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Sample records for human infection patterns

  1. Spatial and temporal patterns of human Puumala virus (PUUV infections in Germany

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    Sarah Cunze

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide, the number of recorded human hantavirus infections as well as the number of affected countries is on the rise. In Europe, most human hantavirus infections are caused by the Puumala virus (PUUV, with bank voles (Myodes glareolus as reservoir hosts. Generally, infection outbreaks have been related to environmental conditions, particularly climatic conditions, food supply for the reservoir species and land use. However, although attempts have been made, the insufficient availability of environmental data is often hampering accurate temporal and spatially explicit models of human hantavirus infections. Methods In the present study, dynamics of human PUUV infections between 2001 and 2015 were explored using ArcGIS in order to identify spatio-temporal patterns. Results Percentage cover of forest area was identified as an important factor for the spatial pattern, whereas beech mast was found explaining temporal patterns of human PUUV infections in Germany. High numbers of infections were recorded in 2007, 2010 and 2012 and areas with highest records were located in Baden-Wuerttemberg (southwest Germany and North Rhine-Westphalia (western Germany. Conclusion More reliable data on reservoir host distribution, pathogen verification as well as an increased awareness of physicians are some of the factors that should improve future human infection risk assessments in Germany.

  2. Temporal patterns of human and canine Giardia infection in the United States: 2003-2009.

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    Mohamed, Ahmed S; Levine, Michael; Camp, Joseph W; Lund, Elisabeth; Yoder, Jonathan S; Glickman, Larry T; Moore, George E

    2014-02-01

    Giardia protozoa have been suspected to be of zoonotic transmission, including transmission from companion animals such as pet dogs to humans. Patterns of infection have been previously described for dogs and humans, but such investigations have used different time periods and locations for these two species. Our objective was to describe and compare the overall trend and seasonality of Giardia species infection among dogs and humans in the United States from 2003 through 2009 in an ecological study using public health surveillance data and medical records of pet dogs visiting a large nationwide private veterinary hospital. Canine data were obtained from all dogs visiting Banfield hospitals in the United States with fecal test results for Giardia species, from January 2003 through December 2009. Incidence data of human cases from the same time period were obtained from the CDC. Descriptive time plots, a seasonal trend decomposition (STL) procedure, and seasonal autoregressive moving-average (SARIMA) models were used to assess the temporal characteristics of Giardia infection in the two species. Canine incidence showed a gradual decline from 2003 to 2009 with no significant/distinct regular seasonal component. By contrast, human incidence showed a stable annual rate with a significant regular seasonal cycle, peaking in August and September. Different temporal patterns in human and canine Giardia cases observed in this study suggest that the epidemiological disease processes underlying both series might be different, and Giardia transmission between humans and their companion dogs seems uncommon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal patterns in human A (H5N1 virus infection: analysis of global cases.

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    Maya B Mathur

    Full Text Available Human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 have high mortality. Despite abundant data on seasonal patterns in influenza epidemics, it is unknown whether similar patterns exist for human HPAI H5N1 cases worldwide. Such knowledge could help decrease avian-to-human transmission through increased prevention and control activities during peak periods.We performed a systematic search of published human HPAI H5N1 cases to date, collecting month, year, country, season, hemisphere, and climate data. We used negative binomial regression to predict changes in case incidence as a function of season. To investigate hemisphere as a potential moderator, we used AIC and the likelihood-ratio test to compare the season-only model to nested models including a main effect or interaction with hemisphere. Finally, we visually assessed replication of seasonal patterns across climate groups based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.We identified 617 human cases (611 with complete seasonal data occurring in 15 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Case occurrence was much higher in winter (n = 285, p = 0.03 than summer (n = 64, and the winter peak occurred across diverse climate groups. There was no significant interaction between hemisphere and season.Across diverse climates, HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans increases significantly in winter. This is consistent with increased poultry outbreaks and HPAI H5N1 virus transmission during cold and dry conditions. Prioritizing prevention and control activities among poultry and focusing public health messaging to reduce poultry exposures during winter months may help to reduce zoonotic transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus in resource-limited settings.

  4. Human helminth co-infection: analysis of spatial patterns and risk factors in a Brazilian community.

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    Rachel L Pullan

    Full Text Available Individuals living in areas endemic for helminths are commonly infected with multiple species. Despite increasing emphasis given to the potential health impacts of polyparasitism, few studies have investigated the relative importance of household and environmental factors on the risk of helminth co-infection. Here, we present an investigation of exposure-related risk factors as sources of heterogeneity in the distribution of co-infection with Necator americanus and Schistosoma mansoni in a region of southeastern Brazil.Cross-sectional parasitological and socio-economic data from a community-based household survey were combined with remotely sensed environmental data using a geographical information system. Geo-statistical methods were used to explore patterns of mono- and co-infection with N. americanus and S. mansoni in the region. Bayesian hierarchical models were then developed to identify risk factors for mono- and co-infection in relation to community-based survey data to assess their roles in explaining observed heterogeneity in mono and co-infection with these two helminth species.The majority of individuals had N. americanus (71.1% and/or S. mansoni (50.3% infection; 41.0% of individuals were co-infected with both helminths. Prevalence of co-infection with these two species varied substantially across the study area, and there was strong evidence of household clustering. Hierarchical multinomial models demonstrated that relative socio-economic status, household crowding, living in the eastern watershed and high Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI were significantly associated with N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection. These risk factors could, however, only account for an estimated 32% of variability between households.Our results demonstrate that variability in risk of N. americanus and S. mansoni co-infection between households cannot be entirely explained by exposure-related risk factors, emphasizing the possible role of

  5. Distribution patterns of infection with multiple types of human papillomaviruses and their association with risk factors.

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    Sara Soto-De Leon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%, while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (-31.1%, or were of mestizo (-24.6% or black (-40.9% ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2-4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  6. Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors

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    Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (−31.1%), or were of mestizo (−24.6%) or black (−40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

  7. Alteration of N-glycan expression profile and glycan pattern of glycoproteins in human hepatoma cells after HCV infection.

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    Xiang, Tian; Yang, Ganglong; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Yidan; Fu, Zhongxiao; Lu, Fangfang; Gu, Jianguo; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Tan, Zengqi; Chen, Xi; Xie, Yan; Guan, Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic liver diseases, liver fibrosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However little is known about any information of N-glycan pattern in human liver cell after HCV infection. The altered profiles of N-glycans in HCV-infected Huh7.5.1 cell were analyzed by using mass spectrometry. Then, lectin microarray, lectin pull-down assay, reverse transcription-quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) and western-blotting were used to identify the altered N-glycosylated proteins and glycosyltransferases. Compared to uninfected cells, significantly elevated levels of fucosylated, sialylated and complex N-glycans were found in HCV infected cells. Furthermore, Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding glycoconjugates were increased most. Then, the LCA-agarose was used to precipitate the specific glycosylated proteins and identify that fucosylated modified annexin A2 (ANXA2) and heat shock protein 90 beta family member 1 (HSP90B1) was greatly increased in HCV-infected cells. However, the total ANXA2 and HSP90B1 protein levels remained unchanged. Additionally, we screened the mRNA expressions of 47 types of different glycosyltransferases and found that α1,6-fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) was the most up-regulated and contributed to strengthen the LCA binding capability to fucosylated modified ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. HCV infection caused the altered N-glycans profiles, increased expressions of FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 as well as enhanced LCA binding to Huh7.5.1. Our results may lay the foundation for clarifying the role of N-glycans and facilitate the development of novel diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets based on the increased FUT8, fucosylated ANXA2 and HSP90B1 after HCV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

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    James V Conlan

    Full Text Available Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI = 17.1-21.1%. The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1% of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  9. Patterns and risks of trichinella infection in humans and pigs in northern Laos.

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    Conlan, James V; Vongxay, Khamphouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Pozio, Edoardo; Blacksell, Stuart D; Fenwick, Stanley; Thompson, R C A

    2014-01-01

    Several outbreaks of trichinellosis associated with the consumption of raw pork have occurred in Laos since 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four provinces of northern Laos to investigate the seroepidemiology of trichinellosis in the human population and determine the prevalence and species of Trichinella infection in the domestic pig population. Serum samples and questionnaire data were obtained from 1419 individuals. Serum samples were tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA using larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens and a subset of 68 positive samples were tested by western blot. The seroprevalence of Trichinella antibodies was 19.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 17.1-21.1%). The risk of having antibodies detected by ELISA using ES antigens increased with age, being of Lao-Tai ethnicity, living in Oudomxay province and being male. Tongue and diaphragm muscle samples were collected from 728 pigs and tested for Trichinella larvae by the artificial digestion method. Trichinella larvae were isolated from 15 pigs (2.1%) of which 13 were identified as T. spiralis by molecular typing; the species of the two remaining isolates could not be determined due to DNA degradation. Trichinella spp. are endemic in the domestic environment of northern Laos and targeted preventative health measures should be initiated to reduce the risk of further outbreaks occurring.

  10. Patterns of hepatitis B virus infection in Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: high prevalence of occult infection and low frequency of lamivudine resistant mutations

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    Michel VF Sucupira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV molecular profiles were determined for 44 patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 and had antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc, with and without other HBV serological markers. In this population, 70% of the patients were under lamivudine treatment as a component of antiretroviral therapy. HBV DNA was detected in 14 (32% patients. Eight out of 12 (67% HBsAg positive samples, 3/10 (30% anti-HBc only samples, and 3/22 (14% anti-HBs positive samples were HBV DNA positive. HBV DNA loads, measured by real time polymerase chain reaction, were much higher in the HBsAg positive patients (mean, 2.5 × 10(9 copies/ml than in the negative ones (HBV occult infection; mean, 2.7 × 10(5 copies/ml. Nine out of the 14 HBV DNA positive patients were under lamivudine treatment. Lamivudine resistant mutations in the polymerase gene were detected in only three patients, all of them belonging to the subgroup of five HBsAg positive, HBV DNA positive patients. A low mean HBV load (2.7 × 10(5 copies/ml and an absence of lamivudine resistant mutations were observed among the cases of HBV occult infection.

  11. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  12. Dermatophilus congolensis human infection.

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    Towersey, L; Martins, E de C; Londero, A T; Hay, R J; Soares Filho, P J; Takiya, C M; Martins, C C; Gompertz, O F

    1993-08-01

    Four cases of human dermatophilosis observed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are reported. Data that suggest nail infection by Dermatophilus congolensis are presented. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranged from an asymptomatic infection to a pustular eruption. Our findings suggest that epidermal Langerhans cells play a role in the pathogenesis of the infection.

  13. Simultaneous Single-Cell In Situ Analysis of Human Adenovirus Type 5 DNA and mRNA Expression Patterns in Lytic and Persistent Infection.

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    Krzywkowski, Tomasz; Ciftci, Sibel; Assadian, Farzaneh; Nilsson, Mats; Punga, Tanel

    2017-06-01

    An efficient adenovirus infection results in high-level accumulation of viral DNA and mRNAs in the infected cell population. However, the average viral DNA and mRNA content in a heterogeneous cell population does not necessarily reflect the same abundance in individual cells. Here, we describe a novel padlock probe-based rolling-circle amplification technique that enables simultaneous detection and analysis of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) genomic DNA and virus-encoded mRNAs in individual infected cells. We demonstrate that the method is applicable for detection and quantification of HAdV-5 DNA and mRNAs in short-term infections in human epithelial cells and in long-term infections in human B lymphocytes. Single-cell evaluation of these infections revealed high heterogeneity and unique cell subpopulations defined by differential viral DNA content and mRNA expression. Further, our single-cell analysis shows that the specific expression pattern of viral E1A 13S and 12S mRNA splice variants is linked to HAdV-5 DNA content in the individual cells. Furthermore, we show that expression of a mature form of the HAdV-5 histone-like protein VII affects virus genome detection in HAdV-5-infected cells. Collectively, padlock probes combined with rolling-circle amplification should be a welcome addition to the method repertoire for the characterization of the molecular details of the HAdV life cycle in individual infected cells.IMPORTANCE Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been extensively used as model systems to study various aspects of eukaryotic gene expression and genome organization. The vast majority of the HAdV studies are based on standard experimental procedures carried out using heterogeneous cell populations, where data averaging often masks biological differences. As every cell is unique, characteristics and efficiency of an HAdV infection can vary from cell to cell. Therefore, the analysis of HAdV gene expression and genome organization would benefit from a method

  14. Prevalence and patterns of cigarette smoking among patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis in Tanzania.

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    Mwiru, Ramadhani Stephano; Nagu, Tumaini Joseph; Kaduri, Pamela; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the major risk factors for non-AIDS related morbidities and is highly prevalent among HIV infected people. However, no reports exist from Tanzania, one of the countries highly affected by the HIV pandemic and one of Africa's biggest tobacco producer. We examined the patterns and prevalence of cigarette smoking among HIV and TB co-infected adult patients in Dar es Salaam using a cross sectional study design. Proportions were used to describe the pattern of cigarette smoking. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of various participant characteristics with smoking. Out of the 518 participants, 17 (3.3%) were current smokers, 96 (18.5%) were ex-smokers and the rest (78.2%) denied ever smoking. Male sex (p<0.001), alcohol (p<0.001), and illicit substance use (p<0.001) were significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The study indicates that, the level of current cigarette smoking among HIV/TB co-infected patients in Dar es Salaam is low. Nevertheless, the preponderance of cigarette smoking among men, alcohol drinkers, and those who use illicit substances provides a unique opportunity for targeting such population with smoking cessation interventions; HIV care and treatment clinics are uniquely positioned to provide such interventions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Recapitulation of treatment response patterns in a novel humanized mouse model for chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

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    Winer, Benjamin Y; Huang, Tiffany; Low, Benjamin E; Avery, Cindy; Pais, Mihai-Alexandru; Hrebikova, Gabriela; Siu, Evelyn; Chiriboga, Luis; Wiles, Michael V; Ploss, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    There are ~350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B (HBV). While a prophylactic vaccine and drug regimens to suppress viremia are available, chronic HBV infection is rarely cured. HBV's limited host tropism leads to a scarcity of susceptible small animal models and is a hurdle to developing curative therapies. Mice that support engraftment with human hepatoctyes have traditionally been generated through crosses of murine liver injury models to immunodeficient backgrounds. Here, we describe the disruption of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase directly in the NOD Rag1-/- IL2RγNULL (NRG) background using zinc finger nucleases. The resultant human liver chimeric mice sustain persistent HBV viremia for >90 days. When treated with standard of care therapy, HBV DNA levels decrease below detection but rebound when drug suppression is released, mimicking treatment response observed in patients. Our study highlights the utility of directed gene targeting approaches in zygotes to create new humanized mouse models for human diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiological Patterns of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olaleye

    ajol.com. Received: July 2007. Accepted (Revised):. October 2007. Published. January 2008. Full Length Research Article. Epidemiological Patterns of Human. Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex. Virus Co-Infection in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  17. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil.

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    Brooker, Simon; Alexander, Neal; Geiger, Stefan; Moyeed, Rana A; Stander, Julian; Fleming, Fiona; Hotez, Peter J; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey

    2006-09-01

    Marked heterogeneity exists in the patterns of parasitic infection between individuals, households and communities. Analysis of parasite distributions within populations is complicated by the fact that parasite distributions are highly aggregated and few studies have explicitly incorporated this distribution when investigating small-scale spatial heterogeneities. This study aimed to quantify the small-scale (within- and between-household) heterogeneity of helminth infection in an area of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with rural and urban sectors. Parasitological data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,249 individuals aged 0-86 years from 242 households were analysed. Within-household clustering of infection was assessed using random effect logistic regression models and between-household spatial heterogeneity was assessed using a Bayesian negative binomial spatial model. The overall prevalence of hookworm (Necator americanus) was 66.9%, the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni was 44.9% and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 48.8%. Statistical analysis indicated significant (within) household and (between household) spatial clustering of hookworm in both rural and urban areas and of S. mansoni in rural areas. There was no evidence of either household or spatial clustering of S. mansoni in urban areas. The spatial correlation of S. mansoni was estimated to reduce by half over a distance of 700 m in the rural area. Rural hookworm had a much smaller half-distance (28 m) and urban hookworm showed an even smaller half-distance (12 m). We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out.

  18. Pattern of sexually transmitted infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive women attending antenatal clinics in north-central Nigeria

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    Salamat A Isiaka-Lawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs are prevalent during pregnancy and may have adverse sequalae in both mother and fetus. Interactions between these infections and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV synergize and may cause adverse pregnancy outcomes and reverse the gains of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis, gonococcal infection, syphilis, and bacterial vaginosis in HIV pregnant women and compare with HIV negative controls. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was conducted during the period from April to December 2010 at the Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital and three Primary Health Centers in Ilorin. A total of 160 HIV positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were recruited, along with the same number of HIV negative matched controls. A structured proforma was used to collect information from patients, vaginal examination was performed and samples were taken from the endocervix and the posterior vaginal fornix with swab sticks. Results: STIs were recovered from 142 women, giving overall prevalence of 44.4%. HIV infected women had a higher prevalence (60% compared to uninfected (28.8%. The most prevalent STI was vaginal candidiasis (29.1%, followed by bacterial vaginosis (9.7%, and trichomoniasis (5.6%. The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, and trichomoniasis was higher among HIV positive pregnant women compared to HIV negative controls (P < 0.05. No woman had syphilis or gonorrhea. Conclusion: The prevalence of candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis was higher in HIV infected pregnant women compared to uninfected. Routine screening of HIV infected pregnant women for these organisms is advocated.

  19. Algorithms for Regular Tree Grammar Network Search and Their Application to Mining Human-viral Infection Patterns.

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    Smoly, Ilan; Carmel, Amir; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2016-03-01

    Network querying is a powerful approach to mine molecular interaction networks. Most state-of-the-art network querying tools either confine the search to a prespecified topology in the form of some template subnetwork, or do not specify any topological constraints at all. Another approach is grammar-based queries, which are more flexible and expressive as they allow for expressing the topology of the sought pattern according to some grammar-based logic. Previous grammar-based network querying tools were confined to the identification of paths. In this article, we extend the patterns identified by grammar-based query approaches from paths to trees. For this, we adopt a higher order query descriptor in the form of a regular tree grammar (RTG). We introduce a novel problem and propose an algorithm to search a given graph for the k highest scoring subgraphs matching a tree accepted by an RTG. Our algorithm is based on the combination of dynamic programming with color coding, and includes an extension of previous k-best parsing optimization approaches to avoid isomorphic trees in the output. We implement the new algorithm and exemplify its application to mining viral infection patterns within molecular interaction networks. Our code is available online.

  20. Epidemiological patterns of cervical human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in North-Eastern Nigeria.

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    Manga, Mohammed Mohammed; Fowotade, Adeola; Abdullahi, Yusuf Mohammed; El-Nafaty, Aliyu Usman; Adamu, Danladi Bojude; Pindiga, Hamidu Umar; Bakare, Rasheed Ajani; Osoba, Abimbola Olu

    2015-01-01

    Sub-Saharan countries including Nigeria have the highest burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the world. Most studies on HPV surveillance in Nigeria were done in the southern part of the country. Geographical and socio-cultural diversity of Nigeria makes these data unlikely to be universally representative for the entire country. Northern Nigeria especially the North-East carries a higher prevalence of cervical cancer and many of its risk factors. The region may be harbouring a higher prevalence of HPV infection with a possibility of different genotypic distribution. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant HPV genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening at the Federal Teaching Hospital Gombe (FTHG), North-eastern, Nigeria. The study was an observational hospital based cross sectional study among women who presented for cervical cancer screening in FTHG. A total of 209 consenting women were tested for cervical HPV infection using PCR. DNA sequencing was carried out on positive samples to determine the prevalent HPV genotypes. The prevalence of cervical HPV infection among the participants with mean age of 39.6 ± 10.4 years was 48.1 %. The five most predominant genotypes were 18, 16, 33, 31 and 35, with prevalence of 44.7 %, 13.2 %, 7.9 %, 5.3 % and 5.3 % respectively. Other genotypes observed were 38, 45, 56, 58, 82 and KC5. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 7.9 % of participants. Risk factors such as level of education (X (2) = 15.897; p = 0.007), age at sexual debut (X (2) = 6.916; p = 0.009), parity (X (2) = 23.767; p = 0.000), number of life time sexual partners (X (2) = 7.805; p = 0.005), age at first pregnancy (X (2) = 10.554; p = 0.005) and history of other malignancies (X (2) = 7.325; p = 0.007) were found to have a statistically significant association with HPV infection. This study identified a high burden of HPV

  1. Fungi that Infect Humans.

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    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients-Candida, Pneumocystis, and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  2. [Infection by human cytomegalovirus].

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    Sanbonmatsu Gámez, Sara; Ruiz, Mercedes Pérez; Navarro Marí, José María

    2014-02-01

    Prevalence of human cytomegalovirus infection is very high worldwide. Following primary infection, the virus remains latent, being able to cause recurrences either by reinfection with a new strain or by reactivation of the replication of the latent virus. The most severe disease is seen in congenital infection and in immunosuppressed patients, in whom the virus act as an opportunistic pathogen. Serological techniques are the methods of choice in primary infection and to determine the immune status against CMV in organ donor and receptor. Although well-standardized studies are lacking, the recent commercial availability of methods that measure cellular immune response are promising to predict the risk of CMV disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Molecular assays, that have gradually been substituting viral culture and/or antigen detection, are the most widely used methods for the diagnosis and control of CMV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome patterns from primary cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis infections associate with eventual development of mucosal disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretti-Mira, Ana Claudia; Bittner, Jaime; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel Paes; Liu, Minghsun; Kang, Dezhi; Li, Huiying; Pirmez, Claude; Craft, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) are two extreme clinical forms of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis that usually begin as solitary primary cutaneous lesions. Host and parasite factors that influence the progression of LCL to ML are not completely understood. In this manuscript, we compare the gene expression profiles of primary cutaneous lesions from patients who eventually developed ML to those that did not. Using RNA-seq, we analyzed both the human and Leishmania transcriptomes in primary cutaneous lesions. Limited number of reads mapping to Leishmania transcripts were obtained. For human transcripts, compared to ML patients, lesions from LCL patients displayed a general multi-polarization of the adaptive immune response and showed up-regulation of genes involved in chemoattraction of innate immune cells and in antigen presentation. We also identified a potential transcriptional signature in the primary lesions that may predict long-term disease outcome. We were able to simultaneously sequence both human and Leishmania mRNA transcripts in primary cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Our results suggest an intrinsic difference in the immune capacity of LCL and ML patients. The findings correlate the complete cure of L. braziliensis infection with a controlled inflammatory response and a balanced activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Transcriptome patterns from primary cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis infections associate with eventual development of mucosal disease in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Maretti-Mira

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL and Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML are two extreme clinical forms of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis that usually begin as solitary primary cutaneous lesions. Host and parasite factors that influence the progression of LCL to ML are not completely understood. In this manuscript, we compare the gene expression profiles of primary cutaneous lesions from patients who eventually developed ML to those that did not. METHODS: Using RNA-seq, we analyzed both the human and Leishmania transcriptomes in primary cutaneous lesions. RESULTS: Limited number of reads mapping to Leishmania transcripts were obtained. For human transcripts, compared to ML patients, lesions from LCL patients displayed a general multi-polarization of the adaptive immune response and showed up-regulation of genes involved in chemoattraction of innate immune cells and in antigen presentation. We also identified a potential transcriptional signature in the primary lesions that may predict long-term disease outcome. CONCLUSIONS: We were able to simultaneously sequence both human and Leishmania mRNA transcripts in primary cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Our results suggest an intrinsic difference in the immune capacity of LCL and ML patients. The findings correlate the complete cure of L. braziliensis infection with a controlled inflammatory response and a balanced activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ages of 15-64 years for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia using Papanicolaou smear staining technique and serological diagnosis using IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Respondents were selected through convenience sampling of subjects, while interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data, and data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Of the 200 blood samples examined for Human papillomavirus infection, 135 (67.5% were sero-positive while 65 (32.5% were sero-negative. For cervical cytology using Papanicolaou smear, 14 (7% were positive (had presence of cervical abnormality while 186 (93% were negative (had no cervical abnormality. Result showed a direct relationship between seropositivity, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and Human papillomavirus infection. The risk factors for the development of HPV infection included age, type of marriage, parity, history of genital infection and tobacco usage. Non circumcision of male partner was also found to be a risk factor. Conclusion: The presence of abnormal cervical cytology and high level of serological positivity clearly showed why there is need for a holistic approach to the screening, vaccination methodologies and early detection of HPV infection in the country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 453-459

  6. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basáñez María-Gloria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from a cohort of human hosts, and demonstrate that the per host mean weight (a proxy for size of female Ascaris is dependent on the number of infecting females (worm burden following a pattern of initial facilitation followed by limitation. Applying a negative binomial (NB generalized linear model (GLM and a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB model we confirm that the per host female mean weight is significantly associated with per host egg production. Despite these associations, the mean weight of female Ascaris has little causal impact on patterns of density-dependent egg output. The ZINB model is able to account for the disproportionately large number of zero egg counts within the data and is shown to be a consistently better fit than the NB model. The probability of observing a zero egg count is demonstrated as being negatively associated with both female worm burden and female mean weight. Conclusion The mean weight of female Ascaris is statistically significantly associated with egg output, and follows a consistent pattern of facilitation preceding limitation with increasing female worm burden. Despite these relationships, incorporation of female Ascaris mean weight into models of egg output has little effect on patterns of density dependence. The ZINB model is a superior fit to the data than the NB model and provides additional information regarding the mechanisms that result in a zero egg count. The ZINB model is shown to be a useful tool for the

  7. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-Infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    : relative position and separation distance between people, difference in height between them, level of activity, breathing function or process (breathing frequency, exhalation through the mouth or through the nose, coughing, sneezing) or air velocity and turbulence level in the micro-environment around...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...... prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...

