WorldWideScience

Sample records for human information behavior

  1. Privacy and human behavior in the age of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquisti, Alessandro; Brandimarte, Laura; Loewenstein, George

    2015-01-30

    This Review summarizes and draws connections between diverse streams of empirical research on privacy behavior. We use three themes to connect insights from social and behavioral sciences: people's uncertainty about the consequences of privacy-related behaviors and their own preferences over those consequences; the context-dependence of people's concern, or lack thereof, about privacy; and the degree to which privacy concerns are malleable—manipulable by commercial and governmental interests. Organizing our discussion by these themes, we offer observations concerning the role of public policy in the protection of privacy in the information age. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Women in STEM and Human Information Behavior: Implications for LIS Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary data from research that seeks to inform the readers about the way that human information behavior and the use of scholarly resources impacts on women in the STEM fields. By focusing on the information behavior and information needs of women in STEM, this could lead to an increased use of academic library resources…

  3. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Markus; Thomas, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    ... to interpersonal consistency and interpersonal conformity here. These sources of a systematic deviation from the standard model of the homo oeconomicus result in systematic weaknesses of perception and deviations of behavior...

  4. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    FESTINGER , L.A. [ 1957 ], A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance , Stanford University Press: Stanford . GOETZMANN, W.N., AND N...behavior. Based on HEIDER’s balance theory [1946], which proclaims that individuals seek consistency between various elements of cognition , FESTINGER [ 1957 ...behavioural model a consumption patterns: The effects of cognitive dissonance and conformity", Working Paper, Center for Economic Research,

  5. Informal Institutions and the "Weaknesses" of Human Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goebel, Markus; Thomas, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    .... This contribution connects shared mental models as informal institutions in the sense of North with well-established social psychological approaches and thereby leads to an integrative reflection of the insights in a stringent model framework.

  6. Metaphor’s Role in the Information Behavior of Humans Interacting with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Sease

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Metaphors convey information, communicate abstractions, and help us understand new concepts. While the nascent field of information behavior (IB has adopted common metaphors like “berry-picking” and “gap-bridging” for its models, the study of how people use metaphors is only now emerging in the subfield of human information organizing behavior (HIOB. Metaphors have been adopted in human–computer interaction (HCI to facilitate the dialogue between user and system. Exploration of the literature on metaphors in the fields of linguistics and cognitive science as well as an examination of the history of use of metaphors in HCI as a case study of metaphor usage offers insight into the role of metaphor in human information behavior. Editor’s note: This article is the winner of the LITA/Ex Libris Writing Award, 2008.

  7. Using ontologies to model human navigation behavior in information networks: A study based on Wikipedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Daniel; Strohmaier, Markus; Helic, Denis; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Noy, Natalya F; Musen, Mark A

    The need to examine the behavior of different user groups is a fundamental requirement when building information systems. In this paper, we present Ontology-based Decentralized Search (OBDS), a novel method to model the navigation behavior of users equipped with different types of background knowledge. Ontology-based Decentralized Search combines decentralized search, an established method for navigation in social networks, and ontologies to model navigation behavior in information networks. The method uses ontologies as an explicit representation of background knowledge to inform the navigation process and guide it towards navigation targets. By using different ontologies, users equipped with different types of background knowledge can be represented. We demonstrate our method using four biomedical ontologies and their associated Wikipedia articles. We compare our simulation results with base line approaches and with results obtained from a user study. We find that our method produces click paths that have properties similar to those originating from human navigators. The results suggest that our method can be used to model human navigation behavior in systems that are based on information networks, such as Wikipedia. This paper makes the following contributions: (i) To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the utility of ontologies in modeling human navigation and (ii) it yields new insights and understanding about the mechanisms of human navigation in information networks.

  8. Information spreading on mobile communication networks: A new model that incorporates human behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Liu, Chuang

    2017-03-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the modeling and simulation based on real social networks among researchers in multi-disciplines. Using an empirical social network constructed from the calling records of a Chinese mobile service provider, we here propose a new model to simulate the information spreading process. This model takes into account two important ingredients that exist in real human behaviors: information prevalence and preferential spreading. The fraction of informed nodes when the system reaches an asymptotically stable state is primarily determined by information prevalence, and the heterogeneity of link weights would slow down the information diffusion. Moreover, the sizes of blind clusters which consist of connected uninformed nodes show a power-law distribution, and these uninformed nodes correspond to a particular portion of nodes which are located at special positions in the network, namely at the edges of large clusters or inside the clusters connected through weak links. Since the simulations are performed on a real world network, the results should be useful in the understanding of the influences of social network structures and human behaviors on information propagation.

  9. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Informational Behaviors of College Students in Regard to the Human Papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Jessica R.; Pleasant, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess students' human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants/ Methods: Students (N = 1,282) at a large, public university in the Northeast United States completed a questionnaire during February 2008 assessing HPV knowledge, prevalence, transmission, cervical cancer risk and stigma; sexual behavior,…

  10. A Network Neuroscience of Human Learning: Potential to Inform Quantitative Theories of Brain and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Danielle S; Mattar, Marcelo G

    2017-04-01

    Humans adapt their behavior to their external environment in a process often facilitated by learning. Efforts to describe learning empirically can be complemented by quantitative theories that map changes in neurophysiology to changes in behavior. In this review we highlight recent advances in network science that offer a sets of tools and a general perspective that may be particularly useful in understanding types of learning that are supported by distributed neural circuits. We describe recent applications of these tools to neuroimaging data that provide unique insights into adaptive neural processes, the attainment of knowledge, and the acquisition of new skills, forming a network neuroscience of human learning. While promising, the tools have yet to be linked to the well-formulated models of behavior that are commonly utilized in cognitive psychology. We argue that continued progress will require the explicit marriage of network approaches to neuroimaging data and quantitative models of behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Approach behavior as information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uijen, Sophie L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. Methods 325 students rated the danger they perceived in

  12. Approach behavior as information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Uijen, Sophie L; van den Hout, Marcel A; Engelhard, Iris M

    2017-12-01

    Anxious individuals infer danger from information about physiological responses, anxiety responses, and safety behaviors. This study investigated whether anxious individuals also infer safety from approach behavior. 325 students rated the danger they perceived in general and spider-relevant scenarios in which information about objective safety versus objective danger, and approach behavior versus no approach behavior, was varied. A high and low spider fearful group was created with a median split on spider fear. Participants with a high fear of spiders, compared to participants with low spider fear, rated spider scenarios with approach behavior as safer than spider scenarios without approach behavior. This effect was similar for objectively dangerous and safe spider scenarios. No behavior as information effects were found for general scenarios. The data were collected in a non-clinical student sample. Spider fearful individuals infer safety from approach behavior in spider-relevant scenarios. For spider fearful individuals, approach behavior may add to the beneficial effects of exposure therapy. Future research is needed to investigate whether patients with anxiety disorders also show a tendency to infer safety from approach behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Digital Libraries for Humanities Scholars: An empirical study of users’ information behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available While user-centered design has been emphasized, much of the discussion of digital libraries is concerned about choosing Web-based technology to create a digitized collection and establish related infrastructure. An investigation into the potential users of a community-based digital library suggests that some critical social, ecological and cultural aspects of information-related behavior of those users need to be taken into account for a digital library to accomplish its goals. This paper reports on an empirical study of scholarly communication among users of the Taiwan Historical Archives and how those scholars and researchers find and use information. Several design principles are suggested based on the findings of such user study.[Article content in Chinese

  14. Theories of information behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Erdelez, Sandra; McKechnie, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This unique book presents authoritative overviews of more than 70 conceptual frameworks for understanding how people seek, manage, share, and use information in different contexts. A practical and readable reference to both well-established and newly proposed theories of information behavior, the book includes contributions from 85 scholars from 10 countries. Each theory description covers origins, propositions, methodological implications, usage, links to related conceptual frameworks, and listings of authoritative primary and secondary references. The introductory chapters explain key concepts, theory–method connections, and the process of theory development.

  15. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...... the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...... mechanisms influencing its value. Further, such a theory should explain information neglecting and avoidance, the utilisation of different kinds of information resources, the strategies used, and their efficiency. A general theory should formulate what the essential, non-trivial factors are, which can...

  16. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  17. Dynamics of human innovative behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting; Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2014-01-01

    How to promote the innovative activities is an important problem for modern society. In this paper, combining the evolutionary games with information spreading, we propose a lattice model to investigate dynamics of human innovative behaviors based on benefit-driven assumption. Simulations show several properties in agreement with peoples’ daily cognition on innovative behaviors, such as slow diffusion of innovative behaviors, gathering of innovative strategy on “innovative centers”, and quasi-localized dynamics. Furthermore, our model also emerges rich non-Poisson properties in the temporal-spatial patterns of the innovative status, including the scaling law in the interval time of innovation releases and the bimodal distributions on the spreading range of innovations, which would be universal in human innovative behaviors. Our model provides a basic framework on the study of the issues relevant to the evolution of human innovative behaviors and the promotion measurement of innovative activities.

  18. Contextual analysis of human non-verbal guide behaviors to inform the development of FROG, the Fun Robotic Outdoor Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karreman, Daphne Eleonora; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Evers, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the first step in a series of studies to design the interaction behaviors of an outdoor robotic guide. We describe and report the use case development carried out to identify effective human tour guide behaviors. In this paper we focus on non-verbal communication cues in gaze,

  19. Information Behavior: A Socio-Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available How has human information behavior evolved? Our paper explores this question in the form of notions, models and theories about the relationship between information behavior and human evolution. Alexander's Ecological Dominance and Social Competition/Cooperation (EDSC model currently provides the most comprehensive overview of human traits in the development of a theory of human evolution and sociality. His model provides a basis for explaining the evolution of human socio-cognitive abilities, including ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. Our paper examines the human trait of information behavior as a socio-cognitive ability related to ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper first outlines what is meant by information behavior from various interdisciplinary perspectives. We propose that information behavior is a socio-cognitive ability that is related to and enables other socio-cognitive abilities such as human ecological dominance, and social competition/cooperation. The paper reviews the current state of evolutionary approaches to information behavior and future directions for this research

  20. [Human rights and informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Reynoso, Francisco P; Argüelles-Mier, Miguel; Cicero-Sabido, Raúl

    2004-01-01

    The right to information is a right that all human beings have; it is unrenounceable and confers to the human being the Rights to the Political Constitution of the United States of Mexico, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Declaration of Geneva, and the Code of Behavior for Health Personnel. Information given to a sick person should suffice so that he/she can make a decision on management and treatment. Information is related directly with medical ethics and is obligatory not only for health workers but for all professionals in general.

  1. Mathematical models of human behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Anders Edsberg

    During the last 15 years there has been an explosion in human behavioral data caused by the emergence of cheap electronics and online platforms. This has spawned a whole new research field called computational social science, which has a quantitative approach to the study of human behavior. Most...... studies have considered data sets with just one behavioral variable such as email communication. The Social Fabric interdisciplinary research project is an attempt to collect a more complete data set on human behavior by providing 1000 smartphones with pre-installed data collection software to students...... at the Technical University of Denmark. The data set includes face-to-face interaction (Bluetooth), communication (calls and texts), mobility (GPS), social network (Facebook), and general background information including a psychological profile (questionnaire). This thesis presents my work on the Social Fabric...

  2. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the s...... and academic life and 5) social networks and support for cultural adjustment. Insights into the characteristics of international students’ information needs and behavior may help host institutions serve international students.......This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated...... in the study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...

  3. Information: theory, brain, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Greg; Ward, Ryan D; Balsam, Peter D

    2013-11-01

    In the 65 years since its formal specification, information theory has become an established statistical paradigm, providing powerful tools for quantifying probabilistic relationships. Behavior analysis has begun to adopt these tools as a novel means of measuring the interrelations between behavior, stimuli, and contingent outcomes. This approach holds great promise for making more precise determinations about the causes of behavior and the forms in which conditioning may be encoded by organisms. In addition to providing an introduction to the basics of information theory, we review some of the ways that information theory has informed the studies of Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and behavioral neuroscience. In addition to enriching each of these empirical domains, information theory has the potential to act as a common statistical framework by which results from different domains may be integrated, compared, and ultimately unified. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Behavioral obligation and information avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Shepperd, James A

    2013-04-01

    Although knowledge can be powerful and bring a variety of important benefits, people often opt to remain ignorant. We propose that people are particularly inclined to remain ignorant when learning information could obligate undesirable behavior. In three studies, participants completed an online risk calculator and then learned that receiving high-risk feedback from the calculator would obligate them to engage in a behavior that was either highly undesirable (e.g., undergoing a cervical exam and taking medication for the rest of their life) or only slightly undesirable (e.g., having their cheek swabbed and taking medication for 2 weeks). We then offered participants the opportunity to receive risk feedback from the calculator. Across all studies, participants more often avoided feedback when it could obligate highly undesirable behavior compared with mildly undesirable behavior. People decline learning their risk information more often when doing so obligates undesirable behavior in response.

  5. [Terrorism and human behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J

    2017-06-09

    Theories of religion are essential for understanding current trends in terrorist activities. The aim of this work is to clarify religion's role in facilitating terror and outline in parallel with recent theoretical developments on terrorism and human behaviour. Several databases were used such as PubCentral, Scopus, Medline and Science Direct. The search terms "terrorism", "social psychology", "religion", "evolution", and "cognition" were used to identify relevant studies in the databases. This work examines, in a multidimensional way, how terrorists employ these features of religion to achieve their goals. In the same way, it describes how terrorists use rituals to conditionally associate emotions with sanctified symbols that are emotionally evocative and motivationally powerful, fostering group solidarity, trust, and cooperation. Religious beliefs, including promised rewards in the afterlife, further serve to facilitate cooperation by altering the perceived payoffs of costly actions, including suicide bombing. The adolescent pattern of brain development is unique, and young adulthood presents an ideal developmental stage to attract recruits and enlist them in high-risk behaviors. This work offers insights, based on this translational analysis, concerning the links between religion, terrorism and human behavior. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  7. Information recovery in behavioral networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Squartini

    Full Text Available In the context of agent based modeling and network theory, we focus on the problem of recovering behavior-related choice information from origin-destination type data, a topic also known under the name of network tomography. As a basis for predicting agents' choices we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization, and self-organized behavior in an open dynamic system. We cast this problem in the form of binary and weighted networks and suggest information theoretic entropy-driven methods to recover estimates of the unknown behavioral flow parameters. Our objective is to recover the unknown behavioral values across the ensemble analytically, without explicitly sampling the configuration space. In order to do so, we consider the Cressie-Read family of entropic functionals, enlarging the set of estimators commonly employed to make optimal use of the available information. More specifically, we explicitly work out two cases of particular interest: Shannon functional and the likelihood functional. We then employ them for the analysis of both univariate and bivariate data sets, comparing their accuracy in reproducing the observed trends.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics in human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huys, Raoul [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Jirsa, Viktor K. (eds.) [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 13 - Marseille (France); Marseille Univ. (France). Movement Science Inst.; Florida Atlantic Univ., Boca Raton, FL (United States). Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences

    2010-07-01

    Humans engage in a seemingly endless variety of different behaviors, of which some are found across species, while others are conceived of as typically human. Most generally, behavior comes about through the interplay of various constraints - informational, mechanical, neural, metabolic, and so on - operating at multiple scales in space and time. Over the years, consensus has grown in the research community that, rather than investigating behavior only from bottom up, it may be also well understood in terms of concepts and laws on the phenomenological level. Such top down approach is rooted in theories of synergetics and self-organization using tools from nonlinear dynamics. The present compendium brings together scientists from all over the world that have contributed to the development of their respective fields departing from this background. It provides an introduction to deterministic as well as stochastic dynamical systems and contains applications to motor control and coordination, visual perception and illusion, as well as auditory perception in the context of speech and music. (orig.)

  9. The Humanization of Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Stanley A.

    1976-01-01

    Information science is presently a mechanistic discipline which needs to be humanized. There must be more communication between librarians and information scientists, perhaps through seminars and exchanges, to bring the advantages of computerization to bear on human needs. (LS)

  10. Genetics of Human Social Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebstein, Richard P; Israel, Salomon; Chew, Soo Hong; Zhong, Songfa; Knafo, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    ... such as securing a mate, parenting, aggression, altruism, and recognition of rank. Underlying most of these behaviors are a bevy of social cognitions and emotions, ranging from love, empathy, moral sense, and trust to political attitudes and instrumental goals. In order to attain social goals and bridge the gap between cognition, emotion, and behavior, human...

  11. Camp and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the potential of camp to promote self-esteem and nurture a sense of community. Summarizes articles in this journal issue that focus on individual and group behavior including homesickness, how camps can promote positive attitudes toward disabled campers, and a camp program that provides respite care for families of children with AIDS.…

  12. Effects on human behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chazov, E.I.; Vartanian, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    The disturbances of behavior and mental activity to be expected in the survivors of a nuclear attack will mainly be associated with the emergence of acute anxiety reactions. The immediate effects may include acute brain syndromes, protracted anxiety states, and reactive psychoses. It is to be expected that one-third of the survivors or more will suffer more-or-less severe mental and behavioral disturbances, and the phychological reactions of the survivors will continue for months or years after the attack. No adequate treatment would be available for the vast majority of these casualties, and it follows that the only rational alternative is to prevent the occurrence of a nuclear war. The psychological disturbances arising from the continuing arms race are also discussed.

  13. The Consequences of Human Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Hodgson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is founded on a complex interaction of influences that derive from sources both extraneous and intrinsic to the brain. It is the ways these various influences worked together in the past to fashion modern human cognition that can help elucidate the probable course of future human endeavor. A particular concern of this chapter is the way cognition has been shaped and continues to depend on prevailing environmental and ecological conditions. Whether the human predicament can be regarded simply as another response to such conditions similar to that of other organisms or something special will also be addressed. More specifically, it will be shown that, although the highly artificial niche in which most humans now live has had profound effects on ways of thinking, constraints deriving from a shared evolutionary heritage continue to have substantial effects on behavior. The way these exigencies interact will be explored in order to understand the implications for the future wellbeing of humanity.

  14. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  15. Technological advances for studying human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roske-Hofstrand, Renate J.

    1990-01-01

    Technological advances for studying human behavior are noted in viewgraph form. It is asserted that performance-aiding systems are proliferating without a fundamental understanding of how they would interact with the humans who must control them. Two views of automation research, the hardware view and the human-centered view, are listed. Other viewgraphs give information on vital elements for human-centered research, a continuum of the research process, available technologies, new technologies for persistent problems, a sample research infrastructure, the need for metrics, and examples of data-link technology.

  16. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Katrin; Fietkiewicz, Kaja J.; Wolfgang G. Stock

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs) has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs). Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting) as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them). We conducted two quantitative inv...

  17. Humanizing the Information Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Billington

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.

  18. Econometric Information Recovery in Behavioral Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Judge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest an approach to recovering behavior-related, preference-choice network information from observational data. We model the process as a self-organized behavior based random exponential network-graph system. To address the unknown nature of the sampling model in recovering behavior related network information, we use the Cressie-Read (CR family of divergence measures and the corresponding information theoretic entropy basis, for estimation, inference, model evaluation, and prediction. Examples are included to clarify how entropy based information theoretic methods are directly applicable to recovering the behavioral network probabilities in this fundamentally underdetermined ill posed inverse recovery problem.

  19. Quantitative analysis of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovitti, G

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of individual as well as social behaviours of human beings can be analyzed in a quantitative way using typical scientific methods, based on empirical measurements and mathematical inference. Measurements are made possible today by the large variety of sensing devices, while formal models are synthesized using modern system and information theories.

  20. Diversity in human behavioral ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    As befitting an evolutionary approach to the study of human behavior, the papers in this special issue of Human Nature cover a diversity of topics in modern and traditional societies. They include the goals of hunting in foraging societies, social bias, cooperative breeding, the impact of war on women, leadership, and social mobility. In combination these contributions demonstrate the utility of selectionist's thinking on a wide variety of topics. While many of the contributions employ standard evolutionary biological approaches such as kin selection, cooperative breeding and the Trivers-Willard model, others examine important human issues such as the problems of trust, the cost of war to women, the characteristics of leaders, and what might be called honest or rule-bound fights. One striking feature of many of the contributions is a novel reexamination of traditional research questions from an evolutionary perspective.

  1. Human factors and information transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  2. The human side of animal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the u...

  3. Saving IT's Soul: Human-Centered Information Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that, unless information technology managers pay attention to how people share information, advanced technological systems cannot achieve their full potential. Outlines how organizations can rebuild their information cultures, integrating human flexibility and disorder into information systems and changing employee behavior. (JOW)

  4. Coherence potentials encode simple human sensorimotor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that large amplitude negative periods in the local field potential (nLFPs are able to spread in saltatory manner across large distances in the cortex without distortion in their temporal structure forming 'coherence potentials'. Here we analysed subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG signals recorded at 59 sites in the sensorimotor cortex in the left hemisphere of a human subject performing a simple visuomotor task (fist clenching and foot dorsiflexion to understand how coherence potentials arising in the recordings relate to sensorimotor behavior. In all behaviors we found a particular coherence potential (i.e. a cascade of a particular nLFP wave pattern arose consistently across all trials with temporal specificity. During contrateral fist clenching, but not the foot dorsiflexion or ipsilateral fist clenching, the coherence potential most frequently originated in the hand representation area in the somatosensory cortex during the anticipation and planning periods of the trial, moving to other regions during the actual motor behavior. While these 'expert' sites participated more consistently, other sites participated only a small fraction of the time. Furthermore, the timing of the coherence potential at the hand representation area after onset of the cue predicted the timing of motor behavior. We present the hypothesis that coherence potentials encode information relevant for behavior and are generated by the 'expert' sites that subsequently broadcast to other sites as a means of 'sharing knowledge'.

  5. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  6. Clothing and Human Behavior: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Leslie L.

    1984-01-01

    Research developments in the area of clothing and human behavior are reviewed in terms of relevant psychological and sociological theories, including impression formation, clothing's effect on the behavior of others, conformity, personality, and life style. (SK)

  7. Cooperative behavior cascades in human social networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James H. Fowler; Nicholas A. Christakis; Daniel Kahneman

    2010-01-01

    .... Observational data suggest that a wide variety of behaviors may spread in human social networks, but subjects in such studies can choose to befriend people with similar behaviors, posing difficulty for causal inference...

  8. INTEGRATED INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE PROVIDING BEHAVIORAL FEATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Shvedenko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation of integrated information system architecture capable of supporting management decisions using behavioral features. The paper considers the architecture of information decision support system for production system management. The behavioral feature is given to an information system, and it ensures extraction, processing of information, management decision-making with both automated and automatic modes of decision-making subsystem being permitted. Practical implementation of information system with behavior is based on service-oriented architecture: there is a set of independent services in the information system that provides data of its subsystems or data processing by separate application under the chosen variant of the problematic situation settlement. For creation of integrated information system with behavior we propose architecture including the following subsystems: data bus, subsystem for interaction with the integrated applications based on metadata, business process management subsystem, subsystem for the current state analysis of the enterprise and management decision-making, behavior training subsystem. For each problematic situation a separate logical layer service is created in Unified Service Bus handling problematic situations. This architecture reduces system information complexity due to the fact that with a constant amount of system elements the number of links decreases, since each layer provides communication center of responsibility for the resource with the services of corresponding applications. If a similar problematic situation occurs, its resolution is automatically removed from problem situation metamodel repository and business process metamodel of its settlement. In the business process performance commands are generated to the corresponding centers of responsibility to settle a problematic situation.

  9. Clinical science and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaud, J J

    2001-09-01

    The debate between mentalism/cognitivism and behaviorism is analyzed, and it is concluded that behaviorism is the philosophy more closely associated with psychology as a behavioral science, the cognitive approach being more closely aligned with biological science. Specific objections to mentalistic interpretations of behavioral phenomena are detailed, and examples from clinical psychology are used to show the importance of behavioral approaches in applied domains. It is argued that the relation between behavior theory and clinical psychology is critical to the continued advancement of applied psychology. Behavior analysis is offered as a direct, applied extension of behavior theory as well as a highly practical and effective approach for understanding, explaining, and modifying the factors that contribute to and maintain maladaptive behaviors. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Mimesis: Linking Postmodern Theory to Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybicz, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    This article elaborates mimesis as a theory of causality used to explain human behavior. Drawing parallels to social constructionism's critique of positivism and naturalism, mimesis is offered as a theory of causality explaining human behavior that contests the current dominance of Newton's theory of causality as cause and effect. The contestation…

  11. Complex Systems for Human Body Biomechanical Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baritz, Mihaela; Cristea, Luciana; Rogozea, Liliana; Cotoros, Diana; Ion, Balcu

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we will explore the way we are able to obtain some information about human body behavior during gait or stability actions using video and tracking capture and transpose these data on a virtual model for the simulation process. In the first part of the paper we presented some considerations about the problems developed by human body modeling and its interactions with the environment. In the final part we presented some recordings of the human body movements during the gait process and the model built to analyze biomechanical behavior of the human body.

  12. Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Jyrki Kaistinen; Liang Chen; Heidi Kuusniemi; Yuwei Chen; Jingbin Liu; Ruizhi Chen; Ling Pei; Robert Guinness

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors...

  13. Information Behavior on Social Live Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheibe, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.

  14. Machine Understanding of Human Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  15. Modeling and simulating human teamwork behaviors using intelligent agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaocong; Yen, John

    2004-12-01

    Among researchers in multi-agent systems there has been growing interest in using intelligent agents to model and simulate human teamwork behaviors. Teamwork modeling is important for training humans in gaining collaborative skills, for supporting humans in making critical decisions by proactively gathering, fusing, and sharing information, and for building coherent teams with both humans and agents working effectively on intelligence-intensive problems. Teamwork modeling is also challenging because the research has spanned diverse disciplines from business management to cognitive science, human discourse, and distributed artificial intelligence. This article presents an extensive, but not exhaustive, list of work in the field, where the taxonomy is organized along two main dimensions: team social structure and social behaviors. Along the dimension of social structure, we consider agent-only teams and mixed human-agent teams. Along the dimension of social behaviors, we consider collaborative behaviors, communicative behaviors, helping behaviors, and the underpinning of effective teamwork-shared mental models. The contribution of this article is that it presents an organizational framework for analyzing a variety of teamwork simulation systems and for further studying simulated teamwork behaviors.

  16. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G.

    2013-01-01

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion. PMID:24039277

  17. The multifactorial nature of human homosexual behavior: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barona, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Homosexual behavior has been analyzed as an evolutionary paradox in the biological context. In this review, we will try to compile the main genetic, epigenetic, hormonal, neurological and immune explanations of homosexuality, as well as the ultimate evolutionary causes of this complex behavior in the human being, incorporating information from studies in other animal species. All these factors determine the homosexual behavior, acting most of the times, simultaneously. Hereditary and non hereditary factors determine homosexual behavior, explaining its persistence despite its apparent disadvantages in relation to reproductive fitness.

  18. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  19. Human genetics and sleep behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, G; D. Wu; Ptacek, LJ; Fu, Y-H

    2017-01-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of ...

  20. Human issues of library and information work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jela Steinerová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines philosophical, methodological and practical strategic aspects of library and information activity from the viewpoint of natural human and social factors. In contrast to traditional methodological patterns, real-life information problems and supportive methods of information seeking are stressed. The formulated conceptual framework is related to new competencies of information professionals, needs of information institutions and position of a human being in information processes. New methodological approach is outlined in models including factors with impact on a position of people in information work, human complexity and relationships of people and information. The resulting idea of human unity in information-related behaviour forms the vision of research directed to philosophy of a man in information science.

  1. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  2. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, René; Hassenkam, Tue; Hansen, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon fibr...

  3. Approach-Induced Biases in Human Information Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Laurence T.; Rutledge, Robb B.; Malalasekera, W. M. Nishantha; Kennerley, Steven W.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sampling is often biased towards seeking evidence that confirms one’s prior beliefs. Despite such biases being a pervasive feature of human behavior, their underlying causes remain unclear. Many accounts of these biases appeal to limitations of human hypothesis testing and cognition, de facto evoking notions of bounded rationality, but neglect more basic aspects of behavioral control. Here, we investigated a potential role for Pavlovian approach in biasing which information humans will choose to sample. We collected a large novel dataset from 32,445 human subjects, making over 3 million decisions, who played a gambling task designed to measure the latent causes and extent of information-sampling biases. We identified three novel approach-related biases, formalized by comparing subject behavior to a dynamic programming model of optimal information gathering. These biases reflected the amount of information sampled (“positive evidence approach”), the selection of which information to sample (“sampling the favorite”), and the interaction between information sampling and subsequent choices (“rejecting unsampled options”). The prevalence of all three biases was related to a Pavlovian approach-avoid parameter quantified within an entirely independent economic decision task. Our large dataset also revealed that individual differences in the amount of information gathered are a stable trait across multiple gameplays and can be related to demographic measures, including age and educational attainment. As well as revealing limitations in cognitive processing, our findings suggest information sampling biases reflect the expression of primitive, yet potentially ecologically adaptive, behavioral repertoires. One such behavior is sampling from options that will eventually be chosen, even when other sources of information are more pertinent for guiding future action. PMID:27832071

  4. Influence of human behavior on cholera dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Gao, Daozhou; Wang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    This paper is devoted to studying the impact of human behavior on cholera infection. We start with a cholera ordinary differential equation (ODE) model that incorporates human behavior via modeling disease prevalence dependent contact rates for direct and indirect transmissions and infectious host shedding. Local and global dynamics of the model are analyzed with respect to the basic reproduction number. We then extend the ODE model to a reaction-convection-diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) model that accounts for the movement of both human hosts and bacteria. Particularly, we investigate the cholera spreading speed by analyzing the traveling wave solutions of the PDE model, and disease threshold dynamics by numerically evaluating the basic reproduction number of the PDE model. Our results show that human behavior can reduce (a) the endemic and epidemic levels, (b) cholera spreading speeds and (c) the risk of infection (characterized by the basic reproduction number). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The virtues of gossip: reputational information sharing as prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Stellar, Jennifer; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-05-01

    Reputation systems promote cooperation and deter antisocial behavior in groups. Little is known, however, about how and why people share reputational information. Here, we seek to establish the existence and dynamics of prosocial gossip, the sharing of negative evaluative information about a target in a way that protects others from antisocial or exploitative behavior. We present a model of prosocial gossip and the results of 4 studies testing the model's claims. Results of Studies 1 through 3 demonstrate that (a) individuals who observe an antisocial act experience negative affect and are compelled to share information about the antisocial actor with a potentially vulnerable person, (b) sharing such information reduces negative affect created by observing the antisocial behavior, and (c) individuals possessing more prosocial orientations are the most motivated to engage in such gossip, even at a personal cost, and exhibit the greatest reduction in negative affect as a result. Study 4 demonstrates that prosocial gossip can effectively deter selfishness and promote cooperation. Taken together these results highlight the roles of prosocial motivations and negative affective reactions to injustice in maintaining reputational information sharing in groups. We conclude by discussing implications for reputational theories of the maintenance of cooperation in human groups.

  6. Data Sources for Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-06

    HISTORY & PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE HISTORY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES HOSPITALITY, LEISURE, SPORT & TOURISM INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS & LABOR INFORMATION SCIENCE...A ABAS s Search Libra ry Cata log: ILTi_~_le_-----"(st_a_rt_of_t~_le-’-)~v="l Go To CLIO>> Libraries & Collections E-Resources Request It

  7. The interaction between ICT and human activity-travel behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.; Dijst, M.J.; Schwanen, T.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction between information and communication technologies (ICT) and human activity-travel behavior has been an important theme in transportation research in recent years. Researchers have recognized that an increase in the use of ICT may lead to changes in the location, timing and duration

  8. Memory Processes and the Integration of Attitudinal and Behavioral Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Jack S.; Miller, Arthur G.

    Many scientists are currently studying the manner in which individuals process social information. The reconstruction of attitudinal and subsequent behavioral information was studied to determine whether information about a person's schema can influence the interpretation of that person's subsequent behavior or whether the behavior itself is more…

  9. Viscoelastic behavior of discrete human collagen fibrils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Whole tendon and fibril bundles display viscoelastic behavior, but to the best of our knowledge this property has not been directly measured in single human tendon fibrils. In the present work an atomic force microscopy (AFM) approach was used for tensile testing of two human patellar tendon...... on the strain. The slope of the viscous response showed a strain rate dependence corresponding to a power function of powers 0.242 and 0.168 for the two patellar tendon fibrils, respectively. In conclusion, the present work provides direct evidence of viscoelastic behavior at the single fibril level, which has...

  10. Property and Human Genetic Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Kongsholm, Nana Cecilie Halmsted; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    Do donors (of samples from which genetic information is derived) have some sort of pre-legal (moral) or legal property right to that information? In this paper, we address this question from both a moral philosophical and a legal point of view. We argue that philosophical theories about property do......” is, at best, a linguistic prop whose real content has to be defined conventionally. Relevant interests that may be seen to be protected seems to be interests of privacy or interests against exploitation. To the extent that the logic behind the patent system holds true limiting incentives decreases...

  11. Mining human behavior for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Thien, Huynh-The; Vui, Le-Ba; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Ali, Taqdir; Villalonga, Claudia; Lee, Sungyoung

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of human lifestyles has gained much attention in the recent years. This work presents a novel approach to combine multiple context-awareness technologies for the automatic analysis of people's conduct in a comprehensive and holistic manner. Activity recognition, emotion recognition, location detection, and social analysis techniques are integrated with ontological mechanisms as part of a framework to identify human behavior. Key architectural components, methods and evidences are described in this paper to illustrate the interest of the proposed approach.

  12. Quality assessment of human behavior models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and efficient models of human behavior offer great potential in military and crisis management applications. However, little attention has been given to the man ner in which it can be determined if this potential is actually realized. In this study a quality assessment approach that

  13. Behavior genetic modeling of human fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodgers, J L; Kohler, H P; Kyvik, K O

    2001-01-01

    Behavior genetic designs and analysis can be used to address issues of central importance to demography. We use this methodology to document genetic influence on human fertility. Our data come from Danish twin pairs born from 1953 to 1959, measured on age at first attempt to get pregnant (First...

  14. Learning from the Behavior of Others: Conformity, Fads, and Informational Cascades

    OpenAIRE

    Sushil Bikhchandani; David Hirshleifer; Ivo Welch

    1998-01-01

    Learning by observing the past decisions of others can help explain some otherwise puzzling phenomena about human behavior. For example, why do people tend to converge on similar behavior? Why is mass behavior prone to error and fads? The authors argue that the theory of observational learning, and particularly of informational cascades, has much to offer economics, business strategy, political science, and the study of criminal behavior.

  15. How Hume's Philosophy Informed Radical Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzolilli, Andrew E; Diller, James W

    2015-05-01

    The present paper analyzes consistencies between the philosophical systems of David Hume and B. F. Skinner, focusing on their conceptualization of causality and attitudes about scientific behavior. The ideas that Hume initially advanced were further developed in Skinner's writings and shaped the behavior-analytic approach to scientific behavior. Tracing Skinner's logical antecedents allows for additional historical and philosophical clarity when examining the development of radical behaviorism.

  16. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  17. Information sciences and human factors overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  18. Human Behavior Cognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyrki Kaistinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on sensing context, modeling human behavior and developing a new architecture for a cognitive phone platform. We combine the latest positioning technologies and phone sensors to capture human movements in natural environments and use the movements to study human behavior. Contexts in this research are abstracted as a Context Pyramid which includes six levels: Raw Sensor Data, Physical Parameter, Features/Patterns, Simple Contextual Descriptors, Activity-Level Descriptors, and Rich Context. To achieve implementation of the Context Pyramid on a cognitive phone, three key technologies are utilized: ubiquitous positioning, motion recognition, and human behavior modeling. Preliminary tests indicate that we have successfully achieved the Activity-Level Descriptors level with our LoMoCo (Location-Motion-Context model. Location accuracy of the proposed solution is up to 1.9 meters in corridor environments and 3.5 meters in open spaces. Test results also indicate that the motion states are recognized with an accuracy rate up to 92.9% using a Least Square-Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM classifier.

  19. Megascale processes: Natural disasters and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S.W.; Barton, P.; Chesworth, W.; Palmer, A.R.; Reitan, P.; Zen, E.-A.

    2009-01-01

    Megascale geologic processes, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, floods, and meteoritic impacts have occurred intermittently throughout geologic time, and perhaps on several planets. Unlike other catastrophes discussed in this volume, a unique process is unfolding on Earth, one in which humans may be the driving agent of megadisasters. Although local effects on population clusters may have been catastrophic in the past, human societies have never been interconnected globally at the scale that currently exists. We review some megascale processes and their effects in the past, and compare present conditions and possible outcomes. We then propose that human behavior itself is having effects on the planet that are comparable to, or greater than, these natural disasters. Yet, unlike geologic processes, human behavior is potentially under our control. Because the effects of our behavior threaten the stability, or perhaps even existence, of a civilized society, we call for the creation of a body to institute coherent global, credible, scientifi cally based action that is sensitive to political, economic, religious, and cultural values. The goal would be to institute aggressive monitoring, identify and understand trends, predict their consequences, and suggest and evaluate alternative actions to attempt to rescue ourselves and our ecosystems from catastrophe. We provide a template modeled after several existing national and international bodies. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf eToelch

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success.

