WorldWideScience

Sample records for human information interaction

  1. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  2. Interaction in Information Systems - Beyond Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss and analyze the role of interaction in information systems. Interaction represents dynamic relations between actors and other elements in information systems. We introduce a semi-formal notation that we use to describe a set of interaction patterns and we i...

  3. Human Information Processing and Interactive Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-10

    Design--A Challenge to Human Factors," Conference on .a4n-Computer interaction, pp. 95-101. Asch , Solomon E. (1969), "A Reformulation of the Problem...included I,,i 47 association as a deacriptive term and as a statement of pro- existent verbal hierarchies. Finally, Asch (1969) emphasized the importance...of conceiving of an association in terms of the relation cf :•o events A and B. Asch suggests that the problem of associations is part of the general

  4. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but

  5. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  6. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Y

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but on how to present it, such as which modalities to use, how to spatially distribute items, et cetera. The notion ``computer'' is not limited to personal computers in their various forms. It also incl...

  7. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Human Information Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to understand the interactions of perception, effort, emotion, time and performance during the performance of multiple information tasks using Web information technologies. Method: Twenty volunteers from a university participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to obtain general background information and…

  8. Visualization of hierarchically structured information for human-computer interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Suh Hyun; Lee, J. K.; Choi, I. K.; Kye, S. C.; Lee, N. K. [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-11-01

    Visualization techniques can be used to support operator's information navigation tasks on the system especially consisting of an enormous volume of information, such as operating information display system and computerized operating procedure system in advanced control room of nuclear power plants. By offering an easy understanding environment of hierarchically structured information, these techniques can reduce the operator's supplementary navigation task load. As a result of that, operators can pay more attention on the primary tasks and ultimately improve the cognitive task performance. In this report, an interface was designed and implemented using hyperbolic visualization technique, which is expected to be applied as a means of optimizing operator's information navigation tasks. 15 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs. (Author)

  9. Metaphor’s Role in the Information Behavior of Humans Interacting with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sease

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors convey information, communicate abstractions, and help us understand new concepts. While the nascent field of information behavior (IB has adopted common metaphors like “berry-picking” and “gap-bridging” for its models, the study of how people use metaphors is only now emerging in the subfield of human information organizing behavior (HIOB. Metaphors have been adopted in human–computer interaction (HCI to facilitate the dialogue between user and system. Exploration of the literature on metaphors in the fields of linguistics and cognitive science as well as an examination of the history of use of metaphors in HCI as a case study of metaphor usage offers insight into the role of metaphor in human information behavior. Editor’s note: This article is the winner of the LITA/Ex Libris Writing Award, 2008.

  10. The mixed reality of things: emerging challenges for human-information interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Ryan P.; Russell, Stephen M.; Rosenberg, Evan Suma

    2017-05-01

    Virtual and mixed reality technology has advanced tremendously over the past several years. This nascent medium has the potential to transform how people communicate over distance, train for unfamiliar tasks, operate in challenging environments, and how they visualize, interact, and make decisions based on complex data. At the same time, the marketplace has experienced a proliferation of network-connected devices and generalized sensors that are becoming increasingly accessible and ubiquitous. As the "Internet of Things" expands to encompass a predicted 50 billion connected devices by 2020, the volume and complexity of information generated in pervasive and virtualized environments will continue to grow exponentially. The convergence of these trends demands a theoretically grounded research agenda that can address emerging challenges for human-information interaction (HII). Virtual and mixed reality environments can provide controlled settings where HII phenomena can be observed and measured, new theories developed, and novel algorithms and interaction techniques evaluated. In this paper, we describe the intersection of pervasive computing with virtual and mixed reality, identify current research gaps and opportunities to advance the fundamental understanding of HII, and discuss implications for the design and development of cyber-human systems for both military and civilian use.

  11. Bayesian statistical modelling of human protein interaction network incorporating protein disorder information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eils Roland

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a statistical method of analysis of biological networks based on the exponential random graph model, namely p2-model, as opposed to previous descriptive approaches. The model is capable to capture generic and structural properties of a network as emergent from local interdependencies and uses a limited number of parameters. Here, we consider one global parameter capturing the density of edges in the network, and local parameters representing each node's contribution to the formation of edges in the network. The modelling suggests a novel definition of important nodes in the network, namely social, as revealed based on the local sociality parameters of the model. Moreover, the sociality parameters help to reveal organizational principles of the network. An inherent advantage of our approach is the possibility of hypotheses testing: a priori knowledge about biological properties of the nodes can be incorporated into the statistical model to investigate its influence on the structure of the network. Results We applied the statistical modelling to the human protein interaction network obtained with Y2H experiments. Bayesian approach for the estimation of the parameters was employed. We deduced social proteins, essential for the formation of the network, while incorporating into the model information on protein disorder. Intrinsically disordered are proteins which lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions. We predicted the fold group (ordered or disordered of proteins in the network from their primary sequences. The network analysis indicated that protein disorder has a positive effect on the connectivity of proteins in the network, but do not fully explains the interactivity. Conclusions The approach opens a perspective to study effects of biological properties of individual entities on the structure of biological networks.

  12. How can the study of action kinematics inform our understanding of human social interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Barman, Sujatha; Forbes, Paul A G; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2017-10-01

    The kinematics of human actions are influenced by the social context in which they are performed. Motion-capture technology has allowed researchers to build up a detailed and complex picture of how action kinematics vary across different social contexts. Here we review three task domains-point-to-point imitation tasks, motor interference tasks and reach-to-grasp tasks-to critically evaluate how these tasks can inform our understanding of social interactions. First, we consider how actions within these task domains are performed in a non-social context, before highlighting how a plethora of social cues can perturb the baseline kinematics. We show that there is considerable overlap in the findings from these different tasks domains but also highlight the inconsistencies in the literature and the possible reasons for this. Specifically, we draw attention to the pitfalls of dealing with rich, kinematic data. As a way to avoid these pitfalls, we call for greater standardisation and clarity in the reporting of kinematic measures and suggest the field would benefit from a move towards more naturalistic tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A mobile Nursing Information System based on human-computer interaction design for improving quality of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Wei; Liu, Cheng-Li

    2012-06-01

    A conventional Nursing Information System (NIS), which supports the role of nurse in some areas, is typically deployed as an immobile system. However, the traditional information system can't response to patients' conditions in real-time, causing delays on the availability of this information. With the advances of information technology, mobile devices are increasingly being used to extend the human mind's limited capacity to recall and process large numbers of relevant variables and to support information management, general administration, and clinical practice. Unfortunately, there have been few studies about the combination of a well-designed small-screen interface with a personal digital assistant (PDA) in clinical nursing. Some researchers found that user interface design is an important factor in determining the usability and potential use of a mobile system. Therefore, this study proposed a systematic approach to the development of a mobile nursing information system (MNIS) based on Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (M-HCI) for use in clinical nursing. The system combines principles of small-screen interface design with user-specified requirements. In addition, the iconic functions were designed with metaphor concept that will help users learn the system more quickly with less working-memory. An experiment involving learnability testing, thinking aloud and a questionnaire investigation was conducted for evaluating the effect of MNIS on PDA. The results show that the proposed MNIS is good on learning and higher satisfaction on symbol investigation, terminology and system information.

  14. Information Interaction: Providing a Framework for Information Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Elaine G.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of information architecture focuses on a model of information interaction that bridges the gap between human and computer and between information behavior and information retrieval. Illustrates how the process of information interaction is affected by the user, the system, and the content. (Contains 93 references.) (LRW)

  15. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, E. Vincent, II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2015-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces affect the human's ability to perform tasks effectively and efficiently when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. For efficient and effective remote navigation of a rover, a human operator needs to be aware of the robot's environment. However, during teleoperation, operators may get information about the environment only through a robot's front-mounted camera causing a keyhole effect. The keyhole effect reduces situation awareness which may manifest in navigation issues such as higher number of collisions, missing critical aspects of the environment, or reduced speed. One way to compensate for the keyhole effect and the ambiguities operators experience when they teleoperate a robot is adding multiple cameras and including the robot chassis in the camera view. Augmented reality, such as overlays, can also enhance the way a person sees objects in the environment or in camera views by making them more visible. Scenes can be augmented with integrated telemetry, procedures, or map information. Furthermore, the addition of an exocentric (i.e., third-person) field of view from a camera placed in the robot's environment may provide operators with the additional information needed to gain spatial awareness of the robot. Two research studies investigated possible mitigation approaches to address the keyhole effect: 1) combining the inclusion of the robot chassis in the camera view with augmented reality overlays, and 2) modifying the camera

  17. Interactive Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borlund, Pia

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the research area of interactive information retrieval (IIR) from a historical point of view. Further, the focus here is on evaluation, because much research in IR deals with IR evaluation methodology due to the core research interest in IR performance, system interaction...... and satisfaction with retrieved information. In order to position IIR evaluation, the Cranfield model and the series of tests that led to the Cranfield model are outlined. Three iconic user-oriented studies and projects that all have contributed to how IIR is perceived and understood today are presented....... As a response to this call the ‘IIR evaluation model’ by Borlund (e.g., 2003a) is introduced. The objective of the IIR evaluation model is to facilitate IIR evaluation as close as possible to actual information searching and IR processes, though still in a relatively controlled evaluation environment, in which...

  18. Incorporating the type and direction information in predicting novel regulatory interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins using a biclustering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Discovering novel interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins would greatly contribute to different areas of HIV research. Identification of such interactions leads to a greater insight into drug target prediction. Some recent studies have been conducted for computational prediction of new interactions based on the experimentally validated information stored in a HIV-1-human protein-protein interaction database. However, these techniques do not predict any regulatory mechanism between HIV-1 and human proteins by considering interaction types and direction of regulation of interactions. Results Here we present an association rule mining technique based on biclustering for discovering a set of rules among human and HIV-1 proteins using the publicly available HIV-1-human PPI database. These rules are subsequently utilized to predict some novel interactions among HIV-1 and human proteins. For prediction purpose both the interaction types and direction of regulation of interactions, (i.e., virus-to-host or host-to-virus) are considered here to provide important additional information about the regulation pattern of interactions. We have also studied the biclusters and analyzed the significant GO terms and KEGG pathways in which the human proteins of the biclusters participate. Moreover the predicted rules have also been analyzed to discover regulatory relationship between some human proteins in course of HIV-1 infection. Some experimental evidences of our predicted interactions have been found by searching the recent literatures in PUBMED. We have also highlighted some human proteins that are likely to act against the HIV-1 attack. Conclusions We pose the problem of identifying new regulatory interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins based on the existing PPI database as an association rule mining problem based on biclustering algorithm. We discover some novel regulatory interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins. Significant number of predicted

  19. A Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) Case Study in E-Government and Public Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper first outlines a revised version of the general HWID framework, with a focus on what connects empirical work analysis and interaction design, and then presents a case study of the Danish government one-for-all authentication system NemID. The case is briefly analyzed, using ethnomethod...

  20. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for the development of real-time displays are reviewed. Of particular interest are the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and the interactivity of displays. Some existing Western Aeronautical Test Range displays are analyzed.

  1. Infodemiology: a New Presence Concept in Human Information Interaction Based on Eysenbach’s View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh SeyyedHosseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the presence contexts of infodemiology and the introduction and expansion of its framework. Based on Eysenbach’s View, infodemiology can be defined as the science of distribution and determinants of information in an electronic medium, specifically the Internet, or in a population, with the ultimate aim to inform public health and public policy. In this review article, library method has been used to define and describe the term “infodemiology” and its dimensions. In this study after an introduction investigating the present setting, and defining the concept of infodemiology, the framework of this science and its measurements has been studied and finally the relationship between infodemiology and public health has been described. According to the results, digital media technologies resulted in paradigm shift in choosing the ways in which people search their health information. The researches in this domain have been resulted in credible and significant measurements to track health information supply and demand. Also, infodemiological researches cause specialists design and develop health information databanks based on given measurements. The studies show that there is the possibility of applying some measurements as alarm systems for proliferating infection diseases or presence of new diseases. These measurements are called “infodemiology measurements” which reflect supply-based infodemiology and demand-based infodemiology. According to these, data collecting in this field and using its measurements could be useful in policy-making.

  2. The Effect of Information Level on Human-Agent Interaction for Route Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    understand how humans interpret map design. Lorenz et al. (2013) assessed indoor map design and user satisfaction. They explain that in the field of...goal (Hochmair and Frank 2000); the hill- climbing strategy, where they break the route into a series of subgoals and select the easiest available...design aspects, route complexity, or social background? Factors influencing user satisfaction with indoor navigation maps. Cartography and Geographic

  3. Functional Assessment for Human-Computer Interaction: A Method for Quantifying Physical Functional Capabilities for Information Technology Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    The use of information technology is a vital part of everyday life, but for a person with functional impairments, technology interaction may be difficult at best. Information technology is commonly designed to meet the needs of a theoretical "normal" user. However, there is no such thing as a "normal" user. A user's capabilities will vary over…

  4. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume...

  5. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  6. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications........ The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  7. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  8. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  9. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  10. Improving healthcare through human city interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Woolliscroft, Tim; Polovina, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The study of information technology has given insufficient focus to a) the structural factors and b) the community perspective. As information systems become increasingly integrated with human systems these wider influences are more important than ever. Human city interaction concepts including their interplay with cyber-physical systems and social computing are appropriated to healthcare. Through Structuration Theory, insights are given into how healthcare through the human city interaction ...

  11. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID framework, and a sample of 54 HWID related papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009–2014. We group the papers into six topical groups....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  12. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalves, Frederica; Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review research in the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID). We present a HWID frame-work, and a sample of 54 papers from workshops, conferences and journals from the period 2009-2014. We group the papers into six topical groups, and then at....... Furthermore, much focus has been on studying design sketching or implemented systems-in-use, while little attention has been paid to mature design (prototypes) or early implementation (content templates). In conclusion, we recommend an update to the framework so that it can be also useful for research...

  13. HUMAN INTERACTION WITH MOBILE APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Zamfiroiu; Emanuel Herteliu; Bogdan Vintila

    2012-01-01

    Computing - human interaction is a very important paradigm because informatics applications are created to be used by people via human interaction. Nowadays mobile applications are more used so is necessarily to talk about mobile - human interaction. In this paper types of mobile devices are presented. Citizen oriented character of mobile application and his utility are described. Different means of interactions with mobile devices are analyzed and in the end of the paper direction of mobile ...

  14. Problem spotting in human-machine interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Theune, Mariet; Weegels, Mieke

    In human-human communication, dialogue participants are con-tinuously sending and receiving signals on the status of the inform-ation being exchanged. We claim that if spoken dialogue systems were able to detect such cues and change their strategy accordingly, the interaction between user and

  15. Interaction Between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    On structures two types of humans may be present. (1) Active humans and (2) passive humans (sitting or standing on the structure). The active humans can excite the structure and cause structural vibrations. The mass of the passive humans will interact with the structure and basically it changes...... the structural system (modal characteristics and structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores the implications of having passive humans present on the structure....

  16. The Humanization of Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Stanley A.

    1976-01-01

    Information science is presently a mechanistic discipline which needs to be humanized. There must be more communication between librarians and information scientists, perhaps through seminars and exchanges, to bring the advantages of computerization to bear on human needs. (LS)

  17. Human Work Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  18. Fundamentals of human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Monk, Andrew F

    1985-01-01

    Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction aims to sensitize the systems designer to the problems faced by the user of an interactive system. The book grew out of a course entitled """"The User Interface: Human Factors for Computer-based Systems"""" which has been run annually at the University of York since 1981. This course has been attended primarily by systems managers from the computer industry. The book is organized into three parts. Part One focuses on the user as processor of information with studies on visual perception; extracting information from printed and electronically presented

  19. Formal verification of human-automation interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degani, Asaf; Heymann, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a formal and rigorous approach to the analysis of operator interaction with machines. It addresses the acute problem of detecting design errors in human-machine interaction and focuses on verifying the correctness of the interaction in complex and automated control systems. The paper describes a systematic methodology for evaluating whether the interface provides the necessary information about the machine to enable the operator to perform a specified task successfully and unambiguously. It also addresses the adequacy of information provided to the user via training material (e.g., user manual) about the machine's behavior. The essentials of the methodology, which can be automated and applied to the verification of large systems, are illustrated by several examples and through a case study of pilot interaction with an autopilot aboard a modern commercial aircraft. The expected application of this methodology is an augmentation and enhancement, by formal verification, of human-automation interfaces.

  20. HCI (human computer interaction): concepto y desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos, Mari-Carmen

    2001-01-01

    The concept of human-computer interaction (HCI) is analysed from a broad, interdisciplinary perspective, including a review of the evolution of HCI from the 1950s up to the present. The author stresses the importance of incorporating HCI studies within the curricula of information science programmes.

  1. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human......Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...

  2. Human Work Interaction Design Meets International Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro; Clemmensen, Torkil; Barricelli, Barbara Rita

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, empirical relationships between work domain analysis and HCI design have been identified by much research in the field of Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) across five continents. Since this workshop takes place at the Interact Conference in Mumbai, there is a unique...... opportunity to observe technology-mediated innovative work practices in informal settings that may be related to the notion of International Development. In this unique context, this workshop proposes to analyze findings related to opportunities for design research in this type of work domains: a) human...

  3. Minimal mobile human computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Ali, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the widespread adoption of personal, mobile computing devices in everyday life, has allowed entry into a new technological era in Human Computer Interaction (HCI). The constant change of the physical and social context in a user's situation made possible by the portability of

  4. Interactions between Humans and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Combining multiple scientific disciplines, robotic technology has made significant progress the last decade, and so did the interactions between humans and robots. This article updates the agenda for robotic research by highlighting the factors that affect Human – Robot Interaction (HRI......), and explains the relationships and dependencies that exist between them. The four main factors that define the properties of a robot, and therefore the interaction, are distributed in two dimensions: (1) Intelligence (Control - Autonomy), and (2) Perspective (Tool - Medium). Based on these factors, we...... introduce a generic model for comparing and contrasting robots (CCM), aiming to provide a common platform for robot designers, developers and users. The framework for HRI we propose stems mainly from the vagueness and the lack of clarity that has been observed in the definitions of both Direct and Indirect...

  5. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makino Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. Results We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD or small-scale duplication (SSD, and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. Conclusions Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  6. Duplicability of self-interacting human genes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pérez-Bercoff, Asa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the evolution of protein-protein interactions because this should ultimately be informative of the patterns of evolution of new protein functions within the cell. One model proposes that the evolution of new protein-protein interactions and protein complexes proceeds through the duplication of self-interacting genes. This model is supported by data from yeast. We examined the relationship between gene duplication and self-interaction in the human genome. RESULTS: We investigated the patterns of self-interaction and duplication among 34808 interactions encoded by 8881 human genes, and show that self-interacting proteins are encoded by genes with higher duplicability than genes whose proteins lack this type of interaction. We show that this result is robust against the system used to define duplicate genes. Finally we compared the presence of self-interactions amongst proteins whose genes have duplicated either through whole-genome duplication (WGD) or small-scale duplication (SSD), and show that the former tend to have more interactions in general. After controlling for age differences between the two sets of duplicates this result can be explained by the time since the gene duplication. CONCLUSIONS: Genes encoding self-interacting proteins tend to have higher duplicability than proteins lacking self-interactions. Moreover these duplicate genes have more often arisen through whole-genome rather than small-scale duplication. Finally, self-interacting WGD genes tend to have more interaction partners in general in the PIN, which can be explained by their overall greater age. This work adds to our growing knowledge of the importance of contextual factors in gene duplicability.

  7. Dynamics of interacting information waves in networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Lizana, Ludvig; Rosvall, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the inner workings of information spreading, network researchers often use simple models to capture the spreading dynamics. But most models only highlight the effect of local interactions on the global spreading of a single information wave, and ignore the effects of interactions between multiple waves. Here we take into account the effect of multiple interacting waves by using an agent-based model in which the interaction between information waves is based on their novelty. We analyzed the global effects of such interactions and found that information that actually reaches nodes reaches them faster. This effect is caused by selection between information waves: slow waves die out and only fast waves survive. As a result, and in contrast to models with non-interacting information dynamics, the access to information decays with the distance from the source. Moreover, when we analyzed the model on various synthetic and real spatial road networks, we found that the decay rate also depends on ...

  8. Interactive Information Visualization in Neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1998-01-01

    We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform......We describe a virtual environment for interactive visualization of 3D neuroimages. The environment is implemented in VRML and we will discuss the viability and limitation of this platform...

  9. Humanizing the Information Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Billington

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.

  10. [Human rights and informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco P; Argüelles-Mier, Miguel; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    The right to information is a right that all human beings have; it is unrenounceable and confers to the human being the Rights to the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Geneva, and the Code of Behavior for Health Personnel. Information given to a sick person should suffice so that he/she can make a decision on management and treatment. Information is related directly with medical ethics and is obligatory not only for health workers but for all professionals in general.

  11. From fear to flow personality and information interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Heinstrom, Jannica

    2010-01-01

    From Fear to Flow explores how personality traits may influence attitude, behaviour and reaction to information. Consideration is made for individual differences in information behaviour and reasons behind individual search differences. The book reviews personality and information behaviour and discusses how personality may influence the attitude towards information. Reaction to information is examined in contexts such as everyday life, decision-making, work, studies and human-computer interaction.Introduces a little researched area which is current and needed in our Informatio

  12. Learning to Detect Human-Object Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chao, Yu-Wei

    2017-02-17

    In this paper we study the problem of detecting human-object interactions (HOI) in static images, defined as predicting a human and an object bounding box with an interaction class label that connects them. HOI detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision as it provides semantic information about the interactions among the detected objects. We introduce HICO-DET, a new large benchmark for HOI detection, by augmenting the current HICO classification benchmark with instance annotations. We propose Human-Object Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (HO-RCNN), a novel DNN-based framework for HOI detection. At the core of our HO-RCNN is the Interaction Pattern, a novel DNN input that characterizes the spatial relations between two bounding boxes. We validate the effectiveness of our HO-RCNN using HICO-DET. Experiments demonstrate that our HO-RCNN, by exploiting human-object spatial relations through Interaction Patterns, significantly improves the performance of HOI detection over baseline approaches.

  13. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  14. Information display and interaction in real-time environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocast, A. K.

    1983-01-01

    The available information bandwidth as a funcion of system's complexity and time constraints in a real time control environment were examined. Modern interactive graphics techniques provide very high bandwidth data displays. In real time control environments, effective information interaction rates are a function not only of machine data technologies but of human information processing capabilities and the four dimensional resolution of available interaction techniques. The available information bandwidth as a function of system's complexity and time constraints in a real time control environment were examined.

  15. Knowing About Human and Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Dewi Agushinta; Pratiwi, Dyah

    2008-01-01

    Human computer interaction is a study learning about human computer interaction and its task. Its principle is how about human and computer interactively done the task effectively. HCI is a mix study form technique and art and its involving principles, clues and methods for making evaluation from interactive system.

  16. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  17. Characterization of human septin interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrock, Kirstin; Bartsch, Ingrid; Bläser, Susanne; Busse, Anja; Busse, Eileen; Zieger, Barbara

    2011-08-01

    Septins constitute a group of GTP binding proteins that assemble into homo- and hetero-oligomeric complexes and filaments. These higher order septin structures are thought to function like scaffolds and/or diffusion barriers serving as spatial localizers for many proteins with key roles in cell polarity and cell cycle progression. In this study, we extensively characterized septin interaction partners using yeast two-hybrid and three-hybrid systems in addition to precipitation analyses in platelets. As a result, we identified human hetero-trimeric septin complexes on a large scale, which had been only postulated in the past. In addition, we illustrated roles of SEPT9 that might contribute to hetero-trimeric septin complex formation. SEPT9 can substitute for septins of the SEPT2 group and partially for SEPT7. Mutagenic analyses revealed that mutation of a potential phosphorylation site in SEPT7 (Y318) regulates the interaction with other septins. We identified several septin-septin interactions in platelets suggesting a regulatory role of diverse septin complexes in platelet function.

  18. Assessment of human-snake interaction and its outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human-snake interactions has always been associated with different outcomes. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the human-snake interaction and its outcomes in Monduli District, northern Tanzania. Methods: Data collection was done through questionnaires, key informants interviews and ...

  19. From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Robot Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Tarek; Abdelmadjid ZIDANI

    2014-01-01

    Human-Robot Social Interaction became one of active research fields in which researchers from different areas propose solutions and directives leading robots to improve their interactions with humans. In this paper we propose to introduce works in both human robot interaction and human computer interaction and to make a bridge between them, i.e. to integrate emotions and capabilities concepts of the robot in human computer model to become adequate for human robot interaction and discuss chall...

  20. Using Interaction Scenarios to Model Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars; Bøgh Andersen, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is to define and discuss a set of interaction primitives that can be used to model the dynamics of socio-technical activity systems, including information systems, in a way that emphasizes structural aspects of the interaction that occurs in such systems. The primitives...

  1. Information Retrieval Interaction: an Analysis of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sadoughi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Information searching process is an interactive process; thus users has control on searching process, and they can manage the results of the search process. In this process, user's question became more mature, according to retrieved results. In addition, on the side of the information retrieval system, there are some processes that could not be realized, unless by user. Practically, this issue, is egregious in “Interaction” -i.e. process of user connection to other system elements- and in “Relevance judgment”. This paper had a glance to existence of “Interaction” in information retrieval, in first. Then the tradition model of information retrieval and its strenght and weak points were reviewed. Finally, the current models of interactive information retrieval includes: Belkin episodic model, Ingwersen cognitive model, Sarasevic stratified model, and Spinks interactive feedback model were elucidated.

  2. HIV-1, human interaction database: current status and new features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ako-Adjei, Danso; Fu, William; Wallin, Craig; Katz, Kenneth S; Song, Guangfeng; Darji, Dakshesh; Brister, J Rodney; Ptak, Roger G; Pruitt, Kim D

    2015-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/retroviruses/hiv-1/interactions, serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. Each HIV-1 human protein interaction can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols and includes: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. In addition to specific HIV-1 protein-human protein interactions, included are interaction effects upon HIV-1 replication resulting when individual human gene expression is blocked using siRNA. A total of 3142 human genes are described participating in 12,786 protein-protein interactions, along with 1316 replication interactions described for each of 1250 human genes identified using small interfering RNA (siRNA). Together the data identifies 4006 human genes involved in 14,102 interactions. With the inclusion of siRNA interactions we introduce a redesigned web interface to enhance viewing, filtering and downloading of the combined data set. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Interpersonal Couplings in Human Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Kevin; Riley, Michael A.

    As inherently social beings people routinely interact with others. Interpersonal activities such as dancing, conversation, or team sports require people to coordinate at several different levels, ranging from the coordination of physical movements and physiological states of the body to the coordination of mental states and cognitive or linguistic activity. One of the challenges confronted by researchers in this interdisciplinary field has been to find ways to objectively quantify interpersonal coupling on the basis of brief, noisy, nonstationary, and complex time series of human behavioral sequences. Given their robustness to these challenges, recurrence-based strategies have played a very important role in the development of this field of research. This chapter provides a review of current behavioral, cognitive, and physiological research that has used recurrence methods to quantify interpersonal coupling.

  4. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  5. Medical Information Management System (MIMS): A generalized interactive information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C. A.; Hipkins, K. R.

    1975-01-01

    An interactive information system is described. It is a general purpose, free format system which offers immediate assistance where manipulation of large data bases is required. The medical area is a prime area of application. Examples of the system's operation, commentary on the examples, and a complete listing of the system program are included.

  6. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  7. The Self-Organization of Human Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dale, Rick; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Duran, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    , processes, and contexts can be integrated into a broader account of human interaction. By introducing and utilizing basic concepts of self-organization and synergy, we review empirical work that shows how human interaction is flexible and adaptive and structures itself incrementally during unfolding...

  8. Themes in human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Mark Pejtersen, Annelise; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. This paper raises themes that are seen as some of the challenges facing the emerging practice and research field of Human Work Interaction Design. The paper has its offset in the discussions and writings that have been dominant within the IFIP Working Group on Human Work Interaction...... Design (name HWID) through the last two and half years since the commencement of this Working Group. The paper thus provides an introduction to the theory and empirical evidence that lie behind the combination of empirical work studies and interaction design. It also recommends key topics for future...... research in Human Work Interaction Design....

  9. Order effect in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Melanie Landvad; Borlund, Pia

    2016-01-01

    of such studies. Due to the limited sample of 20 test participants (Library and Information Science (LIS) students) inference statistics is not applicable; hence conclusions can be drawn from this sample of test participants only. Originality/value – Only few studies in LIS focus on order effect and none from......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study of order effect in interactive information retrieval (IIR) studies. The phenomenon of order effect is well-known, and it is the main reason why searches are permuted (counter-balanced) between test participants in IIR studies. However...... the perspective of IIR. Keywords Evaluation, Research methods, Information retrieval, User studies, Searching, Information searches...

  10. Information flow in heterogeneously interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguti, Yutaka; Tsuda, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro

    2014-02-01

    Motivated by studies on the dynamics of heterogeneously interacting systems in neocortical neural networks, we studied heterogeneously-coupled chaotic systems. We used information-theoretic measures to investigate directions of information flow in heterogeneously coupled Rössler systems, which we selected as a typical chaotic system. In bi-directionally coupled systems, spontaneous and irregular switchings of the phase difference between two chaotic oscillators were observed. The direction of information transmission spontaneously switched in an intermittent manner, depending on the phase difference between the two systems. When two further oscillatory inputs are added to the coupled systems, this system dynamically selects one of the two inputs by synchronizing, selection depending on the internal phase differences between the two systems. These results indicate that the effective direction of information transmission dynamically changes, induced by a switching of phase differences between the two systems.

  11. Human-Environment Interaction: Natural Hazards as a Classic Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montz, Burrell E.

    1989-01-01

    Urges that natural hazards be studied in order to analyze the geographic theme of human-environment interaction. Suggests ways in which this information can be introduced in the classroom. Identifies field studies and cross-cultural analysis with follow-up discussions as possible activities. Points out information sources. (KO)

  12. Human-computer interaction in multitask situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Human-computer interaction in multitask decisionmaking situations is considered, and it is proposed that humans and computers have overlapping responsibilities. Queueing theory is employed to model this dynamic approach to the allocation of responsibility between human and computer. Results of simulation experiments are used to illustrate the effects of several system variables including number of tasks, mean time between arrivals of action-evoking events, human-computer speed mismatch, probability of computer error, probability of human error, and the level of feedback between human and computer. Current experimental efforts are discussed and the practical issues involved in designing human-computer systems for multitask situations are considered.

  13. Mixed reality and human-robot interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiangyu

    2011-01-01

    MR technologies play an increasing role in different aspects of human-robot interactions. The visual combination of digital contents with real working spaces creates a simulated environment that is set out to enhance these aspects. This book presents and discusses fundamental scientific issues, technical implementations, lab testing, and industrial applications and case studies of Mixed Reality in Human-Robot Interaction. It is a reference book that not only acts as meta-book in the field that defines and frames Mixed Reality use in Human-Robot Interaction, but also addresses up-coming trends

  14. Interactive Joint Transfer of Energy and Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar; Fouladgar, A. M.; Simeone, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    resources, such as radio waves, particles and qubits, can conceivably reuse, at least part, of the received resources. This paper aims at illustrating some of the new challenges that arise in the design of communication networks in which the signals exchanged by the nodes carry both information and energy......In some communication networks, such as passive RFID systems, the energy used to transfer information between a sender and a recipient can be reused for successive communication tasks. In fact, from known results in physics, any system that exchanges information via the transfer of given physical....... To this end, a baseline two-way communication system is considered in which two nodes communicate in an interactive fashion. In the system, a node can either send an “on” symbol (or “1”), which costs one unit of energy, or an “off” signal (or “0”), which does not require any energy expenditure. Upon reception...

  15. Augmented Robotics Dialog System for Enhancing Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Castro-González, Aĺvaro; Luengo, Francisco Javier Fernandez de Gorostiza; Salichs, Miguel Ángel

    2015-07-03

    Augmented reality, augmented television and second screen are cutting edge technologies that provide end users extra and enhanced information related to certain events in real time. This enriched information helps users better understand such events, at the same time providing a more satisfactory experience. In the present paper, we apply this main idea to human-robot interaction (HRI), to how users and robots interchange information. The ultimate goal of this paper is to improve the quality of HRI, developing a new dialog manager system that incorporates enriched information from the semantic web. This work presents the augmented robotic dialog system (ARDS), which uses natural language understanding mechanisms to provide two features: (i) a non-grammar multimodal input (verbal and/or written) text; and (ii) a contextualization of the information conveyed in the interaction. This contextualization is achieved by information enrichment techniques that link the extracted information from the dialog with extra information about the world available in semantic knowledge bases. This enriched or contextualized information (information enrichment, semantic enhancement or contextualized information are used interchangeably in the rest of this paper) offers many possibilities in terms of HRI. For instance, it can enhance the robot's pro-activeness during a human-robot dialog (the enriched information can be used to propose new topics during the dialog, while ensuring a coherent interaction). Another possibility is to display additional multimedia content related to the enriched information on a visual device. This paper describes the ARDS and shows a proof of concept of its applications.

  16. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments are presented along with a list of attendees. The objectives of the workshop were to assess the state-of-technology and level of maturity of several areas in human-computer interaction and to provide guidelines for focused future research leading to effective use of these facilities in the design/fabrication and operation of future high-performance engineering systems.

  17. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  18. Human issues of library and information work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jela Steinerová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines philosophical, methodological and practical strategic aspects of library and information activity from the viewpoint of natural human and social factors. In contrast to traditional methodological patterns, real-life information problems and supportive methods of information seeking are stressed. The formulated conceptual framework is related to new competencies of information professionals, needs of information institutions and position of a human being in information processes. New methodological approach is outlined in models including factors with impact on a position of people in information work, human complexity and relationships of people and information. The resulting idea of human unity in information-related behaviour forms the vision of research directed to philosophy of a man in information science.

  19. Deep architectures for Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noulas, A.K.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present the application of Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines in Human Computer Interaction. These provide a well suited framework to model the complex temporal patterns produced from humans in the audio and video modalities. They can be trained in a semisupervised fashion and

  20. Human eosinophil-lymphocyte interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weller Peter F

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available While the eosinophil's effector functions clearly can contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, the evolutionary benefit to having eosinophils as a distinct class of leukocytes is not clear, especially if one must reconsider the nominally beneficial role of eosinophils in parasite host defense. Eosinophils are equipped to respond to lymphocytes and their cytokines (and not solely the eosinophil growth factor cytokines, but the functional consequences of such eosinophil responses need to be defined. Conversely, eosinophils, as antigen-presenting cells (APCs or sources of lymphocyte-active cytokines, may stimulate and effect lymphocyte functioning. Eosinophils share with CD4+ lymphocytes expression of a number of receptors, including CD4 and IL-2R, and specific alpha4 integrins that may help in their common recruitment and activation. Further, elucidation of the interactions between lymphocytes and eosinophils will contribute to a broader understanding of the functioning of eosinophils in "normal" ongoing immune responses and in allergic disorders.

  1. Prosodic alignment in human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, N.; Katagiri, Y.

    2007-06-01

    Androids that replicate humans in form also need to replicate them in behaviour to achieve a high level of believability or lifelikeness. We explore the minimal social cues that can induce in people the human tendency for social acceptance, or ethopoeia, toward artifacts, including androids. It has been observed that people exhibit a strong tendency to adjust to each other, through a number of speech and language features in human-human conversational interactions, to obtain communication efficiency and emotional engagement. We investigate in this paper the phenomena related to prosodic alignment in human-computer interactions, with particular focus on human-computer alignment of speech characteristics. We found that people exhibit unidirectional and spontaneous short-term alignment of loudness and response latency in their speech in response to computer-generated speech. We believe this phenomenon of prosodic alignment provides one of the key components for building social acceptance of androids.

  2. Penerapan Model Human Computer Interaction (HCI Dalam Analisis Sistem Informasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihati Prihati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information system Analysis is very important to do to produce easy, effective, efficient, and proper use system for the user. This research is meant to design and apply information system analysis model with the concept of Human Computer Interaction (HCI, Jacob Nielsen’s usability criteria which are learnability, efficiency, memorability, errors and satisfaction. The model of information system analysis Human Computer Interaction (HCI with five usability criteria can be used as a standard to analyze how far Human Computer Interaction can be applied into the system so that every weakness will be known and system maintenance can be performed. The application Human Computer Interaction model in analysis of Sistem Administrasi Sekolah (SAS produce a conclusion that only half of Human Computer Interaction concept applied into SAS Dikmenti DKI Jakarta. SAS is easy to be learned and to remember but SAS is not efficient and not yet have the ability to cope the mistake well. Users are satisfied enough with the result achieved through SAS but the facility provided by SAS is considered not enough to accommodate the need of the users.

  3. Information sensing and interactive technology of Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiliang

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid development of economic, the Internet of Things based on Internet technology is more and more concerned by all circles of society, and the Internet of Things begins to penetrate into various fields of society. The Internet of things is an extension of the Internet, the difference between the Internet and the Internet of Things is that the purpose of things aims to achieve the exchange and exchange of information and data, contract the people and goods through a variety of technologies and equipment from items to items. Information perception and interaction technology are two very important technologies in the development of things, but also is the important technology in the history of the development of network technology. This paper briefly analyzes the characteristics of the original information perception, and the difference between the interactive technology of the Internet of Things and the human-computer interaction technology. On this basis, this paper mainly elaborates from the two aspects of information perception and interactive technology.

  4. Identifying the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo; Ratti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. In the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls and uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylize the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models, thus increasing our ability to predict social activiti...