  8. Indoor Airflow Patterns, Dispersion of Human Exhalation Flow and Risk of Airborne Cross-infection between People in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés

    : relative position and separation distance between people, difference in height between them, level of activity, breathing function or process (breathing frequency, exhalation through the mouth or through the nose, coughing, sneezing) or air velocity and turbulence level in the micro-environment around...... the persons. This thesis analyzes some of these parameters in the influence of cross-infection risk between two people in a room, which are simulated by two breathing thermal manikins. One of the manikins is considered the source of contaminants, which is exhaling contaminated air through the mouth...... prevalent transmission routes. Airborne cross-infection of diseases is caused by the transmission of pathogens, such as viruses or bacteria, between people and across environments. When a person is breathing, talking, sneezing or coughing, small particles, which may carry biological contaminants, are spread...

  9. Patterns of Human Papillomavirus DNA and Antibody Positivity in Young Males and Females, Suggesting a Site-Specific Natural Course of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity

  10. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity

  11. Changing Geographic Patterns and Risk Factors for Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Infections in Humans, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artois, Jean; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xiling; Qin, Ying; Pearcy, Morgan; Lai, Shengjie; Shi, Yujing; Zhang, Juanjuan; Peng, Zhibin; Zheng, Jiandong; He, Yangni; Dhingra, Madhur S; von Dobschuetz, Sophie; Guo, Fusheng; Martin, Vincent; Kalpravidh, Wantanee; Claes, Filip; Robinson, Timothy; Hay, Simon I; Xiao, Xiangming; Feng, Luzhao; Gilbert, Marius; Yu, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    The fifth epidemic wave of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China during 2016-2017 demonstrated a geographic range expansion and caused more human cases than any previous wave. The factors that may explain the recent range expansion and surge in incidence remain unknown. We investigated the effect of anthropogenic, poultry, and wetland variables on all epidemic waves. Poultry predictor variables became much more important in the last 2 epidemic waves than they were previously, supporting the assumption of much wider H7N9 transmission in the chicken reservoir. We show that the future range expansion of H7N9 to northern China may increase the risk of H7N9 epidemic peaks coinciding in time and space with those of seasonal influenza, leading to a higher risk of reassortments than before, although the risk is still low so far.

  12. [The micromorphological reaction patterns of human periodontium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehm, A; Gängler, P

    1990-01-01

    Compared to the normal micromorphologic features of the human periodontium typical histopathologic reaction patterns in different age groups and under various functional conditions, especially in older individuals, are described. It is, therefore, concluded that by characterizing large autoptic material of teeth exhibiting periodontitis, in old human subjects regenerative tissue responses aimed at infection defence are in principle more pronounced. Junctional epithelium attachment at the cement surface and even at dental calculus, active bone formation and reformation, and moderate apposition of cementum are decisive for the pathomorphological picture of marginal periodontitis also in very old human subjects.

  13. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánepa, Camila; Salido, Jimena; Ruggieri, Matías; Fraile, Sindy; Pataccini, Gabriela; Berini, Carolina; Biglione, Mirna

    2015-10-28

    indeterminate Western blot (WB) patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, even in non-endemic areas. (a) to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b) to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL) is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c) to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3%) were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3%) were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1): 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2): 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC); and Group 3 (G3): 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003) was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE) 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03). indeterminate WB results confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined.

  14. Prevalence, risk factors of human papillomavirus infection and papanicolaou smear pattern among women attending a tertiary health facility in south-west Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji Mathew Kolawole; Kazeem Toyosi Olatunji; Kabir Adekunle Durowade; Augustine Adebayo Adeniyi; Luqman Omotayo Omokanye

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Cervical cancer amongst Nigerian women has been on the increase in the past decade, and is regarded as the second highest cause of cancer deaths among Nigerian women. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors of HPV infection, and Papanicolaou smear pattern amongst a cohort of women attending the Gynaecology clinic of a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, South west Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women between the ag...

  15. [Listeria monocytogenes in human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołakowska, Agnieszka; Madajczak, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    The Listeria genus is distinguished into six species from which just one--Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic for humans. The main route of acquisition of Listeria is through the ingestion of contaminated food products. An important element of the L. monocytogenes pathogenesis infection is affiliation with high-risk group of immunocompromised patients, infants or pregnant women, who infected by this microorganism can lead to miscarriage. Listeriosis can appear in the form of sepsis, infection of the nervous system or local abscesses. Another form of listeriosis is gastrointestinal tract infection--noticed in case of food poisoning outbreak.

  16. Targeting Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Srinidhi; You, Jianxin

    2017-08-18

    While the majority of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient and cleared within a couple of years following exposure, 10-20% of infections persist latently, leading to disease progression and, ultimately, various forms of invasive cancer. Despite the clinical efficiency of recently developed multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccines, these preventive measures are not effective against pre-existing infection. Additionally, considering that the burden associated with HPV is greatest in regions with limited access to preventative vaccination, the development of effective therapies targeting persistent infection remains imperative. This review discusses not only the mechanisms underlying persistent HPV infection, but also the promise of immunomodulatory therapeutic vaccines and small-molecular inhibitors, which aim to augment the host immune response against the viral infection as well as obstruct critical viral-host interactions.

  17. Highly Pathogenic New World Arenavirus Infection Activates the Pattern Recognition Receptor Protein Kinase R without Attenuating Virus Replication in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga A; Mateer, Elizabeth J; Koma, Takaaki; Paessler, Slobodan

    2017-10-15

    The arenavirus family consists of several highly pathogenic viruses, including the Old World (OW) arenavirus Lassa fever virus (LASV) and the New World (NW) Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV). Host response to infection by these pathogenic arenaviruses is distinct in many aspects. JUNV and MACV infections readily induce an interferon (IFN) response in human cells, while LASV infection usually triggers an undetectable or weak IFN response. JUNV induces an IFN response through RIG-I, suggesting that the host non-self RNA sensor readily detects JUNV viral RNAs (vRNAs) during infection and activates IFN response. Double-stranded-RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase R (PKR) is another host non-self RNA sensor classically known for its vRNA recognition activity. Here we report that infection with NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV, but not OW LASV, activated PKR, concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Host protein synthesis was substantially suppressed in MACV- and JUNV-infected cells but was only marginally reduced in LASV-infected cells. Despite the antiviral activity known for PKR against many other viruses, the replication of JUNV and MACV was not impaired but was slightly augmented in wild-type (wt) cells compared to that in PKR-deficient cells, suggesting that PKR or PKR activation did not negatively affect JUNV and MACV infection. Additionally, we found an enhanced IFN response in JUNV- or MACV-infected PKR-deficient cells, which was inversely correlated with virus replication.IMPORTANCE The detection of viral RNA by host non-self RNA sensors, including RIG-I and MDA5, is critical to the initiation of the innate immune response to RNA virus infection. Among pathogenic arenaviruses, the OW LASV usually does not elicit an interferon response. However, the NW arenaviruses JUNV and MACV readily trigger an IFN response in a RIG-I-dependent manner. Here, we demonstrate for

  18. Patterns of Cellular Immunity Associated with Experimental Infection with rDEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) Support Its Suitability as a Human Dengue Virus Challenge Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Alba; Angelo, Michael; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Diehl, Sean A; Botten, Jason; Boyson, Jonathan; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P; Sette, Alessandro; Weiskopf, Daniela

    2017-04-15

    A deletion variant of the dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 (DENV2) Tonga/74 strain lacking 30 nucleotides from its 3' untranslated region (rDEN2Δ30) has previously been established for use in a controlled human DENV challenge model. To evaluate if this model is appropriate for the derivation of correlates of protection for DENV vaccines on the basis of cellular immunity, we wanted to compare the cellular immune response to this challenge strain to the response induced by natural infection. To achieve this, we predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides from rDEN2Δ30 and used them in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay to interrogate CD8 + and CD4 + T cell responses in healthy volunteers infected with rDEN2Δ30. At the level of CD8 responses, vigorous ex vivo responses were detected in approximately 80% of donors. These responses were similar in terms of the magnitude and the numbers of epitopes recognized to the responses previously observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors from regions where DENV is hyperendemic. The similarity extended to the immunodominance hierarchy of the DENV nonstructural proteins, with NS3, NS5, and NS1 being dominant in both donor cohorts. At the CD4 level, the responses to rDEN2Δ30 vaccination were less vigorous than those to natural DENV infection and were more focused on nonstructural proteins. The epitopes recognized following rDEN2Δ30 infection and natural infection were largely overlapping for both the CD8 (100%) and CD4 (85%) responses. Finally, rDEN2Δ30 induced stronger CD8 responses than other, more attenuated DENV isolates. IMPORTANCE The lack of a known correlate of protection and the failure of a neutralizing antibody to correlate with protection against dengue virus have highlighted the need for a human DENV challenge model to better evaluate the candidate live attenuated dengue vaccines. In this study, we sought to characterize the immune profiles of rDEN2Δ30-infected

  19. Patterns of Cellular Immunity Associated with Experimental Infection with rDEN2Δ30 (Tonga/74) Support Its Suitability as a Human Dengue Virus Challenge Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Alba; Angelo, Michael; Sidney, John; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; de Silva, Aruna D.; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mallal, Simon; Diehl, Sean A.; Botten, Jason; Boyson, Jonathan; Kirkpatrick, Beth D.; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Durbin, Anna P.; Sette, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A deletion variant of the dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 (DENV2) Tonga/74 strain lacking 30 nucleotides from its 3′ untranslated region (rDEN2Δ30) has previously been established for use in a controlled human DENV challenge model. To evaluate if this model is appropriate for the derivation of correlates of protection for DENV vaccines on the basis of cellular immunity, we wanted to compare the cellular immune response to this challenge strain to the response induced by natural infection. To achieve this, we predicted HLA class I- and class II-restricted peptides from rDEN2Δ30 and used them in a gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay to interrogate CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses in healthy volunteers infected with rDEN2Δ30. At the level of CD8 responses, vigorous ex vivo responses were detected in approximately 80% of donors. These responses were similar in terms of the magnitude and the numbers of epitopes recognized to the responses previously observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from donors from regions where DENV is hyperendemic. The similarity extended to the immunodominance hierarchy of the DENV nonstructural proteins, with NS3, NS5, and NS1 being dominant in both donor cohorts. At the CD4 level, the responses to rDEN2Δ30 vaccination were less vigorous than those to natural DENV infection and were more focused on nonstructural proteins. The epitopes recognized following rDEN2Δ30 infection and natural infection were largely overlapping for both the CD8 (100%) and CD4 (85%) responses. Finally, rDEN2Δ30 induced stronger CD8 responses than other, more attenuated DENV isolates. IMPORTANCE The lack of a known correlate of protection and the failure of a neutralizing antibody to correlate with protection against dengue virus have highlighted the need for a human DENV challenge model to better evaluate the candidate live attenuated dengue vaccines. In this study, we sought to characterize the immune profiles of rDEN2Δ30

  20. Patterns of Human Respiratory Viruses and Lack of MERS-Coronavirus in Patients with Acute Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Southwestern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Abdulhaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We undertook enhanced surveillance of those presenting with respiratory symptoms at five healthcare centers by testing all symptomatic outpatients between November 2013 and January 2014 (winter time. Nasal swabs were collected from 182 patients and screened for MERS-CoV as well as other respiratory viruses using RT-PCR and multiplex microarray. A total of 75 (41.2% of these patients had positive viral infection. MERS-CoV was not detected in any of the samples. Human rhinovirus (hRV was the most detected pathogen (40.9% followed by non-MERS-CoV human coronaviruses (19.3%, influenza (Flu viruses (15.9%, and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV (13.6%. Viruses differed markedly depending on age in which hRV, Flu A, and hCoV-OC43 were more prevalent in adults and RSV, hCoV-HKU1, and hCoV-NL63 were mostly restricted to children under the age of 15. Moreover, coinfection was not uncommon in this study, in which 17.3% of the infected patients had dual infections due to several combinations of viruses. Dual infections decreased with age and completely disappeared in people older than 45 years. Our study confirms that MERS-CoV is not common in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia and shows high diversity and prevalence of other common respiratory viruses. This study also highlights the importance and contribution of enhanced surveillance systems for better infection control.

  1. Molecular Tracing of the Geographical Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection and Patterns of Epidemic Spread Among Migrants Who Inject Drugs in Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Kostaki, Evangelia; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Sypsa, Vana; Psichogiou, Mina; Del Amo, Julia; Hodges-Mameletzis, Ioannis; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Malliori, Meni; Williams, Leslie; Friedman, Samuel R; Daikos, Georgios L; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2017-11-29

    High numbers of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) have been diagnosed in Athens, Greece, since 2011. We aimed to trace the geographic origin of HIV-1 infection for migrants who inject drugs and to investigate whether transmissions occur more frequently among migrants than among Greek nationals. Multiple cross-sectional studies were pooled to assemble all persons diagnosed with HIV-1 in Greece between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2014. Phylogenetic analyses used maximum likelihood estimation. The hypothesis of ethnic compartmentalization was tested by reconstructing ancestral states of characters at the tips using the criterion of parsimony over a set of bootstrap trees. Of 2274 persons, 38.4% were PWID. Phylogenetic analyses showed the existence of 4 major PWID-specific local transmission networks (LTNs): CRF14_BG (437 [58.6%]), CRF35_AD (139 [18.6%]), subtype B (116 [15.6%]), and subtype A (54 [7.2%]). Of 184 non-Greek PWID, 78.3% had been infected within the PWID-LTNs. For 173 (94.3%), the origin of their infection was assumed to be in Greece (postmigration). For PWID infected within LTNs, transmissions for subtype A and CRF14_BG occurred more frequently among migrants than would be expected by chance (phyloethnic study). Our analysis showed that the majority of infections among migrants occurred postmigration. The existence of significant transmission networking among migrants highlights that this population is a priority for HIV prevention. As molecular analysis can estimate the probable country of HIV infection, it can help to inform the design of public health strategies.

  2. Patterns of Growth, Body Composition, and Lipid Profiles in a South African Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected and Uninfected Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramteke, Sarah M; Shiau, Stephanie; Foca, Marc; Strehlau, Renate; Pinillos, Francoise; Patel, Faeezah; Violari, Avy; Liberty, Afaaf; Coovadia, Ashraf; Kuhn, Louise; Arpadi, Stephen M

    2017-05-06

    Prior research in sub-Saharan Africa reports dyslipidemia in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children receiving ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) compared with efavirenz; however, interpretation of findings is limited by lack of comparison data from HIV-uninfected children. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of lipid profiles and growth within a larger longitudinal cohort study of perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children aged 4-9 years in Johannesburg, South Africa. At enrollment, anthropometrics, viral load, CD4, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides were measured. Weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ), height-for-age Z-score (HAZ), and body mass index-for-age Z-score (BAZ) were calculated. United States pediatric thresholds for dyslipidemia were used. Five hundred fifty-three HIV-infected and 300 HIV-uninfected children (median age 6.9 years) of similar demographic characteristics were enrolled. Of the HIV-infected children, 94.8% were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (65.4% on LPV/r- and 28.6% on efavirenz-based regimens). Among the treated, 94.3% had a viral load 1) compared with HIV-uninfected children (14.4% vs 21.7%, P = .04). Whether on LPV/r or efavirenz, a higher proportion of HIV-infected children had borderline/elevated TC or abnormal triglycerides than HIV-uninfected children, although a higher proportion of those on LPV/r had borderline/elevated TC, borderline/elevated LDL, or abnormal triglycerides than those on efavirenz. In a South African cohort of HIV-infected children and population-appropriate HIV-uninfected children, unfavorable alterations in lipid profiles were detected in HIV-infected children regardless of treatment regimen compared with HIV-uninfected children. The HIV-infected children were of smaller size than HIV-uninfected children, but there was a high prevalence of overweight in both groups. Strategies for optimizing growth and

  3. Human infection with Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, G W; Suter, I I

    1976-03-27

    Dermatophilosis is a skin disease in animals and humans caused by the actinomycete Dermatophilus congolensis. This microorganism causes the skin disease in sheep commonly referred to in Australia as "lumpy wool" or mycotic dermatitis. One proven case of human dermatophilosis and two cases with features which are clinically highly suggestive of the disease from South Australia are described. There has been only one previous report of human infection caused by D. congolensis, which was from the United States in 1961. A brief account of the history, characteristics and life cycle of D. congolensis is given. Human infection in Australia may be not uncommon. A diagnosis can be made by direct microscopy of scab material from the lesions. For this purpose, dry scabs should be sent to the laboratory.

  4. Avian Influenza infection in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan. M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks caused by the H5N1 strain are presently of the greatest concern for human health. In assessing risks to human health, it is important to know exactly which avian virus strains are causing the outbreaks in birds.All available evidence points to an increased risk of transmission to humans when outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza are widespread in poultry. There is mounting evidence that this strain has a unique capacity to jump the species barrier and cause severe disease, with high mortality, in humans. There is no evidence, to date that efficient human to human transmission of H5N1 strain has occurred and very often. Efficient transmission among humans is a key property of pandemic strains and a property that the avian H5N1 and H9N2 viruses apparently lacked. The biological and molecular basis for effective aerosol transmission among humans is not known. The virus can improve its transmissibility among humans via two principal mechanisms. The first is a “reassortment” event, in which genetic material is exchanged between human and avian viruses during co-infection of a human or pig.Reassortment could result in a fully transmissible pandemic virus, announced by a sudden surge of cases with explosive spread. The second mechanism is a more gradual process of adaptive mutation, whereby the capability of the virus to bind to human cells increases during subsequent infections of humans. Adaptive mutation, expressed initially as small clusters of human cases with some evidence of human-to-human transmission, would probably give the world some time to take defensive action, if detected sufficiently early. As the number of human infections grows, the risk increases that a new virus subtype could emerge, triggering an influenza pandemic. Humans as well as swine must now be considered a potential mixing vessel for the generation of such a virus. This link between widespread infection in poultry and increased risk of human

  5. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike J Vriend

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity rates. METHODS: We enrolled 3569 men and women, 16-24 years of age, from 14 STI clinics, and estimated genital and anal HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates of 7 main carcinogenic HPV types. Generalized estimating equations regression analyses were applied to determine risk factors for, and associations between, type-specific HPV DNA and antibody positivity. RESULTS: Genital HPV DNA positivity rates were higher in women than in men; anal HPV DNA was especially high in men who have sex with men (MSM. HPV antibody seropositivity rates were also highest in women and MSM. High-risk sexual behavior was predictive of both HPV DNA and antibody positivity. Despite a strong correlation in serological profiles for multiple HPV types, seropositivity was independently associated with homologous HPV DNA detection. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates are higher in women and MSM than in heterosexual men, but their association is similar across gender. This suggests a site-specific natural course of infection.

  6. Infections caused by Kluyvera species in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarria, J C; Vidal, A M; Kimbrough, R C

    2001-10-01

    Kluyvera is a relatively newly described genus in the family Enterobacteriaceae that infrequently causes infections in humans. The organism has been isolated from various clinical specimens, but its significance has not been clearly established. In fact, it has been regarded alternatively as saprophytic, opportunistic, or pathogenic. Since the redefinition of this genus in 1981, case reports of diverse clinical infections occurring under various host conditions have been published. Here we present a critical review of all Kluyvera infections reported in the literature, along with our experience involving 5 additional cases. Most patients received prompt antimicrobial treatment on the basis of susceptibility testing, and overall the clinical outcomes were good. Antimicrobial agents active against most Kluyvera strains include third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. In contrast, the resistance to ampicillin, extended-spectrum penicillins, and first- and second-generation cephalosporins is significant. Kluyvera is a potentially virulent pathogen that deserves aggressive treatment designed with an awareness of the organism's antimicrobial resistance patterns.

  7. Oncogenic human papillomavirus imposes an instructive pattern of DNA methylation changes which parallel the natural history of cervical HPV infection in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Wei, Wenbin; Collins, Stuart I; Pereira, Merlin; Diyaf, Afaf; Constandinou-Williams, Christothea; Young, Lawrence S; Roberts, Sally; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2012-07-01

    The contribution of early virus-induced epigenetic changes to human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Using genome-wide methylation array profiling and a cell-based model, which supports replication of HPV episomes, we found that transfection of primary human foreskin keratinocytes with episomal forms of high-risk HPV types was followed by upregulation of the DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3B, and changes in the methylation status of cellular genes many of which are reported to be differentially methylated in cervical neoplasia. HPV16- and HPV18-associated changes were not randomly distributed across the genome, but clustered at specific chromosomal locations which mapped on to known HPV integration sites and to chromosomal regions lost and gained in high-grade cervical neoplasia. Methylation changes were directed in part by the same cis-acting factors that appear to direct methylation changes in cancer, the presence of a bivalent chromatin mark in human embryonic stem cells and promoter CpG content; these associations explain much of the ontological profile of genes found to have increased methylation following HPV16 transfection. We were also able to show, using sequential samples from a cohort of young women with incident HPV16 infections, that the detection in cervical samples of methylated forms of the tumour suppressor gene, RARB, often parallels the natural history of cervical HPV infection. Our findings suggest that further investigation of the distribution and determinants of early virus-induced epigenetic reprogramming will provide important insights into the pathogenesis of virus-associated malignancy.

  8. Human genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, T.S.; Johnson, M.D.; Scott, W.K.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W. van der; Perfect, J.R.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Infections with Candida spp. have different manifestations in humans, ranging from mucosal to bloodstream and deep-seated disseminated infections. Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to these types of infections, due to reduced capacity to elicit effective innate or adaptive

  9. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pandemic Other Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  10. Incidence of Surgical Site Infections and Microbial Pattern at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 bacterial isolates and multidrug resistance was also observed in a number of bacterial isolates. Conclusion. The incidence of infection in our centre is low and the pattern of microbes causing surgical site infection at the centre has remained the same over time. Introduction. Surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection that.

  11. Intracellular Mycoplasma genitalium infection of human vaginal and cervical epithelial cells elicits distinct patterns of inflammatory cytokine secretion and provides a possible survival niche against macrophage-mediated killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyles Richard B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma genitalium is an emerging sexually transmitted pathogen that has been associated with significant reproductive tract inflammatory syndromes in women. In addition, the strong association between severity of M. genitalium infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 shedding from the cervix suggests that innate responses to M. genitalium may influence pathogenesis of other sexually transmitted infections. Epithelial cells (ECs of the reproductive mucosa are the first cells contacted by sexually transmitted pathogens. Therefore, we first characterized the dynamics of intracellular and extracellular localization and resultant innate immune responses from human vaginal, ecto- and endocervical ECs to M. genitalium type strain G37 and a low-pass contemporary isolate, M2300. Results Both M. genitalium strains rapidly attached to vaginal and cervical ECs by 2 h post-infection (PI. By 3 h PI, M. genitalium organisms also were found in intracellular membrane-bound vacuoles of which approximately 60% were adjacent to the nucleus. Egress of M. genitalium from infected ECs into the culture supernatant was observed but, after invasion, viable intracellular titers were significantly higher than extracellular titers at 24 and 48 h PI. All of the tested cell types responded by secreting significant levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in a pattern consistent with recruitment and stimulation of monocytes and macrophages. Based on the elaborated cytokines, we next investigated the cellular interaction of M. genitalium with human monocyte-derived macrophages and characterized the resultant cytokine responses. Macrophages rapidly phagocytosed M. genitalium resulting in a loss of bacterial viability and a potent pro-inflammatory response that included significant secretion of IL-6 and other cytokines associated with enhanced HIV-1 replication. The macrophage-stimulating capacity of M. genitalium was independent

  12. Genital human papillomavirus infection in Panama City prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Arosemena, J R; Garcia, M; de Lao, S L; Cuevas, M; Quiroz, E; Caussy, D; Rawls, W E

    1989-10-01

    Little is known of the natural history of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women from high-risk populations. Samples were collected from 183 Panama City prostitutes and assessed for HPV (filter in situ DNA hybridization) and for sexually transmitted agents. The cohort was followed for 8 mo; 51% of subjects completed four monthly return visits and 16% were sampled eight times. The proportion of women found infected with HPV increased significantly with increasing numbers of consecutive samples tested; 38 (21%) of 183 women were positive after one visit and 46 (82%) of 56 who completed six visits were infected. The pattern of viral detection over time was not random, which implied that most prostitutes were persistently infected with genital HPVs and that either scattered foci of infection or periodic reactivation of latent virus occurred. Our findings suggest that multiple sampling is necessary to accurately estimate HPV infection rates and to define whether patterns of DNA expression are present.

