and role of mobile DNA in adaptation to the harsh conditions of the mine environment. Experimental and bioinformatic analyses of 11 extrachromosomal replicons were performed. Three plasmids, including a broad-host-range replicon containing a Tn3 family transposon, carried genes conferring resistance to arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, mercury and zinc. Functional analysis revealed that the resistance modules exhibit host specificity, i.e., they may increase or decrease tolerance to toxic ions depending on the host strain. The other identified replicons showed diverse features. Among them we identified a catabolic plasmid encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of histidine and vanillate, a putative plasmid-like prophage carrying genes responsible for NAD biosynthesis, and two repABC-type plasmids containing virulence-associated genes. These findings provide an unique molecular insight into the pool of extrachromosomal replicons and highlight their role in the biology and adaptation of extremophilic bacteria inhabiting terrestrial deep subsurface.

  12. Biodiversity of Dominant Cultivable Endophytic Bacteria Inhabiting Tissues of Six Different Cultivars of Maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) Cropped under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Katarzyna; Pietr, Stanisław Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria (EnB) play a crucial role in plant development. This study was an attempt to isolate and identify dominant cultivable EnB inhabiting young seedlings germinated in vitro and leaves of six maize cultivars grown under field conditions at temperate climate zone with culture-dependent approach. We isolated bacteria from field cropped maize only. Strains were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In particular, members of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and α- and γ-Proteobacteria were found. Species of two genus Pseudomonas and Bacillus were dominant among them. Higher diversity of EnB was found in plants collected from Kobierzyce, where we identified 35 species from 16 genera with 22 species uniquely found at this field. On the contrary, from maize leaves collected at Smolice we identified 24 species representing 10 genera with 10 species uniquely isolated from this field. However, none of species was common for all cultivars at both locations. Among isolated EnB six species only, Pseudomonas clemancea, Pseudomonasfluorescens, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus simplex, Arthrobacter nicotinovorans and Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, were found in aboveground parts of the same cultivar grown on both tested fields. The fact that the same cultivars, sown from the same lots of seeds, under field conditions on two different locations were colonized with noticeably different associations of cultivable EnB suggest that cultivar genotype is an important factor selecting endophytic bacteria from local agro-environment. To our knowledge this is first report about the significant variation of diversity of cultivable endophytic bacteria inhabiting aboveground parts of the same maize cultivars grown at different locations.

  13. Estimation of ionizing radiation impact on natural Vicia cracca populations inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T; Majstrenko, T; Geras'kin, S; Brown, J E; Belykh, E

    2009-10-01

    Industrial areas in proximity to the Vodny settlement in the Komi Republic, Russia, have been contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes. These areas, exhibiting high activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in soils, constitute a field laboratory where the effects of combined chronic exposures to alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclides on natural plant populations can be studied. The aim of the present work was to determine dose-effect relationships and the range of doses that cause biological effects in natural Vicia cracca L. populations inhabiting the study area. The studied plant species is native to the area and is found ubiquitously. Soil and vegetation samples were taken at a reference location and six contaminated sites characterized by distinct floodplain depositional units with different enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides. A large fraction of the dose at the study sites (including the reference location) was attributable to internal irradiation and (226)Ra was found to be an important contributor to this component of dose. The relationship between the frequency of chromosome aberrations in seedlings' root tip cells and the absorbed dose was found to be quadratic. An exponential model provided the best result in describing the empirical dependence between the absorbed dose and both the germination capacity of seeds and the survival rate of sprouts of V. cracca. For V. cracca plants inhabiting areas contaminated with uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes, a weighted absorbed dose of 0.2 Gy (weighting factor for alpha particles=5) during the vegetation period could be considered to be a level below which no increase in genetic variability and decrease in reproductive capacity might be observed above background.

  14. 构建人与自然和谐的森林生态旅游%Construct the Human and the Nature Harmonious Forest Ecological Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关福祥

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces distribution and characteristics of tourism resources in Inner Mongolia Daxinganling. By discussing and analyzing the problems that include the achievement of forest park construction, tourism product development, ecological culture construction, excellent tourist routes and tourism development and protection, this paper described how to construct forest eco-tourism of harmony between man and nature.%  介绍了内蒙古大兴安岭旅游资源的分布与特点,对森林公园建设成就、旅游产品开发、旅游精品线路、生态文化建设、旅游开发与保护等问题进行论述分析,提出了构建人与自然和谐的森林生态旅游的对策措施。

  15. [Primary human demodicosis. A disease sui generis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C-K; Zink, A; Wei, K-J; Dzika, E; Plewig, G; Chen, W

    2015-03-01

    Human Demodex mites (Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis) are unique in that they are an obligate human ectoparasite that can inhabit the pilosebaceous unit lifelong without causing obvious host immune response in most cases. The mode of symbiosis between humans and human Demodex mites is unclear, while the pathogenicity of human Demodex mites in many inflammatory skin diseases is now better understood. Primary human demodicosis is a skin disease sui generis not associated with local or systemic immunosuppression. Diagnosis is often underestimated and differentiation from folliculitis, papulopustular rosacea and perioral dermatitis is not always straightforward. Dependent on the morphology and degree of inflammation, the clinical manifestations can be classified into spinulate, papulopustular, nodulocystic, crustic and fulminant demodicosis. Therapy success can be achieved only with acaricides/arachidicides. The effective doses, optimal regimen and antimicrobial resistance remain to be determined.

  16. Investigation Analysis of the City Inhabitants Participate Community Sports Motivation and Its Restrictive Factors%城市居民参加社区体育动机及其制约因素的调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛冰

    2012-01-01

    Take the Jilin Province partial city community inhabitants as the sample,investigate the motivation and the restrictive factors from the questionnaire that city inhabitants participates in the community sports,using the mathematical statistic method,discussion the difference of the motivation and the restrictive factors that community inhabitants participates in community sports.Result show:24.1% city inhabitants participate in community sports above 3 time/week;The first three motivation that inhabitants participates in the community sports is the enhance physical,the leisure and entertainment,the fitness and loses weight;The restriction factors existence significant differences that the city inhabitants participate in community sports in physiology,psychology,facilities,society and so on.%以吉林省部分城市社区居民为样本,对城市居民参加社区体育动机及其制约因素进行问卷调查,运用数理统计方法探讨城市居民参加社区体育动机和制约因素的差异。结果显示:有24.1%的城市居民参加3次/周以上的社区体育活动;参加社区体育动机前三位的是增强体质、休闲娱乐、健美减肥;城市居民参加社区体育的制约因素在生理、心理、设施和社会等层面存在显著差异。

  17. ESTIMATION OF THE MODERN DOSES OF AN ARTIFICIAL EXPOSURE FOR THE INHABITANTS OF THE SETTLEMENTS LOCATED ON THE COAST OF YENISEI IN A ZONE OF SUPERVISION OF FSUE «MINING AND CHEMICAL ESTABLISHMENT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Grigorev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research objective consists in an estimation of modern exposure doses for the inhabitants of six settlements located on the coasts of the river Yenisei, including the doses caused by artificial radioactive contamination, connected with activity of FSUE «Mining and Chemical Establishment». Results of the work testify that the exposure doses for population caused by an artificial component, do not exceed the established hygienic limits, and the exposure doses for the population of the specified settlements as a whole do not exceed total exposure doses for the inhabitants of Krasnoyarsk region.

  18. Ecological Change and the Future of the Human Species: Can Physicians Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblatt, Roger A.

    2005-01-01

    Global environmental change is occurring so rapidly that it is affecting the health and threatening the future of many of Earth’s inhabitants, including human beings. Global warming; contamination of the air, water, and soil; and rampant deforestation have led to a collapse in biodiversity that threatens the integrity of the biophysical systems upon which all organisms depend.

  19. The inhabitance paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability"' to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have identified theoretically impressive boundaries for this zone: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using the same class of climate model, I show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", moist temperate climate, hot moist climate and a post-runaway dry climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. The radial extent of the temperate climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres, but can be widened with di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The width of the habitable zone...

  20. Serologic survey for disease in endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, inhabiting the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCue, P.M.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1986-07-01

    Serum from endangered San Joaquin kit foxes, Vulpes macrotis mutica, and sympatric wildlife inhabiting the Elk Hills Petroleum Reserve, Kern County, and Elkhorn Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California, was collected in 1981 to 1982 and 1984, and tested for antibodies against 10 infectious disease pathogens. Proportions of kit fox sera containing antibodies against diseases were: canine parvovirus, 100% in 1981 to 1982 and 67% in 1984; infectious canine hepatitis, 6% in 1981 to 1982 and 21% in 1984; canine distemper, 0 in 1981 to 1982 and 14% in 1984; tularemia, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 31% in 1984; Brucella abortus, 8% in 1981 to 1982 and 3% in 1984; Brucella canis, 14% in 1981 to 1982 and 0 in 1984; toxoplasmosis, 6% in 1981 to 1982; coccidioidomycosis, 3% in 1981 to 1982; and plague and leptospirosis, 0 in 1981 to 1982. High population density, overlapping home ranges, ability to disperse great distances, and infestation by ectoparasites were cited as possible factors in the transmission and maintenance of these diseases in kit fox populations.

  1. Critical factors in the limited occurrence of the Japanese tree sap mite Hericia sanukiensis (Acari: Astigmata: Algophagidae) inhabiting the sap of the oak Quercus acutissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Ichikawa, Toshihide; Yasui, Yukio

    2011-08-01

    Hericia sanukiensis (Astigmata: Algophagidae) is a semi-aquatic mite inhabiting fermented sap flux of the Japanese sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima) and utilizes Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) as the dispersal (phoretic) carrier. Although nitidulid beetles are commonly found in sap flux, the occurrence of H. sanukiensis has been extremely limited to a few trees in Shikoku Island, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. To elucidate the critical factors limiting the occurrence of this species, we compared several physical and biological characteristics of sap-exudation points, including the structure and temperature of tree trunks, period and abundance of sap exudation, and seasonal occurrence and dispersal behavior of nitidulid beetles between environments with and without mites. During the two consecutive years of field research, we found that only sap-exudation points with obvious tree holes (ringent area >10 cm², depth >10 cm) had sustained mite populations throughout the observation period. In contrast, for the sap-exudation points lacking tree holes, H. sanukiensis temporally (from spring to autumn) colonized only when the sap production was considerably high. Thus, we suggest that the settlement of H. sanukiensis populations requires tree holes as an overwintering habitat. Nitidulid beetles also concentrated in areas with high sap production and did not disperse from such habitats during the sap flow season. This indicates that H. sanukiensis mites may only disperse and colonize new habitats at very limited opportunities, such as drastic habitat deterioration, which may promote the movement of their carrier. Taken together, these findings may explain the limited occurrence of this mite species.

  2. Camerobiid mites (Acariformes: Raphignathina: Camerobiidae inhabiting epiphytic bromeliads and soil litter of tropical dry forest with analysis of setal homology in the genus Neophyllobius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Paredes-León

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the camerobiid mites living on epiphytic bromeliads and the forest floor of a Mexican tropical dry forest was carried out. We found three new species of the genus Neophyllobius, which are described in this paper; the first two, namely N. cibyci sp. nov. and N. tepoztlanensis sp. nov., were both found inhabiting bromeliads (Tillandsia spp. and living on two tree species (Quercus obtusata and Sapium macrocarpum; the third, N. tescalicola sp. nov., was found in soil and litter under Q. obtusata. These three new species can be differentiated from other species in the genus by a combination of morphological characters in adult females, mainly those setae on femora and genua I. The idiosoma and leg setal ontogeny of a camerobiid mite is presented for the first time in this paper, illustrating chaetotaxic notations and their relative positions in N. cibyci sp. nov. larva, protonymph and adults (female and male, and establishing setal homologies among instars. Setal homology with other species in the cohort Raphignathina is briefly discussed. Additionally, a compilation and an identification key to all known species of camerobiid mites in Mexico is provided.