  5. Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard McFarland

    Full Text Available Group-living primates frequently interact with each other to maintain social bonds as well as to compete for valuable resources. Observing such social interactions between group members provides individuals with essential information (e.g. on the fighting ability or altruistic attitude of group companions to guide their social tactics and choice of social partners. This process requires individuals to selectively attend to the most informative content within a social scene. It is unclear how non-human primates allocate attention to social interactions in different contexts, and whether they share similar patterns of social attention to humans. Here we compared the gaze behaviour of rhesus macaques and humans when free-viewing the same set of naturalistic images. The images contained positive or negative social interactions between two conspecifics of different phylogenetic distance from the observer; i.e. affiliation or aggression exchanged by two humans, rhesus macaques, Barbary macaques, baboons or lions. Monkeys directed a variable amount of gaze at the two conspecific individuals in the images according to their roles in the interaction (i.e. giver or receiver of affiliation/aggression. Their gaze distribution to non-conspecific individuals was systematically varied according to the viewed species and the nature of interactions, suggesting a contribution of both prior experience and innate bias in guiding social attention. Furthermore, the monkeys' gaze behavior was qualitatively similar to that of humans, especially when viewing negative interactions. Detailed analysis revealed that both species directed more gaze at the face than the body region when inspecting individuals, and attended more to the body region in negative than in positive social interactions. Our study suggests that monkeys and humans share a similar pattern of role-sensitive, species- and context-dependent social attention, implying a homologous cognitive mechanism of

  6. Human-Robot Interaction: Status and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    The current status of human-robot interaction (HRI) is reviewed, and key current research challenges for the human factors community are described. Robots have evolved from continuous human-controlled master-slave servomechanisms for handling nuclear waste to a broad range of robots incorporating artificial intelligence for many applications and under human supervisory control. This mini-review describes HRI developments in four application areas and what are the challenges for human factors research. In addition to a plethora of research papers, evidence of success is manifest in live demonstrations of robot capability under various forms of human control. HRI is a rapidly evolving field. Specialized robots under human teleoperation have proven successful in hazardous environments and medical application, as have specialized telerobots under human supervisory control for space and repetitive industrial tasks. Research in areas of self-driving cars, intimate collaboration with humans in manipulation tasks, human control of humanoid robots for hazardous environments, and social interaction with robots is at initial stages. The efficacy of humanoid general-purpose robots has yet to be proven. HRI is now applied in almost all robot tasks, including manufacturing, space, aviation, undersea, surgery, rehabilitation, agriculture, education, package fetch and delivery, policing, and military operations. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Language evolution and human-computer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudin, Jonathan; Norman, Donald A.

    1991-01-01

    Many of the issues that confront designers of interactive computer systems also appear in natural language evolution. Natural languages and human-computer interfaces share as their primary mission the support of extended 'dialogues' between responsive entities. Because in each case one participant is a human being, some of the pressures operating on natural languages, causing them to evolve in order to better support such dialogue, also operate on human-computer 'languages' or interfaces. This does not necessarily push interfaces in the direction of natural language - since one entity in this dialogue is not a human, this is not to be expected. Nonetheless, by discerning where the pressures that guide natural language evolution also appear in human-computer interaction, we can contribute to the design of computer systems and obtain a new perspective on natural languages.

  8. The human dynamic clamp as a paradigm for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Guillaume; de Guzman, Gonzalo C; Tognoli, Emmanuelle; Kelso, J A Scott

    2014-09-02

    Social neuroscience has called for new experimental paradigms aimed toward real-time interactions. A distinctive feature of interactions is mutual information exchange: One member of a pair changes in response to the other while simultaneously producing actions that alter the other. Combining mathematical and neurophysiological methods, we introduce a paradigm called the human dynamic clamp (HDC), to directly manipulate the interaction or coupling between a human and a surrogate constructed to behave like a human. Inspired by the dynamic clamp used so productively in cellular neuroscience, the HDC allows a person to interact in real time with a virtual partner itself driven by well-established models of coordination dynamics. People coordinate hand movements with the visually observed movements of a virtual hand, the parameters of which depend on input from the subject's own movements. We demonstrate that HDC can be extended to cover a broad repertoire of human behavior, including rhythmic and discrete movements, adaptation to changes of pacing, and behavioral skill learning as specified by a virtual "teacher." We propose HDC as a general paradigm, best implemented when empirically verified theoretical or mathematical models have been developed in a particular scientific field. The HDC paradigm is powerful because it provides an opportunity to explore parameter ranges and perturbations that are not easily accessible in ordinary human interactions. The HDC not only enables to test the veracity of theoretical models, it also illuminates features that are not always apparent in real-time human social interactions and the brain correlates thereof.

  9. Towards a capabilities database to inform inclusive design: experimental investigation of effective survey-based predictors of human-product interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Raji; Johnson, Daniel; Goldenberg, Liz; Parker, Richard A; Huppert, Felicia A

    2012-07-01

    A key issue in the field of inclusive design is the ability to provide designers with an understanding of people's range of capabilities. Since it is not feasible to assess product interactions with a large sample, this paper assesses a range of proxy measures of design-relevant capabilities. It describes a study that was conducted to identify which measures provide the best prediction of people's abilities to use a range of products. A detailed investigation with 100 respondents aged 50-80 years was undertaken to examine how they manage typical household products. Predictor variables included self-report and performance measures across a variety of capabilities (vision, hearing, dexterity and cognitive function), component activities used in product interactions (e.g. using a remote control, touch screen) and psychological characteristics (e.g. self-efficacy, confidence with using electronic devices). Results showed, as expected, a higher prevalence of visual, hearing, dexterity, cognitive and product interaction difficulties in the 65-80 age group. Regression analyses showed that, in addition to age, performance measures of vision (acuity, contrast sensitivity) and hearing (hearing threshold) and self-report and performance measures of component activities are strong predictors of successful product interactions. These findings will guide the choice of measures to be used in a subsequent national survey of design-relevant capabilities, which will lead to the creation of a capability database. This will be converted into a tool for designers to understand the implications of their design decisions, so that they can design products in a more inclusive way. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  11. Analysis of human emotion in human-robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blar, Noraidah; Jafar, Fairul Azni; Abdullah, Nurhidayu; Muhammad, Mohd Nazrin; Kassim, Anuar Muhamed

    2015-05-01

    There is vast application of robots in human's works such as in industry, hospital, etc. Therefore, it is believed that human and robot can have a good collaboration to achieve an optimum result of work. The objectives of this project is to analyze human-robot collaboration and to understand humans feeling (kansei factors) when dealing with robot that robot should adapt to understand the humans' feeling. Researches currently are exploring in the area of human-robot interaction with the intention to reduce problems that subsist in today's civilization. Study had found that to make a good interaction between human and robot, first it is need to understand the abilities of each. Kansei Engineering in robotic was used to undergo the project. The project experiments were held by distributing questionnaire to students and technician. After that, the questionnaire results were analyzed by using SPSS analysis. Results from the analysis shown that there are five feelings which significant to the human in the human-robot interaction; anxious, fatigue, relaxed, peaceful, and impressed.

  12. Role for protein-protein interaction databases in human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattin, Kristine A; Moore, Jason H

    2009-12-01

    Proteomics and the study of protein-protein interactions are becoming increasingly important in our effort to understand human diseases on a system-wide level. Thanks to the development and curation of protein-interaction databases, up-to-date information on these interaction networks is accessible and publicly available to the scientific community. As our knowledge of protein-protein interactions increases, it is important to give thought to the different ways that these resources can impact biomedical research. In this article, we highlight the importance of protein-protein interactions in human genetics and genetic epidemiology. Since protein-protein interactions demonstrate one of the strongest functional relationships between genes, combining genomic data with available proteomic data may provide us with a more in-depth understanding of common human diseases. In this review, we will discuss some of the fundamentals of protein interactions, the databases that are publicly available and how information from these databases can be used to facilitate genome-wide genetic studies.

  13. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  14. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important and natural element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. In particular this is the case in the interaction between humans and the virtual humans that inhabit our cyberworlds. Virtual humans need to adapt their

  15. Human-Computer Interaction in Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Paravati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide an overview of the content of the Special Issue on “Human-computer interaction in smart environments”. The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight technologies and solutions encompassing the use of mass-market sensors in current and emerging applications for interacting with Smart Environments. Selected papers address this topic by analyzing different interaction modalities, including hand/body gestures, face recognition, gaze/eye tracking, biosignal analysis, speech and activity recognition, and related issues.

  16. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  17. Property and Human Genetic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Kongsholm, Nana Cecilie Halmsted; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    Do donors (of samples from which genetic information is derived) have some sort of pre-legal (moral) or legal property right to that information? In this paper, we address this question from both a moral philosophical and a legal point of view. We argue that philosophical theories about property do......” is, at best, a linguistic prop whose real content has to be defined conventionally. Relevant interests that may be seen to be protected seems to be interests of privacy or interests against exploitation. To the extent that the logic behind the patent system holds true limiting incentives decreases...

  18. Human interactions with sirenians (manatees and dugongs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.; Flint, Mark

    2017-01-01

    There are three extant sirenian species of the Trichechidae family and one living Dugongidae family member. Given their close ties to coastal and often urbanized habitats, sirenians are exposed to many types of anthropogenic activities that result in challenges to their well-being, poor health, and even death. In the wild, they are exposed to direct and indirect local pressures as well as subject to large-scale stressors such as global climate change acting on regions or entire genetic stocks. In captivity, they are subject to husbandry and management practices based on our collective knowledge, or in some cases lack thereof, of their needs and welfare. It is therefore reasonable to consider that their current imperiled status is very closely linked to our actions. In this chapter, we identify and define human interactions that may impact dugongs and manatees, including hunting, fisheries, boat interactions, negative interactions with man-made structures, disease and contaminants, and global climate change. We examine techniques used to investigate these impacts and the influence of sirenian biology and of changing human behaviors on potential outcomes. We examine how this differs for dugongs and manatees in the wild and for those held in captivity. Finally, we provide possible mitigation strategies and ways to assess the efforts we are making to improve the welfare of individuals and to conserve these species. This chapter identifies how the welfare of these species is intrinsically linked to the human interactions these animals experience, and how the nature of these interactions has changed with societal shifts. We proffer suggested ways to minimize negative impacts. Current knowledge should be used to minimize negative human interactions and impacts, to promote positive impacts, and to protect these animals for the future.

  19. Interaction and Humans in Internet of Things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turunen, Markku; Sonntag, Daniel; Engelbrecht, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Internet of Things is mainly about connected devices embedded in our everyday environment. Typically, ‘interaction’ in the context of IoT means interfaces which allow people to either monitor or configure IoT devices. Some examples include mobile applications and embedded touchscreens for control...... of various functions (e.g., heating, lights, and energy efficiency) in environments such as homes and offices. In some cases, humans are an explicit part of the scenario, such as in those cases where people are monitored (e.g., children and elderly) by IoT devices. Interaction in such applications is still...... quite straightforward, mainly consisting of traditional graphical interfaces, which often leads to clumsy co-existence of human and IoT devices. Thus, there is a need to investigate what kinds of interaction techniques could provide IoT to be more human oriented, what is the role of automation...

  20. Cyberpsychology: a human-interaction perspective based on cognitive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Bruno; West, Robert L

    2003-10-01

    This paper argues for the relevance of cognitive modeling and cognitive architectures to cyberpsychology. From a human-computer interaction point of view, cognitive modeling can have benefits both for theory and model building, and for the design and evaluation of sociotechnical systems usability. Cognitive modeling research applied to human-computer interaction has two complimentary objectives: (1) to develop theories and computational models of human interactive behavior with information and collaborative technologies, and (2) to use the computational models as building blocks for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interactive technologies. From the perspective of building theories and models, cognitive modeling offers the possibility to anchor cyberpsychology theories and models into cognitive architectures. From the perspective of the design and evaluation of socio-technical systems, cognitive models can provide the basis for simulated users, which can play an important role in usability testing. As an example of application of cognitive modeling to technology design, the paper presents a simulation of interactive behavior with five different adaptive menu algorithms: random, fixed, stacked, frequency based, and activation based. Results of the simulation indicate that fixed menu positions seem to offer the best support for classification like tasks such as filing e-mails. This research is part of the Human-Computer Interaction, and the Broadband Visual Communication research programs at the National Research Council of Canada, in collaboration with the Carleton Cognitive Modeling Lab at Carleton University.

  1. Interactive Exploration Robots: Human-Robotic Collaboration and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terry

    2017-01-01

    For decades, NASA has employed different operational approaches for human and robotic missions. Human spaceflight missions to the Moon and in low Earth orbit have relied upon near-continuous communication with minimal time delays. During these missions, astronauts and mission control communicate interactively to perform tasks and resolve problems in real-time. In contrast, deep-space robotic missions are designed for operations in the presence of significant communication delay - from tens of minutes to hours. Consequently, robotic missions typically employ meticulously scripted and validated command sequences that are intermittently uplinked to the robot for independent execution over long periods. Over the next few years, however, we will see increasing use of robots that blend these two operational approaches. These interactive exploration robots will be remotely operated by humans on Earth or from a spacecraft. These robots will be used to support astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), to conduct new missions to the Moon, and potentially to enable remote exploration of planetary surfaces in real-time. In this talk, I will discuss the technical challenges associated with building and operating robots in this manner, along with lessons learned from research conducted with the ISS and in the field.

  2. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  3. Humans, computers and wizards human (simulated) computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Norman; McGlashan, Scott; Wooffitt, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Using data taken from a major European Union funded project on speech understanding, the SunDial project, this book considers current perspectives on human computer interaction and argues for the value of an approach taken from sociology which is based on conversation analysis.

  4. The epigenetic lorax: gene–environment interactions in human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Keith E; Sapienza, Carmen; Engel, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an explosion of information on genetic factors underlying common human diseases and disorders. This ‘human genomics’ information revolution has occurred as a backdrop to a rapid increase in the rates of many human disorders and diseases. For example, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, asthma, autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have increased at rates that cannot be due to changes in the genetic structure of the population, and are difficult to ascribe to changes in diagnostic criteria or ascertainment. A likely cause of the increased incidence of these disorders is increased exposure to environmental factors that modify gene function. Many environmental factors that have epidemiological association with common human disorders are likely to exert their effects through epigenetic alterations. This general mechanism of gene–environment interaction poses special challenges for individuals, educators, scientists and public policy makers in defining, monitoring and mitigating exposures. PMID:22920179

  5. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics...

  6. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  7. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  8. INTERACTION MANAGMENT BETWEEN SOCIAL AGENTS AND HUMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Pruski, Alain; Moussaoui, Abdelhak

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we address the problem of managing social interactions between a human user and a set of social agents in structured environments. These agents have to regulate a measurable characteristic of the user. Our study focuses mainly therapeutic, caring for elderly people and assessment applications. The agent concept considered in this study is suitable for multi-robot systems (physical, service, mobile or not), but also to virtual agents (avatars) in a virtual...

  9. Affect in Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    second is for the benefit of the human when interacting with a robot by providing a means and mechanism for increasing the bandwidth in communication ...expected; whereas an introverted robot was rated as more appropriate for a problem solving task requiring concentration (Moshkina 2011). II.1.2...effective communication for a humanoid robot. The Emotion space is defined along three dimensions: activation, pleasantness, and certainty. Emotions

  10. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design and und...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities.......Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...

  11. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean; Brock, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an "intentional stance" by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants' behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative "joint attention" game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other's eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm ("Computer" condition). The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room ("Human" condition). Those in the "Human" condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the "Computer" condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect on the achievement of the application's goals.

  12. Predicting network structure using unlabeled interaction information

    OpenAIRE

    Nasim, Mehwish; Brandes, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    We are interested in the question whether interactions in online social networks (OSNs) can serve as a proxy for more persistent social relation. With Facebook as the context of our analysis, we look at commenting on wall posts as a form of interaction, and friendship ties as social relations. Findings from a pretest suggest that others’ joint commenting patterns on someone’s status posts are indeed indicative of friendship ties between them, independent of the contents. This would have impli...

  13. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  14. Vocal Interactivity in-and-between Humans, Animals and Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger K Moore

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost all animals exploit vocal signals for a range of ecologically-motivated purposes: detecting predators prey and marking territory, expressing emotions, establishing social relations and sharing information. Whether it is a bird raising an alarm, a whale calling to potential partners,a dog responding to human commands, a parent reading a story with a child, or a business-person accessing stock prices using emph{Siri}, vocalisation provides a valuable communication channel through which behaviour may be coordinated and controlled, and information may be distributed and acquired.Indeed, the ubiquity of vocal interaction has led to research across an extremely diverse array of fields, from assessing animal welfare, to understanding the precursors of human language, to developing voice-based human-machine interaction. Opportunities for cross-fertilisation between these fields abound; for example, using artificial cognitive agents to investigate contemporary theories of language grounding, using machine learning to analyse different habitats or adding vocal expressivity to the next generation of language-enabled autonomous social agents. However, much of the research is conducted within well-defined disciplinary boundaries, and many fundamental issues remain. This paper attempts to redress the balance by presenting a comparative review of vocal interaction within-and-between humans, animals and artificial agents (such as robots, and it identifies a rich set of open research questions that may benefit from an inter-disciplinary analysis.

  15. What can human-animal interaction tell us about intersubjectivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    interacting in the same phenomelogical world? This preliminary observation remains insignificant unless we consider forms of interactions where a doubt can be cast on the nature of the participant’s subjecthood/autonomy. In this regard, human-animal interactions constitute an interesting topic of inquiry......: intersubjectivity presupposes subject, and western continental philosophy (and its many outcomes) still has some doubts on the nature, or even on the existence, of animal subjectivity. Yet, we argue that a praxeological and ethnomethodologically informed approach might help consider the problem from another...... perspective (Wieder, 1980) and tackle the issue in a more empirically-grounded manner (Goode, 2007 ; Laurier, Maze, Lundin, 2006). Following this line, we propose to treat ‘intersubjectivity’ not as the meeting of two subjectivities but as the interactional accomplishment of the other living being...

  16. The user in interactive information retrieval evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    as central IIR evaluation research settings and variables. This is followed by a description of IIR components, pointing to the elements of the Integrated Cognitive Research Framework for IR that incorporates the Laboratory Framework in a contextual manner. The following sections describe and exemplify 1......) Request types, test persons, task-based simulations of search situations and relevance or performance measures in IIR; 2) Ultra-Light Interactive IR experiments; 3) Interactive-Light IR studies; and 4) Naturalistic field investigations of IIR. The chapter concludes with a summary section, a reference list...

  17. Human-Computer Interaction The Agency Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, José

    2012-01-01

    Agent-centric theories, approaches and technologies are contributing to enrich interactions between users and computers. This book aims at highlighting the influence of the agency perspective in Human-Computer Interaction through a careful selection of research contributions. Split into five sections; Users as Agents, Agents and Accessibility, Agents and Interactions, Agent-centric Paradigms and Approaches, and Collective Agents, the book covers a wealth of novel, original and fully updated material, offering:   ü  To provide a coherent, in depth, and timely material on the agency perspective in HCI ü  To offer an authoritative treatment of the subject matter presented by carefully selected authors ü  To offer a balanced and broad coverage of the subject area, including, human, organizational, social, as well as technological concerns. ü  To offer a hands-on-experience by covering representative case studies and offering essential design guidelines   The book will appeal to a broad audience of resea...

  18. Interaction of Staphylococci with Human B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler K Nygaard

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human infections worldwide. The pathogen produces numerous molecules that can interfere with recognition and binding by host innate immune cells, an initial step required for the ingestion and subsequent destruction of microbes by phagocytes. To better understand the interaction of this pathogen with human immune cells, we compared the association of S. aureus and S. epidermidis with leukocytes in human blood. We found that a significantly greater proportion of B cells associated with S. epidermidis relative to S. aureus. Complement components and complement receptors were important for the binding of B cells with S. epidermidis. Experiments using staphylococci inactivated by ultraviolet radiation and S. aureus isogenic deletion mutants indicated that S. aureus secretes molecules regulated by the SaeR/S two-component system that interfere with the ability of human B cells to bind this bacterium. We hypothesize that the relative inability of B cells to bind S. aureus contributes to the microbe's success as a human pathogen.

  19. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  20. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The interactive evolution of human communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Nicolas; Garrod, Simon; Roberts, Leo; Swoboda, Nik

    2010-04-01

    This paper compares two explanations of the process by which human communication systems evolve: iterated learning and social collaboration. It then reports an experiment testing the social collaboration account. Participants engaged in a graphical communication task either as a member of a community, where they interacted with seven different partners drawn from the same pool, or as a member of an isolated pair, where they interacted with the same partner across the same number of games. Participants' horizontal, pair-wise interactions led "bottom up" to the creation of an effective and efficient shared sign system in the community condition. Furthermore, the community-evolved sign systems were as effective and efficient as the local sign systems developed by isolated pairs. Finally, and as predicted by a social collaboration account, and not by an iterated learning account, interaction was critical to the creation of shared sign systems, with different isolated pairs establishing different local sign systems and different communities establishing different global sign systems. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Structure of the human chromosome interaction network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sarnataro

    Full Text Available New Hi-C technologies have revealed that chromosomes have a complex network of spatial contacts in the cell nucleus of higher organisms, whose organisation is only partially understood. Here, we investigate the structure of such a network in human GM12878 cells, to derive a large scale picture of nuclear architecture. We find that the intensity of intra-chromosomal interactions is power-law distributed. Inter-chromosomal interactions are two orders of magnitude weaker and exponentially distributed, yet they are not randomly arranged along the genomic sequence. Intra-chromosomal contacts broadly occur between epigenomically homologous regions, whereas inter-chromosomal contacts are especially associated with regions rich in highly expressed genes. Overall, genomic contacts in the nucleus appear to be structured as a network of networks where a set of strongly individual chromosomal units, as envisaged in the 'chromosomal territory' scenario derived from microscopy, interact with each other via on average weaker, yet far from random and functionally important interactions.

  3. Characterization of human-dog social interaction using owner report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lit, Lisa; Schweitzer, Julie B; Oberbauer, Anita M

    2010-07-01

    Dog owners were surveyed for observations of social behaviors in their dogs, using questions adapted from the human Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) pre-verbal module. Using 939 responses for purebred and mixed-breed dogs, three factors were identified: initiation of reciprocal social behaviors (INIT), response to social interactions (RSPNS), and communication (COMM). There were small or no effects of sex, age, breed group or training. For six breeds with more than 35 responses (Border Collie, Rough Collie, German Shepherd, Golden Retriever, Labrador Retriever, Standard Poodle), the behaviors eye contact with humans, enjoyment in interactions with human interaction, and name recognition demonstrated little variability across breeds, while asking for objects, giving/showing objects to humans, and attempts to direct humans' attention showed higher variability across these breeds. Breeds with genetically similar backgrounds had similar response distributions for owner reports of dog response to pointing. When considering these breeds according to the broad categories of "herders" and "retrievers," owners reported that the "herders" used more eye contact and vocalization, while the "retrievers" used more body contact. Information regarding social cognitive abilities in dogs provided by owner report suggest that there is variability across many social cognitive abilities in dogs and offers direction for further experimental investigations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Introduction to human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Originally published in 1989 this title provided a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to the burgeoning discipline of human-computer interaction for students, academics, and those from industry who wished to know more about the subject. Assuming very little knowledge, the book provides an overview of the diverse research areas that were at the time only gradually building into a coherent and well-structured field. It aims to explain the underlying causes of the cognitive, social and organizational problems typically encountered when computer systems are introduced. It is clear and co

  5. Problems of information technologies integration into humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. Milova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author considers main transformations impacted by information technologies in humanitarian researches, discourse and education. Net resources, штащкьфешщт exchange, hypertext and interactive learn means are focused as key integration points.

  6. Contextualising Archaeological Information Through Interactive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Johnson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Many web sites use maps delivered as non-interactive images. With the development of web-enabled mapping, new methods of presenting and contextualising archaeological and historical data are becoming available. However, most current examples are static views of contemporary framework data or specific time slices, and do not provide interactivity relating to the time dimension, which is so important to archaeology and related disciplines. In this article I look at some of the advantages of time-enabled interactive mapping and map animation in providing educational experiences to museum visitors and the web-browsing public. These will be illustrated through three example applications of the TimeMap methodology developed at the University of Sydney Archaeological Computing Laboratory: 1. the Sydney TimeMap kiosk at the Museum of Sydney; 2. an embedded Java mapping applet developed for MacquarieNet, a major Australian online educational encyclopaedia; and 3. the metadata clearinghouse mapping applet developed for the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative, Berkeley. In each of these examples, a wide range of resources are delivered through a time-enabled map interface which accesses live database data rather than pre-structured curated presentations of data. This flexibility brings its own challenges in providing intuitive pathways and appropriate levels of detail in response to free-ranging user enquiries. The paper outlines some of the approaches I have adopted to resolve these issues.

  7. Human interaction and cortisol: can human contact reduce stress for shelter dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Crista L; Grandin, Temple; Enns, R Mark

    2006-03-30

    Animal shelters are an extremely stressful environment for a dog, most specifically due to social isolation and novel surroundings. The stress response of dogs housed in this environment may be alleviated through human interaction shortly after arrival. During their second day in a public animal shelter, adult stray dogs were either engaged in a human contact session or not. The session involved taking the dog into an outdoor enclosure, playing with the dog, grooming, petting and reviewing basic obedience commands. Each dog interacted with a human for approximately 45 min. Salivary cortisol levels were examined from each dog on their 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 9th day of housing. Animals that engaged in a human contact session had lower cortisol levels on day 3 than animals that did not. Breed type, sex and age did not have an effect on cortisol levels on any day measured. A human interaction session can be beneficial to both animal welfare and adoption procedures. The current study not only utilized the human contact session as a treatment to reduce stress but also as a resource for individual temperament/personality information that could be later used to facilitate compatible adoptions. Human interaction may be an effective means of reducing the cortisol response of dogs in the aversive shelter environment.

  8. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Caruana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction. Neuroimaging studies have shown that, when participants believe they are interacting via a virtual interface with another human agent, they show different patterns of brain activity compared to when they know that their virtual partner is computer-controlled. The suggestion is that users adopt an “intentional stance” by attributing mental states to their virtual partner. However, it remains unclear how beliefs in the agency of a virtual partner influence participants’ behaviour and subjective experience of the interaction. We investigated this issue in the context of a cooperative “joint attention” game in which participants interacted via an eye tracker with a virtual onscreen partner, directing each other’s eye gaze to different screen locations. Half of the participants were correctly informed that their partner was controlled by a computer algorithm (“Computer” condition. The other half were misled into believing that the virtual character was controlled by a second participant in another room (“Human” condition. Those in the “Human” condition were slower to make eye contact with their partner and more likely to try and guide their partner before they had established mutual eye contact than participants in the “Computer” condition. They also responded more rapidly when their partner was guiding them, although the same effect was also found for a control condition in which they responded to an arrow cue. Results confirm the influence of human agency beliefs on behaviour in this virtual social interaction context. They further suggest that researchers and developers attempting to simulate social interactions should consider the impact of agency beliefs on user experience in other social contexts, and their effect

  9. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie van der Walt; Tanya du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    Background: The success of organisations relies on various factors including the ability of its multi-generational workforce to collaborate within the interactive information society. By developing an awareness of the different values of a diverse workforce, organisations may benefit from diversity. Various diversity factors, such as ethnicity, age and gender, impact on the way people interact, especially in the interactive information society.Objectives: This article advocates the need for g...

  10. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    England, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Sheridan, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Crane, B.; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. This paper surveys some of these uses, and presents a quantitative method for measuring the level of nonverbal synchrony in an interaction.

  11. Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human¿animal relationships and interactions in a workplace,

  12. Human computer interaction using hand gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Silas; Nguyen, Hung T

    2008-01-01

    Hand gesture is a very natural form of human interaction and can be used effectively in human computer interaction (HCI). This project involves the design and implementation of a HCI using a small hand-worn wireless module with a 3-axis accelerometer as the motion sensor. The small stand-alone unit contains an accelerometer and a wireless Zigbee transceiver with microcontroller. To minimize intrusiveness to the user, the module is designed to be small (3cm by 4 cm). A time-delay neural network algorithm is developed to analyze the time series data from the 3-axis accelerometer. Power consumption is reduced by the non-continuous transmission of data and the use of low-power components, efficient algorithm and sleep mode between sampling for the wireless module. A home control interface is designed so that the user can control home appliances by moving through menus. The results demonstrate the feasibility of controlling home appliances using hand gestures and would present an opportunity for a section of the aging population and disabled people to lead a more independent life.

  13. Temporal stability in human interaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Renato; Fabbri, Ricardo; Antunes, Deborah Christina; Pisani, Marilia Mello; de Oliveira, Osvaldo Novais

    2017-11-01

    This paper reports on stable (or invariant) properties of human interaction networks, with benchmarks derived from public email lists. Activity, recognized through messages sent, along time and topology were observed in snapshots in a timeline, and at different scales. Our analysis shows that activity is practically the same for all networks across timescales ranging from seconds to months. The principal components of the participants in the topological metrics space remain practically unchanged as different sets of messages are considered. The activity of participants follows the expected scale-free trace, thus yielding the hub, intermediary and peripheral classes of vertices by comparison against the Erdös-Rényi model. The relative sizes of these three sectors are essentially the same for all email lists and the same along time. Typically, 45% are peripheral vertices. Similar results for the distribution of participants in the three sectors and for the relative importance of the topological metrics were obtained for 12 additional networks from Facebook, Twitter and ParticipaBR. These properties are consistent with the literature and may be general for human interaction networks, which has important implications for establishing a typology of participants based on quantitative criteria.

  14. Adaptive interaction a utility maximization approach to understanding human interaction with technology

    CERN Document Server

    Payne, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    This lecture describes a theoretical framework for the behavioural sciences that holds high promise for theory-driven research and design in Human-Computer Interaction. The framework is designed to tackle the adaptive, ecological, and bounded nature of human behaviour. It is designed to help scientists and practitioners reason about why people choose to behave as they do and to explain which strategies people choose in response to utility, ecology, and cognitive information processing mechanisms. A key idea is that people choose strategies so as to maximise utility given constraints. The frame

  15. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  16. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Cross, Ernest V., II; Chang, Mai Lee

    2014-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is a discipline investigating the factors affecting the interactions between humans and robots. It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human's ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively when working with a robot. By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed to appropriately support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for the design of robotic systems. This DRP concentrates on three areas associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI which are applicable to NASA robot systems: 1) Video Overlays, 2) Camera Views, and 3) Command Modalities. The first study focused on video overlays that investigated how Augmented Reality (AR) symbology can be added to the human-robot interface to improve teleoperation performance. Three types of AR symbology were explored in this study, command guidance (CG), situation guidance (SG), and both (SCG). CG symbology gives operators explicit instructions on what commands to input, whereas SG symbology gives operators implicit cues so that operators can infer the input commands. The combination of CG and SG provided operators with explicit and implicit cues allowing the operator to choose which symbology to utilize. The objective of the study was to understand how AR symbology affects the human operator's ability to align a robot arm to a target using a flight stick and the ability to allocate attention between the symbology and external views of the world. The study evaluated the effects type of symbology (CG and SG) has on operator tasks performance and attention allocation during teleoperation of a robot arm. The second study expanded on the first study by evaluating the effects of the type of

  17. Interaction between bioactive glasses and human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efflandt, S E; Magne, P; Douglas, W H; Francis, L F

    2002-06-01

    This study explores the interaction between bioactive glasses and dentin from extracted human teeth in simulated oral conditions. Bioactive glasses in the Na(2)O-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) and MgO-CaO-P(2)O(5)-SiO(2) systems were prepared as polished disks. Teeth were prepared by grinding to expose dentin and etching with phosphoric acid. A layer of saliva was placed between the two, and the pair was secured with an elastic band and immersed in saliva at 37 degrees C for 5, 21 or 42 days. The bioactive glasses adhered to dentin, while controls showed no such interaction. A continuous interface between the bioactive glass and dentin was imaged using cryogenic-scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, after alcohol dehydration and critical point drying, fracture occurred due to stresses from dentin shrinkage. SEM investigations showed a microstructurally different material at the fractured interface. Chemical analyses revealed that ions from the glass penetrated into the dentin and that the surface of the glass in contact with the dentin was modified. Microdiffractometry showed the presence of apatite at the interface. Bonding appears to be due to an affinity of collagen for the glass surface and chemical interaction between the dentin and glass, leading to apatite formation at the interface.

  18. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Miritello, Giovanna; Cebrián, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Social connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural properties of social networks and in turn processes such as navigation, influence or information diffusion. Since time, attention and cognition are inelastic resources, humans should have a predefined strategy to manage their social interactions over time. However, the limited observational length of existing human interaction datasets, together with the bursty nature of dyadic communications have hampered the observation of tie dynamics in social networks. Here we develop a method for the detection of tie activation/deactivation, and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset ($\\approx$ 19 months, $\\approx$ 20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active. In particular we find that men have an overall higher communication capacity than women and that this ...

  19. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The ethical debate on robots has become a cutting edge issue in many countries. It is, however, most often approached through an us-versus-them perspective—as if we were watching a soccer game and taking one side. Informed by Eastern as well as Western thought, the meta-ethical aim of this paper ...... the limits of our conceptual framing and even facilitate the self-development of the human involved....

  20. Quantitative Modeling of Human-Environment Interactions in Preindustrial Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Philipp S.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying human-environment interactions and anthropogenic influences on the environment prior to the Industrial revolution is essential for understanding the current state of the earth system. This is particularly true for the terrestrial biosphere, but marine ecosystems and even climate were likely modified by human activities centuries to millennia ago. Direct observations are however very sparse in space and time, especially as one considers prehistory. Numerical models are therefore essential to produce a continuous picture of human-environment interactions in the past. Agent-based approaches, while widely applied to quantifying human influence on the environment in localized studies, are unsuitable for global spatial domains and Holocene timescales because of computational demands and large parameter uncertainty. Here we outline a new paradigm for the quantitative modeling of human-environment interactions in preindustrial time that is adapted to the global Holocene. Rather than attempting to simulate agency directly, the model is informed by a suite of characteristics describing those things about society that cannot be predicted on the basis of environment, e.g., diet, presence of agriculture, or range of animals exploited. These categorical data are combined with the properties of the physical environment in coupled human-environment model. The model is, at its core, a dynamic global vegetation model with a module for simulating crop growth that is adapted for preindustrial agriculture. This allows us to simulate yield and calories for feeding both humans and their domesticated animals. We couple this basic caloric availability with a simple demographic model to calculate potential population, and, constrained by labor requirements and land limitations, we create scenarios of land use and land cover on a moderate-resolution grid. We further implement a feedback loop where anthropogenic activities lead to changes in the properties of the physical

  1. Efficiency of human activity on information spreading on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Guzmán, Alfredo; Borondo, J.; Losada González, Juan Carlos; Benito Zafrilla, Rosa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential user...

  2. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  3. Gaze-and-brain-controlled interfaces for human-computer and human-robot interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin S. L.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human-machine interaction technology has greatly evolved during the last decades, but manual and speech modalities remain single output channels with their typical constraints imposed by the motor system’s information transfer limits. Will brain-computer interfaces (BCIs and gaze-based control be able to convey human commands or even intentions to machines in the near future? We provide an overview of basic approaches in this new area of applied cognitive research. Objective. We test the hypothesis that the use of communication paradigms and a combination of eye tracking with unobtrusive forms of registering brain activity can improve human-machine interaction. Methods and Results. Three groups of ongoing experiments at the Kurchatov Institute are reported. First, we discuss the communicative nature of human-robot interaction, and approaches to building a more e cient technology. Specifically, “communicative” patterns of interaction can be based on joint attention paradigms from developmental psychology, including a mutual “eye-to-eye” exchange of looks between human and robot. Further, we provide an example of “eye mouse” superiority over the computer mouse, here in emulating the task of selecting a moving robot from a swarm. Finally, we demonstrate a passive, noninvasive BCI that uses EEG correlates of expectation. This may become an important lter to separate intentional gaze dwells from non-intentional ones. Conclusion. The current noninvasive BCIs are not well suited for human-robot interaction, and their performance, when they are employed by healthy users, is critically dependent on the impact of the gaze on selection of spatial locations. The new approaches discussed show a high potential for creating alternative output pathways for the human brain. When support from passive BCIs becomes mature, the hybrid technology of the eye-brain-computer (EBCI interface will have a chance to enable natural, fluent, and the

  4. Human-Interaction Challenges in UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous UAVs provide a platform for intelligent surveillance in application domains ranging from security and military operations to scientific information gathering and land management. Surveillance tasks are often long duration, requiring that any approach be adaptive to changes in the environment or user needs. We describe a decision- theoretic model of surveillance, appropriate for use on our autonomous helicopter, that provides a basis for optimizing the value of information returned by the UAV. From this approach arise a range of challenges in making this framework practical for use by human operators lacking specialized knowledge of autonomy and mathematics. This paper describes our platform and approach, then describes human-interaction challenges arising from this approach that we have identified and begun to address.

  5. Reliability of Human Subject - Artificial System Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Novák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Main problems related to reliability of interaction between human subject and artificial system (namely of the transportation character are discussed. The paper consists of three mayor parts:The first one is devoted to the theoretical backgrounds of the problem from the both theory of system reliability and neurology/psychology views.Second part presents the discussion of relevant methodologies of the classification and prediction of the reliability decline. The methodology based on EEG pattern analysis is chosen as the appropriate one for the presented task. The key phenomenon of "micro-sleep" is discussed in detail.The last part presents some latest experimental results in context of presented knowledge. Proposals for the future studies are presented at the end of the presented article. The special interest should be devoted to the analysis and in-time prediction of fatal attention decreases and to the design and construction of the respective on-board applicable warning system.

  6. Human computer interaction using hand gestures

    CERN Document Server

    Premaratne, Prashan

    2014-01-01

    Human computer interaction (HCI) plays a vital role in bridging the 'Digital Divide', bringing people closer to consumer electronics control in the 'lounge'. Keyboards and mouse or remotes do alienate old and new generations alike from control interfaces. Hand Gesture Recognition systems bring hope of connecting people with machines in a natural way. This will lead to consumers being able to use their hands naturally to communicate with any electronic equipment in their 'lounge.' This monograph will include the state of the art hand gesture recognition approaches and how they evolved from their inception. The author would also detail his research in this area for the past 8 years and how the future might turn out to be using HCI. This monograph will serve as a valuable guide for researchers (who would endeavour into) in the world of HCI.

  7. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laurence T.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Malalasekera, W. M. Nishantha; Kennerley, Steven W.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one’s prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled (“positive evidence approach”), the selection of which information to sample (“sampling the favorite”), and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices (“rejecting unsampled options”). The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action. PMID:27832071

  8. Loving Machines: Theorizing Human and Sociable-Technology Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Garlock, Glenda

    Today, human and sociable-technology interaction is a contested site of inquiry. Some regard social robots as an innovative medium of communication that offer new avenues for expression, communication, and interaction. Other others question the moral veracity of human-robot relationships, suggesting that such associations risk psychological impoverishment. What seems clear is that the emergence of social robots in everyday life will alter the nature of social interaction, bringing with it a need for new theories to understand the shifting terrain between humans and machines. This work provides a historical context for human and sociable robot interaction. Current research related to human-sociable-technology interaction is considered in relation to arguments that confront a humanist view that confine 'technological things' to the nonhuman side of the human/nonhuman binary relation. Finally, it recommends a theoretical approach for the study of human and sociable-technology interaction that accommodates increasingly personal relations between human and nonhuman technologies.