  13. An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaki Prosper P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. Methodology An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC, as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Results Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR [95% Confidence Interval (CI] = 0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P An. gambiae or Culex respectively. Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141. Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year, CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or Anopheles funestus caught per night, P =0.0373. Discussion and conclusion CB trapping approaches could be improved with more sensitive traps

  14. Epidemiological patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no doubt that the greatest health problem threatening the human race these times is the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The greatest burden of this scourge is in sub-saharan African. This has undoubtedly increased the incidence of opportunistic infection like herpes simplex virus infection. This study investigated the ...

  15. Human papillomavirus type 13 infecting the conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides dos Santos, Paulo José; Borborema dos Santos, Cristina Maria; Rufino Mendonça, Rosângela; Vieira do Carmo, Maria Auxiliadora; Astofi-Filho, Spartaco

    2005-09-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) is a rare infection caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 13 or 32 believed to infect exclusively oral mucosa. This report illustrates a case of multiple conjunctival papillomas similar to oral FEH caused by HPV-13, consisting in the first description of its infection outside the oral mucosa in a healthy patient.

  16. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  17. Human Infections and Detection of Plasmodium knowlesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Cyrus

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Plasmodium knowlesi is a malaria parasite that is found in nature in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques. Naturally acquired human infections were thought to be extremely rare until a large focus of human infections was reported in 2004 in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Human infections have since been described throughout Southeast Asia, and P. knowlesi is now recognized as the fifth species of Plasmodium causing malaria in humans. The molecular, entomological, and epidemiological data indicate that human infections with P. knowlesi are not newly emergent and that knowlesi malaria is primarily a zoonosis. Human infections were undiagnosed until molecular detection methods that could distinguish P. knowlesi from the morphologically similar human malaria parasite P. malariae became available. P. knowlesi infections cause a spectrum of disease and are potentially fatal, but if detected early enough, infections in humans are readily treatable. In this review on knowlesi malaria, we describe the early studies on P. knowlesi and focus on the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects, and treatment of knowlesi malaria. We also discuss the gaps in our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead in studying the epidemiology and pathogenesis of knowlesi malaria and in the prevention and control of this zoonotic infection. PMID:23554413

  18. The Spectrum of Fungi That Infects Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R.; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John

    2015-01-01

    Few among the millions of fungal species fulfill four basic conditions necessary to infect humans: high temperature tolerance, ability to invade the human host, lysis and absorption of human tissue, and resistance to the human immune system. In previously healthy individuals, invasive fungal disease is rare because animals’ sophisticated immune systems evolved in constant response to fungal challenges. In contrast, fungal diseases occur frequently in immunocompromised patients. Paradoxically, successes of modern medicine have put increasing numbers of patients at risk for invasive fungal infections. Uncontrolled HIV infection additionally makes millions vulnerable to lethal fungal diseases. A concerted scientific and social effort is needed to meet these challenges. PMID:25367975

  19. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. © 2012 The Authors. Immunology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shenyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic infection of humans and animals, caused by the opportunistic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. Infection in pregnant women may lead to abortion, stillbirth or other serious consequences in newborns. Infection in immunocompromised patients can be fatal if not treated. On average, one third of people are chronically infected worldwide. Although very limited information from China has been published in the English journals, T. gondii infection is actually a significant human health problem in China. In the present article, we reviewed the clinical features, transmission, prevalence of T. gondii infection in humans in China, and summarized genetic characterizations of reported T. gondii isolates. Educating the public about the risks associated with unhealthy food and life style habits, tracking serological examinations to special populations, and measures to strengthen food and occupational safety are discussed.

  1. Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under five years of age in Jos Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Acute respiratory infections are the commonest cause of acute morbidity in children especially those under five in the developing countries. ... prevalence of 43.5/1000 person per year (39/897).

  2. Incidence of Surgical Site Infections and Microbial Pattern at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a major cause of morbidity and death. We conducted a study to determine the incidence of surgical site infections and microbial pattern at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre. Patients and Methods A prospective hospital based study was conducted at KCMC general ...

  3. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Joel B.; Mathias, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues. All health-care workers, including physicians and dental personnel, may be instrumental in recognizing risk factors associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Oral signs and symptoms of HIV infection may be the first presentation of the disease or may develop during the course of the disease and require management. Knowledge of the signs, symptoms and associated infections and tumours is needed to as...

  4. Chlamydophila psittaci infection of birds and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Bülent Baş; Gökçen Dinç

    2015-01-01

    Psittacosis is a systemic infection with high morbidity caused by Chlamydophila psittaci in domestic and wild birds. It shows zoonotic characteristic. C. psittaci leads an infection in over of 470 bird species worldwide has been known. This is a fact that people have a close relationship both with wild and pet birds and this has paved the way for infection in humans of. C. psittaci Gram negative, obligate and intracellular bacterium with biphasic growth cycle. It is transmitted by respiratory...

  5. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection among Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Psychiatric patients are considered high risked group for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This has been found to be as a result of poor judgment and irrationality associated with some of the disorders. However, there is dearth of literature on the prevalence of HIV infection among psychiatric ...

  7. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Pu; Wang, Xiang-Wen; Yan, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010) and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012), have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking. In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region. Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  8. Saffold virus infection associated with human myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Skov; Nielsen, Alex Yde; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saffold virus was described in 2007 as one of the first human viruses within the genus cardioviruses. Cardioviruses may cause severe infections of the myocardium in animals, and several studies have associated saffold virus with human disease. As a result, saffold virus has been...... in the myocardium, lung tissue and blood of one child and was accompanied by histopathological inflammation in the heart and lungs, which was supportive of a viral infection. These findings suggest that cardioviruses may be associated with myocarditis in humans....

  9. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction.

  10. Oral infection, regular alcohol drinking pattern, and myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håheim, Lise Lund; Olsen, Ingar; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-12-01

    Oral infections have been associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Conversely, low, regular alcohol consumption is associated with a lower association of CVD. The objective was to test the novel hypothesis that oral infections are modified by regular alcohol drinking which has the effect of lowering the incidence of MI's. The effect has been observed where tooth extractions where carried out due to infections and compared with extractions unconnected to infections. Oral infections and in particular periodontal infections impose an infectious load on the health in many people. In its advanced forms (periodontal pockets ≥ 6mm) periodontitis affects ∼10-15% of adults. The infection runs a chronic course with exacerbations. The bacteria cause local infection destructive to the supporting tissues of the teeth and have been detected in systemic diseases through bacterial products and bacteria entering the circulation. The often persistent, long term history of chronic periodontal infection in individuals is a challenge to the immune system. Over 700 oral bacteria and other microorganisms have been identified, many of which are virulent. Control of the level of oral microbiota is through well known oral hygiene measures. Alcohol by being bactericidal is a factor that may reduce the bacterial level in the oral cavity. If this effect truly exists, it should be observed through reduction of infections in the mouth. Tooth extraction is the ultimate consequence of periodontal and dental infections and a reduction of tooth extraction due to infections should therefore be observed. The hypothesis was tested using the screening data of the Oslo II-study in a cross sectional analysis. The Oslo-study included men aged 48-67 years. The main finding was that the effect of a drinking pattern of 2-7 times per week reduced the risk of MI among men who had a history of tooth extractions due to infections versus tooth

  11. Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of symptomatic urinary tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of symptomatic urinary tract infection in pregnancy in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. ... Most common was Proteus Mirabilis 24(33.3%), E. Coli 25(25%), staphylococcus Saprophyticus 12(16.6%) Kleibsella aerogenes 10(13.9%), Enterococcus Faecalis 6(8.3%) and Pseudomonas aeriginosa ...

  12. Patterns of trematode infection in gall bladder from cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of gall-bladder of slaughtered cattle was carried out to determine variation pattern of trematode infection. A total of 1,240 gall-bladders of cattle were examined for trematode eggs and adult worms between August 2008 and March 2009. Fifty questionnaires were randomly administered to cattle handlers to ...

  13. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  14. Human Infection in Wild Mountain Gorillas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-25

    This podcast discusses a study about the transmission of Human Metapneumovirus Infection to wild mountain gorillas in Rwanda in 2009, published in the April 2011 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. Dr. Ian Lipkin, Director of the Center for Infection and Immunity and Dr. Gustavo Palacios, investigator in the Center of Infection & Immunity share details of this study.  Created: 4/25/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/2/2011.

  15. Cascading walks model for human mobility patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Pu Han

    Full Text Available Uncovering the mechanism behind the scaling laws and series of anomalies in human trajectories is of fundamental significance in understanding many spatio-temporal phenomena. Recently, several models, e.g. the explorations-returns model (Song et al., 2010 and the radiation model for intercity travels (Simini et al., 2012, have been proposed to study the origin of these anomalies and the prediction of human movements. However, an agent-based model that could reproduce most of empirical observations without priori is still lacking.In this paper, considering the empirical findings on the correlations of move-lengths and staying time in human trips, we propose a simple model which is mainly based on the cascading processes to capture the human mobility patterns. In this model, each long-range movement activates series of shorter movements that are organized by the law of localized explorations and preferential returns in prescribed region.Based on the numerical simulations and analytical studies, we show more than five statistical characters that are well consistent with the empirical observations, including several types of scaling anomalies and the ultraslow diffusion properties, implying the cascading processes associated with the localized exploration and preferential returns are indeed a key in the understanding of human mobility activities. Moreover, the model shows both of the diverse individual mobility and aggregated scaling displacements, bridging the micro and macro patterns in human mobility. In summary, our model successfully explains most of empirical findings and provides deeper understandings on the emergence of human mobility patterns.

  16. Differential Infection Patterns and Recent Evolutionary Origins of Equine Hepaciviruses in Donkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stephanie; Rasche, Andrea; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Pfaender, Stephanie; Bletsa, Magda; Corman, Victor Max; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; García-Lacy, Fernando; Hans, Aymeric; Todt, Daniel; Schuler, Gerhard; Shnaiderman-Torban, Anat; Steinman, Amir; Roncoroni, Cristina; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Rusenova, Nikolina; Sandev, Nikolay; Rusenov, Anton; Zapryanova, Dimitrinka; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Jores, Joerg; Carluccio, Augusto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Cavalleri, Jessika M. V.; Drosten, Christian; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen. Genetically related viruses in animals suggest a zoonotic origin of HCV. The closest relative of HCV is found in horses (termed equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). However, low EqHV genetic diversity implies relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses, making a derivation of HCV from EqHV unlikely. To unravel the EqHV evolutionary history within equid sister species, we analyzed 829 donkeys and 53 mules sampled in nine European, Asian, African, and American countries by molecular and serologic tools for EqHV infection. Antibodies were found in 278 animals (31.5%), and viral RNA was found in 3 animals (0.3%), all of which were simultaneously seropositive. A low RNA prevalence in spite of high seroprevalence suggests a predominance of acute infection, a possible difference from the mostly chronic hepacivirus infection pattern seen in horses and humans. Limitation of transmission due to short courses of infection may explain the existence of entirely seronegative groups of animals. Donkey and horse EqHV strains were paraphyletic and 97.5 to 98.2% identical in their translated polyprotein sequences, making virus/host cospeciation unlikely. Evolutionary reconstructions supported host switches of EqHV between horses and donkeys without the involvement of adaptive evolution. Global admixture of donkey and horse hepaciviruses was compatible with anthropogenic alterations of EqHV ecology. In summary, our findings do not support EqHV as the origin of the significantly more diversified HCV. Identification of a host system with predominantly acute hepacivirus infection may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV. IMPORTANCE The evolutionary origins of the human hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unclear. The closest animal-associated relative of HCV occurs in horses (equine hepacivirus [EqHV]). The low EqHV genetic diversity implies a relatively recent acquisition of EqHV by horses

  17. Peptide inhibition of human cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Cindy A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection in the United States and Europe causing significant morbidity and mortality to both mother and child. HCMV is also an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV- infected patients with AIDS, and solid organ and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Current treatments for HCMV-associated diseases are insufficient due to the emergence of drug-induced resistance and cytotoxicity, necessitating novel approaches to limit HCMV infection. The aim of this study was to develop therapeutic peptides targeting glycoprotein B (gB, a major glycoprotein of HCMV that is highly conserved across the Herpesviridae family, that specifically inhibit fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane preventing HCMV entry and infection. Results Using the Wimley-White Interfacial Hydrophobicity Scale (WWIHS, several regions within gB were identified that display a high potential to interact with lipid bilayers of cell membranes and hydrophobic surfaces within proteins. The ability of synthetic peptides analogous to WWIHS-positive sequences of HCMV gB to inhibit viral infectivity was evaluated. Human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF were infected with the Towne-GFP strain of HCMV (0.5 MOI, preincubated with peptides at a range of concentrations (78 nm to 100 μM, and GFP-positive cells were visualized 48 hours post-infection by fluorescence microscopy and analyzed quantitatively by flow cytometry. Peptides that inhibited HCMV infection demonstrated different inhibitory concentration curves indicating that each peptide possesses distinct biophysical properties. Peptide 174-200 showed 80% inhibition of viral infection at a concentration of 100 μM, and 51% and 62% inhibition at concentrations of 5 μM and 2.5 μM, respectively. Peptide 233-263 inhibited infection by 97% and 92% at concentrations of 100

  18. Update on human Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Tribble, David R

    2011-01-01

    The present review will update the reader to the clinical, epidemiological and immunologic advances in the field of human campylobacteriosis. New advances in human campylobacteriosis include an increased appreciation of the role of Campylobacter jejuni in postinfectious sequelae, a broadened understanding of Campylobacter-associated disease burden and the interplay between host immunity and bacterial factors. Antibiotic management has also become more complex: C. jejuni has undergone a rapid increase in resistance to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics and concurrently, postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with a longer duration of untreated infection. In anticipation of new candidate C. jejuni vaccines, progress in understanding human immune responses to infection has been made via human experimental infections. These tightly controlled studies have also increased our understanding of the natural history of campylobacteriosis as well as observations of recrudescent infection following treatment with C. jejuni-sensitive antibiotics. As one of the most common agents of bacterial gastroenteritis and a major health burden for both developing world and industrialized nations, Campylobacter infections remain a high priority for research efforts to improve prevention and management. Priorities for the future include vaccine development, pathogen-specific immunity and identification of risk factors for postinfectious sequelae.

  19. A Study of Brucella Infection in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanjani Roushan Mohammad Reza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is the most usual zoonotic disease around the world especially in the Middle East, Mediterranean and Indian sub-continent areas. This bacterium has ten species that Brucella melitensis among them recognized as the most important cause of human brucellosis. This infection transfer ways to human include of wounds, bacteria inhalation and consumption of septic dairy such as raw milk, cream and butter. Brucellosis as a systemic disease can involve more organs of patients that have symptoms such as fever, night sweating, and backache. This infection can be divided as acute, sub-acute and chronic forms according to the manner of clinical presentation. Materials and Methods: This research is a review study and conducted by reviewing of the literature, which is related to this issue and also visiting, PubMed, and other linked websites. Results: In human brucellosis domestic animals are the main natural reservoir of infection. Whenever incidence rate of this infection in domestic and wild animals is reduced on the other hand incidence rate in human also will reduce. Conclusion: Blood cultures, serological tests and molecular tests are common laboratory methods of this infection. Diminution of relapse and therapeutic failure rates are as most important aim, which is researcher’s regards.

  20. Mycobacterium caprae infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Wolfgang M; Indra, Alexandra; Koksalan, Orhan K; Kilicaslan, Zeki; Richter, Elvira

    2014-12-01

    Mycobacterium caprae, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, causes tuberculosis (TB) in man and animals. Some features distinguish M. caprae from its epidemiological twin, Mycobacterium bovis: M. caprae is evolutionarily older, accounts for a smaller burden of zoonotic TB and is not globally distributed, but primarily restricted to European countries. M. caprae occurs only in a low proportion of human TB cases and this proportion may even decrease, if progress toward eradication of animal TB in Europe continues. So why bother, if M. caprae is not an enigma for diagnostic TB tests and if resistance against first-line drugs is a rarity with M. caprae? This 'European' pathogen of zoonotic TB asks interesting questions regarding the definition of a species. The latter, seemingly only an academic question, particularly requires and challenges the collaboration between human and veterinary medicine.

  1. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities....... The recording and analysis of the thermal videos has been made in collaboration with Rikke Gade from the Visual Analytics of People Lab at Aalborg University....

  2. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  3. Pattern of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bari Arfan ul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical differences among human populations may lead to variable prevalence of skin disorders in different ethnicities. Skin infections are one of the important curable and largely preventable categories of skin disorders in the communities. Aim: The purpose of the study was to see the patterns of skin infections in black Africans of Sierra Leone and to compare with other ethnic populations. Materials and Methods: Local blacks of all age groups presenting in Dermatology out patient department of Pak Field Hospital (established as a part of UN peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone were included (from Nov 2004 to Oct 2005. Relevant clinical history and physical examination was done. Laboratory investigations were carried out when indicated. Skin diseases were broadly classified into two major categories i.e., infective and noninfective. Among infective, sexually transmitted infections were again separated. Nonblack settlers in the area and UN troops were not included in the study. Data was recorded and analyzed by Microsoft Excel program. Results: 3011 patients belonging to different local tribes having a variety of skin disorders were seen. Patients were of all ages and both sexes ranging from one month to 73 years of age. The Infective skin disorders were seen in 61.7% patients and most prevalent were superficial fungal infections (41.2% followed by, sexually transmitted infections (9.9% and parasitic infections (6.5%. Bacterial and viral infections were rare and so was the scabies. More than 90% parasitic infections were onchocerciasis with full spectrum of cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion: Pattern of skin infections in blacks varies considerably from other ethnic races. Environmental factors, geographical location and free existence of vector for onchocerciasis in West African region, possibly have a significant influence in this variable prevalence.

  4. Atypical human infections by animal trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Truc

    Full Text Available The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.

  5. Thrombocytopenia in Children Infected with the Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a myriad of hematopoietic abnormalities, of which thrombocytopenia (TP) is a common complication. The condition could predispose to life-threatening hemorrhage. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of thrombocytopenia among HIV- ...

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Occupational Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opsig

    potentially infected body fluids so that they can present themselves rapidly for risk assessment and commencement of ART if necessary in the event of an occupational exposure to HIV. INTRODUCTION. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. (AIDS). It can be ...

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus infection among migrant fishermen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: People migrate from place to place for diverse reasons chief among which is economic. Migrant fishermen like other migrant population lead high risk sexual lifestyle and are therefore, predisposed to Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HIV among migrant ...

  8. Human Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense Infection in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billman, Zachary P.; Wallis, Carolyn K.; Abbott, April N.; Olson, John C.; Dhanireddy, Shireesha; Murphy, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    A patient in Washington State harbored a fish tapeworm most likely acquired from eating raw salmon. Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense was identified by cox1 sequence analysis. Although this is the first documented human D. nihonkaiense infection in the United States, the parasite may have been present earlier but misidentified as Diphyllobothrium latum. PMID:25609724

  9. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN LARYNGEAL CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrente, Mariela C.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Haigentz, Missak; Dikkers, Frederik G.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Takes, Robert P.; Olofsson, Jan; Ferlito, Alfio

    Although the association and clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections with a subset of head and neck cancers, particularly for oropharyngeal carcinoma, has recently been well documented, the involvement of HPV in laryngeal cancer has been inadequately evaluated. Herein we

  10. Mycobacterium abscessus Complex Infections in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Hung, Chien-Ching; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Li-Na; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus complex comprises a group of rapidly growing, multidrug-resistant, nontuberculous mycobacteria that are responsible for a wide spectrum of skin and soft tissue diseases, central nervous system infections, bacteremia, and ocular and other infections. M. abscessus complex is differentiated into 3 subspecies: M. abscessus subsp. abscessus, M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, and M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. The 2 major subspecies, M. abscessus subsp. abscessus and M. abscessus subsp. massiliense, have different erm(41) gene patterns. This gene provides intrinsic resistance to macrolides, so the different patterns lead to different treatment outcomes. M. abscessus complex outbreaks associated with cosmetic procedures and nosocomial transmissions are not uncommon. Clarithromycin, amikacin, and cefoxitin are the current antimicrobial drugs of choice for treatment. However, new treatment regimens are urgently needed, as are rapid and inexpensive identification methods and measures to contain nosocomial transmission and outbreaks.

  11. Cryptic diversity in hymenolepidid tapeworms infecting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkouawa, Agathe; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Li, Tiaoying; Nakao, Minoru; Lavikainen, Antti; Chen, Xingwang; Henttonen, Heikki; Ito, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An adult hymenolepidid tapeworm was recovered from a 52-year-old Tibetan woman during a routine epidemiological survey for human taeniasis/cysticercosis in Sichuan, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of nuclear 28S ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 showed that the human isolate is distinct from Hymenolepis diminuta and Hymenolepis nana, the common parasites causing human hymenolepiasis. Proglottids of the human isolate were unfortunately unsuitable for morphological identification. However, the resultant phylogeny demonstrated the human isolate to be a sister species to Hymenolepis hibernia from Apodemus mice in Eurasia. The present data clearly indicate that hymenolepidid tapeworms causing human infections are not restricted to only H. diminuta and H. nana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vascular patterning in human heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Margaret; Mohan, Aditya; Meyers, Carolyn A; Ding, Catherine; Levi, Benjamin; McCarthy, Edward; James, Aaron W

    2017-05-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO, also termed myositis ossificans) is the formation of extra-skeletal bone in muscle and soft tissues. HO is a tissue repair process gone awry, and is a common complication of surgery and traumatic injury. Medical strategies to prevent and treat HO fall well short of addressing the clinical need. Better characterization of the tissues supporting HO is critical to identifying therapies directed against this common and sometimes devastating condition. The physiologic processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis are highly coupled and interdependent. However, few efforts have been made to document the vascular patterning within heterotopic ossification. Here, surgical pathology case files of 29 human HO specimens were examined by vascular histomorphometric analysis. Results demonstrate a temporospatial patterning of HO vascularity that depends on the "maturity" of the bony lesion. In sum, human HO demonstrates a time- and space-dependent pattern of vascularization suggesting a coupled pathophysiologic process involving the coordinate processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Further imaging studies may be used to further characterize vasculogenesis within HO and whether anti-angiogenic therapies are a conceivable future therapy for this common condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human papilloma virus infection and psoriasis: Did human papilloma virus infection trigger psoriasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia P; Gulhane, Sachin; Pandey, Neha; Bisne, Esha

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease known to be triggered by streptococcal and HIV infections. However, human papilloma virus infection (HPV) as a triggering factor for the development of psoriasis has not been reported yet. We, hereby report a case of plaque type with inverse psoriasis which probably could have been triggered by genital warts (HPV infection) and discuss the possible pathomechanisms for their coexistence and its management.

  14. Virus infection and human cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    It is now estimated that approximately 10 % of worldwide cancers are attributable to viral infection, with the vast majority (>85 %) occurring in the developing world. Oncogenic viruses include various classes of DNA and RNA viruses and induce cancer by a variety of mechanisms. A unifying theme is that cancer develops in a minority of infected individuals and only after chronic infection of many years duration. The viruses associated with the greatest number of cancer cases are the human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which cause cervical cancer and several other epithelial malignancies, and the hepatitis viruses HBV and HCV, which are responsible for the majority of hepatocellular cancer. Other oncoviruses include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Identification of the infectious cause has led to several interventions that may reduce the risk of developing these tumors. These include preventive vaccines against HBV and HPV, HPV-based testing for cervical cancer screening, anti-virals for the treatment of chronic HBV and HCV infection, and screening the blood supply for the presence of HBV and HCV. Successful efforts to identify additional oncogenic viruses in human cancer may lead to further insight into etiology and pathogenesis as well as to new approaches for therapeutic and prophylactic intervention.