  3. EFFICIENCY OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES TO REDUCE INTERNAL DOSE FROM CAESIUM RADIONUCLIDES FOR THE INHABITANTS OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION AREA IN THE FIRST YEARS AFTER THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Travnikova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we use the data on the content of caesium radionuclides in foodstuffs and in Bryansk region adult inhabitant’s body, on their food ration and its changes during the first years after the Chernobyl accident, and on the measures to protect the population from internal exposure. We calculate dynamics of 137Cs intake in the body and its contents therein, while maintaining a traditional diet and while replacing food products for radiationfree ones. The results show that the actual 137Cs content in the body is usually below the one calculated on the basis of the food ration. It was found out that individual 137Cs contents in the body correlate with the rate of meat, dairy and natural food products consumption and with factors of protection from internal exposure. The efficiency of the protective measures to reduce the intake and the content of caesium radionuclides in the body of inhabitants, as well as the average effective dose in the first years after the accident has been quantitatively assessed.

  4. Cold seep biogenic carbonate crust in the Levantine basin is inhabited by burrowing Phascolosoma aff. turnerae, a sipunculan worm hosting a distinctive microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin-Blum, Maxim; Shemesh, Eli; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly; Coleman, Dwight F.; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Tchernov, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Biogenic calcium carbonate crusts represent a cryptic habitat that is often associated with hydrocarbon seeps. Most biological observations of these crusts concern the external surfaces and the fauna inhabiting their inner cavities are generally neglected. Exposed carbonates in areas of active seepage at the 1100-m-deep base of the Palmachim slumping feature in the Levantine basin are intensively burrowed by metazoans, especially by sipunculans (peanut worms), identified by genetic and morphological markers as a potentially novel Phascolosoma sp., closely related to Phascolosoma turnerae (Rice, 1985) and named here P. aff. turnerae. Bacterial 16S-based tag encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) was utilized to analyze the bacterial community associated with P. aff. turnerae. We compared the bacterial community structure in P. aff. turnerae to the bacterial community structure associated with the sediment-water interface in adjacent gas seeps and in biofilm covering the carbonate crust hosting the sipunculan. A distinctive microbiota, capable of chemosynthesis and sulfide detoxification, was found in association with P. aff. turnerae.

  5. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  6. Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ICARB at Manora Peak, Nainital: A sparsely inhabited, high-altitude location in the Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U C Dumka; K Krishna Moorthy; P Pant; P Hegde; Ram Sagar; K Pandey

    2008-07-01

    Collocated measurements of the optical and physical properties of columnar and near-surface aerosols were carried out from Manora Peak, Nainital (a sparsely inhabited, high altitude location, ∼2km above mean sea level, in the Himalayas), during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB) under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO-GBP). Under this, observational data of spectral aerosol optical depths (AOD), mass concentration of aerosol black carbon (B), mass concentration () and number concentration () of composite (total) aerosols near the surface and meteorological parameters were collected during the period February 15 to April 30, 2006. Though very low (> 0.1 at 500 nm) AODs were observed during clear days, as much as a fourfold increase was seen on hazy days. The Ångström exponent (), deduced from the spectral AODs, revealed high values during clear days, while on hazy days was low; with an overall mean value of 0.69 ± 0.06 for the campaign period. BC mass concentration varied between 0.36 and 2.87 g m−3 and contributed in the range 0.7 to 1.8% to the total aerosol mass. Total aerosol number concentration and BC mass concentration showed diurnal variation with a midnight and early morning minimum and a late afternoon maximum; a pattern quite opposite to that seen in low altitude stations. These are attributed to the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. ACTUAL KNOWLEDGE OF A STANDARD AND LEGAL BASIS OF MIGRATION AS A CONDITION OF MIGRANTS’ SUCCESSFUL ADAPTATION TO THE NEW SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT AND THEIR ADOPTION BY ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izafa Sh. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aim is to find out adaptation conditions of migrants to the new environment and their adoption by aboriginal inhabitants. Methods. The methods include questioning of migrants on awareness of public services activity; the analysis of the migration reasons; examination interview about documents knowledge regulating international and interethnic relations. Results. The research outcomes include the investigation and analyses of the migrants’ knowledge level on public services that take up problems of their living environment creation, opinions of the voluntary and forced migrants on activity of the given services and the organizations, and also local residents’ knowledge of the normative legal documents maintenance that regulate interethnic relations. Scientific novelty. The author draws out the migration policy gaps and justifies the need of the necessity of special educational work among migrants and host country. It is especially important to take measures and do this work among studying youth. Conversance with the normative legal basis of migrant processes, migrants’ preliminary instructions and preparation to new ethnocultural environment can essentially facilitate adaptation of migrants and provide adequate local residents’ perception where the migrants decide to locate. Practical significance. The research data and results are the central point for creation and realization of the educational program directed to development of tolerance, respect and the positive attitude to other cultures, representatives of other nationalities; formation of conflict free coexistence in multi-ethnic society, increase of empathy and ethnocultural competence. 

  8. As-resistance in laboratory-reared F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus inhabiting an As-contaminated mine soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langdon, C.J., E-mail: clangdon1@btinternet.co [C/O The Open University in the North, Baltic Buiness Quarter, Abbots Hill, Gateshead NE8 3DF (United Kingdom); Morgan, A.J., E-mail: morganaj1@cardiff.ac.u [Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 913, Cardiff CF11 3TL, Wales (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M., E-mail: john.charnock@manchester.ac.u [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Semple, K.T., E-mail: k.semple@lancaster.ac.u [Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Lowe, C.N., E-mail: cnlowe@uclan.ac.u [School of Built and Natural Environment, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-15

    Previous studies provided no unequivocal evidence demonstrating that field populations of Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister (1843), exhibit genetically inherited resistance to As-toxicity. In this study F1, F2 and F3 generation offspring derived from adults inhabiting As-contaminated field soil were resistant when exposed to 2000 mg kg{sup -1} sodium arsenate. The offspring of uncontaminated adults were not As-resistant. Cocoon viability was 80% for F1 and 82% for F2 offspring from As-contaminated adults and 59% in the F1 control population. High energy synchrotron analysis was used to determine whether ligand complexation of As differed in samples of: resistant mine-site adults, the resistant F1 and F2 offspring of the mine-site earthworms exposed to the LC{sub 25} sodium arsenate (700 mg kg{sup -1}) of the F1 parental generation; and adult L. rubellus from an uncontaminated site exposed to LC{sub 25} concentrations of sodium arsenate (50 mg kg{sup -1}). XANES and EXAFS indicated that As was present as a sulfur-coordinated species. - As-resistance in F1, F2 and F3 offspring of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus.

  9. [Seasonal distributions and effects of parasites in pike (esox lucius l., 1758) inhabiting the işikli dam lake (Denizli).].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kir, Ismail; Ozan, Selda Tekın

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study carried out from December 2000-November 2001 was to determine the endoparasites of pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) inhabiting the Işikli Dam Lake. A total of 160 samples were caught and investigated parasitologically. Bathybothrium rectangulum (Cestoda), Raphidascaris acus, Camallanus truncatus (Nematoda) and Neoechinorhynchus rutili (Acanthocephala) were detected as a result of this study. R. acus was the most prevalent species. The highest seasonal infection in the pike samples was determined to be 84.2% in the spring. The rates of infection are 40.4% in male pikes and 65.1% in females. According to age groups, the highest infection ratio has been determined to be 85.7% in pikes that were one year old. Investigations on samples caught during the same month and of the same age and gender showed that infected pikes were 2.5% shorter and 7.6% lighter than non-infected pikes. Among the parasites determined in this study, Bathybothrium rectangulum was detected for the first time in Turkish pike.

  10. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  11. Intake of Volatile N-nitrosamines and Their Ability to Exogenously Synthesize in the Diet of Inhabitants from High-risk Area of Esophageal Cancer in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective Nan'ao County in Guandong Province is a high-risk area of esophageal cancer in Southern China. Of the suspected etiological factors in the environment, N-nitrosamines and their precursors have received the greatest attenfion. Methods Sixty samples of the diet ingested by the inhabitants were collected and detected for volatile N-nitrosamines and their precursors. Five Nnitrosamines detected by Gas Chromatography-Thermal Energy Analyzer were N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosopiperidine and N-ditrosomethyl-benzylamine. Results The average content of 5 volatile N-nitrosamines in the diet was 312.0 μg/kg (median). The daily intake of the nitrosamines was 286.5 μ tg/head/day. Only the ability to exogenously synthesize N-nitrosopiperidine was powerful among 5 volatile N-nitrosamines. By a computerized stepwise regression analysis and curve fitting, we studied the correlation among the nitrosamines, the precursors and the major food items in the samples. Conclusion It demonstrated that a relatively high content of volatile N-nitrosamines was present in the diet collected in the area.

  12. Evaluation on the Risks of Agricultural Industrial Chain Based on FAHP——A Case of Regions Inhabited by Ethnic Groups in Wuling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through recognizing the risking factors of industrial chain and selecting appropriate evaluation method, the index system on evaluating risking factors including market risk, natural risk, contact risk and efficiency risk in industrial chain is constructed,26 weighting indicators under the four layers are set up. Taking regions inhabited by ethnic groups in Wuling Mountain as an example, the risking factors of agricultural industrial chain in the area are analyzed by adopting the FAHP. The influencing degree of each risking factor on credit risks is analyzed. The results assume that with the market risk, contract risk, natural risk and efficiency risk. The natural risks become the principal risks of agricultural industrial chain and it should be paid much attention to. The low credit risk is a major factor that causes the contract between enterprise and rural households. The flood, pests, diseases and disasters also should be paid high attention to that is regarded as risking factors. The risking factors that come from the efficiency risk layer, for example, the unequal profit distribution among enterprises has little effect on enterprises in industrial chain. The research results provide evidence for stipulating risk prevention measures.

  13. Evolutionary relationships among sympatric life history forms of Dolly Varden inhabiting the landlocked Kronotsky Lake, Kamchatka, and a neighboring anadromous population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostberg, C.O.; Pavlov, S.D.; Hauser, L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the evolutionary relationships among five sympatric morphs of Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma (white, Schmidti, longhead, river, and dwarf) inhabiting landlocked Kronotsky Lake on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and an anadromous population below the barrier waterfall on the outflowing Kronotsky River. Morphological analyses indicated phenotypic differentiation corresponding to preferred habitat, the longhead (a limnetic piscivorous morph) having a fusiform body, long jaw, and short fins and the Schmidti (a benthic morph) having a robust body, small jaw, and long fins. Analysis of molecular variance among the Kronotsky Lake morphs indicated that contemporary gene flow is restricted both among morphs within locations and among locations within morphs. Gene flow from Kronotsky Lake into the anadromous population also appears to be restricted. Our findings indicate that there are two divergent evolutionary lineages, one consisting of the white, Schmidti, river, and dwarf morphs and the other of the longhead morph and the anadromous population, which suggests that Kronotsky Lake was subject to separate waves of immigration. The Kronotsky Lake Dolly Varden morphs may represent an example of ecological speciation in progress, and we present a working hypothesis for the diversification of morphs within Kronotsky Lake.