  1. Social Performance Cues Induce Behavioral Flexibility in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toelch, Ulf; Bruce, Matthew J.; Meeus, Marius T. H.; Reader, Simon M.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance level of others provides one possible cue to assess the potential benefits of changing behavior, since out-performance in similar circumstances indicates that novel behaviors (innovations) are potentially useful. We demonstrate that social performance cues, in the form of previous players’ scores in a problem-solving computer game, influence behavioral flexibility. Participants viewed only performance indicators, not the innovative behavior of others. While performance cues (high, low, or no scores) had little effect on innovation discovery rates, participants that viewed high scores increased their utilization of innovations, allowing them to exploit the virtual environment more effectively than players viewing low or no scores. Perceived conspecific performance can thus shape human decisions to adopt novel traits, even when the traits employed cannot be copied. This simple mechanism, social performance feedback, could be a driver of both the facultative adoption of innovations and cumulative cultural evolution, processes critical to human success. PMID:21811477

  2. Health Behaviors among Baby Boomer Informal Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Geoffrey J.; Lee, Jihey; Mendez-Luck, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study examines health-risk behaviors among "Baby Boomer" caregivers and non-caregivers. Design and Methods: Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey of the state's non-institutionalized population provided individual-level, caregiving, and health behavior characteristics for 5,688 informal…

  3. Learning Styles: Factors Affecting Information Behavior of Thai Youth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jutharat Changthong; Lampang Manmart; Chollabhas Vongprasert

    2014-01-01

      This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the different learning styles of Thai youths and their information behavior at a time where rapidly developing information and communication...

  4. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Accommodating complexity and human behaviors in decision analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Siirola, John Daniel; Schoenwald, David Alan; Strip, David R.; Hirsch, Gary B.; Bastian, Mark S.; Braithwaite, Karl R.; Homer, Jack [Homer Consulting

    2007-11-01

    This is the final report for a LDRD effort to address human behavior in decision support systems. One sister LDRD effort reports the extension of this work to include actual human choices and additional simulation analyses. Another provides the background for this effort and the programmatic directions for future work. This specific effort considered the feasibility of five aspects of model development required for analysis viability. To avoid the use of classified information, healthcare decisions and the system embedding them became the illustrative example for assessment.

  6. Information-seeking behavior of social sciences scholars: A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active ...

  7. Economic Culture and Trading Behaviors in Information Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhayyan, Khalid N.

    2012-01-01

    There are four main components for influencing traders' behaviors in an information market context: trader characteristics, organizational characteristics, market design, and external information. This dissertation focuses on investigating the impact of individual trader characteristics on trading behaviors. Two newly-developed constructs,…

  8. A hierarchical modeling of information seeking behavior of school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the information seeking behavior of school teachers in the public primary schools of rural areas of Nigeria and to draw up a model of their information-seeking behavior. A Cross-sectional survey design research was employed to carry out the research. Findings showed that the ...

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A TRAVELERS' INFORMATION SEARCH BEHAVIOR MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Gursoy, Dogan

    2001-01-01

    In the dynamic global environment of today, understanding how travelers acquire information is important for marketing management decisions (Srinivasan 1990; Wilkie and Dickson 1985). For destination marketing managers, understanding information search behavior of travelers is crucial for designing effective marketing communication campaigns because information search represents the primary stage at which marketing can provide information and influence travelers' vacation decisions. Therefore...

  10. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  11. Human behavioral flexibility: a psychogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusalov, V M; Biryukov, S D

    1993-09-01

    Forty-seven two-children families from Moscow were used in a study to assess genetic determination of behavior flexibility, which was measured by eight laboratory tests. Flexibility is regarded as a temperament trait. There was no age- or sex-specific differentiation of human behavioral flexibility. Genetic determination of indices was used as a criterion for construct validization of flexibility tests. Factor analysis produced two principal components of flexibility: "operational flexibility" and "afferent flexibility." The study showed that a considerable part of the phenotypic variability of the flexibility indices included in different factors is under approximately equal genetic control. The flexibility factors differ in their genetic determination. In the inheritance of the first factor the leading role belongs to the additive component, whereas the dominance effects are more prominent in the second factor of flexibility.

  12. Ethical Behavior in the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In the months following AASL's 13th National Conference, the author has begun to process the new learning standards. The invitation to write about ethical behavior, identified as a Common Belief in the learning standards, has enabled her to reflect on how she is coming to grips with this important professional concept in her own practice. Analysis…

  13. Information behavior in dynamic group work contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Pierce, Linda G.

    2000-01-01

    In many dynamic work situations, no single individual can acquire the varied and often rapidly expanding information needed for success. Individuals must work together to collect, analyze, synthesize and disseminate information throughout the work process. Perhaps one of the most dynamic work con...

  14. Information-Seeking Behaviors and Reflective Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nancy L.; Casebeer, Linda L.; Zheng, Shimin; Kristofco, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: As they care for patients, physicians raise questions, but they pursue only a portion of them. Without the best information and evidence, care and patient safety may be compromised. Understanding when and why problems prompt physicians to look for information and integrate results into their knowledge base is critical and shapes one…

  15. Social performance cues induce behavioral flexibility in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toelch, U.; Bruce, M.J.; Meeus, M.T.H.; Reader, S.M.

    Behavioral flexibility allows individuals to react to environmental changes, but changing established behavior carries costs, with unknown benefits. Individuals may thus modify their behavioral flexibility according to the prevailing circumstances. Social information provided by the performance

  16. Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation: a crowdsourced investigation of information-based problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Sue E.; Vanni, Michelle; Caylor, Justine; Hoye, Jeff

    2017-05-01

    The Human-Assisted Machine Information Exploitation (HAMIE) investigation utilizes large-scale online data collection for developing models of information-based problem solving (IBPS) behavior in a simulated time-critical operational environment. These types of environments are characteristic of intelligence workflow processes conducted during human-geo-political unrest situations when the ability to make the best decision at the right time ensures strategic overmatch. The project takes a systems approach to Human Information Interaction (HII) by harnessing the expertise of crowds to model the interaction of the information consumer and the information required to solve a problem at different levels of system restrictiveness and decisional guidance. The design variables derived from Decision Support Systems (DSS) research represent the experimental conditions in this online single-player against-the-clock game where the player, acting in the role of an intelligence analyst, is tasked with a Commander's Critical Information Requirement (CCIR) in an information overload scenario. The player performs a sequence of three information processing tasks (annotation, relation identification, and link diagram formation) with the assistance of `HAMIE the robot' who offers varying levels of information understanding dependent on question complexity. We provide preliminary results from a pilot study conducted with Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) participants on the Volunteer Science scientific research platform.

  17. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Schlicht

    Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.

  18. Embodied information behavior, mixed reality and big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Ruth; Parola, Max J.; Jaycen, Amelia R.; Lueg, Christopher P.

    2015-03-01

    A renaissance in the development of virtual (VR), augmented (AR), and mixed reality (MR) technologies with a focus on consumer and industrial applications is underway. As data becomes ubiquitous in our lives, a need arises to revisit the role of our bodies, explicitly in relation to data or information. Our observation is that VR/AR/MR technology development is a vision of the future framed in terms of promissory narratives. These narratives develop alongside the underlying enabling technologies and create new use contexts for virtual experiences. It is a vision rooted in the combination of responsive, interactive, dynamic, sharable data streams, and augmentation of the physical senses for capabilities beyond those normally humanly possible. In parallel to the varied definitions of information and approaches to elucidating information behavior, a myriad of definitions and methods of measuring and understanding presence in virtual experiences exist. These and other ideas will be tested by designers, developers and technology adopters as the broader ecology of head-worn devices for virtual experiences evolves in order to reap the full potential and benefits of these emerging technologies.

  19. Effect of Undergraduates’ Emotional Intelligence on Information Search Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haocheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] Information search capability is the focus of information literacy education. This paper explores the relationship between emotional intelligence and information search behavior. [Method/process] Based on the data from the questionnaires by 250 undergraduates, this paper used IBM SPSS Statistics 19.0 for statistical data analysis. [Result/conclusion]The correlation between emotional intelligence and information search capability is positively obvious. When it comes to all variables in the regression equation, information search behavior is mainly affected by regulation and utilization of the dimension of emotion. Utilization of emotion mainly affects retrieval strategies, information evaluation, behavior adjustment and total score; regulation of emotions mainly affects the information reference.

  20. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Hohimer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cyber-security challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage, and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain, as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral "triggers" to help focus the analyst's attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain-independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sense-making problems.

  1. Modeling Human Behavior to Anticipate Insider Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2011-06-09

    The insider threat ranks among the most pressing cybersecurity challenges that threaten government and industry information infrastructures. To date, no systematic methods have been developed that provide a complete and effective approach to prevent data leakage, espionage and sabotage. Current practice is forensic in nature, relegating to the analyst the bulk of the responsibility to monitor, analyze, and correlate an overwhelming amount of data. We describe a predictive modeling framework that integrates a diverse set of data sources from the cyber domain as well as inferred psychological/motivational factors that may underlie malicious insider exploits. This comprehensive threat assessment approach provides automated support for the detection of high-risk behavioral “triggers” to help focus the analyst’s attention and inform the analysis. Designed to be domain independent, the system may be applied to many different threat and warning analysis/sensemaking problems.

  2. Exploring Factors that Influence Students' Behaviors in Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Cheolho; Hwang, Jae-Won; Kim, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Due to the ever-increasing use of the Internet, information security has become a critical issue in society. This is especially the case for young adults who have different attitudes towards information security practices. In this research, we examine factors that motivate college students' information security behaviors. Based on the concept of…

  3. Information sampling behavior with explicit sampling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Mordechai Z.; Gureckis, Todd M.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    The decision to gather information should take into account both the value of information and its accrual costs in time, energy and money. Here we explore how people balance the monetary costs and benefits of gathering additional information in a perceptual-motor estimation task. Participants were rewarded for touching a hidden circular target on a touch-screen display. The target’s center coincided with the mean of a circular Gaussian distribution from which participants could sample repeatedly. Each “cue” — sampled one at a time — was plotted as a dot on the display. Participants had to repeatedly decide, after sampling each cue, whether to stop sampling and attempt to touch the hidden target or continue sampling. Each additional cue increased the participants’ probability of successfully touching the hidden target but reduced their potential reward. Two experimental conditions differed in the initial reward associated with touching the hidden target and the fixed cost per cue. For each condition we computed the optimal number of cues that participants should sample, before taking action, to maximize expected gain. Contrary to recent claims that people gather less information than they objectively should before taking action, we found that participants over-sampled in one experimental condition, and did not significantly under- or over-sample in the other. Additionally, while the ideal observer model ignores the current sample dispersion, we found that participants used it to decide whether to stop sampling and take action or continue sampling, a possible consequence of imperfect learning of the underlying population dispersion across trials. PMID:27429991

  4. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia

    2015-02-01

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library's good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  5. Multitasking information behavior, information task switching and anxiety: An exploratory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com; Kotsopoulou, Anastasia, E-mail: p.alexopoulou@lboro.ac.uk, E-mail: an-kotsopoulou@yahoo.com [City Unity College, Thiseos 15-17, Athens, 105 62 (Greece)

    2015-02-09

    Multitasking information behavior involves multiple forms of information searching such as library and Web search. Few researchers, however, have explored multitasking information behavior and information task switching in libraries in conjunction with psychological variables. This study explored this behavior in terms of anxiety under time pressure. This was an exploratory case study. Participant searched information for three unrelated everyday life information topics during a library visit, in a timeframe of one hour. The data collection tools used were: diary, observation, interview, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. Participant took the Trait-anxiety test before the library visit to measure anxiety level as a personal characteristic. She also took State-anxiety test before, during and after the library visit to measure anxiety levels regarding the information seeking behavior. The results suggested that participant had high levels of anxiety at the beginning of the multitasking information behavior. The reason for that was the concern about the performance as well as the identification of the right resources. During the multitasking information behavior, participant still had anxiety to find the right information. The levels of anxiety, however, were less due to library’s good organized structure. At the end of the information seeking process, the levels of anxiety dropped significant and therefore calm and safety returned. Finally, participant searched information for topics that were more important and for which she had prior knowledge When people, under time pressure, have access to well organized information, the levels of anxiety might decrease.

  6. Human behavior recognition using a context-free grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Andrea; Conci, Nicola; De Natale, Francesco G. B.

    2014-05-01

    Automatic recognition of human activities and behaviors is still a challenging problem for many reasons, including limited accuracy of the data acquired by sensing devices, high variability of human behaviors, and gap between visual appearance and scene semantics. Symbolic approaches can significantly simplify the analysis and turn raw data into chains of meaningful patterns. This allows getting rid of most of the clutter produced by low-level processing operations, embedding significant contextual information into the data, as well as using simple syntactic approaches to perform the matching between incoming sequences and models. We propose a symbolic approach to learn and detect complex activities through the sequences of atomic actions. Compared to previous methods based on context-free grammars, we introduce several important novelties, such as the capability to learn actions based on both positive and negative samples, the possibility of efficiently retraining the system in the presence of misclassified or unrecognized events, and the use of a parsing procedure that allows correct detection of the activities also when they are concatenated and/or nested one with each other. An experimental validation on three datasets with different characteristics demonstrates the robustness of the approach in classifying complex human behaviors.

  7. Mobile information-seeking behavior: A comparative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jong-Moon; Song, Yoo-Seong

    2015-01-01

    .... While such a rapid adoption of mobile devices is a worldwide phenomenon, the authors sought to investigate similarities and differences of mobile information-seeking behavior of college students in diverse regions...

  8. Citizens’ Health Information Behaviors During SARS Spread Periods in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei-Ching Yeh

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the information behaviors of citizens during the periods of SARS spreading in Taiwan. This study is exploratory in nature, and the naturalistic inquiry approach was applied. Sixteen persons, aged from 20 to 62 years old, were interviewed in order to understand their primary information channels of obtaining SARS information, the characteristics of information communication, the methods of infection, the attitudes toward SARS news, and the influences of SARS to life. The findings show that most participants obtained SARS information from televisions. SARS became the major topic of chatting between people, but telephone communication replaced face to face communication. Part of interviewers applied folk medicine to guard against SARS. Participant dissatisfied that governments did not announce much more authoritative information. The results also found participants’ information sharing and information avoidance behaviors.[Article content in Chinese

  9. Saccharomyces genome database informs human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Marek S; Nash, Robert S; Wong, Edith D; MacPherson, Kevin A; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Engel, Stacia R; Karra, Kalpana; Weng, Shuai; Sheppard, Travis K; Binkley, Gail; Simison, Matt; Miyasato, Stuart R; Cherry, J Michael

    2018-01-04

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is an expertly curated database of literature-derived functional information for the model organism budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SGD constantly strives to synergize new types of experimental data and bioinformatics predictions with existing data, and to organize them into a comprehensive and up-to-date information resource. The primary mission of SGD is to facilitate research into the biology of yeast and to provide this wealth of information to advance, in many ways, research on other organisms, even those as evolutionarily distant as humans. To build such a bridge between biological kingdoms, SGD is curating data regarding yeast-human complementation, in which a human gene can successfully replace the function of a yeast gene, and/or vice versa. These data are manually curated from published literature, made available for download, and incorporated into a variety of analysis tools provided by SGD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. College Students’ Information Needs and Information Seeking Behaviors regarding Personal Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed college students’ reactions toward the issues of personal information. Students’ needs and seeking behaviors for personal information were assessed. Relevant literature was reviewed for framing the research questions and designing the questionnaire items for survey. Survey subjects were students from an university at northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaire items were used to collect research data. Statistical analysis from 252 valid data reveals some items were highly rated: Students reflected highly for their need of knowledge under the security threat of personal information (M = 4.29. They reacted strongly on acquiring knowledge and resources through the Internet (M = 4.24. They preferred the use of resources clear and easy to be understood (M = 4.04. However, most students had low level faith toward either government or non-governmental organizations in securing their personal information (M < 3.0 for most items. More effort among education and government should be emphasized in the future to improve personal use and reduce uncertainty in the use of personal information.

  11. Rule-governed behavior and human behavioral pharmacology: A brief commentary on an important topic

    OpenAIRE

    Poling, Alan; LeSage, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Over 25 years ago, B. F. Skinner introduced the concept of rule-governed behavior, which is the topic of this commentary. To date, behavioral pharmacologists have given rule-governed behavior little consideration in their analyses of drug action. There are, however, published studies that demonstrate the importance of rule-governed behavior in modulating drug effects in humans. Rule-governed behavior may help to explain differences in drug self-administration in humans and nonhumans and, in h...

  12. On the Importance of Comparative Research for the Understanding of Human Behavior and Development: A Reply to Gottlieb & Lickliter (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestripieri, Dario

    2005-01-01

    Comparative behavioral research is important for a number of reasons and can contribute to the understanding of human behavior and development in many different ways. Research with animal models of human behavior and development can be a source not only of general principles and testable hypotheses but also of empirical information that may be…

  13. Information Behaviors and Information Literacy Skills of LIS Students: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Laura; Kurbanoglu, Serap; Boustany, Joumana; Dogan, Guleda; Becker, Peter; Blumer, Eliane; Chowdhury, Sudatta; Dobreva, Milena; Gendina, Natalia; Grgic, Ivana Hebrang; Haddow, Gaby; Koltay, Tibor; Kortelainen, Terttu; Krakowska, Monika; Majid, Shaheen; Mezhova, Marina; Repanovici, Angela; Rudžioniene, Jurgita; Schneider, Rene; Terra, Ana Lucia; Todorova, Tania Y.

    2015-01-01

    Librarians are expected to be expert searchers, and developing information literacy skills to navigate the vast world of information is a focus of most library and information science (LIS) programs. It is important to understand the information literacy and behaviors of LIS students to see if they are employing the skills they will need to assist…

  14. Health Information Behavior of Expectant and Recent Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Given the importance of paternal involvement in maternal and child health, the current investigation takes a closer look at expectant and recent (E/R) fathers' health information behavior during pregnancy, childbirth, and child care. A total of 186 E/R fathers (68 low-income) completed a survey gauging information needs, sources of information, and information-seeking behavior. Results are summarized in four statements that may help low-income E/R fathers get the information they need during a partner's pregnancy or after a child is born: (a) paternal information needs are diverse, (b) information needs change across stages of child development, (c) interpersonal sources are important before and after birth, and (d) relationships matter.

  15. Maximal information transfer and behavior diversity in Random Threshold Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrecut, M; Foster, D; Carteret, H; Kauffman, S A

    2009-07-01

    Random Threshold Networks (RTNs) are an idealized model of diluted, non-symmetric spin glasses, neural networks or gene regulatory networks. RTNs also serve as an interesting general example of any coordinated causal system. Here we study the conditions for maximal information transfer and behavior diversity in RTNs. These conditions are likely to play a major role in physical and biological systems, perhaps serving as important selective traits in biological systems. We show that the pairwise mutual information is maximized in dynamically critical networks. Also, we show that the correlated behavior diversity is maximized for slightly chaotic networks, close to the critical region. Importantly, critical networks maximize coordinated, diverse dynamical behavior across the network and across time: the information transmission between source and receiver nodes and the diversity of dynamical behaviors, when measured with a time delay between the source and receiver, are maximized for critical networks.

  16. What Influences Information Security Behavior? A Study with Brazilian Users

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Rodrigo Hickmann; Luciano, Edimara Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    ... show that there is an influence of information security orientations provided by organizations in the perception about severity of the threat. The relationship between threat, effort, control and disgruntlement, and the responsible behavior towards information security was verified through linear regression. The results also point out the significant...

  17. 2009 Page 23 Information seeking Behavior of lecturers in Faculties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Information seeking Behavior of lecturers in Faculties of Education in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife ... library system. Information seeking is undertaken to identify a message that satisfies a perceived need. (Wright and Guy, 1997). This activity may be actively or passively ... fundamental to the provision of successful.

  18. Depressed mothers as informants on child behavior: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Monica Roosa

    2011-12-01

    Mothers with depressive symptoms more frequently report behavioral problems among their children than non-depressed mothers leading to a debate regarding the accuracy of depressed mothers as informants of children's behavior. The purpose of this integrative review was to identify methodological challenges in research related to the debate. Data were extracted from 43 articles (6 theoretical, 36 research reports, and 1 instrument scoring manual). The analysis focused on the methodologies considered when using depressed mothers as informants. Nine key themes were identified and I concluded that researchers should incorporate multiple informants, identify the characteristics of maternal depression, and incorporate advanced statistical methodology. The use of a conceptual framework to understand informant discrepancies within child behavior evaluations is suggested for future research. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Information behavior versus communication: application models in multidisciplinary settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Morena Maria da Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the information behavior as support for models of communication design in the areas of Information Science, Library and Music. The communication models proposition is based on models of Tubbs and Moss (2003, Garvey and Griffith (1972, adapted by Hurd (1996 and Wilson (1999. Therefore, the questions arose: (i what are the informational skills required of librarians who act as mediators in scholarly communication process and informational user behavior in the educational environment?; (ii what are the needs of music related researchers and as produce, seek, use and access the scientific knowledge of your area?; and (iii as the contexts involved in scientific collaboration processes influence in the scientific production of information science field in Brazil? The article includes a literature review on the information behavior and its insertion in scientific communication considering the influence of context and/or situation of the objects involved in motivating issues. The hypothesis is that the user information behavior in different contexts and situations influence the definition of a scientific communication model. Finally, it is concluded that the same concept or a set of concepts can be used in different perspectives, reaching up, thus, different results.

  20. Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, J

    1992-01-01

    Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology.

  1. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Scheider; Susanne Grassmann; Juliane Kaminski; Michael Tomasello

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the ‘context’ condition as opposed to the ‘no context...

  2. Determinants of Consumer eHealth Information Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Westra, Bonnie L; Khairat, Saif S; Pieczkiewicz, David S; Speedie, Stuart M

    2015-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using the Internet and other technologies to engage in their own healthcare, but little research has focused on the determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors related to Internet use. This study uses data from 115,089 respondents to four years of the National Health Interview Series to identify the associations between one consumer eHealth behavior (information seeking) and demographics, health measures, and Personal Health Information Management (PHIM) (messaging, scheduling, refills, and chat). Individuals who use PHIM are 7.5 times more likely to search the internet for health related information. Just as health has social determinants, the results of this study indicate there are potential social determinants of consumer eHealth behaviors including personal demographics, health status, and healthcare access.

  3. Homogeneous assumption and the logistic behavior of information propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Michael; Moehlis, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Many models of disease and rumor-spreading phenomena average the behavior of individuals in a population in order to obtain a coarse description of expected system behavior. For these types of models, we determine how close the coarse approximation is to its corresponding agent-based system. These findings lead to a general result on the logistic behavior of information propagation for networks on both connected graphs with doubly stochastic edge weights, and connected graphs with symmetric edge weights. Moreover, we discuss the appropriateness of the discrete logistic approximation for a few example heterogeneous graph topologies.

  4. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  5. Physicians' adoption of information technology: a consumer behavior approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, M S; Godkin, R L; Valentine, S R

    2001-01-01

    Studies report physician resistance to information technology in a time when the practice of medicine could benefit from technological support. Anecdotally, it is suspected that lack of training, discomfort with technological innovations, a perceived shift in the doctor/patient relationship, or medical/legal issues may account for this circumstance. Empirical studies attribute this lag to age, personality factors, behavioral issues, and occupational influences. This paper integrates the information technology and consumer behavior literatures to discuss physicians' acceptance, adoption, and application of IT.

  6. Psychological characteristics of information security of adolescents with deviant behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanovich N.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article adduces a research of psychological characteristics of information security of adolescents with deviant and normative behavior. 46 people from two Moscow schools were examined with a complex of four methods, one of which was the “Information Security Questionnaire" - is used for the first time. In addition, two experimental subgroups viewed videos about Internet security rules and then it was assessed how much it had influenced the responses of adolescents to spam mailing. A conclusion based on the obtained results was made, that adolescents with deviant behavior are less likely (in comparison with adolescents with normative behavior to be exposed to negative information because of their personal characteristics and distrust of others. However, for the same reason, they are less susceptible to persuasive educational impact, including those related to information security on the Internet. Thus, it is teenagers with normative behavior who are the ones who need information security education, and the effectiveness of such education should be tested with various psychological methods.

  7. Looking for information a survey of research on information seeking, needs, and behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Case, Donald O

    2016-01-01

    The 4th edition of this popular and well-cited text is now co-authored, and includes significant changes from earlier texts. Presenting a comprehensive review of over a century of research on information behavior (IB), this book is intended for students in information studies and disciplines interested in research on information activities. The initial two chapters introduce IB as a multi-disciplinary topic, the 3rd provides a brief history of research on information seeking. Chapter four discusses what is meant by the terms 'information' and 'knowledge.' Chapter five discusses 'information needs,' and how they are addressed. The 6th chapter identifies many related concepts. Twelve models of information behavior (expanded from earlier editions) are illustrated in chapter seven. Chapter eight reviews various paradigms and theories informing IB research. Chapter nine examines research methods invoked in IB studies and a discussion of qualitative and mixed approaches. The 10th chapter gives examples of IB studie...

  8. Human-Computer Interaction and Information Management Research Needs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — In a visionary future, Human-Computer Interaction HCI and Information Management IM have the potential to enable humans to better manage their lives through the use...

  9. Health behavior models for informing digital technology interventions for individuals with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Kim, Sunny Jung; McHugo, Gregory J; Unützer, Jürgen; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models offer valuable insights for designing effective and sustainable behavioral health interventions, yet the application of theory for informing digital technology interventions for people with mental illness has received limited attention. We offer a perspective on the importance of applying behavior theories and models to developing digital technology interventions for addressing mental and physical health concerns among people with mental illness. In this commentary, we summarize prominent theories of human behavior, highlight key theoretical constructs, and identify opportunities to inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. We consider limitations with existing theories and models, and examine recent theoretical advances that can specifically guide development of digital technology interventions. Established behavioral frameworks including health belief model, theory of planned behavior, transtheoretical model, and social cognitive theory consist of important and overlapping constructs that can inform digital health interventions for people with mental illness. As digital technologies continue to evolve and enable longitudinal data collection, real-time behavior monitoring, and adaptive features tailored to users' changing needs over time, there are new opportunities to broaden our understanding of health behaviors and mechanisms of behavior change. Recent advances include dynamic models of behavior, persuasive system design, the behavioral intervention technology model, and behavioral models for just-in-time adaptive interventions. Behavior theories offer advantages for guiding use of digital technologies. Future researchers must explore how theoretical models can effectively advance efforts to develop, evaluate, and disseminate digital health interventions targeting individuals with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  11. Human Factors Plan for the Aeronautical Information Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This human factors plan covers the human factors effort for the development of the Aeronautical Information Subsystem (AIS) of the Operational Data Management System (ODMS). Broadly the goals of the human factors effort are to provide a user interfac...

  12. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  13. Expected behavior of quantum thermodynamic machines with prior information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Johal, Ramandeep S

    2012-04-01

    We estimate the expected behavior of the quantum model of a heat engine when we have incomplete information about external macroscopic parameters such as the magnetic field controlling the intrinsic energy scales of the working medium. We explicitly derive the prior probability distribution for these unknown parameters ai (i=1,2). Based on a few simple assumptions, the prior probability distribution is found to be of the form Π(ai)∝1/ai. By calculating the expected values of various physical quantities related to this engine, we find that the expected behavior of the quantum model exhibits thermodynamiclike features. This leads us to a surprising proposal that incomplete information quantified as an appropriate prior distribution can lead us to expect classical thermodynamic behavior in quantum models.

  14. Information Seeking and Avoidance Behavior in School Library Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yunfei

    2010-01-01

    Library science students in school librarianship were surveyed to determine their information seeking and avoidance behaviors in Web-based online environments. Two coping styles were identified among students. Barriers to student online collaboration, such as individual preferences, concerns on efficiency, and lack of mutual trust, were observed.…

  15. Organizational Behavior and Information Seeking: Lessons for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, Ethel

    1982-01-01

    Presents a brief review of the literature on organizational behavior and on information seeking and comments on the relevance of this literature (which is not primarily directed toward librarians) to librarianship. Leadership and productivity, motivation, and organizational development are discussed. A 40-item reference list is included.…

  16. Health information-seeking behavior among hypothyroid patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism causes considerable morbidity. Low knowledge coupled with inadequate health literacy may lead to poor prevention and management. This study aimed to assess health information-seeking behavior and hypothyroid knowledge among South Indian hypothyroid patients. METHODS: This ...

  17. Behavioral Aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Mountain Plains Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen Stuut

    This paper discusses the symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). It then presents information from biological and adopted parents of 14 individuals (ages 4-23 years) diagnosed with FAS or FAE, based on a parent survey concerning behavioral and educational histories of their children.…

  18. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  19. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but

  20. Emotion identification method using RGB information of human face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Shinya; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Recently, the number of single households is drastically increased due to the growth of the aging society and the diversity of lifestyle. Therefore, the evolution of building spaces is demanded. Biofied Building we propose can help to avoid this situation. It helps interaction between the building and residents' conscious and unconscious information using robots. The unconscious information includes emotion, condition, and behavior. One of the important information is thermal comfort. We assume we can estimate it from human face. There are many researchs about face color analysis, but a few of them are conducted in real situations. In other words, the existing methods were not used with disturbance such as room lumps. In this study, Kinect was used with face-tracking. Room lumps and task lumps were used to verify that our method could be applicable to real situation. In this research, two rooms at 22 and 28 degrees C were prepared. We showed that the transition of thermal comfort by changing temperature can be observed from human face. Thus, distinction between the data of 22 and 28 degrees C condition from face color was proved to be possible.

  1. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  2. Using the information-motivation behavioral model to predict sexual behavior among underserved minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazargan, Mohsen; Stein, Judith A; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Hindman, David W

    2010-06-01

    Testing, refining, and tailoring theoretical approaches that are hypothesized to reduce sexual risk behaviors among adolescent subpopulations is an important task. Relatively little is known about the relationship between components of the information-motivation-behavior (IMB) model and sexual behaviors among underage minority youth. Using the IMB model, this study examines predictors of risky sexual behavior among underserved Hispanic and African-American youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 380 youths aged 11-17 years recruited in Los Angeles, California, and utilized latent variable models to examine interrelationships and predictive relations among IMB model variables associated with risky sexual behavior. Sixty percent of the participants aged 15-17 and 1 out of 10 participants aged 11-12 reported prior sexual intercourse. Of the sexually active, more than half reported having unprotected sex and 11% had sexual intercourse with 4 or more partners. Results of the structural equation model indicated that older age and attitudes against sexual activities had significant, direct impacts on risky sexual behaviors. Behavioral refusal skills, positioned as an intervening variable, also significantly predicted less risky sex. Knowledge, attitudes against sexual activities, and perceived peer pressure against sexual behavior predicted sexual refusal skills. Additionally, there were significant indirect effects on risky sexual behavior mediated through behavioral refusal skills. A large number of disadvantaged minority urban youth are engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Intervention programs, particularly those targeting preadolescents, should focus on building long-lasting behavioral skills that emphasize the reduction of peer pressure and normative influences on risky sexual behaviors. Components of the IMB model clearly have a role in the design of efficacious interventions.

  3. Behavior Generation for Interpersonal Coordination with Virtual Humans: on Specifying, Scheduling and Realizing Multimodal Virtual Human Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welbergen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual environments inhabited by virtual humans are now commonplace in many applications, particularly in (serious) games. These virtual humans interact with other (virtual) humans and their surroundings. For such interactions, detailed \\emph{control} over their behavior is crucial. The control

  4. Uniform Local Binary Pattern Based Texture-Edge Feature for 3D Human Behavior Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Yue; Wang, Guangchao; Fan, Chunxiao

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of 3D somatosensory technology, human behavior recognition has become an important research field. Human behavior feature analysis has evolved from traditional 2D features to 3D features. In order to improve the performance of human activity recognition, a human behavior recognition method is proposed, which is based on a hybrid texture-edge local pattern coding feature extraction and integration of RGB and depth videos information. The paper mainly focuses on background subtraction on RGB and depth video sequences of behaviors, extracting and integrating historical images of the behavior outlines, feature extraction and classification. The new method of 3D human behavior recognition has achieved the rapid and efficient recognition of behavior videos. A large number of experiments show that the proposed method has faster speed and higher recognition rate. The recognition method has good robustness for different environmental colors, lightings and other factors. Meanwhile, the feature of mixed texture-edge uniform local binary pattern can be used in most 3D behavior recognition. PMID:25942404

  5. Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Margot Stern; Parsons, William S.

    This unit for junior and senior high school students presents techniques and materials for studying about the holocaust of World War II. Emphasis in the guide is on human behavior and the role of the individual within society. Among the guide's 18 objectives are for students to examine society's influence on individual behavior, place Hitler's…

  6. An Investigation into Information Needs and Information Seeking Behavior of Elementary and Middle School Teachers Teaching Indigenous Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to systematically study the information need, seeking, and use behavior of middle school teachers of Taiwan historical resources, and to explore the implications of the findings for digital library system design. This research employs multiple methods, first by qualitative approach followed by quantitative approach. The study investigated elementary and high school teachers, and compared the findingswith those of the scholar user group, using literature analysis, deep interview, and questionnaire survey as the methods for data collection, and content analysis, case study, and statistic analysis for data analysis. The results lead to (1 a better understanding of information seeking and use behavior of primary and middle school teachers of Taiwan historical archives; (2 deeper knowledge and empirical data for developing theory on human information behavior of Taiwan local people; (3 identification of important teaching and learning resources on Taiwan and the salient characteristics of those resources; (4 development of information organization guideline for localized digital library and museum systems. [Article content in Chinese

  7. Effects of Sexuality Information on Sexual Behavior and Control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reproductive health information for adolescents is important in reducing teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases /human immunodeficiency virus. Aim: To ascertain the knowledge of sexuality among different categories of school teenagers and to assess the impact of knowledge of sexuality on ...

  8. Designing Information Human Factors and Common Sense in Information Design

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    "The book itself is a diagram of clarification, containing hundreds of examples of work by those who favor the communication of information over style and academic postulation-and those who don't. Many blurbs such as this are written without a thorough reading of the book. Not so in this case. I read it and love it. I suggest you do the same."-Richard Saul Wurman Designing Information shows designers in all fields - from user-interface design to architecture and engineering - how to design complex data and information for meaning, relevance, and clarity. Written by a worldwide authority on th

  9. Genomic imprinting and human psychology: cognition, behavior and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goos, Lisa M; Ragsdale, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    Imprinted genes expressed in the brain are numerous and it has become clear that they play an important role in nervous system development and function. The significant influence of genomic imprinting during development sets the stage for structural and physiological variations affecting psychological function and behaviour, as well as other physiological systems mediating health and well-being. However, our understanding of the role of imprinted genes in behaviour lags far behind our understanding of their roles in perinatal growth and development. Knowledge of genomic imprinting remains limited among behavioral scientists and clinicians and research regarding the influence of imprinted genes on normal cognitive processes and the most common forms of neuropathology has been limited to date. In this chapter, we will explore how knowledge of genomic imprinting can be used to inform our study of normal human cognitive and behavioral processes as well as their disruption. Behavioural analyses of rare imprinted disorders, such as Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, provide insight regarding the phenotypic impact of imprinted genes in the brain, and can be used to guide the study of normal behaviour as well as more common but etiologically complex disorders such as ADHD and autism. Furthermore, hypotheses regarding the evolutionary development of imprinted genes can be used to derive predictions about their role in normal behavioural variation, such as that observed in food-related and social interactions.

  10. Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Pentland, Alex; Nijholt, Antinus; Huang, Thomas; Quek, F.; Yang, Yie

    2006-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should

  11. Unfakeable facial configurations affect strategic choices in trust games with or without information about past behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezlescu, Constantin; Duchaine, Brad; Olivola, Christopher Yves; Chater, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Background\\ud Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior.\\ud \\ud Methodology/Principal Findings\\ud Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that un...

  12. Bimanual coordination and musical experience: the role of intrinsic dynamics and behavioral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheul, Martine H G; Geuze, Reint H

    2004-07-01

    Rhythmic interlimb coordination arises from the interaction of intrinsic dynamics and behavioral information, that is, intention, memory, or external information specifying the required coordination pattern. This study investigates the influence of the content of memorized behavioral information on coordination in musically experienced and inexperienced participants. These groups are hypothesized to have different intrinsic dynamics for this task. Stability was assessed in a switching task (variability and switching time). The in-phase, anti-phase, and 90 degrees -phase difference were specified in a neutral and an ecologically relevant manner. Musicians showed more stable coordination than nonmusicians did. No interaction effect was found with memorized behavioral information. Behavioral information showed an interaction effect with phase pattern on coordination variability, with the strongest effect for the 90 degrees -phase pattern. Switching time was affected largely in line with the findings for coordination variability. Participants showed an intraindividual preference for one type of gallop and one type of switch strategy, suggesting different hand roles for the two hands. Copyright 2004 Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

  13. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  14. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  15. A Culture-Behavior-Brain Loop Model of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shihui; Ma, Yina

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cultural influences on brain activity are associated with multiple cognitive and affective processes. These findings prompt an integrative framework to account for dynamic interactions between culture, behavior, and the brain. We put forward a culture-behavior-brain (CBB) loop model of human development that proposes that culture shapes the brain by contextualizing behavior, and the brain fits and modifies culture via behavioral influences. Genes provide a fundamental basis for, and interact with, the CBB loop at both individual and population levels. The CBB loop model advances our understanding of the dynamic relationships between culture, behavior, and the brain, which are crucial for human phylogeny and ontogeny. Future brain changes due to cultural influences are discussed based on the CBB loop model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Where to look? Automating attending behaviors of virtual human characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra Khullar, S.; Badler, N. I.

    2001-01-01

    This research proposes a computational framework for generating visual attending behavior in an embodied simulated human agent. Such behaviors directly control eye and head motions, and guide other actions such as locomotion and reach. The implementation of these concepts, referred to as the AVA, draws on empirical and qualitative observations known from psychology, human factors and computer vision. Deliberate behaviors, the analogs of scanpaths in visual psychology, compete with involuntary attention capture and lapses into idling or free viewing. Insights provided by implementing this framework are: a defined set of parameters that impact the observable effects of attention, a defined vocabulary of looking behaviors for certain motor and cognitive activity, a defined hierarchy of three levels of eye behavior (endogenous, exogenous and idling) and a proposed method of how these types interact.