  9. Kernel method based human model for enhancing interactive evolutionary optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan; Zhao, Qiangfu; Liu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    A fitness landscape presents the relationship between individual and its reproductive success in evolutionary computation (EC). However, discrete and approximate landscape in an original search space may not support enough and accurate information for EC search, especially in interactive EC (IEC). The fitness landscape of human subjective evaluation in IEC is very difficult and impossible to model, even with a hypothesis of what its definition might be. In this paper, we propose a method to establish a human model in projected high dimensional search space by kernel classification for enhancing IEC search. Because bivalent logic is a simplest perceptual paradigm, the human model is established by considering this paradigm principle. In feature space, we design a linear classifier as a human model to obtain user preference knowledge, which cannot be supported linearly in original discrete search space. The human model is established by this method for predicting potential perceptual knowledge of human. With the human model, we design an evolution control method to enhance IEC search. From experimental evaluation results with a pseudo-IEC user, our proposed model and method can enhance IEC search significantly.

  10. Human-computer systems interaction backgrounds and applications 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikowski, Juliusz; Mroczek, Teresa; Wtorek, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    This book contains an interesting and state-of the art collection of papers on the recent progress in Human-Computer System Interaction (H-CSI). It contributes the profound description of the actual status of the H-CSI field and also provides a solid base for further development and research in the discussed area. The contents of the book are divided into the following parts: I. General human-system interaction problems; II. Health monitoring and disabled people helping systems; and III. Various information processing systems. This book is intended for a wide audience of readers who are not necessarily experts in computer science, machine learning or knowledge engineering, but are interested in Human-Computer Systems Interaction. The level of particular papers and specific spreading-out into particular parts is a reason why this volume makes fascinating reading. This gives the reader a much deeper insight than he/she might glean from research papers or talks at conferences. It touches on all deep issues that ...

  11. Soil and Human Interactions in Maya Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Timothy; Luzzadder-Beach, Sheryl

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 1990s, we have studied Maya interaction with soils in Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and elsewhere. We studied upland and lowland soils, but here we focus on seasonal or 'Bajo' wetlands and perennial wetlands for different reasons. Around the bajos, the ancient Maya focused on intensive agriculture and habitation despite the difficulties their Vertisol soils posed. For the perennial wetlands, small populations spread diffusely through Mollisol and Histisol landscapes with large scale, intensive agro-ecosystems. These wetlands also represent important repositories for both environmental change and how humans responded in situ to environmental changes. Work analyzing bajo soils has recorded significant diversity but the soil and sediment record shows two main eras of soil instability: the Pleistocene-Holocene transition as rainfall fluctuated and increased and tropical forest pulsed through the region, and the Maya Preclassic to Classic 3000 to 1000 BP as deforestation, land use intensity, and drying waxed and waned. The ancient Maya adapted their bajo soil ecosystems successfully through agro-engineering but they also withdrew in many important places in the Late Preclassic about 2000 BP and Terminal Classic about 1200 BP. We continue to study and debate the importance of perennial wetland agro-ecosystems, but it is now clear that Maya interaction with these soil landscapes was significant and multifaceted. Based on soil excavation and coring with a broad toolkit of soil stratigraphy, chemistry, and paleoecology from 2001 to 2013, our results show the ancient Maya interacted with their wetland soils to maintain cropland for maize, tree crops, arrow root, and cassava against relative sea level rise, increased flooding, and aggradation by gypsum precipitation and sedimentation. We have studied these interactions across an area of 2000 km2 in Northern Belize to understand how Maya response varied and how these soil environments varied over time and distance

  12. Cybernics fusion of human, machine and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Cybernics plays a significant role in coping with an aging society using state-of-the-art technologies from engineering, clinical medicine and humanities. This new interdisciplinary field studies technologies that enhance, strengthen, and support physical and cognitive functions of human beings, based on the fusion of human, machine, and information systems. The design of a seamless interface for interaction between the interior and exterior of the human body is described in this book from diverse aspects such as the physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive levels. It is the first book to cover the many aspects of cybernics, allowing readers to understand the life support robotics technology for the elderly, including remote, in-home, hospital, institutional, community medical welfare, and vital-sensing systems. Serving as a valuable resource, this volume will interest not only graduate students, scientists, and engineers but also newcomers to the field of cybernics.

  13. Interhemispheric interactions between the human primary somatosensory cortices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ragert

    Full Text Available In the somatosensory domain it is still unclear at which processing stage information reaches the opposite hemispheres. Due to dense transcallosal connections, the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2 has been proposed to be the key candidate for interhemispheric information transfer. However, recent animal studies showed that the primary somatosensory cortex (S1 might as well account for interhemispheric information transfer. Using paired median nerve somatosensory evoked potential recordings in humans we tested the hypothesis that interhemispheric inhibitory interactions in the somatosensory system occur already in an early cortical processing stage such as S1. Conditioning right S1 by electrical median nerve (MN stimulation of the left MN (CS resulted in a significant reduction of the N20 response in the target (left S1 relative to a test stimulus (TS to the right MN alone when the interstimulus interval between CS and TS was between 20 and 25 ms. No such changes were observed for later cortical components such as the N20/P25, N30, P40 and N60 amplitude. Additionally, the subcortically generated P14 response in left S1 was also not affected. These results document the existence of interhemispheric inhibitory interactions between S1 in human subjects in the critical time interval of 20-25 ms after median nerve stimulation.

  14. Image Representation and Interactivity: An Exploration of Utility Values, Information-Needs and Image Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elise C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationships between users and interactive images. Three factors were identified and provided different perspectives on how users interact with images: image utility, information-need, and images with varying levels of interactivity. The study used a mixed methodology to gain a more comprehensive…

  15. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  16. Informal Language Learning Setting: Technology or Social Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Taher; Sim, Tam Shu

    2012-01-01

    Based on the informal language learning theory, language learning can occur outside the classroom setting unconsciously and incidentally through interaction with the native speakers or exposure to authentic language input through technology. However, an EFL context lacks the social interaction which naturally occurs in an ESL context. To explore…

  17. Saccharomyces genome database informs human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Nash, Robert S; Wong, Edith D; MacPherson, Kevin A; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Engel, Stacia R; Karra, Kalpana; Weng, Shuai; Sheppard, Travis K; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R; Cherry, J Michael

    2018-01-04

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is an expertly curated database of literature-derived functional information for the model organism budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SGD constantly strives to synergize new types of experimental data and bioinformatics predictions with existing data, and to organize them into a comprehensive and up-to-date information resource. The primary mission of SGD is to facilitate research into the biology of yeast and to provide this wealth of information to advance, in many ways, research on other organisms, even those as evolutionarily distant as humans. To build such a bridge between biological kingdoms, SGD is curating data regarding yeast-human complementation, in which a human gene can successfully replace the function of a yeast gene, and/or vice versa. These data are manually curated from published literature, made available for download, and incorporated into a variety of analysis tools provided by SGD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Breaking Fresh Ground in Human-Media Interaction Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2014-01-01

    Human-Media Interaction research is devoted to methods and situations where humans individually or collectively interact with digital media, systems, devices and environments. Novel forms of interaction paradigms have been enabled by new sensor and actuator technology in the last decades, combining

  19. On the Rhetorical Contract in Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the rhetorical contract--i.e., the expectations for appropriate interaction--as it develops in human-computer interaction revealed that direct manipulation interfaces were more likely to establish social expectations. Study results suggest that the social nature of human-computer interactions can be examined with reference to the…

  20. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  1. Evidence Report: Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kritina; Ezer, Neta; Vos, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Human-computer interaction (HCI) encompasses all the methods by which humans and computer-based systems communicate, share information, and accomplish tasks. When HCI is poorly designed, crews have difficulty entering, navigating, accessing, and understanding information. HCI has rarely been studied in an operational spaceflight context, and detailed performance data that would support evaluation of HCI have not been collected; thus, we draw much of our evidence from post-spaceflight crew comments, and from other safety-critical domains like ground-based power plants, and aviation. Additionally, there is a concern that any potential or real issues to date may have been masked by the fact that crews have near constant access to ground controllers, who monitor for errors, correct mistakes, and provide additional information needed to complete tasks. We do not know what types of HCI issues might arise without this "safety net". Exploration missions will test this concern, as crews may be operating autonomously due to communication delays and blackouts. Crew survival will be heavily dependent on available electronic information for just-in-time training, procedure execution, and vehicle or system maintenance; hence, the criticality of the Risk of Inadequate HCI. Future work must focus on identifying the most important contributing risk factors, evaluating their contribution to the overall risk, and developing appropriate mitigations. The Risk of Inadequate HCI includes eight core contributing factors based on the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS): (1) Requirements, policies, and design processes, (2) Information resources and support, (3) Allocation of attention, (4) Cognitive overload, (5) Environmentally induced perceptual changes, (6) Misperception and misinterpretation of displayed information, (7) Spatial disorientation, and (8) Displays and controls.

  2. Opinion Dynamics with Heterogeneous Interactions and Information Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir Tabatabaei, Seydeh Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In any modern society, individuals interact to form opinions on various topics, including economic, political, and social aspects. Opinions evolve as the result of the continuous exchange of information among individuals and of the assimilation of information distributed by media. The impact of individuals' opinions on each other forms a network,…

  3. Mobile human-computer interaction perspective on mobile learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying a Mobile Human Computer Interaction (MHCI) view to the domain of education using Mobile Learning (Mlearning), the research outlines its understanding of the influences and effects of different interactions on the use of mobile technology...

  4. Affective processes in human-automation interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Stephanie M

    2011-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature on automation reliance by illuminating the influences of user moods and emotions on reliance on automated systems. Past work has focused predominantly on cognitive and attitudinal variables, such as perceived machine reliability and trust. However, recent work on human decision making suggests that affective variables (i.e., moods and emotions) are also important. Drawing from the affect infusion model, significant effects of affect are hypothesized. Furthermore, a new affectively laden attitude termed liking is introduced. Participants watched video clips selected to induce positive or negative moods, then interacted with a fictitious automated system on an X-ray screening task At five time points, important variables were assessed including trust, liking, perceived machine accuracy, user self-perceived accuracy, and reliance.These variables, along with propensity to trust machines and state affect, were integrated in a structural equation model. Happiness significantly increased trust and liking for the system throughout the task. Liking was the only variable that significantly predicted reliance early in the task. Trust predicted reliance later in the task, whereas perceived machine accuracy and user self-perceived accuracy had no significant direct effects on reliance at any time. Affective influences on automation reliance are demonstrated, suggesting that this decision-making process may be less rational and more emotional than previously acknowledged. Liking for a new system may be key to appropriate reliance, particularly early in the task. Positive affect can be easily induced and may be a lever for increasing liking.

  5. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    strategic modernization program at a nuclear power plant where legacy systems are upgraded to advanced digital technologies through a systematic process that links human factors principles to the systems engineering process. This approach will help to create an integrated control room architecture beyond what is possible for individual subsystem upgrades alone. In addition, several human factors design and evaluation methods were used to develop the end-state concept, including interactive sessions with operators in INL’s Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes.

  6. Human Metabolism and Interactions of Deployment-Related Chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodgson, Ernest

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the human-metabolism and metabolic interactions of a subset of deployment-related chemicals, including chlorpyrifos, DEET, permethrin, pyridostigmine bromide, and sulfur mustard metabolites...

  7. Ghost-in-the-Machine Reveals Human Social Signals for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eLoth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We used a new method called Ghost-in-the-Machine (GiM to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognise the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognisers. Specifically, we measured which recogniser modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behaviour necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognisers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognisers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  8. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called "Ghost-in-the-Machine" (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer's requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human-robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience.

  9. Human-structure Interaction and Implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    On civil engineering structures human occupancy is often modeled as a static load. Modeling humans as a static load is a simplification of matters, as will be demonstrated in the paper. The paper addresses the complexity of having both passive humans (sitting or standing) as well as active humans...

  10. Human agency beliefs influence behaviour during virtual social interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brock, Jon; Caruana, Nathan; Spirou, Dean

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, with the emergence of relatively inexpensive and accessible virtual reality technologies, it is now possible to deliver compelling and realistic simulations of human-to-human interaction...

  11. Human Work Interaction Design for Pervasive and Smart Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro F.; Lopes, Arminda; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2014-01-01

    ' experience and outputs? This workshop focuses on answering this question to support professionals, academia, national labs, and industry engaged in human work analysis and interaction design for the workplace. Conversely, tools, procedures, and professional competences for designing human-centered...

  12. Mathematical description of information interaction in investment and construction activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sborshchikov Sergey Borisovich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For effective management of investment and construction activity (ICA there must be a subsystem responsible for information interaction. The article considers the role of information in ICA, as well as the requirements and objectives of the information systems. Data collection, communication and processing, according to the authors, reflect the system running efficiency. Thanks to information security subsystem there is a possibility of measuring the efficiency of resource use and the relations between inputs and outputs of individual elements throughout investment and construction activities. Requirements of modern economic realities, particularly, investment and construction activities dynamics, should be adjusted to the flow of information: creating new connections, terminating the others. Developing the information management system, its structure and composition require consideration and planning. Development planning and management is closely related to the improvement of information links and upgrading the entire system of information security, its structure and functioning.

  13. Conscious Perception as Integrated Information Patterns in Human Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A significant problem in neuroscience concerns the distinction between neural processing that is correlated with conscious percepts from processing that is not. Here, we tested if a hierarchical structure of causal interactions between neuronal populations correlates with conscious perception. We derived the hierarchical causal structure as a pattern of integrated information, inspired by the integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. We computed integrated information patterns from intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) from six human neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted over lateral and ventral cortices. During recording, subjects viewed continuous flash suppression (CFS) and backward masking (BM) stimuli intended to dissociate conscious percept from stimulus, and unmasked suprathreshold stimuli. Object-sensitive areas revealed correspondence between conscious percepts and integrated information patterns. We quantified this correspondence using unsupervised classification methods that revealed clustering of visual experiences with integrated information, but not with broader information measures including mutual information and entropy. Our findings point to a significant role of locally integrated information for understanding the neural substrate of conscious object perception. PMID:29085895

  14. Learning Predictive Interactions Using Information Gain and Bayesian Network Scoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Jiang

    Full Text Available The problems of correlation and classification are long-standing in the fields of statistics and machine learning, and techniques have been developed to address these problems. We are now in the era of high-dimensional data, which is data that can concern billions of variables. These data present new challenges. In particular, it is difficult to discover predictive variables, when each variable has little marginal effect. An example concerns Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS datasets, which involve millions of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs, where some of the SNPs interact epistatically to affect disease status. Towards determining these interacting SNPs, researchers developed techniques that addressed this specific problem. However, the problem is more general, and so these techniques are applicable to other problems concerning interactions. A difficulty with many of these techniques is that they do not distinguish whether a learned interaction is actually an interaction or whether it involves several variables with strong marginal effects.We address this problem using information gain and Bayesian network scoring. First, we identify candidate interactions by determining whether together variables provide more information than they do separately. Then we use Bayesian network scoring to see if a candidate interaction really is a likely model. Our strategy is called MBS-IGain. Using 100 simulated datasets and a real GWAS Alzheimer's dataset, we investigated the performance of MBS-IGain.When analyzing the simulated datasets, MBS-IGain substantially out-performed nine previous methods at locating interacting predictors, and at identifying interactions exactly. When analyzing the real Alzheimer's dataset, we obtained new results and results that substantiated previous findings. We conclude that MBS-IGain is highly effective at finding interactions in high-dimensional datasets. This result is significant because we have increasingly

  15. Probing cocaine-antibody interactions in buffer and human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Ramakrishnan

    Full Text Available Despite progress in cocaine immunotherapy, the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of antibodies which bind to cocaine and its metabolites are not well understood. It is also not clear how the interactions between them differ in a complex matrix such as the serum present in the human body. In the present study, we have used microscale thermophoresis (MST, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR we have evaluated the affinity properties of a representative mouse monoclonal (mAb08 as well as those of polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mouse and human patient serum.MST analysis of fluorescently tagged mAb08 binding to cocaine reveals an approximately 15 fold decrease in its equilibrium dissociation constant in 20-50% human serum compared with that in saline buffer. A similar trend was also found using enriched polyclonal antibodies purified from vaccinated mice and patient serum, for which we have used fluorescently tagged bovine serum albumin conjugated to succinyl norcocaine (BSA-SNC. This conjugate closely mimics both cocaine and the hapten used to raise these antibodies. The ITC data also revealed that cocaine has a moderate affinity of about 2 µM to 20% human serum and very little interaction with human serum albumin or nonspecific human IgG at that concentration range. In a SPR inhibition experiment, the binding of mAb08 to immobilized BSA-SNC was inhibited by cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a highly competitive manner, whereas the purified polyclonal antibodies from vaccinated humans and mice, revealed preferential selectivity to pharmacologically active cocaine but not to the inactive metabolite benzoylecgonine. We have also developed a simple binding model to simulate the challenges associated with cocaine immunotherapy using the variable quantitative and kinetic properties of the antibodies.High sensitivity calorimetric determination of antibody binding to cocaine and its metabolites provide

  16. Framework for evaluation of customer interaction in information solutions development

    OpenAIRE

    Štefančič, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Communication between customer and supplier is one of key success factors for information technology based projects. Main motive for master thesis was to create draft of a framework which helps – especially small enterprises – to evaluate key elements where interactions between customer and supplier occur. Based on literature overview and personal experience framework for evaluation of customer – supplier interaction/communication was laid down. It supports evaluation of elements of commun...

  17. Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human-Machine Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2018-0006 Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions...AND SUBTITLE Impact of Human like Cues on Human Trust in Machines: Brain Imaging and Modeling Studies for Human -Machine Interactions 5a.  CONTRACT...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED: PB Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When a human and an intelligent machine work together as a team, human

  18. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  19. Paracrine interactions between primary human macrophages and human fibroblasts enhance murine mammary gland humanization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jodie M; Miller, Tyler C; Kidacki, Michal; Ginsburg, Erika; Stuelten, Christina H; Stewart, Delisha A; Troester, Melissa A; Vonderhaar, Barbara K

    2012-06-25

    Macrophages comprise an essential component of the mammary microenvironment necessary for normal gland development. However, there is no viable in vivo model to study their role in normal human breast function. We hypothesized that adding primary human macrophages to the murine mammary gland would enhance and provide a novel approach to examine immune-stromal cell interactions during the humanization process. Primary human macrophages, in the presence or absence of ectopic estrogen stimulation, were used to humanize mouse mammary glands. Mechanisms of enhanced humanization were identified by cytokine/chemokine ELISAs, zymography, western analysis, invasion and proliferation assays; results were confirmed with immunohistological analysis. The combined treatment of macrophages and estrogen stimulation significantly enhanced the percentage of the total gland humanized and the engraftment/outgrowth success rate. Timecourse analysis revealed the disappearance of the human macrophages by two weeks post-injection, suggesting that the improved overall growth and invasiveness of the fibroblasts provided a larger stromal bed for epithelial cell proliferation and structure formation. Confirming their promotion of fibroblasts humanization, estrogen-stimulated macrophages significantly enhanced fibroblast proliferation and invasion in vitro, as well as significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells in humanized glands. Cytokine/chemokine ELISAs, zymography and western analyses identified TNFα and MMP9 as potential mechanisms by which estrogen-stimulated macrophages enhanced humanization. Specific inhibitors to TNFα and MMP9 validated the effects of these molecules on fibroblast behavior in vitro, as well as by immunohistochemical analysis of humanized glands for human-specific MMP9 expression. Lastly, glands humanized with macrophages had enhanced engraftment and tumor growth compared to glands humanized with fibroblasts alone. Herein, we

  20. Instructional Interactions: Supporting Students' Reading Development through Interactive Read-alouds of Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin L.; Fullerton, Susan King

    2017-01-01

    This article provides classroom examples of how interactive read-alouds of informational texts facilitate collaborative and respectful discussions that promote literacy learning. Several specific considerations for making interactive read-alouds engaging and successful are presented in an effort to support educators in capitalizing on this…

  1. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  2. Communicative interactions involving plants: information, evolution, and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-08-01

    The role of information obtained via sensory cues and signals in mediating the interactions of organisms with their biotic and abiotic environments has been a major focus of work on sensory and behavioral ecology. Information-mediated interactions also have important implications for broader ecological patterns emerging at the community and ecosystem levels that are only now beginning to be explored. Given the extent to which plants dominate the sensory landscapes of terrestrial ecosystems, information-mediated interactions involving plants should be a major focus of efforts to elucidate these broader patterns. Here we explore how such efforts might be enhanced by a clear understanding of information itself-a central and potentially unifying concept in biology that has nevertheless been the subject of considerable confusion-and of its relationship to adaptive evolution and ecology. We suggest that information-mediated interactions should be a key focus of efforts to more fully integrate evolutionary biology and ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Metazoa Ludens: Mixed Reality Interaction and Play Between Humans and Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.

  4. An Aspect of Dynamic Human-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    on the structure) influence the dynamic behaviour and modal characteristics of the structure carrying them, whether being a grandstand, an office floor or similar. However, the interaction between the stationary humans and the structure is generally not well understood, and the paper addresses this interaction......It is known that humans and structures interact. Humans can cause structures to vibrate, and excessive vibrations may occur if the motion frequency of humans coincides with a resonant frequency of the structural system. It is also known that stationary humans (such as humans sitting or standing....... Focus is on how modal characteristics of the structure, i.e. its frequency and damping, are influenced by the presence of stationary humans. Vertical vibrations are considered, and particular focus is given the influence of human posture on modal characteristics of the supporting structure. Insight...

  5. Real-time Animation of Interactive Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, there has been a lot of interest in the area of Interactive Virtual Humans (IVHs). Virtual characters who interact naturally with users in mixed realities have many different applications, such as interactive video games, virtual training and rehabilitation, or

  6. Implications of interaction between Humans and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    as structural damping and therefore also structural vibration levels). The paper addresses this subject and explores implications of having passive humans present on the structure. In experimental tests with a laboratory floor it is examined to which degree the posture of humans passively sitting on the floor...... influences the damping added to the floor. A numerical case study explores how passive humans may influence vibration levels of a floor....

  7. Patient Education as an Information System, Healthcare Tool and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Antti; Silvennoinen, Minna; Sillence, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Patient education (PE) has a crucial role in the function of a healthcare organisation. For the care process of a patient, it is essential to get the right information at the right moment and in the right form. This paper analyses PE as the primary mode of interaction between a patient and a healthcare organisation. The approach is illustrated…

  8. Perspectives on Adaptivity in Information Retrieval Interaction (PAIRI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Larsen, Birger; Kelly, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Adaptivity in IR interactions requires the IR systems adapting to users’ situations and the users adapting to the systems. System adaption entails dynamic user modeling, effective information architecture and enhanced search features such as search integration and relevance feedback; user adaptat...

  9. Using Interactive Television Technology To Disseminate Applied Gerontological Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekse, Robert J.; Holstege, Henry; Faber, Michael

    2000-01-01

    A model project disseminates information on successful and independent aging through interactive television in a partnership of community college and community agency consortia. The monthly programs are targeted at older adults, families of the elderly, service providers, and middle-aged adults approaching old age. (SK)

  10. Interaction Equivalency in an OER, MOOCs and Informal Learning Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazoe, Terumi; Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical paper attempts to clarify design issues that the field of education has encountered in the context of OER (Open Educational Resources), Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and increased emphasis on informal learning, as examined through the lens of the Interaction Equivalency Theorem. An overview of the core concepts of the…

  11. Human-Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human-Computer Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    editing. fraphical interaction (Report No. CW’-CS-R8718). Human Computer Interaction 1(3), 223-274. Washington, DC National Aeronautics and Space...Co - * r LLcOPY Research Product 90-31 j LL Human- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective Human- Computer Dialogue DTIC...5600 62785A 790 1304 C2 LE (include Security Classification) i- Computer Interaction in Tactical Operations: Designing for Effective i- Computer

  12. Human Factors Plan for the Aeronautical Information Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This human factors plan covers the human factors effort for the development of the Aeronautical Information Subsystem (AIS) of the Operational Data Management System (ODMS). Broadly the goals of the human factors effort are to provide a user interfac...

  13. Sea Turtle Human/Gear Interactions Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southeast Fisheries Science Center Mississippi Laboratories is responsible for new gear development and testing to reduce bycatch and incidental interactions of...

  14. Information Interaction Study for DER and DMS Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haitao; Lu, Yiming; Lv, Guangxian; Liu, Peng; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Xinhui

    The Common Information Model (CIM) is an abstract data model that can be used to represent the major objects in Distribution Management System (DMS) applications. Because the Common Information Model (CIM) doesn't modeling the Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), it can't meet the requirements of DER operation and management for Distribution Management System (DMS) advanced applications. Modeling of DER were studied based on a system point of view, the article initially proposed a CIM extended information model. By analysis the basic structure of the message interaction between DMS and DER, a bidirectional messaging mapping method based on data exchange was proposed.

  15. Management Education: Reflective Learning on Human Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clydesdale, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe an attempt to develop a more effective technique to teach self-awareness and relationship skills. Design/methodology/approach: A journal is used in combination with a model of human nature. The model lists human characteristics that the management trainee must identify in themselves and others they interact…

  16. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anita T. Morzillo; Kirsten M. de Beurs; Martin-Mikle, Chelsea J.

    2014-01-01

    Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size ...

  17. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-12-23

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human's attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners' eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers' eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android's hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions.

  18. Globalisation and human dignity: the case of the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, C J

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Vice President Al Gore coined the concept of the Information Superhighway during a speech in Buenos Aires in which he proposed the development of a global information infrastructure. The project envisions the incorporation of all existing communication networks into one system, facilitating the globalization of markets. The internet, a decentralized network of computer networks, is one small-scale, existing model of what the superhighway could be, a public space owned by nobody in which communication takes place largely for noncommercial purposes. The internet currently connects 40 million computer users from at least 90 countries. The alternative model for the superhighway is the privately managed global shopping mall, a global interactive marketplace for information, entertainment, and advertising. The author warns, however, that it is not possible to predict the future social impact of such an information superhighway. Decision makers nonetheless push ahead in development, full of confidence in the merit and infallibility of technology. Since one cannot accurately predict the future, it rational to assume that social consequences may both promote and threaten human dignity. The author explains at which level he believes the superhighway threatens the human rights norms of equality, inviolability, and liberty, and discusses what the World Association for Christian Communication can do.

  19. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  20. HPIminer: A text mining system for building and visualizing human protein interaction networks and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Suresh; Kalpana, Raja; Monickaraj, Pankaj Moses; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge on protein-protein interactions (PPI) and their related pathways are equally important to understand the biological functions of the living cell. Such information on human proteins is highly desirable to understand the mechanism of several diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Because much of that information is buried in biomedical literature, an automated text mining system for visualizing human PPI and pathways is highly desirable. In this paper, we present HPIminer, a text mining system for visualizing human protein interactions and pathways from biomedical literature. HPIminer extracts human PPI information and PPI pairs from biomedical literature, and visualize their associated interactions, networks and pathways using two curated databases HPRD and KEGG. To our knowledge, HPIminer is the first system to build interaction networks from literature as well as curated databases. Further, the new interactions mined only from literature and not reported earlier in databases are highlighted as new. A comparative study with other similar tools shows that the resultant network is more informative and provides additional information on interacting proteins and their associated networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  2. Drug-target interaction prediction from PSSM based evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Khakabimamaghani, Sahand; Kavousi, Kaveh; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The labor-intensive and expensive experimental process of drug-target interaction prediction has motivated many researchers to focus on in silico prediction, which leads to the helpful information in supporting the experimental interaction data. Therefore, they have proposed several computational approaches for discovering new drug-target interactions. Several learning-based methods have been increasingly developed which can be categorized into two main groups: similarity-based and feature-based. In this paper, we firstly use the bi-gram features extracted from the Position Specific Scoring Matrix (PSSM) of proteins in predicting drug-target interactions. Our results demonstrate the high-confidence prediction ability of the Bigram-PSSM model in terms of several performance indicators specifically for enzymes and ion channels. Moreover, we investigate the impact of negative selection strategy on the performance of the prediction, which is not widely taken into account in the other relevant studies. This is important, as the number of non-interacting drug-target pairs are usually extremely large in comparison with the number of interacting ones in existing drug-target interaction data. An interesting observation is that different levels of performance reduction have been attained for four datasets when we change the sampling method from the random sampling to the balanced sampling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human interaction with robotic systems: performance and workload evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinerman-Jones, L; Barber, D J; Szalma, J L; Hancock, P A

    2017-10-01

    We first tested the effect of differing tactile informational forms (i.e. directional cues vs. static cues vs. dynamic cues) on objective performance and perceived workload in a collaborative human-robot task. A second experiment evaluated the influence of task load and informational message type (i.e. single words vs. grouped phrases) on that same collaborative task. In both experiments, the relationship of personal characteristics (attentional control and spatial ability) to performance and workload was also measured. In addition to objective performance and self-report of cognitive load, we evaluated different physiological responses in each experiment. Results showed a performance-workload association for directional cues, message type and task load. EEG measures however, proved generally insensitive to such task load manipulations. Where significant EEG effects were observed, right hemisphere amplitude differences predominated, although unexpectedly these latter relationships were negative. Although EEG measures were partially associated with performance, they appear to possess limited utility as measures of workload in association with tactile displays. Practitioner Summary: As practitioners look to take advantage of innovative tactile displays in complex operational realms like human-robotic interaction, associated performance effects are mediated by cognitive workload. Despite some patterns of association, reliable reflections of operator state can be difficult to discern and employ as the number, complexity and sophistication of these respective measures themselves increase.

  4. Development of a Simulated Environment for Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Berns

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human-robot interaction scenarios are extremely complicated and require precise definition of the environment variables for rigorously testing different aspects of robotic behavior. The environmental setup affects the behaviors of both the humans and the robots, as they respond differently under varying accoustic or lightning conditions. Moreover, conducting several experiments repeatedly with the humans as test subjects also causes behavioral changes in them and eventually the responses remain no longer similar to the already conducted experiments. Thus making it is impossible to perform interaction scenarios in a repeatable manner. Developing and using 3D simulations, where different parameters can be adjusted, is the most beneficial solution in such cases. This requires not only the development of different simulated robots but also the simulation of dynamic surroundings including the interaction partner. In this paper, we present a simulation framework that allows the simulation of human-robot interaction including the simulated interaction partner and its dynamics.

  5. Uses and Gratifications of Online Information Sources: Political Information Efficacy and the Effects of Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, David Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct purposes to this investigation: to develop the predictive power of the theory of political information efficacy and to determine how exposure to political information formats on the Internet under distinctly different interactive conditions affects cognitive and affective processes. Examined in the first section of this…

  6. Human-Computer Interaction with Medical Decisions Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, Jurine A.; Holden, Kritina L.

    1994-01-01

    Decision Support Systems (DSSs) have been available to medical diagnosticians for some time, yet their acceptance and use have not increased with advances in technology and availability of DSS tools. Medical DSSs will be necessary on future long duration space missions, because access to medical resources and personnel will be limited. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) experts at NASA's Human Factors and Ergonomics Laboratory (HFEL) have been working toward understanding how humans use DSSs, with the goal of being able to identify and solve the problems associated with these systems. Work to date consists of identification of HCI research areas, development of a decision making model, and completion of two experiments dealing with 'anchoring'. Anchoring is a phenomenon in which the decision maker latches on to a starting point and does not make sufficient adjustments when new data are presented. HFEL personnel have replicated a well-known anchoring experiment and have investigated the effects of user level of knowledge. Future work includes further experimentation on level of knowledge, confidence in the source of information and sequential decision making.

  7. The human gutome: nutrigenomics of the host-microbiome interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter V

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the importance of the gut microbiota in human health and well-being represents a major transformational task in both medical and nutritional research. Owing to the high-throughput -omics methodologies, the complexity, evolution with age, and individual nature of the gut microflora have been more thoroughly investigated. The balance between this complex community of gut bacteria, food nutrients, and intestinal genomic and physiological milieu is increasingly recognized as a major contributor to human health and disease. This article discusses the "gutome," that is, nutritional systems biology of gut microbiome and host-microbiome interactions. We examine the novel ways in which the study of the human gutome, and nutrigenomics more generally, can have translational and transformational impacts in 21st century practice of biomedicine. We describe the clinical context in which experimental methodologies, as well as data-driven and process-driven approaches are being utilized in nutrigenomics and microbiome research. We underscore the pivotal importance of the gutome as a common platform for sharing data in the emerging field of the integrated metagenomics of gut pathophysiology. This vision needs to be articulated in a manner that recognizes both the omics biotechnology nuances and the ways in which nutrigenomics science can effectively inform population health and public policy, and vice versa.

  8. A multimodal emotion detection system during human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F; Salichs, Miguel A

    2013-11-14

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human-robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human-robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately.

  9. Eyeblink Synchrony in Multimodal Human-Android Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Kyohei; Nakano, Tamami; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    As the result of recent progress in technology of communication robot, robots are becoming an important social partner for humans. Behavioral synchrony is understood as an important factor in establishing good human-robot relationships. In this study, we hypothesized that biasing a human’s attitude toward a robot changes the degree of synchrony between human and robot. We first examined whether eyeblinks were synchronized between a human and an android in face-to-face interaction and found that human listeners’ eyeblinks were entrained to android speakers’ eyeblinks. This eyeblink synchrony disappeared when the android speaker spoke while looking away from the human listeners but was enhanced when the human participants listened to the speaking android while touching the android’s hand. These results suggest that eyeblink synchrony reflects a qualitative state in human-robot interactions. PMID:28009014

  10. The benefits of human-companion animal interaction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Sandra B; Wolen, Aaron R

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of research published since 1980 on the benefits of human-companion animal interaction. Studies focusing on the benefits of pet ownership are presented first, followed by research on the benefits of interacting with companion animals that are not owned by the subject (animal-assisted activities). While most of the published studies are descriptive and have been conducted with convenience samples, a promising number of controlled studies support the health benefits of interacting with companion animals. Future research employing more rigorous designs and systematically building upon a clearly defined line of inquiry is needed to advance our knowledge of the benefits of human-companion animal interaction.

  11. Advanced human machine interaction for an image interpretation workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, S.; Martin, M.; van de Camp, F.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Beyerer, J.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, many new interaction technologies have been developed that enhance the usability of computer systems and allow for novel types of interaction. The areas of application for these technologies have mostly been in gaming and entertainment. However, in professional environments, there are especially demanding tasks that would greatly benefit from improved human machine interfaces as well as an overall improved user experience. We, therefore, envisioned and built an image-interpretation-workstation of the future, a multi-monitor workplace comprised of four screens. Each screen is dedicated to a complex software product such as a geo-information system to provide geographic context, an image annotation tool, software to generate standardized reports and a tool to aid in the identification of objects. Using self-developed systems for hand tracking, pointing gestures and head pose estimation in addition to touchscreens, face identification, and speech recognition systems we created a novel approach to this complex task. For example, head pose information is used to save the position of the mouse cursor on the currently focused screen and to restore it as soon as the same screen is focused again while hand gestures allow for intuitive manipulation of 3d objects in mid-air. While the primary focus is on the task of image interpretation, all of the technologies involved provide generic ways of efficiently interacting with a multi-screen setup and could be utilized in other fields as well. In preliminary experiments, we received promising feedback from users in the military and started to tailor the functionality to their needs

  12. Negative Affect in Human Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The vision of social robotics sees robots moving more and more into unrestricted social environments, where robots interact closely with users in their everyday activities, maybe even establishing relationships with the user over time. In this paper we present a field trial with a robot in a semi...

  13. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design and und...

  14. Social Interactions under Incomplete Information: Games, Equilibria, and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao

    My dissertation research investigates interactions of agents' behaviors through social networks when some information is not shared publicly, focusing on solutions to a series of challenging problems in empirical research, including heterogeneous expectations and multiple equilibria. The first chapter, "Social Interactions under Incomplete Information with Heterogeneous Expectations", extends the current literature in social interactions by devising econometric models and estimation tools with private information in not only the idiosyncratic shocks but also some exogenous covariates. For example, when analyzing peer effects in class performances, it was previously assumed that all control variables, including individual IQ and SAT scores, are known to the whole class, which is unrealistic. This chapter allows such exogenous variables to be private information and models agents' behaviors as outcomes of a Bayesian Nash Equilibrium in an incomplete information game. The distribution of equilibrium outcomes can be described by the equilibrium conditional expectations, which is unique when the parameters are within a reasonable range according to the contraction mapping theorem in function spaces. The equilibrium conditional expectations are heterogeneous in both exogenous characteristics and the private information, which makes estimation in this model more demanding than in previous ones. This problem is solved in a computationally efficient way by combining the quadrature method and the nested fixed point maximum likelihood estimation. In Monte Carlo experiments, if some exogenous characteristics are private information and the model is estimated under the mis-specified hypothesis that they are known to the public, estimates will be biased. Applying this model to municipal public spending in North Carolina, significant negative correlations between contiguous municipalities are found, showing free-riding effects. The Second chapter "A Tobit Model with Social

  15. Emotion identification method using RGB information of human face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Shinya; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the number of single households is drastically increased due to the growth of the aging society and the diversity of lifestyle. Therefore, the evolution of building spaces is demanded. Biofied Building we propose can help to avoid this situation. It helps interaction between the building and residents' conscious and unconscious information using robots. The unconscious information includes emotion, condition, and behavior. One of the important information is thermal comfort. We assume we can estimate it from human face. There are many researchs about face color analysis, but a few of them are conducted in real situations. In other words, the existing methods were not used with disturbance such as room lumps. In this study, Kinect was used with face-tracking. Room lumps and task lumps were used to verify that our method could be applicable to real situation. In this research, two rooms at 22 and 28 degrees C were prepared. We showed that the transition of thermal comfort by changing temperature can be observed from human face. Thus, distinction between the data of 22 and 28 degrees C condition from face color was proved to be possible.

  16. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  17. [Biochemical profile of human-spacesuit interaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, V E; Gurfinkel', V S

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses and analyzes the issues of optimizing energy, kinematic and dynamic structures of the process of human-spacesuit system movement. Recommendations concerning system stabilization during posture acquisition and motion are made; the biomechanic requirement for spacesuit R&D is that joints with preset frequencies must be designed.

  18. Personality and social skills in human-dog interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley

    Dogs have been part of human life for many thousands years, with the dog most likely being the first animal to be domesticated by humans. The dog as a species has had an enormous success in the human world, and research suggests that a co-evolution of humans and dogs has resulted in the dog......-questionnaire measures humans’ emotional empathy for animals, and is based on a human-oriented empathy scale. It was investigated how em-pathy for animals affects human interpretation of dog behaviour watched on video. The PONS test measures the ability to interpret human nonverbal communication and its reliability...... differed between breeds. Human social skills were shown to be associated with the interpretation of dog behaviour as well as the quality of human-dog interaction. Lower levels of empathy for animals were associated with interpreting the behaviour of dogs as more aggressive. In human-dog greeting...