  15. Worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Egea, Juan José; Martín-González, Jenifer; Jiménez-Sánchez, María Del Carmen; Crespo-Gallardo, Isabel; Saúco-Márquez, Juan José; Velasco-Ortega, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Odontogenic infections, and especially endodontic infections, are polymicrobial, involving a combination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative facultative anaerobes and strictly anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, antibiotics can be used as an adjunct to endodontic treatment. However, most chronic and even acute endodontic infections can be successfully managed by disinfection of the root-canal system, which eliminates the source of infection, followed by abscess drainage or tooth extraction, without the need for antibiotics. The literature provides evidence of inadequate prescribing practices by dentists. The aim of this concise review was to analyse the worldwide pattern of antibiotic prescription in endodontic infections. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, Wiley Online Database, Web of Science and Scopus. The databases were searched up to 13 March 2016 for studies in which dentists used systemic antibiotics to treat endodontic lesions and which reported data on the type of antibiotic prescribed and on the diagnosis of the endodontic disease treated. The electronic and hand searches identified 69 titles, of which 25 were included in the final analysis. Amoxicillin was reported as the drug of choice for endodontic infections in most countries, and clindamycin and erythromycin were the choice for patients allergic to penicillin. Dentists worldwide prescribe antibiotics for non-indicated conditions, such as pulpitis. Antibiotics are overprescribed for the management of endodontic infections. It is necessary to improve antibiotic-prescribing habits in the treatment of endodontic infections, as well as to introduce educational initiatives to encourage the coherent and proper use of antibiotics in such conditions. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Rhinovirus genome evolution during experimental human infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Cordey

    Full Text Available Human rhinoviruses (HRVs evolve rapidly due in part to their error-prone RNA polymerase. Knowledge of the diversity of HRV populations emerging during the course of a natural infection is essential and represents a basis for the design of future potential vaccines and antiviral drugs. To evaluate HRV evolution in humans, nasal wash samples were collected daily for five days from 15 immunocompetent volunteers experimentally infected with a reference stock of HRV-39. In parallel, HeLa-OH cells were inoculated to compare HRV evolution in vitro. Nasal wash in vivo assessed by real-time PCR showed a viral load that peaked at 48-72 h. Ultra-deep sequencing was used to compare the low-frequency mutation populations present in the HRV-39 inoculum in two human subjects and one HeLa-OH supernatant collected 5 days post-infection. The analysis revealed hypervariable mutation locations in VP2, VP3, VP1, 2C and 3C genes and conserved regions in VP4, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B and 3D genes. These results were confirmed by classical sequencing of additional samples, both from inoculated volunteers and independent cell infections, and suggest that HRV inter-host transmission is not associated with a strong bottleneck effect. A specific analysis of the VP1 capsid gene of 15 human cases confirmed the high mutation incidence in this capsid region, but not in the antiviral drug-binding pocket. We could also estimate a mutation frequency in vivo of 3.4x10(-4 mutations/nucleotides and 3.1x10(-4 over the entire ORF and VP1 gene, respectively. In vivo, HRV generate new variants rapidly during the course of an acute infection due to mutations that accumulate in hot spot regions located at the capsid level, as well as in 2C and 3C genes.

  17. HUMAN PARASITIC INFECTIONS IN BALI : A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Sutisna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections in humans in Bali are well documented, especially in the population who lived in rural areas. The most common infections are those of the soil-transmitted helminthiasis which are caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm showing prevalence rates of 40 - 95%, 25 - 90% and 20 - 70% respectively. Enterobius vermicularis prevalence rate has been reported to be 18 - 53%. Taenniasis prevalence rate has been documented to be 0.8 - 23% in some villages, where Taenia saginata was found to be more prevalent than Taenia solium, and this might be due to the eating habit of the Balinese people who consumed both pork and beef lawar. Malaria is still found in Bali especially in regions along the coasts of some regencies, although generally the infection rate is low. The prevalence rates of intestinal protozoa such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli have been occasionally reported in low percentages.

  18. Human Schistosome Infection and Allergic Sensitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several field studies have reported an inverse relationship between the prevalence of helminth infections and that of allergic sensitisation/atopy. Recent studies show that immune responses induced by helminth parasites are, to an extent, comparable to allergic sensitisation. However, helminth products induce regulatory responses capable of inhibiting not only antiparasite immune responses, but also allergic sensitisation. The relative effects of this immunomodulation on the development of protective schistosome-specific responses in humans has yet to be demonstrated at population level, and the clinical significance of immunomodulation of allergic disease is still controversial. Nonetheless, similarities in immune responses against helminths and allergens pose interesting mechanistic and evolutionary questions. This paper examines the epidemiology, biology and immunology of allergic sensitisation/atopy, and schistosome infection in human populations.

  19. [Human papillomavirus infection in male genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Garfias, R; Villarreal Peral, C; Juárez Azpilcueta, A

    1995-10-01

    A prospective and transversal study in 100 patients since January to December of 1994, was done, to know the human papiloma virus infection prevalence in male genitals. The patients were studied by a clinical history, genital area colposcopic revision after acetic acid 5% application, biopsy of the lesion and histopathology study. The patients age was among 16 to 71 years old, with a media of 38.8 years old. The sexual activity beginning was from 12 to 27 years old, with an average of 18 years old. Forty one percent of the patients have had sexual relations with prostitutes, 26% have had sexually transmitted diseases, 9% of the patients referred only 1 sexual mate and 82% had human papiloma virus infection.

  20. Leishmania major infection in humanized mice induces systemic infection and provokes a nonprotective human immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kathrin Wege

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leishmania (L. species are the causative agent of leishmaniasis. Due to the lack of efficient vaccine candidates, drug therapies are the only option to deal with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Unfortunately, chemotherapeutic interventions show high toxicity in addition to an increased risk of dissemination of drug-resistant parasites. An appropriate laboratory animal based model is still missing which allows testing of new drug strategies in the context of human immune cells in vivo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Humanized mice were infected subcutaneously with stationary phase promastigote L. major into the footpad. The human immune response against the pathogen and the parasite host interactions were analyzed. In addition we proved the versatility of this new model to conduct drug research studies by the inclusion of orally given Miltefosine. We show that inflammatory human macrophages get infected with Leishmania parasites at the site of infection. Furthermore, a Leishmania-specific human-derived T cell response is initiated. However, the human immune system is not able to prevent systemic infection. Thus, we treated the mice with Miltefosine to reduce the parasitic load. Notably, this chemotherapy resulted in a reduction of the parasite load in distinct organs. Comparable to some Miltefosine treated patients, humanized mice developed severe side effects, which are not detectable in the classical murine model of experimental leishmaniasis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes for the first time L. major infection in humanized mice, characterizes the disease development, the induction of human adaptive and innate immune response including cytokine production and the efficiency of Miltefosine treatment in these animals. In summary, humanized mice might be beneficial for future preclinical chemotherapeutic studies in systemic (visceral leishmaniasis allowing the investigation of human immune response, side effects of the drug

  1. Human alpha-defensins block papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B; Day, Patricia M; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lubkowski, Jacek; Lu, Wuyuan; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T

    2006-01-31

    Sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary cause of cervical cancer. Recent advances in techniques for production of papillomaviral vectors [known as pseudoviruses (PsVs)] have made it possible to perform high-throughput screens for compounds that might block the initial stages of papillomavirus infection. We have used PsVs to screen a variety of compounds that might function as inhibitors of HPV infection, with emphasis on human peptides previously implicated in innate antimicrobial immunity. Little is known about the possible activity of these peptides against nonenveloped viruses, such as HPVs. Our screen revealed that human alpha-defensins 1-3 [known as human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) 1-3] and human alpha-defensin 5 (HD-5) are potent antagonists of infection by both cutaneous and mucosal papillomavirus types. In contrast, human beta-defensins 1 and 2 displayed little or no anti-HPV activity. HD-5 was particularly active against sexually transmitted HPV types, with 50% inhibitory doses in the high ng/ml range. Microscopic studies of PsV inhibition by the alpha-defensins revealed that they block virion escape from endocytic vesicles but not virion binding or internalization. Consistent with this finding, PsVs remained susceptible to inhibition by alpha-defensins for many hours after initial binding to cells. HNPs 1-3 and HD-5 have been reported to be present in the female genital tract at levels that overlap those that inhibit HPVs in vitro, suggesting that they could present a natural barrier to the sexual transmission of HPV and could serve as the basis of a broad-spectrum topical microbicide.

  2. Epidemiology of virus infection and human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Yang, Hwai-I; Lee, Mei-Hsuan; Chen, Hui-Chi; Chien, Yin-Chu; You, San-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has comprehensively assessed the human carcinogenicity of biological agents. Seven viruses including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV), human immunodeficiency virus, type-1 (HIV-1), human T cell lymphotrophic virus, type-1 (HTLV-1), and human papillomavirus (HPV) have been classified as Group 1 human carcinogens by IARC. The conclusions are based on the findings of epidemiological and mechanistic studies. EBV, HPV, HTLV-1, and KSHV are direct carcinogens; HBV and HCV are indirect carcinogens through chronic inflammation; HIV-1 is an indirect carcinogen through immune suppression. Some viruses may cause more than one cancer, while some cancers may be caused by more than one virus. However, only a proportion of persons infected by these oncogenic viruses will develop specific cancers. A series of studies have been carried out to assess the viral, host, and environmental cofactors of EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma, HBV/HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma, and HPV-associated cervical carcinoma. Persistent infection and high viral load are important risk predictors of these virus-caused cancers. Risk calculators incorporating host and viral factors have also been developed for the prediction of long-term risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. These risk calculators are useful for the triage and clinical management of infected patients. Both clinical trials and national programs of immunization or antiviral therapy have demonstrated a significant reduction in the incidence of cancers caused by HBV, HCV, and HPV. Future researches on gene-gene and gene-environment interaction of oncogenic viruses and human host are in urgent need.

  3. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus: Infection and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmwald, Karen; Espinoza, Janyra A; Rey-Jurado, Emma; Gómez, Roberto S; González, Pablo A; Bueno, Susan M; Riedel, Claudia A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2016-08-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is by far the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) worldwide in infants and children younger than 2 years. The overwhelming number of hospitalizations due to hRSV-induced ALRTI each year is due, at least in part, to the lack of licensed vaccines against this virus. Thus, hRSV infection is considered a major public health problem and economic burden in most countries. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected individuals is characterized by an exacerbated proinflammatory and unbalanced Th2-type immune response. In addition to the adverse effects in airway tissues, hRSV infection can also cause neurologic manifestations in the host, such as seizures and encephalopathy. Although the origins of these extrapulmonary symptoms remain unclear, studies with patients suffering from neurological alterations suggest an involvement of the inflammatory response against hRSV. Furthermore, hRSV has evolved numerous mechanisms to modulate and evade the immune response in the host. Several studies have focused on elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system, to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus. Here, we discuss about the infection, pathology, and immune response triggered by hRSV in the host. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus Manipulation of Latently Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, John H.; Reeves, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in the establishment of a lifelong infection of the host which is aided by the ability of HCMV to undergo a latent infection. One site of HCMV latency in vivo is in haematopoietic progenitor cells, resident in the bone marrow, with genome carriage and reactivation being restricted to the cells of the myeloid lineage. Until recently, HCMV latency has been considered to be relatively quiescent with the virus being maintained essentially as a “silent partner” until conditions are met that trigger reactivation. However, advances in techniques to study global changes in gene expression have begun to show that HCMV latency is a highly active process which involves expression of specific latency-associated viral gene products which orchestrate major changes in the latently infected cell. These changes are argued to help maintain latent infection and to modulate the cellular environment to the benefit of latent virus. In this review, we will discuss these new findings and how they impact not only on our understanding of the biology of HCMV latency but also how they could provide tantalising glimpses into mechanisms that could become targets for the clearance of latent HCMV. PMID:24284875

  5. Experimental Campylobacter Jejuni Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Blaser MJI Black RE. Duncan DJ, Amer I. Campylobacter Clements ML, Robins-Brone R, Lim Y-L. Duration of jejuni -specific serum antibodies are elevated in...SUBTITLE 5 FUNDING •4UMBERS Experimental Campylobacter jejuni Infection 86PP6826 in Humans 61102A 30161102BS13 AB6. AUTHOR(S)DA328 Robert E. Black...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Contract Title: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine Development ൔa• DISTRIBUTION

  6. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections.

  7. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  8. Cell pattern in adult human corneal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H Wörner

    Full Text Available A review of the current data on the cell density of normal adult human endothelial cells was carried out in order to establish some common parameters appearing in the different considered populations. From the analysis of cell growth patterns, it is inferred that the cell aging rate is similar for each of the different considered populations. Also, the morphology, the cell distribution and the tendency to hexagonallity are studied. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that this phenomenon is analogous with cell behavior in other structures such as dry foams and grains in polycrystalline materials. Therefore, its driving force may be controlled by the surface tension and the mobility of the boundaries.

  9. The gestational age pattern of human mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    lifetable by gestational age spanning week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. This joint lifetable shows a remarkable regularity in the gestational age profile of fetal- and infant mortality: Mortality rates are declining over the whole observed age range with the exception......In order to check hypotheses about the cause for "ontogenescense" -- the phenomenon of a declining force of mortality prior to maturity -- I analyse data on human mortality by gestational age. Based on extensive microdata on births, fetal- and infant deaths in the US 2009 I calculate a joint fetal-infant...... of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2...

  10. The Gestational Age Pattern of Human Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöley, Jonas; Vaupel, James W.; Jacobsen, Rune

    lifetable by gestational age spanning week 23 until week 100 after the last menstrual period of the mother. This joint lifetable shows a remarkable regularity in the gestational age profile of fetal- and infant mortality: Mortality rates are declining over the whole observed age range with the exception......In order to check hypotheses about the cause for "ontogenescense" -- the phenomenon of a declining force of mortality prior to maturity -- I analyse data on human mortality by gestational age. Based on extensive microdata on births, fetal- and infant deaths in the US 2009 I calculate a joint fetal-infant...... of a "birth hump" peaking week 38. The absolute rate of decline slows down over age. The observed gestational age pattern of the force of mortality is consistent with three hypotheses concerning the causes for ontogenescense: 1) Adaptation: as the organism growths it becomes more resilient towards death, 2...

  11. Inferring human mobility using communication patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykov, Vasyl; Mitrović, Marija; Jo, Hang-Hyun; Saramäki, Jari; Pan, Raj Kumar

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the patterns of mobility of individuals is crucial for a number of reasons, from city planning to disaster management. There are two common ways of quantifying the amount of travel between locations: by direct observations that often involve privacy issues, e.g., tracking mobile phone locations, or by estimations from models. Typically, such models build on accurate knowledge of the population size at each location. However, when this information is not readily available, their applicability is rather limited. As mobile phones are ubiquitous, our aim is to investigate if mobility patterns can be inferred from aggregated mobile phone call data alone. Using data released by Orange for Ivory Coast, we show that human mobility is well predicted by a simple model based on the frequency of mobile phone calls between two locations and their geographical distance. We argue that the strength of the model comes from directly incorporating the social dimension of mobility. Furthermore, as only aggregated call data is required, the model helps to avoid potential privacy problems.

  12. The Mathematical Biology of Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Nowak

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans are constant victims of infectious diseases. Biomedical research during this century has led to important insights into the molecular details of immune defense. Yet, many questions relating to disease require a quantitative understanding of the complex systems that arise from the nonlinear interactions between populations of immune cells and infectious agents. Exploration of such questions has lead to a newly emerging field of mathematical biology describing the spread of infectious agents both within and between infected individuals. This essay will discuss simple and complex models of evolution, and the propagation of virus and prion infections. Such models provide new perspectives for our understanding of infectious disease and provide guidelines for interpreting experimental observation; they also define what needs to be measured to improve understanding.

  13. Dengue human infection models supporting drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Van, Vinh Chau Nguyen; Simmons, Cameron P

    2014-06-15

    Dengue is a arboviral infection that represents a major global health burden. There is an unmet need for effective dengue therapeutics to reduce symptoms, duration of illness and incidence of severe complications. Here, we consider the merits of a dengue human infection model (DHIM) for drug development. A DHIM could allow experimentally controlled studies of candidate therapeutics in preselected susceptible volunteers, potentially using smaller sample sizes than trials that recruited patients with dengue in an endemic country. In addition, the DHIM would assist the conduct of intensive pharmacokinetic and basic research investigations and aid in determining optimal drug dosage. Furthermore, a DHIM could help establish proof of concept that chemoprophylaxis against dengue is feasible. The key challenge in developing the DHIM for drug development is to ensure the model reliably replicates the typical clinical and laboratory features of naturally acquired, symptomatic dengue. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. Actinomyces and related organisms in human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Wade, William G

    2015-04-01

    Actinomyces israelii has long been recognized as a causative agent of actinomycosis. During the past 3 decades, a large number of novel Actinomyces species have been described. Their detection and identification in clinical microbiology laboratories and recognition as pathogens in clinical settings can be challenging. With the introduction of advanced molecular methods, knowledge about their clinical relevance is gradually increasing, and the spectrum of diseases associated with Actinomyces and Actinomyces-like organisms is widening accordingly; for example, Actinomyces meyeri, Actinomyces neuii, and Actinomyces turicensis as well as Actinotignum (formerly Actinobaculum) schaalii are emerging as important causes of specific infections at various body sites. In the present review, we have gathered this information to provide a comprehensive and microbiologically consistent overview of the significance of Actinomyces and some closely related taxa in human infections. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comprehensive Small RNA-Seq of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-Infected Human Cells Detects Patterns of Novel, Non-Coding AAV RNAs in the Absence of Cellular miRNA Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutika, Catrin; Mietzsch, Mario; Gogol-Döring, Andreas; Weger, Stefan; Sohn, Madlen; Chen, Wei; Heilbronn, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses express small regulatory RNAs, which interfere with viral or cellular gene expression. For adeno-associated virus (AAV), a small ssDNA virus with a complex biphasic life cycle miRNAs or other small regulatory RNAs have not yet been described. This is the first comprehensive Illumina-based RNA-Seq analysis of small RNAs expressed by AAV alone or upon co-infection with helper adenovirus or HSV. Several hotspots of AAV-specific small RNAs were detected mostly close to or within the AAV-ITR and apparently transcribed from the newly identified anti-p5 promoter. An additional small RNA hotspot was located downstream of the p40 promoter, from where transcription of non-coding RNAs associated with the inhibition of adenovirus replication were recently described. Parallel detection of known Ad and HSV miRNAs indirectly validated the newly identified small AAV RNA species. The predominant small RNAs were analyzed on Northern blots and by human argonaute protein-mediated co-immunoprecipitation. None of the small AAV RNAs showed characteristics of bona fide miRNAs, but characteristics of alternative RNA processing indicative of differentially regulated AAV promoter-associated small RNAs. Furthermore, the AAV-induced regulation of cellular miRNA levels was analyzed at different time points post infection. In contrast to other virus groups AAV infection had virtually no effect on the expression of cellular miRNA, which underscores the long-established concept that wild-type AAV infection is apathogenic.

  17. A longitudinal study of serological patterns of respiratory infections in nine infected Danish swine herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds....... hyopneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), P. multocida toxin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12 (complement-fixation tests). The most-common pattern (28%) of seroconversion was that of pigs first seroconverting to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, followed...

  18. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Human papilloma virus infection prior to coitarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Daniela; Bernhaus, Astrid; Kottmel, Andrea; Sam, Christine; Koelle, Dieter; Joura, Elmar A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and the natural course of anogenital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections in girls prior to coitarche attending an outpatient gynecological unit. Specimens were taken from the anogenital region of 114 unselected 4-15 year old girls who were referred consecutively for various gynecological problems. Four girls were excluded because of sexual abuse. Low-risk HPV-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected in 4 girls (3.6%) and high-risk HPV DNA in 15 children (13.6%). Two girls testing positive for HPV DNA had clinical apparent warts. After 1 year, 2 children had persistent high-risk HPV DNA, and in 1 case we found a switch from high-risk to low-risk HPV DNA. Subclinical genital low- and high-risk HPV infections are common in girls without any history of sexual abuse or sexual activity. We found persistence of genital HPV infection in children, which could be a reservoir for HPV-associated diseases later in life.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus infection and child sexual abuse. Hendrik Simon Schaaf. Child sexual abuse (CSA) has not previously been regarded as important in the overall transmission of HIV infection to. childrenY However, with both CSA'·' and HIV infection on the increase, the risk of acquiring HIV infection through ...

  1. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  2. Humanized mouse model to study bacterial infections targeting the microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melican, Keira; Aubey, Flore; Duménil, Guillaume

    2014-04-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes a severe, frequently fatal sepsis when it enters the human blood stream. Infection leads to extensive damage of the blood vessels resulting in vascular leak, the development of purpuric rashes and eventual tissue necrosis. Studying the pathogenesis of this infection was previously limited by the human specificity of the bacteria, which makes in vivo models difficult. In this protocol, we describe a humanized model for this infection in which human skin, containing dermal microvessels, is grafted onto immunocompromised mice. These vessels anastomose with the mouse circulation while maintaining their human characteristics. Once introduced into this model, N. meningitidis adhere exclusively to the human vessels, resulting in extensive vascular damage, inflammation and in some cases the development of purpuric rash. This protocol describes the grafting, infection and evaluation steps of this model in the context of N. meningitidis infection. The technique may be applied to numerous human specific pathogens that infect the blood stream.

  3. Sudden cardiac death in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseng, Zian H; Secemsky, Eric A; Dowdy, David; Vittinghoff, Eric; Moyers, Brian; Wong, Joseph K; Havlir, Diane V; Hsue, Priscilla Y

    2012-01-01

    ...) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As the HIV-infected population ages, cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality are increasing, but the incidence and features of SCD have not yet been described...

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and female lower genital tract malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, L; Sun, X W; Wright, T C

    1999-02-01

    The risk of lower genital tract neoplasia is increased in women infected with HIV. This has been best demonstrated in cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, but has also been observed in vulvar and perianal intraepithelial lesions in some studies. Alterations in the prevalence and natural history of human papillomavirus infections of the lower genital tract appear to account for much of the increase. HIV-infected women are approximately four times more likely to be infected with human papillomavirus (including infection with high oncogenic risk human papillomavirus types) than are HIV-uninfected women, and these infections are more likely to be persistent. Human papilomavirus-associated lesions may be more difficult to treat in HIV-infected women. These data highlight the need to develop effective cervical cancer prevention programs for HIV-infected women.

  5. Hemoparasites in a wild primate: Infection patterns suggest interaction of Plasmodium and Babesia in a lemur species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Springer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemoparasites can cause serious morbidity in humans and animals and often involve wildlife reservoirs. Understanding patterns of hemoparasite infections in natural populations can therefore inform about emerging disease risks, especially in the light of climate change and human disruption of natural ecosystems. We investigated the effects of host age, sex, host group size and season on infection patterns of Plasmodium sp., Babesia sp. and filarial nematodes in a population of wild Malagasy primates, Verreaux's sifakas (Propithecus verreauxi, as well as the effects of these infections on hematological variables. We tested 45 blood samples from 36 individuals and identified two species of Plasmodium, one species of Babesia and two species of filarial nematodes. Plasmodium spp. and Babesia sp. infections showed opposite patterns of age-dependency, with babesiosis being prevalent among young animals, while older animals were infected with Plasmodium sp. In addition, Babesia sp. infection was a statistically significant negative predictor of Plasmodium sp. infection. These results suggest that Plasmodium and Babesia parasites may interact within the host, either through cross-immunity or via resource competition, so that Plasmodium infections can only establish after babesiosis has resolved. We found no effects of host sex, host group size and season on hemoparasite infections. Infections showed high prevalences and did not influence hematological variables. This preliminary evidence supports the impression that the hosts and parasites considered in this study appear to be well-adapted to each other, resulting in persistent infections with low pathogenic and probably low zoonotic potential. Our results illustrate the crucial role of biodiversity in host-parasite relationships, specifically how within-host pathogen diversity may regulate the abundance of parasites.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  7. New treatments for human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Santos, C; Pigem, R; Alsina, M

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus infection is very common. In this article, we review the latest developments in the treatment of lesions caused by this virus, with a particular focus on anogenital warts. Sinecatechins and new imiquimod formulations are among the most significant new developments. Others include photodynamic therapy and intralesional immunotherapy, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend their routine use. Finally, while therapeutic vaccines and inhibitory molecules appear to hold great promise, they are still in the early phases of investigation. More studies are needed, and these should have similar designs, larger samples, and sufficiently long follow-up periods to enable the direct comparison of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of different treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling human influenza infection in the laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radigan KA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Kathryn A Radigan,1 Alexander V Misharin,2 Monica Chi,1 GR Scott Budinger11Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, 2Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Influenza is the leading cause of death from an infectious cause. Because of its clinical importance, many investigators use animal models to understand the biologic mechanisms of influenza A virus replication, the immune response to the virus, and the efficacy of novel therapies. This review will focus on the biosafety, biosecurity, and ethical concerns that must be considered in pursuing influenza research, in addition to focusing on the two animal models – mice and ferrets – most frequently used by researchers as models of human influenza infection.Keywords: mice, ferret, influenza, animal model, biosafety

  9. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  10. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  11. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytol...