  14. Voices of Villa Hermosa: impact of collective demobilizations and reinsertions of former paramilitary members on the inhabitants of the Comuna 8 of Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Iannini Uribe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the impact that the reinsertion into society of former Colombian paramilitary members has had on the normative plurality existing in one urban settlement of Medellín known as “Comuna 8”. This study refers to paramilitarism as contra insurgent organizations associated with organized crime, and by demobilization it refers to the process by which members of Illegal Armed Organized Groups disarmed and reintegrated to civil life. The aspects explored are the social context of the Comuna 8, the Desarmament, Demobilization and Reinsertion process (DDR, and finally the changes that this reinsertion process had on some forms of expression in the comuna. The study uses Documentary Analysis using primary and secondary data, focusing on testimonies from members of the community, governmental and nongovernmental research reports, municipal legislation, and governmental statistics. This research shows how the inhabitants of the Comuna 8 further expressed their unconformities after demobilization, and analyses why different channels of expression were opened.

  15. ‘A Discovery of Quite Exceptional Proportions’: Controversies in the Wake of Anders Nummedal’s Discoveries of Norway’s First Inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mjelva Breivik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Around the beginning of the twentieth century archaeologists believed that Norway was not inhabited until the Late Stone Age. In 1909 two pieces of flint, found by the school-teacher Anders Nummedal, launched an extensive debate about the prehistory of Norway, which in time led to the acknowledgement that there was an Early Mesolithic (9500–8000 BC settlement of the country. However, Nummedal’s lack of archaeological education worked against him when he tried to date the many flint sites he found later on, and well-established researchers found his theories about Stone Age settlements unconvincing. He was regarded as an unskilled teacher who did not know the first thing about archaeological methods and terminology. Today, Nummedal is considered to be one of the most influential participants in Norwegian Stone Age research, and his discoveries are well known and widely recognized. This paper describes Nummedal’s fight to transform his reputation from ridiculed amateur to respected professional. The resistance he met when presenting his sensational theories is detailed through an extensive review of letters, newspaper articles and eulogies written by his colleagues.

  16. Combined and Relative Effect Levels of Perceived Risk, Knowledge, Optimism, Pessimism, and Social Trust on Anxiety among Inhabitants Concerning Living on Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongjun; Guo, Zengli; Zhou, Li; Xue, Shengguo; Zhu, Qinfeng; Zhu, Huike

    2016-11-02

    This research aims at combined and relative effect levels on anxiety of: (1) perceived risk, knowledge, optimism, pessimism, and social trust; and (2) four sub-variables of social trust among inhabitants concerning living on heavy metal contaminated soil. On the basis of survey data from 499 Chinese respondents, results suggest that perceived risk, pessimism, optimism, and social trust have individual, significant, and direct effects on anxiety, while knowledge does not. Knowledge has significant, combined, and interactive effects on anxiety together with social trust and pessimism, respectively, but does not with perceived risk and optimism. Social trust, perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism have significantly combined effects on anxiety; the five variables as a whole have stronger predictive values than each one individually. Anxiety is influenced firstly by social trust and secondly by perceived risk, pessimism, knowledge, and optimism. Each of four sub-variables of social trust has an individual, significant, and negative effect on anxiety. When introducing four sub-variables into one model, trust in social organizations and in the government have significantly combined effects on anxiety, while trust in experts and in friends and relatives do not; anxiety is influenced firstly by trust in social organization, and secondly by trust in the government.

  17. AM fungal communities inhabiting the roots of submerged aquatic plant Lobelia dortmanna are diverse and include a high proportion of novel taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moora, Mari; Öpik, Maarja; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Vasar, Martti; Zobel, Martin; Eckstein, R Lutz

    2016-10-01

    While the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is known to be widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, there is growing evidence that aquatic plants also form the symbiosis. It has been suggested that symbiosis with AM fungi may represent an important adaptation for isoëtid plants growing on nutrient-poor sediments in oligotrophic lakes. In this study, we address AM fungal root colonization intensity, richness and community composition (based on small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing) in five populations of the isoëtid plant species Lobelia dortmanna inhabiting oligotrophic lakes in Southern Sweden. We found that the roots of L. dortmanna hosted rich AM fungal communities and about 15 % of the detected molecular taxa were previously unrecorded. AM fungal root colonization intensity and taxon richness varied along an environmental gradient, being higher in oligotrophic and lower in mesotrophic lakes. The overall phylogenetic structure of this aquatic fungal community differed from that described in terrestrial systems: The roots of L. dortmanna hosted more Archaeosporaceae and fewer Glomeraceae taxa than would be expected based on global data from terrestrial AM fungal communities.

  18. [Effectiveness of iodine prophylaxis and frequency of thyroid enlargement (thyroid goiter) and clinical diagnosis of thyroid diseases in inhabitants of the Szczecin region after the Czernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrenicz, A; Goździk, J; Pynka, S; Pilarska, K; Gruszczyńska, M; Gołebiowska, I; Syrenicz, M; Miazgowski, T; Listewnik, M; Krzyzanowska, B

    1991-01-01

    The study, supported by program MZ-XVII, was carried on 4567 inhabitants of the area of Szczecin (2350 females and 2217 males). The population was chosen randomly, according to a simple drawing scheme. All subjects were clinically examined using standardised questionnaires. In 3468 persons (including 1807 girls and women, 1661 boys and men) apart form clinical examination, the assessment of thyrotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine in serum and frequency of antithyroglobulin antibodies and antithyroid membrane antibodies were evaluated. The data indicate that 94% of children in Szczecin's region received the prophylactic dose of iodine, mostly between the 1st and the 5th of May 1986. Only 17% of the adults received iodine. The most common preparation was Lugol solution given in a single dose. Among all persons who received iodine, only in 5% of subjects the side effects were noted (mostly in children), including symptoms of gastrointestinal tract (vomiting, abdomen pain) and occasionally intrathyroid side effects (thyroid pains). In examined population the high frequency of thyroid enlargement, mainly in women (up to 43-44% at the age group 30-50 years) was found. The frequency of clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was higher in women than in man (most often the diffuse goiter, rarely the nodular goiter). The frequency of thyroid enlargement and clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease was not dependent on prophylactic iodine intake. The iodine prophylaxis did not influence on thyroid hormones and TSH serum levels and on frequency of antithyroid antibodies.

  19. The Influence of The „KOMISARZ Alex“ TV Series on The Development of Łódź (Poland in The Eyes of City Inhabitants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cudny Waldemar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issues of creative and cultural industries and their role in city branding and development are explored in this paper. Activities enhancing city placement and city branding via a TV series are subject to enquiry. As a result, the city becomes a film-friendly destination, attracting people and firms from the film industry. Besides, the city is perceived more favourably, standing out from the competition and possibly attracting tourists and potential investors and immigrants. Such a policy has been introduced in Łódź, a large Polish post-socialist and post-industrial city. With the city authority’s support, the town has become the location of a popular TV crime series, entitled “Komisarz Alex” (“Inspector Alex”. The main aim of the research was to investigate how Łódź inhabitants perceive the series and what influence they think the film-making would have on the city. The evaluation of the perception of the series is based on structured interviews, and is generally very positive.

  20. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  1. Human toxocariosis: Seroprevalence in Lima inhabitans by ELISA technique

    OpenAIRE

    ESPINOZA, YRMA; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Departamento Académico de Microbiología Médica Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM; Huapaya, Pedro; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Sevilla, Carlos; Departamento Académico de Microbiología Médica; Huiza, Alina; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú. Bióloga.; Jiménez, Susana; Departamento Académico de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Náquira, César; Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, UNSMM; Instituto Nacional de Salud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate seroprevalence of human toxocariosis in Lima inhabitants. Design: Cross-sectional study, non aleatory selection. Material and methods: To people living in Lima city urban marginal communities, an interview and clinical examination were done and serum samples obtained to detect antibodies against Toxocara by ELISA technique. Stool samples were also obtained to check parasites causing cross reactions with serology. Results: From 553 persons examined 23,3% were reactive. T...

  2. Structure and function of the human skin microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Schommer, Nina N.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    An abundant and diverse collection of bacteria, fungi and viruses inhabit the human skin. These microorganisms have been reported to vary between individuals and between different sites on the skin. The factors responsible for the unique variability of the skin microbiome are only partially understood, but results suggest host genetic and environmental influences play a major role. Today, the steady accumulation of data describing the skin microbiome, combined with experiments designed to tes...

  3. Impacts of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM on Environment and Human Health of Gorontalo Utara Regency, Gorontalo Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Indriati Arifin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mercury concentrations in the environment (river sediments and fish and in the hair of artisanal gold miners and inhabitants of the Gorontalo Utara Regency were determined in order to understand the status of contamination, sources and their impacts on human health. Mercury concentrations in the sediments along the Wubudu and Anggrek rivers are already above the tolerable level declared safe by the World Health Organization (WHO. Meanwhile, commonly consumed fish, such as snapper, have mercury levels above the threshold limit (0.5 μg/g. The mean mercury concentrations in the hair of a group of inhabitants from Anggrek and Sumalata are higher than those in hair from control group (the inhabitants of Monano, Tolinggula and Kwandang. The mean mercury concentration in the hair of female inhabitants is higher than that in the hair of male inhabitants in each group. Neurological examinations were performed on 44 participants of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM miners and inhabitants of Anggrek and Sumalata. From the 12 investigated symptoms, four common symptoms were already observed among the participants, namely, bluish gums, Babinski reflex, labial reflex and tremor.