  19. Two Invariants of Human-Swarm Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    often have formal attractors such as nest selection (Nevai & Passino, 2010) and many of the collective animal behaviors described by Sumpter (Sumpter...can be used to design swarm systems with desired fan-outs and workloads in mind . The key reason this is possible is that we are managing attractors...E., Giardina, I., et al. (2008). Interaction ruling animal collective behavior depends on topological rather than metric distance: Evidence from a

  20. Human-Android Interaction in the Near and Distant Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, Neal J; Amir, Eyal

    2009-07-01

    In this article, a psychologist and an artificial-intelligence (AI) researcher speculate on the future of social interaction between humans and androids (robots designed to look and act exactly like people). We review the trajectory of currently developing robotics technologies and assess the level of android sophistication likely to be achieved in 50 years time. On the basis of psychological research, we consider obstacles to creating an android indistinguishable from humans. Finally, we discuss the implications of human-android social interaction from the standpoint of current psychological and AI research and speculate on the novel psychological issues likely to arise from such interaction. The science of psychology will face a remarkable new set of challenges in grappling with human-android interaction. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  1. Evidence for simultaneous protein interactions between human Rad51 paralogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, D; Lio, Y C; Collins, D W; Tsomondo, T; Chen, D J

    2000-06-02

    In yeast, the Rad51-related proteins include Rad55 and Rad57, which form a heterodimer that interacts with Rad51. Five human Rad51 paralogs have been identified (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2, and Rad51D/Rad51L3), and each interacts with one or more of the others. Previously we reported that HsRad51 interacts with XRCC3, and Rad51C interacts with XRCC3, Rad51B, and HsRad51. Here we report that in the yeast two-hybrid system, Rad51D interacts with XRCC2 and Rad51C. No other interactions, including self-interactions, were found, indicating that the observed interactions are specific. The yeast Rad51 interacts with human Rad51 and XRCC3, suggesting Rad51 conservation since the human yeast divergence. Data from yeast three-hybrid experiments indicate that a number of the pairs of interactions between human Rad51 paralogs can occur simultaneously. For example, Rad51B expression enhances the binding of Rad51C to XRCC3 and to HsRad51D, and Rad51C expression allows the indirect interaction of Rad51B with Rad51D. Experiments using 6xHis-tagged proteins in the baculovirus system confirm several of our yeast results, including Rad51B interaction with Rad51D only when Rad51C is simultaneously expressed and Rad51C interaction with XRCC2 only when Rad51D is present. These results suggest that these proteins may participate in one complex or multiple smaller ones.

  2. Making Graphical Information Visible in Real Shadows on Interactive Tabletops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isogawa, Mariko; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a shadow-based interface for interactive tabletops. The proposed interface allows a user to browse graphical information by casting the shadow of his/her body, such as a hand, on a tabletop surface. Central to our technique is a new optical design that utilizes polarization in addition to the additive nature of light so that the desired graphical information is displayed only in a shadow area on a tabletop surface. In other words, our technique conceals the graphical information on surfaces other than the shadow area, such as the surface of the occluder and non-shadow areas on the tabletop surface. We combine the proposed shadow-based interface with a multi-touch detection technique to realize a novel interaction technique for interactive tabletops. We implemented a prototype system and conducted proof-of-concept experiments along with a quantitative evaluation to assess the feasibility of the proposed optical design. Finally, we showed implemented application systems of the proposed shadow-based interface.

  3. Quantifying Trust, Distrust, and Suspicion in Human-System Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0340 QUANTIFYING TRUST , DISTRUST, AND SUSPICION IN HUMAN-SYSTEM INTERACTIONS Stuart Hirshfield HAMILTON COLLEGE Final Report 10...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying Trust , Distrust, and Suspicion in Human-System Interactions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0112 5c...variables that indicate the level of trust that is present while a person works with his or her computer system. Recent advances in Biomedical

  4. Human-Level AI's Killer Application: Interactive Computer Games

    OpenAIRE

    Laird, John; VanLent, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Although one of the fundamental goals of AI is to understand and develop intelligent systems that have all the capabilities of humans, there is little active research directly pursuing this goal. We propose that AI for interactive computer games is an emerging application area in which this goal of human-level AI can successfully be pursued. Interactive computer games have increasingly complex and realistic worlds and increasingly complex and intelligent computer-controlled characters. In thi...

  5. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    and, in so doing, evaluate user interfaces. In this report we will review the influence of several cognitive architectures—specifically, asking what...promises were made, what impacts were realized, and what potential impact can we reasonably expect in the future. human-computer interaction ( HCI ...human-computer interaction ( HCI ), it must harden. Their vision is for psychology to provide engineering style theory that influences the design of

  6. Technology-enhanced human interaction in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Zac E; Caperton, Derek D; Tanana, Michael; Atkins, David C

    2017-07-01

    Psychotherapy is on the verge of a technology-inspired revolution. The concurrent maturation of communication, signal processing, and machine learning technologies begs an earnest look at how these technologies may be used to improve the quality of psychotherapy. Here, we discuss 3 research domains where technology is likely to have a significant impact: (1) mechanism and process, (2) training and feedback, and (3) technology-mediated treatment modalities. For each domain, we describe current and forthcoming examples of how new technologies may change established applications. Moreover, for each domain we present research questions that touch on theoretical, systemic, and implementation issues. Ultimately, psychotherapy is a decidedly human endeavor, and thus the application of modern technology to therapy must capitalize on-and enhance-our human capacities as counselors, students, and supervisors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The Law of Attraction in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the law of attraction in human-human interaction, this paper examines the effects of a robot's personality and a human's personality in various human-robot interactions. This study was conducted using robots that were programmed to mimic both extroverted and introverted personality types, as well as humans who were classified as having introverted, extroverted or intermediate personality types. Using a 3 × 2 between-subjects experiment with 120 participants, the results indicated that participants who interacted with a similar personality robot were more comfortable than those who engaged with a different personality robot. Yet, the evaluation of social presence presented an opposing result. Both the implications and limitations of the present study, as well as guidelines for future research, are discussed.

  8. Measuring Appeal in Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neben, Tillmann; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T.

    2015-01-01

    Appeal refers to the positive emotional response to an aesthetic, beautiful, or in another way desirable stimulus. It is a recurring topic in information systems (IS) research, and is important for understanding many phenomena of user behavior and decision-making. While past IS research on appeal...

  9. Small forces that differ with prior motor experience can communicate movement goals during human-human physical interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Bhattacharjee, Tapomayukh; McKay, J Lucas; Hackney, Madeleine E; Kemp, Charles C; Ting, Lena H

    2017-01-31

    Physical interactions between two people are ubiquitous in our daily lives, and an integral part of many forms of rehabilitation. However, few studies have investigated forces arising from physical interactions between humans during a cooperative motor task, particularly during overground movements. As such, the direction and magnitude of interaction forces between two human partners, how those forces are used to communicate movement goals, and whether they change with motor experience remains unknown. A better understanding of how cooperative physical interactions are achieved in healthy individuals of different skill levels is a first step toward understanding principles of physical interactions that could be applied to robotic devices for motor assistance and rehabilitation. Interaction forces between expert and novice partner dancers were recorded while performing a forward-backward partnered stepping task with assigned "leader" and "follower" roles. Their position was recorded using motion capture. The magnitude and direction of the interaction forces were analyzed and compared across groups (i.e. expert-expert, expert-novice, and novice-novice) and across movement phases (i.e. forward, backward, change of direction). All dyads were able to perform the partnered stepping task with some level of proficiency. Relatively small interaction forces (10-30N) were observed across all dyads, but were significantly larger among expert-expert dyads. Interaction forces were also found to be significantly different across movement phases. However, interaction force magnitude did not change as whole-body synchronization between partners improved across trials. Relatively small interaction forces may communicate movement goals (i.e. "what to do and when to do it") between human partners during cooperative physical interactions. Moreover, these small interactions forces vary with prior motor experience, and may act primarily as guiding cues that convey information about

  10. Plants, herbivores, and their interactions in human-modified landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Bähner, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Human forest modification is among the largest global drivers of terrestrial degradation of biodiversity, species interactions, and ecosystem functioning. One of the most pertinent components, forest fragmentation, has a long history in ecological research across the globe, particularly in lower latitudes. However, we still know little how fragmentation shapes temperate ecosystems, irrespective of the ancient status quo of European deforestation. Furthermore, its interaction wi...

  11. An Interactive Mixed Reality Framework for Virtual Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egges, A.; Papagiannakis, G.; Magnenat-Thalmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and robust Mixed Reality (MR) framework that allows for real-time interaction with Virtual Humans in real and virtual environments under consistent illumination. We will look at three crucial parts of this system: interaction, animation and global

  12. New Theoretical Approaches for Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Presents a critique of recent theoretical developments in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) together with an overview of HCI practice. This chapter discusses why theoretically based approaches have had little impact on the practice of interaction design and suggests mechanisms to enable designers and researchers to better articulate…

  13. Developing Human Capital for Agrifood Firms' Multi-Stakeholder Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Blok, V.; Lans, T.; Wesselink, R.

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses 1) the current agri-food firms’ need of interacting with multiple stakeholders to undertake sustainable strategies effectively, 2) the relationship between human capital and firm capabilities to effectively interact with multiple stakeholders and 3) a list of competencies

  14. An Integrated Human System Interaction (HSI) Framework for Human-Agent Team Collaboration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA commitment to a human presence in space exploration results in the interaction of humans with challenging environments in space, on lunar, and on planetary...

  15. Human-computer interaction handbook fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    This second edition of The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook provides an updated, comprehensive overview of the most important research in the field, including insights that are directly applicable throughout the process of developing effective interactive information technologies. It features cutting-edge advances to the scientific knowledge base, as well as visionary perspectives and developments that fundamentally transform the way in which researchers and practitioners view the discipline. As the seminal volume of HCI research and practice, The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook feature

  16. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  17. Designing Information Human Factors and Common Sense in Information Design

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    "The book itself is a diagram of clarification, containing hundreds of examples of work by those who favor the communication of information over style and academic postulation-and those who don't. Many blurbs such as this are written without a thorough reading of the book. Not so in this case. I read it and love it. I suggest you do the same."-Richard Saul Wurman Designing Information shows designers in all fields - from user-interface design to architecture and engineering - how to design complex data and information for meaning, relevance, and clarity. Written by a worldwide authority on th

  18. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2015-07-06

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ(+)→ pπ(0)). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell's nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed.

  19. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  20. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van der Walt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of organisations relies on various factors including the ability of its multi-generational workforce to collaborate within the interactive information society. By developing an awareness of the different values of a diverse workforce, organisations may benefit from diversity. Various diversity factors, such as ethnicity, age and gender, impact on the way people interact, especially in the interactive information society.Objectives: This article advocates the need for generational awareness and addresses how this awareness presents benefits to companies, such as, increased productivity, improved succession planning policies and strategies to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. The research problem is directed at how diversity management influences Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in terms of their work performance and co-worker relationships.Method: The research design combines Critical Theory and Generational Theory within the mixed-method paradigm. The sequential exploratory design was decided upon as it studies the unknown relationships between different generations of employees. The literature review was followed by a quantitative empirical research component and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The findings highlight specific differences between generations regarding their perspectives on work values and co-worker relationships, rewards, work-life balance and retirement.Conclusion: The article concludes with recommendations on the role diversity management plays in terms of work performance and co-worker relationships. By leveraging generational awareness in the interactive information society organizations with a multi-generational workforce will succeed in the competitive business environment.

  1. The Interaction between Human and Organizational Capital in Strategic Human Resource Management (P.49-62)

    OpenAIRE

    Audia Junita

    2017-01-01

    Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...

  2. The Interaction between Human and Organizational Capital in Strategic Human Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Audia Junita

    2016-01-01

    Studies in strategic human resource management emphasize the contribution of human and human resource management to organizational performance achievement. Human and organizational capitals are strategic capability and mechanism to create value in an organization.This paper seeks to identify an interactive relationship between human and organizational capital in strategic human resource management theoretically, which so far, have not got adequate attention, particularly in a systemic relatio...

  3. The epistemology and ontology of human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes epistemological and ontological dimensions of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) through an analysis of the functions of computer systems in relation to their users. It is argued that the primary relation between humans and computer systems has historically been epistemic:

  4. Information and interaction Eddington, Wheeler, and the limits of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2017-01-01

    In this essay collection, leading physicists, philosophers, and historians attempt to fill the empty theoretical ground in the foundations of information and address the related question of the limits to our knowledge of the world. Over recent decades, our practical approach to information and its exploitation has radically outpaced our theoretical understanding - to such a degree that reflection on the foundations may seem futile. But it is exactly fields such as quantum information, which are shifting the boundaries of the physically possible, that make a foundational understanding of information increasingly important. One of the recurring themes of the book is the claim by Eddington and Wheeler that information involves interaction and putting agents or observers centre stage. Thus, physical reality, in their view, is shaped by the questions we choose to put to it and is built up from the information residing at its core. This is the root of Wheeler’s famous phrase “it from bit.” After reading the s...

  5. Functional interactions as big data in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-11-01

    Noninvasive studies of human brain function hold great potential to unlock mysteries of the human mind. The complexity of data generated by such studies, however, has prompted various simplifying assumptions during analysis. Although this has enabled considerable progress, our current understanding is partly contingent upon these assumptions. An emerging approach embraces the complexity, accounting for the fact that neural representations are widely distributed, neural processes involve interactions between regions, interactions vary by cognitive state, and the space of interactions is massive. Because what you see depends on how you look, such unbiased approaches provide the greatest flexibility for discovery.

  6. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  7. Polymicrobial Interactions: Impact on Pathogenesis and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brian M.; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; O'May, Graeme A.; Costerton, J. William

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Microorganisms coexist in a complex milieu of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses on or within the human body, often as multifaceted polymicrobial biofilm communities at mucosal sites and on abiotic surfaces. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the complicated biofilm phenotype during infection; moreover, even less is known about the interactions that occur between microorganisms during polymicrobial growth and their implications in human disease. Therefore, this review focuses on polymicrobial biofilm-mediated infections and examines the contribution of bacterial-bacterial, bacterial-fungal, and bacterial-viral interactions during human infection and potential strategies for protection against such diseases. PMID:22232376

  8. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    CERN Document Server

    Starnini, Michele; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents which perform a random walk in a two dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  9. Interaction of cannabidiol and alcohol in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consroe, P; Carlini, E A; Zwicker, A P; Lacerda, L A

    1979-01-01

    Six male and four female healthy volunteers were given oral placebo (glucose capsule and orange juice), cannabidiol (CBD 200 mg capsule and orange juice), alcohol (1 g/kg in orange juice and glucose capsule), and CBD (200 mg capsule) plus alcohol (1 g/kg in orange juice) in a double-blind, crossover, randomized design. Treatments were spaced one week apart. Parameters measured were a finger tap test (motor performance), cancellation and differential aptitude tests (psychomotor performance), a 1-min time production task, subjective effects (66 item adjective-pair semantic differential), and breathalyzer estimations of blood alcohol levels. Compared to placebo, alcohol and alcohol plus CBD, but not CBD alone, produced significant impairments of motor and psychomotor performances, overestimations of time production and subjective responses indicating an accurate self-perception of their intoxication and deficits. The combination of alcohol plus CBD resulted in significantly lower blood alcohol levels compared to alcohol given alone, however, there were few differences observed between the pharmacological effects of the two alcohol conditions. Thus, the inactivity of CBD, a major marijuana constituent, on motor and mental performance and effects also extends to its interaction with alcohol.

  10. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications.......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume....... The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability...

  11. The endogenous dynamics of financial markets: Interaction and information dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChunXia; Hu, Sen; Xia, BingYing

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the process that different interactions between investors will prompt information to propagate along a differentiated path and construct a financial market model. As information spreads, increasingly investors are attracted to participate in trading, then the “herding effect” is magnified gradually, which will induce the topology of market network to change and the price to fluctuate. Especially, under different initial conditions or parameters, the peak and fat-tail property is produced and the obtained statistic values coincide with empirical results: the power-law exponents between the peak value of return probability distribution and the time scales range from 0.579 to 0.747, and the exponents between the accumulation distribution and the return on the tail are close to 3. Besides, the extent of volatility clustering in our produced price series is close to that of S&P 500 and locates between NASDAQ and HSI. All the results obtained here indicate that the continuous variation of the “herding effect” resulting from information propagation among interacting investors may be the origin of stylized facts of price fluctuations.

  12. Human-computer interaction fundamentals and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Gerard Jounghyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction What HCI Is and Why It Is Important Principles of HCI     ""Know Thy User""      Understand the Task      Reduce Memory Load      Strive for Consistency      Remind Users and Refresh Their Memory      Prevent Errors/Reversal of Action      Naturalness SummaryReferences Specific HCI Guidelines Guideline Categories Examples of HCI Guidelines      Visual Display Layout (General HCI Design)      Information Structuring and Navigation (General HCI Design)      Taking User Input (General H

  13. Centrality of Social Interaction in Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Henriksson, Linda; Malinen, Sanna; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2015-10-07

    People are embedded in social interaction that shapes their brains throughout lifetime. Instead of emerging from lower-level cognitive functions, social interaction could be the default mode via which humans communicate with their environment. Should this hypothesis be true, it would have profound implications on how we think about brain functions and how we dissect and simulate them. We suggest that the research on the brain basis of social cognition and interaction should move from passive spectator science to studies including engaged participants and simultaneous recordings from the brains of the interacting persons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Influence of Human Heterogeneity to Information Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Chuan-Jian; Wu, Jian-Liang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Humans are an integral part of the wide world and material areas, and morphological difference is widespread. In this paper, we propose a model to emphasize the influence of human heterogeneity to information spreading on social networks, and the properties including memory effects, social reinforcement, non-redundancy and human heterogeneity are taken into account. Simulation results indicate that the small-world networks generate the most effective spreading for the stronger human heterogeneity; however, for the weaker human heterogeneity, the regular networks will be more effective. In addition, for a given BA scale-free network, the stronger human heterogeneity will be more conducive to information spreading.

  15. Analysis of Human-Spacesuit Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts sustain injuries of various natures such as finger delamination, joint pain, and redness due to their interaction with the space suit. The role of the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility is to understand the biomechanics, environmental variables, and ergonomics of the suit. This knowledge is then used to make suggestions for improvement in future iterations of the space suit assembly to prevent injuries while allowing astronauts maneuverability, comfort, and tactility. The projects I was involved in were the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit stiffness study and the glove feasibility study. The EMU project looked at the forces exerted on the shoulder, arm, and wrist when subjects performed kinematic tasks with and without a pressurized suit. The glove study consisted of testing three conditions - the Series 4000 glove, the Phase VI glove, and the no glove condition. With more than forty channels of sensor data total, it was critical to develop programs that could analyze data with basic descriptive statistics and generate relevant graphs to help understand what happens within the space suit and glove. In my project I created a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in MATLAB that would help me visualize what each sensor was doing within a task. The GUI is capable of displaying overlain plots and can be synchronized with video. This was helpful during the stiffness testing to visualize how the forces on the arm acted while the subject performed tasks such as shoulder adduction/abduction and bicep curls. The main project of focus, however, was the glove comparison study. I wrote MATLAB programs which generated movies of the strain vectors during specific tasks. I also generated graphs that summarized the differences between each glove for the strain, shear and FSR sensors. Preliminary results indicate that the Phase VI glove places less strain and shear on the hand. Future work includes continued data analysis of surveys and sensor data. In the end

  16. Intuitive Cognition and Models of Human-Automation Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Robert Earl

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an analysis of the implications of the dominance of intuitive cognition in human reasoning and decision making for conceptualizing models and taxonomies of human-automation interaction, focusing on the Parasuraman et al. model and taxonomy. Knowledge about how humans reason and make decisions, which has been shown to be largely intuitive, has implications for the design of future human-machine systems. One hundred twenty articles and books cited in other works as well as those obtained from an Internet search were reviewed. Works were deemed eligible if they were published within the past 50 years and common to a given literature. Analysis shows that intuitive cognition dominates human reasoning and decision making in all situations examined. The implications of the dominance of intuitive cognition for the Parasuraman et al. model and taxonomy are discussed. A taxonomy of human-automation interaction that incorporates intuitive cognition is suggested. Understanding the ways in which human reasoning and decision making is intuitive can provide insight for future models and taxonomies of human-automation interaction.

  17. Saving IT's Soul: Human-Centered Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, unless information technology managers pay attention to how people share information, advanced technological systems cannot achieve their full potential. Outlines how organizations can rebuild their information cultures, integrating human flexibility and disorder into information systems and changing employee behavior. (JOW)

  18. The Past, Present and Future of Human Computer Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Churchill, Elizabeth

    2018-01-16

    Human Computer Interaction (HCI) focuses on how people interact with, and are transformed by computation. Our current technology landscape is changing rapidly. Interactive applications, devices and services are increasingly becoming embedded into our environments. From our homes to the urban and rural spaces, we traverse everyday. We are increasingly able toヨoften required toヨmanage and configure multiple, interconnected devices and program their interactions. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are being used to create dynamic services that learn about us and others, that make conclusions about our intents and affiliations, and that mould our digital interactions based in predictions about our actions and needs, nudging us toward certain behaviors. Computation is also increasingly embedded into our bodies. Understanding human interactions in the everyday digital and physical context. During this lecture, Elizabeth Churchill -Director of User Experience at Google- will talk about how an emerging landscape invites us to revisit old methods and tactics for understanding how people interact with computers and computation, and how it challenges us to think about new methods and frameworks for understanding the future of human-centered computation.

  19. Human-robot interaction strategies for walker-assisted locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the development of a new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation. The aim is to achieve a closer interaction between the robotic device and the individual, empowering the rehabilitation potential of such devices in clinical applications. A new multimodal human-robot interface for testing and validating control strategies applied to robotic walkers for assisting human mobility and gait rehabilitation is presented. Trends and opportunities for future advances in the field of assistive locomotion via the development of hybrid solutions based on the combination of smart walkers and biomechatronic exoskeletons are also discussed. .

  20. The interaction of morphological and stereotypical gender information in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g. that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures, in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines – noun that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb. In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, as available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those.

  1. The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnham, Alan; Yakovlev, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g., that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures), in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary) and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines-nouns that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb). In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially) generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, when available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those of such marking on subject noun phrases.

  2. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  3. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  4. Perspectives on human-human sensorimotor interactions for the design of rehabilitation robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Andrew; Ting, Lena H

    2014-10-06

    Physical interactions between patients and therapists during rehabilitation have served as motivation for the design of rehabilitation robots, yet we lack a fundamental understanding of the principles governing such human-human interactions (HHI). Here we review the literature and pose important open questions regarding sensorimotor interaction during HHI that could facilitate the design of human-robot interactions (HRI) and haptic interfaces for rehabilitation. Based on the goals of physical rehabilitation, three subcategories of sensorimotor interaction are identified: sensorimotor collaboration, sensorimotor assistance, and sensorimotor education. Prior research has focused primarily on sensorimotor collaboration and is generally limited to relatively constrained visuomotor tasks. Moreover, the mechanisms by which performance improvements are achieved during sensorimotor cooperation with haptic interaction remains unknown. We propose that the effects of role assignment, motor redundancy, and skill level in sensorimotor cooperation should be explicitly studied. Additionally, the importance of haptic interactions may be better revealed in tasks that do not require visual feedback. Finally, cooperative motor tasks that allow for motor improvement during solo performance to be examined may be particularly relevant for rehabilitation robotics. Identifying principles that guide human-human sensorimotor interactions may lead to the development of robots that can physically interact with humans in more intuitive and biologically inspired ways, thereby enhancing rehabilitation outcomes.

  5. Information Interaction Criteria Among Students in Process of Task-Based Information Searching (Role of Objective Complexity and Type of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Saeedizadeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:  human-information interactions must be considered in order to be able to interactively design Information Retrieval Systems (IRS. In this regard, study of users’ interactions must be based on their socio-cultural context (specifically work tasks. Accordingly, this paper aims to explore the use of information-interaction criteria among students in the information searching process according to different kinds of their work tasks.  Methodology: This research is applied qualitative method using exploratory study. The research population consisted of MSc students of Ferdowsi university of Mashhad enrolled in 2012-13  academic year. In 3 stages of sampling (random stratified, quota, and voluntary sampling, 30 cases were selected. Each of these cases searched 6 different types of simulated work tasks. Interaction criteria were extracted ? Content analysis of aloud thinking reports. Validity of tools was verified through Faculties of KIS at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad. Also,0.78  Kripendorff’s alpha ratio based on an agreement between the inter – coder indicates the Dependability  of content analysis. Findings: The findings show that in addition to ‘topic’ criteria, other interaction criteria impact on information- interaction of users, such as: ‘search results ranking’, ‘domain knowledge of user’, ‘layout’, ‘type of information resource’ and etc. based on the level of objective complexity and product of  work tasks, information-interaction criteria change. Conclusion: the users pay attention to different information-interaction criteria in process of information searching, considering to variety of work tasks (level of objective complexity and product. So, it is necessary to pay attention to work task characteristics in order to design interactive and personalized IR systems.

  6. Design Science in Human-Computer Interaction: A Model and Three Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestopnik, Nathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Humanity has entered an era where computing technology is virtually ubiquitous. From websites and mobile devices to computers embedded in appliances on our kitchen counters and automobiles parked in our driveways, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and IT artifacts are fundamentally changing the ways we interact with our world.…

  7. A Framework and Implementation of User Interface and Human-Computer Interaction Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslak, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that up to 50 % of the effort in development of information systems is devoted to user interface development (Douglas, Tremaine, Leventhal, Wills, & Manaris, 2002; Myers & Rosson, 1992). Yet little study has been performed on the inclusion of important interface and human-computer interaction topics into a current…

  8. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  9. Social interactions model and adaptability of human behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun eZhao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human social networks evolve on the fast timescale of face-to face interactions and of interactions mediated by technology such as a telephone calls or video conferences. The resulting networks have a strong dynamical component that changes significantly the properties of dynamical processes. In this paper we study a general model of pairwise human social interaction intended to model both face-to face interactions and mobile phone communication. We study the distribution of durations of social interactions in whitin the model. This distribution in one limit is a power law, for other values of the parameters of the model this distribution is given by a Weibull function. Therefore the model can be used to model both face-to-face interactions data, where the distribution of duration has been shown to be fat-tailed, and mobile phone communication data where the distribution of duration is given by a Weibull distribution.The highly adaptable social interaction model propose in this paper has a very simple algorithmic implementation and can be used to simulate dynamical processes occurring in dynamical social interaction networks.

  10. Drug interactions at the human placenta: what is the evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eRubinchik-Stern

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women (and their fetuses are treated with a significant number of prescription and nonprescription medications. Interactions among those drugs may affect their efficacy and toxicity in both mother and fetus. Whereas interactions that result in altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma are detectable, those involving modulation of placental transfer mechanisms are rarely reflected by altered drug concentrations in maternal plasma. Therefore, they are often overlooked. Placental-mediated interactions are possible because the placenta is not only a passive diffusional barrier, but also expresses a variety of influx and efflux transporters and drug metabolizing enzymes. Current data on placental-mediated drug interactions are limited. In rodents, pharmacological or genetic manipulations of placental transporters significantly affect fetal drug exposure. In contrast, studies in human placentae suggest that the magnitude of such interactions is modest in most cases. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, such interactions may be of clinical significance. This review describes currently known mechanisms of placental-mediated drug interactions and the potential implications of such interactions in humans. Better understanding of those mechanisms is important for minimizing fetal toxicity from drugs while improving their efficacy when directed to treat the fetus.

  11. Developing a Framework for Intuitive Human-Computer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Marita A; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2008-09-01

    Many technology marketing materials tout the intuitive nature of products, but current human-computer interaction (HCI) guidelines provide limited methods to help designers create this experience beyond making them easy to use. This paper proposes a definition for intuitive interaction with specific attributes to allow designers to create products that elicit the target experience. Review of relevant literatures provides empirical evidence for the suggested working definition of intuitive HCI: interactions between humans and high technology in lenient learning environments that allow the human to use a combination of prior experience and feedforward methods to achieve an individual's functional and abstract goals. Core concepts supporting this definition were compiled into an organizational framework that includes: seeking user goals, performing well-learned behavior, determining what to do next, metacognition, knowledge in the head, and knowledge in the world. This paper describes these concepts and proposes design approaches that could facilitate intuitive behavior and suggests areas for further research.

  12. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J.T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds...

  13. Molecular basis of indomethacin-human serum albumin interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivedi, V D; Vorum, H; Honoré, B

    1999-01-01

    Studies on the strength and extent of binding of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin to human serum albumin (HSA) have provided conflicting results. In the present work, the serum-binding of indomethacin was studied in 55 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 28 degrees C......, by using a fluorescence quench titration technique. The interaction of indomethacin with human serum albumin has been studied as a function of temperature, ionic strength and pH. The results suggest that electrostatic interaction plays a major role in the binding. The possible role of lysine residues...... in this interaction was studied by modifying exposed and buried lysine residues of HSA with potassium cyanate and studying indomethacin binding with the modified HSA. The data suggest that the interaction takes place via a salt bridge formation between the carboxylate group of indomethacin and a buried lysine residue...

  14. Workshop on cultural usability and human work interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    This workshop analyzes the use of techniques to connect empirical work analysis and interaction design in different cultural contexts. In industry, a wealth of usability evaluation methods is used to evaluate computer software user interfaces and other interactive products: Inspection methods...... it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature...... and climate, etc.). See conference website http://www.nordichi2008.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=68&Itemid=92 and workgroup website at http://ilex.cbs.dk/hwid/, where the proceedings is available....

  15. Optimal design method to minimize users' thinking mapping load in human-machine interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanqun; Li, Xu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The discrepancy between human cognition and machine requirements/behaviors usually results in serious mental thinking mapping loads or even disasters in product operating. It is important to help people avoid human-machine interaction confusions and difficulties in today's mental work mastered society. Improving the usability of a product and minimizing user's thinking mapping and interpreting load in human-machine interactions. An optimal human-machine interface design method is introduced, which is based on the purpose of minimizing the mental load in thinking mapping process between users' intentions and affordance of product interface states. By analyzing the users' thinking mapping problem, an operating action model is constructed. According to human natural instincts and acquired knowledge, an expected ideal design with minimized thinking loads is uniquely determined at first. Then, creative alternatives, in terms of the way human obtains operational information, are provided as digital interface states datasets. In the last, using the cluster analysis method, an optimum solution is picked out from alternatives, by calculating the distances between two datasets. Considering multiple factors to minimize users' thinking mapping loads, a solution nearest to the ideal value is found in the human-car interaction design case. The clustering results show its effectiveness in finding an optimum solution to the mental load minimizing problems in human-machine interaction design.

  16. Multifractal information production of the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Provata, A.

    2011-09-01

    We determine the Rényi entropies Kq of symbol sequences generated by human chromosomes. These exhibit non-trivial behaviour as a function of the scanning parameter q. In the thermodynamic formalism, there are phase-transition-like phenomena close to the q=1 region. We develop a theoretical model for this based on the superposition of two multifractal sets, which can be associated with the different statistical properties of coding and non-coding DNA sequences. This model is in good agreement with the human chromosome data.

  17. Physical forces between humans and how humans attract and repel each other based on their social interactions in an online world

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Physical interactions between particles are the result of the exchange of gauge bosons. Human interactions are mediated by the exchange of messages, goods, money, promises, hostilities, etc. While in the physical world interactions and their associated forces have immediate dynamical consequences (Newton's law) the situation is not clear for human interactions. Here we study the acceleration between humans who interact through the exchange of messages, goods and hostilities in a massive multiplayer online game. For this game we have complete information about all interactions (exchange events) between about 1/2 million players, and about their trajectories (positions) in a metric space of the game universe at any point in time. We derive the interaction potentials for communication, trade and attacks and show that they are harmonic in nature. Individuals who exchange messages and trade goods generally attract each other and start to separate immediately after exchange events stop. The interaction potential fo...

  18. Human computer interaction issues in Clinical Trials Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starren, Justin B; Payne, Philip R O; Kaufman, David R

    2006-01-01

    Clinical trials increasingly rely upon web-based Clinical Trials Management Systems (CTMS). As with clinical care systems, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) issues can greatly affect the usefulness of such systems. Evaluation of the user interface of one web-based CTMS revealed a number of potential human-computer interaction problems, in particular, increased workflow complexity associated with a web application delivery model and potential usability problems resulting from the use of ambiguous icons. Because these design features are shared by a large fraction of current CTMS, the implications extend beyond this individual system.

  19. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  20. Sphericall: A Human/Artificial Intelligence interaction experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frack Gechter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent systems are now wide spread in scientific works and in industrial applications. Few applications deal with the Human/Multi-agent system interaction. Multi-agent systems are characterized by individual entities, called agents, in interaction with each other and with their environment. Multi-agent systems are generally classified into complex systems categories since the global emerging phenomenon cannot be predicted even if every component is well known. The systems developed in this paper are named reactive because they behave using simple interaction models. In the reactive approach, the issue of Human/system interaction is hard to cope with and is scarcely exposed in literature. This paper presents Sphericall, an application aimed at studying Human/Complex System interactions and based on two physics inspired multi-agent systems interacting together. The Sphericall device is composed of a tactile screen and a spherical world where agents evolve. This paper presents both the technical background of Sphericall project and a feedback taken from the demonstration performed during OFFF Festival in La Villette (Paris.

  1. Motivating forces of human actions. Neuroimaging reward and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Henrik; Abler, Birgit; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Erk, Susanne

    2005-11-15

    In neuroeconomics, reward and social interaction are central concepts to understand what motivates human behaviour. Both concepts are investigated in humans using neuroimaging methods. In this paper, we provide an overview about these results and discuss their relevance for economic behaviour. For reward it has been shown that a system exists in humans that is involved in predicting rewards and thus guides behaviour, involving a circuit including the striatum, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. Recent studies on social interaction revealed a mentalizing system representing the mental states of others. A central part of this system is the medial prefrontal cortex, in particular the anterior paracingulate cortex. The reward as well as the mentalizing system is engaged in economic decision-making. We will discuss implications of this study for neuromarketing as well as general implications of these results that may help to provide deeper insights into the motivating forces of human behaviour.

  2. A Social Cognitive Neuroscience Stance on Human-Robot Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaminade Thierry

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices, thanks to the controlled variations in their appearance and behaviors, provide useful tools to test hypotheses pertaining to social interactions. These agents were used to investigate one theoretical framework, resonance, which is defined, at the behavioral and neural levels, as an overlap between first- and third- person representations of mental states such as motor intentions or emotions. Behaviorally, we found a reduced, but significant, resonance towards a humanoid robot displaying biological motion, compared to a human. Using neuroimaging, we've reported that while perceptual processes in the human occipital and temporal lobe are more strongly engaged when perceiving a humanoid robot than a human action, activity in areas involved in motor resonance depends on attentional modulation for artificial agent more strongly than for human agents. Altogether, these studies using artificial agents offer valuable insights into the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes in the perception of artificial agents.

  3. ActiveMotif: Interactive motif discovery with human feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younghoon Kim; Woonghee Lee; Keonwoo Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motif detection, which is to discover short patterns involved in many important biological processes, has been recently raised as an important task in bioinformatics. The traditional algorithms to find a sequence motif have been developed using machine learning only without involving the experience and domain knowledge of human experts effectively. In this paper, we propose an interactive motif discovery system by introducing a new learning algorithm, by generalizing a well-known statistical motif model, whose inference can be shepherded by human feedback.

  4. Human metabolism and metabolic interactions of deployment-related chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2005-01-01

    It has been suggested that chemicals and, more specifically, chemical interactions, are involved as causative agents in deployment-related illnesses. Unfortunately, this hypothesis has proven difficult to test, because toxicological investigations of deployment-related chemicals are usually carried out on surrogate animals and are difficult to extrapolate to humans. Other parts of the problem, such as the definition of variation within human populations and the development of methods for designating groups or individuals at significantly greater risk, cannot be carried out on surrogate animals, and the data must be derived from humans. The relatively recent availability of human cell.fractions, such as microsomes, cytosol, etc., human cells such as primary hepatocytes, recombinant human enzymes, and their isoforms and polymorphic variants has enabled a significant start to be made in developing the human data needed. These initial studies have examined the human metabolism by cytochrome P450, other phase I enzymes, and their isoforms and, in some cases, their polymorphic variants of compounds such as chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, DEET, permethrin, and pyridostigmine bromide, and, to a lesser extent, other chemicals from the same chemical and use classes, including solvents, jet fuel components, and sulfur mustard metabolites. A number of interactions at the metabolic level have been described both with respect to other xenobiotics and to endogenous metabolites. Probably the most dramatic have been seen in the ability of chlorpyrifos to inhibit not only the metabolism of other xenobiotics such as carbaryl and DEET but also to inhibit the metabolism of steroid hormones.

  5. Analysis of the Human Interaction with a Wearable Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a wearable robotic exoskeleton needs to consider the interaction, either physical or cognitive, between the human user and the robotic device. This paper presents a method to analyse the interaction between the human user and a unilateral, wearable lower-limb exoskeleton. The lower-limb exoskeleton function was to compensate for muscle weakness around the knee joint. It is shown that the cognitive interaction is bidirectional; on the one hand, the robot gathered information from the sensors in order to detect human actions, such as the gait phases, but the subjects also modified their gait patterns to obtain the desired responses from the exoskeleton. The results of the two-phase evaluation of learning with healthy subjects and experiments with a patient case are presented, regarding the analysis of the interaction, assessed in terms of kinematics, kinetics and/or muscle recruitment. Human-driven response of the exoskeleton after training revealed the improvements in the use of the device, while particular modifications of motion patterns were observed in healthy subjects. Also, endurance (mechanical tests provided criteria to perform experiments with one post-polio patient. The results with the post-polio patient demonstrate the feasibility of providing gait compensation by means of the presented wearable exoskeleton, designed with a testing procedure that involves the human users to assess the human-robot interaction.

  6. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library…

  7. Development of a scheme which visualizes the human-product interaction in minimally invasive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen; Goossens; Meijer

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study is to visualize in a scheme all factors that are part of or influence the human-product interaction in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The factors involved in the interaction are identified and investigated by means of literature studies, product information from producers and retailers, and by observation of MIS procedures. An interaction scheme has been compiled which encompasses the following factors: A product factor, divided into the surgical functions of image visualization, workspace creation, tissue treatment, tissue assessment, and procedure support. A human factor, divided into the functions of perception, cognition, and action. Internal factors (perceptional, cognitive, and action) and external factors (social, political, physical, clinical, and technological) that influence the interaction. Two product examples are used to demonstrate the use of the interaction scheme. The results show that when the design of a product focuses on limited factors, problems arise related to those factors which are not considered. The interaction scheme is a new way to represent the human-product interaction in MIS. It can be used to structure and to gain insight into problems that occur with the use of MIS products. The scheme also elucidates the factors that are involved in the interaction so that they can be considered in product and operating room design.