  12. Pattern Recognition as a Human Centered non-Euclidean Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duin, R.P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Regularities in the world are human defined. Patterns in the observed phenomena are there because we define and recognize them as such. Automatic pattern recognition tries to bridge the gap between human judgment and measurements made by artificial sensors. This is done in two steps: representation

  13. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun ju; Lee, Su jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. Methods A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. Results A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Conclusion Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age. PMID:27548632

  14. Pathogenesis of Hendra and Nipah virus infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaffre, Olivier; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Rockx, Barry

    2013-04-17

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are emerging zoonotic viruses that cause severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans. Henipaviruses can infect a wide range of species and human-to-human transmission has been observed for NiV. While the exact route of transmission in humans is not known, experimental infection in different animal species suggests that infection can be efficiently initiated after respiratory challenge. The limited data on histopathological changes in fatal human cases of HeV and NiV suggest that endothelial cells are an important target during the terminal stage of infection; however, it is unknown where these viruses initially establish infection and how the virus disseminates from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system and other organs. Here we review the current concepts in henipavirus pathogenesis in humans.

  15. Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are major health problems worldwide. HCV/HIV co-infection has been shown to increase the frequency of liver disease and also maternal-fetal transmission of HCV. Little data exist on the prevalence of co-infection of these viruses in ...

  16. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly ...

  17. Patterns of human herpesvirus-8 oral shedding among diverse cohorts of human herpesvirus-8 seropositive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender Ignacio, Rachel A; Goldman, Jason D; Magaret, Amalia S; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Gantt, Soren; Johnston, Christine; Phipps, Warren T; Schiffer, Joshua T; Zuckerman, Richard A; McClelland, R Scott; Celum, Connie; Corey, Larry; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey

    2016-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), the etiologic agent of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), establishes lifelong latent infection with periodic lytic replication ("shedding") at mucosal sites, especially the oropharynx. Patterns of HHV-8 shedding are not well understood, and require elucidation to better predict risk of HHV-8 related malignancies in those infected. We sought to characterize patterns of HHV-8 oropharyngeal shedding among diverse cohorts that enrolled HHV-8 seropositive persons. We quantified HHV-8 oral shedding using PCR among HHV-8 seropositive persons who collected at least 14 days of oral swabs in 22 studies on 3 continents. We excluded persons taking antivirals during sampling or any prior use of antiretrovirals in those who were HIV-infected. 248 participants were enrolled from the US, Peru, Cameroon, Uganda, and Kenya; 61 % were men, 58 % were HIV seropositive, and 16 % had KS. Overall, 3,123 of 10,557 samples (29.6 %) had HHV-8 detected. Quantity of virus shed was highly correlated with shedding rate, (ρ = 0.72, p < 0.0001). HHV-8 was detected in ≥1 sample in 55 % of participants with a median of 7 % of days in the US and Kenya, 0 % in Uganda and Peru, and 18 % in Cameroon. Median episode duration was three days, and episodes with high median quantity lasted longer (42 vs 3 days, p < 0.0001). In persons with multiple observations over time, 66 % of shedding rate variance was attributable to differences between individuals. In HHV-8 infected individuals from diverse settings, oral mucosal shedding rate, quantity, and duration were correlated; individual shedding was highly variable. Studies are needed to determine factors accounting for between-person variation and the relationship of HHV-8 shedding to development of associated diseases.

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection screening in a dialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chi; Sun, Chia-Yi; Wu, Mai-Szu

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening is a routine for long-term hemodialysis patients because of a high risk for infection. Enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) is a simple tool for screening HIV, but clinically false-positive EIA is a frequent result. Other tests such as Western blot analysis (WB) and HIV DNA and RNA by polymerase chain reaction have better specificity and sensitivity, but they cannot be accessible in many dialysis units. Four hundred and four patients with end stage renal disease on long-term hemodialysis were screened with EIA for HIV antibodies. Repeated EIA was performed if the first test was positive result. WB was used as the confirmatory test. Two persons initially showed a positive EIA pattern among the 404 patients, but nobody had positive WB test result later. The ratio of false-positive EIA results for screening HIV is relatively high in long-term hemodialysis patients. Further tests should be employed to confirm the diagnosis.

  19. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermato...

  20. Changes in microbiota during experimental human Rhinovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J. J.; Matamoros, S.; van de Pol, M. A.; de Wever, B.; Tanck, M. W.; Wendt-Knol, H.; Deijs, M.; van der Hoek, L.; Wolthers, K. C.; Molenkamp, R.; Visser, C. E.; Sterk, P. J.; Lutter, R.; de Jong, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Human Rhinovirus (HRV) is responsible for the majority of common colds and is frequently accompanied by secondary bacterial infections through poorly understood mechanisms. We investigated the effects of experimental human HRV serotype 16 infection on the upper respiratory tract microbiota. Six

  1. Arterial Disease in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, James H.; Currier, Judith S.; HSUE, Priscilla Y

    2014-01-01

    With advances in antiretroviral therapy, individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are living longer and increasingly die of non-HIV related diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several observational studies suggest that HIV-infected patients on ART are at increased CVD risk; however, the precise mechanisms underlying the association between HIV infection and CVD risk are uncertain. Atherosclerosis and arterial disease in HIV-infected individuals is a multifactor...

  2. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nigel Pereira; Kucharczyk, Katherine M.; Estes, Jaclyn L.; Rachel S. Gerber; Jovana P. Lekovich; Elias, Rony T.; Spandorfer, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apo...

  3. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J. B. M.; Bos, A. P.; Lutter, R.; Rossen, J. W. A.; Schuurman, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  4. Absence of human metapneumovirus co-infection in cases of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woensel, J B M; Bos, A P; Lutter, R; Rossen, J W A; Schuurman, R

    It has been suggested that co-infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) in severe respiratory syncytial (RSV) virus bronchiolitis is very common. To evaluate the epidemiology of hMPV co-infection in children with severe lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV virus. This was an observational

  5. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae infections in closed swine herds: infection patterns and serological profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiers, Koen; Donné, Eef; Van Overbeke, Ingrid; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2002-04-02

    Many farrow-to-finish herds are endemically infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. In order to control the disease efficiently, a better knowledge of the ages at which pigs become infected is necessary. Furthermore, no information is available concerning the influence of maternally derived antibodies on the colonization of the upper respiratory tract. Therefore, A. pleuropneumoniae infection patterns were studied in five farrow-to-finish pig herds (A-E) with a history of pleuropneumonia. A longitudinal study was carried out in herds A and B. In these herds, piglets from sows carrying A. pleuropneumoniae in their noses or tonsils were sampled. Nasal and tonsillar swabs as well as sera, were collected from these animals at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16 (herds A and B) and 23 weeks (herd B). At these ages other pigs from the same sows were euthanized. The lungs were macroscopically examined and samples from nose, tonsils and lungs were collected at necropsy. A cross-sectional study was performed in herds C-E. In these herds nasal and tonsillar swabs, as well as sera, were taken from 10 animals of 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age. Lung, nasal and tonsillar samples were tested for the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae by routine bacteriology and PCR with mixed bacterial cultures. The sera were examined for the presence of Apx toxin neutralizing antibodies. In herd A, A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 and 10 strains were isolated, whereas serotype 2, 3, 5b and 8 strains were demonstrated in herd B. In most herds, A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in mixed bacterial cultures of tonsillar and/or nasal samples by PCR from the age of 4 weeks onwards. Colonization of the lungs and development of lung lesions was observed in 12- and 16-week-old animals of herd A and 23-week-old animals of herd B. In most herds, high antibody titres were detected in 4-week-old piglets. These titres decreased during the first 12 weeks of age, but thereafter, increased. It was concluded that PCR with

  6. [Cerebral infarction in human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P; Toulon, P; de La Blanchardière, A; Sicard, D

    1995-06-03

    Patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) appear to have a high risk of ischaemic cerebral events. We observed two cases of cerebral infarction in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the first case, a 38-year-old homosexual with no cardiovascular risk other than smoking presented with rapidly progressive hemiparesia. Brain CT-scan visualized two infarcts in the territory of the right sylvian artery and the arteriography an occlusion of the internal carotid artery. In the second, a 37-year-old homosexual, hospitalization was required for a left-sided pure sensitive epilepsy seizure. There was no cardiovascular risk other than smoking. Magnetic resonance imaging showed parietal ischaemia and thrombus in the left atrium without atrial hypertrophy was seen at transoesophageal echocardiography. In both cases, there was no evidence of endocarditis, dissection of the neck vessels or disseminated intravascular coagulation nor of associated viral or bacterial infectious complication of AIDS. Angiographic findings eliminated cerebral vascularitis. Among the perturbed haemostasis factors previously reported in HIV+ patients, we observed free proteins S deficiency (68 and 43%) and heparin cofactor II deficiency (54 and 40%). Serum albumin was 33 and 32 g/l respectively. Outcome was favourable in both cases with anticoagulant therapy. These coagulation anomalies would not appear sufficient to explain cerebral infarction. Other mechanisms including immune complexed deposition, direct HIV toxicity for endothelial cells or the effect of cytokines on smooth muscles fibres and fibroblasts are probably more important causal factors.

  7. Pattern of pathogens from surgical wound infections in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of isolates were resistant to erythromycin, fusidic acid and tobramycin. Conclusions:The infections were polymicrobic and multidrug resistant. The quinolones, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, should be used as frontline drugs in the management of surgical wound infections at the hospital. Keywords: surgical wound infections, ...

  8. Prevalence and prognostic significance of infection with TT virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JK; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Sørensen, M

    2000-01-01

    No clear association between human disease and TT virus (TTV) has been documented. A possible pathogenic role of TTV was investigated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TTV serum concentrations were estimated in 185 HIV-infected patients by dilution polymerase chain rea...... TTV viremia (Psuspected to be an opportunistic pathogen with an independent influence on HIV progression....

  9. Human Infection with MERS coronavirus after exposure to infected camels, Saudi Arabia, 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Memish, Ziad A.; Cotten, Matthew; Meyer, Benjamin; Watson, Simon J.; Alsahafi, Abdullah J.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Corman, Victor Max; Sieberg, Andrea; Makhdoom, Hatem Q.; Assiri, Abdullah; Al Masri, Malaki; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; Beer, Martin; Müller, Marcel A.; Kellam, Paul; Drosten, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a case of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) after exposure to infected camels. Analysis of the whole human-derived virus and 15% of the camel-derived virus sequence yielded nucleotide polymorphism signatures suggestive of cross-species

  10. Factors Associated with Acquisition of Human Infective and Animal Infective Trypanosome Infections in Domestic Livestock in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wissmann, Beatrix; Machila, Noreen; Picozzi, Kim; Fèvre, Eric M.; deC. Bronsvoort, Barend M.; Handel, Ian G.; Welburn, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis is regarded as a constraint on livestock production in Western Kenya where the responsibility for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control has increasingly shifted from the state to the individual livestock owner. To assess the sustainability of these localised control efforts, this study investigates biological and management risk factors associated with trypanosome infections detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in a range of domestic livestock at the local scale in Busia, Kenya. Busia District also remains endemic for human sleeping sickness with sporadic cases of sleeping sickness reported. Results In total, trypanosome infections were detected in 11.9% (329) out of the 2773 livestock sampled in Busia District. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that host species and cattle age affected overall trypanosome infection, with significantly increased odds of infection for cattle older than 18 months, and significantly lower odds of infection in pigs and small ruminants. Different grazing and watering management practices did not affect the odds of trypanosome infection, adjusted by host species. Neither anaemia nor condition score significantly affected the odds of trypanosome infection in cattle. Human infective Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in 21.5% of animals infected with T. brucei s.l. (29/135) amounting to 1% (29/2773) of all sampled livestock, with significantly higher odds of T. brucei rhodesiense infections in T. brucei s.l. infected pigs (OR = 4.3, 95%CI 1.5-12.0) than in T. brucei s.l. infected cattle or small ruminants. Conclusions Although cattle are the dominant reservoir of trypanosome infection it is unlikely that targeted treatment of only visibly diseased cattle will achieve sustainable interruption of transmission for either animal infective or zoonotic human infective trypanosomiasis, since most infections were detected in cattle that did not exhibit classical clinical signs of

  11. Re-infection patterns of ascariasis among school children in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drug (Levamisole) administration was used to determine the direct prevalence, intensity and the re-infection patterns of infection. The overall direct prevalence for A.lumbricoides was 48.5%. Obafemi/Owode had the highest mean infection rate of 62.6%, followed by Ogun Waterside (59.19%), Odeda (44.8%), Ewekoro ...

  12. Aetiology and pattern of bone and joint infection presenting at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Bone and joint infection is one condition that can either be rewarding,or a night mare to the surgeon.This work reports the causes and pattern of presentation of bone and joint infections in our sub region. METHOD: A retrospective review of 73 cases of non granulomatous bone infection seen over two years ...

  13. The pattern of endemic parvovirus infection in four pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointon, A M; Surman, P G; McCloud, P I; Whyte, P B

    1983-06-01

    Serological surveys were conducted on the gilts and adult sows in 4 herds endemically infected with porcine parvovirus. The study assessed the influence of the type of management of breeders on the spread of virus infection and the influence of endemic parvovirus infection on reproductive parameters of the herd. The practice of holding gilts and sows in groups did not reliably promote infection or maintain a 100% level of active immunity amongst adult sows in 2 of 3 group husbandry herds. In the 4 herds, the prevalence of adult sows (greater than 12 months) with active immune haemagglutination inhibition titres (greater than or equal to 256) ranged between 44% and 100%, while between 0% and 100% of gilts (6 to 12 months of age) had active immune titres. Fully susceptible gilts older than 9 months of age held in groups, failed to become infected by 12 months of age on farms endemically infected with PPV. In 2 herds a continued low infection rate of gilts resulted in increasing the potential of breeding animals becoming susceptible to parvovirus infection as infected sows were replaced by noninfected gilts. In both herds, epidemics of parvovirus infection followed, which were characterised by an increase in reproductive failure. Parvovirus infection during the first 70 days of pregnancy reduced the average number of piglets born alive per litter by 1.6 piglets (p less than 0.05). This was due to the combined effect of more piglets being born dead per litter and an overall reduction in litter size.

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection of Neural Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovich, Therese A.; Lazar, Eliot; Blumberg, Benjamin M.; Saito, Yoshihiro; Eskin, Thomas A.; Reichman, Richard; Baram, David A.; del Cerro, Coca; Gendelman, Howard E.; del Cerro, Manuel; Epstein, Leon G.

    1992-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is highly specific for its human host. To study HIV-1 infection of the human nervous system, we have established a small animal model in which second-trimester (11 to 17.5 weeks) human fetal brain or neural retina is transplanted to the anterior chamber of the eye of immunosuppressed adult rats. The human xenografts vascularized, formed a blood-brain barrier, and differentiated, forming neurons and glia. The xenografts were infected with cell-free HIV-1 or with HIV-1-infected human monocytes. Analysis by polymerase chain reaction revealed HIV-1 sequences in DNA from xenograft tissue exposed to HIV-1 virions, and in situ hybridization demonstrated HIV-1 mRNA localized in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Pathological damage was observed only in neural xenografts containing HIV-1-infected human monocytes, supporting the hypothesis that these cells mediate neurotoxicity. This small animal model allows the study of direct and indirect effects of HIV-1 infection on developing human fetal neural tissues, and it should prove useful in evaluating antiviral therapies, which must ultimately target HIV-1 infection of the brain.

  15. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xia; Ge Meng; Qing Zhang; Li Liu; Hongmei Wu; Hongbin Shi; Xue Bao; Qian Su; Yeqing Gu; Liyun Fang; Fei Yu; Huijun Yang; Bin Yu; Shaomei Sun; Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire...

  16. Humanized chimeric mouse models of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwan Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is associated with an increased risk of hepatic cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, fulminant hepatitis and end-stage hepatic failure. Despite the availability of anti-HBV therapies, HBV infection remains a major global public health problem. Developing an ideal animal model of HBV infection to clarify the details of the HBV replication process, the viral life cycle, the resulting immunoresponse and the precise pathogenesis of HBV is difficult because HBV has an extremely narrow host range and almost exclusively infects humans. In this review, we summarize and evaluate animal models available for studying HBV infection, especially focusing on humanized chimeric mouse models, and we discuss future development trends regarding immunocompetent humanized mouse models that can delineate the natural history and immunopathophysiology of HBV infection.

  17. Transcriptome-wide characterization of human cytomegalovirus in natural infection and experimental latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu; Caviness, Katie; Buehler, Jason; Smithey, Megan; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko; Goodrum, Felicia

    2017-11-20

    The transcriptional program associated with herpesvirus latency and the viral genes regulating entry into and exit from latency are poorly understood and controversial. Here, we developed and validated a targeted enrichment platform and conducted large-scale transcriptome analyses of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. We used both an experimental hematopoietic cell model of latency and cells from naturally infected, healthy human subjects (clinical) to define the breadth of viral genes expressed. The viral transcriptome derived from experimental infection was highly correlated with that from clinical infection, validating our experimental latency model. These transcriptomes revealed a broader profile of gene expression during infection in hematopoietic cells than previously appreciated. Further, using recombinant viruses that establish a nonreactivating, latent-like or a replicative infection in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, we defined classes of low to moderately expressed genes that are differentially regulated in latent vs. replicative states of infection. Most of these genes have yet to be studied in depth. By contrast, genes that were highly expressed, were expressed similarly in both latent and replicative infection. From these findings, a model emerges whereby low or moderately expressed genes may have the greatest impact on regulating the switch between viral latency and replication. The core set of viral genes expressed in natural infection and differentially regulated depending on the pattern of infection provides insight into the HCMV transcriptome associated with latency in the host and a resource for investigating virus-host interactions underlying persistence.

  18. Global patterns of synchronization in human communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Alfredo J; Vavilala, Vaibhav; Benito, Rosa M; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2017-03-01

    Social media are transforming global communication and coordination and provide unprecedented opportunities for studying socio-technical domains. Here we study global dynamical patterns of communication on Twitter across many scales. Underlying the observed patterns is both the diurnal rotation of the Earth, day and night, and the synchrony required for contingency of actions between individuals. We find that urban areas show a cyclic contraction and expansion that resembles heartbeats linked to social rather than natural cycles. Different urban areas have characteristic signatures of daily collective activities. We show that the differences detected are consistent with a new emergent global synchrony that couples behaviour in distant regions across the world. Although local synchrony is the major force that shapes the collective behaviour in cities, a larger-scale synchronization is beginning to occur. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadaro Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC. The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of swallowing.

  20. Ganglioside patterns in human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerk, C K

    2001-12-01

    To examine the distribution of gangliosides in human cervical and lumbar spinal cord. Magdeburg, Germany. The ganglioside distribution of human cervical and lumbar spinal cord enlargements from 10 neurological normal patients was analyzed. Gangliosides were isolated from different areas corresponding to the columna anterior, columna lateralis and columna posterior. Ganglioside GfD1b/GD1b and GD3 were the most abundant gangliosides in all examined tissues. The total concentration of sialic acid bound gangliosides GM2 and GM3 was less than 5%. The GD3 fraction constantly consisted of a double band as assessed by TLC after lipid extraction. There were significant differences in the ganglioside distribution when comparing tissue from the columna anterior, columna lateralis and columna posterior of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Differences in the ganglioside composition in human spinal cord regions may reflect the different function of those molecules in the two regions investigated.

  1. Prevalence and susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing respiratory tract infections in North Waziristan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Said Nasir; Ullah, Bait; Basit, Abdul; Begum, Asia; Tabassum, Anum; Zafar, Shaista; Saleha, Shamim

    2016-03-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common infectious diseases in humans and are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Pakistan. These infections are the leading causes of consultations in primary care in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining bacterial pathogens of respiratory tract infections and the susceptibility patterns of bacterial isolates to antibiotics. The study was conducted between February, 2013 and March, 2014 in North Waziristan region of Pakistan. Sputum specimens were collected aseptically from 227 patients and cultured on the appropriate bacteriological media. Bacterial isolates were identified by biochemical tests and their antibiotics susceptibility patterns were determined by standard methods. Out of 227, various species of bacteria were isolated from 152 (75%) specimens. The prevalence of bacteria species isolated were as follows Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42.8%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (26.7%), Corynebacterium diphtheria (10.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.9%), Proteus vulgaris (4.6%), Micrococcus species (3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.6%) and Bacillus species (2.6%). The susceptibility patterns varied among bacterial species depending on the antibiotics. For the susceptibility test 11 commercially available antibiotics against bacterial isolates were used. The results revealed that generally the bacterial isolates were susceptible to gentamicin (80.9%), meropenem (75 %), ceftazidime (62.5%), cefotaxime (57.9%) and ceftriazone (57.9%) and resistant to penicillin (84.9%) and doxycycline (78.9%). The antibiotics gentamicin (100%) meropenem (100%), ceftriaxone (58.5%), ciprofloxacin (60%) trimethoprim (60%), ceftazidime (66.2%) and cefotaxime (64.6%) were observed effective against the P. aeruginosa isolates. The findings of our study provide significant information for empiric therapy of patients with RTIs in North Waziristan region of Pakistan.

  2. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Saike He; Xiaolong Zheng; Daniel Zeng; Chuan Luo; Zhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social ...

  3. Oesophageal Ulceration in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the aetiology of oesophageal ulceration in HIV-infected patients. Design. A retrospective clinical, endoscopic and histopathological analysis of patients with confirmed HIV infection and an oesophageal ulcer diagnosed on endoscopy. Setting. A tertiary referral, gastrointestinal clinic in Cape Town.

  4. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freezing breast milk may be protective for the preterm infant until the titer of CMV antibody increases. However clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This minireview focuses on recent advances in the study of CMV infection in premature infants by breastfeeding.

  5. Laboratory diagnosis of persistent human chlamydial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja ePuolakkainen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic assays for persistent chlamydial infection are much needed to conduct high-quality, large-scale studies investigating the persistent state in vivo, its disease associations and the response to therapy. Yet in most studies the distinction between acute and persistent infection is based on the interpretation of the data obtained by the assays developed to diagnose acute infections or on complex assays available for research only and/or difficult to establish for clinical use. Novel biomarkers for detection of persistent chlamydial infection are urgently needed. Chlamydial whole genome proteome arrays are now available and they can identify chlamydial antigens that are differentially expressed between acute infection and persistent infection. Utilizing these data will lead to the development of novel diagnostic assays. Carefully selected specimens from well-studied patient populations are clearly needed in the process of translating the proteomic data into assays useful for clinical practice. Before such antigens are identified and validated assays become available, we face a challenge of deciding whether the persistent infection truly induced appearance of the proposed marker or do we just base our diagnosis of persistent infection on the presence of the suggested markers. Consequently, we must bear this in mind when interpreting the available data.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In a country with a rapidly spreading HIV epidemic information regarding HIV and TB Co-infection are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV infection in a representative sample of sputum-positive tuberculosis patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey whereby blood sample was ...

  7. EDITORIAL POISONING PATTERN Human poisoning with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pharm-chem

    Bioaccumulation of methylmercury then occurred in fish which were eventually eaten by humans. Thallium poisoning is characterized by alopecia often seen one to two weeks later when the patient is about to be discharged from hospital. Thus, in chronic poisoning, it is difficult to establish definitive cause-effect relationship.

  8. High prevalence of co-infection between human papillomavirus (HPV) 51 and 52 in Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Bolaños, Jazbet; Rivera-Domínguez, Jessica Alejandra; Presno-Bernal, José Miguel; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel

    2017-08-08

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the genesis of cervical carcinoma. The co-infection among HPV genotypes is frequent, but the clinical significance is controversial; in Mexico, the prevalence and pattern of co-infection differ depending on the geographic area of study. We analyzed the mono- and co-infection prevalence of multiple HPV genotypes, as well as preferential interactions among them in a Mexico City sample population. This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study. Cervical cytology samples from 1163 women and 166 urethral scraping samples of men were analyzed between 2010 and 2012. The detection of HPV infection was performed using the hybrid capture and the genotyping was by PCR (HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, and 52). 36% of women were HPV-positive and the most prevalent genotypes were HPV 51, 52, 16, and 33 (42, 38, 37, and 34%, respectively). The prevalence of co-infection was higher (75.37%) than mono-infection in women HPV positives. All genotypes were co-infected with HPV 16, but the co-infection with 51-52 genotypes was the most frequent combination in all cases. The co-infection was very common; each HPV genotype showed different preferences for co-infection with other genotypes, HPV 51-52 co-infection was the most frequent. The HPV 16, 33, 51 and 52 were the most prevalent and are a public health concern to the Mexican population.

  9. Pattern Of Sexually Transmitted Infections In A Reference Clinic Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonorrhea and scabies made up 3 (3.33%) each of the cases while genital herpes including infective Herpes zoster and Molluscum contagiosum associated infections accounted for 2.22% each of the cases. Conclusion: The patients presented with significant range of STIs with some showing similar prevalence rate.

  10. Borna disease virus infection perturbs energy metabolites and amino acids in cultured human oligodendroglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongzhong; Gao, Hongchang; Zhang, Liang; Jia, Jianmin; Liu, Xia; Zheng, Peng; Ma, Lihua; Li, Wenjuan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Liu; Wang, Mingju; Xie, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14) and matched control cells (n = 14). Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate) and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine). Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell's metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.