  17. The effects of preference for information on consumers' online health information search behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-26

    Preference for information is a personality trait that affects people's tendency to seek information in health-related situations. Prior studies have focused primarily on investigating its impact on patient-provider communication and on the implications for designing information interventions that prepare patients for medical procedures. Few studies have examined its impact on general consumers' interactions with Web-based search engines for health information or the implications for designing more effective health information search systems. This study intends to fill this gap by investigating the impact of preference for information on the search behavior of general consumers seeking health information, their perceptions of search tasks (representing information needs), and user experience with search systems. Forty general consumers who had previously searched for health information online participated in the study in our usability lab. Preference for information was measured using Miller's Monitor-Blunter Style Scale (MBSS) and the Krantz Health Opinion Survey-Information Scale (KHOS-I). Each participant completed four simulated health information search tasks: two look-up (fact-finding) and two exploratory. Their behaviors while interacting with the search systems were automatically logged and ratings of their perceptions of tasks and user experience with the systems were collected using Likert-scale questionnaires. The MBSS showed low reliability with the participants (Monitoring subscale: Cronbach alpha=.53; Blunting subscale: Cronbach alpha=.35). Thus, no further analyses were performed based on the scale. KHOS-I had sufficient reliability (Cronbach alpha=.77). Participants were classified into low- and high-preference groups based on their KHOS-I scores. The high-preference group submitted significantly shorter queries when completing the look-up tasks (P=.02). The high-preference group made a significantly higher percentage of parallel movements in query

  18. L\\'evy flights in human behavior and cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    L\\'evy flights represent the best strategy to randomly search for a target in an unknown environment, and have been widely observed in many animal species. Here, we inspect and discuss recent results concerning human behavior and cognition. Different studies have shown that human mobility can be described in terms of L\\'evy flights, while fresh evidence indicates that the same pattern accounts for human mental searches in online gambling sites. Thus, L\\'evy flights emerge as a unifying concep...

  19. Users' information-seeking behavior on a medical library Website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozic-Hristovsk, Anamarija; Hristovski, Dimitar; Todorovski, Ljupco

    2002-04-01

    The Central Medical Library (CMK) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, started to build a library Website that included a guide to library services and resources in 1997. The evaluation of Website usage plays an important role in its maintenance and development. Analyzing and exploring regularities in the visitors' behavior can be used to enhance the quality and facilitate delivery of information services, identify visitors' interests, and improve the server's performance. The analysis of the CMK Website users' navigational behavior was carried out by analyzing the Web server log files. These files contained information on all user accesses to the Website and provided a great opportunity to learn more about the behavior of visitors to the Website. The majority of the available tools for Web log file analysis provide a predefined set of reports showing the access count and the transferred bytes grouped along several dimensions. In addition to the reports mentioned above, the authors wanted to be able to perform interactive exploration and ad hoc analysis and discover trends in a user-friendly way. Because of that, we developed our own solution for exploring and analyzing the Web logs based on data warehousing and online analytical processing technologies. The analytical solution we developed proved successful, so it may find further application in the field of Web log file analysis. We will apply the findings of the analysis to restructuring the CMK Website.

  20. Citizens' Political Information Behaviors during Elections on Twitter in South Korea: Information Worlds of Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Sue

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated South Korean citizens' political information behaviors on Twitter during the 2014 Seoul Mayoral election. By using the mixed methods design of network analysis, tweet content analysis, and interviews, this research examined how citizens collaboratively engaged in the political communication and deliberation via Twitter…

  1. Multimodal Information Presentation for High-Load Human Computer Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Y

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation addresses multimodal information presentation in human computer interaction. Information presentation refers to the manner in which computer systems/interfaces present information to human users. More specifically, the focus of our work is not on which information to present, but on how to present it, such as which modalities to use, how to spatially distribute items, et cetera. The notion ``computer'' is not limited to personal computers in their various forms. It also incl...

  2. The Influence of Human Heterogeneity to Information Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Chuan-Jian; Wu, Jian-Liang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Humans are an integral part of the wide world and material areas, and morphological difference is widespread. In this paper, we propose a model to emphasize the influence of human heterogeneity to information spreading on social networks, and the properties including memory effects, social reinforcement, non-redundancy and human heterogeneity are taken into account. Simulation results indicate that the small-world networks generate the most effective spreading for the stronger human heterogeneity; however, for the weaker human heterogeneity, the regular networks will be more effective. In addition, for a given BA scale-free network, the stronger human heterogeneity will be more conducive to information spreading.

  3. Guide to Human Factors Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Journal) Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Revista de Psicologia General Y A’-"licada (Review of General Applied.- Psychology) Studlxa...science, engineering anthropmetrv, engincerlng psychology, industrial psychology, organizational psychology, occzpactonal psychology, experimental ...the weekly Current Cont unit B on Social and Behavioral Sciences, unit E on Engineering Techn and Applied Sciences, and unit L on Life Sciences, which

  4. A Biosocial View of Population: Fertility Behavior in Animal Groups and Early Human Societies. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    The paper discusses the relationship between social structure and fertility behavior in man. Focusing upon human fertility within the context of varying social groups, the document reviews recent interdisciplinary population studies. Information and interpretations from biology, ethnology, anthropology, history, and sociology are presented in four…

  5. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of behavioral decision theory for cockpit information management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Jon E.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this report is the consideration of one form of cognition, judgment and decision making, while examining some information management issues associated with the implementation of new forms of automation. As technology matures and more tasks become suitable to automation, human factors researchers will have to consider the effect that increasing automation will have on operator performance. Current technology allows flight deck designers the opportunity to automate activities involving substantially more cognitive processing.

  7. Information behavior and workplace procedures: The case of emergency-department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    In workplace contexts the performance of many information tasks is prescribed in procedures. Knowledge of the relationship between workplace procedures and actors’ real information behavior is important to understanding information behavior. We explore this relationship by looking at how emergenc...... clinicians’ information behavior relates to clinical triage guidelines....

  8. Human computing and machine understanding of human behavior: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pentland, Alex; Huang, Thomas S.; Huang, Th.S.; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    2007-01-01

    A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing should be about anticipatory user interfaces

  9. Preferences for Genetic and Behavioral Health Information: The Impact of Risk Factors and Disease Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Suzanne C.; McBride, Colleen M.; Alford, Sharon Hensley; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased availability of genetic risk information may lead the public to give precedence to genetic causation over behavioral/environmental factors, decreasing behavior change motivation. Few population-based data inform these concerns. Purpose We assess the association of family history, behavioral risks, and causal attributions for diseases and the perceived value of pursuing information emphasizing health habits or genes. Method 1959 healthy adults completed a survey that assessed behavioral risk factors, family history, causal attributions of eight diseases, and health information preferences. Results Participants’ causal beliefs favored health behaviors over genetics. Interest in behavioral information was higher than in genetic information. As behavioral risk factors increased, inclination toward genetic explanations increased; interest in how health habits affect disease risk decreased. Conclusions Those at greatest need for behavior change may hold attributions that diminish interest in behavior change information. Enhancing understanding of gene-environment influences could be explored to increase engagement with health information. PMID:20532842

  10. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  11. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J.T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds...

  12. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care......-O-bot, a large service robot, in a medical measurement scenario, we compare the timing of the robot's behaviors in three between-subject conditions. The results show that the relative timing of robot behaviors has significant effects on the number of problems participants encounter, and that the robot's verbal...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots....

  13. Timing of Multimodal Robot Behaviors during Human-Robot Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Christian; Fischer, Kerstin; Suvei, Stefan-Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we address issues of timing between robot behaviors in multimodal human-robot interaction. In particular, we study what effects sequential order and simultaneity of robot arm and body movement and verbal behavior have on the fluency of interactions. In a study with the Care...... output plays a special role because participants carry their expectations from human verbal interaction into the interactions with robots.......-O-bot, a large service robot, in a medical measurement scenario, we compare the timing of the robot's behaviors in three between-subject conditions. The results show that the relative timing of robot behaviors has significant effects on the number of problems participants encounter, and that the robot's verbal...

  14. Structure and mechanical behavior of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Yang, Wen; Wang, Bin; Meyers, Marc André

    2017-04-01

    The understanding of the mechanical behavior of hair under various conditions broadens our knowledge in biological materials science and contributes to the cosmetic industry. The hierarchical organization of hair is studied from the intermediate filament to the structural levels. The effects of strain rate, relative humidity, and temperature are evaluated. Hair exhibits a high tensile strength, 150-270MPa, which is significantly dependent on strain rate and humidity. The strain-rate sensitivity, approximately 0.06-0.1, is comparable to that of other keratinous materials and common synthetic polymers. The structures of the internal cortex and surface cuticle are affected by the large tensile extension. One distinguishing feature, the unwinding of the α-helix and the possible transformation to β-sheet structure of keratin under tension, which affects the ductility of hair, is analytically evaluated and incorporated into a constitutive equation. A good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. This model elucidates the tensile response of the α-keratin fibers. The contributions of elastic and plastic strains on reloading are evaluated and correlated to structural changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. State dissociation, human behavior, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Mark W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction. The incomplete declaration of state likewise has implications for consciousness - which also has fluid boundaries. Fluctuations in the degree of consciousness are likely explained by abnormalities of a "spatial and temporal binding rhythm" which normally results in a unified conscious experience. Dysfunctional binding may play a role in anesthetic states, autism, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further study of the broad spectrum of dissociated states of sleep and wakefulness that are closely linked with states of consciousness and unconsciousness by basic neuroscientists, clinicians, and members of the legal profession will provide scientific, clinical and therapeutic insights, with forensic implications.

  16. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  17. Multifractal information production of the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Provata, A.

    2011-09-01

    We determine the Rényi entropies Kq of symbol sequences generated by human chromosomes. These exhibit non-trivial behaviour as a function of the scanning parameter q. In the thermodynamic formalism, there are phase-transition-like phenomena close to the q=1 region. We develop a theoretical model for this based on the superposition of two multifractal sets, which can be associated with the different statistical properties of coding and non-coding DNA sequences. This model is in good agreement with the human chromosome data.

  18. Lévy flights in human behavior and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Radicchi, Filippo

    2013-11-01

    L\\'evy flights represent the best strategy to randomly search for a target in an unknown environment, and have been widely observed in many animal species. Here, we inspect and discuss recent results concerning human behavior and cognition. Different studies have shown that human mobility can be described in terms of L\\'evy flights, while fresh evidence indicates that the same pattern accounts for human mental searches in online gambling sites. Thus, L\\'evy flights emerge as a unifying concept with broad cross-disciplinary implications. We argue that the ubiquity of such a pattern, both in behavior and cognition, suggests that the brain regions responsible for this behavior are likely to be evolutionarily old (i.e. no frontal cortex is involved), and that fMRI techniques might help to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. Talking with a Virtual Human : Controlling the Human Experience and Behavior in a Virtual Conversation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual humans are often designed to replace real humans in virtual reality applications for e.g., psychotherapy, education and entertainment. In general, applications with virtual humans are created for modifying a person's knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, emotions or behaviors. Reaching these

  20. Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…

  1. Human behavioral complexity peaks at age 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Random Item Generation tasks (RIG) are commonly used to assess high cognitive abilities such as inhibition or sustained attention. They also draw upon our approximate sense of complexity. A detrimental effect of aging on pseudo-random productions has been demonstrated for some tasks, but little is as yet known about the developmental curve of cognitive complexity over the lifespan. We investigate the complexity trajectory across the lifespan of human responses to five common RIG tasks, using a large sample (n = 3429). Our main finding is that the developmental curve of the estimated algorithmic complexity of responses is similar to what may be expected of a measure of higher cognitive abilities, with a performance peak around 25 and a decline starting around 60, suggesting that RIG tasks yield good estimates of such cognitive abilities. Our study illustrates that very short strings of, i.e., 10 items, are sufficient to have their complexity reliably estimated and to allow the documentation of an age-dependent decline in the approximate sense of complexity. PMID:28406953

  2. Problems of information technologies integration into humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. Milova

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The author considers main transformations impacted by information technologies in humanitarian researches, discourse and education. Net resources, штащкьфешщт exchange, hypertext and interactive learn means are focused as key integration points.

  3. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Mazanowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Behaviourists believe human capital is seen as the potential in people. They believe that the human resource in the organization are intangible assets embodied in the employees, not the people themselves. Behavioral economics emphasizes that people aren’t owned by the company, only their abilities and skills made available to the employer on the basis of certain legal relations which holds it to manage these assets in a rational way. Recognition of behavioral economics also highlights the aspects of development and human capital perspective, which appear in the may resource Staff in the future. These may be limited to: raise, awareness of capacity, internal aspirations, motives. Human capital management is nothing but a recognition of the relevant characteristics of the potential held within the company Staff and correct its use. As a consequence, it can bring tangible benefits to the organization.

  4. Human behavioral regularity, fractional Brownian motion, and exotic phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Guang; An, Kenan; Huang, Jiping

    2016-08-01

    The mix of competition and cooperation (C&C) is ubiquitous in human society, which, however, remains poorly explored due to the lack of a fundamental method. Here, by developing a Janus game for treating C&C between two sides (suppliers and consumers), we show, for the first time, experimental and simulation evidences for human behavioral regularity. This property is proved to be characterized by fractional Brownian motion associated with an exotic transition between periodic and nonperiodic phases. Furthermore, the periodic phase echoes with business cycles, which are well-known in reality but still far from being well understood. Our results imply that the Janus game could be a fundamental method for studying C&C among humans in society, and it provides guidance for predicting human behavioral activity from the perspective of fractional Brownian motion.

  5. Democratizing Human Genome Project Information: A Model Program for Education, Information and Debate in Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Miriam

    The "Mapping the Human Genome" project demonstrated that librarians can help whomever they serve in accessing information resources in the areas of biological and health information, whether it is the scientists who are developing the information or a member of the public who is using the information. Public libraries can guide library…

  6. Generating Phenotypical Erroneous Human Behavior to Evaluate Human-automation Interaction Using Model Checking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew L; Bass, Ellen J; Siminiceanu, Radu I

    2012-11-01

    Breakdowns in complex systems often occur as a result of system elements interacting in unanticipated ways. In systems with human operators, human-automation interaction associated with both normative and erroneous human behavior can contribute to such failures. Model-driven design and analysis techniques provide engineers with formal methods tools and techniques capable of evaluating how human behavior can contribute to system failures. This paper presents a novel method for automatically generating task analytic models encompassing both normative and erroneous human behavior from normative task models. The generated erroneous behavior is capable of replicating Hollnagel's zero-order phenotypes of erroneous action for omissions, jumps, repetitions, and intrusions. Multiple phenotypical acts can occur in sequence, thus allowing for the generation of higher order phenotypes. The task behavior model pattern capable of generating erroneous behavior can be integrated into a formal system model so that system safety properties can be formally verified with a model checker. This allows analysts to prove that a human-automation interactive system (as represented by the model) will or will not satisfy safety properties with both normative and generated erroneous human behavior. We present benchmarks related to the size of the statespace and verification time of models to show how the erroneous human behavior generation process scales. We demonstrate the method with a case study: the operation of a radiation therapy machine. A potential problem resulting from a generated erroneous human action is discovered. A design intervention is presented which prevents this problem from occurring. We discuss how our method could be used to evaluate larger applications and recommend future paths of development.

  7. Human Information Processing and Interactive Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-10

    Design--A Challenge to Human Factors," Conference on .a4n-Computer interaction, pp. 95-101. Asch , Solomon E. (1969), "A Reformulation of the Problem...included I,,i 47 association as a deacriptive term and as a statement of pro- existent verbal hierarchies. Finally, Asch (1969) emphasized the importance...of conceiving of an association in terms of the relation cf :•o events A and B. Asch suggests that the problem of associations is part of the general

  8. Novelty, stress, and biological roots in human market behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Alexey; Sarapultsev, Petr

    2014-03-01

    Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004). From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007). An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  9. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sarapultsev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004. From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007. An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics.

  10. Novelty, Stress, and Biological Roots in Human Market Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapultsev, Alexey; Sarapultsev, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Although studies examining the biological roots of human behavior have been conducted since the seminal work Kahneman and Tversky, crises and panics have not disappeared. The frequent occurrence of various types of crises has led some economists to the conviction that financial markets occasionally praise irrational judgments and that market crashes cannot be avoided a priori (Sornette 2009; Smith 2004). From a biological point of view, human behaviors are essentially the same during crises accompanied by stock market crashes and during bubble growth when share prices exceed historic highs. During those periods, most market participants see something new for themselves, and this inevitably induces a stress response in them with accompanying changes in their endocrine profiles and motivations. The result is quantitative and qualitative changes in behavior (Zhukov 2007). An underestimation of the role of novelty as a stressor is the primary shortcoming of current approaches for market research. When developing a mathematical market model, it is necessary to account for the biologically determined diphasisms of human behavior in everyday low-stress conditions and in response to stressors. This is the only type of approach that will enable forecasts of market dynamics and investor behaviors under normal conditions as well as during bubbles and panics. PMID:25379268

  11. Interactive human behavior analysis in open or public spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hung, H.; Odobez, J.-M.; Gavrila, D.; Keyson, D.V.; Maher, M.L.; Streitz, N.; Cheok, A.; Augusto, J.C.; Wichert, R.; Englebienne, G.; Aghajan, H.; Kröse, B.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, efforts in surveillance and open space analysis have focused on traditional computer vision problems like scene modeling or object detection and tracking. Research on human behavior recognition have tended to work on predefined simple activities such as running, jumping or left

  12. Cognitive Empathy and Emotional Empathy in Human Behavior and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This article presents 7 simple models of the relationship between cognitive empathy (mental perspective taking) and emotional empathy (the vicarious sharing of emotion). I consider behavioral outcomes of the models, arguing that, during human evolution, natural selection may have acted on variation in the relationship between cognitive empathy and…

  13. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Hollensen, Svend; Kahle, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to extend the understanding of the industrial buying process in connection with purchasing professional business (B2B) services, specifically human resource (HR) consulting services. Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects...

  14. Humanism and Behaviorism in Psychology: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Brewster

    1978-01-01

    As a contribution to the dialogue between humanism and behaviorism, this research questions the basis of recent trends toward a more consensual mutual accomodations of perspectives. Briefly reviews the behaviorist and humanist movements. Recommends a dialectical interplay of polarities combining causal understanding from a point external to the…

  15. Data Mining and Visualization of Large Human Behavior Data Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuttone, Andrea

    and credit card transactions – have provided us new sources for studying our behavior. In particular smartphones have emerged as new tools for collecting data about human activity, thanks to their sensing capabilities and their ubiquity. This thesis investigates the question of what we can learn about human...... behavior from this rich and pervasive mobile sensing data. In the first part, we describe a large-scale data collection deployment collecting high-resolution data for over 800 students at the Technical University of Denmark using smartphones, including location, social proximity, calls and SMS. We provide...... an overview of the technical infrastructure, the experimental design, and the privacy measures. The second part investigates the usage of this mobile sensing data for understanding personal behavior. We describe two large-scale user studies on the deployment of self-tracking apps, in order to understand...

  16. Human-computer interaction and management information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, Dennis F

    2014-01-01

    ""Human-Computer Interaction and Management Information Systems: Applications"" offers state-of-the-art research by a distinguished set of authors who span the MIS and HCI fields. The original chapters provide authoritative commentaries and in-depth descriptions of research programs that will guide 21st century scholars, graduate students, and industry professionals. Human-Computer Interaction (or Human Factors) in MIS is concerned with the ways humans interact with information, technologies, and tasks, especially in business, managerial, organizational, and cultural contexts. It is distinctiv

  17. The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Cade; Singer, Tania

    2012-04-15

    Extensive animal and recent human research have helped inform neuroendocrinological models of social cognition, motivation and behavior. In this review, we first summarize important findings regarding oxytocin, arginine vasopressin and testosterone in the domains of affiliation, social cognition, aggression and stress/anxiety. We then suggest ways in which human research can continue to profit from animal research, particularly by exploring the interactive nature of neuromodulatory effects at neurochemical, organismic and contextual levels. We further propose methods inspired by the animal literature for the ecologically valid assessment of affiliative behavior in humans. We conclude with suggestions for how human research could advance by directly assessing specific social cognitive and motivational mechanisms as intermediate variables. We advocate a more comprehensive look at the distinct networks identified by social neuroscience and the importance of a motivational state, in addition to approach and avoidance, associated with quiescence and homeostatic regulation.

  18. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The "wisdom of crowds" hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0% and 100% (e.g., "What percentage of Americans are left-handed?"). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move toward the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how outlying

  19. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: INFORMATION CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is discussed the role of technology development, especially in connection with social transformation and transition of humanity to the era of information/knowledge, analyzed the trend accelerating technological change and its relation to civil and military changes in society. It is emphasized the fundamental novelty of the information age, namely the transition of mankind from the production of material products mainly to intangible (information, knowledge, human cognitive processes. It is emphasized that ICT gain not only growing importance, but become a driving force of human civilization. The basic features of education in the information age, including ICT educational purpose out technology for distance education are described.

  20. Detecting Underlying Stance Adopted When Human Construe Behavior of Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazunori; Ono, Kouhei; Ito, Akira

    Whether or not humans can construe the behaviors of entities depends on their psychological stance. The philosopher Dennett proposed human cognitive strategies (three stances) in which humans construe the behavior of other animated objects, including other humans, artifacts, and physical phenomena:‘intentional’, ‘design’ and ‘physical’ stances. Detecting the psychological stance taken toward entities is difficult, because such mental state attribution is a subjective cognitive process and hard to measure. In the present study, we proposed a novel method for detecting underlying stance adopted when human construe behavior of entities. In our method the subject was asked to select the most suitable action sequence shown in three movies each of which representing Dennett’s three stances. To valid our method we have conducted an experiment in which the subjects were presented thirty short videos and asked to compare them to the three movies. The result indicated that the subjects did not focused on prior knowledge about the entity but could focused on motion characteristics per se, owing to simple and typical motion of an abstract shaped object.

  1. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination at a Time of Changing Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Brisson, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence varies widely worldwide. We used a transmission model to show links between age-specific sexual patterns and HPV vaccination effectiveness. We considered rural India and the United States as examples of 2 heterosexual populations with traditional age-specific sexual behavior and gender-similar age-specific sexual behavior, respectively. We simulated these populations by using age-specific rates of sexual activity and age differences between sexual partners and found that transitions from traditional to gender-similar sexual behavior in women sexual behavior and that increased risk for HPV infection attributable to transition is preventable by early vaccination. Our study highlights the importance of using time-limited opportunities to introduce HPV vaccination in traditional populations before changes in age-specific sexual patterns occur.

  2. Inappropriate behavior of potential guide dogs for the blind and coping behavior of human raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, N

    2001-04-02

    Inappropriate behaviors of potential guide dogs (puppies) for the blind and coping behaviors of their adult female raisers (puppy walkers: PWs) were videotaped in their play situation at home from when the puppies were 2-11 or 12 months of age. The frequency of inappropriate behavior decreased with an increase in the puppies' age, suggesting that human-dog relationships became friendlier. The PWs tended to use moderate coping behaviors to stop the inappropriate behaviors of the puppies. Rejecting interaction with the puppies was effective for stopping the puppies from biting the PWs. Forcible stopping was effective for stopping the puppies from damaging objects. Not responding to the puppies was effective for stopping the puppies from biting the PWs, barking/growling and damaging objects.

  3. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  4. Domestic dogs use contextual information and tone of voice when following a human pointing gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheider, Linda; Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Domestic dogs are skillful at using the human pointing gesture. In this study we investigated whether dogs take contextual information into account when following pointing gestures, specifically, whether they follow human pointing gestures more readily in the context in which food has been found previously. Also varied was the human's tone of voice as either imperative or informative. Dogs were more sustained in their searching behavior in the 'context' condition as opposed to the 'no context' condition, suggesting that they do not simply follow a pointing gesture blindly but use previously acquired contextual information to inform their interpretation of that pointing gesture. Dogs also showed more sustained searching behavior when there was pointing than when there was not, suggesting that they expect to find a referent when they see a human point. Finally, dogs searched more in high-pitched informative trials as opposed to the low-pitched imperative trials, whereas in the latter dogs seemed more inclined to respond by sitting. These findings suggest that a dog's response to a pointing gesture is flexible and depends on the context as well as the human's tone of voice.

  5. Human Resource Management in Library and Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Line, Maurice B.; Kinnell, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of human resource management focuses on academic libraries. Topics addressed include the influence of information technology; strategic planning; equal opportunities; recruitment; staff appraisal; quality of working life; motivation; job satisfaction; participative management; leadership; burnout; conflict; organizational structures;…

  6. Informing the Human Plasma Protein Binding of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The free fraction of a xenobiotic in plasma (Fub) is an important determinant of chemical adsorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity, yet experimental plasma protein binding data is scarce for environmentally relevant chemicals. The presented work explores the merit of utilizing available pharmaceutical data to predict Fub for environmentally relevant chemicals via machine learning techniques. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were constructed with k nearest neighbors (kNN), support vector machines (SVM), and random forest (RF) machine learning algorithms from a training set of 1045 pharmaceuticals. The models were then evaluated with independent test sets of pharmaceuticals (200 compounds) and environmentally relevant ToxCast chemicals (406 total, in two groups of 238 and 168 compounds). The selection of a minimal feature set of 10-15 2D molecular descriptors allowed for both informative feature interpretation and practical applicability domain assessment via a bounded box of descriptor ranges and principal component analysis. The diverse pharmaceutical and environmental chemical sets exhibit similarities in terms of chemical space (99-82% overlap), as well as comparable bias and variance in constructed learning curves. All the models exhibit significant predictability with mean absolute errors (MAE) in the range of 0.10-0.18 Fub. The models performed best for highly bound chemicals (MAE 0.07-0.12), neutrals (MAE 0

  7. Information Needs and Seeking Behavior During the H1N1 Virus Outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Ain Rahmat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely access to quality healthcare information during an outbreak plays an important role in curtailing its spread. The aim of this study was to investigate the information needs and seeking behavior of the general public in Singapore during the H1N1 pandemic. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The convenience snowball sampling method was used and 260 working adults and tertiary-level students participated in this study. The most crucial information needs of a majority of the participants were: symptoms of H1N1, causes of the infection, preventive measures, and possible treatments. Data analysis also revealed that mass media such as television, newspapers, and radio were most frequently used for seeking the needed information. The use of human information sources was also quite high while only a small number of the respondents accessed online news and healthcare websites. About three-quarters of the participants indicated that the gathered information helped them to stay vigilant and take necessary precautionary measures. A major problem identified by the participants in using H1N1 information was the lack of understanding of certain terms used in public communications. This paper suggests certain measures for strengthening health information communication during future outbreaks.

  8. Analyzing the Relationship between Human Behavior and Indoor Air Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiyu Lin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the coming decades, as we experience global population growth and global aging issues, there will be corresponding concerns about the quality of the air we experience inside and outside buildings. Because we can anticipate that there will be behavioral changes that accompany population growth and aging, we examine the relationship between home occupant behavior and indoor air quality. To do this, we collect both sensor-based behavior data and chemical indoor air quality measurements in smart home environments. We introduce a novel machine learning-based approach to quantify the correlation between smart home features and chemical measurements of air quality, and evaluate the approach using two smart homes. The findings may help us understand the types of behavior that measurably impact indoor air quality. This information could help us plan for the future by developing an automated building system that would be used as part of a smart city.

  9. Audio visual information fusion for human activity analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thagadur Shivappa, Shankar

    2010-01-01

    Human activity analysis in unconstrained environments using far-field sensors is a challenging task. The fusion of audio and visual cues enables us to build robust and efficient human activity analysis systems. Traditional fusion schemes including feature-level, classifier-level and decision-level fusion have been explored in task- specific contexts to provide robustness to sensor and environmental noise. However, human activity analysis involves the extraction of information from audio and v...

  10. Expanding the Scope of Organizational Behavior Management: Relational Frame Theory and the Experimental Analysis of Complex Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Steven C.; Bunting, Kara; Herbst, Scott; Bond, Frank W.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2006-01-01

    Behavior analysis in general and applied behavior analysis in particular requires a well developed, empirically supported, and useful approach to human language and cognition in order to fulfill its mission of providing a relatively adequate comprehensive account of complex human behavior. This article introduces a series of articles in which the…

  11. Behavioral responses associated with a human-mediated predator shelter.

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    Graeme Shannon

    Full Text Available Human activities in protected areas can affect wildlife populations in a similar manner to predation risk, causing increases in movement and vigilance, shifts in habitat use and changes in group size. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that in certain situations ungulate species may actually utilize areas associated with higher levels of human presence as a potential refuge from disturbance-sensitive predators. We now use four-years of behavioral activity budget data collected from pronghorn (Antilocapra americana and elk (Cervus elephus in Grand Teton National Park, USA to test whether predictable patterns of human presence can provide a shelter from predatory risk. Daily behavioral scans were conducted along two parallel sections of road that differed in traffic volume--with the main Teton Park Road experiencing vehicle use that was approximately thirty-fold greater than the River Road. At the busier Teton Park Road, both species of ungulate engaged in higher levels of feeding (27% increase in the proportion of pronghorn feeding and 21% increase for elk, lower levels of alert behavior (18% decrease for pronghorn and 9% decrease for elk and formed smaller groups. These responses are commonly associated with reduced predatory threat. Pronghorn also exhibited a 30% increase in the proportion of individuals moving at the River Road as would be expected under greater exposure to predation risk. Our findings concur with the 'predator shelter hypothesis', suggesting that ungulates in GTNP use human presence as a potential refuge from predation risk, adjusting their behavior accordingly. Human activity has the potential to alter predator-prey interactions and drive trophic-mediated effects that could ultimately impact ecosystem function and biodiversity.

  12. Where's the emotion? How sport psychology can inform research on emotion in human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, David W; Ward, Paul; Woodman, Tim; Janelle, Christopher M; Le Scanff, Christine; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Castanier, Carole; Coombes, Stephen A

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate how research on emotion in sport psychology might inform the field of human factors. Human factors historically has paid little attention to the role of emotion within the research on human-system relations. The theories, methods, and practices related to research on emotion within sport psychology might be informative for human factors because fundamentally, sport psychology and human factors are applied fields concerned with enhancing performance in complex, real-world domains. Reviews of three areas of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology are presented, and the relevancy of each area for human factors is proposed: (a) emotional preparation and regulation for performance, (b) an emotional trait explanation for risk taking in sport, and (c) the link between emotion and motor behavior. Finally, there are suggestions for how to continue cross-talk between human factors and sport psychology about research on emotion and related topics in the future. The relevance of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology for human factors is demonstrated. The human factors field and, in particular, research on human-system relations may benefit from a consideration of theory and research on emotion in sport psychology. Theories, methods, and practices from sport psychology might be applied usefully to human factors.

  13. Unveiling the mystery of visual information processing in human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Emanuel

    2008-08-15

    It is generally accepted that human vision is an extremely powerful information processing system that facilitates our interaction with the surrounding world. However, despite extended and extensive research efforts, which encompass many exploration fields, the underlying fundamentals and operational principles of visual information processing in human brain remain unknown. We still are unable to figure out where and how along the path from eyes to the cortex the sensory input perceived by the retina is converted into a meaningful object representation, which can be consciously manipulated by the brain. Studying the vast literature considering the various aspects of brain information processing, I was surprised to learn that the respected scholarly discussion is totally indifferent to the basic keynote question: "What is information?" in general or "What is visual information?" in particular. In the old days, it was assumed that any scientific research approach has first to define its basic departure points. Why was it overlooked in brain information processing research remains a conundrum. In this paper, I am trying to find a remedy for this bizarre situation. I propose an uncommon definition of "information", which can be derived from Kolmogorov's Complexity Theory and Chaitin's notion of Algorithmic Information. Embracing this new definition leads to an inevitable revision of traditional dogmas that shape the state of the art of brain information processing research. I hope this revision would better serve the challenging goal of human visual information processing modeling.

  14. The Human-Computer Interface for Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Debora

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the human-computer interface as it relates to information technology and retrieval. Principles of interface design are examined, including visual display features and help messages; information retrieval applications are described, including online searching, CD-ROM, online public access catalogs (OPACs), and full-text databases; and…

  15. Modeling human behaviors and reactions under dangerous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J; Wright, D K; Qin, S F; Zhao, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the framework of a real-time simulation system to model human behavior and reactions in dangerous environments. The system utilizes the latest 3D computer animation techniques, combined with artificial intelligence, robotics and psychology, to model human behavior, reactions and decision making under expected/unexpected dangers in real-time in virtual environments. The development of the system includes: classification on the conscious/subconscious behaviors and reactions of different people; capturing different motion postures by the Eagle Digital System; establishing 3D character animation models; establishing 3D models for the scene; planning the scenario and the contents; and programming within Virtools Dev. Programming within Virtools Dev is subdivided into modeling dangerous events, modeling character's perceptions, modeling character's decision making, modeling character's movements, modeling character's interaction with environment and setting up the virtual cameras. The real-time simulation of human reactions in hazardous environments is invaluable in military defense, fire escape, rescue operation planning, traffic safety studies, and safety planning in chemical factories, the design of buildings, airplanes, ships and trains. Currently, human motion modeling can be realized through established technology, whereas to integrate perception and intelligence into virtual human's motion is still a huge undertaking. The challenges here are the synchronization of motion and intelligence, the accurate modeling of human's vision, smell, touch and hearing, the diversity and effects of emotion and personality in decision making. There are three types of software platforms which could be employed to realize the motion and intelligence within one system, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  16. THE PREREQUISITES OF PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN HUMAN ONTOGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Sozinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of moral attitudes toward unrelated individuals from different social groups may provide insights into the role of biological and cultural factors in prosocial behavior. Children (3–11 years old, N=80 were presented with moral dilemmas describing a conflict of interests between a con-specific (human and another species (animals or aliens. Participants were asked to evaluate the behavior of a human in terms of ‘good’ and ‘bad’, and to choose whom they would help: a human aggressor who benefits at the expense of a victim in vital need, or the victim. Results showed that the older children preferred to help non-human victims significantly more often than the younger children. The evaluation of human actions was related to the proportion of such preferences. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of kin selection theory, group selection theory and the system-evolutionary approach. The implications of the study for moral education are suggested.

  17. Oxytocin pathways and the evolution of human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C Sue

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the hypothesis that oxytocin pathways--which include the neuropeptide oxytocin, the related peptide vasopressin, and their receptors--are at the center of physiological and genetic systems that permitted the evolution of the human nervous system and allowed the expression of contemporary human sociality. Unique actions of oxytocin, including the facilitation of birth, lactation, maternal behavior, genetic regulation of the growth of the neocortex, and the maintenance of the blood supply to the cortex, may have been necessary for encephalization. Peptide-facilitated attachment also allows the extended periods of nurture necessary for the emergence of human intellectual development. In general, oxytocin acts to allow the high levels of social sensitivity and attunement necessary for human sociality and for rearing a human child. Under optimal conditions oxytocin may create an emotional sense of safety. Oxytocin dynamically moderates the autonomic nervous system, and effects of oxytocin on vagal pathways, as well as the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this peptide, help to explain the pervasive adaptive consequences of social behavior for emotional and physical health.

  18. The Social and Behavioral Impacts of Information Systems in the Automated Office: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Computers in Human Behavior Computers and People 3. Thesis Restrictions It is the purpose of this paper to bring about a better understanding...34, Computers in Human Behavior , Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 167-179, 1987 Murljacic, T., "The Evolution of Automated Office Systems", Infosystems, Vol. 34 , p.48...Between Computers and Psychology: Towards a Psychology of Computerization", Computers in Human Behavior , Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 167-179, 1987

  19. Informant Effects on Behavioral and Academic Associations: A Latent Variable Longitudinal Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Timothy R.; Shukla, Kathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancies among informants' ratings of a given child's behavior complicate the study of linkages between child behavior and academic achievement. In the current study, we examined the potential moderating effect of informant type on associations between behavior and two types of achievement in a longitudinal growth model that…

  20. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  1. Human sex differences in sexual psychology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, P; Shackelford, T K

    2001-01-01

    Because age and sex constitute the only distinct anatomical and physiological morphs (types) of the human species, universal sex differences ought to be expected. According to Darwinian theory, the most numerous sex differences are likely to be found in the domains of sexuality and reproduction. We first briefly review the basic model of the adaptationist program of modern Darwinian psychology. We then present evidence suggesting substantial sex differences in the following domains of sexual behavior: Mate preferences, interest in casual sex, interest in partner variety, jealousy, fantasy, sexual "plasticity," and magnitude of intrinsic sexual motivation. We then propose a program for research and explanation of sex differences that invokes both proximate and ultimate variables where appropriate. This program is based in modern Darwinian theory, neuroendocrinology, human genetics, and social and behavioral sciences. We conclude by considering sociopolitical implications of research on sex differences.

  2. Human Identification at a Distance Using Body Shape Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, N. K. A. M.; Yahya, M. F.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Shape of human body is unique from one person to another. This paper presents an intelligent system approach for human identification at a distance using human body shape information. The body features used are the head, shoulder, and trunk. Image processing techniques for detection of these body features were developed in this work. Then, the features are recognized using fuzzy logic approach and used as inputs to a recognition system based on a multilayer neural network. The developed system is only applicable for recognizing a person from its frontal view and specifically constrained to male gender to simplify the algorithm. In this research, the accuracy for human identification using the proposed method is 77.5%. Thus, it is proved that human can be identified at a distance using body shape information.