  8. Social interactions, information use, and the evolution of collective migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttal, Vishwesha; Couzin, Iain D

    2010-09-14

    Migration of organisms (or cells) is typically an adaptive response to spatiotemporal variation in resources that requires individuals to detect and respond to long-range and noisy environmental gradients. Many organisms, from wildebeest to bacteria, migrate en masse in a process that can involve a vast number of individuals. Despite the ubiquity of collective migration, and the key function it plays in the ecology of many species, it is still unclear what role social interactions play in the evolution of migratory strategies. Here, we explore the evolution of migratory behavior using an individual-based spatially explicit model that incorporates the costs and benefits of obtaining directional cues from the environment and evolvable social interactions among migrating individuals. We demonstrate that collective migratory strategies evolve under a wide range of ecological scenarios, even when social encounters are rare. Although collective migration appears to be a shared navigational process, populations typically consist of small proportions of individuals actively acquiring directional information from their environment, whereas the majorities use a socially facilitated movement behavior. Because many migratory species face severe threat through anthropogenic influences, we also explore the microevolutionary response of migratory strategies to environmental pressures. We predict a gradual decline of migration due to increasing habitat destruction and argue that much greater restoration is required to recover lost behaviors (i.e., a strong hysteresis effect). Our results provide insights into both the proximate and ultimate factors that underlie evolved migratory behavior in nature.

  9. Mental models, visual reasoning and interaction in information visualization: a top-down perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhicheng; Stasko, John T

    2010-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that examining the interplay between internal and external representations can benefit our understanding of the role of information visualization (InfoVis) in human cognitive activities, there has been little work detailing the nature of internal representations, the relationship between internal and external representations and how interaction is related to these representations. In this paper, we identify and illustrate a specific kind of internal representation, mental models, and outline the high-level relationships between mental models and external visualizations. We present a top-down perspective of reasoning as model construction and simulation, and discuss the role of visualization in model based reasoning. From this perspective, interaction can be understood as active modeling for three primary purposes: external anchoring, information foraging, and cognitive offloading. Finally we discuss the implications of our approach for design, evaluation and theory development.

  10. Using the clustered circular layout as an informative method for visualizing protein-protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, David C Y; Wilkins, Marc R; Hart, David; Hong, Seok-Hee

    2010-07-01

    The force-directed layout is commonly used in computer-generated visualizations of protein-protein interaction networks. While it is good for providing a visual outline of the protein complexes and their interactions, it has two limitations when used as a visual analysis method. The first is poor reproducibility. Repeated running of the algorithm does not necessarily generate the same layout, therefore, demanding cognitive readaptation on the investigator's part. The second limitation is that it does not explicitly display complementary biological information, e.g. Gene Ontology, other than the protein names or gene symbols. Here, we present an alternative layout called the clustered circular layout. Using the human DNA replication protein-protein interaction network as a case study, we compared the two network layouts for their merits and limitations in supporting visual analysis.

  11. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  12. Warning signals for poor performance improve human-robot interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brule, R. van den; Bijlstra, G.; Dotsch, R.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot's nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  13. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-05-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design.

  14. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  15. Interaction of cyclodextrins with human and bovine serum albumins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Interaction of cyclodextrins (CDs) with the two most abundant proteins, namely human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), has been investigated using steady-state and time-resolved fluorometric techniques, circular dichroism measurements and molecular docking simulation. The study reveals that the ...

  16. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume. ...

  17. Formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G.; de Haan, G.; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; van Vliet, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical contribution, elaborating the concept of models as used in Cognitive Ergonomics. A number of formal modelling techniques in human-computer interaction will be reviewed and discussed. The analysis focusses on different related concepts of formal modelling techniques in

  18. Prosthetic Leg Control in the Nullspace of Human Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Robert D; Martin, Anne E

    2016-07-01

    Recent work has extended the control method of virtual constraints, originally developed for autonomous walking robots, to powered prosthetic legs for lower-limb amputees. Virtual constraints define desired joint patterns as functions of a mechanical phasing variable, which are typically enforced by torque control laws that linearize the output dynamics associated with the virtual constraints. However, the output dynamics of a powered prosthetic leg generally depend on the human interaction forces, which must be measured and canceled by the feedback linearizing control law. This feedback requires expensive multi-axis load cells, and actively canceling the interaction forces may minimize the human's influence over the prosthesis. To address these limitations, this paper proposes a method for projecting virtual constraints into the nullspace of the human interaction terms in the output dynamics. The projected virtual constraints naturally render the output dynamics invariant with respect to the human interaction forces, which instead enter into the internal dynamics of the partially linearized prosthetic system. This method is illustrated with simulations of a transfemoral amputee model walking with a powered knee-ankle prosthesis that is controlled via virtual constraints with and without the proposed projection.

  19. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  20. Interactions of human microglia cells with Japanese encephalitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lannes, Nils; Neuhaus, Viviane; Scolari, Brigitte; Kharoubi-Hess, Solange; Walch, Michael; Summerfield, Artur; Filgueira, Luis

    2017-01-14

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a neurotropic flavivirus causing mortality and morbidity in humans. Severe Japanese encephalitis cases display strong inflammatory responses in the central nervous system and an accumulation of viral particles in specific brain regions. Microglia cells are the unique brain-resident immune cell population with potent migratory functions and have been proposed to act as a viral reservoir for JEV. Animal models suggest that the targeting of microglia by JEV is partially responsible for inflammatory reactions in the brain. Nevertheless, the interactions between human microglia and JEV are poorly documented. Using human primary microglia and a new model of human blood monocyte-derived microglia, the present study explores the interaction between human microglia and JEV as well as the role of these cells in viral transmission to susceptible cells. To achieve this work, vaccine-containing inactivated JEV and two live JEV strains were applied on human microglia. Live JEV was non-cytopathogenic to human microglia but increased levels of CCL2, CXCL9 and CXCL10 in such cultures. Furthermore, human microglia up-regulated the expression of the fraktalkine receptor CX3CR1 upon exposure to both JEV vaccine and live JEV. Although JEV vaccine enhanced MHC class II on all microglia, live JEV enhanced MHC class II mainly on CX3CR1+ microglia cells. Importantly, human microglia supported JEV replication, but infectivity was only transmitted to neighbouring cells in a contact-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that human microglia may be a source of neuronal infection and sustain JEV brain pathogenesis.

  1. Advancements in Violin-Related Human-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Finesse is required while performing with many traditional musical instruments, as they are extremely responsive to human inputs. The violin is specifically examined here, as it excels at translating a performer’s gestures into sound in manners that evoke a wide range of affective qualities...... of human intelligence and emotion is at the core of the Musical Interface Technology Design Space, MITDS. This is a framework that endeavors to retain and enhance such traits of traditional instruments in the design of interactive live performance interfaces. Utilizing the MITDS, advanced Human......-Computer Interaction technologies for the violin are developed in order to allow musicians to explore new methods of creating music. Through this process, the aim is to provide musicians with control systems that let them transcend the interface itself, and focus on musically compelling performances....

  2. Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment: Optimizing the Human Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Human-Robot Interaction Reconfigurable Test Environment (HRI-RTE) integrates a grid-based, reconfigurable test arena and an operator workstation with...

  3. RAID: a comprehensive resource for human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomeng; Wu, Deng; Chen, Liqun; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinxurong; Fan, Dandan; Dong, Tingting; Liu, Mingyue; Tan, Puwen; Xu, Jintian; Yi, Ying; Wang, Yuting; Zou, Hua; Hu, Yongfei; Fan, Kaili; Kang, Juanjuan; Huang, Yan; Miao, Zhengqiang; Bi, Miaoman; Jin, Nana; Li, Kongning; Li, Xia; Xu, Jianzhen; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Transcriptomic analyses have revealed an unexpected complexity in the eukaryote transcriptome, which includes not only protein-coding transcripts but also an expanding catalog of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Diverse coding and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) perform functions through interaction with each other in various cellular processes. In this project, we have developed RAID (http://www.rna-society.org/raid), an RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction database. RAID intends to provide the scientific community with all-in-one resources for efficient browsing and extraction of the RNA-associated interactions in human. This version of RAID contains more than 6100 RNA-associated interactions obtained by manually reviewing more than 2100 published papers, including 4493 RNA-RNA interactions and 1619 RNA-protein interactions. Each entry contains detailed information on an RNA-associated interaction, including RAID ID, RNA/protein symbol, RNA/protein categories, validated method, expressing tissue, literature references (Pubmed IDs), and detailed functional description. Users can query, browse, analyze, and manipulate RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction. RAID provides a comprehensive resource of human RNA-associated (RNA-RNA/RNA-protein) interaction network. Furthermore, this resource will help in uncovering the generic organizing principles of cellular function network. © 2014 Zhang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  4. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The "wisdom of crowds" hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0% and 100% (e.g., "What percentage of Americans are left-handed?"). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move toward the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how outlying

  5. The EPIC Architecture for Modeling Human Information-Processing and Performance: A Brief Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieras, David E.; Meyer, David E.

    EPIC (Executive Process-Interactive Control) is a human information-processing architecture that is especially suited for modeling multiple-task performance. The EPIC architecture includes peripheral sensory-motor processors surrounding a production-rule cognitive processor, and is being used to construct precise computational models for basic…

  6. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  7. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes, Arminda; Ørngreen, Rikke

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  8. Human Work Interaction Design. Work Analysis and HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    . The papers reflect many different areas and address many complex and diverse work domains, ranging from medical user interfaces, work and speech interactions at elderly care facilities, greenhouse climate control, navigating through large oil industry engineering models, crisis management, library usability......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the Third IFIP WG 13.6 Working Conference on Human Work Interaction Design, HWID 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in December 2012. The 16 revised papers presented were carefully selected for inclusion in this volume......, and mobile probing. They have been organized in the following topical sections: work analysis: dimensions and methods; interactions, models and approaches; and evaluations, interactions and applications....

  9. Combining Natural Human-Computer Interaction and Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Gheorghe PENTIUC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present how human-computer interaction can be improved by using wireless communication between devices. Devices that offer a natural user interaction, like the Microsoft Surface Table and tablet PCs, can work together to enhance the experience of an application. Users can use physical objects for a more natural way of handling the virtual world on one hand, and interact with other users wirelessly connected on the other. Physical objects, that interact with the surface table, have a tag attached to them, allowing us to identify them, and take the required action. The TCP/IP protocol was used to handle the wireless communication over the wireless network. A server and a client application were developed for the used devices. To get a wide range of targeted mobile devices, different frameworks for developing cross platform applications were analyzed.

  10. Aspects of Prediction Accuracy in Human-structure Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Structures such as grandstands in stadia and office floors in buildings are typically occupied by seated persons, and it is a challenge to predict the dynamic characteristics of these structures. This is because the structures and the seated persons interact when the structures undergo vibrations......, basically with the effect that the seated persons influence the dynamic system. The mechanism of the interaction is not well understood, and there are a number of factors that might influence the mechanism of the interaction. Through experiments with a vibrating floor carrying seated humans, the paper looks...... into the mechanism of the interaction focusing on its effect on dynamic structural properties. It is investigated to which extent factors such as posture of the seated persons and the construction type of the seat on which the persons are sitting have a bearing on the structural frequency and damping. This provides...

  11. Molecular principles of human virus protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halehalli, Rachita Ramachandra; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu Adimurthy

    2015-04-01

    Viruses, from the human protein-protein interaction network perspective, target hubs, bottlenecks and interconnected nodes enriched in certain biological pathways. However, not much is known about the general characteristic features of the human proteins interacting with viral proteins (referred to as hVIPs) as well as the motifs and domains utilized by human-virus protein-protein interactions (referred to as Hu-Vir PPIs). Our study has revealed that hVIPs are mostly disordered proteins, whereas viral proteins are mostly ordered proteins. Protein disorder in viral proteins and hVIPs varies from one subcellular location to another. In any given viral-human PPI pair, at least one of the two proteins is structurally disordered suggesting that disorder associated conformational flexibility as one of the characteristic features of virus-host interaction. Further analyses reveal that hVIPs are (i) slowly evolving proteins, (ii) associated with high centrality scores in human-PPI network, (iii) involved in multiple pathways, (iv) enriched in eukaryotic linear motifs (ELMs) associated with protein modification, degradation and regulatory processes, (v) associated with high number of splice variants and (vi) expressed abundantly across multiple tissues. These aforementioned findings suggest that conformational flexibility, spatial diversity, abundance and slow evolution are the characteristic features of the human proteins targeted by viral proteins. Hu-Vir PPIs are mostly mediated via domain-motif interactions (DMIs) where viral proteins employ motifs that mimic host ELMs to bind to domains in human proteins. DMIs are shared among viruses belonging to different families indicating a possible convergent evolution of these motifs to help viruses to adopt common strategies to subvert host cellular pathways. Hu-Vir PPI data, DDI and DMI data for human-virus PPI can be downloaded from http://cdfd.org.in/labpages/computational_biology_datasets.html. Supplementary data are

  12. A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita T. Morzillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework that focuses on wildlife as a driver of human behavior and allows us to better understand linkages between humans, wildlife, and the broader landscape. We also present results of a pilot analysis related to our own ongoing study of urban rodent control behavior to illustrate one application of this framework within a study of urban landscapes.

  13. Human Resource Management in Library and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Maurice B.; Kinnell, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of human resource management focuses on academic libraries. Topics addressed include the influence of information technology; strategic planning; equal opportunities; recruitment; staff appraisal; quality of working life; motivation; job satisfaction; participative management; leadership; burnout; conflict; organizational structures;…

  14. Identifying and modeling the structural discontinuities of human interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabási, Albert-László; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. Along the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls - both, mobile and landline - and in either case uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylizes the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models. This increases our ability to understand, model and predict social activities and to plan the development of infrastructures across multiple scales.

  15. Identifying and modeling the structural discontinuities of human interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwin, Sebastian; Szell, Michael; Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Hövel, Philipp; Simini, Filippo; Vanhoof, Maarten; Smoreda, Zbigniew; Barabási, Albert-László; Ratti, Carlo

    2017-04-26

    The idea of a hierarchical spatial organization of society lies at the core of seminal theories in human geography that have strongly influenced our understanding of social organization. Along the same line, the recent availability of large-scale human mobility and communication data has offered novel quantitative insights hinting at a strong geographical confinement of human interactions within neighboring regions, extending to local levels within countries. However, models of human interaction largely ignore this effect. Here, we analyze several country-wide networks of telephone calls - both, mobile and landline - and in either case uncover a systematic decrease of communication induced by borders which we identify as the missing variable in state-of-the-art models. Using this empirical evidence, we propose an alternative modeling framework that naturally stylizes the damping effect of borders. We show that this new notion substantially improves the predictive power of widely used interaction models. This increases our ability to understand, model and predict social activities and to plan the development of infrastructures across multiple scales.

  16. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  17. Satellite Perspectives on Highland - Lowland Human Interaction in Ancient Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, M.; Törmä, M.; Lönnqvist, K.; Nuñez, M.

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays we can travel by GoogleEarth 3D to Syria (http://www.worldcountries.info/GoogleEarth/GoogleEarth-Syria.php) and zoom in on the desert landscape of the mountainous region of Jebel Bishri between the Euphrates river and the Syrian Desert. This is the area, where the Finnish archaeological survey and mapping project SYGIS worked in 2000-2010 studying the relationship of humans with their environment from ancient times to the present. What kind of landscape views and visions did the ancients have and how did they utilize them? The present paper focuses on seeking answers for these questions by combining satellite data sources, such as imagery and radar data, with location information of archaeological remains collected on the ground. Landsat as well as QuickBird imagery have been fused with SRTM mission and ASTER DEM data in creating 3D landscape models and fly-over simulations. The oasis of El Kowm on the western piedmont of the mountain seems to have served as a base camp for early huntergatherers and pastoral nomads dwelling seasonally in the region of Jebel Bishri. According to the archaeological finds, the interaction between the lowland and the mountain people already started during the Palaeolithic era but was continued by pastoral nomads of the region from the Neolithic period onwards. The Upper Palaeolithic period meant a clear change in cognitive thinking and obviously in understanding the properties of landscape, visibility and perceiving sceneries in 3D. Mobility of hunter-gatherers and pastoral nomads is based on subsistence economy, but mobility also enhances visions and prospects of phenomena appearing in the horizon.

  18. Scaling identity connects human mobility and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Pierre; Song, Chaoming; Eagle, Nathan; Blondel, Vincent D; Barabási, Albert-László; Wang, Dashun

    2016-06-28

    Massive datasets that capture human movements and social interactions have catalyzed rapid advances in our quantitative understanding of human behavior during the past years. One important aspect affecting both areas is the critical role space plays. Indeed, growing evidence suggests both our movements and communication patterns are associated with spatial costs that follow reproducible scaling laws, each characterized by its specific critical exponents. Although human mobility and social networks develop concomitantly as two prolific yet largely separated fields, we lack any known relationships between the critical exponents explored by them, despite the fact that they often study the same datasets. Here, by exploiting three different mobile phone datasets that capture simultaneously these two aspects, we discovered a new scaling relationship, mediated by a universal flux distribution, which links the critical exponents characterizing the spatial dependencies in human mobility and social networks. Therefore, the widely studied scaling laws uncovered in these two areas are not independent but connected through a deeper underlying reality.

  19. CHI 2013 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Campos, Pedro F.; Katre, Dinesh S.

    2013-01-01

    In this SIG we aim to introduce the IFIP 13.6 Human Work Interaction Design (HWID) approach to the CHI audience. The HWID working group aims at establishing relationships between extensive empirical work-domain studies and HCI design. We invite participants from industry and academia...... with an interest on empirical work analysis, HCI, interaction design and usability and user experience in work situations and in the workplace. This SIG is a vital step towards creating a CHI2014 workshop on this topic....

  20. Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interaction networks provide a global picture of cellular function and biological processes. Some proteins act as hub proteins, highly connected to others, whereas some others have few interactions. The dysfunction of some interactions causes many diseases, including cancer. Proteins interact through their interfaces. Therefore, studying the interface properties of cancer-related proteins will help explain their role in the interaction networks. Similar or overlapping binding sites should be used repeatedly in single interface hub proteins, making them promiscuous. Alternatively, multi-interface hub proteins make use of several distinct binding sites to bind to different partners. We propose a methodology to integrate protein interfaces into cancer interaction networks (ciSPIN, cancer structural protein interface network. The interactions in the human protein interaction network are replaced by interfaces, coming from either known or predicted complexes. We provide a detailed analysis of cancer related human protein-protein interfaces and the topological properties of the cancer network. The results reveal that cancer-related proteins have smaller, more planar, more charged and less hydrophobic binding sites than non-cancer proteins, which may indicate low affinity and high specificity of the cancer-related interactions. We also classified the genes in ciSPIN according to phenotypes. Within phenotypes, for breast cancer, colorectal cancer and leukemia, interface properties were found to be discriminating from non-cancer interfaces with an accuracy of 71%, 67%, 61%, respectively. In addition, cancer-related proteins tend to interact with their partners through distinct interfaces, corresponding mostly to multi-interface hubs, which comprise 56% of cancer-related proteins, and constituting the nodes with higher essentiality in the network (76%. We illustrate the interface related affinity properties of two cancer-related hub

  1. Audio visual information fusion for human activity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thagadur Shivappa, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Human activity analysis in unconstrained environments using far-field sensors is a challenging task. The fusion of audio and visual cues enables us to build robust and efficient human activity analysis systems. Traditional fusion schemes including feature-level, classifier-level and decision-level fusion have been explored in task- specific contexts to provide robustness to sensor and environmental noise. However, human activity analysis involves the extraction of information from audio and v...

  2. Computer Aided Design in Digital Human Modeling for Human Computer Interaction in Ergonomic Assessment: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Suman Mukhopadhyay , Sanjib Kumar Das and Tania Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) hasbeen enormously successful in the area of computeraidedergonomics or human-centric designs. Perfectfit for people has always been a target for productdesign. Designers traditionally used anthropometricdimensions for 3D product design which created a lotof fitting problems when dealing with thecomplexities of the human body shapes. Computeraided design (CAD), also known as Computer aideddesign and drafting (CADD) is the computertechnology used fo...

  3. Introduction: Human-nature Interactions through a Multispecies Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Aisher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction brings together a group of papers focusing on conservation theory and practice, and argues strongly for a new place-based conservation through a multispecies lens. Honouring the work of Brian Morris, a scholar who has consistently forged a persuasive set of conceptual connections between science and society, and building on his insights into environmental history and human-nature interactions, we outline a vision of conservation that incorporates new narratives – at the intersection between the ecological and the social – to reimagine the world in the Anthropocene. This includes challenging the persistence of fortress, neoprotectionist and other top-down forms of conservation, through a recognition that conservation is deeply rooted in (human, nonhuman and more-than-human senses of place. The introduction urges scholars to focus on landscapes as units of analysis: 'multispecies assemblages' that are easily overlooked at other spatial and historical scales. It calls for increased attention to the contact zones where the lives of humans and other species biologically, culturally and politically intersect, as a counterpoint to the dominant planetary perspective of earth systems and conservation science. It underlines the importance of deep relational analyses of human interactions with other life forms, through renewed attention to multispecies histories, locality, and forms of knowledge rooted in place. It is at this level, through historically nuanced accounts founded on a more place-based conception of ourselves as a species, that new narratives and answers to our current predicament will emerge.

  4. Emotional contagion and proto-organizing in human interaction dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazy, James K; Boyatzis, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    This paper combines the complexity notions of phase transitions and tipping points with recent advances in cognitive neuroscience to propose a general theory of human proto-organizing. It takes as a premise that a necessary prerequisite for organizing, or "proto-organizing," occurs through emotional contagion in subpopulations of human interaction dynamics in complex ecosystems. Emotional contagion is posited to engender emotional understanding and identification with others, a social process that acts as a mechanism that enables (or precludes) cooperative responses to opportunities and risks. Propositions are offered and further research is suggested.

  5. Emotional Contagion and Proto-Organizing in Human Interaction Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Hazy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper combines the complexity notions of phase transitions and tipping points with recent advances in cognitive neuroscience to propose a general theory of human proto-organizing. It takes as a premise that a necessary prerequisite for organizing, or proto-organizing, occurs through emotional contagion in subpopulations of human interaction dynamics in complex ecosystems. Emotional contagion is posited to engender emotional understanding and identification with others, a social process that acts as a mechanism that enables (or precludes cooperative responses to opportunities and risks. Propositions are offered and further research is suggested.

  6. Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

  7. Social Psychology Of Persuasion Applied To Human-agent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and evaluates the application of a social psychologically enriched, user-centered approach to agent architecture design. The major aim is to facilitate human-agent interaction (HAI by making agents not only algorithmically more intelligent but also socially more skillful in communicating with the user. A decision-making model and communicative argumentation strategies have been incorporated into the agent architecture. In the presented content resource management experiments, enhancement of human task performance is demonstrated for users that are supported by a persuasive agent. This superior performance seems to be rooted in a more trusting collaborative relationship between the user and the agent, rather than in the appropriateness of the agent's decision-making suggestions alone. In particular, the second experiment demonstrated that interface interaction design should follow the principles of task-orientation and implicitness. Making the influence of the agent too salient can trigger counterintentional effects, such as users' discomfort and psychological reactance.

  8. The Human-Computer Interface for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Debora

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the human-computer interface as it relates to information technology and retrieval. Principles of interface design are examined, including visual display features and help messages; information retrieval applications are described, including online searching, CD-ROM, online public access catalogs (OPACs), and full-text databases; and…

  9. Tactile Cuing to Augment Multisensory Human-Machine Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hancock, P.A.; Lawson, B.; Cholewiak, R.; Elliott, L.R.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Mortimer, B.J.P.; Rupert, A.; Redden, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Tactile displays promise to improve the information-processing capacity of operators, especially when used in conjunction with visual and auditory displays. In this article, we describe current applications and future directions in tactile cuing. © 2015 by Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. All

  10. Cognitive Emotional Regulation Model in Human-Robot Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xin; Xie, Lun; Liu, Anqi; Li, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model) emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition...

  11. Molecular interactions of 'high risk' human papillomaviruses E6 and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    sequences in adenovirus E1A and human papillomavirus. E7 proteins mediate interaction with the same set of cellular proteins; J. Virol. 66 6893–6902. Eckner R, Ludlow J W, Lill N L, Oldread E, Arany Z, Modjta- hedi N, DeCaprio J A, Livingston D M and Morgan J A 1996. Association of p300 and CBP with simian virus 40 ...

  12. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  13. Situated dialog in speech-based human-computer interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Raux, Antoine; Lane, Ian; Misu, Teruhisa

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a survey of the state-of-the-art in the practical implementation of Spoken Dialog Systems for applications in everyday settings. It includes contributions on key topics in situated dialog interaction from a number of leading researchers and offers a broad spectrum of perspectives on research and development in the area. In particular, it presents applications in robotics, knowledge access and communication and covers the following topics: dialog for interacting with robots; language understanding and generation; dialog architectures and modeling; core technologies; and the analysis of human discourse and interaction. The contributions are adapted and expanded contributions from the 2014 International Workshop on Spoken Dialog Systems (IWSDS 2014), where researchers and developers from industry and academia alike met to discuss and compare their implementation experiences, analyses and empirical findings.

  14. Excimer laser interaction with dentin of the human tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Gilliam, Ruth L.; Baker, George R.

    1989-01-01

    The use an excimer laser produced many unusual conical structures within the dentin of the inner part of the human tooth. By varying the frequency of the laser one can disperse the energy and cause more bleeding in laser surgery, but not destroy the cells associated with the incision. Therefore, the healing process will virtually be without scarring. Whereas, using the infrared laser the blood loss would be less, but the healing process would tend to be longer because cells are being destroyed due to the cauterization effect of the laser. The question is, are these structures produced as an interaction with the laser or are they an intrinsic part of the structure. The effects of the laser interaction upon dentin was studied, and in using electron microscopy the interaction of the excimer laser upon the tooth dentin and other various biological tissue is more clearly understood.

  15. Interactive 3D computer model of the human corneolimbal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molvaer, Rikke K; Andreasen, Arne; Heegaard, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aims to clarify the existence of and to map the localization of different proposed stem cell niches in the corneal limbal region. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One human eye was cut into 2200 consecutive sections. Every other section was stained with haematoxylin and eosin, digitized...... at low and high magnification, aligned, 3D reconstructed and visualized using interactive 3D visualization software. The visualization software has interactive tools that make free rotations in all directions possible and makes it possible to create virtual sections independent of the original cutting...... in the superior limbal region and one LEC, six LCs and 12 FSPs in the inferior limbal region. Only few LECs, LCs and FSPs were localized nasally and temporally. CONCLUSION: Interactive 3D models are a powerful tool that may help to shed more light on the existence and spatial localization of the different stem...

  16. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  17. Applications of artificial intelligence in safe human-robot interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmaei, Nima; Kermani, Mehrdad R

    2011-04-01

    The integration of industrial robots into the human workspace presents a set of unique challenges. This paper introduces a new sensory system for modeling, tracking, and predicting human motions within a robot workspace. A reactive control scheme to modify a robot's operations for accommodating the presence of the human within the robot workspace is also presented. To this end, a special class of artificial neural networks, namely, self-organizing maps (SOMs), is employed for obtaining a superquadric-based model of the human. The SOM network receives information of the human's footprints from the sensory system and infers necessary data for rendering the human model. The model is then used in order to assess the danger of the robot operations based on the measured as well as predicted human motions. This is followed by the introduction of a new reactive control scheme that results in the least interferences between the human and robot operations. The approach enables the robot to foresee an upcoming danger and take preventive actions before the danger becomes imminent. Simulation and experimental results are presented in order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Information interaction in the network the internet as object of scientific and pedagogical researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Илясовна Готская

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In article specificity of information interaction in a network the Internet is considered. The consideration purpose is specification of the concept «information interaction» with reference to interaction in a network the Internet. And also definition of its features for the subsequent designing of educational programs of additional preparation of teachers. Thus information interaction in the Internet is considered as object of scientific and pedagogical researches.

  19. Promoting Interactions Between Humans and Robots Using Robotic Emotional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficocelli, Maurizio; Terao, Junichi; Nejat, Goldie

    2016-12-01

    The objective of a socially assistive robot is to create a close and effective interaction with a human user for the purpose of giving assistance. In particular, the social interaction, guidance, and support that a socially assistive robot can provide a person can be very beneficial to patient-centered care. However, there are a number of research issues that need to be addressed in order to design such robots. This paper focuses on developing effective emotion-based assistive behavior for a socially assistive robot intended for natural human-robot interaction (HRI) scenarios with explicit social and assistive task functionalities. In particular, in this paper, a unique emotional behavior module is presented and implemented in a learning-based control architecture for assistive HRI. The module is utilized to determine the appropriate emotions of the robot to display, as motivated by the well-being of the person, during assistive task-driven interactions in order to elicit suitable actions from users to accomplish a given person-centered assistive task. A novel online updating technique is used in order to allow the emotional model to adapt to new people and scenarios. Experiments presented show the effectiveness of utilizing robotic emotional assistive behavior during HRI scenarios.

  20. A cognitive intersensory interaction mechanism in human postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümle, A; Maurer, C; Schweigart, G; Mergner, T

    2006-08-01

    Human control of upright body posture involves inputs from several senses (visual, vestibular, proprioceptive, somatosensory) and their central interactions. We recently studied visual effects on posture control and their intersensory interactions and found evidence for the existence of an indirect and presumably cognitive mode of interaction, in addition to a direct interaction (we found, e.g., that a 'virtual reality' visual stimulus has a weaker postural effect than a 'real world' scene, because of its illusory character). Here we focus on the presumed cognitive interaction mechanism. We report experiments in healthy subjects and vestibular loss patients. We investigated to what extent a postural response to lateral platform tilt is modulated by tilt of a visual scene in an orthogonal rotational plane (anterior-posterior, a-p, direction). The a-p visual stimulus did not evoke a lateral postural response on its own. But it enhanced the response to the lateral platform tilt (i.e., it increased the evoked body excursion). The effect was related to the velocity of the visual stimulus, showed a threshold at 0.31 degrees /s, and increased monotonically with increasing velocity. These characteristics were similar in normals and patients, but body excursions were larger in patients. In conclusion, the orthogonal stimulus arrangement in our experiments allowed us to selectively assess a cognitive intersensory interaction that upon co-planar stimulation tends to be merged with direct interaction. The observed threshold corresponds to the conscious perceptual detection threshold of the visual motion, which is clearly higher than the visual postural response threshold. This finding is in line with our notion of a cognitive phenomenon. We postulate that the cognitive mechanism in normals interferes with a central visual-vestibular interaction mechanism. This appears to be similar in vestibular loss patients, but patients use less effective somatosensory instead of vestibular

  1. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  2. The human interactome knowledge base (hint-kb): An integrative human protein interaction database enriched with predicted protein–protein interaction scores using a novel hybrid technique

    KAUST Repository

    Theofilatos, Konstantinos A.

    2013-07-12

    Proteins are the functional components of many cellular processes and the identification of their physical protein–protein interactions (PPIs) is an area of mature academic research. Various databases have been developed containing information about experimentally and computationally detected human PPIs as well as their corresponding annotation data. However, these databases contain many false positive interactions, are partial and only a few of them incorporate data from various sources. To overcome these limitations, we have developed HINT-KB (http://biotools.ceid.upatras.gr/hint-kb/), a knowledge base that integrates data from various sources, provides a user-friendly interface for their retrieval, cal-culatesasetoffeaturesofinterest and computesaconfidence score for every candidate protein interaction. This confidence score is essential for filtering the false positive interactions which are present in existing databases, predicting new protein interactions and measuring the frequency of each true protein interaction. For this reason, a novel machine learning hybrid methodology, called (Evolutionary Kalman Mathematical Modelling—EvoKalMaModel), was used to achieve an accurate and interpretable scoring methodology. The experimental results indicated that the proposed scoring scheme outperforms existing computational methods for the prediction of PPIs.

  3. Human Identification at a Distance Using Body Shape Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, N. K. A. M.; Yahya, M. F.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shape of human body is unique from one person to another. This paper presents an intelligent system approach for human identification at a distance using human body shape information. The body features used are the head, shoulder, and trunk. Image processing techniques for detection of these body features were developed in this work. Then, the features are recognized using fuzzy logic approach and used as inputs to a recognition system based on a multilayer neural network. The developed system is only applicable for recognizing a person from its frontal view and specifically constrained to male gender to simplify the algorithm. In this research, the accuracy for human identification using the proposed method is 77.5%. Thus, it is proved that human can be identified at a distance using body shape information.

  4. Interaction between information systems and work in the brazilian banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Tavares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research to understand the conditions of interaction between work and three specific information systems (ISs used in the Brazilian banking sector. We sought to understand how systems are redesigned in work practices, and how work is modified by the insertion of new systems. Data gathering included 46 semi-structured interviews, together with an analysis of system-related documents. We tried to identify what is behind the practices that modify the ISs and work. The data analysis revealed an operating structure: a combination of different practices ensuring that the interaction between agents and systems will take place. We discovered a structure of reciprocal conversion caused by the increased technical skills of the agent and the humanization of the systems. It is through ongoing adjustment between work and ISs that technology is tailored to the context and people become more prepared to handle with technology.

  5. Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV-Human Neuron Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don Gilden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV is a highly neurotropic, exclusively human herpesvirus. Primary infection causes varicella (chickenpox, wherein VZV replicates in multiple organs, particularly the skin. Widespread infection in vivo is confirmed by the ability of VZV to kill tissue culture cells in vitro derived from any organ. After varicella, VZV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. During latency, virus DNA replication stops, transcription is restricted, and no progeny virions are produced, indicating a unique virus-cell (neuron relationship. VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles, often complicated by serious neurological and ocular disorders. The molecular trigger(s for reactivation, and thus the identity of a potential target to prevent it, remains unknown due to an incomplete understanding of the VZV-neuron interaction. While no in vitro system has yet recapitulated the findings in latently infected ganglia, recent studies show that VZV infection of human neurons in SCID mice and of human stem cells, including induced human pluripotent stem cells and normal human neural progenitor tissue-like assemblies, can be established in the absence of a cytopathic effect. Usefulness of these systems in discovering the mechanisms underlying reactivation awaits analyses of VZV-infected, highly pure (>90%, terminally differentiated human neurons capable of prolonged survival in vitro.

  6. Pathways of Understanding: the Interactions of Humanity and Global Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Harold K.; Katzenberger, John; Lousma, Jack; Mooney, Harold A.; Moss, Richard H.; Kuhn, William; Luterbacher, Urs; Wiegandt, Ellen

    1992-01-01

    How humans, interacting within social systems, affect and are affected by global change is explored. Recognizing the impact human activities have on the environment and responding to the need to document the interactions among human activities, the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) commissioned a group of 12 scientists to develop a framework illustrating the key human systems that contribute to global change. This framework, called the Social Process Diagram, will help natural and social scientists, educators, resource managers and policy makers envision and analyze how human systems interact among themselves and with the natural system. The Social Process Diagram consists of the following blocks that constitute the Diagram's structural framework: (1) fund of knowledge and experience; (2) preferences and expectations; (3) factors of production and technology; (4) population and social structure; (5) economic systems; (6) political systems and institutions; and (7) global scale environmental processes. To demonstrate potential ways the Diagram can be used, this document includes 3 hypothetical scenarios of global change issues: global warming and sea level rise; the environmental impact of human population migration; and energy and the environment. These scenarios demonstrate the Diagram's usefulness for visualizing specific processes that might be studied to evaluate a particular global change issues. The scenario also shows that interesting and unanticipated questions may emerge as links are explored between categories on the Diagram.

  7. Information Processing Models and Computer Aids for Human Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swets, John A.; And Others

    Progress is reported on four research tasks. An experiment tested the effectiveness of a computer-based phonology instructional system for second-language learning. In research on models of human-computer interactions, experiments were performed demonstrating that the provision of certain incentives to the users of a time-sharing system can have…

  8. bZIPDB: a database of regulatory information for human bZIP transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Taewoo; Jung, Juhyun; Lee, Sunjae; Nam, Ho Jung; Hong, Sun Woo; Yoo, Jae Wook; Lee, Dong-ki; Lee, Doheon

    2007-05-30

    Basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins are a class of transcription factors (TFs) that play diverse roles in eukaryotes. Malfunctions in these proteins lead to cancer and various other diseases. For detailed characterization of these TFs, further public resources are required. We constructed a database, designated bZIPDB, containing information on 49 human bZIP TFs, by means of automated literature collection and manual curation. bZIPDB aims to provide public data required for deciphering the gene regulatory network of the human bZIP family, e.g., evaluation or reference information for the identification of regulatory modules. The resources provided by bZIPDB include (1) protein interaction data including direct binding, phosphorylation and functional associations between bZIP TFs and other cellular proteins, along with other types of interactions, (2) bZIP TF-target gene relationships, (3) the cellular network of bZIP TFs in particular cell lines, and (4) gene information and ontology. In the current version of the database, 721 protein interactions and 560 TF-target gene relationships are recorded. bZIPDB is annually updated for the newly discovered information. bZIPDB is a repository of detailed regulatory information for human bZIP TFs that is collected and processed from the literature, designed to facilitate analysis of this protein family. bZIPDB is available for public use at http://biosoft.kaist.ac.kr/bzipdb.

  9. 78 FR 59943 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request; Interactive Informed Consent for Pediatric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...; Interactive Informed Consent for Pediatric Clinical Trials SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... plans and instruments must be requested in writing. Proposed Collection: Interactive Informed Consent... standard paper consent document or an interactive computer-based consent program. Parents' and children's...

  10. Choice of Human-Computer Interaction Mode in Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Hondori, Hossein; Khademi, Maryam; Dodakian, Lucy; McKenzie, Alison; Lopes, Cristina V; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-03-01

    Advances in technology are providing new forms of human-computer interaction. The current study examined one form of human-computer interaction, augmented reality (AR), whereby subjects train in the real-world workspace with virtual objects projected by the computer. Motor performances were compared with those obtained while subjects used a traditional human-computer interaction, that is, a personal computer (PC) with a mouse. Patients used goal-directed arm movements to play AR and PC versions of the Fruit Ninja video game. The 2 versions required the same arm movements to control the game but had different cognitive demands. With AR, the game was projected onto the desktop, where subjects viewed the game plus their arm movements simultaneously, in the same visual coordinate space. In the PC version, subjects used the same arm movements but viewed the game by looking up at a computer monitor. Among 18 patients with chronic hemiparesis after stroke, the AR game was associated with 21% higher game scores (P = .0001), 19% faster reaching times (P = .0001), and 15% less movement variability (P = .0068), as compared to the PC game. Correlations between game score and arm motor status were stronger with the AR version. Motor performances during the AR game were superior to those during the PC game. This result is due in part to the greater cognitive demands imposed by the PC game, a feature problematic for some patients but clinically useful for others. Mode of human-computer interface influences rehabilitation therapy demands and can be individualized for patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cross-cultural human-computer interaction and user experience design a semiotic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Brejcha, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This book describes patterns of language and culture in human-computer interaction (HCI). Through numerous examples, it shows why these patterns matter and how to exploit them to design a better user experience (UX) with computer systems. It provides scientific information on the theoretical and practical areas of the interaction and communication design for research experts and industry practitioners and covers the latest research in semiotics and cultural studies, bringing a set of tools and methods to benefit the process of designing with the cultural background in mind.