  4. Study on factors influencing knowledge about and behaviors to prevent malaria in inhabitants of rural areas in Hubei Province%湖北省农村居民疟防知识与行为影响因素调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童玲; 张华勋; 童坤; 王元瑗; 张淑; 朱长才

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解湖北省农村居民疟防知识、行为及其影响因素,为开展有针对性健康教育提供科学依据.方法 采用分层随机抽样方法抽取广水、京山农村居民1302人,采用访谈方式调查居民疟防知识行为及其影响因素,对资料进行描述性分析和xz检验.结果 不同地区、性别、年龄、文化程度和经济收入居民疟防知识得分差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).疟防知识得分广水市居民高于京山居民(x2=140.824,P<0.05),男性高于女性(x2=15.053,P<0.05);18~、45~岁居民得分较高,疟疾知识得分随文化程度增高而升高,经济收入高者疟防知识得分较高.居民疟防知识掌握程度与其安装纱门纱窗、使用灭蚊剂、使用蚊香和杀虫剂处理蚊帐等行为呈正相关关系(P<0.05).结论 农村居民的不同人口社会学特征影响疟防知识的掌握程度;居民疟防知识影响其疟防行为.%Objective To ascertain the factors influencing knowledge about and behaviors to prevent malaria and factors influencing inhabitants of rural areas in Hubei Province and to provide a scientific basis for carrying out health education in preventing malaria. Methods Stratified random sampling was used to select 1 302 rural inhabitants in Guangshui and Jingshan; inhabitants were interviewed regarding their knowledge about and behaviors to prevent malaria and factors influencing their knowledge and behaviors. Descriptive statistics and chi-squared statistics were used to analyze the data. Results There were significant differences in knowledge about preventing malaria among different areas, genders, ages, levels of education, and levels of income (P<0. 05). Knowledge about preventing malaria in Guangshui was greater than in Jingshan(x2 = 140. 824,P<0. 05). Knowledge about preventing malaria was greater among males than females(x2 = 15. 053,P<0. 05). Inhabitants ages 18 and up and ages 45 and up scored higher. Knowledge about

  5. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  6. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and histopathological alterations in wild Arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting a former lead-zinc mine in the Canadian high Arctic: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuno, S; Niyogi, S; Amuno, M; Attitaq, J

    2016-06-15

    A preliminary study was undertaken to determine post-mining baseline accumulation of selected trace metals, and histopathological alterations in free-living arctic hares (Lepus arcticus) inhabiting the vicinity of a former lead-zinc mine located on North Baffin Island in the Canadian High Arctic. Trace metal analysis included measurement of As, Cd, Fe, Pb and Zn in tissues, and histopathological assessment comprised of evaluation and scoring the severity of metal-induced hepatic and renal lesions. Metal contents in hepatic and renal tissues from hares from the mine area compared with the reference locations did not differ significantly suggesting that the animals are not uniformly exposed to background levels of metals in the environment. However, relatively higher accumulation pattern of Pb and Cd were noted in liver tissues of hare from the mine area compared to the background area, but did not induce increased lesions. Surface soils near the mine area contained relatively higher levels of trace metals (Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd>As) compared to reference soils, and with soil levels of Cd showing strong correlation with Cd accumulation in kidney tissues. Generally, both case and reference animals showed similar but varying severities of hepatic and renal lesions at the sublethal level, notably vascular congestion, occasional large hepatocyte nuclei, binucleate hepatocytes, yellow-brown pigmentation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and clustering of lymphocytes. Only hares with relatively higher accumulation of Pb from the mine area showed evidence of renal edema and hemorrhage of the capsular surface. This study constitutes the first assessment of metal induced histopathological alterations in arctic hares exposed to a historical mining area in the high arctic.

  7. Ecology of a stream from upper Paraná River basin inhabited by Aspidoras fuscoguttatus Nijssen & Isbrüker, 1976 (Siluriformes, Callichthyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. de Araujo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most information on catfishes of the genus Aspidoras has focused species kept in aquaria, in non-natural conditions. Biotic and abiotic parameters of environment inhabited by Aspidoras fuscoguttatus, associated ichthyofauna, as well as strategies involved in the successful occupation of different microhabitats in a first order stream, located in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, were investigated. Data collection was monthly performed at three segments (headwaters, middle course, and mouth from August 1999 to July 2000. The greatest values of water temperature, conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, width, depth, and current velocity were obtained in the rainy season. Dissolved oxygen levels showed significant differences among three segments in all sampling months, except for September. Substrate composition was predominantly sandy, followed by silt and clay in middle course and mouth in rainy as much as in dry seasons. In headwaters a large increase of the sandy fraction occurred in the rainy season. In the marginal and aquatic vegetation 30 species of macrophytes and 5 of macroalgae were identified. The fauna included tadpoles of Anura and macroinvertebrates (Mollusca, Crustacea, Arachnida, and 8 orders of Insecta. A. fuscoguttatus was found throughout the entire stream in sympatry with 6 fish species. In middle course, cluster analysis revealed an association between A. fuscoguttatus immatures and low depth, suggesting a probable function of depth in that stage of ontogenetic development of catfishes. The results indicate that A. fuscoguttatus present plasticity in terms of microhabitat, including air breathing behavior in hypoxic conditions, previously unknown in genus Aspidoras.

  8. Species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs (Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Rólier Lara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, knowledge on biodiversity of freshwater decapods has increased considerably; however, information about ecology of these crustaceans is scarce. Currently, the freshwater decapod fauna of Costa Rica is comprised by representatives of three families (Caridea: Palaemonidae and Atyidae; Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae. The present study aims to describe the species diversity and distribution of freshwater crabs inhabiting the basin of the Rio Grande de Térraba, Pacific slope of Costa Rica, where the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE plans to implement one of the largest damming projects in the region. Samples were collected in 39 locations at an altitude ranging from 20 to 1,225 m. Sampling was carried out during several months in 2007, 2009 and 2010. We collected a total of 661 crabs, comprising eight species of Pseudothelphusidae of three genera, representing 53% of the 15 pseudothelphusid crab species currently recorded from Costa Rica. The most common species was Ptychophallus paraxanthusi followed by P. tristani. Freshwater crabs were more frequently encountered in the middle-low region of the basin (between 311 and 600 m and less frequently in the medium-high basin (between 601 and 1,225 m. Ptychophallus paraxanthusi showed the widest distribution and was collected in altitudes ranging from 20 to 700 m. The Rio Grande de Térraba region can be considered as a relatively small, but highly diverse system. Therefore, any alteration of the basin of Rio Grande de Térraba, and especially the possible construction of a hydroelectric power plant, needs to be carefully analyzed to mitigate the damaging effects of this project on the freshwater crabs. More ecological information about freshwater crabs from Costa Rica and the Central American region are needed to reach a first reasonable overview on the ecological role of these decapods in freshwater systems.

  9. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  10. Changes within a single land-use category alter microbial diversity and community structure: molecular evidence from wood-inhabiting fungi in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Hoppe, Björn; Kahl, Tiemo; Schloter, Michael; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; Bauhus, Jürgen; Buscot, François; Krüger, Dirk

    2014-06-15

    The impact of changes within a single land-use category or land-use intensity on microbial communities is poorly understood, especially with respect to fungi. Here we assessed how forest management regimes and a change in forest type affect the richness and community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi across Germany. We used molecular methods based on the length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacers and the 5.8S rRNA gene to assess fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A cloning/sequencing approach was used to identify taxonomic affinities of the fungal OTUs. Overall, 20-24% and 25-27% of native fungal OTUs from forest reserves and semi-natural forests became undetectable or were lost in managed and converted forests, respectively. Fungal richness was significantly reduced during a regeneration phase in age-class beech forests with a high level of wood extraction (P = 0.017), whereas fungal community structures were not significantly affected. Conversion of forests from native, deciduous to coniferous species caused significant changes in the fungal community structure (R = 0.64-0.66, P = 0.0001) and could reduce fungal richness (P < 0.05) which may depend on which coniferous species was introduced. Our results showed that Ascocoryne cylichnium, Armillaria sp., Exophiala moniliae, Hyphodontia subalutacea and Fomes fomentarius, all known for wood-decaying abilities were strongly reduced in their abundances when forests were converted from beech to coniferous. We conclude that changes within a single land-use category can be regarded as a major threat to fungal diversity in temperate forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic enzymes activity and histomorphology in the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting a mineral contaminated lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Murzina, Svetlana A; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Nemova, Nina N

    2014-12-01

    The effects of wastewater from a mining and ore-dressing mill on fish in Lake Kostomukshskoe, which is used as a cesspool of circulating water and for storage of industrial wastes produced by the Kostomuksha mining and ore-dressing mill in northwest Russia, were studied. The lake is characterized by heavy mineralization, high pH, elevated levels of K(+), Li(+), SO4 (2-), NO(2-), Cl(-), Li, Mn, and Ni, and the presence of a fine-dispersed mechanical suspension. To assess the impact of contamination on fish and determine the mechanisms of their adaptation, we investigated the biochemical indices and histology of the liver of whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus L.) and pike (Esox lucius L.) inhabiting Lake Kostomukshskoe, downstream Lake Koyvas (64° 47' 30° 59'), and Lake Kamennoe, which is located in a nature preserve and has not been affected by anthropogenic activity (64° 28' 30° 13'). Changes were detected in the activity of metabolic enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase (COX), lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) in the liver. Specifically, the COX activity in the liver of both fish species from the contaminated lake decreased, indicating a low level of aerobic metabolism. Lipid infiltration was the most visible and widespread change observed in the liver of both fish species; therefore, it can be considered a marker of such long-term contamination. Lesions in pike liver demonstrated a wider range of severity than in those of whitefish. In summary, metabolic enzyme activity and histomorphology of the liver of whitefish and pike differed among lakes in a species-specific manner. The changes in enzyme activity and histomorphological alterations in fish that were observed can be applied for evaluation of freshwater systems that may be subjected to mineral pollution.

  12. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  13. Analysis of 12,517 inhabitants of a Sardinian geographic isolate reveals that predispositions to thrombocytopenia and thrombocytosis are inherited traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biino, Ginevra; Balduini, Carlo L.; Casula, Laura; Cavallo, Piergiorgio; Vaccargiu, Simona; Parracciani, Debora; Serra, Donatella; Portas, Laura; Murgia, Federico; Pirastu, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a common finding in several diseases but almost nothing is known about the prevalence of thrombocytopenia in the general population. We examined the prevalence of thrombocytopenia and determinants of platelet count in a healthy population with a wide age range. Design and Methods We performed a cross-sectional study on 12,517 inhabitants of ten villages (80% of residents) in a secluded area of Sardinia (Ogliastra). Participants underwent a complete blood count evaluation and a structured questionnaire, used to collect epidemiological data. Results We observed a platelet count lower than 150×109/L in 3.2% (2.8%–3.6%) of females and 4.8% (4.3%–5.4%) of males, with a value of 3.9% (3.6%–4.3%) in the entire population. Thrombocytopenia was mild (platelet count: 100×109/L–150×109/L), asymptomatic and not associated with other cytopenias or overt disorders in most cases. Its standardized prevalence was quite different in different villages, with values ranging from 1.5% to 6.8%, and was negatively correlated with the prevalence of a mild form of thrombocytosis, which ranged from 0.9% to 4.5%. Analysis of platelet counts across classes of age revealed that platelet number decreased progressively with aging. As a consequence, thrombocytopenia was nearly absent in young people and its prevalence increased regularly during lifetime. The opposite occurred for thrombocytosis. Conclusions Given the high genetic differentiation among Ogliastra villages with “high” and “low” platelet counts and the substantial heritability of this quantitative trait (54%), we concluded that the propensity to present mild and transient thrombocytosis in youth and to acquire mild thrombocytopenia during aging are new genetic traits. PMID:20823129

  14. Dynamics of bacterial community structure on intertidal sandflat inhabited by the ghost shrimp Nihonotrypaea harmandi (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) in Tomioka Bay, Amakusa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Minoru; Urakawa, Tatsuyuki; Tamaki, Akio

    2016-02-01

    Callianassid (ghost) shrimp has been claimed as an ecosystem engineer, as it is one of the most powerful bioturbating macrobenthos in intertidal sandflats. However, our knowledge about the relationship between areal distribution of bottom-dwelling ghost shrimps and dynamics of sediment microbial community structure remains obscured. We used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) to reveal the bacterial community dynamics in the sediment of intertidal sandflat of Tomioka Bay, Kyushu, Japan, which is predominantly inhabited by a burrow-dwelling callianassid shrimp Nihonotrypaea harmandi. We found that the bacterial community structures of high and middle shrimp population areas were significantly differentiated from those of low population area (ANOSIM, R=0.10-0.18, p0.1). These results illustrated the potential importance of shrimp population density as a key factor in shaping the bacterial community structure and interpreting their dynamics in the sandflat. Furthermore, greater similarity between burrow and non-burrow communities was found in samples taken in autumn through winter than in those in summer (one-way ANOVA, pshrimp in permeable sandflat would strongly homogenize sediment particles, enhance solute transport surrounding the burrow and ambient subsurface substrate, and therefore reduce spatial differentiation of the bacterial community structure between the two sites. A comparison between present and previous studies of axiidean (former taxonomic group name, thalassinidean) ghost shrimps provides us with a comprehensive understanding of the shrimps' impacts on bacterial community dynamics, highlighting the importance of sediment permeability, a characteristic determined by the type of sediment, as a key controlling factor to shape spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community structure around burrow.