  3. Interrelationships between Health Behaviors and Coping Strategies among Informal Caregivers of Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzelman, Kristin; Kent, Erin E.; Rowland, Julia H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent research among cancer survivors suggests that health behaviors and coping are intertwined, with important implications for positive behavior change and health. Informal caregivers may have poor health behaviors, and caregivers' health behaviors have been linked to those of survivors. Aims: This hypothesis generating study…

  4. Human Handling Promotes Compliant Behavior in Adult Laboratory Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennes, Alton G; Alworth, Leanne C; Harvey, Stephen B; Jones, Carolyn A; King, Christopher S; Crowell-Davis, Sharon L

    2011-01-01

    Routine laboratory procedures can be stressful for laboratory animals. We wanted to determine whether human handling of adult rabbits could induce a degree of habituation, reducing stress and facilitating research-related manipulation. To this end, adult New Zealand white rabbits were handled either frequently or minimally. After being handled over 3 wk, these rabbits were evaluated by novel personnel and compared with minimally handled controls. Evaluators subjectively scored the rabbits for their relative compliance or resistance to being scruffed and removed from their cages, being transported to a treatment room, and their behavior at all stages of the exercise. Upon evaluation, handled rabbits scored significantly more compliant than nontreated controls. During evaluation, behaviors that the rabbits displayed when they were approached in their cages and while being handled outside their cages were recorded and compared between study groups. Handled rabbits displayed behavior consistent with a reduction in human-directed fear. This study illustrates the potential for handling to improve compliance in laboratory procedures and reduce fear-related behavior in laboratory rabbits. Such handling could be used to improve rabbit welfare through the reduction of stress and exposure to novel stimuli. PMID:21333162

  5. Training together: how another human's presence affects behavior during virtual human-based team training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite research showing that team training can lead to strong improvements in team performance, logistical difficulties can prevent team training programs from being adopted on a large scale. A proposed solution to these difficulties is the use of virtual humans to replace missing teammates. Existing research evaluating the use of virtual humans for team training has been conducted in settings involving a single human trainee. However, in the real world multiple human trainees would most likely train together. In this paper, we explore how the presence of a second human trainee can alter behavior during a medical team training program. Ninety-two nurses and surgical technicians participated in a medical training exercise, where they worked with a virtual surgeon and virtual anesthesiologist to prepare a simulated patient for surgery. The agency of the nurse and the surgical technician were varied between three conditions: human nurses and surgical technicians working together; human nurses working with a virtual surgical technician; and human surgical technicians working with a virtual nurse. Variations in agency did not produce statistically significant differences in the training outcomes, but several notable differences were observed in other aspects of the team's behavior. Specifically, when working with a virtual nurse, human surgical technicians were more likely to assist with speaking up about patient safety issues that were outside of their normal responsibilities; human trainees spent less time searching for a missing item when working with a virtual partner, likely because the virtual partner was physically unable to move throughout the room and assist with the searching process; and more breaks in presence were observed when two human teammates were present. These results show that some behaviors may be influenced by the presence of multiple human trainees, though these behaviors may not impinge on core training goals. When

  6. The human factor: behavioral and neural correlates of humanized perception in moral decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Majdandžić

    Full Text Available The extent to which people regard others as full-blown individuals with mental states ("humanization" seems crucial for their prosocial motivation towards them. Previous research has shown that decisions about moral dilemmas in which one person can be sacrificed to save multiple others do not consistently follow utilitarian principles. We hypothesized that this behavior can be explained by the potential victim's perceived humanness and an ensuing increase in vicarious emotions and emotional conflict during decision making. Using fMRI, we assessed neural activity underlying moral decisions that affected fictitious persons that had or had not been experimentally humanized. In implicit priming trials, participants either engaged in mentalizing about these persons (Humanized condition or not (Neutral condition. In subsequent moral dilemmas, participants had to decide about sacrificing these persons' lives in order to save the lives of numerous others. Humanized persons were sacrificed less often, and the activation pattern during decisions about them indicated increased negative affect, emotional conflict, vicarious emotions, and behavioral control (pgACC/mOFC, anterior insula/IFG, aMCC and precuneus/PCC. Besides, we found enhanced effective connectivity between aMCC and anterior insula, which suggests increased emotion regulation during decisions affecting humanized victims. These findings highlight the importance of others' perceived humanness for prosocial behavior - with aversive affect and other-related concern when imagining harming more "human-like" persons acting against purely utilitarian decisions.

  7. Does affective information influence domestic dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) point-following behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gartman, Peggy

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have examined dogs' (Canis lupus familiaris) comprehension and use of human communicative cues. Relatively few studies have, however, examined the effects of human affective behavior (i.e., facial and vocal expressions) on dogs' exploratory and point-following behavior. In two experiments, we examined dogs' frequency of following an adult's pointing gesture in locating a hidden reward or treat when it occurred silently, or when it was paired with a positive or negative facial and vocal affective expression. Like prior studies, the current results demonstrate that dogs reliably follow human pointing cues. Unlike prior studies, the current results also demonstrate that the addition of a positive affective facial and vocal expression, when paired with a pointing gesture, did not reliably increase dogs' frequency of locating a hidden piece of food compared to pointing alone. In addition, and within the negative facial and vocal affect conditions of Experiment 1 and 2, dogs were delayed in their exploration, or approach, toward a baited or sham-baited bowl. However, in Experiment 2, dogs continued to follow an adult's pointing gesture, even when paired with a negative expression, as long as the attention-directing gesture referenced a baited bowl. Together these results suggest that the addition of affective information does not significantly increase or decrease dogs' point-following behavior. Rather these results demonstrate that the presence or absence of affective expressions influences a dogs' exploratory behavior and the presence or absence of reward affects whether they will follow an unfamiliar adult's attention-directing gesture.

  8. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children’s Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children’s behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children’s behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they related to parent-teacher rating discrepancies of disruptive behavior in a sample of 327 preschoolers. Observed disruptive behavior was assessed with a lab-based developmentally sensitive diagnostic observation paradigm that assesses disruptive behavior across three interactions with the child with parent and examiner. Latent class analysis identified four patterns of disruptive behavior: (a) low across parent and examiner contexts, (b) high with parent only, (c) high with examiner only, and (d) high with parent and examiner. Observed disruptive behavior specific to the parent and examiner contexts were uniquely related to parent-identified and teacher-identified disruptive behavior, respectively. Further, observed disruptive behavior across both parent and examiner contexts was associated with disruptive behavior as identified by both informants. Links between observed behavior and informant discrepancies were not explained by child impairment or observed problematic parenting. Findings provide the first laboratory-based support for the Attribution Bias Context Model (De Los Reyes and Kazdin 2005), which posits that informant discrepancies are indicative of cross-contextual variability in children’s behavior and informants’ perspectives on this behavior. These findings have important implications for clinical assessment, treatment outcomes, and developmental psychopathology research. PMID:19247829

  9. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  10. Human cervical spine ligaments exhibit fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Kevin L; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2011-02-01

    Spinal ligaments provide stability and contribute to spinal motion patterns. These hydrated tissues exhibit time-dependent behavior during both static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore, accurate viscoelastic characterization of these ligaments is requisite for development of computational analogues that model and predict time-dependent spine behavior. The development of accurate viscoelastic models must be preceded by rigorous, empirical evidence of linear viscoelastic, quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) or fully nonlinear viscoelastic behavior. This study utilized multiple physiological loading rates (frequencies) and strain amplitudes via cyclic loading and stress relaxation experiments in order to determine the viscoelastic behavior of the human lower cervical spine anterior longitudinal ligament, the posterior longitudinal ligament and the ligamentum flavum. The results indicated that the cyclic material properties of these ligaments were dependent on both strain amplitude and frequency. This strain amplitude-dependent behavior cannot be described using a linear viscoelastic formulation. Stress relaxation experiments at multiple strain magnitudes indicated that the shape of the relaxation curve was strongly dependent on strain magnitude, suggesting that a QLV formulation cannot adequately describe the comprehensive viscoelastic response of these ligaments. Therefore, a fully nonlinear viscoelastic formulation is requisite to model these lower cervical spine ligaments during activities of daily living. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations in Human Accelerated Regions Disrupt Cognition and Social Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Ryan N; Bae, Byoung-Il; Cubelos, Beatriz; Chang, Cindy; Hossain, Amer A; Al-Saad, Samira; Mukaddes, Nahit M; Oner, Ozgur; Al-Saffar, Muna; Balkhy, Soher; Gascon, Generoso G; Nieto, Marta; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-10-06

    Comparative analyses have identified genomic regions potentially involved in human evolution but do not directly assess function. Human accelerated regions (HARs) represent conserved genomic loci with elevated divergence in humans. If some HARs regulate human-specific social and behavioral traits, then mutations would likely impact cognitive and social disorders. Strikingly, rare biallelic point mutations-identified by whole-genome and targeted "HAR-ome" sequencing-showed a significant excess in individuals with ASD whose parents share common ancestry compared to familial controls, suggesting a contribution in 5% of consanguineous ASD cases. Using chromatin interaction sequencing, massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA), and transgenic mice, we identified disease-linked, biallelic HAR mutations in active enhancers for CUX1, PTBP2, GPC4, CDKL5, and other genes implicated in neural function, ASD, or both. Our data provide genetic evidence that specific HARs are essential for normal development, consistent with suggestions that their evolutionary changes may have altered social and/or cognitive behavior. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of single-electron information-processing circuit mimicking foraging behavior of honeybee swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Toshihiko; Oya, Takahide

    2017-06-01

    A new single-electron (SE) circuit mimicking the foraging behavior of a honeybee swarm is proposed. Recently, a “nature-inspired” or “biomimetic” technology has been attracting attention for developing innovative functional systems applying emerging nanoscale devices. In particular, the foraging behavior of honeybees is focused on as an architecture for a SE circuit. Honeybees show two foraging behaviors, namely, a probability search and a “waggle dance” (sharing information). By combining these behaviors, it can be considered that the foraging behavior is a unique information-processing act. For constructing a new system, a SE circuit mimicking the behavior was designed, constructed, and simulated. The SE circuit was constructed by assuming that the information that honeybees share corresponds to the operation of the circuit. The results of the simulation confirmed that the SE circuit mimics the information-sharing behavior of honeybees. Namely, the proposed honeybee-inspired SE circuit can perform functional information processing.

  13. Mixed reality humans: evaluating behavior, usability, and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotranza, Aaron; Lok, Benjamin; Deladisma, Adeline; Pugh, Carla M; Lind, D Scott

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Mixed Reality Humans (MRHs), a new type of embodied agent enabling touch-driven communication. Affording touch between human and agent allows MRHs to simulate interpersonal scenarios in which touch is crucial. Two studies provide initial evaluation of user behavior with a MRH patient and the usability and acceptability of a MRH patient for practice and evaluation of medical students' clinical skills. In Study I (n=8) it was observed that students treated MRHs as social actors more than students in prior interactions with virtual human patients (n=27), and used interpersonal touch to comfort and reassure the MRH patient similarly to prior interactions with human patients (n=76). In the within-subjects Study II (n=11), medical students performed a clinical breast exam on each of a MRH and human patient. Participants performed equivalent exams with the MRH and human patients, demonstrating the usability of MRHs to evaluate students' exam skills. The acceptability of the MRH patient for practicing exam skills was high as students rated the experience as believable and educationally beneficial. Acceptability was improved from Study I to Study II due to an increase in the MRH's visual realism, demonstrating that visual realism is critical for simulation of specific interpersonal scenarios.

  14. Human matching behavior in social networks: an algorithmic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coviello, Lorenzo; Franceschetti, Massimo; McCubbins, Mathew D; Paturi, Ramamohan; Vattani, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    We argue that algorithmic modeling is a powerful approach to understanding the collective dynamics of human behavior. We consider the task of pairing up individuals connected over a network, according to the following model: each individual is able to propose to match with and accept a proposal from a neighbor in the network; if a matched individual proposes to another neighbor or accepts another proposal, the current match will be broken; individuals can only observe whether their neighbors are currently matched but have no knowledge of the network topology or the status of other individuals; and all individuals have the common goal of maximizing the total number of matches. By examining the experimental data, we identify a behavioral principle called prudence, develop an algorithmic model, analyze its properties mathematically and by simulations, and validate the model with human subject experiments for various network sizes and topologies. Our results include i) a 1/2-approximate maximum matching is obtained in logarithmic time in the network size for bounded degree networks; ii) for any constant ε > 0, a (1 - ε)-approximate maximum matching is obtained in polynomial time, while obtaining a maximum matching can require an exponential time; and iii) convergence to a maximum matching is slower on preferential attachment networks than on small-world networks. These results allow us to predict that while humans can find a "good quality" matching quickly, they may be unable to find a maximum matching in feasible time. We show that the human subjects largely abide by prudence, and their collective behavior is closely tracked by the above predictions.

  15. Informative hypotheses: theory and practice for behavioral and social scientists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoijtink, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    ... Hypotheses.There is currently a sound theoretical foundation for the evaluation of informative hypotheses using Bayes factors, p-values and the generalized order restricted information criterion...

  16. Homeostasis lighting control based on relationship between lighting environment and human behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Risa; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Although each person has own preferences, living spaces which can respond to various preferences and needs have not become reality. Focusing on the lighting environments which influence on the impression of living spaces, this research aims to offer comfortable lighting environments for each resident by a flexible control. This research examines the relationship between lighting environments and human behaviors considering colored lights. In accord with the relationship, this research proposes an illuminance-color control system which flexibly changes spatial environments responding to human conditions. Firstly, the psychological evaluation was conducted in order to build human models for various environments. As a result, preferred lighting environments for each examinee were determined for particular behaviors. Moreover, satisfaction levels of lighting environments were calculated by using seven types of impression of the environments as parameters. The results were summarized as human models. Secondly, this research proposed "Homeostasis Lighting Control System", which employs the human models. Homeostasis lighting control system embodies the algorithm of homeostasis, which is one of the functions of the physiological adaptation. Human discomfort feelings are obtained automatically by the sensor agent robot. The system can offer comfortable lighting environments without controlling environments by residents autonomously based on the information from the robot. This research takes into accounts both illuminance and color. The robot communicates with the server which contains human models, then the system corresponds to individuals. Combining these three systems, the proposed system can effectively control the lighting environment. At last, the feasibility of the proposed system was verified by simulation experiments.

  17. Unfakeable facial configurations affect strategic choices in trust games with or without information about past behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezlescu, Constantin; Duchaine, Brad; Olivola, Christopher Y; Chater, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1) the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2) how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior. Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1), and remains significant though reduced to 6% when reputational information is also available (Study 2). The face trustworthiness premium persists with real (rather than virtual) currency and when higher payoffs are at stake (Study 3). Our results demonstrate that cooperation may be affected not only by controllable appearance cues (e.g., clothing, facial expressions) as shown previously, but also by features that are impossible to mimic (e.g., individual facial structure). This unfakeable face trustworthiness effect is not limited to the rare situations where people lack any information about their partners, but survives in richer environments where relevant details about partner past behavior are available.

  18. Unfakeable facial configurations affect strategic choices in trust games with or without information about past behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Rezlescu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many human interactions are built on trust, so widespread confidence in first impressions generally favors individuals with trustworthy-looking appearances. However, few studies have explicitly examined: 1 the contribution of unfakeable facial features to trust-based decisions, and 2 how these cues are integrated with information about past behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using highly controlled stimuli and an improved experimental procedure, we show that unfakeable facial features associated with the appearance of trustworthiness attract higher investments in trust games. The facial trustworthiness premium is large for decisions based solely on faces, with trustworthy identities attracting 42% more money (Study 1, and remains significant though reduced to 6% when reputational information is also available (Study 2. The face trustworthiness premium persists with real (rather than virtual currency and when higher payoffs are at stake (Study 3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cooperation may be affected not only by controllable appearance cues (e.g., clothing, facial expressions as shown previously, but also by features that are impossible to mimic (e.g., individual facial structure. This unfakeable face trustworthiness effect is not limited to the rare situations where people lack any information about their partners, but survives in richer environments where relevant details about partner past behavior are available.

  19. Promoting Interactions Between Humans and Robots Using Robotic Emotional Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficocelli, Maurizio; Terao, Junichi; Nejat, Goldie

    2016-12-01

    The objective of a socially assistive robot is to create a close and effective interaction with a human user for the purpose of giving assistance. In particular, the social interaction, guidance, and support that a socially assistive robot can provide a person can be very beneficial to patient-centered care. However, there are a number of research issues that need to be addressed in order to design such robots. This paper focuses on developing effective emotion-based assistive behavior for a socially assistive robot intended for natural human-robot interaction (HRI) scenarios with explicit social and assistive task functionalities. In particular, in this paper, a unique emotional behavior module is presented and implemented in a learning-based control architecture for assistive HRI. The module is utilized to determine the appropriate emotions of the robot to display, as motivated by the well-being of the person, during assistive task-driven interactions in order to elicit suitable actions from users to accomplish a given person-centered assistive task. A novel online updating technique is used in order to allow the emotional model to adapt to new people and scenarios. Experiments presented show the effectiveness of utilizing robotic emotional assistive behavior during HRI scenarios.

  20. Entropy Maximization as a Basis for Information Recovery in Dynamic Economic Behavioral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Judge

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for information recovery in open dynamic microeconomic systems, we emphasize the connection between adaptive intelligent behavior, causal entropy maximization and self-organized equilibrium seeking behavior. This entropy-based causal adaptive behavior framework permits the use of information-theoretic methods as a solution basis for the resulting pure and stochastic inverse economic-econometric problems. We cast the information recovery problem in the form of a binary network and suggest information-theoretic methods to recover estimates of the unknown binary behavioral parameters without explicitly sampling the configuration-arrangement of the sample space.

  1. Value-driven consumer e-health information search behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Goetzinger, Lynn; Park, Jungkun; Lee, Yun Jung; Widdows, Rick

    2007-01-01

    This study examines online health information quality (relevance and clarity) and the perceived value of online health information search (social, utilitarian and epistemic) and how they relate to cunsumers' satisfaction with their online health information search experience. The resulting intention to repeat a health information search over the internet is also included in a conceptual model to illustrate what drives the process.

  2. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings.This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  3. The Peculiarities of Human Resource Information Management Problems and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gražina Kalibataitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The current article explores one of the traditional management functional areas of enterprises—human resources management and its multi-component information environments, components. The traditional enterprises, usually manufacturing-oriented enterprises, controlled according to the functions of the activity, when many operating divisions is specialized in carrying out some certain tasks, functions (i.e. every department or unit is focused on the specific information technology applications which are not integrated. But quick changes in the modern activity environment fosters enterprises to switch from the classical functional management approaches (i.e. non-effective databases that are of marginal use, duplicative of one another, and operational systems that cannot adequately provide important information for enterprise control towards more adaptive, contemporary information processing models, knowledge-based enterprises, process management (i.e. a computer-aided knowledge bases, automatic information exchange, structured and metadata-oriented way. As mentioned above, are the databases now really becoming increasingly unmanageable, non-effective? Slow information processing not only costs money, but also endangers competitiveness and makes users unhappy. However, it should be noted that every functional area, group of users of the enterprise, have their specific, purpose, subjects and management structure, otherwise they have different information needs, requirements. Therefore, organizational information systems need be constantly maintained and applied to their surroundings. This article presents and critically analyzes the theoretical, practical aspects of the human resources or employee and information management, i.e. the first introduces 1 the major problems of information management (e.g., data integration and interoperability of systems, why business users often don’t have direct access to the important business data; 2 the process

  4. THE HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Panyukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an approach to introduction in the human capital management of new information technologies is offered. The analysis of a current state of the human capital in Russia, its mobility is carried out. Results of using social networks services for creation of a web portfolio of the student and the teacher in higher education institution are presented. The main directions of using cloudy technologies in Russian human capital management, in the solution of the problems connected with graduate’s employment are formulated.

  5. Effects of human recreation on the incubation behavior of American Oystercatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, C.P.; Simons, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    Human recreational disturbance and its effects on wildlife demographics and behavior is an increasingly important area of research. We monitored the nesting success of American Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus) in coastal North Carolina in 2002 and 2003. We also used video monitoring at nests to measure the response of incubating birds to human recreation. We counted the number of trips per hour made by adult birds to and from the nest, and we calculated the percent time that adults spent incubating. We asked whether human recreational activities (truck, all-terrain vehicle [ATV], and pedestrian traffic) were correlated with parental behavioral patterns. Eleven a priori models of nest survival and behavioral covariates were evaluated using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to see whether incubation behavior influenced nest survival. Factors associated with birds leaving their nests (n = 548) included ATV traffic (25%), truck traffic (17%), pedestrian traffic (4%), aggression with neighboring oystercatchers or paired birds exchanging incubation duties (26%), airplane traffic (1%) and unknown factors (29%). ATV traffic was positively associated with the rate of trips to and away from the nest (??1 = 0.749, P behaviors. Nest survival models incorporating the frequency of trips by adults to and from the nest, and the percentage of time adults spent incubating, were somewhat supported in the AIC analyses. A low frequency of trips to and from the nest and, counter to expectations, low percent time spent incubating were associated with higher daily nest survival rates. These data suggest that changes in incubation behavior might be one mechanism by which human recreation affects the reproductive success of American Oystercatchers.

  6. Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases human aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne'eman, R; Perach-Barzilay, N; Fischer-Shofty, M; Atias, A; Shamay-Tsoory, S G

    2016-04-01

    Considering its role in prosocial behaviors, oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to diminish levels of aggression. Nevertheless, recent findings indicate that oxytocin may have a broader influence on increasing the salience of social stimuli and may therefore, under certain circumstances, increase antisocial behaviors such as aggression. This controversy led to the following speculations: If indeed oxytocin promotes primarily prosocial behavior, administration of OT is expected to diminish levels of aggression. However, if oxytocin mainly acts to increase the salience of social stimuli, it is expected to elevate levels of aggression following provocation. In order to test this assumption we used the Social Orientation Paradigm (SOP), a monetary game played against a fictitious partner that allows measuring three types of responses in the context of provocation: an aggressive response - reducing a point from the fictitious partner, an individualistic response - adding a point to oneself, and a collaborative response - adding half a point to the partner and half a point to oneself. In the current double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study design, 45 participants completed the SOP task following the administration of oxytocin or placebo. The results indicated that among subjects naïve to the procedure oxytocin increased aggressive responses in comparison with placebo. These results support the saliency hypothesis of oxytocin and suggest that oxytocin plays a complex role in the modulation of human behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Information Technology: A challenge to the Human Factors Society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    In his presidential address at the annual meeting of the Human Factors Society, Julian Christensen urged the members of the society to spread the gospel and to persuade the members of other professional societies such as psychologists,sociologists and engineers to join the Human Factors Society......, the argument being that advanced technology requires a cross-disciplinary approach to human factors problems. In the present note, I would like to support this presidential effort. In fact, I will go further in that direction and argue that the present fast pace of information technology threatens to overrun...... the methodological capability of the human factors profession. In the following sections, I will briefly review this development, as I see it, and outline the approach to human factors problems needed in advanced technological systems....

  8. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  9. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN HUMAN ACTIVITY OF THE INFORMATION AGE: HUMAN AND ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Yu. Burov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article a brief overview of projects initiated by the U.S. National Science Foundation that related to new knowledge on integration and mutual development of social systems is proposed. The projects have a potential for transformation of science and researches, improvement of life quality and economy prosperity, as well as they should ensure outrunning development of information and communication technologies for all spheres of human activity: anthropocentric computerization, integration of information and informatics, robust intelligence, cyber-human systems, as well as two cross-technical areas - human and/or robots interaction, security and information protection.

  11. Understanding the behavior of floodplains as human-water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Brandimarte, L.

    2012-12-01

    Floodplains are among the most valuable ecosystems for supporting biodiversity and providing services to the environment. Moreover, they are home of approximately one-sixth of the world population as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. As a result, flood disasters currently affect more than 100 million people a year. Sadly, flood losses and fatalities are expected to increase further in many countries because of population growth as well as changes in land use and climate. Given the relevance of floodplain systems, a number of social scientists have examined how the frequency and severity of flooding often determine whether human development in floodplains is desirable or not. Meanwhile, many earth scientists have investigated the impact of human activities (e.g. land-use changes, urbanization, river training) on the frequency and magnitude of floods. In fact, as human activities change the frequency of flooding, the frequency of flooding affects human developments in floodplain areas. Yet, these dynamic interactions between floods and societies and the associated feedback mechanisms remain largely unexplored and poorly understood. As a result, we typically consider humans as external forcing (or boundary condition) without representing the feedback loops and our prediction of future trajectories are therefore extremely limited. This presentation shows a first attempt to understand the behavior of floodplains as coupled human-water systems. In particular, we analyzed a number of long time series of hydrological and population data in the Po River Basin (Italy) to explore the feedback mechanisms, reciprocal effects, surprises, and threshold mechanisms, taking place in floodplain systems. The outcomes of the study enable a better understanding of how the occurrences of floods shape human developments while, at the same time, human activities shape the magnitude and frequency of floods. The presentation also discusses the opportunities offered by

  12. Effects of lighting on human physiology and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated and published in the biomedical literature that light in the environment can regulate human biology and behavior. In addition, light is now routinely utilized as a therapeutic tool for various clinical disorders. Studies also suggest that light can be used to improve the health and productivity of shift workers. Finally, the data are beginning to look very promising for the fact that light may be used to improve the health and performance of day workers in addition to shift workers.

  13. Human health hazards of veterinary medications: information for emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Elaine Blythe; Barthold, Claudia; Malesker, Mark A; Wichman, Tammy O

    2011-02-01

    There are over 5000 approved prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vaccines, with labeled indications for veterinary patients. Of these, there are several products that have significant human health hazards upon accidental or intentional exposure or ingestion in humans: carfentanil, clenbuterol (Ventipulmin), ketamine, tilmicosin (Micotil), testosterone/estradiol (Component E-H and Synovex H), dinoprost (Lutalyse/Prostamate), and cloprostenol (Estromate/EstroPlan). The hazards range from mild to life-threatening in terms of severity, and include bronchospasm, central nervous system stimulation, induction of miscarriage, and sudden death. To report medication descriptions, human toxicity information, and medical management for the emergent care of patients who may have had exposure to veterinary medications when they present to an emergency department (ED). The intended use of this article is to inform and support ED personnel, drug information centers, and poison control centers on veterinary medication hazards. There is a need for increased awareness of the potential hazards of veterinary medications within human medicine circles. Timely reporting of veterinary medication hazards and their medical management may help to prepare the human medical community to deal with such exposures or abuses when time is of the essence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A New World Information Order for Better Human Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Mustapha

    Many studies, particularly the report of the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems (ICSCP), have tried to define a new world information order for better human understanding. What appears to be needed is the establishment of a new, open-ended, conceptual framework leading to a freer, more efficient, more equitable,…

  15. Information Theory: A Method for Human Communication Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John W.

    This paper describes seven experiments related to human communication research. The first two experiments discuss studies treating the aural responses of listeners. The third experiment was undertaken to estimate the information of sounds and diagrams which might lead to an estimate of the redundancy ascribed to the phonetic structure of words. A…

  16. Multisensory Information Processing For Enhanced Human Machine Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-02

    gestures, tactile signals, brain neural signals, and physiological signals (e.g., speech, heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, and...high level activity recognition are active research areas in artificial intelligence [43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49]. The methods for visual data analysis... respiration rate, heart rate, blood pressure and temperature) and behavioral information (e.g., posture, eye movements, gesture, and visual/thermal facial

  17. Ontology-Based High-Level Context Inference for Human Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Villalonga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a huge progress in the automatic identification of individual primitives of human behavior, such as activities or locations. However, the complex nature of human behavior demands more abstract contextual information for its analysis. This work presents an ontology-based method that combines low-level primitives of behavior, namely activity, locations and emotions, unprecedented to date, to intelligently derive more meaningful high-level context information. The paper contributes with a new open ontology describing both low-level and high-level context information, as well as their relationships. Furthermore, a framework building on the developed ontology and reasoning models is presented and evaluated. The proposed method proves to be robust while identifying high-level contexts even in the event of erroneously-detected low-level contexts. Despite reasonable inference times being obtained for a relevant set of users and instances, additional work is required to scale to long-term scenarios with a large number of users.

  18. Combining human and machine intelligence to derive agents' behavioral rules for groundwater irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Quinn, Christopher J.; Cai, Ximing; Garfinkle, Noah W.

    2017-11-01

    For agent-based modeling, the major challenges in deriving agents' behavioral rules arise from agents' bounded rationality and data scarcity. This study proposes a "gray box" approach to address the challenge by incorporating expert domain knowledge (i.e., human intelligence) with machine learning techniques (i.e., machine intelligence). Specifically, we propose using directed information graph (DIG), boosted regression trees (BRT), and domain knowledge to infer causal factors and identify behavioral rules from data. A case study is conducted to investigate farmers' pumping behavior in the Midwest, U.S.A. Results show that four factors identified by the DIG algorithm- corn price, underlying groundwater level, monthly mean temperature and precipitation- have main causal influences on agents' decisions on monthly groundwater irrigation depth. The agent-based model is then developed based on the behavioral rules represented by three DIGs and modeled by BRTs, and coupled with a physically-based groundwater model to investigate the impacts of agents' pumping behavior on the underlying groundwater system in the context of coupled human and environmental systems.

  19. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Sagl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing. In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the

  20. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  1. The Human Brain and Information Science: Lessons from Popular Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Sturges

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Insights from the recent wealth of popular books on neuroscience are offered to suggest a strengthening of theory in information science. Information theory has traditionally neglected the human dimension in favour of 'scientific' theory often derived from the Shannon-Weaver model. Neuroscientists argue in excitingly fresh ways from the evidence of case studies, non-intrusive experimentation and the measurements that can be obtained from technologies that include electroencephalography, positron emission tomography (PET, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and magnetoencephalography (MEG. The way in which the findings of neuroscience intersect with ideas such as those of Kahneman on fast and slow thinking and Csikszentmihalyi on flow, is tentatively explored as lines of connection with information science. It is argued that the beginnings of a theoretical underpinning for current web-based information searching in relation to established information retrieval methods can be drawn from this.

  2. City rats: insight from rat spatial behavior into human cognition in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaski, Osnat; Portugali, Juval; Eilam, David

    2011-09-01

    The structure and shape of the urban environment influence our ability to find our way about in the city. Understanding how the physical properties of the environment affect spatial behavior and cognition is therefore a necessity. However, there are inherent difficulties in empirically studying complex and large-scale urban environments. These include the need to isolate the impact of specific urban features and to acquire data on the physical activity of individuals. In the present study, we attempted to overcome the above obstacles and examine the relation between urban environments and spatial cognition by testing the spatial behavior of rats. This idea originated from the resemblance in the operative brain functions and in the mechanisms and strategies employed by humans and other animals when acquiring spatial information and establishing an internal representation, as revealed in past studies. Accordingly, we tested rats in arenas that simulated a grid urban layout (e.g. Manhattan streets) and an irregular urban layout (e.g. Jerusalem streets). We found that in the grid layout, rat movement was more structured and extended over a greater area compared with their restricted movement in the irregular layout. These movement patterns recall those of humans in respective urban environments, illustrating that the structure and shape of the environment affect spatial behavior similarly in humans and rats. Overall, testing rats in environments that simulate facets of urban environments can provide new insights into human spatial cognition in urban environments.

  3. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.

  4. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang

    2017-03-07

    Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual's earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.

  5. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhai, Guofang; Zhou, Shutian; Fan, Chenjing; Wu, Yunqing; Ren, Chongqiang

    2017-01-01

    Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded. PMID:28272359

  6. Irrational choice behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Brown, Ella R

    2018-01-02

    Choice behavior in humans has motivated a large body of research with a focus on whether decisions can be considered to be rational. In general, humans prefer having choice, as do a number of other species that have been tested, even though having increased choice does not necessarily yield a positive outcome. Humans have been found to choose an option more often only because the opportunity to select it was diminishing, an example of a deviation from economic rationality. Here we extend this paradigm to nonhuman primates in an effort to understand the mechanisms underlying this finding. In this study, we presented two groups of laboratory monkeys, capuchins (Cebus apella) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), as well as human subjects, with a computerized task in which subjects were presented with two differently colored icons. When the subject selected an icon, differing numbers of food pellets were dispensed (or points were assigned), making each icon correspond to a certain level of risk (one icon yielded 1 or 4 pellets/points and the other yielded 2 or 3). Initially, both options remained constantly available and we established choice preference scores for each subject. Then, we assessed preference patterns once the options were not continuously available. Specifically, choosing one icon would cause the other to shrink in size on the screen and eventually disappear if never selected. Selecting it would restore it to its full size. As predicted, humans shifted their risk preferences in the diminishing options phase, choosing to click on both icons more equally in order to keep both options available. At the group level, capuchin monkeys showed this pattern as well, but there was a great deal of individual variability in both capuchins and macaques. The present work suggests that there is some degree of continuity between human and nonhuman primates in the desire to have choice simply for the sake of having choice.

  7. Cybernics fusion of human, machine and information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Cybernics plays a significant role in coping with an aging society using state-of-the-art technologies from engineering, clinical medicine and humanities. This new interdisciplinary field studies technologies that enhance, strengthen, and support physical and cognitive functions of human beings, based on the fusion of human, machine, and information systems. The design of a seamless interface for interaction between the interior and exterior of the human body is described in this book from diverse aspects such as the physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive levels. It is the first book to cover the many aspects of cybernics, allowing readers to understand the life support robotics technology for the elderly, including remote, in-home, hospital, institutional, community medical welfare, and vital-sensing systems. Serving as a valuable resource, this volume will interest not only graduate students, scientists, and engineers but also newcomers to the field of cybernics.

  8. Executable Behavioral Modeling of System and Software Architecture Specifications to Inform Resourcing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    BEHAVIORAL MODELING OF SYSTEM- AND SOFTWARE- ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATIONS TO INFORM RESOURCING DECISIONS by Monica F. Farah-Stapleton...AND SOFTWARE- ARCHITECTURE SPECIFICATIONS TO INFORM RESOURCING DECISIONS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Monica F. Farah-Stapleton 7. PERFORMING...intellectual, programmatic, and organizational resources. Precise behavioral modeling offers a way to assess architectural design decisions prior to

  9. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales with Mentally Retarded Adults: Informant versus Self-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Sylvia L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The validity of using self report to assess competence on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales was investigated with 16 mentally retarded adults. Self report and informant report showed close agreement for both daily living skills and socialization. Higher functioning subjects provided more information regarding problem behaviors than did their…

  10. Comparisons of Conceptual Preference for Cultural and Leadership Behavior in an Information Technology Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Amina B.

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus of the research study conducted was to analyze the predictive leadership behaviors of Southern Asian and United States individuals in the information technology career field. This research validates the leadership traits and behaviors of information technology types of United States individuals that enhance the impact of…

  11. 76 FR 44301 - Information Collection; Homeowner Risk Reduction Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Behaviors Concerning Wildfire Risks and Climate Change Impacts. The information will be collected from... INFORMATION: Title: Understanding the Threats of Wildfire & Climate Change: Risk Mitigation Behaviors of... risk, and climate change. The objective of this study is to help decisionmakers better understand the...

  12. Financial Information: Is It Related to Savings and Investing Knowledge and Financial Behavior of Teenagers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonce, Joan C.; Mimura, Yoko; Mauldin, Teresa A.; Rupured, A. Michael; Jordan, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    General linear model procedures were used to investigate the association between financial behavior and sources of financial information, the association between savings and investing knowledge and financial information sources, and the association between financial behavior and savings and investing knowledge. The study participants were 253…

  13. Cross-Informant Agreement on Child and Adolescent Withdrawn Behavior: A Latent Class Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David H.; Althoff, Robert R.; Walkup, John T.; Hudziak, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Withdrawn behavior (WB) relates to many developmental outcomes, including pervasive developmental disorders, anxiety, depression, psychosis, personality disorders and suicide. No study has compared the latent profiles of different informants' reports on WB. This study uses multi-informant latent class analyses (LCA) of the child behavior checklist…

  14. The Scent of Blood: A Driver of Human Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Moran

    Full Text Available The scent of blood is potentially one of the most fundamental and survival-relevant olfactory cues in humans. This experiment tests the first human parameters of perceptual threshold and emotional ratings in men and women of an artificially simulated smell of fresh blood in contact with the skin. We hypothesize that this scent of blood, with its association with injury, danger, death, and nutrition will be a critical cue activating fundamental motivational systems relating to either predatory approach behavior or prey-like withdrawal behavior, or both. The results show that perceptual thresholds are unimodally distributed for both sexes, with women being more sensitive. Furthermore, both women and men's emotional responses to simulated blood scent divide strongly into positive and negative valence ratings, with negative ratings in women having a strong arousal component. For women, this split is related to the phase of their menstrual cycle and oral contraception (OC. Future research will investigate whether this split in both genders is context-dependent or trait-like.

  15. Social Media Research, Human Behavior, and Sustainable Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A bibliometric analysis was conducted to review social media research from different perspectives during the period of 2008–2014 based on the Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index database. Using a collection of 10,042 articles related to social media, the bibliometric analysis revealed some interesting patterns and trend of the scientific outputs, major journals, subject categories, spatial distribution, international collaboration, and temporal evolution in keywords usage in social media studies. The research on social media has been characterized by rapid growth and dynamic collaboration, with a rising number of publications and citation. Communication, Sociology, Public, Environment & Occupational Health, Business, and Multidisciplinary Psychology were the five most common categories. Computers in Human Behavior was the journal with the most social media publications, and Computers & Education ranked first according to the average citations. The two most productive countries were the U.S. and UK, delivering about half of the publications. The proportion of China’s internationally collaborative publications was the highest. The University of Wisconsin, the University of Michigan, and Harvard University were three most productive institutions. Several keywords, such as “Facebook”, “Twitter”, “communication”, “Social Networking Sites”, “China”, “climate change”, “big data” and “social support” increasingly gained the popularity during the study period, indicating the research trends on human behavior and sustainability.

  16. The Influence of Place-Based Communities on Information Behavior: A Comparative Grounded Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Amelia N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of experiential place and local community on information access and behavior for two communities of parents of children with Down syndrome. It uncovers substantive issues associated with health information seeking, government and education-related information access, and information overload and avoidance within the…

  17. Proposing a Theoretical Framework for Digital Age Youth Information Behavior Building upon Radical Change Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyungwon

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary young people are engaged in a variety of information behaviors, such as information seeking, using, sharing, and creating. The ways youth interact with information have transformed in the shifting digital information environment; however, relatively little empirical research exists and no theoretical framework adequately explains…

  18. Factors Influencing People's Personal Information Disclosure Behaviors in Online Health Communities: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    To effectively facilitate health information sharing and personal information protection in online health communities (OHCs), it is important to examine the factors influencing people's personal information disclosure behavior in OHCs. Five factors were supposed as the predictors of people's personal information disclosure behavior in OHCs. A total of 376 participants in a Chinese online cancer community were analyzed. The empirical results indicate that more participants give more attention to risk factors than motivating factors when they disclose information in OHCs. In a not so severe condition, participants post their personal information to only obtain needed information. In severe disease situations, participants disclose personal information to obtain both needed information and emotional support, and emotional support is prioritized; in addition, they even risk financial loss to seek more useful information or emotional support. OHC managers should make policies to protect people's personal information, and thus encourage them to share more health information in OHCs.