  11. Human muscle satellite cells as targets of Chikungunya virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ozden

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chikungunya (CHIK virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes in humans an acute infection characterised by fever, polyarthralgia, head-ache, and myalgia. Since 2005, the emergence of CHIK virus was associated with an unprecedented magnitude outbreak of CHIK disease in the Indian Ocean. Clinically, this outbreak was characterized by invalidating poly-arthralgia, with myalgia being reported in 97.7% of cases. Since the cellular targets of CHIK virus in humans are unknown, we studied the pathogenic events and targets of CHIK infection in skeletal muscle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunohistology on muscle biopsies from two CHIK virus-infected patients with myositic syndrome showed that viral antigens were found exclusively inside skeletal muscle progenitor cells (designed as satelllite cells, and not in muscle fibers. To evaluate the ability of CHIK virus to replicate in human satellite cells, we assessed virus infection on primary human muscle cells; viral growth was observed in CHIK virus-infected satellite cells with a cytopathic effect, whereas myotubes were essentially refractory to infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This report provides new insights into CHIK virus pathogenesis, since it is the first to identify a cellular target of CHIK virus in humans and to report a selective infection of muscle satellite cells by a viral agent in humans.

  12. Transient Oral Human Cytomegalovirus Infections Indicate Inefficient Viral Spread from Very Few Initially Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Swan, David; Ferrenberg, James; Simmons, Karen; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Schiffer, Joshua T; Gantt, Soren

    2017-06-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is acquired by the oral route in children, and primary infection is associated with abundant mucosal replication, as well as the establishment of latency in myeloid cells that results in lifelong infection. The efficiency of primary CMV infection in humans following oral exposure, however, is unknown. We consistently detected self-limited, low-level oral CMV shedding events, which we termed transient CMV infections, in a prospective birth cohort of 30 highly exposed CMV-uninfected infants. We estimated the likelihood of transient oral CMV infections by comparing their observed frequency to that of established primary infections, characterized by persistent high-level shedding, viremia, and seroconversion. We developed mathematical models of viral dynamics upon initial oral CMV infection and validated them using clinical shedding data. Transient infections comprised 76 to 88% of oral CMV shedding events. For this high percentage of transient infections to occur, we identified two mathematical prerequisites: a very small number of initially infected oral cells (1 to 4) and low viral infectivity (<1.5 new cells infected/cell). These observations indicate that oral CMV infection in infants typically begins with a single virus that spreads inefficiently to neighboring cells. Thus, although the incidence of CMV infection is high during infancy, our data provide a mechanistic framework to explain why multiple CMV exposures are typically required before infection is successfully established. These findings imply that a sufficiently primed immune response could prevent CMV from establishing latent infection in humans and support the achievability of a prophylactic CMV vaccine. IMPORTANCE CMV infects the majority of the world's population and is a major cause of birth defects. Developing a vaccine to prevent CMV infection would be extremely valuable but would be facilitated by a better understanding of how natural human CMV infection is acquired. We

  13. Severe respiratory tract infections with human bocavirus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halise Akça, Nilden Tuygun, Emine Polat, Can Demir Karacan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory tract infection remains a major cause of childhood hospitalization and mortality in young children. Human bocavirus (HBoV is a virus belonging to the Parvoviridae family, which has been newly discovered to be associated with respiratory tract infection in children. Human bocavirus infection is usually seen as form of co-infection. The frequent associations of HBoV with other respiratory viruses might be explained by the persistence of HBoV in the respiratory tract. HBoV primary events generally associated with mild respiratory illness. Here, we reported three patients who developed an extremely severe acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to HBoV infection. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016; 6(3: 145-147

  14. Immune Modulation in Primary Vaccinia virus Zoonotic Human Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Assis Silva Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the WHO celebrated the 30th anniversary of the smallpox eradication. Ironically, infections caused by viruses related to smallpox are being increasingly reported worldwide, including Monkeypox, Cowpox, and Vaccinia virus (VACV. Little is known about the human immunological responses elicited during acute infections caused by orthopoxviruses. We have followed VACV zoonotic outbreaks taking place in Brazil and analyzed cellular immune responses in patients acutely infected by VACV. Results indicated that these patients show a biased immune modulation when compared to noninfected controls. Amounts of B cells are low and less activated in infected patients. Although present, T CD4+ cells are also less activated when compared to noninfected individuals, and so are monocytes/macrophages. Similar results were obtained when Balb/C mice were experimentally infected with a VACV sample isolated during the zoonotic outbreaks. Taking together, the data suggest that zoonotic VACVs modulate specific immune cell compartments during an acute infection in humans.

  15. Human Mobility Patterns: A Source of Geospatial Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachowicz, M.; Vazquez, A.H.; Ballari, D.E.; Orellana, D.A.; Rodriguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The study and analysis of human mobility patterns and their relationship with the environment can provide us with a better understanding of certain aspects of human behaviour. New, ubiquitous and non-intrusive devices have made it easier to place sensors in mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Human Parechovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Patrick E; Karsch, Katharina; Hoppe, Christian; Seeber, Lea; Schneider, Joanna; Mühlhans, Susann; Chen, Xi; Tief, Franziska; Kaindl, Angela M; Weschke, Bernhard; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Rath, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease occurring several weeks after viral infection. Enteroviruses have been described as potential triggers of ADEM, but the closely related parechoviruses have not. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence and disease presentation of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a syndromic surveillance program for pediatric infection/inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). The surveillance was conducted at the Charité Department of Pediatrics in Berlin, Germany, from November 2010 to November 2014. All hospitalized children meeting predefined case criteria underwent highly standardized prospective clinical assessments based on the published case definitions, including for ADEM. Stool samples were independently analyzed by enterovirus and parechovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction at the Robert Koch Institute. Of 105,557 patients screened, 774 (0.7%) fulfilled entry criteria for CNS infection/inflammation, with 114 cases ascertained as ADEM. Parechoviruses were detected in 2.5% of patients with CNS infection/inflammation, including 1 case fulfilling ADEM case criteria with the highest level of diagnostic certainty. We report a first case of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a 5-year-old female presenting with acute hemiparesis 2 weeks after a respiratory illness. Parechovirus disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of ADEM.

  17. No evidence for ape Plasmodium infections in humans in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délicat-Loembet, Lucresse; Rougeron, Virginie; Ollomo, Benjamin; Arnathau, Céline; Roche, Benjamin; Elguero, Eric; Moukodoum, Nancy Diamella; Okougha, Alain-Prince; Mve Ondo, Bertrand; Boundenga, Larson; Houzé, Sandrine; Galan, Maxime; Nkoghé, Dieudonné; Leroy, Eric M; Durand, Patrick; Paupy, Christophe; Renaud, François; Prugnolle, Franck

    2015-01-01

    African great apes are naturally infected by a multitude of Plasmodium species most of them recently discovered, among which several are closely related to human malaria agents. However, it is still unknown whether these animals can serve as source of infections for humans living in their vicinity. To evaluate this possibility, we analysed the nature of Plasmodium infections from a bank of 4281 human blood samples collected in 210 villages of Gabon, Central Africa. Among them, 2255 were detected positive to Plasmodium using molecular methods (Plasmodium Cytochrome b amplification). A high throughput sequencing technology (454 GS-FLX Titanium technology, Roche) was then used to identify the Plasmodium species present within each positive sample. Overall, we identified with confidence only three species infecting humans in Gabon: P. falciparum, P. malariae and P. ovale. None of the species known to infect non-human primates in Central Africa was found. Our study shows that ape Plasmodium parasites of the subgenus Laverania do not constitute a frequent source of infection for humans. It also suggests that some strong host genetic barriers must exist to prevent the cross species transmission of ape Plasmodium in a context of ever increasing contacts between humans and wildlife.

  18. AZF Microdeletions in Human Semen Infected with Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayfa H Hassani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections are associated with infertility in men. This study was aimed to investigate microdeletions on Yq chromosome in semen infected with bacteria by using bacteriological, biochemical, and serological assays. The investigation showed that 107 of 300 (84.80% semen samples collected from infertile men with primary or secondary infertility were infected with different species of bacteria. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrheae were the most frequently diagnosed bacteria in the infected semen samples. The percentages of infections of semen samples with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhea were 42.31% and 35.28% respectively. Genomic DNA from each semen sample infected with predominant bacteria was analyzed for AZF deletions by using multiplex PCR. Different patterns of AZF microdeletions were obtained. It can be concluded that sexually transmitted bacteria may contribute in microdeletions of Yq chromosome by indirectly producing reactive oxygen species and causing gene defect in AZF regions.

  19. Primary and secondary infection with human parvovirus B19 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary and secondary infection with human parvovirus. B19 in pregnant women in South Africa ... I Infection during pregnancy may lead to fetal loss, especially during the second trimester, because of severe ... IgG antibodies) with viruses such as rubella: cyto- megalovirus' and varicella." Subjects and methods. A total of 1 ...

  20. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom. Corresponding author: S Delany-Moretlwe (sdelany@wrhi.ac.za). Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) affecting both men and women.[1] HPV infections can be classified as either low- (LR) or high-risk ...

  1. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Acceptability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and has been implicated in over 70% of cases of cervical cancer. This study assessed the knowledge of HPV infection and acceptability of HPV vaccination among nursing students in Benin City. Methodology: A ...

  2. Adenovirus infection reverses the antiviral state induced by human interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Carrasco, L

    1987-04-06

    HeLa cells treated with human lymphoblastoid interferon do not synthesize poliovirus proteins. The antiviral state against poliovirus is reversed if cells are previously infected with adenovirus type 5. A late gene product seems to be involved in this reversion, since no effect is observed at early stages of infection or in the presence of aphidicolin.

  3. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk...

  4. malaria parasitaemia among febrile children infected with human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... MALARIA PARASITAEMIA AMONG FEBRILE CHILDREN INFECTED WITH. HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS IN THE CONTEXT OF PROPHYLACTIC. COTRIMOXAZOLE AS STANDARD OF CARE: A CROSS- SECTIONAL SURVEY. IN WESTERN KENYA. I. K. MARETE, M. MUTUGI, Z. LAGAT, ...

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as a fatal case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-25

    CMV), Epstein-. Barr virus (EBV), Hepatitis B and C virus,. Mycoplasma. Pneumoniae,. Haemophilus influenzae and Campylobacter jejuni have all been implicated in. GBS.[6]. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ...

  6. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  7. RSV Infection in Human Macrophages Promotes CXCL10/IP-10 Expression during Bacterial Co-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Machado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs. Here, we set up and characterized a similar model of MDMs to investigate different scenarios of RSV infection and co-infection with Sp. Our results suggest that Sp contributes to a faster and possibly higher level of CXCL10/IP-10 expression induced by RSV infection in human MDMs.

  8. A DNA Vaccine Protects Human Immune Cells against Zika Virus Infection in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A DNA vaccine encoding prM and E protein has been shown to induce protection against Zika virus (ZIKV infection in mice and monkeys. However, its effectiveness in humans remains undefined. Moreover, identification of which immune cell types are specifically infected in humans is unclear. We show that human myeloid cells and B cells are primary targets of ZIKV in humanized mice. We also show that a DNA vaccine encoding full length prM and E protein protects humanized mice from ZIKV infection. Following administration of the DNA vaccine, humanized DRAG mice developed antibodies targeting ZIKV as measured by ELISA and neutralization assays. Moreover, following ZIKV challenge, vaccinated animals presented virtually no detectable virus in human cells and in serum, whereas unvaccinated animals displayed robust infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Our results utilizing humanized mice show potential efficacy for a targeted DNA vaccine against ZIKV in humans.

  9. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-09-30

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB.

  10. Lack of the pattern recognition molecule mannose-binding lectin increases susceptibility to influenza A virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartshorn Kevan L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mannose-binding lectin (MBL, a pattern recognition innate immune molecule, inhibits influenza A virus infection in vitro. MBL deficiency due to gene polymorphism in humans has been associated with infection susceptibility. These clinical observations were confirmed by animal model studies, in which mice genetically lacking MBL were susceptible to certain pathogens, including herpes simplex virus 2. Results We demonstrate that MBL is present in the lung of naïve healthy wild type (WT mice and that MBL null mice are more susceptible to IAV infection. Administration of recombinant human MBL (rhMBL reverses the infection phenotype, confirming that the infection susceptibility is MBL-mediated. The anti-viral mechanisms of MBL include activation of the lectin complement pathway and coagulation, requiring serum factors. White blood cells (WBCs in the lung increase in WT mice compared with MBL null mice on day 1 post-infection. In contrast, apoptotic macrophages (MΦs are two-fold higher in the lung of MBL null mice compared with WT mice. Furthermore, MBL deficient macrophages appear to be susceptible to apoptosis in vitro. Lastly, soluble factors, which are associated with lung injury, are increased in the lungs of MBL null mice during IAV infection. These results suggest that MBL plays a key role against IAV infection. Conclusion MBL plays a key role in clearing IAV and maintaining lung homeostasis. In addition, our findings also suggest that MBL deficiency maybe a risk factor in IAV infection and MBL may be a useful adjunctive therapy for IAV infection.

  11. Antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infection with an emphasis on fluoroquinolone resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeth K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial infections in humans, both in the community and the hospital settings. UTIs are more common in females compared to males and are mostly caused by Escherichia coli accounting for more than 70% of uncomplicated cases both in outpatients and inpatients. With increasing antibiotic resistance, management of urinary tract infection has become complicated with limited therapeutic options. OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to detect the current antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli with a special reference to fluoroquinolone resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1248 urine samples collected between November 2011 to May 2013 were cultured and pathogens identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined was by Kirby-Bauer method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of fluoroquinolones was determined by microbroth dilution method as per CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Among 311culture positive urine samples, 203 were Escherichia coli. High resistance rate to Ampicillin (81.3%, Co-trimoxazole (83.3% and low resistance rate to Nitrofurantoin (17% were noted for Escherichia coli. Among the 203 Escherichia coli, 141 and 121 isolates showed a MIC of ≥ 4 μg/ml for Ciprofloxacin and ≥ 8 μg/ml for Levofloxacin respectively. The resistance rate to other antibiotics and the MIC of Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin increased as the patient’s age increases. CONCLUSION: The increased resistance to fluoroquinolones in Escherichia coli could be due to its inappropriate usage. It is imperative to rationalize the use of fluoroquinolones in order to prevent the dissemination of resistant strains in the population.

  12. Milk Oligosaccharides Inhibit Human Rotavirus Infectivity in MA104 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laucirica, Daniel R; Triantis, Vassilis; Schoemaker, Ruud; Estes, Mary K; Ramani, Sasirekha

    2017-09-01

    Background: Oligosaccharides in milk act as soluble decoy receptors and prevent pathogen adhesion to the infant gut. Milk oligosaccharides reduce infectivity of a porcine rotavirus strain; however, the effects on human rotaviruses are less well understood. Objective: In this study, we determined the effect of specific and abundant milk oligosaccharides on the infectivity of 2 globally dominant human rotavirus strains. Methods: Four milk oligosaccharides-2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), 3'-sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'-sialyllactose (6'SL), and galacto-oligosaccharides-were tested for their effects on the infectivity of human rotaviruses G1P[8] and G2P[4] through fluorescent focus assays on African green monkey kidney epithelial cells (MA104 cells). Oligosaccharides were added at different time points in the infectivity assays. Infections in the absence of oligosaccharides served as controls. Results: When compared with infections in the absence of glycans, all oligosaccharides substantially reduced the infectivity of both human rotavirus strains in vitro; however, virus strain-specific differences in effects were observed. Compared with control infections, the maximum reduction in G1P[8] infectivity was seen with 2'FL when added after the onset of infection (62% reduction, P < 0.01), whereas the maximum reduction in G2P[4] infectivity was seen with the mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL when added during infection (73% reduction, P < 0.01). The mixture of 3'SL + 6'SL at the same ratio as is present in breast milk was more potent in reducing G2P[4] infectivity (73% reduction, P < 0.01) than when compared with 3'SL (47% reduction) or 6'SL (40% reduction) individually. For all oligosaccharides the reduction in infectivity was mediated by an effect on the virus and not on the cells. Conclusions: Milk oligosaccharides reduce the infectivity of human rotaviruses in MA104 cells, primarily through an effect on the virus. Although breastfed infants are directly protected, the addition of specific

  13. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  14. Update on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Yesufu, Omobolaji T; Gandhi, Rajesh T

    2011-03-15

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) occurs mainly in West Africa, but an increasing number of cases have been recognized in Europe, India, and the United States. In this era of global integration, clinicians must be aware of when to consider the diagnosis of HIV-2 infection and how to test for this virus. Although there is debate regarding when therapy should be initiated and which regimen should be chosen, recent trials have provided important information on treatment options for HIV-2 infection. In this review, we present information on recent clinical advances in our understanding of HIV-2 infection and highlight remaining diagnostic and therapeutic challenges.

  15. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    .... This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV...

  16. Neopterin and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B

    1993-01-01

    to predict the later development of AIDS. The increased neopterin concentrations show that the immune system is activated in HIV infection and demonstrate the presence of an interaction between the virus and the immune system. The most important future use of neopterin measurements may be in fast evaluation...

  17. Brucella neotomae Infection in Humans, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Víquez-Ruiz, Eunice; Rojas-Campos, Norman; Baker, Kate S; Oviedo-Sánchez, Gerardo; Amuy, Ernesto; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R; Moreno, Edgardo; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2017-06-01

    Several species of Brucella are known to be zoonotic, but B. neotomae infection has been thought to be limited to wood rats. In 2008 and 2011, however, B. neotomae was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid of 2 men with neurobrucellosis. The nonzoonotic status of B. neotomae should be reassessed.

  18. Avian Influenza Infection in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulmonology Unit, Department of Medicine,. University College Hospital, Ibadan. INTRODUCTION _ ... saliva, nasal secretions and faeces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with con- .... ing and immunofluorescence[l4, 1 5]. Laboratory tests are required for specific identification of avian. influenza.

  19. ~hift in genomic RNA patterns of human jotaviruses isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Estes MK, Graham DY, Dimitrov DH. The molecular epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Prog Med Virol 1984; 29: 1-22. 2. Sanders RC. Molecular epidemiology of human rotavirus infections. Eur J. Epidemiol 1985; 1: 19-32. 3. Albert MJ, Bishop RF, Shann FA. Epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhoea in.

  20. Laboratory and Clinical Aspects of Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafous, Pascale; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a widespread betaherpesvirus which is genetically related to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and now encompasses two different species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6 exhibits a wide cell tropism in vivo and, like other herpesviruses, induces a lifelong latent infection in humans. As a noticeable difference with respect to other human herpesviruses, genomic HHV-6 DNA is covalently integrated into the subtelomeric region of cell chromosomes (ciHHV-6) in about 1% of the general population. Although it is infrequent, this may be a confounding factor for the diagnosis of active viral infection. The diagnosis of HHV-6 infection is performed by both serologic and direct methods. The most prominent technique is the quantification of viral DNA in blood, other body fluids, and organs by means of real-time PCR. Many active HHV-6 infections, corresponding to primary infections, reactivations, or exogenous reinfections, are asymptomatic. However, the virus may be the cause of serious diseases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. As emblematic examples of HHV-6 pathogenicity, exanthema subitum, a benign disease of infancy, is associated with primary infection, whereas further virus reactivations can induce severe encephalitis cases, particularly in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Generally speaking, the formal demonstration of the causative role of HHV-6 in many acute and chronic human diseases is difficult due to the ubiquitous nature of the virus, chronicity of infection, existence of two distinct species, and limitations of current investigational tools. The antiviral compounds ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir are effective against active HHV-6 infections, but the indications for treatment, as well as the conditions of drug administration, are not formally approved to date. There are still numerous pending questions about HHV-6 which should stimulate future research works on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and

  1. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH HUMAN HERPESVIRUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were tuberculosis suspects but had no active STD (25 women and 25 men), 50 patients with a proven STD, and 36 paediatric inpatients ~th a variety of .... Frottier J. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA sequences before the appearance of Kaposi's sarcoma in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV}-positive subjects with a ...

  2. West Nile Virus: Biology, Transmission, and Human Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpitts, Tonya M.; Conway, Michael J.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: West Nile Virus was introduced into the Western Hemisphere during the late summer of 1999 and has been causing significant and sometimes severe human diseases since that time. This article briefly touches upon the biology of the virus and provides a comprehensive review regarding recent discoveries about virus transmission, virus acquisition, and human infection and disease. PMID:23034323

  3. Human Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus infection, Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Petra; Müller, Nicole; Heinemann, Patrick; Rother, Enno; Jakupi, Xhevat; Günther, Stephan; Cadar, Daniel; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2014-11-01

    Here we describe an acute Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infection that presented as severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in an active-duty U.S. soldier. The infection was acquired in northern Kosovo in spring 2013. Amplification of DOBV genome segments directly from the patient's serum sample was successfully performed. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the strain belong to DOBV genotype Dobrava and is closely related to strains circulating in Southeast Europe and Slovakia. Thus, our case confirms that DOBV genotype Dobrava is able to cause a severe form of HFRS, especially when compared to the other less pathogenic DOBV genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Four Human Cases of Diphyllobothrium latum Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Lee, Junghye

    2012-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum infections in 4 young Korean men detected from 2008 to 2012 are presented. Three were diagnosed based on spontaneously discharged strobila of the adult worm in their feces, and 1 case was diagnosed by finding the worm at colonoscopy examination in a local clinic. The morphologic characteristics of the gravid proglottid and eggs were consistent with D. latum. All patients were treated with praziquantel 15 mg/kg, and follow-up stool examinations were done at 2 months after the medication. The main clinical complaints were intermittent gastrointestinal troubles such as indigestion, abdominal distension, and spontaneous discharge of tapeworm's segments in their feces. The most probable source of infection was the flesh of salmon or trout according to a patient's past history. These are the 45th to 48th recorded cases diagnosed by the adult worm in the Republic of Korea since 1971. PMID:22711926

  5. PATTERN OF AEROBIC B ACTERIAL INFECTION O F DIABETIC FOOT

    OpenAIRE

    Parmeshwari; Basavaraj

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the commonest complications of longstanding diabetes. Diabetic foot is a common cause of hospital admission in diabetic patients in India. The trio of problems leading onto diabetic foot is neuropathy, vascular changes and infections, which constitute the diabetic foot syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To determine ...

  6. Incidence and bacteriological pattern of puerperal infections within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of puerperal sepsis was 21% (49/235), out of which 49% (24/49) met the clinical criteria of puerperal infection and 51% (25/49) had laboratory confirmed puerperal sepsis. Of the specimens cultured, 44% were Staphylococcus aureus, 44% were Escherichia coli and 12% Pseudomonas aeuroginosum.

  7. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...

  8. HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    and gender of the studied population and whether the purulent meningitis is primary or as a co infection with HIV. Journal of Medical and ... rial inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. It mostly affects .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by gender. Variable. Total. (n = 621).

  9. Hematological derangement patterns in Nigerian dogs infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was an overall higher post infection leukocyte drop compared to erythrocyte. The result poses fundamental research questions on the likelihood of differential surface sialic acid contents of erythrocytes and leukocytes and the possible roles of trypanosome sialidase in creating this difference as well as enhancing ...

  10. Salmonella, a cross-kingdom pathogen infecting humans and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Reyes, Casandra; Schikora, Adam

    2013-06-01

    Infections with non-typhoidal Salmonella strains are constant and are a non-negligible threat to the human population. In the last two decades, salmonellosis outbreaks have increasingly been associated with infected fruits and vegetables. For a long time, Salmonellae were assumed to survive on plants after a more or less accidental infection. However, this notion has recently been challenged. Studies on the infection mechanism in vegetal hosts, as well as on plant immune systems, revealed an active infection process resembling in certain features the infection in animals. On one hand, Salmonella requires the type III secretion systems to effectively infect plants and to suppress their resistance mechanisms. On the other hand, plants recognize these bacteria and react to the infection with an induced defense mechanism similar to the reaction to other plant pathogens. In this review, we present the newest reports on the interaction between Salmonellae and plants. We discuss the possible ways used by these bacteria to infect plants as well as the plant responses to the infection. The recent findings indicate that plants play a central role in the dissemination of Salmonella within the ecosystem. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Sachin D; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Wanchu, Ajay

    2013-01-01

    Mucocutaneous diseases are among the first-recognized clinical manifestations of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. They function as visual markers in assessing the progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Given the relative ease of examination of skin, its evaluation remains an important tool in the diagnosis of HIV infection. To determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestations in HIV-positive patients and to correlate their presence with CD4 counts. This cross-sectional study included 352 HIV-infected patients seen at PGIMER, Chandigarh, India, over a period of 1 year. The patients were screened for mucocutaneous disorders by an experienced dermatologist. The patients were classified into different stages according to the World Health Organization clinical and immunological staging system. The most prevalent infection was candidiasis, seen in 57 patients (16.2%). Prevalence of candidiasis, dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum (MC), seborrheic dermatitis, adverse drug reaction, nail pigmentation, xerosis and diffuse hair loss differed statistically according to the clinical stages of HIV infection. There was a statistically significant association between immunological stages of HIV infection and dermatophytosis. Results of our study suggest that mucocutaneous findings occur throughout the course of HIV infection. Dermatoses like MC and dermatophytosis show an inverse relation with CD4 cell count, and these dermatoses can be used as a proxy indicator of advanced immunosuppression to start highly active anti-retroviral therapy in the absence of facilities to carry out CD4 cell count.