  15. Phylogeography, historical demography and distribution modelling of freshwater fishes inhabiting seasonally fluctuating Mediterranean river systems: a case study using the Iberian cyprinid Squalius valentinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Perea

    2015-12-01

    freshwater species inhabiting seasonally fluctuating river systems.

  16. A visual interface for augmented human olfactory perception in the context of monitoring air quality. - Issue 1.2.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterboer, A.; Evers, V.; Groen, F.; Pavlin, G.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the experiments that were carried out to investigate ways in which an intelligent adaptive interface could support inhabitants in providing accurate smell descriptions. We investigated the effect of multi-modal odor cues on human smell identification performance to inform the de

  17. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Bradley J.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Gonzalez, Andrew; Hooper, David U.; Perrings, Charles; Patrick, Venail; Narwani, Anita; Mace, Georgina M.; Tilman, David; Wardle, David A.; Kinzig, Ann P.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Loreau, Michel; Grace, James B.; Larigauderie, Anne; Srivastava, Diane S.; Naeem, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The most unique feature of Earth is the existence of life, and the most extraordinary feature of life is its diversity. Approximately 9 million types of plants, animals, protists and fungi inhabit the Earth. So, too, do 7 billion people. Two decades ago, at the first Earth Summit, the vast majority of the world's nations declared that human actions were dismantling the Earth's ecosystems, eliminating genes, species and biological traits at an alarming rate. This observation led to the question of how such loss of biological diversity will alter the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide society with the goods and services needed to prosper.

  18. Aphids (Homoptera, Aphidodea inhabiting the shrubs of Pinus mugo Turra in the green area of Lublin. Part II. Domination and frequency of aphids, their natural enemies and the injuries caused by aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sławińska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observations were conducted in the years 1999-2001 on the shrubs Pinus mugo Turra growing in the green areas of Lublin in two sites (street and park. The purpose of the studies was to establish the domination and frequency of aphids, their effect on the decorative character of shrubs and the occurrence of the aphidophagous arthropods in the aphid colonies inhabiting mountain pine. It was found out that Schizolachnus pineti F. was the dominating species in the street site (A, while Cinara pini L. dominated in the park site (B. The decorative character of shrubs was clearly lowered only by aphids S. pineti. Predatory arthropods occurred in aphid colonies inhabiting the shrubs P. mugo. Their population in both sites was low, that is why they probably had little influence on limiting the aphid population. Parasitic Hymenoptera of I and II degrees obtained from a culture of aphid mummies were more numerous in the street site.

  19. KAP STUDY: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICE OF THE ADULT INHABITANTS AS IMPORTANT REASONS FOR THE OCCURRENCE OF THE LEADING INFECTIOUS DISEASES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Petrovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious diseases are the main problem in undeveloped countries, but still an important sociomedical problem in the developed world, due to high morbidity and mortality rates, economical losses and the suffering they cause. The aim of this study was to determine specific risk factors connected with knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP study of adult inhabitants of the Republic of Serbia, which contribute to the appearance of infectious diseases according to territory (Belgrade, Vojvodina and Central Serbia, gender and age. The research on health conditions, health needs and utilization of health care of the population of Serbia were realized by the Public Health Institute of Serbia ‘Dr Milan Jovanovic Batut’, all IPHs in Serbia, WHO and UNICEF. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9921 persons (52% women and 48% men. Hygienic habits were on the higher level in the population of Belgrade and Vojvodina compared to the Central Serbia: washing hands before meal (88,5:90,6:87,5%, p < 0,00046, on entering home (83,1:68,6:67,5%, p < 0,50, before using the toilet (50,8:46,9:40,1%, p < 00000, after using the toilet (92,3:93,7:91,4%, p < 0,0031. Before meal, 11, 5% of adults wash hands almost never or sometimes; on coming home every third person does not wash hands, before using the toilet more than 50%, and after using the toilet almost 8%. In this way, some intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, HPV can be disseminated. Women have better hygienic habits than men, and younger persons have better hygienic habits than older persons. Every fifth man and every fourth woman does not accept personal responsibility for health. Habits and behavior that decrease individual immunity presented in high percent of the population of Serbia are: inappropriate eating habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, stress (63,5% women and 53,3% men; only 7,9% women and 15,2% men use condom regularly

  20. Geological and InSAR surveys highlight tectonic hazard in densely inhabited areas on the lower southeastern flank of Mount Etna volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Marco; Sansosti, Eugenio; Casu, Francesco; Leonardi, Anna; Pepe, Antonio; Pepe, Susi; Solaro, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A constant seaward sliding mechanism is affecting the eastern to southern flanks of Mt. Etna volcano, involving an overall on-shore area of >700 km2.The margins of this unstable area are marked by the Pernicana Fault System to the north and the Ragalna Fault System to the south-west. The unstable area is divided into several blocks characterized by different kinematics and delimited by active faults crossing, in several cases, urban areas, towns and villages. One of these structural discontinuities is the Trecastagni-S.G.La Punta-Aci Trezza fault system, a tectonic structure extending from the volcano summit (where it trends NNW-SSE), to the lower southeastern flank (trending NW-SE) and reaching the coast at the Aci Trezza village (WNW-ESE and E-W). The last segment of this tectonic system crosses several important roads and man-made structures within Aci Trezza, and continues for a few kilometers off-shore crossing the Faraglioni stacks-Lachea island. Recently, analysis of long-period InSAR data has added some details to the sliding motion on the lower south-eastern flank of the volcano, particularly on the S.G.La Punta-Aci Trezza fault segments. Field geological and instrumental data confirmed the slip activity and the extension of the tectonically disturbed areas, highlighting a transition zone between the two main fault segments. On the other hand, some of the features detected by InSAR are not clearly visible in the field and were never detected before by classical geological surveys. These results are of crucial importance in terms of hazard related to tectonic movements, especially in densely inhabited zones such as the south-eastern flank of Etna, where more than half a million people live. The structural details obtained through these kinds of studies may guide future land use planning appropriately also within towns and villages, where aseismic and seismogenic very active faults are evident at the surfaces.

  1. Monomorphic and polymorphic enzyme genetic markers of the Waiãpi Indians of Amapá and of inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr A. Mestriner

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred nineteen Waiãpi Indians and 348 inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas, were tested using nine enzyme genetic systems in the first population and two in the second. The Waiãpi showed some marked differences compared to South American Indian averages in ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% and ESD*1 (99.6% vs. 70 ± 17%, while ESD*1 and CA2*1 prevalences in the Manaus population were within the range previously found in the northern region of Brazil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. The almost identical frequencies obtained for these two markers in this population, when the sample was subdivided according to skin color, suggest that such morphological classifications have little value in this region. Genetic distances between the Waiãpi and other tribes, obtained using these and other genetic markers, showed good parallelism with the geographical distances which separate these Indians from the other groups considered.Um total de 119 índios Waiãpi e 348 habitantes de Manaus, Amazonas, foram testados usando nove sistemas genéticos enzimáticos na primeira população e dois na segunda. Os Waiãpi mostraram algumas diferenças marcantes quanto às médias dos indígenas sul-americanos em ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% e ESD*1 (99,6% vs. 70 ± 17%, enquanto as prevalências de ESD*1 e CA2*1 na população de Manaus mostraram-se dentro do intervalo encontrado previamente na região norte do Brasil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. As freqüências quase idênticas obtidas para esses dois marcadores nesta população, quando a amostra foi subdividida de acordo com a cor da pele, sugerem que tais classificações morfológicas têm pouco valor nesta região. Distâncias genéticas entre os Waiãpi e outras tribos, obtidas usando esses e outros marcadores genéticos, mostraram bom paralelismo com as distâncias geográficas que separam esses índios dos outros grupos considerados.

  2. 黄渤海夏季微藻调查%Investigation of the microalgae inhabiting the summer seawater of Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿琳; 杨官品; 朱葆华; 潘克厚

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are bioresources important for a wide range of applications in aquaculture, environmental treat-ment, medicine, agriculture and industry. For instance, Nannochloropsis sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Skele-tonema costatum have served as natural feed of aquatic animals; Dunaliella salina, Haematococcus pluvialis, and Chlorella vulgaris have been widely used to manufacturing nutraceuticals and cosmetics due to their high content of carotenoids. Although more than 0.2 million species exist on earth, only a very small proportion of microalgae have been exploited. In China, approximately 600 microalgal species have been identified, of them less than 10 species have been cultured on large-scales so far. Isolation and identification of more cultivable microalgal strains from natural envi-ronments is thus foundamental and always appreciated by researching and exploiting communities. Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea are rich in phytoplankton and deemed to be an important microalgal repository. However, the reports on the isolation and cultivation of microalgae inhabiting these sea areas are very scarce. In order to promote the exploitation of microalgal resource in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, a surveying cruise was carried out in summer 2011, during which the diversity of net collected microalgae was determined. Moreover, a rich collection of cultivable microalgal strains were successfully isolated from 71 stations. A total of 44 species in 30 genera, 4 phyla, were identified in fixed summer sea-waters. Among them, Bacillariophytas (28 species in 20 genera) accounted for 51.8%; while dinophytas (14 species in 8 genera) accounted for 23.2%. One speceis in phylum Chrysophyta (Dictyocha fibula) and Cyanophyta (Trichodesmium thiebautii) were also isolated and identified. Coscinodiscus sp. and Paralia sulcata which appeared in almost all sta-tions were dominant species. In total, 92 microalgal strains were isolated and purified with diverse methods including capillary

  3. Human-wildlife conflict: proximate predictors of aggression between humans and rhesus macaques in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Brianne A; Heagerty, Allison; Seil, Shannon K; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Atwill, Edward R; Gupta, Brij K; Tyagi, Praveen C; Chauhan, Netrapal P S; Bonal, B S; Sinha, P R; McCowan, Brenda

    2015-02-01

    Macaques live in close contact with humans across South and Southeast Asia, and direct interaction is frequent. Aggressive contact is a concern in many locations, particularly among populations of rhesus and longtail macaques that co-inhabit urbanized cities and towns with humans. We investigated the proximate factors influencing the occurrence of macaque aggression toward humans as well as human aggression toward macaques to determine the extent to which human behavior elicits macaque aggression and vice versa. We conducted a 3-month study of four free-ranging populations of rhesus macaques in Dehradun, India from October-December 2012, using event sampling to record all instances of human-macaque interaction (N = 3120). Our results show that while human aggression was predicted by the potential for economic losses or damage, macaque aggression was influenced by aggressive or intimidating behavior by humans as well as recent rates of conspecific aggression. Further, adult female macaques participated in aggression more frequently than expected, whereas adult and subadult males participated as frequently as expected. Our analyses demonstrate that neither human nor macaque aggression is unprovoked. Rather, both humans and macaques are responding to one another's behavior. Mitigation of human-primate conflict, and indeed other types of human-wildlife conflict in such coupled systems, will require a holistic investigation of the ways in which each participant is responding to, and consequently altering, the behavior of the other.