  19. 人文學者搜尋資訊行為的探究 Information-Seeking Behavior of the Humanists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-min Cheng

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available 無Information-seeking behavior is one of the important themes of users studies. The humanists information-seeking behavior is quite different from those of scientists of social scientists mainly because they work alone, are concerned with those human achievements which make up our cultural heritage and rarely do their research work under the pressure of time. Books are the material the humanists use most often. Whatever the published year or language. Therefore they are very much dependent on the collections of the library. The way they seek information is first searching the reference bibliographies listed in the books or journal articles. Or simply browsing in the library. Because the databases of the humanities are quite few and the years of coverage are not enough the humanists do not regard the information retrieval system as being useful. Realizing the information-seeking behavior of the humanists the librarians have to make some adjustments in acquisition allocation and user services. Librarians in Taiwan should do more extensive users studies so that they might provide more suitable services and collections to different users.

  20. Is Informed Consent Necessary for Research on Stored Human Samples?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Fred Sembajwe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Informed consent is always required before patients can be treated in health centers as well as participating in any kind of research. This requirement often poses a serious challenge to researchers in situations where existing guidelines are not clear about the ownership of donated or discarded human biological samples in hospital archives. The current regulations demand that when doing research, the major bioethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice should always be respected and adhered to. There is increased value of stored biomaterials due to advancement in biotechnology which has also contributed to increased debate on whether researchers should seek informed consent from the individual donors before such materials can be used for research. In enforcing these bioethical principles, most guidelines focus on research involving direct contact with human beings, and no much attention is given to stored or discarded body parts and biomaterials that end up being used for research in later years. There are some hypotheses that can be tested by doing research on the stored biological samples, especially by students or scientists attached to various University hospitals, research-centers and laboratories. We attempt to provide some scenarios and reviewed guidelines that can help provide a consensus as to whether it is strictly necessary to have informed consent for research on stored or discarded human body parts and who should claim ownership of collected human biomaterials for research or potential commercial purposes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 119-128

  1. Historical Origins of Information Behavior Research by Reference Publication Year Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faramarz Soheili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Using a quantitative method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS, this research tried to determine the historical roots of information behavior research. RPYS pave the way for determining the significant years and works in information behavior. Methodology: Using scientometric method, the initial data of this study, have been extracted from the Web of Science. Using RPYS software, the revised data were analyzed and visualized in Excel. Finding: The distribution of cited references in information behavior revealed three peaks within 19th century. Moreover, our analysis identified 6 peaks between 1900 to 1969 in the field of information behavior, respectively in 1948, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1965, and 1967 has occurred. Results: Based on the study findings, it seems that information behavior research has been shaped intellectually by fields such as Psychology, quantitative and qualitative methodologies, etc. Additionally, it has been influenced by some theories and theoretical works.

  2. Information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios the impact of task, technology and individual characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The growing amount of information provided via web-based information technologies forces the users of these technologies to stop seeking for information before having acquired all available information. This stopping decision is either made actively following clear guidelines or subconsciously based on the seeker's intuition. This book analyzes the aforementioned duality by developing and testing a multi-theoretical research model dealing with information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios. Thus, by delivering insights into the mechanisms that influence information seeking activitie

  3. Conscious Perception as Integrated Information Patterns in Human Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A significant problem in neuroscience concerns the distinction between neural processing that is correlated with conscious percepts from processing that is not. Here, we tested if a hierarchical structure of causal interactions between neuronal populations correlates with conscious perception. We derived the hierarchical causal structure as a pattern of integrated information, inspired by the integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. We computed integrated information patterns from intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) from six human neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted over lateral and ventral cortices. During recording, subjects viewed continuous flash suppression (CFS) and backward masking (BM) stimuli intended to dissociate conscious percept from stimulus, and unmasked suprathreshold stimuli. Object-sensitive areas revealed correspondence between conscious percepts and integrated information patterns. We quantified this correspondence using unsupervised classification methods that revealed clustering of visual experiences with integrated information, but not with broader information measures including mutual information and entropy. Our findings point to a significant role of locally integrated information for understanding the neural substrate of conscious object perception. PMID:29085895

  4. Associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and information behavior among persons living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine

    2017-12-29

    To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preprocessing of emotional visual information in the human piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris

    2017-08-23

    This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.

  6. A survey on human behavior towards energy saving for office worker in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Nur Hanim; Husain, Mohd Nor; Aziz, Mohamad Zoinol Abidin Abdul; Othman, Mohd Azlishah; Malek, Fared

    2015-05-01

    Green environment is a space and energy efficient household, which can offer coziness and healthy living environment to its occupants. Human behavior is focuses to see the impact toward energy and also into green building. This probe can be taken in if everybody reads and share similar objectives in bringing off the energy in an efficient manner. This paper will present and watched over the survey feedback on energy usage by federal agency workers in Malaysia. The study will focus on the proletarians in the government sector since this population is the majority work in place. It is authoritative to present and support the tested data for a project doing, particularly connected to human existence. The matter is referred to discussing about human behavior to compare with the real situation information. Today, there are many researchers thought that the human activity as the primary ingredient for a monitoring arrangement. As a consequence, the energy monitoring system will improve the energy usage efficiency of the basic human actions in different places and surroundings.

  7. Information environment, behavioral biases, and home bias in analysts’ recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farooq, Omar; Taouss, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    relative to local analysts. As a result, we expect them to be less optimistic in their recommendations relative to local analysts. However, for firms with better information environment, foreign analysts face less information asymmetries. As a result, they are relatively more optimistic (less pessimistic...

  8. Human behavior preceding dog bites to the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezac, P; Rezac, K; Slama, P

    2015-12-01

    Facial injuries caused by dog bites pose a serious problem. The aims of this study were to determine human behavior immediately preceding a dog bite to the face and to assess the effects of victim age and gender and dog sex and size on the location of the bite to the face and the need for medical treatment. Complete data on 132 incidents of bites to the face were analysed. A human bending over a dog, putting the face close to the dog's face, and gazing between victim and dog closely preceded a dog bite to the face in 76%, 19% and 5% of cases, respectively. More than half of the bites were directed towards the central area of the victim's face (nose, lips). More than two thirds of the victims were children, none of the victims was an adult dog owner and only adult dogs bit the face. Victim's age and gender and dog's sex and size did not affect the location of the bite on the face. People who were bitten by large dogs sought medical treatment more often than people who were bitten by small dogs (P dog, putting the face close to the dog's face and gazing between human and dog should be avoided, and children should be carefully and constantly supervised when in the presence of dogs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  10. Behavioral toxicology of cognition: extrapolation from experimental animal models to humans: behavioral toxicology symposium overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, Merle G; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Alvarado, Maria; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Schneider, Jay S; Schantz, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    A variety of behavioral instruments are available for assessing important aspects of cognition in both animals and humans and, in many cases, the same instruments can be used in both. While nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closest to humans, rodents, pigeons and other animals also offer behaviors worthy of note. Delay Discounting procedures are as useful as any in studies of impulsivity and may have utility in shedding light on processes associated with drug abuse. Specific memory tests such as Visual Paired Comparisons tasks (similar to the Fagan test of infant intelligence) can be modified to allow for assessment of different aspects of memory such as spatial memory. Use of these and other specific memory tasks can be used to directly monitor aspects of cognitive development in infant animals, particularly in nonhuman primates such as monkeys, and children and to draw inferences with respect to possible neuroanatomical substrates sub-serving their functions. Tasks for assessing working memory such as Variable Delayed Response (VDR), modified VDR and Spatial Working Memory tasks are now known to be affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). These and other cognitive function tasks are being used in a monkey model of PD to assess the ability of anti-Parkinson's disease therapies to ameliorate these cognitive deficits without diminishing their therapeutic effects on motor dysfunction. Similarly, in a rat model of the cognitive deficits associated with perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), clear parallels with children can be seen in at least two areas of executive function: cognitive flexibility and response inhibition. In the rat model, discrimination reversal tasks were utilized to assess cognitive flexibility, a function often assessed in humans using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Response inhibition was assessed using performance in a Differential Reinforcement of Low Response Rates (DRL) task. As the data continue to accumulate, it becomes

  11. Efficiency of human activity on information spreading on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Guzmán, Alfredo; Borondo, J.; Losada González, Juan Carlos; Benito Zafrilla, Rosa Maria

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the collective reaction to individual actions is key to effectively spread information in social media. In this work we define efficiency on Twitter, as the ratio between the emergent spreading process and the activity employed by the user. We characterize this property by means of a quantitative analysis of the structural and dynamical patterns emergent from human interactions, and show it to be universal across several Twitter conversations. We found that some influential user...

  12. Human Behavioral Pharmacology, Past, Present, and Future: Symposium Presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D.; Bickel, Warren K.; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T.; Wenger, Galen R.; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as gender, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies. PMID:20664330

  13. Human behavioral pharmacology, past, present, and future: symposium presented at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Sandra D; Bickel, Warren K; Yi, Richard; de Wit, Harriet; Higgins, Stephen T; Wenger, Galen R; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-07-01

    A symposium held at the 50th annual meeting of the Behavioral Pharmacology Society in May 2007 reviewed progress in the human behavioral pharmacology of drug abuse. Studies on drug self-administration in humans are reviewed that assessed reinforcing and subjective effects of drugs of abuse. The close parallels observed between studies in humans and laboratory animals using similar behavioral techniques have broadened our understanding of the complex nature of the pharmacological and behavioral factors controlling drug self-administration. The symposium also addressed the role that individual differences, such as sex, personality, and genotype play in determining the extent of self-administration of illicit drugs in human populations. Knowledge of how these factors influence human drug self-administration has helped validate similar differences observed in laboratory animals. In recognition that drug self-administration is but one of many choices available in the lives of humans, the symposium addressed the ways in which choice behavior can be studied in humans. These choice studies in human drug abusers have opened up new and exciting avenues of research in laboratory animals. Finally, the symposium reviewed behavioral pharmacology studies conducted in drug abuse treatment settings and the therapeutic benefits that have emerged from these studies.

  14. Using lighting and visual information to alter driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Inappropriate traffic speeds are a major cause of traffic fatalities. Since driving is a task with a substantial contribution : from vision, the use of lighting and visual information such as signage could assist in providing appropriate cues to : en...

  15. Informed consent in human experimentation before the Nuremberg code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, J; Winau, R

    1996-12-07

    The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg code of 1947 is generally regarded as the first document to set out ethical regulations in human experimentation based on informed consent. New research, however, indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century. These guidelines shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged. This issue assumes renewed importance in the context of current attempts to assess liability and responsibility for the abuse of people in various experiments conducted since the second world war in the United States, Canada, Russia, and other nations.

  16. An Empirical Study of the Volkswagen Crisis in China: Customers' Information Processing and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Peng; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    Product-harm crises usually lead to product recalls, which may cause consumers concern about the product quality and safety. This study systematically examines customers' immediate responses to the Volkswagen product recall crisis in China. Particular attention was given to customers' responses to the risk information influencing their behavioral intentions. By combining the protective action decision model and the heuristic-systematic model, we constructed a hypothetical model to explore this issue. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data involving 467 participants drawn from the customers of Volkswagen. We used structural equation modeling to explore the model. The results show that customers' product knowledge plays an important role in their responses to the crisis. Having more knowledge would make them perceive a lower risk, but they might need even more information, making them more likely to seek and process information, and subsequently increasing their positive behavioral intentions toward the firm (that is pro-firm behavioral intentions). Risk perception increased customers' information needs, information seeking, and information processing but decreased their pro-firm behavioral intentions. In addition to promoting information seeking, information needed to also facilitate customers' systematic processing and thus increase their behavioral intentions to take corrective action. Customers' behavioral intentions were also spurred by systematic processing, but failed to be predicted by information seeking. In summary, theoretical and practical implications and suggestions for further research are also discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. A hierarchical structure for human behavior classification using STN local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Hosein M; Hebb, Adam O; Hanrahan, Sara J; Nedrud, Joshua; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2017-10-07

    Classification of human behavior from brain signals has potential application in developing closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems. This paper presents a human behavior classification using local field potential (LFP) signals recorded from subthalamic nuclei (STN). A hierarchical classification structure is developed to perform the behavior classification from LFP signals through a multi-level framework (coarse to fine). At each level, the time-frequency representations of all six signals from the DBS leads are combined through an MKL-based SVM classifier to classify five tasks (speech, finger movement, mouth movement, arm movement, and random segments). To lower the computational cost, we alternatively use the inter-hemispheric synchronization of the LFPs to make three pairs out of six bipolar signals. Three classifiers are separately trained at each level of the hierarchical approach, which lead to three labels. A fusion function is then developed to combine these three labels and determine the label of the corresponding trial. Using all six LFPs with the proposed hierarchical approach improves the classification performance. Moreover, the synchronization-based method reduces the computational burden considerably while the classification performance remains relatively unchanged. Our experiments on two different datasets recorded from nine subjects undergoing DBS surgery show that the proposed approaches remarkably outperform other methods for behavior classification based on LFP signals. The LFP signals acquired from STNs contain useful information for recognizing human behavior. This can be a precursor for designing the next generation of closed-loop DBS systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Which activation function of cooperation describes human behavior?

    CERN Document Server

    Jarynowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Properties of cooperation's probability function in Prisoner`s Dilemma have impact on evolution of game. Basic model defines that probability of cooperation depends linearly, both on the player's altruism and the co-player's reputation. I propose modification of activation function to smooth one (hyperbolic tangent with scaling parameter a, which corresponds to its shape) and observe three phases for different range of a. (1) For small a, strategies seem to randomly change in time and situation of mixed choices (one cooperates and second defects) dominate. (2) For medium a, players choose only one strategy for given period of time (the common state can switch to opposite one with some probability). (3) For large a, mixed strategy (once defect, once cooperate) is coexisting with common strategies and no change is allowed. I believe that proposed function characterizes better socio-economical phenomena and especially phase 1 and 2 contain most of human behavior.

  19. Sweet taste liking is associated with impulsive behaviors in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eWeafer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that sensitivity to rewarding stimuli is positively associated with impulsive behaviors, including both impulsive decision making and inhibitory control. The current study examined associations between the hedonic value of a sweet taste and two forms of impulsivity (impulsive choice and impulsive action in healthy young adults (n=100. Participants completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various sweetness concentrations. Subjects also completed measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting, and impulsive action (go/no-go task. Subjects who discounted more steeply (i.e., greater impulsive choice liked the high sweetness concentration solutions more. By contrast, sweet liking was not related to impulsive action. These findings indicate that impulsive choice may be associated with heightened sensitivity to the hedonic value of a rewarding stimulus, and that these constructs might share common underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  20. Sweet taste liking is associated with impulsive behaviors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Burkhardt, Anne; de Wit, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from both human and animal studies suggests that sensitivity to rewarding stimuli is positively associated with impulsive behaviors, including both impulsive decision making and inhibitory control. The current study examined associations between the hedonic value of a sweet taste and two forms of impulsivity (impulsive choice and impulsive action) in healthy young adults (N = 100). Participants completed a sweet taste test in which they rated their liking of various sweetness concentrations. Subjects also completed measures of impulsive choice (delay discounting), and impulsive action (go/no-go task). Subjects who discounted more steeply (i.e., greater impulsive choice) liked the high sweetness concentration solutions more. By contrast, sweet liking was not related to impulsive action. These findings indicate that impulsive choice may be associated with heightened sensitivity to the hedonic value of a rewarding stimulus, and that these constructs might share common underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  1. Effects of evacuation assistant’s leading behavior on the evacuation efficiency: Information transmission approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2015-07-01

    Evacuation assistants are expected to spread the escape route information and lead evacuees toward the exit as quickly as possible. Their leading behavior influences the evacuees’ movement directly, which is confirmed to be a decisive factor of the evacuation efficiency. The transmission process of escape information and its function on the evacuees’ movement are accurately presented by the proposed extended dynamic communication field model. For evacuation assistants and evacuees, their sensitivity parameter of static floor field (SFF), , and , are fully discussed. The simulation results indicate that the appropriate is associated with the maximum of evacuees. The optimal combinations of and were found to reach the highest evacuation efficiency. There also exists an optimal value for evacuation assistants’ information transmission radius. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB706900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71225007 and 71203006), the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2012BAK13B06), the Humanities and Social Sciences Project of the Ministry of Education of China (Grant Nos. 10YJA630221 and 12YJCZH023), and the Beijing Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of the Twelfth Five-Year Plan, China (Grant Nos. 12JGC090 and 12JGC098).

  2. Information and entropy theory for the sustainability of coupled human and natural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey L. Mayer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For coupled human and natural systems (CHANS, sustainability can be defined operationally as a feasible, desirable set of flows (material, currency, information, energy, individuals, etc. that can be maintained despite internal changes and changes in the environment. Sustainable development can be defined as the process by which CHANS can be moved toward sustainability. Specific indicators that give insight into the structure and behavior of feedbacks in CHANS are of particular interest because they would aid in the sustainable management of these systems through an understanding of the structures that govern system behavior. However, the use of specific feedbacks as monitoring tools is rare, possibly because of uncertainties regarding the nature of their dynamics and the diversity of types of feedbacks encountered in these systems. An information theory perspective may help to rectify this situation, as evidenced by recent research in sustainability science that supports the use of unit-free measures such as Shannon entropy and Fisher information to aggregate disparate indicators. These measures have been used for spatial and temporal datasets to monitor progress toward sustainability targets. Here, we provide a review of information theory and a theoretical framework for studying the dynamics of feedbacks in CHANS. We propose a combination of information-based indices that might productively inform our sustainability goals, particularly when related to key feedbacks in CHANS.

  3. Modelling information flow along the human connectome using maximum flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyoo, Youngwook; Kim, Jieun E; Yoon, Sujung

    2018-01-01

    The human connectome is a complex network that transmits information between interlinked brain regions. Using graph theory, previously well-known network measures of integration between brain regions have been constructed under the key assumption that information flows strictly along the shortest paths possible between two nodes. However, it is now apparent that information does flow through non-shortest paths in many real-world networks such as cellular networks, social networks, and the internet. In the current hypothesis, we present a novel framework using the maximum flow to quantify information flow along all possible paths within the brain, so as to implement an analogy to network traffic. We hypothesize that the connection strengths of brain networks represent a limit on the amount of information that can flow through the connections per unit of time. This allows us to compute the maximum amount of information flow between two brain regions along all possible paths. Using this novel framework of maximum flow, previous network topological measures are expanded to account for information flow through non-shortest paths. The most important advantage of the current approach using maximum flow is that it can integrate the weighted connectivity data in a way that better reflects the real information flow of the brain network. The current framework and its concept regarding maximum flow provides insight on how network structure shapes information flow in contrast to graph theory, and suggests future applications such as investigating structural and functional connectomes at a neuronal level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human turnover dynamics during sleep: Statistical behavior and its modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Utsumi, Hiroya; Terashi, Hiroo; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Turnover is a typical intermittent body movement while asleep. Exploring its behavior may provide insights into the mechanisms and management of sleep. However, little is understood about the dynamic nature of turnover in healthy humans and how it can be modified in disease. Here we present a detailed analysis of turnover signals that are collected by accelerometry from healthy elderly subjects and age-matched patients with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects, the time intervals between consecutive turnover events exhibit a well-separated bimodal distribution with one mode at ⩽10 s and the other at ⩾100 s, whereas such bimodality tends to disappear in neurodegenerative patients. The discovery of bimodality and fine temporal structures (⩽10 s) is a contribution that is not revealed by conventional sleep recordings with less time resolution (≈30 s). Moreover, we estimate the scaling exponent of the interval fluctuations, which also shows a clear difference between healthy subjects and patients. We incorporate these experimental results into a computational model of human decision making. A decision is to be made at each simulation step between two choices: to keep on sleeping or to make a turnover, the selection of which is determined dynamically by comparing a pair of random numbers assigned to each choice. This decision is weighted by a single parameter that reflects the depth of sleep. The resulting simulated behavior accurately replicates many aspects of observed turnover patterns, including the appearance or disappearance of bimodality and leads to several predictions, suggesting that the depth parameter may be useful as a quantitative measure for differentiating between normal and pathological sleep. These findings have significant clinical implications and may pave the way for the development of practical sleep assessment technologies.

  5. Globalisation and human dignity: the case of the information superhighway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelink, C J

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Vice President Al Gore coined the concept of the Information Superhighway during a speech in Buenos Aires in which he proposed the development of a global information infrastructure. The project envisions the incorporation of all existing communication networks into one system, facilitating the globalization of markets. The internet, a decentralized network of computer networks, is one small-scale, existing model of what the superhighway could be, a public space owned by nobody in which communication takes place largely for noncommercial purposes. The internet currently connects 40 million computer users from at least 90 countries. The alternative model for the superhighway is the privately managed global shopping mall, a global interactive marketplace for information, entertainment, and advertising. The author warns, however, that it is not possible to predict the future social impact of such an information superhighway. Decision makers nonetheless push ahead in development, full of confidence in the merit and infallibility of technology. Since one cannot accurately predict the future, it rational to assume that social consequences may both promote and threaten human dignity. The author explains at which level he believes the superhighway threatens the human rights norms of equality, inviolability, and liberty, and discusses what the World Association for Christian Communication can do.

  6. Towards understanding the behavior of physical systems using information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quax, Rick; Apolloni, Andrea; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2013-09-01

    One of the goals of complex network analysis is to identify the most influential nodes, i.e., the nodes that dictate the dynamics of other nodes. In the case of autonomous systems or transportation networks, highly connected hubs play a preeminent role in diffusing the flow of information and viruses; in contrast, in language evolution most linguistic norms come from the peripheral nodes who have only few contacts. Clearly a topological analysis of the interactions alone is not sufficient to identify the nodes that drive the state of the network. Here we show how information theory can be used to quantify how the dynamics of individual nodes propagate through a system. We interpret the state of a node as a storage of information about the state of other nodes, which is quantified in terms of Shannon information. This information is transferred through interactions and lost due to noise, and we calculate how far it can travel through a network. We apply this concept to a model of opinion formation in a complex social network to calculate the impact of each node by measuring how long its opinion is remembered by the network. Counter-intuitively we find that the dynamics of opinions are not determined by the hubs or peripheral nodes, but rather by nodes with an intermediate connectivity.

  7. Humanizing outer space: architecture, habitability, and behavioral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2010-03-01

    Space architecture is the theory and practice of designing and building environments for humans in outer space. In our present century professional astronauts and cosmonauts will remain a focus for space architects, but new designs must better accommodate passengers (tourists and industrial workers) and settlers who set forth to establish off-world societies. Psychologists and architects can work together to assure good spaceflight behavioral health, defined by a lack of neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and the presence of high levels of personal adjustment, cordial interpersonal relations, and positive interactions with the physical and social environments. By designing and constructing facilities that are occupant centered and activity oriented, architects increase habitability thereby decreasing environmental challenges to behavioral health. Simulators and spaceflight-analogous environments make it possible to test design solutions prior to their deployment in space. This paper concludes with suggestions for increasing collaboration between architects and psychologists. These include increased sharing of hypotheses and data, articulating complementary research styles, and mutual advocacy for early, potent, and sustained involvement in mission planning and execution.

  8. AUTHENTICITY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR IN FREUD AND HEIDEGGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONUŢ ŞTEFAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research theme is the question of the authenticity of human behavior examined from two perspectives: the psychoanalytical one, developed by Sigmund Freud, and the one of philosophy of being embodied by Martin Heidegger. As concerns the Freudian psychoanalysis, I am primarily interested in the conflict among: self, ego, and superego. Because of the requisitions of the supergo, the subject mostly behaves according to the censorships imposed by this psychic instance. The self, dominated by sexuality and aggressiveness, exhibits the pulsional tendency to manifest itself in the conscious behavior of the individual. As regards the Heideggerian endeavor, I am interested in distinguishing between the authentic and non-authentic existences. In Heidegger’s vision, the nonauthentic existence manifests when we are living together with the others in society. This is the horizon of the impersonal “as it is done”, the Heideggerian das Man, which may be understood by the three dimensions: curiosity, ambiguity, and chatter. The authentic existence manifests when the individuals live on their own, in privacy, and acknowledge the fact that their existence develops over a strictly determined time period, the imminent confrontation with their own death coming closer and closer.

  9. Time for sex: nycthemeral distribution of human sexual behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refinetti Roberto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nycthemeral (daily oscillation has been documented in a variety of physiological and behavioral processes. The present study was carried out to evaluate the existence of a nycthemeral rhythm of human sexual behavior and to identify environmental factors responsible for the rhythmic pattern. Methods Non-traditional university students (ages 18 to 51 years recorded the times of day when they went to sleep, when they woke up, and when they had sex for 3 consecutive weeks. They also answered a questionnaire designed to identify the causes of their selection of time for sex. Results The majority of sexual encounters took place at bedtime (11 pm to 1 am. The most common explanations for this temporal pattern were the rigidity of the professional work schedule and family obligations and the availability of the partner, which reduced the opportunity for sexual encounters at other times of the day. Conclusion Most sexual encounters take place around bedtime. Although the presence of an endogenous component responsible for this temporal pattern cannot be excluded, the evidence indicates strong environmental forcing, particularly from the work/family schedule of the individuals and from partner availability.

  10. Human behavior understanding in networked sensing theory and applications of networks of sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Distante, Cosimo

    2014-01-01

    This unique text/reference provides a broad overview of both the technical challenges in sensor network development, and the real-world applications of distributed sensing. Important aspects of distributed computing in large-scale networked sensor systems are analyzed in the context of human behavior understanding, including such topics as systems design tools and techniques, in-network signals, and information processing. Additionally, the book examines a varied range of application scenarios, covering surveillance, indexing and retrieval, patient care, industrial safety, social and ambient

  11. The Influences of Immigration on Health Information Seeking Behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-01-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors.…

  12. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  13. The perception of child problem behavior : the role of informant personality and context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, G.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was on the question of who provides the most accurate information with regard to the behavior of a child under which circumstances. In clinical practice, information on the functioning of a particular child is commonly provided by such different types of informants as

  14. A Comparison of Three Approaches to Model Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmius, Joel; Persson-Slumpi, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    One way of studying social processes is through the use of simulations. The use of simulations for this purpose has been established as its own field, social simulations, and has been used for studying a variety of phenomena. A simulation of a social setting can serve as an aid for thinking about that social setting, and for experimenting with different parameters and studying the outcomes caused by them. When using the simulation as an aid for thinking and experimenting, the chosen simulation approach will implicitly steer the simulationist towards thinking in a certain fashion in order to fit the model. To study the implications of model choice on the understanding of a setting where human anticipation comes into play, a simulation scenario of a coffee room was constructed using three different simulation approaches: Cellular Automata, Systems Dynamics and Agent-based modeling. The practical implementations of the models were done in three different simulation packages: Stella for Systems Dynamic, CaFun for Cellular automata and SesAM for Agent-based modeling. The models were evaluated both using Randers' criteria for model evaluation, and through introspection where the authors reflected upon how their understanding of the scenario was steered through the model choice. Further the software used for implementing the simulation models was evaluated, and practical considerations for the choice of software package are listed. It is concluded that the models have very different strengths. The Agent-based modeling approach offers the most intuitive support for thinking about and modeling a social setting where the behavior of the individual is in focus. The Systems Dynamics model would be preferable in situations where populations and large groups would be studied as wholes, but where individual behavior is of less concern. The Cellular Automata models would be preferable where processes need to be studied from the basis of a small set of very simple rules. It is

  15. Human papillomavirus infection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among lesbian, gay men, and bisexual in Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta P Pelullo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. METHODS: A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. RESULTS: Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV

  16. Human papillomavirus infection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among lesbian, gay men, and bisexual in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelullo, Concetta P; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Angelillo, Italo F

    2012-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assess knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards the human papillomavirus (HPV) and the vaccination among a random sample of 1000 lesbian, gay men, and bisexual women and men. A face-to-face interview sought information about: socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge about HPV infection, perception of risk towards HPV infection and/or cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, perception of the benefits of a vaccination to prevent cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers, sexual behaviors, health-promoting behaviors, and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine. Only 60.6% had heard about the HPV infection and this knowledge was significantly higher in female, in those being a member of a homosexual association, in those having had the first sexual experience at a younger age, in those having received information about the HPV infection from physicians, and in those having no need of information about HPV infection. A higher perceived risk of contracting HPV infection has been observed in those younger, lesbian and gay men, who have heard of HPV infection and knew the risk factors and its related diseases, who have received information about HPV infection from physicians, and who need information about HPV infection. Only 1.7% have undergone HPV immunization and 73.3% professed intent to obtain it in the future. The significant predictors of the willingness to receive this vaccine were belief that the vaccination is useful, perception to be at higher risk of contracting HPV infection, and perception to be at higher risk of developing cervical, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers. Information and interventions are strongly needed in order to overcome the lack of knowledge about HPV infection and its vaccination. Inclusion of boys in the national vaccination program and initiate a catch-up program for men who have sex with men up to 26 years may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease.

  17. Sources of sexual information and its relevance to sexual behavior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The latter was found to be more inhibited from discussing sexuality with their spouse or anybody than those who got their information from books/magazines and films. Sex education of adolescents should, therefore be provided in a cultural, community-based setting of which the guardian programme should be only one ...

  18. Arrestant Effect of Human Scalp Components on Head Louse (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Insaurralde, Isabel; Ceferino Toloza, Ariel; Gonzalez-Audino, Paola; Inés Picollo, María

    2017-03-01

    Relevant evidence has shown that parasites process host-related information using chemical, visual, tactile, or auditory cues. However, the cues that are involved in the host-parasite interaction between Pediculus humanus capitis (De Geer 1767) and humans have not been identified yet. In this work, we studied the effect of human scalp components on the behavior of adult head lice. Filter paper segments were rubbed on volunteers' scalps and then placed in the experimental arena, where adult head lice were individually tested. The movement of the insects was recorded for each arena using the software EthoVision. Average movement parameters were calculated for the treatments in the bioassays such as total distance, velocity, number of times a head louse crossed between zones of the arena, and time in each zone of the arena. We found that scalp components induced head lice to decrease average locomotor activity and to remain arrested on the treated paper. The effect of the ageing of human scalp samples in the response of head lice was not statistically significant (i.e., human scalp samples of 4, 18, 40, and 60 h of ageing did not elicit a significant change in head louse behavior). When we analyzed the effect of the sex in the response of head lice to human scalp samples, males demonstrated significant differences. Our results showed for the first time the effect of host components conditioning head lice behavior. We discuss the role of these components in the dynamic of head lice infestation. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Methods for automated identification of informative behaviors in natural bioptic driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2012-06-01

    Visually impaired people may legally drive if wearing bioptic telescopes in some developed countries. To address the controversial safety issue of the practice, we have developed a low-cost in-car recording system that can be installed in study participants' own vehicles to record their daily driving activities. We also developed a set of automated identification techniques of informative behaviors to facilitate efficient manual review of important segments submerged in the vast amount of uncontrolled data. Here, we present the methods and quantitative results of the detection performance for six types of driving maneuvers and behaviors that are important for bioptic driving: bioptic telescope use, turns, curves, intersections, weaving, and rapid stops. The testing data were collected from one normally sighted and two visually impaired subjects across multiple days. The detection rates ranged from 82% up to 100%, and the false discovery rates ranged from 0% to 13%. In addition, two human observers were able to interpret about 80% of targets viewed through the telescope. These results indicate that with appropriate data processing the low-cost system is able to provide reliable data for natural bioptic driving studies.

  20. Scale-free fluctuations in behavioral performance: delineating changes in spontaneous behavior of humans with induced sleep deficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ochab, Jeremi K; Tyburczyk, Jacek; Beldzik, Ewa; Chialvo, Dante R; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Fafrowicz, Magdalena; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Marek, Tadeusz; Nowak, Maciej A; Oginska, Halszka; Szwed, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The timing and dynamics of many diverse behaviors of mammals, e.g., patterns of animal foraging or human communication in social networks exhibit complex self-similar properties reproducible over multiple time scales...

  1. Integration of human behavior expectations in training: human behavior simulator; Integracion de las expectativas de comportamiento humano en la formacion: simulacion de comportamiento humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obeso Torices, E.

    2012-07-01

    The analysis of operating experience in nuclear Sta Maria de Garona point to fundamental human factor. After evaluation of the Peer Review, reinforcing behavior expectations was identified as improvement area. The human behavior simulator aims at minimizing human error. Making teamwork practices ensures that the equipment itself reinforces their behavior and performance in the work of the Central. The scope of practice to perform on the simulator includes all phases of execution. The team should analyze the best way to run, the impact of it on the ground and interaction with other sections, being the simulator training environment the situation closer to reality.

  2. The Study on Human-Computer Interaction Design Based on the Users’ Subconscious Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyuan

    2017-09-01

    Human-computer interaction is human-centered. An excellent interaction design should focus on the study of user experience, which greatly comes from the consistence between design and human behavioral habit. However, users’ behavioral habits often result from subconsciousness. Therefore, it is smart to utilize users’ subconscious behavior to achieve design's intention and maximize the value of products’ functions, which gradually becomes a new trend in this field.

  3. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C R

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  4. Weather and place-based human behavior: recreational preferences and sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the links between biometeorological variables and the behavior of beach recreationists along with their rating of overall weather conditions. To identify and describe significance of on-site atmospheric conditions, two separate forms of response are examined. The first is sensory perception of the immediate atmospheric surround expressed verbally, which was the subject of earlier work. In the research reported here, on-site observations of behavior that reflect the effects of weather and climate are examined. By employing, independently, separate indicators of on-site experience, the reliability of each is examined and interpreted and apparent threshold conditions verified. The study site is King's Beach located on the coast of Queensland, Australia. On-site observations of atmospheric variables and beach user behavior are made for the daylight hours of 45 days spread over a 12-month period. The results show that behavioral data provide reliable and meaningful indications of the significance of the atmospheric environment for leisure. Atmospheric conditions within the zone of acceptability are those that the beach users can readily cope with or modify by a range of minor behavioral adjustments. Optimal weather conditions appear to be those requiring no specific behavioral adjustment. Attendance levels reflect only the outer limits of acceptability of the meteorological environment, while duration of visit enables calibration of levels of approval in so far as it reflects rating of on-site weather within a broad zone of tolerance. In a broad theoretical sense, the results add to an understanding of the relationship between weather and human behavior. This information is potentially useful in effective tourism management and planning.

  5. Information systems on human resources for health: a global review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Patricia L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although attainment of the health-related Millennium Development Goals relies on countries having adequate numbers of human resources for health (HRH and their appropriate distribution, global understanding of the systems used to generate information for monitoring HRH stock and flows, known as human resources information systems (HRIS, is minimal. While HRIS are increasingly recognized as integral to health system performance assessment, baseline information regarding their scope and capability around the world has been limited. We conducted a review of the available literature on HRIS implementation processes in order to draw this baseline. Methods Our systematic search initially retrieved 11 923 articles in four languages published in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Following the selection of those articles which detailed HRIS implementation processes, reviews of their contents were conducted using two-person teams, each assigned to a national system. A data abstraction tool was developed and used to facilitate objective assessment. Results Ninety-five articles with relevant HRIS information were reviewed, mostly from the grey literature, which comprised 84 % of all documents. The articles represented 63 national HRIS and two regionally integrated systems. Whereas a high percentage of countries reported the capability to generate workforce supply and deployment data, few systems were documented as being used for HRH planning and decision-making. Of the systems examined, only 23 % explicitly stated they collect data on workforce attrition. The majority of countries experiencing crisis levels of HRH shortages (56 % did not report data on health worker qualifications or professional credentialing as part of their HRIS. Conclusion Although HRIS are critical for evidence-based human resource policy and practice, there is a dearth of information about these systems, including their current capabilities. The absence of

  6. Behavioral Signal Processing: Deriving Human Behavioral Informatics From Speech and Language: Computational techniques are presented to analyze and model expressed and perceived human behavior-variedly characterized as typical, atypical, distressed, and disordered-from speech and language cues and their applications in health, commerce, education, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Shrikanth; Georgiou, Panayiotis G

    2013-02-07

    The expression and experience of human behavior are complex and multimodal and characterized by individual and contextual heterogeneity and variability. Speech and spoken language communication cues offer an important means for measuring and modeling human behavior. Observational research and practice across a variety of domains from commerce to healthcare rely on speech- and language-based informatics for crucial assessment and diagnostic information and for planning and tracking response to an intervention. In this paper, we describe some of the opportunities as well as emerging methodologies and applications of human behavioral signal processing (BSP) technology and algorithms for quantitatively understanding and modeling typical, atypical, and distressed human behavior with a specific focus on speech- and language-based communicative, affective, and social behavior. We describe the three important BSP components of acquiring behavioral data in an ecologically valid manner across laboratory to real-world settings, extracting and analyzing behavioral cues from measured data, and developing models offering predictive and decision-making support. We highlight both the foundational speech and language processing building blocks as well as the novel processing and modeling opportunities. Using examples drawn from specific real-world applications ranging from literacy assessment and autism diagnostics to psychotherapy for addiction and marital well being, we illustrate behavioral informatics applications of these signal processing techniques that contribute to quantifying higher level, often subjectively described, human behavior in a domain-sensitive fashion.