  12. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  13. An Interactive Learning Environment for Information and Communication Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Interactive learning tools are emerging as effective educational materials in the area of computer science and engineering. It is a research domain that is rapidly expanding because of its positive impacts on motivating and improving students' performance during the learning process. This paper introduces an interactive learning environment for…

  14. 'Playing robot': an interactive sound installation in human-robot interaction design for new media art

    OpenAIRE

    Buch, Benjamin; Coussement, Pieter; Schmidt, Lüder

    2010-01-01

    In this study artistic human-robot interaction design is in- troduced as a means for scientific research and artistic inves- tigations. It serves as a methodology for situated cognition integrating empirical methodology and computational mod- eling, and is exemplified by the installation playing robot. Its artistic purpose is to aid to create and explore robots as a new medium for art and entertainment. We discuss the use of finite state machines to organize robots’ behavioral reac- tions to ...

  15. Program Predicts Time Courses of Human/Computer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Alonso; Howes, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    CPM X is a computer program that predicts sequences of, and amounts of time taken by, routine actions performed by a skilled person performing a task. Unlike programs that simulate the interaction of the person with the task environment, CPM X predicts the time course of events as consequences of encoded constraints on human behavior. The constraints determine which cognitive and environmental processes can occur simultaneously and which have sequential dependencies. The input to CPM X comprises (1) a description of a task and strategy in a hierarchical description language and (2) a description of architectural constraints in the form of rules governing interactions of fundamental cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations. The output of CPM X is a Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) chart that presents a schedule of predicted cognitive, motor, and perceptual operators interacting with a task environment. The CPM X program allows direct, a priori prediction of skilled user performance on complex human-machine systems, providing a way to assess critical interfaces before they are deployed in mission contexts.

  16. Phage-bacteria interaction network in human oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Fangqing

    2016-07-01

    Although increasing knowledge suggests that bacteriophages play important roles in regulating microbial ecosystems, phage-bacteria interaction in human oral cavities remains less understood. Here we performed a metagenomic analysis to explore the composition and variation of oral dsDNA phage populations and potential phage-bacteria interaction. A total of 1,711 contigs assembled with more than 100 Gb shotgun sequencing data were annotated to 104 phages based on their best BLAST matches against the NR database. Bray-Curtis dissimilarities demonstrated that both phage and bacterial composition are highly diverse between periodontally healthy samples but show a trend towards homogenization in diseased gingivae samples. Significantly, according to the CRISPR arrays that record infection relationship between bacteria and phage, we found certain oral phages were able to invade other bacteria besides their putative bacterial hosts. These cross-infective phages were positively correlated with commensal bacteria while were negatively correlated with major periodontal pathogens, suggesting possible connection between these phages and microbial community structure in oral cavities. By characterizing phage-bacteria interaction as networks rather than exclusively pairwise predator-prey relationships, our study provides the first insight into the participation of cross-infective phages in forming human oral microbiota. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Soy and Gut Microbiota: Interaction and Implication for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Krishnan, Hari B; Pham, Quynhchi; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-11-23

    Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life. This review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of soy foods and soy components on gut microbiota population and composition. It was found, although results vary in different studies, in general, both animal and human studies have shown that consumption of soy foods can increase the levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and alter the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These changes in microbiota are consistent with reported reductions in pathogenic bacteria populations in the gut, thereby lowering the risk of diseases and leading to beneficial effects on human health.

  18. Informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state reflected in prefrontal cortex activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichiro eWatanabe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS.We also observed that the verbal WM task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC activity accompanied by working memory (WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS.

  19. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  20. Socio-hydrology: conceptualising human-flood interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over history, humankind has tended to settle near streams because of the role of rivers as transportation corridors and the fertility of riparian areas. However, human settlements in floodplains have been threatened by the risk of flooding. Possible responses have been to resettle away and/or modify the river system by building flood control structures. This has led to a complex web of interactions and feedback mechanisms between hydrological and social processes in settled floodplains. This paper is an attempt to conceptualise these interplays for hypothetical human-flood systems. We develop a simple, dynamic model to represent the interactions and feedback loops between hydrological and social processes. The model is then used to explore the dynamics of the human-flood system and the effect of changing individual characteristics, including external forcing such as technological development. The results show that the conceptual model is able to reproduce reciprocal effects between floods and people as well as the emergence of typical patterns. For instance, when levees are built or raised to protect floodplain areas, their presence not only reduces the frequency of flooding, but also exacerbates high water levels. Then, because of this exacerbation, higher flood protection levels are required by society. As a result, more and more flooding events are avoided, but rare and catastrophic events take place.

  1. Synergistic interactions between PBDEs and PCBs in human neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellacani, C; Tagliaferri, S; Caglieri, A; Goldoni, M; Giordano, G; Mutti, A; Costa, L G

    2014-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Exposure to these chemicals has been associated with developmental neurotoxicity, endocrine dysfunction, and reproductive disorders. Humans and wildlife are generally exposed to a mixture of these environmental pollutants, highlighting the need to evaluate the potential effects of combined exposures. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of the combined exposure to two PBDEs and two PCBs in a human neuronal cell line. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether, PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl; a dioxin-like PCB), and PCB-153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl; a non-dioxin-like PCB) were chosen, because their concentrations are among the highest in human tissues and the environment. The results suggest that the nature of interactions is related to the PCB structure. Mixtures of PCB-153 and both PBDEs had a prevalently synergistic effect. In contrast, mixtures of each PBDE congener with PCB-126 showed additive effects at threshold concentrations, and synergistic effects at higher concentrations. These results emphasize the concept that the toxicity of xenobiotics may be affected by possible interactions, which may be of significance given the common coexposures to multiple contaminants. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Graph-Based Interactive Bibliographic Information Retrieval Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    In the big data era, we have witnessed the explosion of scholarly literature. This explosion has imposed challenges to the retrieval of bibliographic information. Retrieval of intended bibliographic information has become challenging due to the overwhelming search results returned by bibliographic information retrieval systems for given input…

  3. Comparing human-Salmonella with plant-Salmonella protein-protein interaction predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia eSchleker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is the most frequent food-borne disease world-wide and can be transmitted to humans by a variety of routes, especially via animal and plant products. Salmonella bacteria are believed to use not only animal and human but also plant hosts despite their evolutionary distance. This raises the question if Salmonella employs similar mechanisms in infection of these diverse hosts. Given that most of our understanding comes from its interaction with human hosts, we investigate here to what degree knowledge of Salmonella-human interactions can be transferred to the Salmonella-plant system. Reviewed are recent publications on analysis and prediction of Salmonella-host interactomes. Putative protein-protein interactions (PPIs between Salmonella and its human and Arabidopsis hosts were retrieved utilizing purely interolog-based approaches in which predictions were inferred based on available sequence and domain information of known PPIs, and machine learning approaches that integrate a larger set of useful information from different sources. Transfer learning is an especially suitable machine learning technique to predict plant host targets from the knowledge of human host targets. A comparison of the prediction results with transcriptomic data shows a clear overlap between the host proteins predicted to be targeted by PPIs and their gene ontology enrichment in both host species and regulation of gene expression. In particular, the cellular processes Salmonella interferes with in plants and humans are catabolic processes. The details of how these processes are targeted, however, are quite different between the two organisms, as expected based on their evolutionary and habitat differences. Possible implications of this observation on evolution of host-pathogen communication are discussed.

  4. Synchronization in human musical rhythms and mutually interacting complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Holger

    2014-09-09

    Though the music produced by an ensemble is influenced by multiple factors, including musical genre, musician skill, and individual interpretation, rhythmic synchronization is at the foundation of musical interaction. Here, we study the statistical nature of the mutual interaction between two humans synchronizing rhythms. We find that the interbeat intervals of both laypeople and professional musicians exhibit scale-free (power law) cross-correlations. Surprisingly, the next beat to be played by one person is dependent on the entire history of the other person's interbeat intervals on timescales up to several minutes. To understand this finding, we propose a general stochastic model for mutually interacting complex systems, which suggests a physiologically motivated explanation for the occurrence of scale-free cross-correlations. We show that the observed long-term memory phenomenon in rhythmic synchronization can be imitated by fractal coupling of separately recorded or synthesized audio tracks and thus applied in electronic music. Though this study provides an understanding of fundamental characteristics of timing and synchronization at the interbrain level, the mutually interacting complex systems model may also be applied to study the dynamics of other complex systems where scale-free cross-correlations have been observed, including econophysics, physiological time series, and collective behavior of animal flocks.

  5. Interaction of perfluorooctanoic acid with human serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fang-Fang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA has become a significant issue in many aspects of environmental ecology, toxicology, pathology and life sciences because it may have serious effects on the endocrine, immune and nervous systems and can lead to embryonic deformities and other diseases. Human serum albumin (HSA is the major protein component of blood plasma and is called a multifunctional plasma carrier protein because of its ability to bind an unusually broad spectrum of ligands. Results The interaction of PFOA with HSA was investigated in the normal physiological condition by equilibrium dialysis, fluorospectrometry, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC and circular dichroism (CD. The non-covalent interaction is resulted from hydrogen bond, van der Waals force and hydrophobic stack. PFOA binding to HSA accorded with two-step binding model with the saturation binding numbers of PFOA, only 1 in the hydrophobic intracavity of HSA and 12 on the exposed outer surface. The interaction of PFOA with HSA is spontaneous and results in change of HSA conformation. The possible binding sites were speculated. Conclusion The present work suggested a characterization method for the intermolecular weak interaction. It is potentially useful for elucidating the toxigenicity of perfluorochemicals when combined with biomolecular function effect, transmembrane transport, toxicological testing and the other experiments.

  6. Limited communication capacity unveils strategies for human interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Connectivity is the key process that characterizes the structural and functional properties of social networks. However, the bursty activity of dyadic interactions may hinder the discrimination of inactive ties from large interevent times in active ones. We develop a principled method to detect tie de-activation and apply it to a large longitudinal, cross-sectional communication dataset (~19 months, ~20 million people). Contrary to the perception of ever-growing connectivity, we observe that individuals exhibit a finite communication capacity, which limits the number of ties they can maintain active in time. On average men display higher capacity than women, and this capacity decreases for both genders over their lifespan. Separating communication capacity from activity reveals a diverse range of tie activation strategies, from stable to exploratory. This allows us to draw novel relationships between individual strategies for human interaction and the evolution of social networks at global scale.

  7. ReconMap: an interactive visualization of human metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Alberto; Daníelsdóttir, Anna Dröfn; Gawron, Piotr; Jóhannsson, Freyr; Jónsdóttir, Soffía; Jarlsson, Sindri; Gunnarsson, Jón Pétur; Brynjólfsson, Sigurður; Schneider, Reinhard; Thiele, Ines; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2017-02-15

    A genome-scale reconstruction of human metabolism, Recon 2, is available but no interface exists to interactively visualize its content integrated with omics data and simulation results. We manually drew a comprehensive map, ReconMap 2.0, that is consistent with the content of Recon 2. We present it within a web interface that allows content query, visualization of custom datasets and submission of feedback to manual curators. ReconMap can be accessed via http://vmh.uni.lu , with network export in a Systems Biology Graphical Notation compliant format released under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. A Constraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis (COBRA) Toolbox extension to interact with ReconMap is available via https://github.com/opencobra/cobratoolbox . ronan.mt.fleming@gmail.com.

  8. PARACRINE AND AUTOCRINE INTERACTIONS IN THE HUMAN ISLET: MORE THAN MEETS THE EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The pancreatic islet secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to regulate glucose metabolism. To generate an adequate secretory response, islet endocrine cells must receive multiple regulatory signals relaying information about changes in the internal and external environments. Islet cells also need to be made aware about the functional status of neighboring cells through paracrine interactions. All this information is used to orchestrate a hormonal response that contributes to glucose homeostasis. Several neurotransmitters have been proposed to work as paracrine signals in the islet. Most of these, however, have yet to meet the criteria to be considered bona fide paracrine signals, in particular in human islets. Here, we review recent findings describing autocrine and paracrine signaling mechanisms in human islets. These recent results are showing an increasingly complex picture of paracrine interactions in the human islet and emphasize that results from other species cannot be readily extrapolated to the human context. Investigators are unveiling new signaling mechanisms or finding new roles for known paracrine signals in human islets. While it is too early to provide a synthesis, the field of islet research is defining the paracrine and autocrine components that will be used to generate models about how islet function is regulated. Meanwhile, the identified signaling pathways can be proposed as therapeutic targets for treating diabetes, a devastating disease affecting millions worldwide. PMID:23022232

  9. PVA matches human liver in needle-tissue interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tonke L; Pluymen, Loes H; van Gerwen, Dennis J; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2017-05-01

    Medical phantoms can be used to study needle-tissue interaction and to train medical residents. The purpose of this research is to study the suitability of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a liver tissue mimicking material in terms of needle-tissue interaction. Insertions into ex-vivo human livers were used for reference. Six PVA samples were created by varying the mass percentage of PVA to water (4m% and 7m%) and the number of freeze-thaw cycles (1, 2 and 3 cycles, 16hours of freezing at -19°C, 8hours of thawing). The inner needle of an 18 Gauge trocar needle with triangular tip was inserted 13 times into each of the samples, using an insertion velocity of 5 mm/s. In addition, 39 insertions were performed in two ex-vivo human livers. Axial forces on the needle were captured during insertion and retraction and characterized by friction along the needle shaft, peak forces, and number of peak forces per unit length. The concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles both influenced the mechanical interaction between needle and specimen. Insertions into 4m% PVA phantoms with 2 freeze-thaw cycles were comparable to human liver in terms of estimated friction along the needle shaft and the number of peak forces. Therefore, these phantoms are considered to be suitable liver mimicking materials for image-guided needle interventions. The mechanical properties of PVA hydrogels can be influenced in a controlled manner by varying the concentration of PVA and the number of freeze-thaw cycles, to mimic liver tissue characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Suggested Interactivity: Seeking Perceived Affordances for Information Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, Jeremy; Eveillard, Louis; Detienne, Françoise; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate methods for suggesting the interactivity of online visualizations embedded with text. We first assess the need for such methods by conducting three initial experiments on Amazon's Mechanical Turk. We then present a design space for Suggested Interactivity (i. e., visual cues used as perceived affordances-SI), based on a survey of 382 HTML5 and visualization websites. Finally, we assess the effectiveness of three SI cues we designed for suggesting the interactivity of bar charts embedded with text. Our results show that only one cue (SI3) was successful in inciting participants to interact with the visualizations, and we hypothesize this is because this particular cue provided feedforward.

  11. Improving Information Extraction and Translation Using Component Interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ji, Heng

    2008-01-01

    ... stages. This thesis presents a new framework based on component interactions to approach this goal. The new framework applies all stages in a suitable order, with each stage generating multiple hypotheses and propagating them through the whole pipeline...

  12. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings.This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  13. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings. This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  14. Simplified Human-Robot Interaction: Modeling and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel concept of human-robot interaction (HRI modeling is proposed. Including factors like trust in automation, situational awareness, expertise and expectations a new user experience framework is formed for industrial robots. Service Oriented Robot Operation, proposed in a previous paper, creates an abstract level in HRI and it is also included in the framework. This concept is evaluated with exhaustive tests. Results prove that significant improvement in task execution may be achieved and the new system is more usable for operators with less experience with robotics; personnel specific for small and medium enterprises (SMEs.

  15. THE HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Panyukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an approach to introduction in the human capital management of new information technologies is offered. The analysis of a current state of the human capital in Russia, its mobility is carried out. Results of using social networks services for creation of a web portfolio of the student and the teacher in higher education institution are presented. The main directions of using cloudy technologies in Russian human capital management, in the solution of the problems connected with graduate’s employment are formulated.

  16. Interaction between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Streptococcus milleri group bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanahita, Anna; Goldsmith, Elizabeth A; Musher, Daniel M; Clarridge, Jill E; Rubio, Jose; Krishnan, Bhuvaneswari; Trial, JoAnn

    2002-01-01

    Because Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) bacteria--Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus anginosus--exhibit a striking propensity to cause abscesses, the interaction of these organisms with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was examined. After incubation in pooled normal human serum, SMG stimulated less chemotaxis than did Staphylococcus aureus, in contrast to viridans streptococci, which caused greater chemotaxis than did S. aureus. PMNL ingested greater numbers of SMG and viridans streptococci than S. aureus but killed these organisms more slowly and less completely. Relative resistance to killing by PMNL is expected in organisms that cause abscesses, and inhibition of chemotaxis may contribute to pathogenicity, because delayed arrival of PMNL gives a head start to proliferating bacteria. This study helps explain the capacity of SMG to cause abscesses. It is unclear, however, why viridans streptococci, bacteria that rarely produce abscesses, share some of these same properties.

  17. Human-wildlife interactions and zoonotic transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegglin, Daniel; Bontadina, Fabio; Deplazes, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The life cycle of the zoonotic cestode Echinococcus multilocularis depends on canids (mainly red foxes) as definitive hosts and on their specific predation on rodent species (intermediate hosts). Host densities and predation rates are key drivers for infection with parasite eggs. We demonstrate that they strongly depend on multi-faceted human-wildlife interactions: vaccination against rabies, elimination of top predators, and changing attitude towards wildlife (feeding) contribute to high fox densities. The absence of large canids, low hunting pressure, and positive attitudes towards foxes modify their anti-predator response ('landscape of fear'), promoting their tameness, which in turn facilitates the colonization of residential areas and modifies parasite transmission. Such human factors should be considered in the assessment of any intervention and prevention strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interactive association of drugs binding to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Feng; Zhang, Yao; Liang, Hong

    2014-02-27

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an abundant plasma protein, which attracts great interest in the pharmaceutical industry since it can bind a remarkable variety of drugs impacting their delivery and efficacy and ultimately altering the drug's pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Additionally, HSA is widely used in clinical settings as a drug delivery system due to its potential for improving targeting while decreasing the side effects of drugs. It is thus of great importance from the viewpoint of pharmaceutical sciences to clarify the structure, function, and properties of HSA-drug complexes. This review will succinctly outline the properties of binding site of drugs in IIA subdomain within the structure of HSA. We will also give an overview on the binding characterization of interactive association of drugs to human serum albumin that may potentially lead to significant clinical applications.

  19. Economics as a Science of the Human Mind and Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Hertel, Frederik; Clark, Woodrow

    2014-01-01

    upon the perspective chosen, in which one sees and thinks of economics from a particular philosophical and even political position and perspective. If one takes the perspective on economics from a qualitative paradigm that draws upon the tradition from Kant, Husserl, Simmel, Mead, Schutz, Blumer (see......In understanding economics and the organisation of economics, the questions are what constituteeconomics and the thinking behind economics today? In short what is the field of economics? And in what ways can we connect to and understand this field of study? Of course, the answer to this depends...... references), then it can be stated that economics cannot only be understood as something that appears in nature. On the contrary, economics must be understood as “something” which results from human behaviour, interaction and groups in human activities and the thinking involved and embedded in those...

  20. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...... the methodological capability of the human factors profession. In the following sections, I will briefly review this development, as I see it, and outline the approach to human factors problems needed in advanced technological systems....

  1. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J; Siminiceanu, Radu I

    2012-11-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel's zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development.

  2. Metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene and n-hexane in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Hansen, S H

    1998-01-01

    This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane.......This human experimental study describes the mutual metabolic interaction between toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane....

  3. DIGI-vis: Distributed interactive geospatial information visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Ponto, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Geospatial information systems provide an abundance of information for researchers and scientists. Unfortunately this type of data can usually only be analyzed a few megapixels at a time, giving researchers a very narrow view into these voluminous data sets. We propose a distributed data gathering and visualization system that allows researchers to view these data at hundreds of megapixels simultaneously. This system allows scientists to view real-time geospatial information at unprecedented levels expediting analysis, interrogation, and discovery. ©2010 IEEE.

  4. Understanding human-landscape interactions in the "Anthropocene".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Carol P; Chin, Anne; English, Mary R; Fu, Rong; Galvin, Kathleen A; Gerlak, Andrea K; McDowell, Patricia F; McNamara, Dylan E; Peterson, Jeffrey M; Poff, N LeRoy; Rosa, Eugene A; Solecki, William D; Wohl, Ellen E

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the primary outcomes of an interdisciplinary workshop in 2010, sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation, focused on developing key questions and integrative themes for advancing the science of human-landscape systems. The workshop was a response to a grand challenge identified recently by the U.S. National Research Council (2010a)--"How will Earth's surface evolve in the "Anthropocene?"--suggesting that new theories and methodological approaches are needed to tackle increasingly complex human-landscape interactions in the new era. A new science of human-landscape systems recognizes the interdependence of hydro-geomorphological, ecological, and human processes and functions. Advances within a range of disciplines spanning the physical, biological, and social sciences are therefore needed to contribute toward interdisciplinary research that lies at the heart of the science. Four integrative research themes were identified--thresholds/tipping points, time scales and time lags, spatial scales and boundaries, and feedback loops--serving as potential focal points around which theory can be built for human-landscape systems. Implementing the integrative themes requires that the research communities: (1) establish common metrics to describe and quantify human, biological, and geomorphological systems; (2) develop new ways to integrate diverse data and methods; and (3) focus on synthesis, generalization, and meta-analyses, as individual case studies continue to accumulate. Challenges to meeting these needs center on effective communication and collaboration across diverse disciplines spanning the natural and social scientific divide. Creating venues and mechanisms for sustained focused interdisciplinary collaborations, such as synthesis centers, becomes extraordinarily important for advancing the science.

  5. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morina, N.; Brinkman, W.P.; Hartanto, D.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Human health hazards of veterinary medications: information for emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Elaine Blythe; Barthold, Claudia; Malesker, Mark A; Wichman, Tammy O

    2011-02-01

    There are over 5000 approved prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vaccines, with labeled indications for veterinary patients. Of these, there are several products that have significant human health hazards upon accidental or intentional exposure or ingestion in humans: carfentanil, clenbuterol (Ventipulmin), ketamine, tilmicosin (Micotil), testosterone/estradiol (Component E-H and Synovex H), dinoprost (Lutalyse/Prostamate), and cloprostenol (Estromate/EstroPlan). The hazards range from mild to life-threatening in terms of severity, and include bronchospasm, central nervous system stimulation, induction of miscarriage, and sudden death. To report medication descriptions, human toxicity information, and medical management for the emergent care of patients who may have had exposure to veterinary medications when they present to an emergency department (ED). The intended use of this article is to inform and support ED personnel, drug information centers, and poison control centers on veterinary medication hazards. There is a need for increased awareness of the potential hazards of veterinary medications within human medicine circles. Timely reporting of veterinary medication hazards and their medical management may help to prepare the human medical community to deal with such exposures or abuses when time is of the essence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A New World Information Order for Better Human Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    Many studies, particularly the report of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (ICSCP), have tried to define a new world information order for better human understanding. What appears to be needed is the establishment of a new, open-ended, conceptual framework leading to a freer, more efficient, more equitable,…

  8. Information Theory: A Method for Human Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John W.

    This paper describes seven experiments related to human communication research. The first two experiments discuss studies treating the aural responses of listeners. The third experiment was undertaken to estimate the information of sounds and diagrams which might lead to an estimate of the redundancy ascribed to the phonetic structure of words. A…

  9. When Humanoid Robots Become Human-Like Interaction Partners: Corepresentation of Robotic Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Anna; Chinellato, Eris; Bou, Maria A. Tirado; del Pobil, Angel P.; Lappe, Markus; Liepelt, Roman

    2012-01-01

    In human-human interactions, corepresenting a partner's actions is crucial to successfully adjust and coordinate actions with others. Current research suggests that action corepresentation is restricted to interactions between human agents facilitating social interaction with conspecifics. In this study, we investigated whether action…

  10. Cognitive Emotional Regulation Model in Human-Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrated Gross cognitive process into the HMM (hidden Markov model emotional regulation method and implemented human-robot emotional interaction with facial expressions and behaviors. Here, energy was the psychological driving force of emotional transition in the cognitive emotional model. The input facial expression was translated into external energy by expression-emotion mapping. Robot’s next emotional state was determined by the cognitive energy (the stimulus after cognition and its own current emotional energy’s size and source’s position. The two random quantities in emotional transition process—the emotional family and the specific emotional state in the AVS (arousal-valence-stance 3D space—were used to simulate human emotion selection. The model had been verified by an emotional robot with 10 degrees of freedom and more than 100 kinds of facial expressions. Experimental results show that the emotional regulation model does not simply provide the typical classification and jump in terms of a set of emotional labels but that it operates in a 3D emotional space enabling a wide range of intermediary emotional states to be obtained. So the robot with cognitive emotional regulation model is more intelligent and real; moreover it can give full play to its emotional diversification in the interaction.

  11. Complexity of human and ecosystem interactions in an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of human interaction in the commercial agricultural landscape and the resulting impacts on the ecosystem services of water quality and quantity is largely ignored by the current agricultural paradigm that maximizes crop production over other ecosystem services. Three examples at different spatial scales (local, regional, and global) are presented where human and ecosystem interactions in a commercial agricultural landscape adversely affect water quality and quantity in unintended ways in the Delta of northwestern Mississippi. In the first example, little to no regulation of groundwater use for irrigation has caused declines in groundwater levels resulting in loss of baseflow to streams and threatening future water supply. In the second example, federal policy which subsidizes corn for biofuel production has encouraged many producers to switch from cotton to corn, which requires more nutrients and water, counter to national efforts to reduce nutrient loads to the Gulf of Mexico and exacerbating groundwater level declines. The third example is the wholesale adoption of a system for weed control that relies on a single chemical, initially providing many benefits and ultimately leading to the widespread occurrence of glyphosate and its degradates in Delta streams and necessitating higher application rates of glyphosate as well as the use of other herbicides due to increasing weed resistance. Although these examples are specific to the Mississippi Delta, analogous situations exist throughout the world and point to the need for change in how we grow our food, fuel, and fiber, and manage our soil and water resources.

  12. The interaction between informal cancer caregivers and health care professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Petersen, Morten Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    dissatisfaction with the interaction and socio-demographic and disease-related variables. METHODS: In a cross-sectional questionnaire study, cancer patients with various diagnoses and disease stages were invited to pass on the 'cancer caregiving tasks, consequences and needs questionnaire' (CaTCoN) to up to three...... of their caregivers. RESULTS: A total of 590 caregivers (related to 415 (55 %) of 752 eligible patients) participated. Although many caregivers were satisfied, considerable proportions experienced problems or had unmet needs regarding the interaction with HCPs. Prominent problematic aspects included optimal...

  13. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  14. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  15. Dynamic protein interaction modules in human hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Lin, Chen-Ching; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiles have been frequently integrated with the human protein interactome to uncover functional modules under specific conditions like disease state. Beyond traditional differential expression analysis, differential co-expression analysis has emerged as a robust approach to reveal condition-specific network modules, with successful applications in a few human disease studies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is often interrelated with the Hepatitis C virus, typically develops through multiple stages. A comprehensive investigation of HCC progression-specific differential co-expression modules may advance our understanding of HCC's pathophysiological mechanisms. Compared with differentially expressed genes, differentially co-expressed genes were found more likely enriched with Hepatitis C virus binding proteins and cancer-mutated genes, and they were clustered more densely in the human reference protein interaction network. These observations indicated that a differential co-expression approach could outperform the standard differential expression network analysis in searching for disease-related modules. We then proposed a differential co-expression network approach to uncover network modules involved in HCC development. Specifically, we discovered subnetworks that enriched differentially co-expressed gene pairs in each HCC transition stage, and further resolved modules with coherent co-expression change patterns over all HCC developmental stages. Our identified network modules were enriched with HCC-related genes and implicated in cancer-related biological functions. In particular, APC and YWHAZ were highlighted as two most remarkable genes in the network modules, and their dynamic interaction partnership was resolved in HCC development. We demonstrated that integration of differential co-expression with the protein interactome could outperform the traditional differential expression approach in discovering network modules of human diseases

  16. Predictive Mechanisms Are Not Involved the Same Way during Human-Human vs. Human-Machine Interactions: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahaï, Aïsha; Pacherie, Elisabeth; Grynszpan, Ouriel; Berberian, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, interactions with others do not only involve human peers but also automated systems. Many studies suggest that the motor predictive systems that are engaged during action execution are also involved during joint actions with peers and during other human generated action observation. Indeed, the comparator model hypothesis suggests that the comparison between a predicted state and an estimated real state enables motor control, and by a similar functioning, understanding and anticipating observed actions. Such a mechanism allows making predictions about an ongoing action, and is essential to action regulation, especially during joint actions with peers. Interestingly, the same comparison process has been shown to be involved in the construction of an individual's sense of agency, both for self-generated and observed other human generated actions. However, the implication of such predictive mechanisms during interactions with machines is not consensual, probably due to the high heterogeneousness of the automata used in the experimentations, from very simplistic devices to full humanoid robots. The discrepancies that are observed during human/machine interactions could arise from the absence of action/observation matching abilities when interacting with traditional low-level automata. Consistently, the difficulties to build a joint agency with this kind of machines could stem from the same problem. In this context, we aim to review the studies investigating predictive mechanisms during social interactions with humans and with automated artificial systems. We will start by presenting human data that show the involvement of predictions in action control and in the sense of agency during social interactions. Thereafter, we will confront this literature with data from the robotic field. Finally, we will address the upcoming issues in the field of robotics related to automated systems aimed at acting as collaborative agents.

  17. Predictive Mechanisms Are Not Involved the Same Way during Human-Human vs. Human-Machine Interactions: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïsha Sahaï

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, interactions with others do not only involve human peers but also automated systems. Many studies suggest that the motor predictive systems that are engaged during action execution are also involved during joint actions with peers and during other human generated action observation. Indeed, the comparator model hypothesis suggests that the comparison between a predicted state and an estimated real state enables motor control, and by a similar functioning, understanding and anticipating observed actions. Such a mechanism allows making predictions about an ongoing action, and is essential to action regulation, especially during joint actions with peers. Interestingly, the same comparison process has been shown to be involved in the construction of an individual's sense of agency, both for self-generated and observed other human generated actions. However, the implication of such predictive mechanisms during interactions with machines is not consensual, probably due to the high heterogeneousness of the automata used in the experimentations, from very simplistic devices to full humanoid robots. The discrepancies that are observed during human/machine interactions could arise from the absence of action/observation matching abilities when interacting with traditional low-level automata. Consistently, the difficulties to build a joint agency with this kind of machines could stem from the same problem. In this context, we aim to review the studies investigating predictive mechanisms during social interactions with humans and with automated artificial systems. We will start by presenting human data that show the involvement of predictions in action control and in the sense of agency during social interactions. Thereafter, we will confront this literature with data from the robotic field. Finally, we will address the upcoming issues in the field of robotics related to automated systems aimed at acting as collaborative agents.

  18. Ariadne's Thread - Interactive Navigation in a World of Networked Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Rob; Wang, Shenghui; Scharnhorst, Andrea; Englebienne, Gwenn

    2015-01-01

    This work-in-progress paper introduces an interface for the interactive visual exploration of the context of queries using the ArticleFirst database, a product of OCLC. We describe a workflow which allows the user to browse live entities associated with 65 million articles. In the on-line interface,

  19. Web-Based Interactive Visualization in an Information Retrieval Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Interactive visualization is a powerful educational tool. It has been used to enhance the teaching of various subjects from computer science to chemistry to engineering. In computer science education, this powerful tool is used almost exclusively in programming and data structure courses. This paper suggests that visualization could be very…

  20. Chromosome conformation capture uncovers potential genome-wide interactions between human conserved non-coding sequences.

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    Daniel Robyr

    Full Text Available Comparative analyses of various mammalian genomes have identified numerous conserved non-coding (CNC DNA elements that display striking conservation among species, suggesting that they have maintained specific functions throughout evolution. CNC function remains poorly understood, although recent studies have identified a role in gene regulation. We hypothesized that the identification of genomic loci that interact physically with CNCs would provide information on their functions. We have used circular chromosome conformation capture (4C to characterize interactions of 10 CNCs from human chromosome 21 in K562 cells. The data provide evidence that CNCs are capable of interacting with loci that are enriched for CNCs. The number of trans interactions varies among CNCs; some show interactions with many loci, while others interact with few. Some of the tested CNCs are capable of driving the expression of a reporter gene in the mouse embryo, and associate with the oligodendrocyte genes OLIG1 and OLIG2. Our results underscore the power of chromosome conformation capture for the identification of targets of functional DNA elements and raise the possibility that CNCs exert their functions by physical association with defined genomic regions enriched in CNCs. These CNC-CNC interactions may in part explain their stringent conservation as a group of regulatory sequences.

  1. Elephant-Initiated Interactions with Humans: Individual Differences and Specific Preferences in Captive African Elephants (Loxodonta africana

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    Zoë T. Rossman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has seen a recent increase in the number of African elephants (Loxodonta africana maintained in reserves and parks and managed in free contact, where they may spend a significant amount of time in close proximity to humans. This study investigates how individual elephants choose to initiate interactions with humans by examining whether interaction types and frequencies vary both between elephants and with regards to the category of human involved in the interaction. Observations were made on a herd of seven captive African elephants frequently exposed to elephant handlers (guides, volunteers (who carry out general observations for the park’s research unit, and tourists. The elephants differed in the frequencies with which they initiated interactions with each category of human and in the types of behaviors they used to initiate interactions. However, all of the elephants interacted most frequently with guides. Certain individual elephants showed preferences in interacting with specific guides, indicating particular elephant-guide bonds. This study provides evidence for elephant-handler bonds as well as information on the extent of interactions between humans and African elephants managed in free contact.

  2. Bayesian Safety Risk Modeling of Human-Flightdeck Automation Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2015-01-01

    Usage of automatic systems in airliners has increased fuel efficiency, added extra capabilities, enhanced safety and reliability, as well as provide improved passenger comfort since its introduction in the late 80's. However, original automation benefits, including reduced flight crew workload, human errors or training requirements, were not achieved as originally expected. Instead, automation introduced new failure modes, redistributed, and sometimes increased workload, brought in new cognitive and attention demands, and increased training requirements. Modern airliners have numerous flight modes, providing more flexibility (and inherently more complexity) to the flight crew. However, the price to pay for the increased flexibility is the need for increased mode awareness, as well as the need to supervise, understand, and predict automated system behavior. Also, over-reliance on automation is linked to manual flight skill degradation and complacency in commercial pilots. As a result, recent accidents involving human errors are often caused by the interactions between humans and the automated systems (e.g., the breakdown in man-machine coordination), deteriorated manual flying skills, and/or loss of situational awareness due to heavy dependence on automated systems. This paper describes the development of the increased complexity and reliance on automation baseline model, named FLAP for FLightdeck Automation Problems. The model development process starts with a comprehensive literature review followed by the construction of a framework comprised of high-level causal factors leading to an automation-related flight anomaly. The framework was then converted into a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) using the Hugin Software v7.8. The effects of automation on flight crew are incorporated into the model, including flight skill degradation, increased cognitive demand and training requirements along with their interactions. Besides flight crew deficiencies, automation system

  3. Chinese Cardiovascular Disease Mobile Apps' Information Types, Information Quality, and Interactive Functions for Self-Management: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Zhang, Wenhui; Cai, Run

    2017-12-14

    China has a large population with cardiovascular disease (CVD) that requires extensive self-management. Mobile health (mHealth) apps may be a useful tool for CVD self-management. Little is currently known about the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and whether app functions are conducive to promoting CVD self-management. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and interactive app functions for promoting CVD self-management. Mobile apps targeting end users in China with CVD conditions were selected in February 2017 through a multi-stage process. Three frameworks were used to evaluate the selected apps: (1) types of health information offered were assessed using our Health Information Wants framework, which encompasses 7 types of information; (2) quality of information provided in the apps was assessed using the 11 guidelines recommended by the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health; and (3) types of interactive app functions for CVD self-management were assessed using a 15-item framework adapted from the literature, including our own prior work. Of 578 apps identified, 82 were eligible for final review. Among these, information about self-care (67/82, 82%) and information specifically regarding CVD (63/82, 77%) were the most common types of information provided, while information about health care providers (22/82, 27%) and laboratory tests (5/82, 6%) were least common. The most common indicators of information quality were the revealing of apps' providers (82/82, 100%) and purpose (82/82, 100%), while the least common quality indicators were the revealing of how apps' information was selected (1/82, 1%) and app sponsorship (0/82, 0%). The most common interactive functions for CVD self-management were those that enabled user interaction with the app provider (57/82, 70%) and with health care providers (36/82, 44

  4. Using JavaScript and the FDSN web service to create an interactive earthquake information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kasper D.

    2015-04-01

    The FDSN web service provides a web interface to access earthquake meta-data (e. g. event or station information) and waveform date over the internet. Requests are send to a server as URLs and the output is either XML or miniSEED. This makes it hard to read by humans but easy to process with different software. Different data centers are already supporting the FDSN web service, e. g. USGS, IRIS, ORFEUS. The FDSN web service is also part of the Seiscomp3 (http://www.seiscomp3.org) software. The Seismological Observatory of the Ruhr-University switched to Seiscomp3 as the standard software for the analysis of mining induced earthquakes at the beginning of 2014. This made it necessary to create a new web-based earthquake information service for the publication of results to the general public. This has be done by processing the output of a FDSN web service query by javascript running in a standard browser. The result is an interactive map presenting the observed events and further information of events and stations on a single web page as a table and on a map. In addition the user can download event information, waveform data and station data in different formats like miniSEED, quakeML or FDSNxml. The developed code and all used libraries are open source and freely available.

  5. Using Language Games as a Way to Investigate Interactional Engagement in Human-Robot Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L. C.

    2016-01-01

    Social robots are employed in many classrooms and have been shown to aid learning. However, studies show that while schools intend for these robots to be social actors, they are not treated as such by the students. As the social factor is crucial for interactional engagement, this paper discusses...... how students' engagement with a social robot can be systematically investigated and evaluated. For this purpose, I present a small user study in which a robot plays a word formation game with a human, in which engagement is determined by means of an analysis of the 'language games' played...

  6. Estimation of Physical Human-Robot Interaction Using Cost-Effective Pneumatic Padding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Wilkening

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The idea to use a cost-effective pneumatic padding for sensing of physical interaction between a user and wearable rehabilitation robots is not new, but until now there has not been any practical relevant realization. In this paper, we present a novel method to estimate physical human-robot interaction using a pneumatic padding based on artificial neural networks (ANNs. This estimation can serve as rough indicator of applied forces/torques by the user and can be applied for visual feedback about the user’s participation or as additional information for interaction controllers. Unlike common mostly very expensive 6-axis force/torque sensors (FTS, the proposed sensor system can be easily integrated in the design of physical human-robot interfaces of rehabilitation robots and adapts itself to the shape of the individual patient’s extremity by pressure changing in pneumatic chambers, in order to provide a safe physical interaction with high user’s comfort. This paper describes a concept of using ANNs for estimation of interaction forces/torques based on pressure variations of eight customized air-pad chambers. The ANNs were trained one-time offline using signals of a high precision FTS which is also used as reference sensor for experimental validation. Experiments with three different subjects confirm the functionality of the concept and the estimation algorithm.