  4. Antibiotic-resistant organisms cultured from Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting estuarine waters of Charleston, SC and Indian River Lagoon, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Adam M; Goldstein, Juli D; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A; Bossart, Gregory D

    2009-03-01

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuarine waters of Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) and Charleston, SC (CHS) were cultured to screen for microorganism colonization and to assess antibiotic sensitivity. Swabs (n = 909) were collected from the blowhole, gastric fluid, and feces of 171 individual dolphins The most frequently cultured organisms were Plesiomonas shigelloides (n = 161), Aeromonas hydrophila (n = 144), Escherichia coli (n = 85), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (n = 82). In descending frequency, organisms demonstrated resistance to erythromycin, ampicillin, and cephalothin. Human and animal pathogens resistant to antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine were cultured. Escherichia coli (E. coli) more often was resistant in IRL dolphins. Three cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were found at CHS. Emergence of antibiotic resistance is not confined to humans. Bottlenose dolphins may serve as sentinels for transfer of resistance from humans and animals or indicate that antibiotics are reaching the marine environment and causing resistance to emerge through selective pressure and genetic adaptation.

  5. First isolation of Streptococcus downei from human dental plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Kwan-Joong; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Min, Byung-Moo; Choe, Son-Jin; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-08-15

    In this study, we isolated four bacterial strains grown on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar. The strains had similar biochemical characteristics to biotypes I or II of mutans streptococci. The four isolates were identified as Streptococcus downei by 16S rDNA and dextranase gene (dex) sequencing as well as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) targeting dex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation and identification of S. downei from dental plaque in humans. The results suggest that S. downei can inhabit the human oral cavity.

  6. Composition of human excreta - a case study from Souther Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouw, Nanette L..; Danteravanich, S.; Mosbæk, Hans

    2002-01-01

    . In the present study the composition of human. excreta has been studied in three case study areas in Southern Thailand: Kuan Lang, Phattalung and Prik. The inhabitants of the three areas represent people of Southern Thailand by age, sex, occupation, religion and type of residence. Human excreta was collected....... Furthermore, there was no significant influence of age, sex, occupation or religion on the chemical composition. The only significant variation was that the older people excreted larger amounts of total wet matter than the younger, which could be due to a higher water intake, in order to reduce the risk...

  7. Comprehensive Exploitation and Integrated Protection of Zhejiang Non-inhabitant Islands%浙江省无居民海岛综合开发保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋; 李冬玲; 李加林; 杨晓平

    2012-01-01

      无居民海岛是国家海洋领土的重要组成,在海域资源环境利用、监管和国家权益维护上具有重要的地位与作用。本文梳理了浙江无居民海岛开发利用现状与问题、国家与浙江对无居民海岛管理政策演进趋势,综合两者并从浙江海洋经济发展示范区建设视角,提出浙江省无居民海岛开发保护体系:①科学立法完善海岛综合开发保护法理准则;②科学规划规范海岛综合开发保护行动指南;③宣传推广引导海岛综合开发保护实践操作,以促进浙江无居民海岛可持续发展。%  Non-inhabitant islands (NInIs) are extremely valuable natural resources and have special ecological value. They are important parts of a nation’s territory, significant for sea environment supervision and nation’s welfare. Exploitation suitability is a basic work and precondition of reasonable development and utilization for NInIs.After the promulgation and implementation of the "Island Protection Law", island protection will get more attention. This paper analyses the conservation status and the effects of various forms of protection for the NInIs in Zhejiang Province. It shows utilization for NInIs in Zhejiang remains at a fairly low level. (1) The level of exploitation for NInIs closer to the mainland or big islands, like Zhoushan Island, for example, is relatively higher than small and distant islands. Islands far away from the continent and larger islands are only used for building lighthouse beacon and lighthouse or other relatively simple utilization. Most distant islands still maintain their original status. According to the survey, 300 NI-nIs are exploited at different levels in Zhoushan and Ningbo. It accounts for 11.37% of the total number (2639) of all NInIs. Currently, five marine protected areas have been established in Zhoushan and Ningbo; (2) NInIs may be used for bridges construction for land connecting, aquiculturing

  8. Brain regional changes of guanine nucleotide binding protein-inhabitant 2 in acute and chronic morphine-tolerant and-dependent rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinghua Wu; Qiang Fu; Xinhua Wang; Jianhua Zhao; Liwei Liu; Shirong Tang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Drug addiction involves two main central nervous systems,namely the dopamine and noradrenaline systems.These systems are primarily distributed in five brain regions:the ventrai tegmental area,the nucleus accumbens,the prefrontal coaex,the hippocampus,and the locus coeruleus.OBJECTIVE:To investigate regional changes of guanine nucleotide binding protein-inhabitant 2(Gi2)in dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurons in brains of morphine-tolerant and-dependent rats.DESIGN,TIME,AND SETTING:A randomized centrel study was performed at the Department of Neurobiology in the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA(Shanghai,China) between September 2002 and March 2004.MATERIALS:Thirty-six,healthy, male, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to establish morphine-dependent models.Morphine hydrochloride was a product of Shenyang First Pharmaceutical Factory (China);naloxone hydrochloride was a product of Beijing Four-Ring Pharmaceutical Factory (China);and α subunit of Gt2 antibody was offered by Santa Cruz Biotechnology,Inc(USA).METHODS:Thirty-six SD rats were randomly divided into six groups(n=6):(1)acute morphine-dependent group,(2)acute abstinent group,(3)acute control group,(4)chronic morphine-dependent group,(5)chronic abstinent group,and(6)chronic control group.Rats in the acute morphine-dependent and the acute groups were injected with morphine(5 mg/kg),one injection every two hours,for a total of eight injections.In the acute and chronic morphine-dependent rat models,morphine withdrawal syndrome was precipitated by an injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg).Rats in the acute control group were given a peritoneal iniection of physiological saline at the same administration time as the above two groups.Rats in the chronic morphine-dependent and chronic abstinent groups were injected with morphine three times per day.The administration dose on day 1 was initially 5 mg/kg at 20:00,which increased by 5 mh/kg at 8:00,12:00,and 20:00 until day 7.On day 13,the dose

  9. In vitro killing of oral Capnocytophaga by granule fractions of human neutrophils is associated with cathepsin G activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasaki, K T; Bodeau, A L

    1991-01-01

    The Capnocytophaga are inhabitants of the hypoxic human gingival crevice that are normally prevented by neutrophils from causing periodontal and systemic infection. To identify potential nonoxidative bactericidal mechanisms against Capnocytophaga within human neutrophils, gel filtration chromatography was used to fractionate neutrophil granule extracts. Seven granule fractions, designated A through G, were obtained. The Capnocytophaga were most sensitive to killing by fraction D. Fraction D e...

  10. A Closer Look at Bacteroides: Phylogenetic Relationship and Genomic Implications of a Life in the Human Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik H; Ussery, David,; Nielsen, Jens; Nookaew, Intawat

    2011-01-01

    The human gut is extremely densely inhabited by bacteria mainly from two phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, and there is a great interest in analyzing whole-genome sequences for these species because of their relation to human health and disease. Here, we do whole-genome comparison of 105 Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi genomes to elucidate their phylogenetic relationship and to gain insight into what is separating the gut living Bacteroides and Parabacteroides genera from other Bacteroidetes/Chloro...

  11. The First Epidemic and New-emerging Human Fascioliasis in Kermanshah (Western Iran and a Ten-year Follow Up, 1998-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hatami

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: It was the first case of human fascioliasis in west Iran and was a real epidemic and an emerging infectious disease for this area at that time. The clinical symptoms were less severe compared with other reports. Health education to inhabitants and health care workers can lead to rapid detection of such outbreaks.

  12. Solidarity and human nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel dos Santos Luzio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of solidarity inhabits the collective unconscious and is usually related to something consensual, linked to the most basic values of mankind, but to expand that understanding leads to more complex views. Human solidarity would be conditioned by biological, or cultural issue that goes beyond any possible biological determinism. This study seeks to analyze the phenomenon of solidarity and its correlation with life in society from the perspective of complexity, through a cross-sectional analysis in order to cover the phenomenon in question from different perspectives. For that, we appealed to sociobiology, and the social sciences interpretation. We tried to thereby renounce the sole idea and permanent solution, by approaching to the assumptions of complex thinking, which rely precisely to overcome a single organizing principle or a single cause to explain the same phenomenon. It noticed the need of new societal experiences, which would block the advance of competitive individualist paradigm as the sole alternative, highlighting the experiences of the solidarity economy and third sector organizations that have a new business logic, a third social force among the state and the market.

  13. História, memória e narrativa: a revelação do "quem" nas histórias orais dos habitantes do Córrego dos Januários History, memory and narrative: the disclosure of "who are you?" in the oral story-telling of the inhabitants of Córrego dos Januários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Sampaio Gusmão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é relatar uma pesquisa sobre as histórias de vida e as memórias dos habitantes de um pequeno povoado, situado na região leste de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Utilizando a "história oral" como estratégia metodológica e tendo como referência teórica o pensamento de Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin e Mikhail Bakhtin, os conceitos história, memória e narrativa são aqui analisados a partir das práticas discursivas entre a pesquisadora e os habitantes do Córrego dos Januários. Os resultados deste trabalho contribuem para a compreensão da ação e do discurso dos homens como condição do exercício da ética e da política na vida prática e, consequentemente, colocam em destaque a importância da experiência singular e a presença única de cada pessoa no mundo. A revelação da pergunta "quem és?", apresentada por Hanna Arendt em sua obra A condição humana, é aqui analisada a partir dos relatos das histórias de vida dos sujeitos envolvidos.The purpose of this article is reporting a research on stories of the life and memories of the inhabitants of a small village in the east region of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using as methodological strategy the "oral story-telling", and as theoretical references the works and studies by Hannah Arendt, Walter Benjamin and Mikhail Bakhtin, the concepts history, memory and narrative are here analyzed based on the discursive practices between the researcher and the inhabitants of Córrego dos Januários. The results of this work contribute to the comprehension of action and discourse of men as a condition to the exercise of ethics and politics in practical life and, consequently, bring out the importance of singular experience and the unique presence of each and every person in the world. The disclosure of the question "Who are you", introduced by Hannah Arendt in her work The Human Condition, is here analyzed from the point of view of the life stories of the individuals involved.

  14. Conceptualizing Human Microbiota: From Multicelled Organ to Ecological Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Foxman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of a typical, healthy human contains 10 times as many cells as the human body and incorporates bacteria, viruses, archea, protozoans, and fungi. This diverse microbiome (the collective genomes of the microbial symbionts that inhabit a human host is essential for human functioning. We discuss the unstated assumptions and implications of current conceptualizations of human microbiota: (1 a single unit that interacts with the host and the external environment; a multicelled organ; (2 an assemblage of multiple taxa, but considered as a single unit in its interactions with the host; (3 an assemblage of multiple taxa, which each interacts with the host and the environment independently; and (4 a dynamic ecological community consisting of multiple taxa each potentially interacting with each other, the host, and the environment. Each conceptualization leads to different predictions, methodologies, and research strategies.