  7. Using Pro-Environmental Information to Modify Conservation Behavior: Paper Recycling and Reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Bruno; Luckert, Martin; Bissonnette, Katrina; Cumberland, Alyssa; Doll, Claire; Gupta, Tanishka; Shi, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    In cases where market policy instruments (e.g., taxes and quotas) are impractical tools to induce conservation behavior, information campaigns may be a valuable option. We use a difference-in-differences strategy to estimate the effectiveness a signage campaign for inducing paper recycling and reuse behavior in computer labs. We find that the implementation of signage with pro-environment appeals increases the probability of conservation behavior (i.e., recycling or reuse) by approximately 13...

  8. Informational dissimilarity and organizational citizenship behavior : The role of intrateam interdependence and team identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, GS; Van de Vliert, E; Oosterhof, A

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire study of 129 members of 20 multidisciplinary project teams examined the relationship between informational dissimilarity and both team identification and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) for individuals working under different interdependence configurations. Results revealed

  9. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  10. Teaching Ethical Behavior in the Global World of Information and the New AASL Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Mirah

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians "Standards for the 21st Century Learner" (2007) expresses nine fundamental common beliefs. One of these beliefs is that "ethical behavior in the use of information must be taught" (AASL 2007, 1). It is important for library media specialists to understand that teaching ethical behavior is much more…

  11. Interspecies transmission of emotional information via chemosignals: from humans to dogs (Canis lupus familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Semin, Gün Refik; Alterisio, Alessandra; Aria, Massimo; Scandurra, Anna

    2017-10-07

    We report a study examining interspecies emotion transfer via body odors (chemosignals). Do human body odors (chemosignals) produced under emotional conditions of happiness and fear provide information that is detectable by pet dogs (Labrador and Golden retrievers)? The odor samples were collected from the axilla of male donors not involved in the main experiment. The experimental setup involved the co-presence of the dog's owner, a stranger and the odor dispenser in a space where the dogs could move freely. There were three odor conditions [fear, happiness, and control (no sweat)] to which the dogs were assigned randomly. The dependent variables were the relevant behaviors of the dogs (e.g., approaching, interacting and gazing) directed to the three targets (owner, stranger, sweat dispenser) aside from the dogs' stress and heart rate indicators. The results indicated with high accuracy that the dogs manifested the predicted behaviors in the three conditions. There were fewer and shorter owner directed behaviors and more stranger directed behaviors when they were in the "happy odor condition" compared to the fear odor and control conditions. In the fear odor condition, they displayed more stressful behaviors. The heart rate data in the control and happy conditions were significantly lower than in the fear condition. Our findings suggest that interspecies emotional communication is facilitated by chemosignals.

  12. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Z; Saefudin, Asep; Sumartono, Sumartono

    2017-01-01

    High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1) to analyze the students’ motivation; 2) to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3) to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Scho...

  13. Aspects of elephant behavior, ecology, and interactions with humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Caitlin Elizabeth

    This dissertation is comprised of two chapters relating to the acoustic behavior of elephants, their surrounding ecology and interactions with humans. The first chapter investigates the seismic aspects of Asian elephant (Elephus maximus) acoustic communication. The second chapter is comprised of a synthesis of two separate studies conducted on the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) in Namibia, both in Etosha National Park and the Caprivi region. The two studies were combined and published in Biological Conservation as one large study on aspects of the economic and social impacts of elephant/human conflict and experiments conducted to reduce conflict. In chapter one, seismic and acoustic data were recorded simultaneously from Asian elephants during periods of vocalizations and locomotion. Acoustic and seismic signals from rumbles were highly correlated at near and far distances and were in phase near the elephant and were out of phase at an increased distance from the elephant. Data analyses indicated that elephant generated signals associated with rumbles and "foot stomps" propagated at different velocities in the two media, the acoustic signals traveling at 309 m/s and the seismic signals at 248--264 m/s. Both types of signals had predominant frequencies in the range of 20 Hz. Seismic signal amplitudes considerably above background noise were recorded at 40 m from the generating elephants for both the rumble and the stomp. Seismic propagation models suggest that seismic waveforms from vocalizations are potentially detectable by instruments at distances of up to 16 km, and up to 32 km for locomotion generated signals. Thus, if detectable by elephants, these seismic signals could be useful for long distance communication. In chapter two, the economic impact of elephants, Loxodonta africana , and predators, particularly lions, Panthera leo, on rural agriculturists in the Kwando region of the East Caprivi, Namibia was assessed from the years 1991 to 1995. Elephants

  14. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sircova

    Full Text Available In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP, a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1 The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940 and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2 The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3 The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4 diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index. It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global

  15. Simulating irrational human behavior to prevent resource depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircova, Anna; Karimi, Fariba; Osin, Evgeny N; Lee, Sungmin; Holme, Petter; Strömbom, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In a situation with a limited common resource, cooperation between individuals sharing the resource is essential. However, people often act upon self-interest in irrational ways that threaten the long-term survival of the whole group. A lack of sustainable or environmentally responsible behavior is often observed. In this study, we examine how the maximization of benefits principle works in a wider social interactive context of personality preferences in order to gain a more realistic insight into the evolution of cooperation. We used time perspective (TP), a concept reflecting individual differences in orientation towards past, present, or future, and relevant for making sustainable choices. We developed a personality-driven agent-based model that explores the role of personality in the outcomes of social dilemmas and includes multiple facets of diversity: (1) The agents have different behavior strategies: individual differences derived by applying cluster analysis to survey data from 22 countries (N = 10,940) and resulting in 7 cross-cultural profiles of TP; (2) The non-uniform distribution of the types of agents across countries; (3) The diverse interactions between the agents; and (4) diverse responses to those interactions in a well-mixed population. As one of the results, we introduced an index of overall cooperation for each of the 22 countries, which was validated against cultural, economic, and sustainability indicators (HDI, dimensions of national culture, and Environment Performance Index). It was associated with higher human development, higher individualism, lower power distance, and better environmental performance. The findings illustrate how individual differences in TP can be simulated to predict the ways people in different countries solve the personal vs. common gain dilemma in the global limited-resource situation. This interdisciplinary approach to social simulation can be adopted to explain the possible causes of global environmental issues

  16. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  17. Journalists' information needs, seeking behavior, and its determinants on social media

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili, Omid; Sanderson, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We describe the results of a qualitative study on journalists' information seeking behavior on social media. Based on interviews with eleven journalists along with a study of a set of university level journalism modules, we determined the categories of information need types that lead journalists to social media. We also determined the ways that social media is exploited as a tool to satisfy information needs and to define influential factors, which impacted on journalists' information seekin...

  18. How Supply Chain Governance Influences Information Sharing Behaviors: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Tobias;Birth, Olga;Goswami, Suparna;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Information sharing within the supply chain is an important factor for effective supply chain management. Having access to the right information allows firms to coordinate activities and collaboratively manage supply chains to realize higher performance. Despite this, there exists significant difference in information sharing behaviors among supply chain members. Using an exploratory case study approach, this research identifies the factors that determine differences in information sharing. C...

  19. MULTIPLE HUMAN TRACKING IN COMPLEX SITUATION BY DATA ASSIMILATION WITH PEDESTRIAN BEHAVIOR MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nakanishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A new method of multiple human tracking is proposed. The key concept is that to assume a tracking process as a data assimilation process. Despite the importance of understanding pedestrian behavior in public space with regard to achieving more sophisticated space design and flow control, automatic human tracking in complex situation is still challenging when people move close to each other or are occluded by others. For this difficulty, we stochastically combine existing tracking method by image processing with simulation models of walking behavior. We describe a system in a form of general state space model and define the components of the model according to the review on related works. Then we apply the proposed method to the data acquired at the ticket gate of the railway station. We show the high performance of the method, as well as compare the result with other model to present the advantage of integrating the behavior model to the tracking method. We also show the method's ability to acquire passenger flow information such as ticket gate choice and OD data automatically from the tracking result.

  20. Designing and Implementing an Information Literacy Course in the Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Daugman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As instructors in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library information literacy program at Wake Forest University, we are expanding beyond our introductory course model to teach discipline-specific information literacy courses. Z. Smith Reynolds Library initiated an information literacy program in 2002 and currently offers a 1-credit elective, taught in 15 sections per semester. Advanced discipline-specific courses were added in Spring 2008, and include courses in the social sciences, business and economics, and the sciences. As the subject specialists for art, dance, literature, music, religion and theatre, we were charged with creating a credit-bearing arts and humanities information literacy course, LIB250: Humanities Research Sources and Strategies. In addition to our arts and humanities course content and methodologies, we incorporated web2.0 technologies throughout course design and delivery in order to streamline planning and to facilitate student engagement. In our course preparation, we utilized Google Docs for collaborative brainstorming, planning, organization and self-evaluation. Our students used Google Docs for submitting their course assignments, which included a faculty or practitioner interview and the final project for the course. The project was an annotated bibliography that extended beyond books and journal articles to include additional elements such as scholarly associations, core journals, primary sources, and major special collections related to their topics. A blog was used for the course syllabus, incorporating assignment information and supplementary resources for class topics; student blogging included reflection and feedback on each lecture as well as application of class content to their research topics. A visit to the Library's Rare Books Reading Room exposed the students to the Library's unique holdings and introduced them to rare and archival resources at other libraries. Our article presents this process from start to

  1. Research Students in the Electronic Age: Impacts of Changing Information Behavior on Information Literacy Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty Williamson

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Because of the rapid uptake of information and communication technology (ICT, understanding the ways in which information seeking has changed over the past decade is crucial to gaining a picture of how information literacy needs may also be changing in the electronic age. This qualitative research took an interpretivist/ constructivist approach in examining the ways in which access to electronic information-seeking affects the information literacy needs of 15 research students in an Australian university setting. An ethnographic technique, the interview, was used for the data collection. Three particular areas, related to information seeking and use, were selected: (1 information source use because of the burgeoning availability of electronic sources; (2 knowing when to stop collecting information because the advent of the Internet has the consequence of greater quantities of information being more easily available than was the case in the past; and 3 managing information following its collection, which has also been affected by the vast amount of information that is now accessible. The conclusion points to enhanced roles for both supervisors and academic librarians, with the need for the latter to become perceived as educators within their university communities.

  2. Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellman, Sam; Silvervarg, Annika; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior - (2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  3. State of the art/science: Visual methods and information behavior research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartel, Jenna; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Lundh, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This panel reports on methodological innovation now underway as information behavior scholars begin to experiment with visual methods. The session launches with a succinct introduction to visual methods by Jenna Hartel and then showcases three exemplar visual research designs. First, Dianne...... will have gained: knowledge of the state of the art/science of visual methods in information behavior research; an appreciation for the richness the approach brings to the specialty; and a platform to take new visual research designs forward....... Sonnenwald presents the "information horizon interview" (1999, 2005), the singular visual method native to the information behavior community. Second, Anna Lundh (2010) describes her techniques for capturing and analyzing primary school children's information activities utilizing video recordings. Third...

  4. Understanding the Information Requirements of Arts and Humanities Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agiatis Benardou

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on research of scholarly research practices and requirements conducted in the context of the Preparing DARIAH European e-Infrastructures project, with a view to ensuring current and future fitness for purpose of the planned digital infrastructure, services and tools. It summarises the findings of earlier research, primarily from the field of human information behaviour as applied in scholarly work, it presents a conceptual perspective informed by cultural-historical activity theory, it introduces briefly a formal conceptual model for scholarly research activity compliant with CIDOC CRM, it describes the plan of work and methodology of an empirical research project based on open-questionnaire interviews with arts and humanities researchers, and presents illustrative examples of segmentation, tagging and initial conceptual analysis of the empirical evidence. Finally, it presents plans for future work, consisting, firstly, of a comprehensive re-analysis of interview segments within the framework of the scholarly research activity model, and, secondly, of the integration of this analysis with the extended digital curation process model we presented in earlier work.

  5. A study on how organizational citizenship behavior influences on human resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa mahouti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been some evidences to believe that organizational citizenship behavior (OCB could significantly influence on the success of organizations. This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of OCB on human resource management. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some 260 experts who worked for an Iranian auto industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, examines three hypotheses including the relationship between conscientiousness and information quality, courtesy and work efficiency and between civic virtue and work efficiency. Cronbach alphas for Courtesy, Civic virtue and Information Quality are calculated as 0.75, 0.76 and 0.81, respectively. Using structural equation modeling, the study has confirmed existence of positive and meaningful relationships among various components of the survey, which confirms all three hypotheses of the survey.

  6. Modeling Humans as Reinforcement Learners: How to Predict Human Behavior in Multi-Stage Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ritchie; Wolpert, David H.; Backhaus, Scott; Bent, Russell; Bono, James; Tracey, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel framework for modeling interacting humans in a multi-stage game environment by combining concepts from game theory and reinforcement learning. The proposed model has the following desirable characteristics: (1) Bounded rational players, (2) strategic (i.e., players account for one anothers reward functions), and (3) is computationally feasible even on moderately large real-world systems. To do this we extend level-K reasoning to policy space to, for the first time, be able to handle multiple time steps. This allows us to decompose the problem into a series of smaller ones where we can apply standard reinforcement learning algorithms. We investigate these ideas in a cyber-battle scenario over a smart power grid and discuss the relationship between the behavior predicted by our model and what one might expect of real human defenders and attackers.

  7. An empirically informed critique of Habermas' argument from human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    In a near-future world of bionics and biotechnology, the main ethical and political issue will be the definition of who we are. Could biomedical enhancements transform us to such an extent that we would be other than human? Habermas argues that any genetic enhancement intervention that could potentially alter 'human nature' should be morally prohibited since it alters the child's nature or the very essence that makes the child who he is. This practice also commits the child to a specific life project or, in any case, it puts specific restrictions on his freedom to choose a life of his own. Ultimately, genetic enhancement jeopardizes the very foundations of moral equality. I contend that Habermas' argument is based either on a series of presuppositions that imply a gross misunderstanding of evolution or the relevant factual information concerning the action we are about to morally assess is not empirically supported. Hence, the argument from human nature is based on a series of false or problematic assumptions, and, as such, it fails to play the normative role intended by Habermas.

  8. Middle-School Students' Online Information Problem Solving Behaviors on the Information Retrieval Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Fen; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chuang, Fu-Tai; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2014-01-01

    With the near-overload of online information, it is necessary to equip our students with the skills necessary to deal with Information Problem Solving (IPS). This study also intended to help students develop major IPS strategies with the assistance of an instructor's scaffolding in a designed IPS course as well as on an Online Information…

  9. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchen Wu

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  10. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchen; Wang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP) model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  11. Sexual Knowledge, Behavior and Sources of Information among Deaf and Hard of Hearing College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jennifer M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of a survey given to 134 deaf and hard-of-hearing college students indicated that these students were not well informed about sexual health and sexuality issues, were engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors, and relied primarily on peers for sexual health information. The need for psychometrically sound measures for this topic and…

  12. Information-Seeking Behavior in Generation Y Students: Motivation, Critical Thinking, and Learning Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Research in information-seeking behavior, motivation, critical thinking, and learning theory was explored and compared in a search for possible motivating factors behind students' dependence on television and the Internet for their information needs. The research indicates that only a very small percentage of the general population prefer to learn…

  13. Commuters and traffic information : A revealed preference study on route choice behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraes Ramos, G.; Frejinger, E.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    The past decades have seen an increased interest in the role of information to alleviate congestion. The relationship between travelers’ behavior and information, however, is not clear yet and the need of more experiments has been claimed in the literature. From May 9th, 2011 to July 12th, 2011 a

  14. The impact of the introduction and use of an informational website on offline customer buying behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, J. E. M.; Leeflang, P. S. H.; Teerling, M. L.; Huizingh, K. R. E.

    Do customers increase or decrease their spending in response to the introduction of an informational website? To answer this question, this study considers the effects of the introduction and use of an informational website by a large national retailer on offline customer buying behavior. More

  15. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  16. Ontology-based Deep Learning for Human Behavior Prediction with Explanations in Health Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhathai; Dou, Dejing; Wang, Hao; Kil, David; Piniewski, Brigitte

    2017-04-01

    Human behavior modeling is a key component in application domains such as healthcare and social behavior research. In addition to accurate prediction, having the capacity to understand the roles of human behavior determinants and to provide explanations for the predicted behaviors is also important. Having this capacity increases trust in the systems and the likelihood that the systems actually will be adopted, thus driving engagement and loyalty. However, most prediction models do not provide explanations for the behaviors they predict. In this paper, we study the research problem, human behavior prediction with explanations, for healthcare intervention systems in health social networks. We propose an ontology-based deep learning model (ORBM+) for human behavior prediction over undirected and nodes-attributed graphs. We first propose a bottom-up algorithm to learn the user representation from health ontologies. Then the user representation is utilized to incorporate self-motivation, social influences, and environmental events together in a human behavior prediction model, which extends a well-known deep learning method, the Restricted Boltzmann Machine. ORBM+ not only predicts human behaviors accurately, but also, it generates explanations for each predicted behavior. Experiments conducted on both real and synthetic health social networks have shown the tremendous effectiveness of our approach compared with conventional methods.

  17. Theories for practitioners: two frameworks for studying consumer health information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L M; Pettigrew, K E

    1999-10-01

    Consumer health information studies in library and information science (LIS) are typically not grounded within a theoretical framework. This article explains the importance of theory to LIS research in general, and the specific value of using theories from other disciplines to study consumers' health information-seeking behavior. The argument is supported with two examples: Miller's psychological theory of blunting and monitoring behavior and Granovetter's sociological theory of the strength of weak ties. These theories can be applied by practitioner-researchers to investigate a variety of research problems.

  18. Human Behavior Representation in Constructive Simulation (La representation du comportement humain dans la simulation constructive)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis , persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Human_behavior. Human Behavior...elemental odor mixture perception can arise from local inhibition. Journal of Computational Neuroscience , 16(1), 39-47. Love, B. C. (2005). In vivo or

  19. The Impact of a College Course in Human Sexuality upon Sexual Attitudes and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godow, Annette G.; LaFave, Francis E.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a study measuring 203 students' attitude and behavior changes as a result of college human sexuality and social psychology courses. Findings showed significant attitude change and little behavior change, especially for human sexuality students. Conclusions are that a college sexuality course causes more liberal attitudes. (CK)

  20. Psychometric assessment of human life history predicts health related behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is a powerful framework that can help promote understanding of variation in health-related behavioral patterns and why they vary consistent with environmental conditions. An organism's life history reflects tradeoffs made in the allocation of effort towards specific aspects of survival and reproduction across the lifespan. This study examines the relationship between psychological indicators of life history strategy and health related behaviors in a demographically representative sample in the Midwestern USA. Slower life histories predicted higher levels of health promoting behaviors and lower levels of health adverse behaviors, even when controlling for relevant socio-demographic factors. The analyses provide a strong test of the hypothesized relationship between life history and health behavior indicators, as life history variation co-varies with these socio-demographic factors. Traditional public health efforts may be reaching their limits of effectiveness in encouraging health-promoting behaviors. Integrating an evolutionary framework may revitalize behavioral health promotion efforts.

  1. Physician behaviors to promote informed decisions for prostate cancer screening: a National Research Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kallen, Michael A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Galliher, James M; Swank, Paul R; Chan, Evelyn C Y; Volk, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines for prostate cancer screening (PCS) advise physicians to discuss the potential harms and benefits of screening. However, there is a lack of training programs for informed decision-making (IDM), and it is unknown which IDM behaviors physicians have the most difficulty performing. Identifying difficult behaviors can help tailor training programs. In the context of developing a physician-IDM program for PCS, we aimed to describe physicians' use of nine key IDM behaviors for the PCS discussion and to examine the relation between the behaviors and physician characteristics. A cross-sectional sample of The American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network completed surveys about their behavior regarding PCS (N = 246; response rate = 58%). The surveys included nine physician key IDM behaviors for PCS and a single-item question describing their general practice style for PCS. The most common IDM behavior was to invite men to ask questions. The two least common reported behaviors concerned patients uncertain about screening (i.e., arrange follow-up and provide additional information for undecided men). Physicians reported difficulty with these two behaviors regardless whether they reported to discuss or not to discuss PCS with patients. Reported use of key IDM behaviors was associated with a general practice style for PCS and being affiliated with a residency-training program. Physician training programs for IDM should include physician skills to address the needs of patients uncertain about screening. Future research should determine if actual behavior is associated with self-reported behavior for the PCS discussion.

  2. Factors Influencing Team Behaviors in Surgery: A Qualitative Study to Inform Teamwork Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Stone, Juliana; Sundt, Thoralf; Wright, Cameron; Gino, Francesca; Singer, Sara

    2018-02-07

    Surgical excellence demands teamwork. Poor team behaviors negatively affect team performance and are associated with adverse events and worse outcomes. Interventions to improve surgical teamwork focusing on frontline team members' nontechnical skills have proliferated but shown mixed results. Literature on teamwork in organizations suggests that team behaviors are also contingent on psycho-social, cultural and organizational factors. This study examines factors influencing surgical team behaviors in order to inform more contextually sensitive and effective approaches to optimizing surgical teamwork. Qualitative study of cardiac surgical teams in a large US teaching hospital included 34 semi-structured interviews. Thematic network analysis was used to examine perceptions of ideal teamwork and factors influencing team behaviors in the OR. Perceptions of ideal teamwork were largely shared, but team members held discrepant views of which team and leadership behaviors enhanced or undermined teamwork. Other factors impacting team behaviors related to: local organizational culture, including management of staff behavior; variable case demands and team members' technical competence; fitness of organizational structures and processes to support teamwork. These factors affected perceptions of what constituted optimal interpersonal and team behaviors in the OR. Team behaviors are contextually contingent and organizationally determined, and beliefs about optimal behaviors are not necessarily shared. Interventions to optimize surgical teamwork requires establishing consensus regarding best practice, ability to adapt as circumstances require, and organizational commitment to addressing contextual factors that impact teams. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Health Literacy and Social Capital on Health Information Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.

  4. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2016-03-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Associations between media use and health information-seeking behavior on vaccinations in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Jung, Minsoo

    2017-09-11

    Although vaccinations are critical for preventing emerging infectious diseases, scant research has been conducted on risk communication. With socio-economic characteristics, health behavior, and underlying diseases under control, we investigated associations between media use, health information-seeking behavior, health information type, and vaccination in the population. This study relied on a national survey of Korean adults (n = 1367). Participants were adult males and females age 20 and older. Web and face-to-face surveys were conducted throughout July 2014. The main outcome was vaccination (categorized as yes or no). Independent variables were time spent on media, frequency of health information-seeking behavior, and types of health information sought. Controlling for co-variates, logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors that influence Korean adults being vaccinated. Results revealed that accessible information about emerging infectious diseases, listening to the radio, and reading the newspaper were associated with increased odds of being vaccinated. Active seeking health information as well as being female and of higher socio-economic status were positively correlated with Korean adults being vaccinated. It is critical to promote health information-seeking behavior and use diverse media channels to increase acceptance and awareness of emerging infectious diseases and vaccinations. Because there are differences in vaccination awareness depending on social class, it is critical to reduce communication inequality, strengthen accessibility to vaccinations, and devise appropriate risk communication strategies that ensure Korean adults receive vaccinations.

  6. Behavior of informational visually impaired students of the Universidade Federal da Paraíba - UFPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hamad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The information retrieval process it relates with the individual's needs and how he search for the information necessary to make up their cognitive gap, seizing information and transforming it into knowledge, involving intellectual skills such as decoding and interpretation, allowing to establish a relationship between existing knowledge and through the new information’s. Objective: Analyze the information behavior of visually disabitily students of the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB assisted by the Center for Special Education (NEDESP. Methodology: This is a descriptive research with quantitative and qualitative approach. It was used as an instrument for data collection a questionnaire applied with ten users that has visually disability. The model of information seeking behavior developed by David Ellis guided the research. Results: The results shows that the main needs of search and information are associated with the routine activities of the university, such as seminars, proofs and articles. In the seek process, they use the internet as their main source of information. The suitability of the information with the user's needs is realized by searching for trusted sources, trust in friends, filtering the relevant information, dissemination of information by several people and consolidating information. The major difficulties are the lack of accessibility in websites internet and the absence of materials available in Braille. Conclusions: In this way, it is necessary to take corrective, preventive and assistive measures by the University, to suply the informational gaps and adapt the real needs of the visually disability.

  7. Pressure, Dysfunctional Behavior, Fraud Detection and Role of Information Technology in the Audit Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of information technology and pressure such as time budget and task complexity on dysfunctional audit behavior. This study tests whether dysfunctional audit behavior affects fraud detection. Data were gathered from 81 auditors in Jakarta and were analyzed using structure equation model (SEM. The results explain that pressure (time budget and complexity task have some impacts on dysfunctional audit behavior while information technology does not affect dysfunctional audit behavior. These results also indicate that dysfunctional audit behavior has an adverse effect on fraud detection. Job-related stress framework explains the conditions that make stress (stressors will affect to individual psychology, physics, and behavior (strains and make some result (outcome. Pressure (time budget and complexity task is the condition that makes both positive and negative effect on individual behavior. Pressure can make individuals behave dysfunctional or motivate them to give their best shot even though their work uses a lot of energy and mind to solve the problems. Raising dysfunctional audit behavior will reduce auditor’s ability to identify material misstatement in the financial statement.

  8. You Look Human, But Act Like a Machine: Agent Appearance and Behavior Modulate Different Aspects of Human-Robot Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubshait, Abdulaziz; Wiese, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Gaze following occurs automatically in social interactions, but the degree to which gaze is followed depends on whether an agent is perceived to have a mind, making its behavior socially more relevant for the interaction. Mind perception also modulates the attitudes we have toward others, and determines the degree of empathy, prosociality, and morality invested in social interactions. Seeing mind in others is not exclusive to human agents, but mind can also be ascribed to non-human agents like robots, as long as their appearance and/or behavior allows them to be perceived as intentional beings. Previous studies have shown that human appearance and reliable behavior induce mind perception to robot agents, and positively affect attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. What has not been investigated so far is whether different triggers of mind perception have an independent or interactive effect on attitudes and performance in human-robot interaction. We examine this question by manipulating agent appearance (human vs. robot) and behavior (reliable vs. random) within the same paradigm and examine how congruent (human/reliable vs. robot/random) versus incongruent (human/random vs. robot/reliable) combinations of these triggers affect performance (i.e., gaze following) and attitudes (i.e., agent ratings) in human-robot interaction. The results show that both appearance and behavior affect human-robot interaction but that the two triggers seem to operate in isolation, with appearance more strongly impacting attitudes, and behavior more strongly affecting performance. The implications of these findings for human-robot interaction are discussed.

  9. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  10. Human-Environment System Knowledge: A Correlate of Pro-Environmental Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Díaz-Siefer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An effective program of environmental education requires the identification of the knowledge that must be imparted. This paper compares the effects of human-environment system knowledge (i.e., knowledge related to environmental problems caused by humans and environmental action knowledge (i.e., knowledge of possible courses of action to reduce human impact on the environment on pro-environmental behavior. Environmental knowledge and pro-environmental behavior of 950 Chilean adults were assessed with a survey. Both types of knowledge were related to pro-environmental behavior (r = 0.25 and r = 0.22, respectively, p < 0.001. These results seem to contradict previous studies that found that system knowledge is not directly related to pro-environmental behavior. However, existing scales of environmental system knowledge are behavioral-distant due to their greater number of general geography knowledge items. In contrast, our human-environmental system knowledge scale focuses on understanding global environmental problems and, therefore, can be expected to relate more closely to pro-environmental behavior. To promote pro-environmental behavior, we suggest teaching more human-environment system knowledge and environmental action knowledge. Since different forms of environmental knowledge must work together in a convergent manner in order to foster pro-environmental behavior, the present study represents an important contribution by showing that greater human-environment system knowledge is correlated with pro-environmental behavior.

  11. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk and screening: A meta-narrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Reidy, Mary; Hegarty, Josephine; O'Mahony, Mairin; Murphy, Mike; Von Wagner, Christian; Drummond, Frances J

    2017-07-20

    Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviors in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Education Full Text, and ERIC were systematically searched for studies published in English between January 1, 2006 and May 30, 2016. A total of 4117 titles were identified; of which, 31 studies were included (21 qualitative studies, 9 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed-methods study). The methodological quality of the studies was appraised by using different tools. Most studies focused on screening for prostate (n = 18) and colorectal cancer (n = 7). Most men were passive information-gatherers rather than active information-seekers. Key sources of information included the Internet for active information-seekers and health care professionals for passive information-gatherers. Barriers to information-seeking included information overload, embarrassment, and fear. Low literacy and health literacy levels were addressed in 3 studies and were identified as impediments to active information-seeking. Facilitators to information-seeking included family support, media, celebrity endorsements, and targeted information. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk reduction, prevention, and screening is influenced by several factors. This necessitates targeted interventions aimed at raising awareness of cancer prevention and screening, while accounting for men's informational needs, preferred learning strategies, and literacy levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Case-Based Reasoning for Human Behavior Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-16

    Figures Figure 1. The Case Based Reasoning cycle ( Aamodt and Plaza 1994) .........................................................................7...understanding Soar code written by others” ( Aamodt and Plaza 1994; 6 Cohen, Ritter et al. 2005). We have seen that OneSAF behavior developers typically...Reasoning cycle ( Aamodt and Plaza 1994) 7 2.4 Behavior Design Environments In order to effectively apply CBD principles to behavior design, we sought

  13. Measuring consumers' information acquisition and decision behavior with the computer-based information-display-matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hamm, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The former judgement that the process-tracing method information-display-matrix (IDM) lacks external validity should be questioned in the light of technical advances and changing consumer behaviour. The new research environment offers possibilities for a close-to-realistic refinement and further...... development of the method: starting points are choice of location, increased relevance of choice, individual adjustment of task structure, simplified navigation and realistic layout. Used in multi-measurement-approaches, the IDM can provide detailed background information about consumer information behaviour...... prior to decisions reached in interviews or choice experiments. The contribution introduces to the method and its´ development, use and (dis-)advantages. Results of a survey illustrate the options for analysis and indicate that consumer behaviour in the IDM, compared to face-to-face-interviews, is less...

  14. Documenting Cancer Information Seeking Behavior and Risk Perception in the Hualapai Indian Community to Inform a Community Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Cordova-Marks, Felina; Susanyatame, Gloria; Teufel-Shone, Louis; Irwin, Sandra L

    2015-10-01

    Cancer incidence among American Indians (AIs) is low, yet their 5-year relative survival rate is the second lowest of all U.S. populations. Culturally relevant cancer prevention education is key to achieve health equity. This collaborative project of the Hualapai Tribe and University of Arizona modified the National Cancer Institute's 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) to yield a more culturally relevant cancer information survey to document the health seeking behaviors and perceptions of cancer risks and preventability of AI adults residing in the Hualapai Indian community. A team of health care providers, educators and cancer survivors (six native and three non-natives) completed the adaptation. Four trained native surveyors administered the survey using a random household survey design. The Hualapai HINTS was well accepted (information and communication with health care professionals (77.1% preference; 57.4% trust) and at workshops (75.2% preference; 45.5% trust). Respondents were aware of some health behaviors associated with a reduced cancer risk, e.g., avoid tobacco use and need for screening. Respondents were less well informed about the role of diet and exercise. These findings were used to inform local cancer prevention education efforts and to develop a series of monthly workshops that engaged local health professionals to reinforce and discuss pathways of the primary role of lifestyle related factors, specifically diet and exercise in reducing cancer risk.

  15. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Universal behavior of the Shannon mutual information of critical quantum chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz, F C; Rajabpour, M A

    2013-07-05

    We consider the Shannon mutual information of subsystems of critical quantum chains in their ground states. Our results indicate a universal leading behavior for large subsystem sizes. Moreover, as happens with the entanglement entropy, its finite-size behavior yields the conformal anomaly c of the underlying conformal field theory governing the long-distance physics of the quantum chain. We study analytically a chain of coupled harmonic oscillators and numerically the Q-state Potts models (Q=2, 3, and 4), the XXZ quantum chain, and the spin-1 Fateev-Zamolodchikov model. The Shannon mutual information is a quantity easily computed, and our results indicate that for relatively small lattice sizes, its finite-size behavior already detects the universality class of quantum critical behavior.

  17. Understanding travel information search behaviors by levels of information technology adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghye Angela Kah; Christine A. Vogt; Kelly MacKay

    2007-01-01

    Although the signifi cance of the Internet has been widely discussed in previous studies, the research of e-commerce has focused primarily on organizational and business perspectives (Sigala 2004). The growing number of Internet users allows a better understanding of online tourists who seek travel information and book or purchase travel products. The levels of...

  18. Predictors of online health information seeking behavior: Changes between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2016-12-01

    The Internet has become an important and preferred source of health information. Although the literature has highlighted several key predictors that influence an individual's online health information seeking behavior, insufficient attention has been paid to the changes in the predictors' roles and effects over time. This study explores and compares the effects that specific predictors had on online health information seeking behavior over a period of 10 years by integrating and analyzing two Pew datasets collected in 2002 and 2012. Hierarchical regression analyses indicate that socio-demographic factors and overall health condition are significant predictors that had an increasing impact on online health information seeking behavior. However, the impact of Internet usage decreased significantly from 2002 to 2012. A comparison across time contributes to a vertical understanding of the changes in online health information seeking behavior and its predictors and helps health professionals and researchers tailor their informational interventions to meet the up-to-date needs and preferences of users. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hidayat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism. Key words: Student motivation, critical thinking, academic verification, information-seeking behavior, digital generation.

  20. Assessing health consumerism on the Web: a demographic profile of information-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah

    2006-08-01

    The growing diversity of the online health information community is increasingly cited as a limiting factor related to the potential of the Internet as an effective health communication channel and information resource. Public-access Internet portals and decreasing costs of personal computers have created a consensus that unequal access to information, or a "Digital Divide," presents a like problem specific to health care consumers. Access to information, however, is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed U.S. National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) and Health Architecture initiatives. To date little research has been done to differentiate the types of health information sought on the Web by different subgroups, linking user characteristics and health-seeking behaviors. Data from a study of consumer Web search activity in a post-intervention era serves as a natural experiment, and can identify whether a "digitally underserved group" persists in the United States. Such an environment would serve to exclude traditionally underserved groups from the benefits of the planned national heath information infrastructure. This exploratory technology assessment study seeks to differentiate and delineate specific behaviors, or lack of desired behaviors, across targeted health care subgroups. Doing so allows the design of more effective strategies to promote the use of the Web as a health education and health promotion tool, under the envisioned shared decision-making, consumer-centric health information model.

  1. Behavioral ethics: how psychology influenced economics and how economics might inform psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernd Irlenbusch; Marie Claire Villeval

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This review surveys recent research developed in behavioral economics on the determinants of unethical behavior. Most recent progress has been made in three directions: the understanding of the importance of moral norms in individual decision-making, the conflicting role of opportunities provided by asymmetries of information and social preferences, and the crucial effect of rules, occupational norms and incentive schemes in the diffusion of dishonesty. The connection ...

  2. Information and Communication Technologies in Behavioral Health: A Literature Review with Recommendations for the Air Force

    OpenAIRE

    Breslau, Joshua; Engel, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic evolution in information and communication technologies (ICTs) online and on smartphones has led to rapid innovations in behavioral health care. To assist the U.S. Air Force in developing a strategy for use of ICTs, the authors reviewed the scientific literature on their use to prevent and treat behavioral health conditions, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol misuse. There is currently little scientific evidence supporting additional investment i...

  3. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  4. Industrial Buying Behavior Related to Human Resource Consulting Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Andresen, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Early B2B buying-behavior literature strongly emphasizes the rational aspects of buying behavior in B2B services. Based on a comprehensive exploratory study of Danish companies’ purchases of HR consulting services, the authors provide insights into the factors that determine how Danish companies ...