  12. [Pathogenesis of human metapneumovirus infection and research on attenuated live vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mao-Zhi; Dou, Ying; Zhao, Xiao-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is an important viral pathogen in acute respiratory infections in children, presenting similar manifestations with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). HMPV infection peaks in the winter-spring season and is more prevalent in younger ages, especially in children less than 1 year old. Host innate immune response has been implicated in recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the virus. This recognition occurs through host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll like receptors (TLRs) are one of the largest class of PRRs which initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses. Some studies have indicated that TLR 3 and TLR 4 may play critical roles in hMPV infection. Construction of recombinant mutant viruses lacking one or two N-linked glycosylation sites in the F protein by using site-directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics may be helpful for developing attenuated live vaccines.

  13. Potential Therapy for Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections With Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C V

    2015-12-01

    The scientific evidence suggests that Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infects human fallopian tubes by molecular mimicry in which pathogens act like a ligand to bind to epithelial cell surface human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)/luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors. The hCG-like molecule has been identified as ribosomal protein L12 in NG coat surface. Human fallopian tube epithelial cells have been shown to contain functional hCG/LH receptors. As previously shown in human fallopian tube organ and cell culture studies, cellular invasion and infection can be prevented by exposing the cells to excess hCG, which would outnumber and outcompete NG for receptor binding. Based on these data, we suggest testing hCG in clinical trials on infected women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Non-Human Primate Models of Orthopoxvirus Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Schmitt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallpox, one of the most destructive diseases, has been successfully eradicated through a worldwide vaccination campaign. Since immunization programs have been stopped, the number of people with vaccinia virus induced immunity is declining. This leads to an increase in orthopoxvirus (OPXV infections in humans, as well as in animals. Additionally, potential abuse of Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox, or monkeypox virus, as agents of bioterrorism, has renewed interest in development of antiviral therapeutics and of safer vaccines. Due to its high risk potential, research with VARV is restricted to two laboratories worldwide. Therefore, numerous animal models of other OPXV infections have been developed in the last decades. Non-human primates are especially suitable due to their close relationship to humans. This article provides a review about on non-human primate models of orthopoxvirus infections.

  15. Incidence, pathogens and resistance patterns of nosocomial infections at a rural hospital in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Micha; Kösters, Katrin; Mürbeth, Raymund Egid; Ngoa, Ulysse Ateba; Kremsner, Peter Gottfried; Lell, Bertrand; Alabi, Abraham

    2014-03-04

    Nosocomial infections pose substantial risk to patients receiving care in hospitals. In Africa, this problem is aggravated by inadequate infection control due to poor hygiene, resource and structural constraints, deficient surveillance data and lack of awareness regarding nosocomial infections. We carried out this study to determine the incidence and spectrum of nosocomial infections, pathogens and antibiotic resistance patterns in a tertiary regional hospital in Lambaréné, Gabon. This prospective case study was carried out over a period of six months at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Lambaréné, Gabon. All patients admitted to the departments of surgery, gynecology/obstetrics and internal medicine were screened daily for signs and symptoms of hospital-acquired infections. A total of 2925 patients were screened out of which 46 nosocomial infections (1.6%) were diagnosed. These comprised 20 (44%) surgical-site infections, 12 (26%) urinary-tract infections, 9 (20%) bacteraemias and 5 (11%) other infections. High rates of nosocomial infections were found after hysterectomies (12%) and Caesarean sections (6%). Most frequent pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Eight (40%) of 20 identified E. coli and Klebsiella spp. strains were ESBL-producing organisms. The cumulative incidence of nosocomial infections in this study was low; however, the high rates of surgical site infections and multi-resistant pathogens necessitate urgent comprehensive interventions of infection control.

  16. Transmission dynamics of hepatitis E among swine: potential impact upon human infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a zoonosis for which pigs play a role as a reservoir. In Japan, the infection has been enzootic in swine. Clarifying the detailed mechanisms of transmission within farms is required in order to facilitate an understanding of the age-specific patterns of infection, especially just prior to slaughter. Results Here we reanalyze a large-scale seroprevalence survey dataset from Japanese pig farms to estimate the force of infection. The forces of infection of swine HEV were estimated to be 3.45 (95% confidence interval: 3.17, 3.75, 2.68 (2.28, 3.14 and 3.11 (2.76, 3.50 [×10-2 per day] in Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu, respectively. The estimates with our model assumptions indicated that the average ages at infection ranged from 59.0–67.3 days and that the basic reproduction number, R0, was in the order of 4.02–5.17. Sensitivity analyses of age-specific incidence at different forces of infection revealed that a decline in the force of infection would elevate the age at infection and could increase the number of virus-excreting pigs at the age of 180 days. Conclusion Although our estimates imply that more than 95% of pigs are infected before the age of 150 days, the model shows that a decline in the force of infection could increase the risk of pig-to-human transmission. If the force of infection started to decline, it might be necessary to implement radical countermeasures (e.g. separation of uninfected pigs from infected herds beginning from the end of the suckling stage to minimize the number of virus-positive pigs at the finishing stage.

  17. The Evolution of Trypanosomes Infecting Humans and Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Jamie

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences and clade taxon composition, this paper adopts a biogeographical approach to understanding the evolutionary relationships of the human and primate infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma cruzi, T. brucei, T. rangeli and T. cyclops. Results indicate that these parasites have divergent origins and fundamentally different patterns of evolution. T. cruzi is placed in a clade with T. rangeli and trypanosomes specific to bats and a kangaroo. The predominantly South American and Australian origins of parasites within this clade suggest an ancient southern super-continent origin for ancestral T. cruzi, possibly in marsupials. T. brucei clusters exclusively with mammalian, salivarian trypanosomes of African origin, suggesting an evolutionary history confined to Africa, while T. cyclops, from an Asian primate appears to have evolved separately and is placed in a clade with T. (Megatrypanum species. Relating clade taxon composition to palaeogeographic evidence, the divergence of T. brucei and T. cruzi can be dated to the mid-Cretaceous, around 100 million years before present, following the separation of Africa, South America and Euramerica. Such an estimate of divergence time is considerably more recent than those of most previous studies based on molecular clock methods. Perhaps significantly, Salivarian trypanosomes appear, from these data, to be evolving several times faster than Schizotrypanum species, a factor which may have contributed to previous anomalous estimates of divergence times.

  18. Immunopathogenesis of oropharyngeal candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-10-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical immunological defects which are responsible for the onset and maintenance of mucosal candidiasis in patients with HIV infection have not been elucidated. The devastating impact of HIV infection on mucosal Langerhans' cell and CD4(+) cell populations is most probably central to the pathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients. However, these defects may be partly compensated by preserved host defense mechanisms (calprotectin, keratinocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and phagocytes) which, individually or together, may limit Candida albicans proliferation to the superficial mucosa. The availability of CD4C/HIV transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 in immune cells has provided the opportunity to devise a novel model of mucosal candidiasis that closely mimics the clinical and pathological features of candidal infection in human HIV infection. These transgenic mice allow, for the first time, a precise cause-and-effect analysis of the immunopathogenesis of mucosal candidiasis in HIV infection under controlled conditions in a small laboratory animal.

  19. Human mobility patterns predict divergent epidemic dynamics among cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Benjamin D; Pourbohloul, Babak; Ellner, Stephen P

    2013-09-07

    The epidemic dynamics of infectious diseases vary among cities, but it is unclear how this is caused by patterns of infectious contact among individuals. Here, we ask whether systematic differences in human mobility patterns are sufficient to cause inter-city variation in epidemic dynamics for infectious diseases spread by casual contact between hosts. We analyse census data on the mobility patterns of every full-time worker in 48 Canadian cities, finding a power-law relationship between population size and the level of organization in mobility patterns, where in larger cities, a greater fraction of workers travel to work in a few focal locations. Similarly sized cities also vary in the level of organization in their mobility patterns, equivalent on average to the variation expected from a 2.64-fold change in population size. Systematic variation in mobility patterns is sufficient to cause significant differences among cities in infectious disease dynamics-even among cities of the same size-according to an individual-based model of airborne pathogen transmission parametrized with the mobility data. This suggests that differences among cities in host contact patterns are sufficient to drive differences in infectious disease dynamics and provides a framework for testing the effects of host mobility patterns in city-level disease data.

  20. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hun Lee

    Full Text Available Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW. Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001. High-risk HPV (HR-HPV prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4% than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002. The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%, HPV 18 (9.9%, and HPV 58 (5% in MSM, and HPV 58(11% and HPV 16 (8.9% in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001. Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001. In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  1. Nosocomial Infections in Intensive Care Unit: Pattern of Antibiotic-resistance in Iranian Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Bahram Nasr; Basiri, Rozita; Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohammad Mahdy; Moghim, Sharareh; Dolatkhah, Shahaboddin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial infections are responsible for great number of mortality in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Knowledge about prevalence of bacterial infections and their antibiotic-resistance pattern would be a great step for their treatment and management. Data about nosocomial infections in ICUs of Alzahra Hospital (referral hospital in Isfahan, center of Iran) were gathered during the years 2007-2010. A questionnaire was fulfilled for any specific patient with nosocomial infection containing demographic data of patient and also characteristics of the infection. Out of all patients, 707 individuals (65.6%) were male and 370 (34.4%) were female. Our data revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.9%), Klebsiella (11%), and Escherichia coli (6.4%) were the most prevalent bacterial infections. The most common sites of nosocomial infections in the ICU were respiratory system (399 cases, 37%), urinary system (230 cases, 21.4%), and blood (102 cases, 9.5%). The antibiotic-resistance of each bacteria in ICU ward was assessed and data were categorized in a table. There were less documentary about bacterial cultures in the year 2007 when compared with the next years. We found some differences (such as bacterial prevalence in ICU wards which caused nosocomial infections) in our local prevalence of nosocomial infections and also in their resistance pattern compared to other centers. Knowing about our data will help physicians to administer the most suitable antibiotics for treatment of nosocomial infections in our area.

  2. Aspergillus Sydowi Infection of Human Finger Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Barde

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Aspergillus sydowi infection of left middle finger nail is described ′ The presence of fungal hypae with phialids and spores on direct microscopy as well as in culture, the colour of the sub-ungual mass of the nail resembling the colour of the fungus in, culture′ repeated isolations of A sydowi from the diseased tissue along with the absence of any established pathogenic species in the specimen are taken as evidences that this fungus was invading the nail tissue.

  3. Influenza A virus infection of human Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joshua; Buchman, Craig A; Fregien, Nevis

    2003-01-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular neuronitis, vocal fold paralysis and Bell's palsy have been associated with a viral etiology, due to the infection of nerve cells. The goal of this research was to ascertain whether Schwann cells can support infection with human influenza A virus and thereby represent a plausible alternative site for virus-host interaction. Viral infection of Schwann cells may lead to secretion of inflammatory mediators, leukocyte recruitment, demyelination and nerve damage. Cultured human Schwann cells were exposed to human influenza A virus. Infection was assayed at various times post-inoculation (0, 24, 48 and 72 h) using light microscopy, immunocytochemistry and influenza A virus-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A group of unexposed cells served as controls. Following exposure to the virus, vacuolization, cellular expansion and detachment from the dish were seen as early as 24 h post-inoculation. The exposed cells demonstrated positive immunocytochemical staining for influenza A virus antigen at 24, 48 and 72 h. Using RT-PCR, a sharp rise in influenza A virus-specific mRNA was detected. Human Schwann cells can be infected with human influenza A virus. Further studies will assess the inflammatory response in this model.

  4. Increased hot flash severity and related interference in perimenopausal human immunodeficiency virus-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Sara E; Shifren, Jan; Corless, Inge; Rope, Alison; Pedersen, Maria C; Joffe, Hadine; Grinspoon, Steven

    2014-04-01

    As women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer, more are entering perimenopause. Prior studies suggest that HIV-infected women are more likely to have hot flashes than non-HIV-infected women. However, little is known regarding hot flash severity and hot flash-related interference with daily function, mood, and quality of life in this population. Perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women matched by age, race, and menstrual patterns completed the Menopause Rating Scale (to assess hot flash severity) and the Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale (HFRDIS). Menopause Rating Scale and HFRDIS scores and subscores were compared between the groups. Thirty-three HIV-infected women and 33 non-HIV-infected women who were similar in age (median [interquartile range], 47 [45-48] vs 47 [46-49] y), race (64% vs 52% nonwhite, P = 0.32), and menstrual patterns (number of periods in the past year; 5 [4-9] vs 6 [4-10], P = 0.53) were studied. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women reported greater hot flash severity (HIV vs non-HIV: 2 [1-3] vs 1 [0-3], P = 0.03) and hot flash-related interference (HFRDIS total score, 37 [10-60] vs 6 [0-20], P = 0.001). Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experience greater hot flash severity and related interference compared with non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women. Increased distress secondary to hot flashes may reduce quality of life and negatively impact important health-promoting behaviors, including adherence to antiretroviral therapy, in HIV-infected women.

  5. Growth in Agarose of Human Cells Infected with Cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, David J.; Montagnier, Luc; Latarjet, Raymond

    1974-01-01

    After infection by human cytomegalovirus (CMV), human diploid fibroblasts could grow in agarose medium for several generations. Clones of infected cells grew for weeks, although in every case they ultimately underwent lysis owing to the cytopathic effect of the virus. Virus was inoculated at high dilution and after UV irradiation in an effort to derive cells infected with noninfectious defective particles still capable of inducing cell stimulation. Dilute or irradiated virus occasionally yielded large colonies of replicating cells, although permanent transformation was not observed. One clone derived from UV-CMV-infected cells was passaged four times before undergoing lysis. During these passages the cells exhibited alterations in morphology and orientation. Images PMID:4367907

  6. Dynamics of the cellular metabolome during human cytomegalovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Munger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. Despite this reliance, the effect of viral infection on host cell metabolic composition remains poorly understood. Here we applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 63 different intracellular metabolites at multiple times after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection of human fibroblasts. Parallel microarray analysis provided complementary data on transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways. As the infection progressed, the levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis markedly increased. HCMV-induced transcriptional upregulation of specific glycolytic and citric acid cycle enzymes mirrored the increases in metabolite levels. The peak levels of numerous metabolites during infection far exceeded those observed during normal fibroblast growth or quiescence, demonstrating that HCMV markedly disrupts cellular metabolic homeostasis and institutes its own specific metabolic program.

  7. Markov chain for estimating human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantika, Sandy; Pasaribu, Udjianna S.

    2015-12-01

    The Markov chain was proposed to estimate the human mitochondrial DNA mutation pattern. One DNA sequence was taken randomly from 100 sequences in Genbank. The nucleotide transition matrix and mutation transition matrix were estimated from this sequence. We determined whether the states (mutation/normal) are recurrent or transient. The results showed that both of them are recurrent.

  8. No Uniform Culture: Pattern of Collaborative Research in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Jennie M.

    2017-01-01

    This study uses a campus scholarly networking and expertise system to examine trends in coauthorship in order to measure the prevalence of deep collaboration and readiness for team research. Bibliometric analysis of publishing patterns in four departments in the humanities shows significant differences in the rate of coauthorship by type of…

  9. NLRP3 polymorphism is associated with protection against human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Jiro Kamada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual heterogeneity in the response to human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection has been partially attributed to host genetic background. The antiviral activity of the inflammasome cytoplasmic complex recognises viral molecular patterns and regulates immune responses via the activation of interleukin (IL-1 family (IL-1, IL-18 and IL-33 members. The association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptors NLRP1 and NLRP3 and HTLV-1 infection was evaluated in a northeastern Brazilian population (84 HTLV-1 carriers and 155 healthy controls. NLRP3 rs10754558 G/G was associated with protection against HTLV-1 infection (p = 0.012; odds ratio = 0.37. rs10754558 affects NLRP3 mRNA stability; therefore, our results suggest that higher NLRP3 expression may augment first-line defences, leading to the effective protection against HTLV-1 infection.

  10. Immunopathogenesis of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    De Repentigny, Louis; Lewandowski, Daniel; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiases remain significant causes of morbidity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, despite the dramatic ability of antiretroviral therapy to reconstitute immunity. Notable advances have been achieved in understanding, at the molecular level, the relationships between the progression of HIV infection, the acquisition, maintenance, and clonality of oral candidal populations, and the emergence of antifungal resistance. However, the critical i...

  11. Molecular phylogeny of anoplocephalid tapeworms (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) infecting humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležalová, Jana; Vallo, Peter; Petrželková, Klára J; Foitová, Ivona; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Hashimoto, Chie; Jirků, Milan; Lukeš, Julius; Scholz, Tomáš; Modrý, David

    2015-09-01

    Anoplocephalid tapeworms of the genus Bertiella Stiles and Hassall, 1902 and Anoplocephala Blanchard, 1848, found in the Asian, African and American non-human primates are presumed to sporadic ape-to-man transmissions. Variable nuclear (5.8S-ITS2; 28S rRNA) and mitochondrial genes (cox1; nad1) of isolates of anoplocephalids originating from different primates (Callicebus oenanthe, Gorilla beringei, Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes and Pongo abelii) and humans from various regions (South America, Africa, South-East Asia) were sequenced. In most analyses, Bertiella formed a monophyletic group within the subfamily Anoplocephalinae, however, the 28S rRNA sequence-based analysis indicated paraphyletic relationship between Bertiella from primates and Australian marsupials and rodents, which should thus be regarded as different taxa. Moreover, isolate determined as Anoplocephala cf. gorillae from mountain gorilla clustered within the Bertiella clade from primates. This either indicates that A. gorillae deserves to be included into the genus Bertiella, or, that an unknown Bertiella species infects also mountain gorillas. The analyses allowed the genetic differentiation of the isolates, albeit with no obvious geographical or host-related patterns. The unexpected genetic diversity of the isolates studied suggests the existence of several Bertiella species in primates and human and calls for revision of the whole group, based both on molecular and morphological data.

  12. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Lujun; Liu, Siwen; Zhou, Jingjing; Li, Xin; He, Tieming; Cheng, Zhongyi; Xie, Peng

    2014-09-01

    Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. EBV Infection of Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was discovered 50 years ago as the first candidate human tumor virus. Since then, we have realized that this human γ-herpesvirus establishes persistent infection in the majority of adult humans, but fortunately causes EBV-associated diseases only in few individuals. This is an incredible success story of the human immune system, which controls EBV infection and its transforming capacity for decades. A better understanding of this immune control would not only benefit patients with EBV-associated malignancies, but could also provide clues how to establish such a potent, mostly cell-mediated immune control against other pathogens and tumors. However, the functional relevance of EBV-specific immune responses can only be addressed in vivo, and mice with reconstituted human immune system components (huMice) constitute a small animal model to interrogate the protective value of immune compartments during EBV infection, but also might provide a platform to test EBV-specific vaccines. This chapter will summarize the insights into EBV immunobiology that have already been gained in these models and provide an outlook into promising future avenues to develop this in vivo model of EBV infection and human immune responses further.

  14. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Fifth People' s Hospital of Shanghai, School of Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Zhao, Libo [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The Third People' s Hospital of Chongqing, 400014 (China); Yang, Yongtao [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Bornavirus Research Group affiliated to the Free University of Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Huang, Hua [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Huang, Rongzhong [Department of Rehabilitative Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400010 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 (China); and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  15. General Overview on Nontuberculous Mycobacteria, Biofilms, and Human Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM are emergent pathogens whose importance in human health has been growing. After being regarded mainly as etiological agents of opportunist infections in HIV patients, they have also been recognized as etiological agents of several infections on immune-competent individuals and healthcare-associated infections. The environmental nature of NTM and their ability to assemble biofilms on different surfaces play a key role in their pathogenesis. Here, we review the clinical manifestations attributed to NTM giving particular importance to the role played by biofilm assembly.

  16. Human Metapneumovirus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Alina; McLaren, Rodney; Saunders, Paul; Karakash, Scarlett; Minkoff, Howard

    2017-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus has recently been recognized as an important cause of severe respiratory viral infections and of viral infections in patients admitted to intensive care units. Little is known about the course of this infection in pregnancy. A late-preterm primigravid woman was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently diagnosed with human metapneumovirus. Because of worsening maternal respiratory status, she was intubated and a primary cesarean delivery was performed. The patient's respiratory status continued to decline postpartum, and she ultimately required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She was treated supportively until her respiratory status improved, at which time she was extubated and weaned off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and subsequently discharged home. Human metapneumovirus can lead to severe respiratory illness during pregnancy.

  17. Infection kinetics of human adenovirus serotype 41 in HEK 293 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselma Siqueira-Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to acquire an overview of the infectious cycle of HAdV-41 in permissive HEK 293 cells and compare it to that observed with the prototype of the genus, Human adenovirus C HAdV-2. HEK 293 cells were infected with each virus separately and were harvested every 12 h for seven days. Infection kinetics were analysed using confocal and electronic microscopy. The results show that, when properly cultivated, HAdV-41 was not fastidious. It had a longer multiplication cycle, which resulted in the release of complete viral particles and viral stocks reached high titres. After 60 h of infection, the export of viral proteins from the infected cell to the extracellular milieu was observed, with a pattern similar to that previously described for HAdV-2 penton-base trafficking after 30 h of infection. HAdV-41 had a non-lytic cycle and the infection spread from the first infected cell to its neighbours. The release process of the viral particles is unknown. The results observed for HAdV-41 infection in HEK 293 cells show how different this virus is from the prototype HAdV-2 and provides information for the development of this vector for use in gene therapy.

  18. Natural Human Mobility Patterns and Spatial Spread of Infectious Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Vitaly; Geisel, Theo; Brockmann, Dirk

    2011-08-01

    We investigate a model for spatial epidemics explicitly taking into account bidirectional movements between base and destination locations on individual mobility networks. We provide a systematic analysis of generic dynamical features of the model on regular and complex metapopulation network topologies and show that significant dynamical differences exist to ordinary reaction-diffusion and effective force of infection models. On a lattice we calculate an expression for the velocity of the propagating epidemic front and find that, in contrast to the diffusive systems, our model predicts a saturation of the velocity with an increasing traveling rate. Furthermore, we show that a fully stochastic system exhibits a novel threshold for the attack ratio of an outbreak that is absent in diffusion and force of infection models. These insights not only capture natural features of human mobility relevant for the geographical epidemic spread, they may serve as a starting point for modeling important dynamical processes in human and animal epidemiology, population ecology, biology, and evolution.

  19. Associations between patterns of human intestinal schistosomiasis and snail and mammal species richness in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2016-01-01

    the distribution of human schistosomiasis and biogeographical patterns of freshwater snail and mammal species richness in Uganda. We found that the association between estimated snail richness and human infection was best described by a negative correlation in non-spatial bi- and multivariate logistic mixed effect...... models. However, this association lost significance after the inclusion of a spatial component in a full geostatistical model, highlighting the importance of accounting for spatial correlation to obtain more precise parameter estimates. Furthermore, we found no significant relationships between mammal...... richness and schistosomiasis risk. We discuss the limitations of the data and methods used to test the decoy hypothesis for schistosomiasis, and highlight key future research directions that can facilitate more powerful tests of the decoy effect in snail-borne infections, at geographical scales...

  20. Humanized mouse models for HIV-1 infection of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jenna B; Sheridan, Patricia A; Matsushima, Glenn K; Garcia, J Victor

    2015-06-01

    Since the onset of the HIV epidemic, there has been a shift from a deadly diagnosis to the management of a chronic disease. This shift is the result of the development of highly effective drugs that are able to suppress viral replication for years. The availability of these regimens has also shifted the neurocognitive pathology associated with infection from potentially devastating to a much milder phenotype. As the disease outcome has changed significantly with the availability of antiretroviral therapy, there is an opportunity to re-evaluate the currently available models to address the neurocognitive pathology seen in suppressed patients. In the following, we seek to summarize the current literature on humanized mouse models and their utility in understanding how HIV infection leads to changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Also, we identify some of the unanswered questions regarding HIV infection of the CNS as well as the opportunities and limitations of currently existing models to address those questions. Finally, our conclusions indicate that the earlier humanized models used to study HIV infection in the CNS provided an excellent foundation for the type of work currently being performed using novel humanized mouse models. We also indicate the potential of some humanized mouse models that have not been used as of this time for the analysis of HIV infection in the brain.