  7. Discoveries and developments in human-computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes contributions made to the science and practice of human-computer interaction (HCI), primarily through Human Factors and the society's annual proceedings. Research in HCI began to appear in publications associated with the Society around 1980 and has continued through the present. A search of the literature appearing in either the journal or the proceedings was done to identify the specific contributions made by researchers in this area. More than 2,300 papers were identified, some comparing the actual or predicted performance of a new device, display format, or computer-based system with an existing or alternative system. Other work describes methods for evaluating systems performance. This work has had a tremendous impact, particularly the work of Fitts, Smith and Mosier, and Virzi. Work on HCI has contributed to (a) current national and international guidelines, (b) the development of user interface management systems, (c) the provision of guidance as to where best to invest resources when evaluating computing systems, and (d) the prediction of human performance using those systems.

  8. Human Possibilities: The Interaction of Biology and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riane Eisler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the two main strands of a new unified theory about human nature and human possibilities: cultural transformation theory and bio-culturalism. Bio-culturalism combines findings from neuroscience about how our brains develop in interaction with our environments with findings from the study of relational dynamics, a new method of social analysis focusing on what kinds of relations—from intimate to international—a particular culture or subculture supports. Bio-culturalism recognizes that our species has a vast spectrum of genetic capacities, ranging from consciousness, caring, empathy, cooperation, and creativity to insensitivity, cruelty, exploitation, and destructiveness, and proposes that which of these capacities are expressed or inhibited largely hinges on the nature of our cultural environments. Cultural transformation theory looks at the whole span of human cultural evolution from the perspective of the tension between the contrasting configurations of the partnership system and the domination system as two underlying possibilities for structuring beliefs, institutions, and relationships. The article describes the core components of partnership- and domination-oriented societies, provides examples of each, and proposes that our future hinges on accelerating the cultural transformation from domination to partnership in our time of nuclear and biological weapons and the ever more efficient despoliation of nature, when high technology guided by an ethos of domination and conquest could take us to an evolutionary dead end.

  9. Towards visual and vocal mimicry recognition in human-human interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Pantic, Maja; Nijholt, Antinus; Tunstel, E.; Nahavandi, S.; Stoica, A.

    2011-01-01

    During face-to-face interpersonal interaction, people have a tendency to mimic each other. People not only mimic postures, mannerisms, moods or emotions, but they also mimic several speech-related behaviors. In this paper we describe how visual and vocal behavioral information expressed between two

  10. Effects of Professional Experience and Group Interaction on Information Requested in Analyzing IT Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Constance M.; Heagy, Cynthia D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of professional experience and group interaction on the information that information technology professionals and graduate accounting information system (AIS) students request when analyzing business cases related to information systems design and implementation. Understanding these effects can contribute to…

  11. Inferring Interaction Force from Visual Information without Using Physical Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonjun Hwang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an interaction force estimation method that uses visual information rather than that of a force sensor. Specifically, we propose a novel deep learning-based method utilizing only sequential images for estimating the interaction force against a target object, where the shape of the object is changed by an external force. The force applied to the target can be estimated by means of the visual shape changes. However, the shape differences in the images are not very clear. To address this problem, we formulate a recurrent neural network-based deep model with fully-connected layers, which models complex temporal dynamics from the visual representations. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed learning models successfully estimate the interaction forces using only the corresponding sequential images, in particular in the case of three objects made of different materials, a sponge, a PET bottle, a human arm, and a tube. The forces predicted by the proposed method are very similar to those measured by force sensors.

  12. Inferring Interaction Force from Visual Information without Using Physical Force Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonjun; Lim, Soo-Chul

    2017-10-26

    In this paper, we present an interaction force estimation method that uses visual information rather than that of a force sensor. Specifically, we propose a novel deep learning-based method utilizing only sequential images for estimating the interaction force against a target object, where the shape of the object is changed by an external force. The force applied to the target can be estimated by means of the visual shape changes. However, the shape differences in the images are not very clear. To address this problem, we formulate a recurrent neural network-based deep model with fully-connected layers, which models complex temporal dynamics from the visual representations. Extensive evaluations show that the proposed learning models successfully estimate the interaction forces using only the corresponding sequential images, in particular in the case of three objects made of different materials, a sponge, a PET bottle, a human arm, and a tube. The forces predicted by the proposed method are very similar to those measured by force sensors.

  13. Exposure to superfluous information reduces cooperation and increases antisocial punishment in reputation-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel edos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is often based on reputation gained from previous interactions with third parties. Such reputation can be built on generous or punitive actions, and both, one’s own reputation and the reputation of others have been shown to influence decision making in experimental games that control for confounding variables. Here we test how reputation-based cooperation and punishment react to disruption of the cognitive processing in different kinds of helping games with observers. Saying a few superfluous words before each interaction was used to possibly interfere with working memory. In a first set of experiments, where reputation could only be based on generosity, the disruption reduced the frequency of cooperation and lowered mean final payoffs. In a second set of experiments where reputation could only be based on punishment, the disruption increased the frequency of antisocial punishment (i.e. of punishing those who helped and reduced the frequency of punishing defectors. Our findings suggest that working memory can easily be constraining in reputation-based interactions within experimental games, even if these games are based on a few simple rules with a visual display that provides all the information the subjects need to play the strategies predicted from current theory. Our findings also highlight a weakness of experimental games, namely that they can be very sensitive to environmental variation and that quantitative conclusions about antisocial punishment or other behavioral strategies can easily be misleading.

  14. Modeling of interactions of electromagnetic fields with human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputa, Krzysztof

    Interactions of electromagnetic fields with the human body have been a subject of scientific interest and public concern. In recent years, issues in power line field effects and those of wireless telephones have been in the forefront of research. Engineering research compliments biological investigations by quantifying the induced fields in biological bodies due to exposure to external fields. The research presented in this thesis aims at providing reliable tools, and addressing some of the unresolved issues related to interactions with the human body of power line fields and fields produced by handheld wireless telephones. The research comprises two areas, namely development of versatile models of the human body and their visualisation, and verification and application of numerical codes to solve selected problems of interest. The models of the human body, which are based on the magnetic resonance scans of the body, are unique and differ considerably from other models currently available. With the aid of computer software developed, the models can be arranged to different postures, and medical devices can be accurately placed inside them. A previously developed code for modeling interactions of power line fields with biological bodies has been verified by rigorous, quantitative inter-laboratory comparison for two human body models. This code has been employed to model electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the magnetic field with implanted cardiac pacemakers. In this case, the correct placement and representation of the pacemaker leads are critical, as simplified computations have been shown to result in significant errors. In modeling interactions of wireless communication devices, the finite difference time domain technique (FDTD) has become a de facto standard. The previously developed code has been verified by comparison with the analytical solution for a conductive sphere. While previously researchers limited their verifications to principal axes of the sphere

  15. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2013-01-01

    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  16. Is Informed Consent Necessary for Research on Stored Human Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Fred Sembajwe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Informed consent is always required before patients can be treated in health centers as well as participating in any kind of research. This requirement often poses a serious challenge to researchers in situations where existing guidelines are not clear about the ownership of donated or discarded human biological samples in hospital archives. The current regulations demand that when doing research, the major bioethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should always be respected and adhered to. There is increased value of stored biomaterials due to advancement in biotechnology which has also contributed to increased debate on whether researchers should seek informed consent from the individual donors before such materials can be used for research. In enforcing these bioethical principles, most guidelines focus on research involving direct contact with human beings, and no much attention is given to stored or discarded body parts and biomaterials that end up being used for research in later years. There are some hypotheses that can be tested by doing research on the stored biological samples, especially by students or scientists attached to various University hospitals, research-centers and laboratories. We attempt to provide some scenarios and reviewed guidelines that can help provide a consensus as to whether it is strictly necessary to have informed consent for research on stored or discarded human body parts and who should claim ownership of collected human biomaterials for research or potential commercial purposes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 119-128

  17. Interface, information, interaction: a narrative review of design and functional requirements for clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen; Mosby, Danielle; Capan, Muge; Kowalski, Rebecca; Ratwani, Raj; Noaiseh, Yaman; Kraft, Rachel; Schwartz, Sanford; Weintraub, William S; Arnold, Ryan

    2017-11-06

    Provider acceptance and associated patient outcomes are widely discussed in the evaluation of clinical decision support systems (CDSSs), but critical design criteria for tools have generally been overlooked. The objective of this work is to inform electronic health record alert optimization and clinical practice workflow by identifying, compiling, and reporting design recommendations for CDSS to support the efficient, effective, and timely delivery of high-quality care. A narrative review was conducted from 2000 to 2016 in PubMed and The Journal of Human Factors and Ergonomics Society to identify papers that discussed/recommended design features of CDSSs that are associated with the success of these systems. Fourteen papers were included as meeting the criteria and were found to have a total of 42 unique recommendations; 11 were classified as interface features, 10 as information features, and 21 as interaction features. Features are defined and described, providing actionable guidance that can be applied to CDSS development and policy. To our knowledge, no reviews have been completed that discuss/recommend design features of CDSS at this scale, and thus we found that this was important for the body of literature. The recommendations identified in this narrative review will help to optimize design, organization, management, presentation, and utilization of information through presentation, content, and function. The designation of 3 categories (interface, information, and interaction) should be further evaluated to determine the critical importance of the categories. Future work will determine how to prioritize them with limited resources for designers and developers in order to maximize the clinical utility of CDSS. This review will expand the field of knowledge and provide a novel organization structure to identify key recommendations for CDSS.

  18. Humans in Biogeophysical Models: Colonial Period Human-Environment Interactions in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Greco, F.; Green, M.; Lally, M.; Hermans, C.

    2008-12-01

    Earth system models increasingly require representation of human activities and the important role they play in the environment. At the most fundamental level, human decisions are driven by the need to acquire basic resources - nutrients, energy, water, and space - each derived from the biogeophysical setting. Modern theories in Ecological Economics place these basic resources at the base of a consumption hierarchy (from subsistence to luxury resources) on which societies and economies are built. Human decisions at all levels of this hierarchy are driven by dynamic environmental, social, and economic factors. Therefore, models merging socio-economic and biogeophysical dynamics are required to predict the evolving relationship between humans and the hydrologic cycle. To provide an example, our study focuses on changes to the hydrologic cycle during the United States colonial period (1600 to 1800). Both direct, intentional, human water use (e.g. water supply, irrigation, or hydropower) and indirect, unintentional effects resulting from the use of other resources (e.g. deforestation or beaver trapping) are considered. We argue that water was not the limiting resource to either the Native or Colonist population growth. However, food and tobacco production and harvesting of beaver pelts led to indirect interventions and consequent changes in the hydrologic cycle. The analysis presented here suggests the importance of incorporating human decision- making dynamics with existing geophysical models to fully understand trajectories of human-environment interactions. Predictive tools of this type are critical to characterizing the long-term signature of humans on the landscape and hydrologic cycle.

  19. Layout Design of Human-Machine Interaction Interface of Cabin Based on Cognitive Ergonomics and GA-ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai

    2016-01-01

    In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Characterization of Yersinia pestis Interactions with Human Neutrophils In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Dudte

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is a gram-negative, zoonotic, bacterial pathogen, and the causative agent of plague. The bubonic form of plague occurs subsequent to deposition of bacteria in the skin by the bite of an infected flea. Neutrophils are recruited to the site of infection within the first few hours and interactions between neutrophils and Y. pestis have been demonstrated in vivo. In contrast to macrophages, neutrophils have been considered non-permissive to Y. pestis intracellular survival. Several studies have shown killing of the vast majority of Y. pestis ingested by human neutrophils. However, survival of 10–15% of Y. pestis after phagocytosis by neutrophils is consistently observed. Furthermore, these surviving bacteria eventually replicate within and escape from the neutrophils. We set out to further characterize the interactions between Y. pestis and human neutrophils by (1 determining the effects of known Y. pestis virulence factors on bacterial survival after uptake by neutrophils, (2 examining the mechanisms employed by the neutrophil to kill the majority of intracellular Y. pestis, (3 determining the activation phenotype of Y. pestis-infected neutrophils, and (4 characterizing the Y. pestis-containing phagosome in neutrophils. We infected human neutrophils in vitro with Y. pestis and assayed bacterial survival and uptake. Deletion of the caf1 gene responsible for F1 capsule production resulted in significantly increased uptake of Y. pestis. Surprisingly, while the two-component regulator PhoPQ system is important for survival of Y. pestis within neutrophils, pre-induction of this system prior to infection did not increase bacterial survival. We used an IPTG-inducible mCherry construct to distinguish viable from non-viable intracellular bacteria and determined the association of the Y. pestis-containing phagosome with neutrophil NADPH-oxidase and markers of primary, secondary and tertiary granules. Additionally, we show that inhibition of

  1. Interaction between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two…

  2. Ghost-in-the-Machine reveals human social signals for human–robot interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Sebastian; Jettka, Katharina; Giuliani, Manuel; de Ruiter, Jan P.

    2015-01-01

    We used a new method called “Ghost-in-the-Machine” (GiM) to investigate social interactions with a robotic bartender taking orders for drinks and serving them. Using the GiM paradigm allowed us to identify how human participants recognize the intentions of customers on the basis of the output of the robotic recognizers. Specifically, we measured which recognizer modalities (e.g., speech, the distance to the bar) were relevant at different stages of the interaction. This provided insights into human social behavior necessary for the development of socially competent robots. When initiating the drink-order interaction, the most important recognizers were those based on computer vision. When drink orders were being placed, however, the most important information source was the speech recognition. Interestingly, the participants used only a subset of the available information, focussing only on a few relevant recognizers while ignoring others. This reduced the risk of acting on erroneous sensor data and enabled them to complete service interactions more swiftly than a robot using all available sensor data. We also investigated socially appropriate response strategies. In their responses, the participants preferred to use the same modality as the customer’s requests, e.g., they tended to respond verbally to verbal requests. Also, they added redundancy to their responses, for instance by using echo questions. We argue that incorporating the social strategies discovered with the GiM paradigm in multimodal grammars of human–robot interactions improves the robustness and the ease-of-use of these interactions, and therefore provides a smoother user experience. PMID:26582998

  3. Extracting human protein interactions from MEDLINE using a full-sentence parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraselia, Nikolai; Yuryev, Anton; Egorov, Sergei; Novichkova, Svetalana; Nikitin, Alexander; Mazo, Ilya

    2004-03-22

    The living cell is a complex machine that depends on the proper functioning of its numerous parts, including proteins. Understanding protein functions and how they modify and regulate each other is the next great challenge for life-sciences researchers. The collective knowledge about protein functions and pathways is scattered throughout numerous publications in scientific journals. Bringing the relevant information together becomes a bottleneck in a research and discovery process. The volume of such information grows exponentially, which renders manual curation impractical. As a viable alternative, automated literature processing tools could be employed to extract and organize biological data into a knowledge base, making it amenable to computational analysis and data mining. We present MedScan, a completely automated natural language processing-based information extraction system. We have used MedScan to extract 2976 interactions between human proteins from MEDLINE abstracts dated after 1988. The precision of the extracted information was found to be 91%. Comparison with the existing protein interaction databases BIND and DIP revealed that 96% of extracted information is novel. The recall rate of MedScan was found to be 21%. Additional experiments with MedScan suggest that MEDLINE is a unique source of diverse protein function information, which can be extracted in a completely automated way with a reasonably high precision. Further directions of the MedScan technology improvement are discussed. MedScan is available for commercial licensing from Ariadne Genomics, Inc.

  4. Towards a Reverse Newman's Theorem in Interactive Information Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Buhrman, Harry; Koucký, Michal

    2016-01-01

    that uses private randomness and convert it into one that only uses public randomness while preserving the information revealed to each player? We prove that the answer is yes, at least for protocols that use a bounded number of rounds. As an application, we prove new direct sum theorems through......Newman’s theorem states that we can take any public-coin communication protocol and convert it into one that uses only private randomness with only a little increase in communication complexity. We consider a reversed scenario in the context of information complexity: can we take a protocol...

  5. Preprocessing of emotional visual information in the human piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris

    2017-08-23

    This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.

  6. Metaphors for the Nature of Human-Computer Interaction in an Empowering Environment: Interaction Style Influences the Manner of Human Accomplishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Herman G.; Hartson, H. Rex

    1992-01-01

    Describes human-computer interface needs for empowering environments in computer usage in which the machine handles the routine mechanics of problem solving while the user concentrates on its higher order meanings. A closed-loop model of interaction is described, interface as illusion is discussed, and metaphors for human-computer interaction are…

  7. INTESTINAL VIROME AND NORMAL MICROFLORA OF HUMAN: FEATURES OF INTERACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyr V.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Intestinal bacteria defend the host organism and narrow pathogenic bacterial colonization. However, the microbiome effect to enteric viruses is unexplored largely as well as role of microbiota in the pathogenesis of viral infections in general. This review focuses on precisely these issues. Keywords: microbiome, virome, normal microflora, enteric viruses, contagiousness. In this review article, facts about viral persistence in the human gut are summarized. It is described the role of viral populations during health and diseases. After analyzing of the literary facts it was concluded that the gastrointestinal tract is an environment for one from the most complex microbial ecosystems, which requires of more deeper study of its composition, role in physiological processes, as well as the dynamics of changes under influence of the environment. Normal microflora performs a different important functions providing the physiological homeostasis of the human body, including, in particular, an important role in the human metabolic processes, supporting of homeostasis, limiting of colonization by infectious bacteria. The multifactorial significance of the normal gastrointestinal microflora can be divided into immunological, structural and metabolic functions. At the same time, interaction between intestinal microflora and enteric viruses has not been studied largely. In recent years, much attention is paid to study of viruses-bacteria associations, and it is possible, obtained results should change our understanding of microbiota role in the systematic pathogenesis of the diseases with viral etiology. In contrast to the well-known benefits of normal microflora to the host, the viruses can use intestinal microflora as a trigger for replication at the optimal region. Recent studies give a reason for assumption that depletion of normal microflora with antibiotics can determining the antiviral effect. Thus, the role of commensal bacteria in viral

  8. Discretionary Information Flow Control for Interaction-Oriented Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    system for statically checking if a system specification ensures an information flow policy. The approach is illustrated with two archetypal examples of distributed and parallel computing systems: a protocol for an identity-secured data providing service and a parallel MapReduce computation....

  9. Deserts: Information and Hands-On Activities. Interactive Geography Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Robin

    This book is designed to introduce students to a variety of fascinating desert ecosystems through a series of learning activities including games, graphs, experiments, and crafts. Each section contains an information section along with student activities and worksheets. The section topics are sand, scorpions, and snow; scenic sculpture; desert…

  10. A digital interactive human brain atlas based on Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiyu; Ran, Xu; Zhang, Shaoxiang; Tan, Liwen; Qiu, Mingguo

    2014-01-01

    As we know, the human brain is one of the most complicated organs in the human body, which is the key and difficult point in neuroanatomy and sectional anatomy teaching. With the rapid development and extensive application of imaging technology in clinical diagnosis, doctors are facing higher and higher requirement on their anatomy knowledge. Thus, to cultivate medical students to meet the needs of medical development today and to improve their ability to read and understand radiographic images have become urgent challenges for the medical teachers. In this context, we developed a digital interactive human brain atlas based on the Chinese visible human datasets for anatomy teaching (available for free download from http://www.chinesevisiblehuman.com/down/DHBA.rar). The atlas simultaneously provides views in all 3 primary planes of section. The main structures of the human brain have been anatomically labeled in all 3 views. It is potentially useful for anatomy browsing, user self-testing, and automatic student assessment. In a word, it is interactive, 3D, user friendly, and free of charge, which can provide a new, intuitive means for anatomy teaching.

  11. Human-Animal Interaction and Older Adults: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Nancy R; Mueller, Megan K; Curl, Angela L

    2017-01-01

    Both pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy are becoming increasingly popular in the United States, and the science of human-animal interaction (HAI) seeks to explore how these relationships with animals can impact health and well-being. In particular, one burgeoning area of research is the role of HAI in healthy aging, given the potential for HAI as an important feature of health and well-being in older adults. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate existing research in this innovative area of scholarship, identifying the potential benefits and risks of both pet ownership and animals in therapeutic settings for older adults. We will also identify recommendations for future research and applications in this developing area of scholarship.

  12. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Flooring-system designs may be sensitive in terms of their vibrational performance due the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of a flooring system at the design stage, decisions must be made by the engineer in charge...... of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non......-structural mass can influence central parameters describing the dynamic behaviour of the flooring system with focus on elevated non-structural mass. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd....

  13. Human Computer Interaction in the ALMA Control Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, M.; Primet, R.; Pietriga, E.; Schwarz, J.

    2012-09-01

    The article describes the ALMA Operations Monitoring and Control (OMC) software and its next generation user interfaces, used by operators and astronomers to monitor and control the observing facility. These user interfaces bring state-of-the-art Human Computer Interaction (HCI) techniques to the ALMA Control Room: map visualisation, semantic zooming, navigation gestures, multiple coordinated views, and decrease of time-to-point. They enable users to stay in control of dozens of antennas, hundreds of devices, and thousands of baselines. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international radio-astronomy facility, is a partnership of North America, Europe and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. It is located at the Altiplano de Chajnantor and is being operated from the Operations Support Facilities (OSF) near San Pedro de Atacama.

  14. New tools for linking human and earth system models: The Toolbox for Human-Earth System Interaction & Scaling (THESIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.; Kauffman, B.; Lawrence, P.

    2016-12-01

    Integrated analysis of questions regarding land, water, and energy resources often requires integration of models of different types. One type of integration is between human and earth system models, since both societal and physical processes influence these resources. For example, human processes such as changes in population, economic conditions, and policies govern the demand for land, water and energy, while the interactions of these resources with physical systems determine their availability and environmental consequences. We have begun to develop and use a toolkit for linking human and earth system models called the Toolbox for Human-Earth System Integration and Scaling (THESIS). THESIS consists of models and software tools to translate, scale, and synthesize information from and between human system models and earth system models (ESMs), with initial application to linking the NCAR integrated assessment model, iPETS, with the NCAR earth system model, CESM. Initial development is focused on urban areas and agriculture, sectors that are both explicitly represented in both CESM and iPETS. Tools are being made available to the community as they are completed (see https://www2.cgd.ucar.edu/sections/tss/iam/THESIS_tools). We discuss four general types of functions that THESIS tools serve (Spatial Distribution, Spatial Properties, Consistency, and Outcome Evaluation). Tools are designed to be modular and can be combined in order to carry out more complex analyses. We illustrate their application to both the exposure of population to climate extremes and to the evaluation of climate impacts on the agriculture sector. For example, projecting exposure to climate extremes involves use of THESIS tools for spatial population, spatial urban land cover, the characteristics of both, and a tool to bring urban climate information together with spatial population information. Development of THESIS tools is continuing and open to the research community.

  15. Interaction Between Syntactic Structure and Information Structure in the Processing of a Head-Final Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Masatoshi; Imamura, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two factors is not restricted to head-initial languages. The second experiment revealed that the interaction between syntactic structure and information structure occurs at the second NP (O of SOV and S of OSV), which, crucially, is a pre-head position, suggesting the incremental nature of the processing of both syntactic structure and information structure in head-final languages.

  16. Human immunodeficiencies related to APC/T cell interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinos eKallikourdis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary event for initiating adaptive immune responses is the encounter between T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells (APC in the T cell area of secondary lymphoid organs and the formation of highly organized inter-cellular junctions referred to as the immune synapses. In vivo live-cell imaging of APC-T cell interactions combined to functional studies unveiled that T cell fate is dictated, in large part, by the stability of the initial contact. Immune cell interaction is equally important during delivery of T cell help to B cells and for the killing of target cells by cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. The critical role of contact dynamics and synapse stability on the immune response is well illustrated by human immune deficiencies in which disease pathogenesis is linked to altered adhesion or defective cross-talk between the synaptic partners. Here we will discuss in details the mechanisms of defective APC-T cell communications in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS and in warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, infections, myelokathexis syndrome (WHIM. In addition, we will summarize the evidences pointing to a compromised conjugate formation in WIP deficiency, DOCK8 deficiency and X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome.

  17. Learning models of Human-Robot Interaction from small data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehfroosh, Ashkan; Kokkoni, Elena; Tanner, Herbert G; Heinz, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    This paper offers a new approach to learning discrete models for human-robot interaction (HRI) from small data. In the motivating application, HRI is an integral part of a pediatric rehabilitation paradigm that involves a play-based, social environment aiming at improving mobility for infants with mobility impairments. Designing interfaces in this setting is challenging, because in order to harness, and eventually automate, the social interaction between children and robots, a behavioral model capturing the causality between robot actions and child reactions is needed. The paper adopts a Markov decision process (MDP) as such a model, and selects the transition probabilities through an empirical approximation procedure called smoothing. Smoothing has been successfully applied in natural language processing (NLP) and identification where, similarly to the current paradigm, learning from small data sets is crucial. The goal of this paper is two-fold: (i) to describe our application of HRI, and (ii) to provide evidence that supports the application of smoothing for small data sets.

  18. The scaling of human interactions with city size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläpfer, Markus; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Grauwin, Sébastian; Raschke, Mathias; Claxton, Rob; Smoreda, Zbigniew; West, Geoffrey B.; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The size of cities is known to play a fundamental role in social and economic life. Yet, its relation to the structure of the underlying network of human interactions has not been investigated empirically in detail. In this paper, we map society-wide communication networks to the urban areas of two European countries. We show that both the total number of contacts and the total communication activity grow superlinearly with city population size, according to well-defined scaling relations and resulting from a multiplicative increase that affects most citizens. Perhaps surprisingly, however, the probability that an individual's contacts are also connected with each other remains largely unaffected. These empirical results predict a systematic and scale-invariant acceleration of interaction-based spreading phenomena as cities get bigger, which is numerically confirmed by applying epidemiological models to the studied networks. Our findings should provide a microscopic basis towards understanding the superlinear increase of different socioeconomic quantities with city size, that applies to almost all urban systems and includes, for instance, the creation of new inventions or the prevalence of certain contagious diseases. PMID:24990287

  19. Molecular interaction studies of trimethoxy flavone with human serum albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Gokara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant protein in blood plasma, having high affinity binding sites for several endogenous and exogenous compounds. Trimethoxy flavone (TMF is a naturally occurring flavone isolated from Andrographis viscosula and used in the treatment of dyspepsia, influenza, malaria, respiratory functions and as an astringent and antidote for poisonous stings of some insects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The main aim of the experiment was to examine the interaction between TMF and HSA at physiological conditions. Upon addition of TMF to HSA, the fluorescence emission was quenched and the binding constant of TMF with HSA was found to be K(TMF = 1.0+/-0.01x10(3 M(-1, which corresponds to -5.4 kcal M(-1 of free energy. Micro-TOF Q mass spectrometry results showed a mass increase of from 66,513 Da (free HSA to 66,823 Da (HAS +Drug, indicating the strong binding of TMF with HSA resulting in decrease of fluorescence. The HSA conformation was altered upon binding of TMF to HSA with decrease in alpha-helix and an increase in beta-sheets and random coils suggesting partial unfolding of protein secondary structure. Molecular docking experiments found that TMF binds strongly with HSA at IIIA domain of hydrophobic pocket with hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. Among which two hydrogen bonds are formed between O (19 of TMF to Arg 410, Tyr 411 and another one from O (7 of TMF to Asn 391, with bond distance of 2.1 A, 3.6 A and 2.6 A, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In view of the evidence presented, it is imperative to assign a greater role of HSA's as a carrier molecule for many drugs to understand the interactions of HSA with TMF will be pivotal in the design of new TMF-inspired drugs.

  20. Structural characterization of the interaction of human lactoferrin with calmodulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Gifford

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin (Lf is an 80 kDa, iron (Fe(3+-binding immunoregulatory glycoprotein secreted into most exocrine fluids, found in high concentrations in colostrum and milk, and released from neutrophil secondary granules at sites of infection and inflammation. In a number of cell types, Lf is internalized through receptor-mediated endocytosis and targeted to the nucleus where it has been demonstrated to act as a transcriptional trans-activator. Here we characterize human Lf's interaction with calmodulin (CaM, a ubiquitous, 17 kDa regulatory calcium (Ca(2+-binding protein localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of activated cells. Due to the size of this intermolecular complex (∼100 kDa, TROSY-based NMR techniques were employed to structurally characterize Ca(2+-CaM when bound to intact apo-Lf. Both CaM's backbone amides and the ε-methyl group of key methionine residues were used as probes in chemical shift perturbation and cross-saturation experiments to define the binding interface of apo-Lf on Ca(2+-CaM. Unlike the collapsed conformation through which Ca(2+-CaM binds the CaM-binding domains of its classical targets, Ca(2+-CaM assumes an extended structure when bound to apo-Lf. Apo-Lf appears to interact predominantly with the C-terminal lobe of Ca(2+-CaM, enabling the N-terminal lobe to potentially bind another target. Our use of intact apo-Lf has made possible the identification of a secondary interaction interface, removed from CaM's primary binding domain. Secondary interfaces play a key role in the target's response to CaM binding, highlighting the importance of studying intact complexes. This solution-based approach can be applied to study other regulatory calcium-binding EF-hand proteins in intact intermolecular complexes.

  1. Comparative interactomics for virus-human protein-protein interactions: DNA viruses versus RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Saliha; Ülgen, Kutlu Ö

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are obligatory intracellular pathogens and completely depend on their hosts for survival and reproduction. The strategies adopted by viruses to exploit host cell processes and to evade host immune systems during infections may differ largely with the type of the viral genetic material. An improved understanding of these viral infection mechanisms is only possible through a better understanding of the pathogen-host interactions (PHIs) that enable viruses to enter into the host cells and manipulate the cellular mechanisms to their own advantage. Experimentally-verified protein-protein interaction (PPI) data of pathogen-host systems only became available at large scale within the last decade. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the current PHI networks belonging to DNA and RNA viruses and their human host, to get insights into the infection strategies used by these viral groups. We investigated the functional properties of human proteins in the PHI networks, to observe and compare the attack strategies of DNA and RNA viruses. We observed that DNA viruses are able to attack both human cellular and metabolic processes simultaneously during infections. On the other hand, RNA viruses preferentially interact with human proteins functioning in specific cellular processes as well as in intracellular transport and localization within the cell. Observing virus-targeted human proteins, we propose heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and transporter proteins as potential antiviral therapeutic targets. The observed common and specific infection mechanisms in terms of viral strategies to attack human proteins may provide crucial information for further design of broad and specific next-generation antiviral therapeutics.

  2. Interaction of human gingival fibroblasts with PVA/gelatine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Stefania; Mattii, Letizia; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Lazzeri, Luigi; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Dolfi, Amelio; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2008-07-01

    Tissue engineering scaffolds should be able to reproduce optimal microenvironments in order to support cell attachment, three-dimensional growth, migration and, regarding fibroblasts, must also promote extracellular matrix production. Various bioactive molecules are employed in the preparation of spongy scaffolds to obtain biomimetic matrices by either surface-coating or introducing them into the bulk composition of the biomaterial. The biomimetic properties of a spongy matrix composed of PVA combined with the natural component gelatine were evaluated by culturing human gingival fibroblasts on the scaffold. Cell adhesion, morphology and distribution within the scaffold were assessed by histology and electron microscopy; viability and metabolic activity as well as extracellular matrix production were analyzed by MTT assay, cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Fibroblasts interacted positively with PVA/gelatine. They adhered to the PVA/gelatine matrix in which they had good spreading activity and active metabolism; fibroblasts were also able to produce extracellular matrix molecules (type I collagen, fibronectin and laminin) compared to bi-dimensionally grown cells. The in situ creation of a biological matrix by human fibroblasts together with the ability to produce growth factor TGF-beta1 and the intracellular signal transduction molecule RhoA, suggests that this kind of PVA/gelatine sponge may represent a suitable support for in vitro extracellular matrix production and connective tissue regeneration.

  3. Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Winau, R

    1996-12-07

    The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg code of 1947 is generally regarded as the first document to set out ethical regulations in human experimentation based on informed consent. New research, however, indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century. These guidelines shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged. This issue assumes renewed importance in the context of current attempts to assess liability and responsibility for the abuse of people in various experiments conducted since the second world war in the United States, Canada, Russia, and other nations.

  4. Mobile app for human-interaction with sitter robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sumit Kumar; Sahu, Ankita; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    Human environments are often unstructured and unpredictable, thus making the autonomous operation of robots in such environments is very difficult. Despite many remaining challenges in perception, learning, and manipulation, more and more studies involving assistive robots have been carried out in recent years. In hospital environments, and in particular in patient rooms, there are well-established practices with respect to the type of furniture, patient services, and schedule of interventions. As a result, adding a robot into semi-structured hospital environments is an easier problem to tackle, with results that could have positive benefits to the quality of patient care and the help that robots can offer to nursing staff. When working in a healthcare facility, robots need to interact with patients and nurses through Human-Machine Interfaces (HMIs) that are intuitive to use, they should maintain awareness of surroundings, and offer safety guarantees for humans. While fully autonomous operation for robots is not yet technically feasible, direct teleoperation control of the robot would also be extremely cumbersome, as it requires expert user skills, and levels of concentration not available to many patients. Therefore, in our current study we present a traded control scheme, in which the robot and human both perform expert tasks. The human-robot communication and control scheme is realized through a mobile tablet app that can be customized for robot sitters in hospital environments. The role of the mobile app is to augment the verbal commands given to a robot through natural speech, camera and other native interfaces, while providing failure mode recovery options for users. Our app can access video feed and sensor data from robots, assist the user with decision making during pick and place operations, monitor the user health over time, and provides conversational dialogue during sitting sessions. In this paper, we present the software and hardware framework that

  5. Object-Tool-Actor Interaction: Object Information Drives Intended Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Dave A; Scharoun, Sara M; Cinelli, M E; Bryden, P J; Lyons, J L; Roy, Eric A

    2018-01-01

    Tool use is typically explored via actor-tool interactions. However, the target-object (that which is being acted on) may influence perceived action possibilities and thereby guide action. Three different tool-target-object pairings were tested (Experiment 1). The hammering action demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and therefore subsequently used to further investigate target-object pairings. The hammer was removed as an option and instructions were provided using pictorial (Experiment 2), written (Experiment 3), and both pictorial and written formats (Experiment 4). The designed tool is chosen when available (Experiment 1) and when removed as a choice (i.e., the hammer), participants perform the same action associated with the designed tool (i.e., hammering) regardless of instruction method (Experiments 2, 3, and 4).

  6. Interactions and user-perceived helpfulness in diet information social questions & answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Peilin

    2016-12-01

    Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective. Bales' interaction process analysis was applied as the framework to analyse 568 diet-related Q&As from WebMD Answers to identify interaction patterns. Most diet information seekers post questions anonymously and without any detailed description. Individual experts or health organisations provide most answers. Overall, answers are positively received and had a high satisfaction rating. It was also found that information seeker-perceived helpfulness does not depend on who answered the question but to how an information seeker posted the question. This study indicates that answers at WebMD Answers are helpful for diet information seekers. It sheds new light on the interactions during the Q&A process, preferred site functions and important factors that contribute to perceived helpful answers. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  7. A Multimodal Emotion Detection System during Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Martín, Fernando; Malfaz, María; Sequeira, João; Gorostiza, Javier F.; Salichs, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a multimodal user-emotion detection system for social robots is presented. This system is intended to be used during human–robot interaction, and it is integrated as part of the overall interaction system of the robot: the Robotics Dialog System (RDS). Two modes are used to detect emotions: the voice and face expression analysis. In order to analyze the voice of the user, a new component has been developed: Gender and Emotion Voice Analysis (GEVA), which is written using the Chuck language. For emotion detection in facial expressions, the system, Gender and Emotion Facial Analysis (GEFA), has been also developed. This last system integrates two third-party solutions: Sophisticated High-speed Object Recognition Engine (SHORE) and Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox (CERT). Once these new components (GEVA and GEFA) give their results, a decision rule is applied in order to combine the information given by both of them. The result of this rule, the detected emotion, is integrated into the dialog system through communicative acts. Hence, each communicative act gives, among other things, the detected emotion of the user to the RDS so it can adapt its strategy in order to get a greater satisfaction degree during the human–robot dialog. Each of the new components, GEVA and GEFA, can also be used individually. Moreover, they are integrated with the robotic control platform ROS (Robot Operating System). Several experiments with real users were performed to determine the accuracy of each component and to set the final decision rule. The results obtained from applying this decision rule in these experiments show a high success rate in automatic user emotion recognition, improving the results given by the two information channels (audio and visual) separately. PMID:24240598

  8. Interaction of probiotics and pathogens--benefits to human health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Seppo; Nybom, Sonja; Meriluoto, Jussi; Collado, Maria Carmen; Vesterlund, Satu; El-Nezami, Hani

    2010-04-01

    The probiotic terminology has matured over the years and currently a unified definition has been formed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have been reported to remove heavy metals, cyanotoxins and mycotoxins from aqueous solutions. The binding processes appear to be species and strain specific. The most efficient microbial species and strains in the removal of these compounds vary between components tested. However, it is of interest to note that most strains characterized until now do not bind positive components or nutrients in the diet. This has significant implications to future detoxification biotechnology development. In a similar manner, lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria interact directly with viruses and pathogens in food and water as well as toxin producing microbes and some toxins. This review updates information and aims to characterize these interactions in association. The target is to understand probiotic health effects and to relate the mechanisms and actions to future potential of specific probiotic bacteria on decontamination of foods and water, and diets. The same aim is targeted in characterizing the role of probiotics in inactivating pathogens and viruses of health importance to facilitate the establishment of novel means of disease risk reduction related health benefits. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Modelling information flow along the human connectome using maximum flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Youngwook; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung

    2018-01-01

    The human connectome is a complex network that transmits information between interlinked brain regions. Using graph theory, previously well-known network measures of integration between brain regions have been constructed under the key assumption that information flows strictly along the shortest paths possible between two nodes. However, it is now apparent that information does flow through non-shortest paths in many real-world networks such as cellular networks, social networks, and the internet. In the current hypothesis, we present a novel framework using the maximum flow to quantify information flow along all possible paths within the brain, so as to implement an analogy to network traffic. We hypothesize that the connection strengths of brain networks represent a limit on the amount of information that can flow through the connections per unit of time. This allows us to compute the maximum amount of information flow between two brain regions along all possible paths. Using this novel framework of maximum flow, previous network topological measures are expanded to account for information flow through non-shortest paths. The most important advantage of the current approach using maximum flow is that it can integrate the weighted connectivity data in a way that better reflects the real information flow of the brain network. The current framework and its concept regarding maximum flow provides insight on how network structure shapes information flow in contrast to graph theory, and suggests future applications such as investigating structural and functional connectomes at a neuronal level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Loan Anh; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Liston, Adrian; Raes, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes) to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes), cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. How informative is the mouse for human gut microbiota research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Loan Anh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbiota of the human gut is gaining broad attention owing to its association with a wide range of diseases, ranging from metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity and type 2 diabetes to autoimmune diseases (such as inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes, cancer and even neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism. Having been increasingly used in biomedical research, mice have become the model of choice for most studies in this emerging field. Mouse models allow perturbations in gut microbiota to be studied in a controlled experimental setup, and thus help in assessing causality of the complex host-microbiota interactions and in developing mechanistic hypotheses. However, pitfalls should be considered when translating gut microbiome research results from mouse models to humans. In this Special Article, we discuss the intrinsic similarities and differences that exist between the two systems, and compare the human and murine core gut microbiota based on a meta-analysis of currently available datasets. Finally, we discuss the external factors that influence the capability of mouse models to recapitulate the gut microbiota shifts associated with human diseases, and investigate which alternative model systems exist for gut microbiota research.