  5. Fetal behavior: Clinical and experimental research in the human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Visser, GHA

    2016-01-01

    The intrauterine environment in which we develop has an enormous impact on our physiology and behavior, displayed not only before but also after birth. Proper knowledge of normal fetal behavior, reflecting central nervous system functioning, is essential to detect and characterize the effect on

  6. Using findings in multimedia learning to inform technology-based behavioral health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C

    2013-09-01

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using technology-based behavioral health interventions to improve intervention effectiveness and to reach underserved populations. However, these interventions are rarely informed by evidence-based findings of how technology can be optimized to promote acquisition of key skills and information. At the same time, experts in multimedia learning generally do not apply their findings to health education or conduct research in clinical contexts. This paper presents an overview of some key aspects of multimedia learning research that may allow those developing health interventions to apply informational technology with the same rigor as behavioral science content. We synthesized empirical multimedia learning literature from 1992 to 2011. We identified key findings and suggested a framework for integrating technology with educational and behavioral science theory. A scientific, evidence-driven approach to developing technology-based interventions can yield greater effectiveness, improved fidelity, increased outcomes, and better client service.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE INTERNET ADDICTION ON THE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIOR OF THE POSTGRADUATE STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Garivani, Asieh; Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh

    2016-06-01

    Internet addiction is a typical use of the internet that causes the psychological, social, educational, or occupational problems for the people. Students need the internet more than other people due to their educational or research needs. The rate and type of the internet use may affect their information-seeking behavior too. This study aims to investigate the effect of the internet addiction on the information-seeking behavior of the postgraduate students. This applied study that uses the correlation method. The research population composed of 1149 postgraduate students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, of which 284 were selected using the stratified random sampling as the sample. Yang's internet addiction questionnaire and the researcher-developed questionnaire of the information-seeking behavior were used as the data collection instruments. Instrument validity was confirmed by the specialists of librarianship and medical sciences and its reliability was confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient (0.86). Research data were analyzed using the descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent-t tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, and variance analysis). Based on the findings, there was no sign of internet addiction among the 86.6% of the students. However, 13% of the students were exposed to the internet addiction and only 0.4% of internet addiction was observed among the students. There was no significant difference between the information-seeking behavior of the male and female respondents. There was no sign of the internet addiction in any dimension of the information-seeking behavior of the students. This study showed that there is no relationship between the information-seeking behavior of the students and the age and the rate of the internet use. Promoting the network infrastructures and increasing the internet speed as well as facilitating the use of electronic resources should be prioritized by

  8. Information processing across behavioral states: Modes of operation and population dynamics in rodent sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Mohammad Mahdi; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Animals live in a complex and changing environment with various degrees of behavioral demands. In rodents, the behavioral states can change from sleep and quiet wakefulness to active exploration of the environment which is often manifested by whisking and locomotion. Efficient information processing is more important in some of these behavioral states such as during episodes of sensory decision-making, and specific cortical areas are expected to receive priority of processing depending on the behavioral context. It is therefore not surprising that the behavioral state affects the responsiveness of individual cortical neurons and the dynamics of neuronal population activity. Here, we review the circuit mechanisms that determine the operating mode of the sensory cortex. We explore state modulations across multiple sensory modalities, but maintain a focus on whisker-mediated behaviors, the processing of information in the vibrissal somatosensory cortex and its transfer to higher order areas. Finally, we suggest a rodent sensory prioritization paradigm to further probe the link between behavioral state, neuronal population dynamics and coding efficiency. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Humanization Processes: A Social, Behavioral Analysis of Children's Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Robert L.; And Others

    Research and development work performed by the authors as employees of the Central Midwestern Regional Educational Laboratory is treated in this book concerning the acculturation processes through which children develop the essential human characteristics, in particular, the humane processes of humanization. The 10 chapters of the book are: 1.…

  10. Information-seeking Behavior and Information Needs in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Analyzing an Online Patient Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Jung A

    2017-07-01

    A few studies have examined the specific informational needs of the population with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The aims of this study were to describe the information-seeking behavior and information needs of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their families in Korea by analyzing messages from an online patient community. A total of 1047 messages from the question and answer forum of the "Lou Gehrig's Disease Network" (http://cafe.daum.net/alsfree) from January 2010 to September 2015 were collected. The word frequency, main questions, and asker of the messages were analyzed and coded. Terms such as "hospital," "mother," "father," "gastrostomy," and "ALS" were most frequently identified. The most commonly mentioned main topic was about disease-specific information, while the most frequent subcategory was symptoms or management of symptoms. Other prominent categories concerned information about treatment, rehabilitation, and the medical system. The people who wrote the questions were mostly the son/daughter of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their family members commonly obtained information by posting their inquiries online and have a variety of questions regarding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in this study. The findings of this study can be used as a base of information for developing educational programs and resources for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their families.

  11. A Study of Information Needs and Information Behaviors of the Primary Caregivers of Children and Adolescents with Rare Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yu Fan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare diseases by definition do not occur often and it is difficult to provide palliative care for those affected due to the lack of information and treatment for those rare diseases. The families of those with rare diseases bear a heavy burden and have a harder time than even the families of disabled people. This research’s goal is to provide the families of those with rare diseases with information on how to provide care for their family members. The study uses the qualitative research method of semi-structured interview. We interviewed 10 rare disease children and adolescents’ primary caregivers. The results of the study indicated that if no one suffers from the rare diseases in their family, primary caregivers are not aware of the rare disease information. After their initial diagnosis, the caregivers will want to know how to best care for their family member, from how best to provide supportive care to providing physical therapy, in order to improve their quality of life and prognosis. When they discover their child’s disease is incurable, primary caregivers need information about social welfare and their child’s future. The main source of medical care information is provided by hospitals and patient-support organizations. Regarding information behavior, primary caregivers employ the information which they obtain and they either check the information they obtain with a professional authority, multiple sources, or compare it with patient experience to validate if the information is accurate or not. Finally, primary caregivers are glad to share what they find with other families that have children with a rare disease. They may use different ways of sharing information such as the Internet or face to face. [Article content in Chinese

  12. The influences of immigration on health information seeking behaviors among Korean Americans and Native Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Zhou, Qiuping Pearl; Kreps, Gary; Kim, Wonsun

    2014-04-01

    Korean Americans (KAs) have low screening rates for cancer and are often not well informed about their chronic diseases. Reduced access to health-related information is one reason for gaps in knowledge and the widening health disparities among minority populations. However, little research exists about KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Guided by the Structural Influence Model, this study examines the influence of immigration status on KAs' trust in health information sources and health information seeking behaviors. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area as well as in the Gwangju metropolitan city in South Korea during 2006-2007. Two hundred and fifty-four KAs and 208 native Koreans who were 40 years of age or older completed the surveys. When comparing native Koreans to KAs, we found KAs were 3 times more likely to trust health information from newspapers or magazines (odds ratio [OR] = 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-6.54) and 11 times more likely to read the health sections of newspapers or magazines (OR = 11.35; 95% CI = 3.92-32.91) in multivariate adjusted models. However, they were less likely to look for health information from TV (OR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) than native Koreans. Our results indicate that immigration status has profound influences on KAs' health information seeking behaviors. Increasing the availability of reliable and valid health information from printed Korean language magazines or newspapers could have a positive influence on increasing awareness and promoting screening behaviors among KAs.

  13. Relationship between health literacy, health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Database Graphic User Interface correspondence with Ellis Information Seeking behavior Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Azami

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   Graphic User interface serves as a bridge between man and databases. Its primary purpose is to assist uses by establishing interaction with computer systems. Database user interface designers have seldom focused on the impact of user information seeking behaviors on the database user interface structures. Therefore, it is crucial to incorporate the user information seeking behavior within database software design as well as analyzing their impact on upgrade and optimization of user interface environment. The present study intends to determine the degree of correspondence of database interface with information seeking behavioral components of Ellis’ model. The component studied starting, chaining, browsing, differentiating, monitoring and extracting. Investigators employed direct observation method, using a checklist, in order to see how much the database interfaces support these components. Results indicated that the information seeking behavior components outlined by Ellis Model are not fully considered in database user interface design. Some of the components such as starting, chaining and differentiation were to some extent supported by some of database user interfaces studied. However elements such as browsing, monitoring and extracting have not been incorporated within the user interface structures of these databases. On the whole, the degree of correspondence and correlation of database user interfaces with Ellis information seeking components is about average. Therefore incorporating these elements in design and evaluation of user interface environment could have high impact on better optimization of database interface environment and consequently the very process of search and retrieval.

  15. Altruistic behavior and cooperation: the role of intrinsic expectation when reputational information is incomplete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellers, Jacintha; Pool, Nadia C E van der

    2010-02-16

    Altruistic behavior is known to be conditional on the level of altruism of others. However, people often have no information, or incomplete information, about the altruistic reputation of others, for example when the reputation was obtained in a different social or economic context. As a consequence, they have to estimate the other's altruistic intentions. Using an economic game, we showed that without reputational information people have intrinsic expectations about the altruistic behavior of others, which largely explained their own altruistic behavior. This implies that when no information is available, intrinsic expectations can be as powerful a driver of altruistic behavior as actual knowledge about other people's reputation. Two strategies appeared to co-exist in our study population: participants who expected others to be altruistic and acted even more altruistically themselves, while other participants had low expected altruism scores and acted even less altruistically than they expected others to do. We also found evidence that generosity in economic games translates into benefits for other social contexts: a reputation of financial generosity increased the attractiveness of partners in a social cooperative game. This result implies that in situations with incomplete information, the fitness effects of indirect reciprocity are cumulative across different social contexts.

  16. Informing others is associated with behavioral and neural signatures of value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Diana I; Zaki, Jamil; Mitchell, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    One of the many proclivities of our species is the drive to share information with others. What drives this unusual proclivity for propagating knowledge? Here, we test a common prediction made by recent theories in this domain: that individuals value opportunities to inform others. Two sets of studies supported this hypothesis. Behaviorally, individuals gave up money to inform others, even in "minimalistic" settings under which informing neither improved participants' reputation nor provided material benefits to information recipients. Neurally, opportunities to inform others engaged brain regions associated with motivation and reward, including the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that people place intrinsic value on sharing information with others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Denying humanness to others: a newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; McLatchie, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Past research has provided abundant evidence that playing violent video games increases aggressive behavior. So far, these effects have been explained mainly as the result of priming existing knowledge structures. The research reported here examined the role of denying humanness to other people in accounting for the effect that playing a violent video game has on aggressive behavior. In two experiments, we found that playing violent video games increased dehumanization, which in turn evoked aggressive behavior. Thus, it appears that video-game-induced aggressive behavior is triggered when victimizers perceive the victim to be less human.

  18. Social Annotation Valence: The Impact on Online Informed Consent Beliefs and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Martina; Shaer, Orit; Okerlund, Johanna; Westendorf, Lauren; Ball, Madeleine; Nov, Oded

    2016-07-20

    Social media, mobile and wearable technology, and connected devices have significantly expanded the opportunities for conducting biomedical research online. Electronic consent to collecting such data, however, poses new challenges when contrasted to traditional consent processes. It reduces the participant-researcher dialogue but provides an opportunity for the consent deliberation process to move from solitary to social settings. In this research, we propose that social annotations, embedded in the consent form, can help prospective participants deliberate on the research and the organization behind it in ways that traditional consent forms cannot. Furthermore, we examine the role of the comments' valence on prospective participants' beliefs and behavior. This study focuses specifically on the influence of annotations' valence on participants' perceptions and behaviors surrounding online consent for biomedical research. We hope to shed light on how social annotation can be incorporated into digitally mediated consent forms responsibly and effectively. In this controlled between-subjects experiment, participants were presented with an online consent form for a personal genomics study that contained social annotations embedded in its margins. Individuals were randomly assigned to view the consent form with positive-, negative-, or mixed-valence comments beside the text of the consent form. We compared participants' perceptions of being informed and having understood the material, their trust in the organization seeking the consent, and their actual consent across conditions. We find that comment valence has a marginally significant main effect on participants' perception of being informed (F2=2.40, P=.07); specifically, participants in the positive condition (mean 4.17, SD 0.94) felt less informed than those in the mixed condition (mean 4.50, SD 0.69, P=.09). Comment valence also had a marginal main effect on the extent to which participants reported trusting the

  19. Processing of emotional information in the human subthalamic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buot, Anne; Welter, Marie-Laure; Karachi, Carine; Pochon, Jean-Baptiste; Bardinet, Eric; Yelnik, Jérôme; Mallet, Luc

    2013-12-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an efficient target for treating patients with Parkinson's disease as well as patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using high frequency stimulation (HFS). In both Parkinson's disease and OCD patients, STN-HFS can trigger abnormal behaviours, such as hypomania and impulsivity. To investigate if this structure processes emotional information, and whether it depends on motor demands, we recorded subthalamic local field potentials in 16 patients with Parkinson's disease using deep brain stimulation electrodes. Recordings were made with and without dopaminergic treatment while patients performed an emotional categorisation paradigm in which the response varied according to stimulus valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral) and to the instruction given (motor, non-motor and passive). Pleasant, unpleasant and neutral stimuli evoked an event related potential (ERP). Without dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly larger for unpleasant compared with neutral pictures, whatever the response triggered by the stimuli; and the magnitude of this effect was maximal in the ventral part of the STN. No significant difference in ERP amplitude was observed for pleasant pictures. With dopamine medication, ERP amplitudes were significantly increased for pleasant compared with neutral pictures whatever the response triggered by the stimuli, while ERP amplitudes to unpleasant pictures were not modified. These results demonstrate that the ventral part of the STN processes the emotional valence of stimuli independently of the motor context and that dopamine enhances processing of pleasant information. These findings confirm the specific involvement of the STN in emotional processes in human, which may underlie the behavioural changes observed in patients with deep brain stimulation.

  20. Society, sex, and STIs: human behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases and their agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmias, Susa Beckman; Nahmias, Daniella

    2011-08-01

    The last few decades have provided new perspectives on the increasingly complex interrelationships between the evolutionary epidemiology of STDs and their agents, human sexuality, and economic, social, cultural, and technological developments. Rapidly emerging HIV/AIDS, globalization, migration, and information technology are some factors that stress the importance of focusing on how old and new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are spread, both in and between networks and populations. This review of determinants of STI transmission emphasizes their impact on disease prevalence and transmission, as well as their potential for affecting the agents themselves--directly or indirectly. Interventions aiming to control the spread of STIs and HIV on the different levels of society need to be adapted to the specific environment and need to integrate social structures, such as economic and gender inequality and mobility, as well as the great variability and complexity of sexual behavior. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  2. Human Topological Task Adapted for Rats: Spatial Information Processes of the Parietal Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.; Howard, Brian P.; Hunsaker, Michael R.; Kesner, Raymond P.

    2008-01-01

    Human research has shown that lesions of the parietal cortex disrupt spatial information processing, specifically topological information. Similar findings have been found in nonhumans. It has been difficult to determine homologies between human and non-human mnemonic mechanisms for spatial information processing because methodologies and neuropathology differ. The first objective of the present study was to adapt a previously established human task for rats. The second objective was to bette...

  3. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk and screening: A meta-narrative systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Saab, Mohamad M.; Reidy, Mary; Hegarty, Josephine; O'Mahony, Mairin; Murphy, Mike; von Wagner, Christian; Drummond, Frances J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviors in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES,...

  4. Explanations or advice: The impact of financial literacy on information acquisition behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines individual decision making in the fi eld of personal finance. How do people arrive at a financial decision? A laboratory experiment investigates the way external information is integrated into the decision making process. The objective is to explore the link between financial literacy and information acquisition behavior. The results show that participants with low financial literacy generally try to compensate for their low decision-specific knowledge with a higher...

  5. Human papillomavirus (HPV) information needs: a theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Laura A V; Wardle, Jane; Grant, Nina; Waller, Jo

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and vaccination in the UK, health professionals will start to receive questions about the virus from their patients. This study aimed to identify the key questions about HPV that British women will ask when considering having an HPV test or vaccination. Face-to-face interviews were carried out with 21 women to discover what they wanted to know about HPV. A thematic framework approach was used to analyse the data and identify key themes in women's HPV knowledge requirements. Women's questions about HPV fell into six areas: identity (e.g. What are the symptoms?), cause (e.g. How do you get HPV?), timeline (e.g. How long does it last?), consequences (e.g. Does it always cause cervical cancer?) and control-cure (e.g. Can you prevent infection?). In addition, they asked procedural questions about testing and vaccination (e.g. Where do I get an HPV test?). These mapped well onto the dimensions identified in Leventhal's description of lay models of illness, called the 'Common Sense Model' (CSM). These results indicated that the majority of the questions women asked about HPV fitted well into the CSM, which therefore provides a structure for women's information needs. The findings could help health professionals understand what questions they may be expected to answer. Framing educational materials using the CSM themes may also help health educators achieve a good fit with what the public want to know.

  6. A Function-Behavior-State Approach to Designing Human Machine Interface for Nuclear Power Plant Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhang, W. J.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents an approach to human-machine interface design for control room operators of nuclear power plants. The first step in designing an interface for a particular application is to determine information content that needs to be displayed. The design methodology for this step is called the interface design framework (called framework ). Several frameworks have been proposed for applications at varying levels, including process plants. However, none is based on the design and manufacture of a plant system for which the interface is designed. This paper presents an interface design framework which originates from design theory and methodology for general technical systems. Specifically, the framework is based on a set of core concepts of a function-behavior-state model originally proposed by the artificial intelligence research community and widely applied in the design research community. Benefits of this new framework include the provision of a model-based fault diagnosis facility, and the seamless integration of the design (manufacture, maintenance) of plants and the design of human-machine interfaces. The missing linkage between design and operation of a plant was one of the causes of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor incident. A simulated plant system is presented to explain how to apply this framework in designing an interface. The resulting human-machine interface is discussed; specifically, several fault diagnosis examples are elaborated to demonstrate how this interface could support operators' fault diagnosis in an unanticipated situation.

  7. Robotic Fish to Aid Animal Behavior Studies and Informal Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phamduy, Paul

    The application of robotic fish in the fields of animal behavior and informal science learning are new and relatively untapped. In the context of animal behavior studies, robotic fish offers a consistent and customizable stimulus that could contribute to dissect the determinants of social behavior. In the realm of informal science learning, robotic fish are gaining momentum for the possibility of educating the general public simultaneously on fish physiology and underwater robotics. In this dissertation, the design and development of a number of robotic fish platforms and prototypes and their application in animal behavioral studies and informal science learning settings are presented. Robotic platforms for animal behavioral studies focused on the utilization replica or same scale prototypes. A novel robotic fish platform, featuring a three-dimensional swimming multi-linked robotic fish, was developed with three control modes varying in the level of robot autonomy offered. This platform was deployed at numerous science festivals and science centers, to obtain data on visitor engagement and experience.

  8. Identifying Key Elements to Inform the Development of an HIV Health Behavior Maintenance Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Stephen J; Feldman, Matthew B; Raker, Amanda R; Irvine, Mary K

    2018-01-01

    To collect information that will inform the development of an intervention to support the maintenance of HIV-related health-promoting behaviors. Focused, in-depth individual and group interviews. The New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) and DOHMH-funded community-based organizations that primarily serve low-income people living with HIV within the five boroughs of NYC. A total of 42 individuals who had participated in The Positive Life Workshop-an HIV self-management intervention adapted and implemented by the NYC DOHMH. Purposive sampling was used to recruit study participants. Five 60- to 90-minute focus groups (n = 38) and 4 individual interviews were conducted to assess motivations for and barriers to maintaining HIV-related health-promoting behaviors and to elicit feedback on the content and format for the proposed maintenance intervention. Thematic analysis was used to summarize the data. Participants reported that relationships with family, a responsibility to protect others from HIV, and faith/spirituality supported the maintenance of health-promoting behaviors. Barriers to behavior maintenance included substance use and mental health issues. Meeting in small groups was also highlighted as a motivator to sustaining health behaviors, particularly in decreasing isolation and receiving affirmation from others. Participants identified several factors that could be incorporated into an intervention to support HIV-related health-promoting behavior maintenance that could supplement existing HIV self-management interventions.

  9. Formal and informal sex education as determinants of premarital sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, G B

    1976-01-01

    Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the subject of much speculation but which have received little attention by researchers. The purpose of this study was to investigate--through the use of respondent reports--how formal and informal sex education influences premarital sexual behavior during college. A national probability sample of 1177 college students was studied using face-to-face interviews with approximately equal numbers of males and females. These interviews, which were conducted for the Institute for Sex Research, included questions about past and present sexual involvement and other attitudinal, behavioral and background variables. Accordingly, the data about sexual behavior and attitudes are based on the interviewees' self-reports. Indices were created which operationalized independent variables such as familial sexual conservatism, exposure to eroticism, perceived sex knowledge, and sexual exposure and assault during childhood and adolescence. Individual items reflecting childhood sex play, masturbation, current religiosity, religiosity while growing up, social class, sources of sex information, sex education in classrooms, and high school and college dating were used. The dependent variable, premarital sociosexual involvement, is a composite measure of incidence and prevalence of premarital heterosexual involvement which meets Guttman scaling criteria. An Automatic Interaction Detector analysis was used to determine the relative influences of reported sexualization variables on premarital sexual behavior. Major findings can be summarized as follows: Heterosexual behavior progresses in stepwise fashion from elementary to advanced levels of involvement

  10. Peak Temperature Reduction by Physical Information Driven Behavioral Synthesis with Resource Usage Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junbo; Zhou, Qiang; Qu, Gang; Bian, Jinian

    High temperature adversely impacts on circuit's reliability, performance, and leakage power. During behavioral synthesis, both resource usage allocation and resource binding influence thermal profile. Current thermal-aware behavioral syntheses do not utilize location information of resources from floorplan and in addition only focus on binding, ignoring allocation. This paper proposes thermal-aware behavioral synthesis with resource usage allocation. Based on a hybrid metric of physical location information and temperature, we rebind operations and reallocate the number of resources under area constraint. Our approach effectively controls peak temperature and creates even power densities among resources of different types and within resources of the same type. Experimental results show an average of 8.6°C drop in peak temperature and 5.3% saving of total power consumption with little latency overhead.

  11. Evidence-Informed, Individual Treatment of a Child with Sexual Behavior Problems: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Berliner, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    Children with sexual behavior problems pose a significant challenge for community-based mental health clinicians. Very few clinical trials are available to guide intervention and those interventions that are available are based in a group format. The current case study demonstrates the application of evidence-informed treatment techniques during the individual treatment of a 10-year-old boy displaying interpersonal sexual behavior problems. Specifically, the clinician adapts and implements a group-based model developed and tested by Bonner et al. (1999) for use with an individual child and his caregivers. Key points of the case study are discussed within the context of implementing evidence-informed treatments for children with sexual behavior problems.

  12. Participatory Learning through Behavioral and Cognitive Engagements in an Online Collective Information Searching Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between college students' behavioral and cognitive engagements while performing an online collective information searching (CIS) activity. The activity aimed to assist the students in utilizing a social bookmarking application to exploit the Internet in a collective manner. A group of 101 college…

  13. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  14. Brain morphology of childhood aggressive behavior: A multi-informant study in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Thijssen (Sandra); A.P. Ringoot (Ank); A. Wildeboer (Andrea); M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg (Marian); H. El Marroun (Hanan); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); M.H. van IJzendoorn (Rien); T.J.H. White (Tonya)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Few studies have focused on the neuroanatomy of aggressive behavior in children younger than 10 years. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of aggression in a population-based sample of 6- to 9-year-old children using a multiple-informant approach. Methods:

  15. “Small Talk” : Young children in the general population as informants of their problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Ringoot (Ank)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Accurate diagnosis of young children’s problem behavior is of great importance for understanding the early development of psychopathology and for early and effective interventions. Children, even young children, may offer a valuable complement to information from the

  16. Parental Information, Motivation, and Behavioral Skills Correlate with Child Sweetened Beverage Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, L. Suzanne; Pierce, Michelle B.; Amico, K. Rivet; Ferris, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fit of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model applied to sweetened beverage (SB) consumption in children. Design: Cross-sectional. Parents completed a home beverage inventory and IMB survey regarding SB consumption. Setting: Health fairs, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and…

  17. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  18. Information Technology Professionals as Collaborative Change Agents: A Case Study from Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Linda; Marion, David

    1998-01-01

    Highlights a case study from behavioral health care and focuses on the information technology professional's role as change agent. Discusses commercial applications, a conflict of cultures, dissemination and training interventions, and technological evolution and adaptation. Describes six steps for change agents' promotion of innovation and…

  19. Behavioral information biases the expected facial appearance of members of novel groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Knippenberg, A.F.M. van

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that behavioral information diagnostic of an out-group's traits biases the expected facial appearance of out-group members toward having facial features corresponding with the inferred traits. Participants formed a stereotype about a novel group based on random

  20. Integration of Behavioral Frequency and Intention Information in Young Children's Trait Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J.; Chiu, Korinne; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments examined three- to six-year-olds' use of frequency and intention information to make trait attributions and behavioral predictions. In experiment 1, participants were told a story about an actor who behaved positively once or four times on purpose or incidentally. Children were most likely to make trait-consistent behavioral…

  1. Examining Adolescent Student Photography and Related Processes to Inform Day Treatment School Curricula and Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbel, Jason E.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent students with psychiatric disorders who are educated in day treatment school classrooms manifest cognitive limitations, maladaptive behaviors, and social functioning deficits that often lead to academic failure, impeding their productivity when they become adults and causing them to run afoul of the criminal justice system. Informed by…

  2. A Study of Personality Traits to Explain Employees' Information Security Behavior among Generational Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Cartmell

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the Big Five factor model of personality traits theory was tested for its ability to predict or explain Employee Information Security Behavior (EISB), when Generational Cohort (GCOHORT) moderated the relationship between the five factors of personality and EISB. The independent variables (IVs) Extraversion, Agreeableness,…

  3. New Developments in Developmental Research on Social Information Processing and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith

    2010-01-01

    The Special Section on developmental research on social information processing (SIP) and antisocial behavior is here introduced. Following a brief history of SIP theory, comments on several themes--measurement and assessment, attributional and interpretational style, response evaluation and decision, and the relation between emotion and SIP--that…

  4. Fall-related Information seeking behavior of seniors on the web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askari, Marjan; Eslami, Saied; Medlock, Stephanie; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Falls form a major health problem for older persons, and increasingly strain the healthcare system. The Internet is a potentially useful platform for empowering seniors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the information-seeking behavior about falls among elderly Internet users. A

  5. Human adaptive behavior in common pool resource systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Brandt

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of common-pool resources, resulting from uncooperative harvest behavior, is a major problem in many social-ecological systems. Feedbacks between user behavior and resource productivity induce non-linear dynamics in the harvest and the resource stock that complicate the understanding and the prediction of the co-evolutionary system. With an adaptive model constrained by data from a behavioral economic experiment, we show that users' expectations of future pay-offs vary as a result of the previous harvest experience, the time-horizon, and the ability to communicate. In our model, harvest behavior is a trait that adjusts to continuously changing potential returns according to a trade-off between the users' current harvest and the discounted future productivity of the resource. Given a maximum discount factor, which quantifies the users' perception of future pay-offs, the temporal dynamics of harvest behavior and ecological resource can be predicted. Our results reveal a non-linear relation between the previous harvest and current discount rates, which is most sensitive around a reference harvest level. While higher than expected returns resulting from cooperative harvesting in the past increase the importance of future resource productivity and foster sustainability, harvests below the reference level lead to a downward spiral of increasing overexploitation and disappointing returns.

  6. Information-seeking and sharing behavior following genomic testing for diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rachel; Powell, Jill; Barry, William; Haga, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    As the practice of medicine has become more patient-driven, patients are increasingly seeking health information within and outside of their doctor's office. Patients looking for information and support are often turning to the Internet as well as family and friends. As part of a study to understand the impact of delivery method of genomic testing for type 2 diabetes risk on comprehension and health-related behaviors, we assessed participants' information-seeking and sharing behaviors after receiving their results in-person with a genetic counselor or online through the testing company's website. We found that 32.6 % of participants sought information after receiving the genomic test results for T2DM; 80.8 % of those that did seek information turned to the Internet. Eighty-eight percent of participants reported that they shared their T2DM risk results, primarily with their spouse/partner (65 %) and other family members (57 %) and children (19 %); 14 % reported sharing results with their health provider. Sharing was significantly increased in those who received results in-person from the genetic counselor (p = 0.0001). Understanding patients' interests and needs for additional information after genomic testing and with whom they share details of their health is important as more information and clinical services are available and accessed outside the clinician's office. Genetic counselors' expertise and experience in creating educational materials and promoting sharing of genetic information can facilitate patient engagement and education.

  7. Information Seeking Behavior and Needs of Women Parliamentarians of Pakistan: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maqsood Ahmad Shaheen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study probes into the information needs and seeking behavior of women parliamentarians in the 12th National Assembly of Pakistan during 2002 through 2007. It attempts to answer some of the questions raised on women’s political participation in the parliament and their information habits and needs by analyzing their preferred sources used in preparing for speeches, resolutions, bills, and laws. It also measures their information and communication technology skills. The study gauges their dependence and perception about the National Assembly Library and other sources of information available and suggests possible means by which information services to parliamentarians can be further enhanced. The findings of this study may present aspects which have never before been considered by researchers in trying to meet women parliamentarians’ information needs.

  8. The Behavior of Information Seeking and Utilizing on Livelihood among Rural Poor People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawit Muhammad Yusup

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to specifically assess the behavior of the rural poor people in seeking and utilizing information about livelihoods. This study focuses on the aspects of: the type of information sought and used by the rural poor people; and the way they seek and use information about livelihood for their survivability. The method used is Schutz’s qualitative tradition of phenomenology. Data collection used techniques of in-depth interviews and participatory observation of 22 rural poor people. The research location is in southern rural part of West Java. The research result shows that, the type of livelihood information sought and used by the rural poor people, referred to the kinds of unstable jobs with the limited scope of resources and channel/media. Their way to find and use livelihood information has active and passive pattern, but still refer to the resources of unstable jobs, limited scope of the search, pattern of interpersonal relationships, and informal.

  9. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students’ Drinking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students’ alcohol consumption. Intervention and control group students completed pre and postintervention assessments of drinking behaviors, and a postintervention assessment of alcohol-knowledge. Intervention students outperformed control students on the measure of alcohol knowledge. However knowledge did not predict drinking outcomes for this group, and it was positively correlated with drinking behaviors for control students. The findings suggest that, although learning took place through the intervention, it was not the mechanism by which the intervention reduced drinking behaviors. PMID:25392572

  10. Issues in the Use of Information and Communication Technologies and Unethical Behaviors: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Kübra ÇELEN1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine literature on unethical behavior in the use of information and communication technologies (ICT. In reaching this goal a search was conducted. When presenting the results findings of research conducted in abroad and in Turkey are presented respectively in order from the oldest to date. Findings indicated that ICT users have some dilemmas about identified ethical behavior and awareness in ethical behavior. In addition, social norms, gender, age, personal values, moral judgment, social values, moral responsibility has been effective in the ethical and legal use of ICT. On the other hand, it was confirmed that individuals’ opinions about unethical behavior in the use of ICT change according to demographic characteristics like gender, and parents’ education level in researches conducted in Turkey.

  11. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  12. New techniques for the analysis of manual control systems. [mathematical models of human operator behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekey, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Studies are summarized on the application of advanced analytical and computational methods to the development of mathematical models of human controllers in multiaxis manual control systems. Specific accomplishments include the following: (1) The development of analytical and computer methods for the measurement of random parameters in linear models of human operators. (2) Discrete models of human operator behavior in a multiple display situation were developed. (3) Sensitivity techniques were developed which make possible the identification of unknown sampling intervals in linear systems. (4) The adaptive behavior of human operators following particular classes of vehicle failures was studied and a model structure proposed.

  13. Development of a health information technology acceptance model using consumers' health behavior intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2012-10-01

    For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers' intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers' behavioral intention of using HIT. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model's explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers' behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers' use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers' attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers' health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health consumers' behavioral intention. We categorized the concepts in

  14. Development of a Health Information Technology Acceptance Model Using Consumers’ Health Behavior Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background For effective health promotion using health information technology (HIT), it is mandatory that health consumers have the behavioral intention to measure, store, and manage their own health data. Understanding health consumers’ intention and behavior is needed to develop and implement effective and efficient strategies. Objective To develop and verify the extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in health care by describing health consumers’ behavioral intention of using HIT. Methods This study used a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. We extended TAM by adding more antecedents and mediating variables to enhance the model’s explanatory power and to make it more applicable to health consumers’ behavioral intention. Additional antecedents and mediating variables were added to the hypothetical model, based on their theoretical relevance, from the Health Belief Model and theory of planned behavior, along with the TAM. We undertook structural equation analysis to examine the specific nature of the relationship involved in understanding consumers’ use of HIT. Study participants were 728 members recruited from three Internet health portals in Korea. Data were collected by a Web-based survey using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Results The overall fitness indices for the model developed in this study indicated an acceptable fit of the model. All path coefficients were statistically significant. This study showed that perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use significantly affected health consumers’ attitude and behavioral intention. Health consumers’ health status, health belief and concerns, subjective norm, HIT characteristics, and HIT self-efficacy had a strong indirect impact on attitude and behavioral intention through the mediators of perceived threat, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use. Conclusions An extended TAM in the HIT arena was found to be valid to describe health

  15. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  16. Low-dose alcohol effects on human behavior and performance: a review of post 1984 research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this review was to survey the literature examining alcohol effects on human behavior and performance, especially low alcohol dose effects. Other comprehensive reviews on this topic from 1975 to 1990 found that alcohol could affect all ...

  17. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  18. Use of the cross-translational model to study self-injurious behavior in human and nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Melinda A; El-Mallah, Saif N; Menard, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior occurs in the general human population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Some rhesus macaques also develop self-injurious behavior (SIB) as adolescents or young adults. In both of these cases, the development of harmful behaviors is idiopathic, only coming to the attention of physicians or veterinarians after the disorder is established. Thus, a combination of retrospective, statistical, and empirical procedures are used to understand this disorder. Here, we identify concordances between macaques and humans across five different levels of analysis-(1) form and prevalence, (2) etiology, (3) triggering events, (4) function/maintenance, and (5) therapeutic intervention-and show the value of the cross-translational model (macaques to humans and humans to macaques) in understanding this phenomenon. Substantial concordance is present with respect to the range of severity, the presence of early life stress exposure, and emotional dysregulation. In the macaque model, additional information is available on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response system, possible genetic involvement, and the immediate contextual situations that appear to trigger or exacerbate SIB episodes. In contrast, considerably more information is available from human studies on the effectiveness of various treatment regimens. Veterinarians have drawn on this information to explore these therapeutic interventions in monkeys. We expect that models of SIB will continue to have cross-translational impact as scientists and practitioners move from preclinical to clinical research and treatment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The Human-Computer Interface and Information Literacy: Some Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses human/computer interaction research, human/computer interface, and their relationships to information literacy. Highlights include communication models; cognitive perspectives; task analysis; theory of action; problem solving; instructional design considerations; and a suggestion that human/information interface may be a more appropriate…

  20. A comparison of antemortem tooth loss in human hunter-gatherers and non-human catarrhines: implications for the identification of behavioral evolution in the human fossil record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Cassandra C

    2013-06-01

    Middle and Late Pleistocene fossil hominin specimens with severe antemortem tooth loss are often regarded as evidence for the precocious evolution of human-like behaviors, such as conspecific care or cooking, in ancient hominin species. The goal of this project was to ask whether the theoretical association between antemortem tooth loss and uniquely human behaviors is supported empirically in a large skeletal sample of human hunter-gatherers, chimpanzees, orangutans, and baboons. Binomial regression modeling in a Bayesian framework allows for the investigation of the effects of tooth class, genus, age, and sex on the likelihood of tooth loss. The results strongly suggest that modern humans experience more antemortem tooth loss than non-human primates and identify age in years as an important predictor. Once age is accounted for, the difference between the humans and the closest non-human genus (chimpanzees) is less pronounced; humans are still more likely on average to experience antemortem tooth loss though 95% uncertainty envelopes around the average prediction for each genus show some overlap. These analyses support theoretical links between antemortem tooth loss and modern human characteristics; humans' significantly longer life history and a positive correlation between age and antemortem tooth loss explain, in part, the reason why humans are more likely to experience tooth loss than non-human primates, but the results do not exclude behavioral differences as a contributing factor. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Exploring the Impact of Information Seeking Behaviors of Online Health Consumers in the Arab World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Almaiman, Reem; El-Awad, Mamoun; Almohanna, Huda; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    In the Arab world, increasing numbers of people are seeking online health related information for diagnoses, medicine, fitness, pharmaceutical drugs, and smoking cessation programs, among others. Studies exploring the impact of social media channels on health seeking behavior among Arabic users are limited. This study has two goals: (1) describe the prevalence of online health information-seeking behavior in the Arab world, and (2) study the impacts of social media based platforms in helping promote healthy living in the Arab world. In order to gather primary data, a web-based cross-sectional survey with a total of 7013 self-administered questionnaires was sent via SMS messages (n=1278), to Twitter followers of an Arab women's health social media account (n=3630 followers), and WhatsApp messages (n=2105) to participants above 16 years of age representing different socioeconomic groups and within the Arabic speaking world. The findings of this study show high interest among the participants (84.9%) in seeking online health information. Furthermore, reporting online information had an impact on participant health behaviors. Social media can play an important role in strengthening the health care system to provide valuable information, educational programs and interventions to promote healthy life styles among the Arabic people.

  2. Motivation, Critical Thinking and Academic Verification of High School Students' Information-seeking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High school students have known as Gen Y or Z and their media using can be understand on their information-seeking behavior. This research’s purposes were: 1 to analyze the students’ motivation; 2 to analyze the critical thinking and academic verification; 3 to analyze the information-seeking behavior. This study used quantitative approach through survey among 1125 respondents in nine clusters, i.e. Central, East, North, West, and South of Jakarta, Tangerang, Bekasi, Depok, and Bogor. Schools sampling based on "the best schools rank" by the government, while respondents have taken by accidental in each school. Construct of questionnaire included measurement of motivation, critical thinking and academic verification, and the information-seeking behavior at all. The results showed that the motivations of the use of Internet were dominated by habit to interact and be entertained while on the academic needs are still relatively small but increasing significantly. Students’ self-efficacy, performance and achievement goals tend to be high motives, however the science learning value, and learning environment stimulation were average low motives. High school students indicated that they think critically about the various things that become content primarily in social media but less critical of the academic information subjects. Unfortunately, high school students did not conducted academic verification on the data and information but students tend to do plagiarism.

  3. B. F. Skinner's Science and Human Behavior: its antecedents and its consequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, A Charles

    2003-01-01

    Skinner's Science and Human Behavior marked a transition from a treatment of behavior that took physics as its reference science to one that emphasized behavior as a fundamental part of the subject matter of biology. The book includes what may be Skinner's earliest statement about the similarity of operant selection to Darwinian natural selection in phylogeny. Other major topics discussed in the book included multiple causation, private events, the self, and social contingencies. Among the im...

  4. Human errors in the information security realm – and how to fix them

    OpenAIRE

    Sohrabi Safa, Nader; Maple, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Information security breaches and privacy violations are major concerns for many organisations. Human behaviour, either intentionally or through negligence, is a great source of risk to information assets. It is acknowledged that technology alone cannot guarantee a secure environment for information assets; human considerations should be taken into account as well as technological and procedural aspects.\\ud \\ud

  5. Carrying Behavior in Humans: Analysis of Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Donald A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Reported is a significant correlation between book carrying behavior and sex stereotype which appear to be a consequence of social modeling. Second grade and older males typically carry books at their sides while females carry books against their chests. Kindergarten and first grade students typically carry books by their sides. (SL)

  6. Human Behavior Drift Detection in a Smart Home Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Andrea; Trofimova, Anna A; Matteucci, Matteo; Salice, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    The proposed system aims at elderly people independent living by providing an early indicator of habits changes which might be relevant for a diagnosis of diseases. It relies on Hidden Markov Model to describe the behavior observing sensors data, while Likelihood Ratio Test gives the variation within different time periods.