  15. Una aproximación desde el habitar a la vivienda compartida en Niquitao, Medellín An Approach from Inhabitation to Shared Housing in Niquitao, Medellín A abordagem desde o habitar até a habitação compartilhada em Niquitao, Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Cuervo Calle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En el ámbito académico, es posible reconocer un constante interés por evaluar las construcciones epistemológicas del hábitat humano. Uno de los conceptos que aporta a dicha construcción es el término “habitar”. Este artículo se estructura en tres etapas: la primera, aporta elementos teórico-conceptuales sobre el concepto de habitar; posteriormente, se relacionan dichos aportes con el habitar de los inquilinatos en el sector de Niquitao, de la ciudad de Medellín; por último, se evalúan algunas de las propuestas hechas por la Municipalidad para solventar el problema que acarrea el incremento informal de dichas edificaciones. En este proceso se pudo comprender, desde una perspectiva expendida, el concepto de habitar y particularmente los “micro-territorios” del inquilinato: desde el rincón, hasta los distintos ámbitos que permiten evidenciar unas marcadas transformaciones en el habitar. La importancia de esta búsqueda investigativa permite la continuidad a discusiones referentes al habitar y los campos interdisciplinarios en los cuales es posible enmarcarse. Abstract At academic level, there is a constant interest in evaluating the epistemological constructs of the human habitat. One concept that contributes to this construction is the term “inhabiting”. This article is divided into three parts. The first provides a theoretical and conceptual framework for the concept of dwelling. In the second part, these contributions are contrasted with dwelling in tenement houses in the Niquitao sector of the city of Medellin, Colombia. The third part evaluates some of the proposals made by the municipality to solve the underlying problems that make tenement houses a growing phenomenon. In this process, an effort was made to understand, from a different perspective, the nature of inhabiting and particularly the “micro-territories” of tenements: from corners to different environments that reveal a clear change in forms of

  16. O processo de construção do lugar e da identidade dos moradores de uma cidade reinventada The construction process of place and identity of inhabitants of a "reinvented" city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Raquel Teixeira Mourão

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo buscou conhecer a identidade de lugar dos moradores de Maracanaú, cidade localizada na Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza, que passou por um processo induzido de industrialização e urbanização que a transformou de localidade rural em espaço urbano. A pesquisa se deu junto a três grupos de pessoas: os moradores originais, que se encontravam na cidade antes da sua transformação; os moradores dos conjuntos habitacionais, que vivenciaram o processo de transformação; e os jovens, que não participaram dos momentos anteriores e se relacionam com a cidade como ela é hoje. A análise da relação dos sujeitos com o espaço habitado permitiu distinguir diversas formas de ligação com a cidade. Os resultados apontaram para a construção de uma nova e múltipla identidade de lugar, assentada em pontos comuns como a valorização de símbolos do passado, participação na vida cotidiana e nas festividades da cidade e expectativas positivas quanto ao futuro.The study aimed to find out about the place-identity of the inhabitants of Maracanaú, a city located in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza, which went through an induced process of industrialization and urbanization which transformed the rural local into urban space. Three groups of people were approached and questioned: original inhabitants, who were in the city before its transformation; the inhabitants of housing developments who went through the transformation process; and youth who did not go through these earlier moments and relate to the city as it is today. The analysis of the relationship of those persons with the inhabited space allowed us to distinguish various forms of connection with the city. The results point to the construction of a new and multiple place-identity, set on common points such as giving value to symbols of the past, participating in daily life and in the festivals of the city as well as having positive expectations for the future.

  17. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  18. Human See, Human Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  19. Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera inhabiting phytotelmata in Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, subtropical Argentina Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae (Diptera: Nematocera que habitan en fi totelmata en el Parque Nacional Iguazú, provincia de Misiones, Argentina subtropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A list of the most common phytotelmata and their Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae inhabitants from Iguazú National Park, Misiones Province, Argentina, is presented, and biological and behavioral observations are also included. Species of Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, and Arecaceae, were identified as phytotelmata. Twenty six species of Culicidae and nine of Ceratopogonidae were identified. The highest species richness of culicids and ceratopogonids was recorded from the bamboo Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae and treeholes, respectively. Fourteen species of Culicidae and three of Ceratopogonidae inhabit bamboo, two and five treeholes, seven and three bromeliads, and nine and one, other less known phytotelmata, respectively.Se presenta una lista de las fitotelmata más comunes y los Culicidae y Ceratopogonidae que las habitan, del Parque Nacional Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina; además de observaciones biológicas y de comportamiento. Especies de Poaceae, Bromeliaceae, Apiaceae, Araceae, Urticaceae, Marantaceae, y Arecaceae, fueron identificadas como fitotelmata. Fueron reconocidas 26 especies de culícidos y nueve de Ceratopogonidae. La mayor riqueza de especies de culícidos y ceratopogónidos se registraron en el bambú Guadua chacoensis (Poaceae y en los huecos de los árboles respectivamente. Catorce especies de culícidos y tres de ceratopogónidos habitan bambúes, dos y cinco en los huecos de los árboles, siete y tres en bromelias y nueve y una en otras fitotelmata, respectivamente.

  20. Regional livestock grazing, human demography and fire incidence in the Portuguese landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Torres-Manso

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study:Wildfire incidence in Portugal is high in comparison with other Mediterranean Europe countries. Wildfire problems have been worsened by complex interactions between land use, livestock grazing and human population during the 20th century. In this study we try to understand these interactions and relationships.Area of study: Portugal country. Material and Methods: For the mainland Portuguese territory we present a statistical temporal analysis (1930-2001 based on the densities of livestock grazing and human inhabitants at the smallest administrative unit level, the parish. We compare these data with fire incidence descriptors (average area burned and average fire density between 1990 and 2007. Research highlights: We have identified clusters of parishes sharing common trends in the evolution of livestock and human inhabitant densities. A cause-effect relationship was not detected between livestock grazing density and fire incidence. However, the results point out clusters of parishes where conflicts between forest, fire and livestock grazing are important in the North, Centre and South regions of Portugal.Key Words: Livestock grazing; inhabitants; forest; fire; vegetation.

  1. A new town for 350.000 inhabitants. ECO City Tianjin, China; Eine neue Stadt fuer 350.000 Einwohner. ECO City Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Christian [Schaller/Theodor Architekten und Stadtplaner BDA, Koeln (Germany); Schmitz, Stefan [Stefan Schmitz, Buero fuer Architektur und Stadtplanung BDA, Koeln (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Migration from the land makes the People's Republic of China to the largest building site of the world. It is assumed at least 60 per cent of humans will live in cities up to the year 2030. Already today, in the urban education centres 75 % of the energy are used and caused 80 % of the CO{sub 2} emissions. The sustainable development of cities and their efficient power supply are of central importance for the future of China. The urbanization forces to a completely new invention of urban centres under ecological aspects concerning town construction and structural aspects - with orders at architects and town planners acting world-wide.

  2. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  3. The human genetic history of South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Partha P

    2010-02-23

    South Asia--comprising India, Pakistan, countries in the sub-Himalayan region and Myanmar--was one of the first geographical regions to have been peopled by modern humans. This region has served as a major route of dispersal to other geographical regions, including southeast Asia. The Indian society comprises tribal, ranked caste, and other populations that are largely endogamous. As a result of evolutionary antiquity and endogamy, populations of India show high genetic differentiation and extensive structuring. Linguistic differences of populations provide the best explanation of genetic differences observed in this region of the world. Within India, consistent with social history, extant populations inhabiting northern regions show closer affinities with Indo-European speaking populations of central Asia that those inhabiting southern regions. Extant southern Indian populations may have been derived from early colonizers arriving from Africa along the southern exit route. The higher-ranked caste populations, who were the torch-bearers of Hindu rituals, show closer affinities with central Asian, Indo-European speaking, populations.

  4. Relational adaptivity - enacting human-centric systems design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2016-01-01

    Human centered design approaches places the experiencing human at the center of concern, situated in relation to the dynamics of the environmental condition and the variables of the system of control and sensing. Taking the approach of enacted design methods to enforce the experience...... of the inhabitant as core in human-centered design solutions, the intelligence of the connected sensors is suggested to be developed as an actual learning and self-adjusting adaptive environment, where the adaptive system is part of a negotiation with users on the qualities of the environment. We will present...... and activity, driven by detailed encounters with human centered investigations and experiential accounts. The sensor system is a test environment, using a very elaborate system design to enable extensive variations in the sensor and network parameters. But, the suggestion is, that by using this kind of high...

  5. Subsistence styles shape human social learning strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; Molleman, Lucas

    2017-04-28

    Social learning is a fundamental element of human cognition. Learning from others facilitates the transmission of information that helps individuals and groups rapidly adjust to new environments and underlies adaptive cultural evolution1-6. While basic human propensities for social learning are traditionally assumed to be species-universal1,7, recent empirical studies show that they vary between individuals and populations8-13. Yet the causes of this variation remain poorly understood9. Here we show that interdependence in everyday social and economic activities can strongly amplify social learning. With an experimental decision-making task we examine individual versus social learning in three recently diverged populations of a single-ethnic group, whose subsistence styles require varying degrees of interdependence. Interdependent pastoralists and urban dwellers have markedly higher propensities for social learning than independent horticulturalists, who predominantly rely on individual payoff information. These results indicate that everyday social and economic practices can mould human social learning strategies and they highlight the flexibility of human cognition to change with local ecology. Our study further suggests that shifts in subsistence styles - which can occur when humans inhabit new habitats or cultural niches2 - can alter reliance on social learning and may therefore impact the ability of human societies to adapt to novel circumstances.

  6. Search for novel remedies to augment radiation resistance of inhabitants of Fukushima and Chernobyl disasters: identifying DNA repair protein XRCC4 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mao-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lui, Shu-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2011-10-01

    Two nuclear plant disasters occurring within a span of 25 years threaten health and genome integrity both in Fukushima and Chernobyl. Search for remedies capable of enhancing DNA repair efficiency and radiation resistance in humans appears to be a urgent problem for now. XRCC4 is an important enhancer in promoting repair pathway triggered by DNA double-strand break (DSB). In the context of radiation therapy, active XRCC4 could reduce DSB-mediated apoptotic effect on cancer cells. Hence, developing XRCC4 inhibitors could possibly enhance radiotherapy outcomes. In this study, we screened traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database, TCM Database@Taiwan, and have identified three potent inhibitor agents against XRCC4. Through molecular dynamics simulation, we have determined that the protein-ligand interactions were focused at Lys188 on chain A and Lys187 on chain B. Intriguingly, the hydrogen bonds for all three ligands fluctuated frequently but were held at close approximation. The pi-cation interactions and ionic interactions mediated by o-hydroxyphenyl and carboxyl functional groups respectively have been demonstrated to play critical roles in stabilizing binding conformations. Based on these results, we reported the identification of potential radiotherapy enhancers from TCM. We further characterized the key binding elements for inhibiting the XRCC4 activities.

  7. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indarchand R; Anderson, Anne J; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-04-09

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20--a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity.