  12. Revealing Long-Range Interconnected Hubs in Human Chromatin Interaction Data Using Graph Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, R. E.; Arneodo, A.; Jensen, P.; Audit, B.

    2013-09-01

    We use graph theory to analyze chromatin interaction (Hi-C) data in the human genome. We show that a key functional feature of the genome—“master” replication origins—corresponds to DNA loci of maximal network centrality. These loci form a set of interconnected hubs both within chromosomes and between different chromosomes. Our results open the way to a fruitful use of graph theory concepts to decipher DNA structural organization in relation to genome functions such as replication and transcription. This quantitative information should prove useful to discriminate between possible polymer models of nuclear organization.

  13. From Brain-Environment Connections to Temporal Dynamics and Social Interaction: Principles of Human Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta

    2017-06-07

    Experimental data about brain function accumulate faster than does our understanding of how the brain works. To tackle some general principles at the grain level of behavior, I start from the omnipresent brain-environment connection that forces regularities of the physical world to shape the brain. Based on top-down processing, added by sparse sensory information, people are able to form individual "caricature worlds," which are similar enough to be shared among other people and which allow quick and purposeful reactions to abrupt changes. Temporal dynamics and social interaction in natural environments serve as further essential organizing principles of human brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of familiarity on information complexity in human-computer interfaces

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    Bakaev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative measure of information complexity remains very much desirable in HCI field, since it may aid in optimization of user interfaces, especially in human-computer systems for controlling complex objects. Our paper is dedicated to exploration of subjective (subject-depended aspect of the complexity, conceptualized as information familiarity. Although research of familiarity in human cognition and behaviour is done in several fields, the accepted models in HCI, such as Human Processor or Hick-Hyman’s law do not generally consider this issue. In our experimental study the subjects performed search and selection of digits and letters, whose familiarity was conceptualized as frequency of occurrence in numbers and texts. The analysis showed significant effect of information familiarity on selection time and throughput in regression models, although the R2 values were somehow low. Still, we hope that our results might aid in quantification of information complexity and its further application for optimizing interaction in human-machine systems.

  15. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  16. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pezzulo

    Full Text Available Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the

  18. Human sensorimotor communication: a theory of signaling in online social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Francesco; Dindo, Haris

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of communication is recognized in several disciplines, it is rarely studied in the context of online social interactions and joint actions. During online joint actions, language and gesture are often insufficient and humans typically use non-verbal, sensorimotor forms of communication to send coordination signals. For example, when playing volleyball, an athlete can exaggerate her movements to signal her intentions to her teammates (say, a pass to the right) or to feint an adversary. Similarly, a person who is transporting a table together with a co-actor can push the table in a certain direction to signal where and when he intends to place it. Other examples of "signaling" are over-articulating in noisy environments and over-emphasizing vowels in child-directed speech. In all these examples, humans intentionally modify their action kinematics to make their goals easier to disambiguate. At the moment no formal theory exists of these forms of sensorimotor communication and signaling. We present one such theory that describes signaling as a combination of a pragmatic and a communicative action, and explains how it simplifies coordination in online social interactions. We cast signaling within a "joint action optimization" framework in which co-actors optimize the success of their interaction and joint goals rather than only their part of the joint action. The decision of whether and how much to signal requires solving a trade-off between the costs of modifying one's behavior and the benefits in terms of interaction success. Signaling is thus an intentional strategy that supports social interactions; it acts in concert with automatic mechanisms of resonance, prediction, and imitation, especially when the context makes actions and intentions ambiguous and difficult to read. Our theory suggests that communication dynamics should be studied within theories of coordination and interaction rather than only in terms of the maximization of information

  19. Physical Forces between Humans and How Humans Attract and Repel Each Other Based on Their Social Interactions in an Online World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Thurner

    Full Text Available Physical interactions between particles are the result of the exchange of gauge bosons. Human interactions are mediated by the exchange of messages, goods, money, promises, hostilities, etc. While in the physical world interactions and their associated forces have immediate dynamical consequences (Newton's laws the situation is not clear for human interactions. Here we quantify the relative acceleration between humans who interact through the exchange of messages, goods and hostilities in a massive multiplayer online game. For this game we have complete information about all interactions (exchange events between about 430,000 players, and about their trajectories (movements in the metric space of the game universe at any point in time. We use this information to derive "interaction potentials" for communication, trade and attacks and show that they are harmonic in nature. Individuals who exchange messages and trade goods generally attract each other and start to separate immediately after exchange events end. The form of the interaction potential for attacks mirrors the usual "hit-and-run" tactics of aggressive players. By measuring interaction intensities as a function of distance, velocity and acceleration, we show that "forces" between players are directly related to the number of exchange events. We find an approximate power-law decay of the likelihood for interactions as a function of distance, which is in accordance with previous real world empirical work. We show that the obtained potentials can be understood with a simple model assuming an exchange-driven force in combination with a distance-dependent exchange rate.

  20. Semi-supervised multi-task learning for predicting interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanjun; Tastan, Oznur; Carbonell, Jaime G; Klein-Seetharaman, Judith; Weston, Jason

    2010-09-15

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are critical for virtually every biological function. Recently, researchers suggested to use supervised learning for the task of classifying pairs of proteins as interacting or not. However, its performance is largely restricted by the availability of truly interacting proteins (labeled). Meanwhile, there exists a considerable amount of protein pairs where an association appears between two partners, but not enough experimental evidence to support it as a direct interaction (partially labeled). We propose a semi-supervised multi-task framework for predicting PPIs from not only labeled, but also partially labeled reference sets. The basic idea is to perform multi-task learning on a supervised classification task and a semi-supervised auxiliary task. The supervised classifier trains a multi-layer perceptron network for PPI predictions from labeled examples. The semi-supervised auxiliary task shares network layers of the supervised classifier and trains with partially labeled examples. Semi-supervision could be utilized in multiple ways. We tried three approaches in this article, (i) classification (to distinguish partial positives with negatives); (ii) ranking (to rate partial positive more likely than negatives); (iii) embedding (to make data clusters get similar labels). We applied this framework to improve the identification of interacting pairs between HIV-1 and human proteins. Our method improved upon the state-of-the-art method for this task indicating the benefits of semi-supervised multi-task learning using auxiliary information. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~qyj/HIVsemi.

  1. Emergence of Business Value from Complementary Interactions between Informational and Transactional IT systems

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    Ida Asadi Someh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Different IT asset classes generate business value consistent with the strategic goal of that asset class. While transactional IT systems contribute to process efficiencies, informational IT systems generate insights and contribute to informational benefits. We argue that the complementary interactions between these two classes of IT systems can support both informed and efficient processes and lead to greater business value. We use systems theory to develop a research model, which includes the complementary interactions between transactional and informational IT systems and the emergence of higher-order IT-enabled business systems. The two IT systems interact and augment other business systems to create higher-order emergent IT-enabled business systems. Emergent IT-enabled business systems lead to transactional, informational and strategic benefits. The paper concludes by calling for empirical studies that focus on the complementary relations between transactional and informational IT systems and their impact on business value.

  2. Information systems on human resources for health: a global review

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    Riley Patricia L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH and their appropriate distribution, global understanding of the systems used to generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows, known as human resources information systems (HRIS, is minimal. While HRIS are increasingly recognized as integral to health system performance assessment, baseline information regarding their scope and capability around the world has been limited. We conducted a review of the available literature on HRIS implementation processes in order to draw this baseline. Methods Our systematic search initially retrieved 11 923 articles in four languages published in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Following the selection of those articles which detailed HRIS implementation processes, reviews of their contents were conducted using two-person teams, each assigned to a national system. A data abstraction tool was developed and used to facilitate objective assessment. Results Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, mostly from the grey literature, which comprised 84 % of all documents. The articles represented 63 national HRIS and two regionally integrated systems. Whereas a high percentage of countries reported the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, few systems were documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23 % explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56 % did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. Conclusion Although HRIS are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of

  3. Human-Centered Software Engineering: Software Engineering Architectures, Patterns, and Sodels for Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, Ahmed; Vanderdonckt, Jean; Desmarais, Michel C.

    The Computer-Human Interaction and Software Engineering (CHISE) series of edited volumes originated from a number of workshops and discussions over the latest research and developments in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and Software Engineering (SE) integration, convergence and cross-pollination. A first volume in this series (CHISE Volume I - Human-Centered Software Engineering: Integrating Usability in the Development Lifecycle) aims at bridging the gap between the field of SE and HCI, and addresses specifically the concerns of integrating usability and user-centered systems design methods and tools into the software development lifecycle and practices. This has been done by defining techniques, tools and practices that can fit into the entire software engineering lifecycle as well as by defining ways of addressing the knowledge and skills needed, and the attitudes and basic values that a user-centered development methodology requires. The first volume has been edited as Vol. 8 in the Springer HCI Series (Seffah, Gulliksen and Desmarais, 2005).

  4. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  5. Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to global health. This paper provides an overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and in what way the field has contributed to international development in different regions of the world. Additionally, it outlines the United Nations’ new sustainability goals from December 2015 and what these could contribute to the development of global health and its relationship to digitalization. Finally, it argues why and how HCI could be adopted and adapted to fit the contextual needs, the need for localization and for the development of new digital innovations. The research methodology is mostly qualitative following an action research paradigm in which the actual change process that the digitalization is evoking is equally important as the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. In conclusion, the paper argues that digitalization is fundamentally changing the society through the development and use of digital technologies and may have a profound effect on the digital development of every country in the world. But it needs to be developed based on local practices, it needs international support and to not be limited by any technological constraints. Particularly digitalization to support global health requires a profound understanding of the users and their context, arguing for user-centred systems design methodologies as particularly suitable. PMID:28838309

  6. Institutionalizing human-computer interaction for global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksen, Jan

    2017-06-01

    Digitalization is the societal change process in which new ICT-based solutions bring forward completely new ways of doing things, new businesses and new movements in the society. Digitalization also provides completely new ways of addressing issues related to global health. This paper provides an overview of the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and in what way the field has contributed to international development in different regions of the world. Additionally, it outlines the United Nations' new sustainability goals from December 2015 and what these could contribute to the development of global health and its relationship to digitalization. Finally, it argues why and how HCI could be adopted and adapted to fit the contextual needs, the need for localization and for the development of new digital innovations. The research methodology is mostly qualitative following an action research paradigm in which the actual change process that the digitalization is evoking is equally important as the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. In conclusion, the paper argues that digitalization is fundamentally changing the society through the development and use of digital technologies and may have a profound effect on the digital development of every country in the world. But it needs to be developed based on local practices, it needs international support and to not be limited by any technological constraints. Particularly digitalization to support global health requires a profound understanding of the users and their context, arguing for user-centred systems design methodologies as particularly suitable.

  7. Interaction of streaming and attention in human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Rupp, André; Dykstra, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Serially presented tones are sometimes segregated into two perceptually distinct streams. An ongoing debate is whether this basic streaming phenomenon reflects automatic processes or requires attention focused to the stimuli. Here, we examined the influence of focused attention on streaming-related activity in human auditory cortex using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Listeners were presented with a dichotic paradigm in which left-ear stimuli consisted of canonical streaming stimuli (ABA_ or ABAA) and right-ear stimuli consisted of a classical oddball paradigm. In phase one, listeners were instructed to attend the right-ear oddball sequence and detect rare deviants. In phase two, they were instructed to attend the left ear streaming stimulus and report whether they heard one or two streams. The frequency difference (ΔF) of the sequences was set such that the smallest and largest ΔF conditions generally induced one- and two-stream percepts, respectively. Two intermediate ΔF conditions were chosen to elicit bistable percepts (i.e., either one or two streams). Attention enhanced the peak-to-peak amplitude of the P1-N1 complex, but only for ambiguous ΔF conditions, consistent with the notion that automatic mechanisms for streaming tightly interact with attention and that the latter is of particular importance for ambiguous sound sequences.

  8. Learning in human-dolphin interactions at zoological facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane L.

    This research aimed to better understand learning in zoological settings, particularly learning about marine mammals, by investigating the research question, what do people learn through interacting with dolphins in zoological facilities? Sociocultural situated learning theory, specifically a Community of Practice (CoP) model of learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), was the theoretical framework. The CoP model allowed for diversity of knowledge, interest, motivations, and goals that existed among the community of animal enthusiasts at three commercial zoological facilities, and also for peripheral to more central types of participation. I collected data through interviews of spectators, visitors, and trainers (n=51), observations (n=16), and an online questionnaire of past-visitors (n=933). Data were coded, categorized, and analyzed based on the National Science Foundation's (Friedman, 2008) and the National Research Council's (2009) frameworks for informal science education. Five principal findings answered the research question. First, all participants gained new knowledge within three broad categories: (a) dolphin physiology and natural history, (b) care and training of dolphins, and (c) conservation. Second, all participants constructed personal meanings by connecting the activity to experiences, beliefs, and practices outside the interaction context. Almost all participants made associations with conservation. Third, most participants shifted their attitudes and gained a sense of personal agency about beginning or increasing stewardship actions. Fourth, visitors learned interspecies etiquette skills; trainers learned skills in dolphin training and management, people management, and teaching. Fifth, visitors had long-lasting memories of the experience that occurred eight months to 18 years in the past. Popular cultural ideas about dolphins and the ways the dolphins were represented influenced visitors' expectations and the types of learning. Potential physical

  9. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  10. Skew information in the XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China); Quan, Dongxiao [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Pan, Fei; Liu, Zhi [School of Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, Jiangsu 221116 (China)

    2017-06-01

    We study the performance of the lower bound of skew information in the vicinity of transition point for the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction by use of quantum renormalization-group method. For a fixed value of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, there are two saturated values for the lower bound of skew information corresponding to the spin-fluid and Néel phases, respectively. The scaling exponent of the lower bound of skew information closely relates to the correlation length of the model and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction shifts the factorization point. Our results show that the lower bound of skew information can be a good candidate to detect the critical point of XY spin chain with staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  11. ERP evidence on the interaction between information structure and emotional salience of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Both emotional words and words focused by information structure can capture attention. This study examined the interplay between emotional salience and information structure in modulating attentional resources in the service of integrating emotional words into sentence context. Event-related potentials (ERPs) to affectively negative, neutral, and positive words, which were either focused or nonfocused in question-answer pairs, were evaluated during sentence comprehension. The results revealed an early negative effect (90-200 ms), a P2 effect, as well as an effect in the N400 time window, for both emotional salience and information structure. Moreover, an interaction between emotional salience and information structure occurred within the N400 time window over right posterior electrodes, showing that information structure influences the semantic integration only for neutral words, but not for emotional words. This might reflect the fact that the linguistic salience of emotional words can override the effect of information structure on the integration of words into context. The interaction provides evidence for attention-emotion interactions at a later stage of processing. In addition, the absence of interaction in the early time window suggests that the processing of emotional information is highly automatic and independent of context. The results suggest independent attention capture systems of emotional salience and information structure at the early stage but an interaction between them at a later stage, during the semantic integration of words.

  12. Inclusive human machine interaction for India a case study of developing inclusive applications for the Indian population

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    Biswas, Pradipta

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advancement of interactive technologies during the past two decades has made access to information easier though at the expense of a clear digital divide. There is a generation who grew up with these technologies and another generation who find many modern electronic systems counter intuitive and have no use for them in their daily life. This digital divide becomes more prominent in developing countries as state-of-the-art interactive systems were not and are still not affordable to a large number of users.Inclusive Human Machine Interaction for India presents an end-to-end case study of

  13. Wildlife-Human Interactions in National Parks in Canada and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Bath, Dr. Alistair J.; Enck, Jody W.; National Park Service; Department of the Interior, U.S.

    2003-01-01

    The chance to view wildlife draws millions of visitors each year to the national parks of North America. The combination of a large number of people and abundant wildlife leads to a variety of wildlife-human interactions. In this paper we explore the nature of those wildlife-human interactions, theoretical frameworks social scientists are using to understand those interactions, and approaches used by national parks across North America to manage those interactions.

  14. Designing and Implementing an Information Literacy Course in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Daugman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As instructors in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library information literacy program at Wake Forest University, we are expanding beyond our introductory course model to teach discipline-specific information literacy courses. Z. Smith Reynolds Library initiated an information literacy program in 2002 and currently offers a 1-credit elective, taught in 15 sections per semester. Advanced discipline-specific courses were added in Spring 2008, and include courses in the social sciences, business and economics, and the sciences. As the subject specialists for art, dance, literature, music, religion and theatre, we were charged with creating a credit-bearing arts and humanities information literacy course, LIB250: Humanities Research Sources and Strategies. In addition to our arts and humanities course content and methodologies, we incorporated web2.0 technologies throughout course design and delivery in order to streamline planning and to facilitate student engagement. In our course preparation, we utilized Google Docs for collaborative brainstorming, planning, organization and self-evaluation. Our students used Google Docs for submitting their course assignments, which included a faculty or practitioner interview and the final project for the course. The project was an annotated bibliography that extended beyond books and journal articles to include additional elements such as scholarly associations, core journals, primary sources, and major special collections related to their topics. A blog was used for the course syllabus, incorporating assignment information and supplementary resources for class topics; student blogging included reflection and feedback on each lecture as well as application of class content to their research topics. A visit to the Library's Rare Books Reading Room exposed the students to the Library's unique holdings and introduced them to rare and archival resources at other libraries. Our article presents this process from start to

  15. Using Formal and Informal Curricula to Improve Interactions between Home and International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that improved interactions between home and international students are dependant on the way we use both the formal and the informal curricula to encourage and reward intercultural engagement. It draws on the results of several research studies to present some strategies for facilitating meaningful interaction between students…

  16. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

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    Nexhmedin Morina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001. However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively. The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels

  17. Targeting the human cancer pathway protein interaction network by structural genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Hang, Dehua; Lu, Long Jason; Tong, Liang; Gerstein, Mark B; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2008-10-01

    Structural genomics provides an important approach for characterizing and understanding systems biology. As a step toward better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, we have constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as "hubs" or "bottlenecks" in the HCPIN. At least half of HCPIN proteins are either directly associated with or interact with multiple signaling pathways. Although some 45% of residues in these proteins are in sequence segments that meet criteria sufficient for approximate homology modeling (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) E-value structurally covered using high accuracy homology modeling criteria (i.e. BLAST E-value structures. The HCPIN Website provides a comprehensive description of this biomedically important multipathway network together with experimental and homology models of HCPIN proteins useful for cancer biology research. To complement and enrich cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium is targeting >1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes in the context of their interaction networks. The network-based target selection (BioNet) approach described here is an example of a general strategy for targeting co-functioning proteins by structural genomics projects.

  18. Targeting the Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network by Structural Genomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanpeng Janet; Hang, Dehua; Lu, Long Jason; Tong, Liang; Gerstein, Mark B.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2008-01-01

    Structural genomics provides an important approach for characterizing and understanding systems biology. As a step toward better integrating protein three-dimensional (3D) structural information in cancer systems biology, we have constructed a Human Cancer Pathway Protein Interaction Network (HCPIN) by analysis of several classical cancer-associated signaling pathways and their physical protein-protein interactions. Many well known cancer-associated proteins play central roles as “hubs” or “bottlenecks” in the HCPIN. At least half of HCPIN proteins are either directly associated with or interact with multiple signaling pathways. Although some 45% of residues in these proteins are in sequence segments that meet criteria sufficient for approximate homology modeling (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) E-value structurally covered using high accuracy homology modeling criteria (i.e. BLAST E-value structures. The HCPIN Website provides a comprehensive description of this biomedically important multipathway network together with experimental and homology models of HCPIN proteins useful for cancer biology research. To complement and enrich cancer systems biology, the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium is targeting >1000 human proteins and protein domains from the HCPIN for sample production and 3D structure determination. The long range goal of this effort is to provide a comprehensive 3D structure-function database for human cancer-associated proteins and protein complexes in the context of their interaction networks. The network-based target selection (BioNet) approach described here is an example of a general strategy for targeting co-functioning proteins by structural genomics projects. PMID:18487680

  19. Open source tool for prediction of genome wide protein-protein interaction network based on ortholog information

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    Pedamallu Chandra Sekhar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions are crucially important for cellular processes. Knowledge of these interactions improves the understanding of cell cycle, metabolism, signaling, transport, and secretion. Information about interactions can hint at molecular causes of diseases, and can provide clues for new therapeutic approaches. Several (usually expensive and time consuming experimental methods can probe protein - protein interactions. Data sets, derived from such experiments make the development of prediction methods feasible, and make the creation of protein-protein interaction network predicting tools possible. Methods Here we report the development of a simple open source program module (OpenPPI_predictor that can generate a putative protein-protein interaction network for target genomes. This tool uses the orthologous interactome network data from a related, experimentally studied organism. Results Results from our predictions can be visualized using the Cytoscape visualization software, and can be piped to downstream processing algorithms. We have employed our program to predict protein-protein interaction network for the human parasite roundworm Brugia malayi, using interactome data from the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Availability The OpenPPI_predictor source code is available from http://tools.neb.com/~posfai/.

  20. The architecture of information architecture, interaction design and the patterning of digital information

    CERN Document Server

    Dade-Robertson, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    This book looks at relationships between the organization of physical objects in space and the organization of ideas. Historical, philosophical, psychological and architectural knowledge are united to develop an understanding of the relationship between information and its representation.Despite its potential to break the mould, digital information has relied on metaphors from a pre-digital era. In particular, architectural ideas have pervaded discussions of digital information, from the urbanization of cyberspace in science fiction, through to the adoption of spatial visualiz

  1. Using "human state aware" robots to enhance physical human-robot interaction in a cooperative scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Carlos Rodriguez; Fraile Marinero, Juan Carlos; Turiel, Javier Perez; Muñoz, Victor

    2013-11-01

    Human motor performance, speed and variability are highly susceptible to emotional states. This paper reviews the impact of the emotions on the motor control performance, and studies the possibility of improving the perceived skill/challenge relation on a multimodal neural rehabilitation scenario, by means of a biocybernetic controller that modulates the assistance provided by a haptic controlled robot in reaction to undesirable physical and mental states. Results from psychophysiological, performance and self assessment data for closed loop experiments in contrast with their open loop counterparts, suggest that the proposed method had a positive impact on the overall challenge/skill relation leading to an enhanced physical human-robot interaction experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. GABAergic modulation of human social interaction in a prisoner's dilemma model by acute administration of alprazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Scott D; Gowin, Joshua L

    2009-10-01

    Recent work in neuroeconomics has used game theory paradigms to examine neural systems that subserve human social interaction and decision making. Attempts to modify social interaction through pharmacological manipulation have been less common. Here we show dose-dependent modification of human social behavior in a prisoner's dilemma model after acute administration of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A modulating benzodiazepine alprazolam. Nine healthy adults received doses of placebo, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg alprazolam in a counterbalanced within-subject design, while completing multiple test blocks per day on an iterated prisoner's dilemma game. During test blocks in which peak subjective effects of alprazolam were reported, cooperative choices were significantly decreased as a function of dose. Consistent with previous reports showing that high acute doses of GABA-modulating drugs are associated with violence and other antisocial behavior, our data suggest that at sufficiently high doses, alprazolam can decrease cooperation. These behavioral changes may be facilitated by changes in inhibitory control facilitated by GABA. Game theory paradigms may prove useful in behavioral pharmacology studies seeking to measure social interaction, and may help inform the emerging field of neuroeconomics.

  3. The experience of agency in human-computer interactions: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limerick, Hannah; Coyle, David; Moore, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of agency is the experience of controlling both one’s body and the external environment. Although the sense of agency has been studied extensively, there is a paucity of studies in applied “real-life” situations. One applied domain that seems highly relevant is human-computer-interaction (HCI), as an increasing number of our everyday agentive interactions involve technology. Indeed, HCI has long recognized the feeling of control as a key factor in how people experience interactions with technology. The aim of this review is to summarize and examine the possible links between sense of agency and understanding control in HCI. We explore the overlap between HCI and sense of agency for computer input modalities and system feedback, computer assistance, and joint actions between humans and computers. An overarching consideration is how agency research can inform HCI and vice versa. Finally, we discuss the potential ethical implications of personal responsibility in an ever-increasing society of technology users and intelligent machine interfaces. PMID:25191256

  4. Locus heterogeneity disease genes encode proteins with high interconnectivity in the human protein interaction network

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    Benjamin eKeith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes potentially lead to a number of genetic diseases with differing severity. These disease genes have been the focus of research in recent years showing that the disease gene population as a whole is not homogeneous, and can be categorised according to their interactions. Locus heterogeneity describes a single disorder caused by mutations in different genes each acting individually to cause the same disease. Using datasets of experimentally derived human disease genes and protein interactions, we created a protein interaction network to investigate the relationships between the products of genes associated with a disease displaying locus heterogeneity, and use network parameters to suggest properties that distinguish these disease genes from the overall disease gene population. Through the manual curation of known causative genes of 100 diseases displaying locus heterogeneity and 397 single-gene Mendelian disorders, we use network parameters to show that our locus heterogeneity network displays distinct properties from the global disease network and a Mendelian network. Using the global human proteome, through random simulation of the network we show that heterogeneous genes display significant interconnectivity. Further topological analysis of this network revealed clustering of locus heterogeneity genes that cause identical disorders, indicating that these disease genes are involved in similar biological processes. We then use this information to suggest novel genes that may also contribute to diseases with locus heterogeneity.

  5. Youth Online Political Participation: The Role of Facebook Use, Interactivity, Quality Information and Political Interest

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    Abdu Shamsu Dauda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of Facebook use, interactivity with politicians, quality of information and political interest as the predictors of online political participation among youth. The paper argues that Facebook use, interactivity, quality of information and political interests have the potential to engender online political participation among Nigerian youth. Also, by offering them an avenue for acquiring political information necessary for making an informed political decision through deliberations on Facebook; in order to bring new political changes and group mobilization. Therefore, the study was implemented with survey questionnaires collected from youth in Bauchi metropolis (N= 372. Findings reveal that Facebook use, quality of information and political interest positively correlates with online political participation while interactivity with the politicians did not significantly influence online political participation among youth.

  6. Human and Virtual Agents Interacting in the Virtuality Continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Miyares Bermúdez, E.; Ruiz Miyares, L.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce several of our projects in an overview that makes it possible to compare research approaches on interaction modeling in virtual, mixed-reality and real (physical) environments. For these environments, interaction modeling means multimodal (verbal and nonverbal) interaction modeling

  7. PPI finder: a mining tool for human protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The exponential increase of published biomedical literature prompts the use of text mining tools to manage the information overload automatically. One of the most common applications is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs from PubMed abstracts. Currently, most tools in mining PPIs from literature are using co-occurrence-based approaches or rule-based approaches. Hybrid methods (frame-based approaches by combining these two methods may have better performance in predicting PPIs. However, the predicted PPIs from these methods are rarely evaluated by known PPI databases and co-occurred terms in Gene Ontology (GO database. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We here developed a web-based tool, PPI Finder, to mine human PPIs from PubMed abstracts based on their co-occurrences and interaction words, followed by evidences in human PPI databases and shared terms in GO database. Only 28% of the co-occurred pairs in PubMed abstracts appeared in any of the commonly used human PPI databases (HPRD, BioGRID and BIND. On the other hand, of the known PPIs in HPRD, 69% showed co-occurrences in the literature, and 65% shared GO terms. CONCLUSIONS: PPI Finder provides a useful tool for biologists to uncover potential novel PPIs. It is freely accessible at http://liweilab.genetics.ac.cn/tm/.

  8. Thermal expression of intersubjectivity offers new possibilities to human-machine and technologically mediated interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eMerla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the psychophysiological state of the interlocutor is an important element of interpersonal relationships and communication. Thermal infrared imaging has proved to be a reliable tool for non-invasive and contact-less evaluation of vital signs, psychophysiological responses and emotional states. This technique is quickly spreading in many fields, from psychometrics to social and developmental psychology; and from the touch-less monitoring of vital signs and stress, up to the human-machine interaction. In particular, thermal IR imaging promises to be of use for gathering information about affective states in social situations. This paper presents the state of the art of thermal infrared imaging in psychophysiology and in the assessment of affective states. The goal is to provide insights about its potentialities and limits for its use in human-artificial agent interaction in order to contribute to a major issue in the field: the perception by an artificial agent of human psychophysiological and affective states.

  9. Understanding the Information Requirements of Arts and Humanities Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agiatis Benardou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research of scholarly research practices and requirements conducted in the context of the Preparing DARIAH European e-Infrastructures project, with a view to ensuring current and future fitness for purpose of the planned digital infrastructure, services and tools. It summarises the findings of earlier research, primarily from the field of human information behaviour as applied in scholarly work, it presents a conceptual perspective informed by cultural-historical activity theory, it introduces briefly a formal conceptual model for scholarly research activity compliant with CIDOC CRM, it describes the plan of work and methodology of an empirical research project based on open-questionnaire interviews with arts and humanities researchers, and presents illustrative examples of segmentation, tagging and initial conceptual analysis of the empirical evidence. Finally, it presents plans for future work, consisting, firstly, of a comprehensive re-analysis of interview segments within the framework of the scholarly research activity model, and, secondly, of the integration of this analysis with the extended digital curation process model we presented in earlier work.

  10. An empirically informed critique of Habermas' argument from human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter 'human nature' should be morally prohibited since it alters the child's nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific life project or, in any case, it puts specific restrictions on his freedom to choose a life of his own. Ultimately, genetic enhancement jeopardizes the very foundations of moral equality. I contend that Habermas' argument is based either on a series of presuppositions that imply a gross misunderstanding of evolution or the relevant factual information concerning the action we are about to morally assess is not empirically supported. Hence, the argument from human nature is based on a series of false or problematic assumptions, and, as such, it fails to play the normative role intended by Habermas.

  11. Two is better than one: Physical interactions improve motor performance in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, G.; Takagi, A.; Osu, R.; Yoshioka, T.; Kawato, M.; Burdet, E.

    2014-01-01

    How do physical interactions with others change our own motor behavior? Utilizing a novel motor learning paradigm in which the hands of two - individuals are physically connected without their conscious awareness, we investigated how the interaction forces from a partner adapt the motor behavior in physically interacting humans. We observed the motor adaptations during physical interactions to be mutually beneficial such that both the worse and better of the interacting partners improve motor performance during and after interactive practice. We show that these benefits cannot be explained by multi-sensory integration by an individual, but require physical interaction with a reactive partner. Furthermore, the benefits are determined by both the interacting partner's performance and similarity of the partner's behavior to one's own. Our results demonstrate the fundamental neural processes underlying human physical interactions and suggest advantages of interactive paradigms for sport-training and physical rehabilitation.

  12. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  13. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins, (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services. These include primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  14. Full Enzyme Complex Simulation: Interactions in Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Samira; Zeng, An-Ping; Jandt, Uwe

    2018-01-24

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a large macromolecular machine consisting of dozens of interacting enzymes that are connected and regulated by highly flexible domains, also called swinging arms. The overall structure and function of these domains and how they organize the complex function have not been elucidated in detail to date. This lack of structural and dynamic understanding is frequently observed in multidomain enzymatic complexes. Here we present the first full and dynamic structural model of full human PDC (hPDC), including binding of the linking arms to the surrounding E1 and E3 enzymes via their binding domains with variable stoichiometries. All of the linking domains were modeled at atomistic and coarse-grained levels, and the latter was parametrized to reproduce the same properties of those from the atomistic model. The radii of gyration of the wild-type full complex and functional trimeric subunits were in agreement with available experimental data. Furthermore, the E1 and E3 population effect on the overall structure of the full complex was studied. The results indicated that decreasing the number of E1s increases the flexibility of the now nonoccupied arms. Furthermore, their flexibility depends on the presence of other E1s and E3s in the vicinity, even if they are associated with other arms. As one consequence, the radius of gyration decreases with decreasing number of E1s. This effect also provides an indication of the optimal configuration of E1 and E3 on the basis of the assumption that a certain stability of the enymatic cloud is necessary to avoid free metabolic diffusion of intermediates (metabolic channeling). Our approach and results open a window for future enzyme engineering in a more effective way by evaluating the effect of different linker arm lengths, flexibilities, and combinations of mutations on the activity of other complex enzymes that involve flexible domains, including for example processive enzymes.

  15. Interactions of Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-02-07

    I review literature on the impacts of climate change on air quality and human health, with a focus on articles published from 2013 on ozone and airborne particles. Selected previous literature is discussed where relevant in tracing the origins of our current knowledge. Climate and weather have strong influences on the spatial and temporal distribution of air pollution concentrations. Emissions of ozone and PM 2.5 precursors increase at higher ambient temperatures. The reactions that form ozone occur faster with greater sunlight and higher temperatures. Weather systems influence the movement and dispersion of air pollutants in the atmosphere through the action of winds, vertical mixing, and precipitation, all of which are likely to alter in a changing climate. Recent studies indicate that, holding anthropogenic air pollution emissions constant, ozone concentrations in populated regions will tend to increase in future climate scenarios. For the USA, the climate impact on ozone is most consistently seen in north-central and north-eastern states, with the potential for many thousands of additional ozone-related deaths. The sensitivity of anthropogenic PM 2.5 to climate is more variable across studies and regions, owing to the varied nature of PM constituents, as well as to less complete characterization of PM reaction chemistry in available atmospheric models. However, PM emitted by wildland fires is likely to become an increasing health risk in many parts of the world as climate continues to change. The complex interactions between climate change and air quality imply that future policies to mitigate these twin challenges will benefit from greater coordination. Assessing the health implications of alternative policy approaches towards climate and pollution mitigation will be a critical area of future work.

  16. Oxidative stress and inflammation interactions in human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Ryan, Lisa; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Obesity is often characterized by increased oxidative stress and exacerbated inflammatory outcomes accompanying infiltration of immune cells in adipocytes. The oxidative stress machinery and inflammatory signaling are not only interrelated, but their impairment can lead to an inhibition of insulin responses as well as a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and associated features. Mitochondria, in addition to energy transformation, play a role in apoptosis, cellular proliferation, as well as in the cellular redox state control. Under certain circumstances, protons are able to re-enter the mitochondrial matrix via different uncoupling proteins, disturbing free radical production by mitochondria. Disorders of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, over-generation of reactive oxygen species, and lipoperoxides or alterations in antioxidant defenses have been reported in situations of obesity and type-2 diabetes. On the other hand, obesity has been linked to a low grade pro-inflammatory state, in which impairments in the oxidative stress and antioxidant mechanism could be involved. The current scientific evidence highlights the need of investigating the interplay between oxidative stress and inflammation with obesity/diabetes onset as well as the interactions of such factors either as a cause or consequence of obesity. The signaling mediated by the activation of inflammatory markers or nuclear factor kappa β and other transcription factors as central regulators of inflammation are key issues to understanding oxidative stress responses in obesity. This review aims at summarizing the main mechanisms and interplay factors between oxidative stress and inflammation in human obesity according to the last 10 years of research in the field.

  17. The human-bacterial pathogen protein interaction networks of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

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    Matthew D Dyer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis are bacterial pathogens that can cause anthrax, lethal acute pneumonic disease, and bubonic plague, respectively, and are listed as NIAID Category A priority pathogens for possible use as biological weapons. However, the interactions between human proteins and proteins in these bacteria remain poorly characterized leading to an incomplete understanding of their pathogenesis and mechanisms of immune evasion.In this study, we used a high-throughput yeast two-hybrid assay to identify physical interactions between human proteins and proteins from each of these three pathogens. From more than 250,000 screens performed, we identified 3,073 human-B. anthracis, 1,383 human-F. tularensis, and 4,059 human-Y. pestis protein-protein interactions including interactions involving 304 B. anthracis, 52 F. tularensis, and 330 Y. pestis proteins that are uncharacterized. Computational analysis revealed that pathogen proteins preferentially interact with human proteins that are hubs and bottlenecks in the human PPI network. In addition, we computed modules of human-pathogen PPIs that are conserved amongst the three networks. Functionally, such conserved modules reveal commonalities between how the different pathogens interact with crucial host pathways involved in inflammation and immunity.These data constitute the first extensive protein interaction networks constructed for bacterial pathogens and their human hosts. This study provides novel insights into host-pathogen interactions.

  18. Multiple genetic interaction experiments provide complementary information useful for gene function prediction.

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    Magali Michaut

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions help map biological processes and their functional relationships. A genetic interaction is defined as a deviation from the expected phenotype when combining multiple genetic mutations. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most genetic interactions are measured under a single phenotype - growth rate in standard laboratory conditions. Recently genetic interactions have been collected under different phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions. How different are these networks and what can we learn from their differences? We conducted a systematic analysis of quantitative genetic interaction networks in yeast performed under different experimental conditions. We find that networks obtained using different phenotypic readouts, in different conditions and from different laboratories overlap less than expected and provide significant unique information. To exploit this information, we develop a novel method to combine individual genetic interaction data sets and show that the resulting network improves gene function prediction performance, demonstrating that individual networks provide complementary information. Our results support the notion that using diverse phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions will substantially increase the amount of gene function information produced by genetic interaction screens.

  19. An Interactive Robotic Fish Exhibit for Designed Settings in Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul; Leou, Mary; Milne, Catherine; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Informal science learning aims to improve public understanding of STEM. Free-choice learners can be engaged in a wide range of experiences, ranging from watching entertaining educational videos to actively participating in hands-on projects. Efforts in informal science learning are often gauged by their ability to elicit interaction, to foster…

  20. The Effects of Website Information Utility on the Outcomes of User-Website Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Joseph Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between website information content utility and various outcomes of user interactions with e-tail websites. Although previous research has consistently identified high quality information content as a critical factor of successful e-commerce websites, those studies have not reported how to identify the…