  7. Human Parental Care: Universal Goals, Cultural Strategies, Individual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of parental behavior as adaptation in agrarian and urban-industrial societies is proposed and examined in light of the evidence in this volume. The model is based on the concept of parental investment strategies for allocating time, attention, and domestic resources to raising children. (RH)

  8. Predictive Models of Procedural Human Supervisory Control Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    competing hypotheses are equal in other respects, the principle recommends selection of the hypothesis that introduces the fewest assumptions and postulates ...effectively have prevailed” –Charles Darwin 1871 17 The previous two chapters presented HMMs and HSMMs of single PHSC operator behavior. However

  9. Human Resources from an Organizational Behavior Perspective: Some Paradoxes Explained

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffrey Pfeffer

    2007-01-01

    ... consequences for employers as well as employees. What follows is a necessarily selective exploration of human resource management in organizations, covering why it is often done so badly, what theory suggests about how to do it better, and why...

  10. An Investigation of the Academic Information Finding and Re-finding Behavior on the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Tieh Pu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Academic researchers often need and re-use relevant information found after a period of time. This preliminary study used various methods, including experiments, interviews, search log analysis, sequential analysis, and observation to investigate characteristics of academic information finding and re-finding behavior. Overall, the participants in this study entered short queries either in finding or re-finding phases. Comparatively speaking, the participants entered greater number of queries, modified more queries, browsed more web pages, and stayed longer on web pages in the finding phase. On the other hand, in the re-finding phase, they utilized personal information management tools to re-find instead of finding again using search engine, such as checking browsing history; moreover, they tend to input less number of queries and stayed shorter on web pages. In short, the participants interacted more with the retrieval system during the finding phase, while they increased the use of personal information management tools in the re-finding phase. As to the contextual clues used in re-finding phase, the participants used less clues from the target itself, instead, they used indirect clues more often, especially location-related information. Based on the results of sequential analysis, the transition states in the re-finding phase was found to be more complex than those in the finding phase. Web information finding and re-finding behavior is an important and novel area of research. The preliminary results would benefit research on Web information re-finding behavior, and provide useful suggestions for developing personal academic information management systems. [Article content in Chinese

  11. Informing Parents about the Pharmacological and Invasive Behavior Management Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryab, Mehrysa; Afshar, Hossein; Mohammadi, Razie

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior management technique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of 'acceptance','consent', and 'concern' toward the five behavior management techniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour management technique (P > 0.05). Mothers with aca-demic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05). Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral management techniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers.

  12. Informing Parents about the Pharmacological and Invasive Behavior Management Techniques Used in Pediatric Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paryab, Mehrysa; Afshar, Hossein; Mohammadi, Razie

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior management technique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior management techniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of ‘acceptance’,‘consent’, and ‘concern’ toward the five behavior management techniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour management technique (P > 0.05). Mothers with aca-demic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05). Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral management techniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers. PMID:25093053

  13. Social Learning Theory and Behavioral Therapy: Considering Human Behaviors within the Social and Cultural Context of Individuals and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough Chavis, Annie

    2011-01-01

    This article examines theoretical thoughts of social learning theory and behavioral therapy and their influences on human behavior within a social and cultural context. The article utilizes two case illustrations with applications for consumers. It points out the abundance of research studies concerning the effectiveness of social learning theory, and the paucity of research studies regarding effectiveness and evidence-based practices with diverse groups. Providing a social and cultural context in working with diverse groups with reference to social learning theory adds to the literature for more cultural considerations in adapting the theory to women, African Americans, and diverse groups.

  14. Human resource capacity for information management in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information management in Kenya was considered the weakest area under the Health Information System pillar mainly due to inadequate health workers capacity. The study therefore aimed at assessing health workers skills and current training needs for information management in the selected healthcare facilities.

  15. Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Human Information Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to understand the interactions of perception, effort, emotion, time and performance during the performance of multiple information tasks using Web information technologies. Method: Twenty volunteers from a university participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to obtain general background information and…

  16. An in-depth exploration of information-seeking behavior among individuals with cancer: part 2: understanding patterns of information disinterest and avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Loiselle, Carmen G; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This is the second of a 2-part article describing differential health information-seeking behavior (HISB) patterns within the context of a cancer diagnosis that emerged in our grounded theory study. Data from 30 semistructured interviews and 8 focus groups with individuals diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer were analyzed using constant comparison analysis, diagramming, and open, axial, and selective coding. In part 1, 3 HISB patterns illustrating variation in active information-seeking behavior were described: (1) intense information seeking a keen interest in detailed cancer information, (2) complementary information seeking the process of getting "good enough" cancer information, and (3) fortuitous information seeking the search for cancer information mainly from others diagnosed with cancer. Part 2 describes 2 additional patterns coined in this study as minimal information-seeking behavior limited interest for cancer information and guarded information-seeking behavior avoidance of certain types of cancer information. Part 2 challenges traditional views that consider disinterest and avoidance as similar concepts subsumed under "blunting." Findings may be used to refine informational interventions and measurement strategies to best differentiate between cancer information avoidance and disinterest.

  17. Exposure to violence, social information processing, and problem behavior in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence, which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing (SIP) patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on SIP were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, SIP mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study's general approach, which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children's problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ANALYZING AND MODELING THE ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE INFORMATION SYSTEM ON HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING AT HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Susilo H.; Astuti E.S.; Wiyata

    2017-01-01

    The challenge of Human Resource Management in Higher Education Institutions is how to plan, organize, and assess the performance of human resources so as to contribute as much as possible to the achievement of high quality education objectives. To answer these challenges, the role of Human Resources Information System (HRIS) is needed to facilitate leadership both at the university and faculty level in preparing the needs planning and utilizing the advantages of human resources. This study ai...

  19. Anticipatory Eye Movements in Interleaving Templates of Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matessa, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Performance modeling has been made easier by architectures which package psychological theory for reuse at useful levels of abstraction. CPM-GOMS uses templates of behavior to package at a task level (e.g., mouse move-click, typing) predictions of lower-level cognitive, perceptual, and motor resource use. CPM-GOMS also has a theory for interleaving resource use between templates. One example of interleaving is anticipatory eye movements. This paper describes the use of ACT-Stitch, a framework for translating CPM-GOMS templates and interleaving theory into ACT-R, to model anticipatory eye movements in skilled behavior. The anticipatory eye movements explain performance in a well-practiced perceptual/motor task, and the interleaving theory is supported with results from an eye-tracking experiment.

  20. NASA Human Research Program Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Sandra; Faulk, Jeremy; Leveton, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The goal of NASA BHP is to identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration, and return to terrestrial life. The NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Operations Group (BHP Ops) supports astronauts and their families before, during, and after a long-duration mission (LDM) on the ISS. BHP Ops provides ISS crews with services such as preflight training (e.g., psychological factors of LDM, psychological support, cross-cultural); preflight, in-flight, and postflight support services, including counseling for astronauts and their families; and psychological support such as regular care packages and a voice-over IP phone system between crew members and their families to facilitate real-time one-on-one communication.

  1. Motivational Interviewing: A Theoretical Framework for the Study of Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine van Wormer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical analysis of motivational interviewing stages of change model. Although rarely included in textbooks on human behavior and the social environment, this model has much to teach us about that aspect of human behavior most germane to social work practice—personal motivation for change of behaviors that are dysfunctional. The basic concepts that underlie motivational interviewing are derived from empirically-based principles from the science of social psychology. This article provides a historical and comparative approach to theory development, argues for the utility of this perspective as a guide to practice, and provides suggestions for further theory development.

  2. A Validation Methodology for Human Behavior Representation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    ST •United States Military Academy West Point, New York 10996 OPERATIONS RESEARCH CENTER OF EXCELLENCE TECHNICAL REPORT DSE -R-0531 DTIC #: ADA433696...TECHNICAL REPORT DSE -R-0531 DTIC #: ADA433696 Authors Lieutenant Colonel Simon R. Goerger, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Department of Systems Engineering... checklists , essays, critical incidents and graphics rating systems. Behavioral checklists are similar to declarative knowledge in that they merely state

  3. Discrimination of Effects between Directional and Nondirectional Information of Auditory Warning on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impacts of directional and nondirectional auditory warning information in a collision warning system (CWS on driving behavior. The data on driving behavior is collected through experiment, with scenarios containing unexpected hazard events that include different warning content. As drivers approached the collision event, either a CWS auditory warning was given or no warning was given for a reference group. Discriminant analysis was used to investigate the relationship between directional auditory warning information and driving behavior. In the experiment, the CWS warnings significantly reduced brake reaction time and prompted drivers to press the brake pedal more heavily, demonstrating the effectiveness of CWS warnings in alerting drivers to avoid red-light running (RLR vehicles when approaching a signalized intersection. Providing a clear warning with directional information about an urgent hazard event could give drivers adequate time to prepare for the potential collision. In terms of deceleration, a directional information warning was shown to greatly help drivers react to critical events at signalized intersections with more moderate braking. From these results, requirements can be derived for the design of effective warning strategies for critical intersections.

  4. A Study of the Information Seeking Behavior of Communication Graduate Students in Their Research Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chuan Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thesis is the research outcome that a graduate student spends most of his or her time and energies to achieve. Therefore, the research process of student’s thesis writing is an important topic to be investigated. The main purpose of this study is to explore graduate students’ information seeking behavior during the process of thesis writing. Ten graduate students in the field of communication were interviewed, and their information horizon maps as well as bibliographical references were analyzed also. Results showed that the library, as a formal channel, is the primary source for graduate students. The documents that they used most often were theses and dissertations, monographs, and journals. In addition to the formal channels, social network also played as a very important role in students’ research process. The networks even changed their information seeking behaviors in formal channels. Students reported several problems encountered in the research process, such as lacking of the background knowledge of the interdisciplinary, being unable to find out the core and relevant documents from the search results, etc. In conclusion, graduate students’ information seeking behavior changed at different stages in the research process. [Article content in Chinese

  5. Web-Based Medical Service: Technology Attractiveness, Medical Creditability, Information Source, and Behavior Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan Huei

    2017-08-02

    Web-based medical service (WBMS), a cooperative relationship between medical service and Internet technology, has been called one of the most innovative services of the 21st century. However, its business promotion and implementation in the medical industry have neither been expected nor executed. Few studies have explored this phenomenon from the viewpoint of inexperienced patients. The primary goal of this study was to explore whether technology attractiveness, medical creditability, and diversified medical information sources could increase users' behavior intention. This study explored the effectiveness of web-based medical service by using three situations to manipulate sources of medical information. A total of 150 questionnaires were collected from people who had never used WBMS before. Hierarchical regression was used to examine the mediation and moderated-mediation effects. Perceived ease of use (P=.002) and perceived usefulness (P=.001) significantly enhance behavior intentions. Medical credibility is a mediator (P=.03), but the relationship does not significantly differ under diverse manipulative information channels (P=.39). Medical credibility could explain the extra variation between technology attractiveness and behavior intention, but not significant under different moderating effect of medical information sources.

  6. The Prevalence of Internet and Social Media Based Medication Information Seeking Behavior in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alfurih, Suha; Aldremly, Maha; Alzayyat, Ma'an; Alsurimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa

    2016-01-01

    The internet has become an important resource to help people search for online medication information. This study aims to report the prevalence and profile of Saudi online medication seeking behavior. Conducted via a web-based survey with Twitter participants between January-February, 2015, the primary outcome measures were the self-reported rates of using the internet to search for medication related information. A valid sample of 4847 participants was collected over the period of the study. Out of the total participants, 68.3% (n=3311) were found to seek online medication related information frequently. Most of the social media users were female 83.5% (n=2766). The majority of respondents 63.6% (n= 3081) used Google, followed by Twitter 28.7% (n= 1392), Snapchat 21%, (n=1019), WhatsApp 13.8% (n= 670), Instagram 11.4%, (n= 553), and Facebook 5.5 % (n= 267), with few searching YouTube 1.3% (n=65) to access online medication information. Findings indicate that the Saudi population actively uses the internet and social media to obtain medication information. Further studies are needed to explore the influence of the internet and social media on user perception, attitude, and behavior with the use of online medication information.

  7. Food Safety Information Processing and Teaching Behavior of Dietitians: A Mental Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia C. Medeiros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Health professionals play an important role in educating the public about food safety risks. However, the ways this important group of educators remains up-to-date on these topics are not well defined. In this study, a national sample of dietitians employed in direct teaching of patients (n = 327 were recruited to complete a web-delivered survey designed to develop a model of factors that promote information processing and teaching in practice about food safety related to fresh vegetables. The resulting mental model demonstrates that dietitians teach fresh vegetable safety using systematic information processing to intellectually understand new information, but this is also associated with a gap in the dietitian’s knowledge of food safety. The juxtaposition of an information processing model with a behavioral model provides valuable new insights about how dietitians seek, acquire and translate/transfer important information to move patients toward a higher goal of food safety. The study also informs food safety educators as they formulate teaching strategies that are more effective than other approaches at promoting behavior change.

  8. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; De Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J.; Tropf, Felix C.; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Tragante, Vinicius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/376420146; Van Der Laan, Sander W.; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J.; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F.; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P.; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F.; McMahon, George; Meddens, S. Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A.; Monnereau, Claire; Van Der Most, Peter J.; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A.; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B.; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M.; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V.; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Buring, Julie E.; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R.; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; De Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, Denis A.; Faul, Jessica D.; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; De Haan, Hugoline G.; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B.; Heath, Andrew C.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G.; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrikke; Martin, Nicholas G.; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E.; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; De Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J.; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Ring, Susan M.; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D.; Starr, John M.; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Roy Thurik, A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tung, Joyce Y.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G.; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Weir, David R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F.; Lee, James J.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior - age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) - has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  9. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald; Vaez, Ahmad; Mandemakers, Jornt J; Tropf, Felix C; Shen, Xia; Wilson, James F; Chasman, Daniel I; Nolte, Ilja M; Tragante, Vinicius; van der Laan, Sander W; Perry, John R B; Kong, Augustine; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Albrecht, Eva; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura; Atzmon, Gil; Auro, Kirsi; Ayers, Kristin; Bakshi, Andrew; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Berger, Klaus; Bergman, Aviv; Bertram, Lars; Bielak, Lawrence F; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Bonder, Marc Jan; Broer, Linda; Bui, Minh; Barbieri, Caterina; Cavadino, Alana; Chavarro, Jorge E; Turman, Constance; Concas, Maria Pina; Cordell, Heather J; Davies, Gail; Eibich, Peter; Eriksson, Nicholas; Esko, Tõnu; Eriksson, Joel; Falahi, Fahimeh; Felix, Janine F; Fontana, Mark Alan; Franke, Lude; Gandin, Ilaria; Gaskins, Audrey J; Gieger, Christian; Gunderson, Erica P; Guo, Xiuqing; Hayward, Caroline; He, Chunyan; Hofer, Edith; Huang, Hongyan; Joshi, Peter K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karlsson, Robert; Kiechl, Stefan; Kifley, Annette; Kluttig, Alexander; Kraft, Peter; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lecoeur, Cecile; Lahti, Jari; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Tian; Makalic, Enes; Mamasoula, Crysovalanto; Matteson, Lindsay; Mbarek, Hamdi; McArdle, Patrick F; McMahon, George; Meddens, S Fleur W; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Mike; Missmer, Stacey A; Monnereau, Claire; van der Most, Peter J; Myhre, Ronny; Nalls, Mike A; Nutile, Teresa; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Porcu, Eleonora; Prokopenko, Inga; Rajan, Kumar B; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rueedi, Rico; Ryan, Kathleen A; Saba, Yasaman; Schmidt, Daniel; Smith, Jennifer A; Stolk, Lisette; Streeten, Elizabeth; Tönjes, Anke; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Ulivi, Sheila; Wedenoja, Juho; Wellmann, Juergen; Willeit, Peter; Yao, Jie; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhernakova, Daria V; Amin, Najaf; Andrews, Howard; Balkau, Beverley; Barzilai, Nir; Bergmann, Sven; Biino, Ginevra; Bisgaard, Hans; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boomsma, Dorret I; Buring, Julie E; Campbell, Harry; Cappellani, Stefania; Ciullo, Marina; Cox, Simon R; Cucca, Francesco; Toniolo, Daniela; Davey-Smith, George; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; van Duijn, Cornelia M; de Geus, Eco J C; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, Denis A; Faul, Jessica D; Sala, Cinzia Felicita; Froguel, Philippe; Gasparini, Paolo; Girotto, Giorgia; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Greiser, Karin Halina; Groenen, Patrick J F; de Haan, Hugoline G; Haerting, Johannes; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hopper, John; Hyppönen, Elina; Jacobsson, Bo; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Johannesson, Magnus; Jugessur, Astanand; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Kardia, Sharon L R; Keavney, Bernard; Kolcic, Ivana; Koponen, Päivikki; Kovacs, Peter; Kronenberg, Florian; Kutalik, Zoltan; La Bianca, Martina; Lachance, Genevieve; Iacono, William G; Lai, Sandra; Lehtimäki, Terho; Liewald, David C; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Liu, Yongmei; Luben, Robert; Lucht, Michael; Luoto, Riitta; Magnus, Per; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; McQuillan, Ruth; Medland, Sarah E; Meisinger, Christa; Mellström, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Traglia, Michela; Milani, Lili; Mitchell, Paul; Montgomery, Grant W; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; de Mutsert, Renée; Nohr, Ellen A; Ohlsson, Claes; Olsen, Jørn; Ong, Ken K; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pattie, Alison; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Power, Chris; Kaprio, Jaakko; Raffel, Leslie J; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M; Ring, Susan M; Roll, Kathryn; Rudan, Igor; Ruggiero, Daniela; Rujescu, Dan; Salomaa, Veikko; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schupf, Nicole; Smit, Johannes; Sorice, Rossella; Spector, Tim D; Starr, John M; Stöckl, Doris; Strauch, Konstantin; Stumvoll, Michael; Swertz, Morris A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaccargiu, Simona; Viikari, Jorma; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Vollenweider, Peter; Vuckovic, Dragana; Waage, Johannes; Wagner, Gert G; Wang, Jie Jin; Wareham, Nicholas J; Weir, David R; Willemsen, Gonneke; Willeit, Johann; Wright, Alan F; Zondervan, Krina T; Stefansson, Kari; Krueger, Robert F; Lee, James J; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D; den Hoed, Marcel; Snieder, Harold; Mills, Melinda C

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB) has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the

  10. HFM-128 NATO Research Task Group on Representation of Human Behavior in Constructive Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.A.; Allender, L.; Castor, M.; Lundin, M.; Wallin, N.; Belyavin, A.; Käppler, W.-D.; Cain, B.; Thomas-Meyers, G.

    2007-01-01

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors group has approved the formation of a study group, HFM-128, on human behavior representation (HBR) in constructive simulation. The differentiating focus of this working group is the translation of HBR concepts into a combined “how-to” and

  11. HFM-128 NATO research task group on representation of human behavior in constructive simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotens, W.; Allender, L.; Castor, M.; Lundin, M.; Wallin, N.; Cain, B.; Käppler, W.-D.; Belyavin, A.; Thomas-Meyers, G.

    2005-01-01

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Human Factors group has approved the formation of a study group, HFM-128, on human behavior representation (HBR) in constructive simulation. The differentiating focus of this working group is the translation of HBR concepts into a combined "how-to" and

  12. Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barban, Nicola; Jansen, Rick; de Vlaming, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior-age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)-has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the under...

  13. Associative learning and the control of human dietary behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2007-07-01

    Most of our food likes and disliked are learned. Relevant forms of associative learning have been identified in animals. However, observations of the same associative processes are relatively scarce in humans. The first section of this paper outlines reasons why this might be the case. Emphasis is placed on recent research exploring individual differences and the importance or otherwise of hunger and contingency awareness. The second section briefly considers the effect of learning on meal size, and the author revisits the question of how learned associations might come to influence energy intake in humans.

  14. Glucocorticoid Regulation of Food-Choice Behavior in Humans: Evidence from Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating

  15. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Information Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Spink

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Information Science is beginning to develop a theoretical framework for the modeling of users’ interactions with information retrieval (IR technologies within the more holistic context of human information behavior (Spink, 1998b. This paper addresses the following questions: (1 What is the nature of Information Science? and (2 What theoretical framework and model is most appropriate for Information Science? This paper proposes a theoretical framework for Information Science based on an explication of the processes of human information coordinating behavior and information feedback that facilitate the relationship between human information behavior and human interaction with information retrieval (IR technologies (Web, digital libraries, etc..

  16. Information Seeking Behavior of the Nurses in Using Up-To-Date Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Aghazadeh Asl

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nursing is one of the largest groups of health care providers that needs updated information to improve quality and quantity of health care services, clinical activities, etc. In the meantime, evidence-based databases (such as Up-To-Date Database significantly contribute to improve performance and efficiency of health services by providing the latest findings on health issues. The present study aimed to survey the information seeking behavior and information needs of nurses working in Ahvaz hospitals affiliated with Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in using Up-To-Date database. Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the statistical population consisted of 1246 nurses working in hospitals of Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences among which 293 nurses were selected. The required data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researcher. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient as 0.71. Descriptive statistics and Kruskal-Wallis Test were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that most of the nurses needed information about new developments in the field of nursing and medications. A majority of the nurses used simple searching technique to find the required information. Most of the nurses aimed to update their information using Up-To-Date Database. The main barrier to update information was shortage of time. Conclusion: Therefore, it is essential to teach information skills to nurses; so that they can access modern and updated information in the field of nursing and obtain

  17. Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frederick; Griffith, Amanda; Cottrell, Allin; Wong, Yue-Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time.

  18. Behavioral responses to epidemics in an online experiment: using virtual diseases to study human behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Chen

    Full Text Available We report the results of a study we conducted using a simple multiplayer online game that simulates the spread of an infectious disease through a population composed of the players. We use our virtual epidemics game to examine how people respond to epidemics. The analysis shows that people's behavior is responsive to the cost of self-protection, the reported prevalence of disease, and their experiences earlier in the epidemic. Specifically, decreasing the cost of self-protection increases the rate of safe behavior. Higher reported prevalence also raises the likelihood that individuals would engage in self-protection, where the magnitude of this effect depends on how much time has elapsed in the epidemic. Individuals' experiences in terms of how often an infection was acquired when they did not engage in self-protection are another factor that determines whether they will invest in preventive measures later on. All else being equal, individuals who were infected at a higher rate are more likely to engage in self-protective behavior compared to those with a lower rate of infection. Lastly, fixing everything else, people's willingness to engage in safe behavior waxes or wanes over time, depending on the severity of an epidemic: when prevalence is high, people are more likely to adopt self-protective measures as time goes by; when prevalence is low, a 'self-protection fatigue' effect sets in whereby individuals are less willing to engage in safe behavior over time.

  19. Biomechanical and optical behavior of human corneas before and after photorefractive keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Paolo; Moutsouris, Kyros; Pandolfi, Anna

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate numerically the biomechanical and optical behavior of human corneas and quantitatively estimate the changes in refractive power and stress caused by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Athineum Refractive Center, Athens, Greece, and Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Retrospective comparative interventional cohort study. Corneal topographies of 10 human eyes were taken with a scanning-slit corneal topographer (Orbscan II) before and after PRK. Ten patient-specific finite element models were created to estimate the strain and stress fields in the cornea in preoperative and postoperative configurations. The biomechanical response in postoperative eyes was computed by directly modeling the postoperative geometry from the topographer and by reproducing the corneal ablation planned for the PRK with a numerical reprofiling procedure. Postoperative corneas were more compliant than preoperative corneas. In the optical zone, corneal thinning decreased the mechanical stiffness, causing local resteepening and making the central refractive power more sensitive to variations in intraocular pressure (IOP). At physiologic IOP, the postoperative corneas had a mean 7% forward increase in apical displacement and a mean 20% increase in the stress components at the center of the anterior surface over the preoperative condition. Patient-specific numerical models of the cornea can provide quantitative information on the changes in refractive power and in the stress field caused by refractive surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Capturing complex human behaviors in representative sports contexts with a single camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Fernandes, Orlando; Fonseca, Cristina; Correia, Vanda; Gazimba, Vítor; Travassos, Bruno; Esteves, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Lopes, José

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, several motion analysis methods have been developed without considering representative contexts for sports performance. The purpose of this paper was to explain and underscore a straightforward method to measure human behavior in these contexts. Procedures combining manual video tracking (with TACTO device) and bidimensional reconstruction (through direct linear transformation) using a single camera were used in order to capture kinematic data required to compute collective variable(s) and control parameter(s). These procedures were applied to a 1vs1 association football task as an illustrative subphase of team sports and will be presented in a tutorial fashion. Preliminary analysis of distance and velocity data identified a collective variable (difference between the distance of the attacker and the defender to a target defensive area) and two nested control parameters (interpersonal distance and relative velocity). Findings demonstrated that the complementary use of TACTO software and direct linear transformation permit to capture and reconstruct complex human actions in their context in a low dimensional space (information reduction).

  1. Combining fMRI and Behavioral Measures to Examine the Process of Human Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, Elisabeth A.; Emberson, Lauren L.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the advent of fMRI, the primary means of examining the mechanisms underlying learning were restricted to studying human behavior and non-human neural systems. However, recent advances in neuroimaging technology have enabled the concurrent study of human behavior and neural activity. We propose that the integration of behavioral response with brain activity provides a powerful method of investigating the process through which internal representations are formed or changed. Nevertheless, a review of the literature reveals that many fMRI studies of learning either (1) focus on outcome rather than process or (2) are built on the untested assumption that learning unfolds uniformly over time. We discuss here various challenges faced by the field and highlight studies that have begun to address them. In doing so, we aim to encourage more research that examines the process of learning by considering the interrelation of behavioral measures and fMRI recording during learning. PMID:24076012

  2. Information-seeking behavior and computer literacy among resident doctors in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, A D; Abubakar, A M; Omeiza, B; Minoza, K

    2013-01-01

    Resident doctors are key actors in patient management in all the federal training institutions in nigeria. Knowing the information-seeking behavior of this group of doctors and their level of computer knowledge would facilitate informed decision in providing them with the relevant sources of information as well as encouraging the practice of evidence-based medicine. This is to examine information-seeking behavior among resident doctors and analyze its relationship to computer ownership and literacy. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from the resident doctors in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) and the Federal Neuro-Psychiatry Hospital (FNPH). The data fields requested included the biodata, major source of medical information, level of computer literacy, and computer ownership. Other questions included were their familiarity with basic computer operations as well as versatility on the use of the Internet and possession of an active e-mail address. Out of 109 questionnaires distributed 100 were returned (91.7% response rate). Seventy three of the 100 respondents use printed material as their major source of medical information. Ninety three of the respondents own a laptop, a desktop or both, while 7 have no computers. Ninety-four respondents are computer literate while 6 are computer illiterates. Seventy-five respondents have an e-mail address while 25 do not have e-mail address. Seventy-five search the Internet for information while 25 do not know how to use the Internet. Despite the high computer ownership and literacy rate among resident doctors, the printed material remains their main source of medical information.

  3. A Human-Centered Smart Home System with Wearable-Sensor Behavior Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Jianting; Liu, Ting; Shen, Chao; Wu, Hongyu; Liu, Wenyi; Su, Man; Chen, Siyun; Jia, Zhanpei

    2016-11-17

    Smart home has recently attracted much research interest owing to its potential in improving the quality of human life. How to obtain user's demand is the most important and challenging task for appliance optimal scheduling in smart home, since it is highly related to user's unpredictable behavior. In this paper, a human-centered smart home system is proposed to identify user behavior, predict their demand and schedule the household appliances. Firstly, the sensor data from user's wearable devices are monitored to profile user's full-day behavior. Then, the appliance-demand matrix is constructed to predict user's demand on home environment, which is extracted from the history of appliance load data and user behavior. Two simulations are designed to demonstrate user behavior identification, appliance-demand matrix construction and strategy of appliance optimal scheduling generation.

  4. Human factors considerations for integrating traffic information on airport moving maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to identify human factors considerations in the integration of traffic information and surface indications and alerts for runway status on airport moving maps for flight deck displays. The information is primar...

  5. FORMING ORGANIZATIONAL SKILLS OF PROSPECTIVE TEACHERS OF THE HUMANITIES USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olena A. Zymovets

    2014-01-01

    ...’ organizational skills in the Information Society. The author defines organizational skills of prospective teachers of the Humanities, specifies the types of these skills taking into consideration the requirements of the Information Society...

  6. The double power law in human collaboration behavior: The case of Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Okyu; Son, Woo-Sik; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    We study human behavior in terms of the inter-event time distribution of revision behavior on Wikipedia, an online collaborative encyclopedia. We observe a double power law distribution for the inter-editing behavior at the population level and a single power law distribution at the individual level. Although interactions between users are indirect or moderate on Wikipedia, we determine that the synchronized editing behavior among users plays a key role in determining the slope of the tail of the double power law distribution.

  7. Integrating organizational and human behavior perspectives on mergers and acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Yaakov; Drori, Israel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework for investigating merger and acquisition (M&A) performance through a multistage and multilevel approach. First, human resource challenges during the integration process following a merger are explored to help explain the inconsistencies among empirical

  8. Behavioral estimates of human frequency selectivity at low frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado

    on physical sound measurements. In this PhD thesis a detailed description of frequency selectivity at low frequencies is given. Different experiments have been performed to determine the properties of human auditory filters. Besides, loudness perception of low-frequency sinusoidal signals has been evaluated...

  9. A New Architecture for Improved Human Behavior in Military Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Operation Iraqi Freedom of the high cost of invading Iraq – what he referred to privately as “the Pottery Barn rule – you break it, you buy it.” 9 The...other humans do not mix well with the linear world of mathematical algorithms. Within academia, there have been many attempts to tackle this

  10. Behavioral Correlations Associated with Fear of Humans Differ between Rural and Urban Burrowing Owls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Carrete

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies are fundamental to understanding how animal populations face global change. Although much research has centered upon the idea that individuals can adaptively modify their behaviors to cope with environmental changes, recent evidence supports the existence of individual differences in suites of correlated behaviors. However, little is known about how selection can change these behavioral structures in populations subject to different environmental constraints. The colonization of urban environments by birds has been related to their inter-individual variability in their fear of humans, measured as their flight initiation distance to an approaching human, such that urban life would select for fearless individuals. This behavior has been demonstrated to be heritable and highly consistent throughout the adult lifespan of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia. Here, we experimentally assessed, in field conditions, whether urban life involves changes in other behaviors such as exploration and antipredatory response through their correlation with fear of humans. Breeding urban birds were more fearless toward humans and were quicker to explore a new food resource and defend their nests from predators than their rural counterparts. However, while fear of humans positively correlated with exploration and antipredatory response in the rural population, it only correlated with exploration in the urban one. Predator release in urban environments could relax—and even counterselect—antipredator behaviors, thus dismantling the behavioral correlation existent in natural populations. Altogether, our results suggest that rural and urban animals may differ in some behavioral aspects, may be as a consequence of the selection processes acting during the colonization of urban areas as well as the different ecological environments encountered by individuals.

  11. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Sheynin, Jony; Myers, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment) or a failure (missed reward). Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid) responding, some subjects ("avoiders") reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects ("non-avoiders") never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the "non-avoiders" valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects' tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as "avoiders." To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better-than-expected outcomes

  12. The Role of Informative and Ambiguous Feedback in Avoidance Behavior: Empirical and Computational Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Avoidance behavior is a critical component of many psychiatric disorders, and as such, it is important to understand how avoidance behavior arises, and whether it can be modified. In this study, we used empirical and computational methods to assess the role of informational feedback and ambiguous outcome in avoidance behavior. We adapted a computer-based probabilistic classification learning task, which includes positive, negative and no-feedback outcomes; the latter outcome is ambiguous as it might signal either a successful outcome (missed punishment or a failure (missed reward. Prior work with this task suggested that most healthy subjects viewed the no-feedback outcome as strongly positive. Interestingly, in a later version of the classification task, when healthy subjects were allowed to opt out of (i.e. avoid responding, some subjects ("avoiders" reliably avoided trials where there was a risk of punishment, but other subjects ("non-avoiders" never made any avoidance responses at all. One possible interpretation is that the "non-avoiders" valued the no-feedback outcome so positively on punishment-based trials that they had little incentive to avoid. Another possible interpretation is that the outcome of an avoided trial is unspecified and that lack of information is aversive, decreasing subjects' tendency to avoid. To examine these ideas, we here tested healthy young adults on versions of the task where avoidance responses either did or did not generate informational feedback about the optimal response. Results showed that provision of informational feedback decreased avoidance responses and also decreased categorization performance, without significantly affecting the percentage of subjects classified as "avoiders." To better understand these results, we used a modified Q-learning model to fit individual subject data. Simulation results suggest that subjects in the feedback condition adjusted their behavior faster following better

  13. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  14. Social influence in a virtual tunnel fire--influence of conflicting information on evacuation behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinateder, Max; Müller, Mathias; Jost, Michael; Mühlberger, Andreas; Pauli, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Evacuation from a smoke filled tunnel requires quick decision-making and swift action from the tunnel occupants. Technical installations such as emergency signage aim to guide tunnel occupants to the closest emergency exits. However, conflicting information may come from the behavior of other tunnel occupants. We examined if and how conflicting social information may affect evacuation in terms of delayed and/or inadequate evacuation decisions and behaviors. To this end, forty participants were repeatedly situated in a virtual reality smoke filled tunnel with an emergency exit visible to one side of the participants. Four social influence conditions were realized. In the control condition participants were alone in the tunnel, while in the other three experimental conditions a virtual agent (VA) was present. In the no-conflict condition, the VA moved to the emergency exit. In the active conflict condition, the VA moved in the opposite direction of the emergency exit. In the passive conflict condition, the VA stayed passive. Participants were less likely to move to the emergency exit in the conflict conditions compared to the no-conflict condition. Pre-movement and movement times in the passive conflict condition were significantly delayed compared to all other conditions. Participants moved the longest distances in the passive conflict condition. These results support the hypothesis that social influence affects evacuation behavior, especially passive behavior of others can thwart an evacuation to safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug information-seeking intention and behavior after exposure to direct-to-consumer advertisement of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifei; Doucette, William R; Farris, Karen B; Nayakankuppam, Dhananjay

    2005-06-01

    Concerns about direct-to-consumer advertisement's (DTCA's) information quality have raised interest in patients' drug information-seeking after DTCA exposure. To identify predictors of patients' intentions and behaviors to seek drug information from physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet after DTCA exposure, using theories of planned behavior and self-efficacy. One thousand patients were randomly selected from 3,000 nationwide osteoarthritic patients. A self-administered survey examined predictors of intention including measurements of attitude toward behavior, subjective norm, perceived difficulty, self-efficacy, controllability, self-identity, intention, exposure to ads, and control variables. After 6 weeks, another survey measured respondents' information-seeking behavior. For patients exposed to DTCA, 6 multiple regressions were performed for information-seeking intention and behavior for 3 information sources: physicians, pharmacists, and the Internet. The response rates were 61.9% and 80.1% for the first survey and the second survey, respectively. Four hundred and fifty-four participants reported exposure to DTCA about arthritis prescription medicines in the previous month. Over 41% of the variance in intention and over 18% of the variance in behavior were explained by the regression procedures. The consistent positive predictors of intention were attitude toward behavior, self-identity, attitude toward DTCAs of arthritis medication, and osteoarthritis pain; while the consistent positive predictors of behavior were intention and osteoarthritis pain. The strongest predictors of intention were self-identity for physicians, subjective norm for pharmacists, and attitude toward behavior for the Internet. Perceived difficulty and self-efficacy did not predict intention, and self-efficacy and controllability did not predict behavior. DTCA-prompted drug information-seeking may be under patients' complete volitional control. To promote information searching

  16. Figurative and spatial information and search behavior in dogs (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, C

    1998-02-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) were administered a variant of the delayed matching-to-sample task in which they had to recover a hidden object and in which both spatial and figurative information were kept constant at the outset of each trial. Thereafter, either spatial (i.e. spatial condition) or figurative cues (i.e. figurative condition) became relevant to solve the task. The results revealed that dogs rapidly associated a spatial cue with the recovery of the object. The discussion emphasizes the role of cognitive and ecological constraints to account for the fact that figurative information was not readily used as a cue to guide search behavior.

  17. Social well-being and information behavior of the youth in the Republic of Khakassia

    OpenAIRE

    T B Shigolakova

    2015-01-01

    The article considers social well-being and information behavior of the youth in the Republic of Khakassia focusing on the youth expectations and aspirations, relationships with the state, desires to be useful to one’s social circle, society and the state, and on the forms in which the state should provide assistance and support for young generations. The author evaluates the level of the youth trust in various social institutions, particular elements and actors of the political system that d...

  18. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  19. A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on scholarly information behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ollé, Candela; Borrego, Àngel (Borrego Huerta)

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study of the impact of electronic journals on the information behavior of academics at Catalan universities shows that academics now read more, and more widely. However, their reading is becoming more superficial; they are compelled to improve their discrimination skills in order to decide what to read in more depth. The electronic accessibility of journals means that academics now make fewer library visits. Web browsing and TOC e-mail alerts are replacing physical browsing, and...

  20. E-Health Literacy and Health Information Seeking Behavior Among University Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Mohaimenul; Touray, Musa; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Poly, Tahmina Nasrin; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Syed Abdul, Shabbir

    2017-01-01

    Web 2.0 has become a leading health communication platform and will continue to attract young users; therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the impact of Web 2.0 on health information seeking behavior among university students in Bangladesh. A random sample of adults (n = 199, mean 23.75 years, SD 2.87) participated in a cross-sectional, a survey that included the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) assessed use of Web 2.0 for health information. Collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and t-tests. Finally logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between sociodemographic, social determinants, and use of Web 2.0 for seeking and sharing health information. Almost 74% of older Web 2.0 users (147/199, 73.9%) reported using popular Web 2.0 websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to find and share health information. Current study support that current Web-based health information seeking and sharing behaviors influence health-related decision making.