  8. In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of Talaromyces flavus SP5 inhabited in the marine sediment of Southern Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Bibin G; Thomas, C K Navin; Prakash, S

    2016-12-01

    Marine sediment samples were collected from the coastal areas of Southern India, particularly in Kanyakumari District. Twenty-eight different fungal strains were isolated. The screening of fungi from marine sediment was done to isolate a potent fungus that can produce bioactive compounds for biomedical applications. Only three strains viz Trichoderma gamsii SP4, Talaromyces flavus SP5 and Aspergillus oryzae SP6 were screened for further studies. The intracellular bioactive compounds were extracted using solvent extraction method. The crude extracts were tested for its anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties and analytically characterized using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). All the three extracts were active, but the extract from T. flavus SP5 was found to be more active against various human pathogens, viz., Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 (17.8 ± 0.1), Escherichia coli ATCC 52922 (18.3 ± 0.3), and Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 (17.7 ± 0.4). It also exhibited cytotoxic activity against HEp2 carcinoma cell line with the LC50 value of 25.7 μg·L(-1). The GC-MS data revealed the presence of effective bioactive compounds. These results revealed that the extract from isolated fungus T. flavus SP5 acted as a potent antimicrobial, antifungal, and anticancer agent, providing basic information on the potency of marine fungi towards biomedical applications; further investigation may lead to the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  9. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Indarchand R. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, S.G.B. Amravati University, Amravati 444602, Maharashtra (India); Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science, Nipat Niranjan Nagar, Caves Road, Aurangabad 431004, Maharashtra (India); Anderson, Anne J. [Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84321 (United States); Rai, Mahendra, E-mail: mahendrarai@sgbau.ac.in [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, S.G.B. Amravati University, Amravati 444602, Maharashtra (India); Laboratório de Química Biológica, Instituto de Química, UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária “Zefferino Vaz” Barão Geraldo, CEP 13083-970, Caixa Postal 6150, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • This study incorporates the mycosynthesis of AgNPs and their characterisation by various methods. • A first attempt demonstrating the toxicity assessment of AgNPs on beneficial soil microbe. • Use of biosensor in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, gave accurate antimicrobial results. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV–vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20 – a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity.

  10. Measurements of whole body and urine of the inhabitants of the neighbouring to the Radioactive Waste Storage Center (CADER); Mediciones de cuerpo entero y de orina de los habitantes de las poblaciones vecinas al CADER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1998-10-15

    The existence of the Center of Storage of Radioactive Wastes (CADER) in the Municipality of Temascalapa, Estado de Mexico has generated restlessness among the inhabitants from it installation. In March 1998, its appeared in diverse media, notes and reports attributing illnesses and sufferings to the CADER activities. In coordination with the health authorities of the Estado de Mexico and of the Municipality of Temascalapa, the doctors of the ININ assisted people that converged to the centers. For the above-mentioned, in the period understood among the months of May to September 1998, its were carried out measurements in 338 urine samples and 45 whole-body of voluntary people of the surroundings of the CADER. This document has the purpose of presenting the information on the carried out measurements. (Author)

  11. Prevalence of hypertension and its influence factors among inhabitants aged 15 - 69 years in Zhuhai city%珠海市15~69岁居民高血压患病率及影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 李德云; 梁小冬; 李玉荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解广东省珠海市居民高血压患病率及其影响因素.方法 采用多阶段分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取珠海市香洲区、斗门区和金湾区15~69岁常住居民961人,进行问卷调查和身高、体重、血压测量,应用多因素非条件Logistic回归模型分析高血压患病影响因素.结果 珠海市居民高血压患病率为23.1%,标化率为21.8%,其中男性标化率为24.0%,女性为20.5%;城市居民为23.3%,农村居民为22.7%,差异均无统计学意义(性别u=1.375,城乡u=0.233,均P>0.05);Logistic回归分析结果显示,年龄、脑血管病家族史、饮酒、超重和肥胖是高血压的危险因素(P<0.05),OR值分别为1.079、3.109、1.446、2.296和9.246;每周食用水果天数和种类是高血压的保护因素(P<0.05),OR值分别为0.547、0.590.结论 珠海市15~69岁人群高血压患病率接近中国居民平均水平,已成为危害居民健康的重要因素.%Objective To understand the prevalence of hypertension and its influence factors among inhabitants in Zhuhal Methods With multi-stage cluster random sampling in the three administrative areas of Zhuhai city, a questionnaire survey was conducted in conjunction with the measurement of body height and weight and blood pressure among 961 inhabitants aged 15 -69 years. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression model was employed to analyze the influence factors of hypertension. Results The prevalence and standardized rates of hypertension in the population were 23. 1% and 21.8%,respectively. The standardized rates of male, female, urban and rural populations were 24. 0% ,20. 5% ,23. 3% ,and 22. 7%,respectively. No significant differences were found in the standardized rates of hypertension between male and female or the urbun and rural ( u ≤ 1. 375, P > 0. 05 ). Age, family history of cerebro-vascular disease, heavy alcohol drinking, overweight,and obesity were identified as the major risk factors of

  12. 上海市农村常住居民自我药疗风险及影响因素分析%Risks and influencing factors analysis of inhabitant ’ s self-medicine in Shanghai countryside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董春玲; 刘晓虹; 叶旭春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of inhabitant ’ s self-medicine in Shanghai countryside , and to explore its risks and influencing factors .Methods We utilized self-designed normal information questionnaire and self-medicine risks survey questionnaire , and a total of 750 questionnaires had been distributed to survey Shanghai countryside inhabitants ’ demographic data and self-medicine risks survey . Results We gave out 750 questionnaires and retrieved 712 , so percent retrieve was 94 .9%.A total of 656 of them were effective (effective rate 92.1%).Inhabitants in Shanghai countryside acquired 2.10 ±0.55 scores for risks of self-medicine.Inhabitants with different gender , occupation, degree of education, family income, medical insurance and daily routine had different level of self-medicine risks ( P <0.05 ).According to multivariate analysis , the main influencing factors of self-medicine included the type of medical insurance , daily routine, the degree of education and occupation (P<0.01).Conclusions The behavior of inhabitant’s self-medicine should be brought into standardized management under professional instruction to minimize personal health risks and social medical resources waste .%目的:调查上海市农村常住居民自我药疗行为现状,探讨其风险及影响因素。方法使用自行设计的问卷,对750名上海市农村常住居民发放问卷,进行一般人口学资料和自我药疗行为风险调查。结果共发放问卷750份,回收712份,回收率为94.9%,其中有效问卷为656份,有效回收率为92.1%。上海市农村常住居民自我药疗风险总平均分为(2.10±0.55)分。不同性别、职业、文化程度、家庭人均月收入、医保类型、生活起居规律性的居民其自我药疗风险得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。多因素分析显示,自我药疗风险的主要影响因素有医疗保险类型、生活起居规律性、文化程

  13. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  14. [Intestinal parasites in white-faced capuchin monkeys Cebus capucinus (Primates: Cebidae) inhabiting a protected area in the Limón province of Northeastern Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla, Misael; Urbani, Bernardo; Valerio, Idalia; Vanegas, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Deforestation of tropical forests is threatening monkey biodiversity and their health status, dependent of an ecologically undisturbed area. To asses this relationship, we analyzed parasite occurrence in their intestines. The study was conducted at the Estación Biológica La Suerte (EBLS), Limón, Costa Rica. The group of white-faced capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus) was observed between March and December of 2006. A total of 75 feces samples were obtained. Once a sample was collected, the eaten plant type was identified to family and species level, and feces were processed in the laboratory to determine parasite incidence. Results showed that Moraceae was the most represented family in the samples. Among parasites, Strongyloides spp. and Acanthocephala were the most common. Positive prevalence of parasites was found similar and independent of sex and age of capuchin individuals. Microsporids were mainly reported in feces associated with Piperaceae. A low presence of these parasites was found in samples associated with Myrtaceae, with possible anti-parasite active components. The occurrence of parasites was relatively high in EBLS, when compared to other regions in Costa Rica. The higher occurrence of parasites observed in capuchins at EBLS may be due to the fact that this rain forest is surrounded by areas affected by human activities. We suggest the promotion of research in neotropical primates parasitology, for a better comprehension of the parasite-host relationship, and in a long term, being able to understand the ecosystems where they coexist, and consequently, preserve the biodiversity of the whole region.

  15. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  16. Demand of Senior Inhabitants for Health Service in Yuetan Community of Beijing%北京市月坛社区老年居民的社区卫生服务需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文利; 杜雪平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influential factors of inhabitants to utilize the community health service by investigating the senior inhahitants' demand for community health service in Yuetan community, in order to provide evidence for constructing medical service mode which is suitable for Yuetan Community's demand. Methods The non - probability sampling method was used to ohtain the real utility and the demand of the senior inhabitants for community health service. The surveyed dato were statistically analyzed hy using SPSS 13. 0 software , descriptive analysis, and non - conditional Logical stepwise regression analysis. Results ( 1 ) Among the 942 senior inhabitants being surveyed during two weeks, 490 inhabitants were ill, the rate of morhidity was 52. 0% ( in male 48. 5%  , in female 54. 5% ); the number of outpatients was 262, the ratio of outpatients between the two weeks was 53. 5% , the rate of visit was 27. 8% . The difference of visit rates between males and females was statistically significant ( P <0. 05 ), but no statistical significance was found in different ages ( P > 0. 05 ). (2 ) The rate of visit of inhabitants with spouses decreased. The high rate of visit during the two weeks was found in those inhabitants who were workers before they were 60 years old, or who had chronic diseases and whose severities of disease were moderate. ( 3 ) The most desirable services were in order of regular medical examination ( 62. 8% ) . instruction of recovery ( 42. 3% ), instruction of physical exercise ( 39. 3% ), health education lecture ( 29. 0% ), and health care doctor service ( 24. 3% ) . Conclusion The morbidity rate of women in Yuetan Community is higher than that of men, so more attention should be given to the usage of health service of old women, the visit rate of sampled population during two weeks is higher, which is a little higher than the rate of urban senior citizens in China. The demand rate of sampled population for

  17. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  18. Quantifying the Influence of Climate on Human Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, S. M.; Burke, M.; Miguel, E.

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly growing body of research examines whether human conflict can be affected by climatic changes. Drawing from archaeology, criminology, economics, geography, history, political science, and psychology, we assemble and analyze the most rigorous quantitative studies and document, for the first time, a striking convergence of results. We find strong causal evidence linking climatic events to human conflict across a range of spatial and temporal scales and across all major regions of the world. The magnitude of climate's influence is substantial: for each one standard deviation (1sd) change in climate toward warmer temperatures or more extreme rainfall, median estimates indicate that the frequency of interpersonal violence rises 4% and the frequency of intergroup conflict rises 14%. Because locations throughout the inhabited world are expected to warm 2sd to 4sd by 2050, amplified rates of human conflict could represent a large and critical impact of anthropogenic climate change.

  19. Adaptations to climate-mediated selective pressures in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Hancock

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans inhabit a remarkably diverse range of environments, and adaptation through natural selection has likely played a central role in the capacity to survive and thrive in extreme climates. Unlike numerous studies that used only population genetic data to search for evidence of selection, here we scan the human genome for selection signals by identifying the SNPs with the strongest correlations between allele frequencies and climate across 61 worldwide populations. We find a striking enrichment of genic and nonsynonymous SNPs relative to non-genic SNPs among those that are strongly correlated with these climate variables. Among the most extreme signals, several overlap with those from GWAS, including SNPs associated with pigmentation and autoimmune diseases. Further, we find an enrichment of strong signals in gene sets related to UV radiation, infection and immunity, and cancer. Our results imply that adaptations to climate shaped the spatial distribution of variation in humans.

  20. Structure an