  1. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  2. Host immunity, nutrition and coinfection alter longitudinal infection patterns of schistosomes in a free ranging African buffalo population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Anna E.; Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Smith, Mireya; Steinauer, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Schistosomes are trematode parasites of global importance, causing infections in millions of people, livestock, and wildlife. Most studies on schistosomiasis, involve human subjects; as such, there is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating parasite dynamics in the absence of intervention. As a consequence, despite decades of research on schistosomiasis, our understanding of its ecology in natural host populations is centered around how environmental exposure and acquired immunity influence acquisition of parasites, while very little is known about the influence of host physiology, coinfection and clearance in the absence of drug treatment. We used a 4-year study in free-ranging African buffalo to investigate natural schistosome dynamics. We asked (i) what are the spatial and temporal patterns of schistosome infections; (ii) how do parasite burdens vary over time within individual hosts; and (iii) what host factors (immunological, physiological, co-infection) and environmental factors (season, location) explain patterns of schistosome acquisition and loss in buffalo? Schistosome infections were common among buffalo. Microgeographic structure explained some variation in parasite burdens among hosts, indicating transmission hotspots. Overall, parasite burdens ratcheted up over time; however, gains in schistosome abundance in the dry season were partially offset by losses in the wet season, with some hosts demonstrating complete clearance of infection. Variation among buffalo in schistosome loss was associated with immunologic and nutritional factors, as well as co-infection by the gastrointestinal helminth Cooperia fuelleborni. Our results demonstrate that schistosome infections are surprisingly dynamic in a free-living mammalian host population, and point to a role for host factors in driving variation in parasite clearance, but not parasite acquisition which is driven by seasonal changes and spatial habitat utilization. Our study illustrates the power of

  3. Host immunity, nutrition and coinfection alter longitudinal infection patterns of schistosomes in a free ranging African buffalo population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianna R Beechler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are trematode parasites of global importance, causing infections in millions of people, livestock, and wildlife. Most studies on schistosomiasis, involve human subjects; as such, there is a paucity of longitudinal studies investigating parasite dynamics in the absence of intervention. As a consequence, despite decades of research on schistosomiasis, our understanding of its ecology in natural host populations is centered around how environmental exposure and acquired immunity influence acquisition of parasites, while very little is known about the influence of host physiology, coinfection and clearance in the absence of drug treatment. We used a 4-year study in free-ranging African buffalo to investigate natural schistosome dynamics. We asked (i what are the spatial and temporal patterns of schistosome infections; (ii how do parasite burdens vary over time within individual hosts; and (iii what host factors (immunological, physiological, co-infection and environmental factors (season, location explain patterns of schistosome acquisition and loss in buffalo? Schistosome infections were common among buffalo. Microgeographic structure explained some variation in parasite burdens among hosts, indicating transmission hotspots. Overall, parasite burdens ratcheted up over time; however, gains in schistosome abundance in the dry season were partially offset by losses in the wet season, with some hosts demonstrating complete clearance of infection. Variation among buffalo in schistosome loss was associated with immunologic and nutritional factors, as well as co-infection by the gastrointestinal helminth Cooperia fuelleborni. Our results demonstrate that schistosome infections are surprisingly dynamic in a free-living mammalian host population, and point to a role for host factors in driving variation in parasite clearance, but not parasite acquisition which is driven by seasonal changes and spatial habitat utilization. Our study illustrates

  4. Generation and maintenance of human memory cells during viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Doroudchi, Mehrnoosh; Yassine-Diab, Bader; Janbazian, Loury; Shi, Yu; Said, Elias A; Haddad, Elias K; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2006-11-01

    Long-term maintenance of memory T cell response is the hallmark of immune protection and hence the holy grail of most vaccine development studies. Persistent memory cells, developed after either viral infection or vaccination, ensure the generation of an antiviral response upon reexposure to the pathogen. During acute viral infections, as in the case of measles and influenza viruses, strong T cell effector functions, which eradicate the virus and protect patients against reexposure, are achieved by the generation of persistent protective memory cells. However, in chronic infections, T cells drastically lose effector functions before acquiring a memory phenotype. Chronic infections can be categorized into infections where viremia is controlled and protective memory cells are maintained as in the case of EBV and CMV infections, or where the virus persists and memory cells are exhausted and disrupted as in the case of human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this review, we will discuss the different phenotypical and functional characteristics of memory cells subsets, the importance of the role they play during acute and chronic infections, and the mechanisms behind their effectiveness and persistence.

  5. Obesity and human papillomavirus infection in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Hsun; Rositch, Anne F; Viscidi, Raphael P; Silver, Michelle I; Burke, Anne E; Gravitt, Patti E

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is known to increase susceptibility to certain infections in men. It is unclear whether obesity increases women's risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. In a prospective cohort of 696 perimenopausal women enrolled in 2008-2012, we sought to determine whether obesity predicted incident HPV detection or nondetection. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Baseline any type HPV prevalence was comparable between obese and nonobese women (18.7% vs 19.1%; P > .05). Over a median follow-up period of 17.9 months (interquartile range: 12.1-24.5), 187 new HPV detections occurred among 123 women, 60 of whom subsequently lost 76 detectable infections. When compared with nonobese participants, obese women had a similar rate of new HPV detection (7.1 vs 7.8 infections per 1000 infection-years; P > .05) or loss of detection (100.3 vs 85.8 infections per 100 infection-years; P > .05). Similar results were found after adjusting for age, menopausal status, smoking habit, and sexual exposure history. Results from the current analysis suggest little effect of obesity on HPV detection and loss of detection in mid-adult women. More research is needed to determine whether adipokines or cytokines better capture the potential immune modulating effects of obesity on HPV infection.

  6. Cytomegalovirus infection of the human placenta: an immunocytochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, K; Miller, R K; Metlay, L; Menegus, M A

    1992-11-01

    In congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection histologic evaluation of the placenta is often unrevealing. In the present study immunocytochemistry to CMV immediate early and early nuclear antigens was used to characterize placental involvement in six cases of symptomatic intrauterine CMV infection. Histologic examination had demonstrated diagnostic viral inclusions in one placenta and non-specific villitis in another. However, immunocytochemistry revealed CMV infection in five of the six placentas, including three with no pathologic changes on routine histologic evaluation. Infected cells were located primarily in the villous stroma. In one case immunoperoxidase staining showed infection in the syncytiotrophoblast. Infected endothelial cells were demonstrated by double staining for CMV and factor VIII antigen. No double-stained cells were seen in tissue sections stained for CMV immediate early nuclear antigen or the human macrophage-associated CD68 antigen, which is expressed in Hofbauer cells. In conclusion, specific immunoperoxidase staining was more sensitive for demonstrating placental CMV infection than was histologic examination and it aided in the characterization of infected cells.

  7. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Patterns of host adaptation in fly infecting Entomophthora species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    .g. Entomophthora, Strongwellsea and Entomophaga). Species diversification of the obligate IPF within Entomophthoromycota thus seems to be primarily driven by co-evolutionary host adaptation to specific insect families, genera or species-complexes, but the underlying genetic factors of host adaptation...... in this fungal order are largely unknown and leave many unanswered questions. For example are the number of virulence factors increasing, or decreasing when fungal pathogens adapt to a narrow range of potential hosts? And, are host specialization based on many genetic changes with small effect or few with large...... differences and similarities in order to detect patterns of host-specific molecular adaptation....

  9. Animal-associated opportunistic infections among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, C A; Angulo, F J; Rooney, J A

    1994-01-01

    A number of animal-associated infections occur in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those due to Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, Salmonella, Campylo-bacter, Giardia, Rhodococcus equi, Rochalimaea, and Listeria monocytogenes. Most of these infections, with the exception of those due to Rochalimaea, appear to be acquired by the immunosuppressed individual from sources other than exposure to animals. Drs. Glaser and colleagues review our current understanding of the role of exposure to animals, especially pets, in the natural history of these opportunistic infections. They suggest that the risk of zoonotic transmission is small and offer practical suggestions designed to reduce this low risk. They conclude that the benefits of animal companionship outweigh the risks to patients and that prohibition of pet ownership by individuals infected with HIV is not warranted.

  10. Borna Disease Virus Infection, a Human Mental-Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Liv; Ludwig, Hans

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on human Borna disease virus (BDV) infections, most notably on the development of valid diagnostic systems, which have arisen as a major research issue in the past decade. The significance of a novel modular triple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that is capable of specifically measuring anti-BDV antibodies as well as major structural proteins N (p40) and P (p24) in the blood, either as free antigens in the plasma or as antibody-bound circulating immune complexes (CICs), is explained. The impact of CICs and plasma antigen, which indicate periods of antigenemia in the course of BDV infection, along with other infection markers that are still in use is discussed. The review further provides new insight into possible links of BDV to human diseases, summarizing cross-sectional and longitudinal data which correlate acute depression with the presence and amount of antigen and CICs. Moreover, BDV prevalence in healthy people is reevaluated, suggesting that this was previously underestimated. Antiviral efficacy of amantadine, in vivo and in vitro, is outlined as well, with emphasis on wild-type (human and equine) versus laboratory strains. Finally, the pros and cons of the association of BDV with human disease, as detailed in the literature, are critically discussed and related to our data and concepts. This article supports existing correlative evidence for a pathogenic role of BDV infection in particular human mental disorders, in analogy to what has been proven for a variety of animal species. PMID:12857781

  11. A systems approach to understanding human rhinovirus and influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek-Kyun; Bheda-Malge, Anjali; Lin, Yakang; Sreekrishna, Koti; Adams, Rachel; Robinson, Michael K; Bascom, Charles C; Tiesman, Jay P; Isfort, Robert J; Gelinas, Richard

    2015-12-01

    Human rhinovirus and influenza virus infections of the upper airway lead to colds and the flu and can trigger exacerbations of lower airway diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets are still needed to differentiate between the cold and the flu, since the clinical course of influenza can be severe while that of rhinovirus is usually more mild. In our investigation of influenza and rhinovirus infection of human respiratory epithelial cells, we used a systems approach to identify the temporally changing patterns of host gene expression from these viruses. After infection of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) with rhinovirus, influenza virus or co-infection with both viruses, we studied the time-course of host gene expression changes over three days. We modeled host responses to these viral infections with time and documented the qualitative and quantitative differences in innate immune activation and regulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dual Transcriptome Profiling of Leishmania-Infected Human Macrophages Reveals Distinct Reprogramming Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes that constitute a first line of defense against pathogens. While lethal to many microbes, they are the primary host cells of Leishmania spp. parasites, the obligate intracellular pathogens that cause leishmaniasis. We conducted transcriptomic profiling of two Leishmania species and the human macrophage over the course of intracellular infection by using high-throughput RNA sequencing to characterize the global gene expression changes and reprogramming events that underlie the interactions between the pathogen and its host. A systematic exclusion of the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis revealed a vigorous, parasite-specific response of the human macrophage early in the infection that was greatly tempered at later time points. An analogous temporal expression pattern was observed with the parasite, suggesting that much of the reprogramming that occurs as parasites transform into intracellular forms generally stabilizes shortly after entry. Following that, the parasite establishes an intracellular niche within macrophages, with minimal communication between the parasite and the host cell later during the infection. No significant difference was observed between parasite species transcriptomes or in the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with each species. Our comparative analysis of gene expression changes that occur as mouse and human macrophages are infected by Leishmania spp. points toward a general signature of the Leishmania-macrophage infectome.

  13. Zika Virus Infects Human Fetal Brain Microglia and Induces Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Fok-Moon; Low, Donovan K S; Fan, Yiping; Tan, Jeslin J L; Lee, Bernett; Chan, Jerry K Y; Rénia, Laurent; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2017-04-01

    The unprecedented reemergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) has startled the world with reports of increased microcephaly in Brazil. ZIKV can infect human neural progenitors and impair brain growth. However, direct evidence of ZIKV infection in human fetal brain tissues remains elusive. Investigations were performed with brain cell preparations obtained from 9 donors. Virus infectivity was assessed by detection of virus antigen by flow cytometry together with various hematopoietic cell surface markers. Virus replication was determined by viral RNA quantification. Cytokine levels in supernatant obtained from virus-infected fetal brain cells were measured simultaneously in microbead-based immunoassays. We also show that ZIKV infection was particularly evident in hematopoietic cells with microglia, the brain-resident macrophage population being one of the main targets. Infection induces high levels of proinflammatory immune mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1). Our results highlight an important role for microglia and neuroinflammation during congenital ZIKV pathogenesis.

  14. Microsphaeropsis olivacea as an etiological agent of human skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, J; Mayayo, E; Tapiol, J; Aguilar, C; Cano, J

    1999-04-01

    Microsphaeropsis olivacea is reported as the agent of a case of human skin infection in an otherwise healthy woman. This fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was identified on the basis of its production of pycnidia and conidial structures typical of the Coelomycetes, and by its light brown, ellipsoid to cylindrical and thick walled conidia. The in vitro inhibitory activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, ketoconazole and miconazole was determined.

  15. Human dendritic cell culture and bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hannah E; Klein, Nigel; Dixon, Garth L J

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in the development of natural immunity to microbes. The DC form a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system by providing key instructions particularly to antigen naïve T-cells. The interaction of DC with T lymphocytes involves three signals: (1) antigen processing and presentation in context of MHC Class I and/or II, (2) expression of T cell co-stimulatory molecules, and (3) cytokine production. Studying the interactions of DCs with specific pathogens allows for better understanding of how protective immunity is generated, and may be particularly useful for assessing vaccine components. In this chapter, we describe methods to generate human monocyte-derived DCs and assess their maturation, activation, and function, using interaction with the gram-negative bacterial pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as a model.

  16. Severe human Babesia divergens infection in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mørch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human babesiosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening parasitic disease transmitted by ixodid ticks, and has not previously been reported in Norway. We report a case of severe babesiosis that occurred in Norway in 2007. The patient had previously undergone a splenectomy. He was frequently exposed to tick bites in an area endemic for bovine babesiosis in the west of Norway. The patient presented with severe haemolysis and multiorgan failure. Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed 30% parasitaemia with Babesia spp. He was treated with quinine in combination with clindamycin, apheresis, and supportive treatment with ventilatory support and haemofiltration, and made a complete recovery. This is the first case reported in Norway; however Babesia divergens seroprevalence in cattle in Norway is high, as is the risk of Ixodes ricinus tick bite in the general population. Babesiosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained febrile haemolytic disease.

  17. Bacterial isolates from infected wounds and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern: some remarks about wound infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa, Lucinda J; Fazii, Paolo; Di Giulio, Mara; Cellini, Luigina

    2015-02-01

    Wound infection plays an important role in the development of chronicity, delaying wound healing. This study aimed to identify the bacterial pathogens present in infected wounds and characterise their resistance profile to the most common antibiotics used in therapy. Three hundred and twelve wound swab samples were collected from 213 patients and analysed for the identification of microorganisms and for the determination of their antibiotic susceptibility. Patients with diverse type of wounds were included in this retrospective study, carried out from March to September 2012. A total of 28 species were isolated from 217 infected wounds. The most common bacterial species detected was Staphylococcus aureus (37%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17%), Proteus mirabilis (10%), Escherichia coli (6%) and Corynebacterium spp. (5%). Polymicrobial infection was found in 59 (27·1%) of the samples and was mainly constituted with two species. The most common association was S. aureus/P. aeruginosa. All Gram-positives were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Gram-negatives showed quite high resistance to the majority of antibiotics, being amikacin the most active against these bacteria. This study is mostly oriented to health care practitioners who deal with wound management, making them aware about the importance of wound infection and helping them to choose the adequate treatment options to control microbial infection in wounds. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Borna disease virus infection perturbs energy metabolites and amino acids in cultured human oligodendroglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Borna disease virus is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic virus that has been widely employed in neuroscientific research. Previous studies have revealed that metabolic perturbations are associated with Borna disease viral infection. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying its mode of action remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: Human oligodendroglia cells infected with the human strain Borna disease virus Hu-H1 and non-infected matched control cells were cultured in vitro. At day 14 post-infection, a proton nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomic approach was used to differentiate the metabonomic profiles of 28 independent intracellular samples from Borna disease virus-infected cells (n = 14 and matched control cells (n = 14. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was performed to demonstrate that the whole metabonomic patterns enabled discrimination between the two groups, and further statistical testing was applied to determine which individual metabolites displayed significant differences between the two groups. FINDINGS: Metabonomic profiling revealed perturbations in 23 metabolites, 19 of which were deemed individually significant: nine energy metabolites (α-glucose, acetate, choline, creatine, formate, myo-inositol, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, pyruvate, succinate and ten amino acids (aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine, valine. Partial least squares discriminant analysis demonstrated that the whole metabolic patterns enabled statistical discrimination between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Borna disease viral infection perturbs the metabonomic profiles of several metabolites in human oligodendroglia cells cultured in vitro. The findings suggest that Borna disease virus manipulates the host cell's metabolic network to support viral replication and proliferation.

  19. Controlled Human Malaria Infection: Applications, Advances, and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, Danielle I; McCarthy, James S; Good, Michael F

    2018-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) entails deliberate infection with malaria parasites either by mosquito bite or by direct injection of sporozoites or parasitized erythrocytes. When required, the resulting blood-stage infection is curtailed by the administration of antimalarial drugs. Inducing a malaria infection via inoculation with infected blood was first used as a treatment (malariotherapy) for neurosyphilis in Europe and the United States in the early 1900s. More recently, CHMI has been applied to the fields of malaria vaccine and drug development, where it is used to evaluate products in well-controlled early-phase proof-of-concept clinical studies, thus facilitating progression of only the most promising candidates for further evaluation in areas where malaria is endemic. Controlled infections have also been used to immunize against malaria infection. Historically, CHMI studies have been restricted by the need for access to insectaries housing infected mosquitoes or suitable malaria-infected individuals. Evaluation of vaccine and drug candidates has been constrained in these studies by the availability of a limited number of Plasmodium falciparum isolates. Recent advances have included cryopreservation of sporozoites, the manufacture of well-characterized and genetically distinct cultured malaria cell banks for blood-stage infection, and the availability of Plasmodium vivax -specific reagents. These advances will help to accelerate malaria vaccine and drug development by making the reagents for CHMI more widely accessible and also enabling a more rigorous evaluation with multiple parasite strains and species. Here we discuss the different applications of CHMI, recent advances in the use of CHMI, and ongoing challenges for consideration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Causative agents of nosocomial bloodstream infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirturk, Nese; Demiturk, Nese; Demirdal, Tuna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate nosocomial bloodstream infections (NBI) and their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns at Afyon Kocatepe University (AKU) Hospital, Turkey, from January 2006 to December 2011 and to determine the risk factors for nosocomial BSI. Subjects were aged > or = 18 years. The data were obtained from patient files. Five hundred seventy-nine nosocomial infections in 461 patients were included in the study. Eighty-four point six percent was primary and 15.4% were secondary infections. Gram-positive cocci were the most common organisms. When compared year by year there was an increasing trend in antibacterial resistant gram-negative bacilli. The most common infection risk factors were H2 histamine receptor blocker use and blood transfusions. Regular surveillance of BSI is important to monitor changes in the types of microorganisms and their resistance patterns.

  1. The effect of human papillomavirus infection on sperm cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y M; Lee, J F; Huang, H Y; Soong, Y K; Yang, F P; Pao, C C

    1997-06-01

    To investigate the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human sperm cells and to evaluate potential effects of HPV on the sperm functions. A descriptive clinical study. Specimens of semen were collected from 24 randomly selected patients who attended the fertility clinics at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The presence of HPV DNA and RNA were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Semen quality and sperm cell function were analyzed by computer-aided autoanalyzer. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA and RNA were found in 6 (25%) and 2 (8%) of the sperm cells specimens, respectively. Human papillomavirus type 18 DNA and RNA were present in 11 (46%) and 5 (21%) of the same sperm cells specimens, respectively. Incidence of asthenozoospermia among patients infected with either HPV was significantly higher than in those without HPV in their sperm cells (75% versus 8%). Although performance of curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and mean amplitude of lateral head displacement was significantly lower in HPV-infected specimens, the differences of linearity, beat cross frequency, and straightness were not statistically significant. These results suggest that human papillomavirus can be found in human sperm cells and that certain HPV-specific genes are actively transcribed. Sperm motility parameters seem to be affected by the presence of HPV in the sperm cells, and also the incidence of asthenozoospermia may be associated with HPV infection.

  2. A periodic pattern of SNPs in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bo Eskerod; Villesen, Palle; Wiuf, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    By surveying a filtered, high-quality set of SNPs in the human genome, we have found that SNPs positioned 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 bp apart are more frequent than SNPs positioned 3, 5, 7, or 9 bp apart. The observed pattern is not restricted to genomic regions that are known to cause sequencing...... periodic DNA. Our results suggest that not all SNPs in the human genome are created by independent single nucleotide mutations, and that care should be taken in analysis of SNPs from periodic DNA. The latter may have important consequences for SNP and association studies....... or alignment errors, for example, transposable elements (SINE, LINE, and LTR), tandem repeats, and large duplicated regions. However, we found that the pattern is almost entirely confined to what we define as "periodic DNA." Periodic DNA is a genomic region with a high degree of periodicity in nucleotide usage...

  3. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Papdopoulus AG, Devaja O, Cason J, Raju KS. The clinical implications of human papilloma virus infection in cervical cancinogenesis and emerging therapies. In: Studd J, editor. Prorgess in Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Vol. 14. Edinburgh: Churchhill Livingstone Publications; 2000. p. 281‑93. 2. Ijaiya MA, Aboyeji PA, ...

  4. Declining Rate of Infection with Maternal Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining Rate of Infection with Maternal Human Immunodeficiency Virus at Delivery Units in North-Central Nigeria. GE Imade, AS Sagay, J Musa, AN Ocheke, DS Adeniyi, M Idighri, R Powl, A Sendeht, JP Ogwuche, M Elujoba, CO Egbodo, T Oyebode, PH Daru, O Agbaji, IC Pam, ST Meloni, P Okonkwo, PJ Kanki ...

  5. Age-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study describes the age-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cytological abnormalities among this urban and peri-urban population. Method. Over the period March 2009 - September 2011, 1 524 women attending public sector primary healthcare clinics were invited to

  6. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cervical cancer and identified other risk factors. Molecular epidemiologic evidence clearly indicates that certain types of. HPV are the principal cause of invasive cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.[3]. Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus. Infection in Cervical Smears. Ojiyi EC, Dike IE, Okeudo C, ...

  7. Autochthonous Nocardia cerradoensis Infection in Humans, Spain, 2011 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercibengoa, Maria; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Nocardia cerradoensis was first isolated in 2003 in the El Cerrado region of Brazil; since then, only 2 human infections, in France and Spain, have been reported. We describe 3 autochthonous cases in residents of Spain during 2011 and 2014. Together these cases support the idea of an emerging global pathogenic microorganism. PMID:26691545

  8. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among pregnant women in an antenatal clinic in Port-Harcourt, Nigeria. ... 6, No 3 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A total of 10,032 pregnant women were screened for the possible occurrence of HIV 1 and HIV 2 within the period.

  9. Awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among antenatal clients in Nnewi Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study of six hundred consecutive antenatal clients attending the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital and five private ...

  10. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection among tuberculosis suspect patients in Accra, Ghana, ... man immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. (TB) is well known. A previous study showed a 16,8 % .... HIV~1 and HIV-(Z; Fujirebio Inc, TokyoJapan) and con-- firmed with the synthetic peptide based ...

  11. seroprevalence of human herpes virus 8 (hhv8) infection among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Praise

    SEROPREVALENCE OF HUMAN HERPES VIRUS 8 (HHV8) INFECTION. AMONG COMMERCIAL SEX WORKERS IN JOS. Zakari1, H., Nimzing2, L., Agabi1, Y. A., Amagam3, P. and Dashen,1 M. M.. 1Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University o f Jos, Nigeria. 2Department of Medical Microbiology, ...

  12. Prevalence And Risk Factors For Human Pappiloma Virus Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Pappiloma Virus (HPV) infection is a disease of global public health importance, culminating into a high risk of cervical cancer. Most of the risk factors are modifiable, thus making HPV itself preventable. Efforts towards community HPV prevention and vaccination have not yielded the desired results, most especially ...

  13. Health Disparity in Human Papilloma Virus Related Infections | Poku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In spite of the volume of information of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines, there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude towards HPV infection, cervical cancer and HPV vaccines. The study was ...

  14. Prevalence of tonsillar human papillomavirus infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, M; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob Mølby

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tonsillar carcinomas associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased dramatically over the last three decades. In fact, currently in Scandinavia, HPV-associated cases account for over 80 % of tonsillar carcinoma cases. Yet, the epidemiology and natural history...

  15. Human Papillomavirus Infection Among 2460 Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebnes, Julie Buchholt; Munk, Christian; Nøhr, Bugge

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in both men and women, to prevent the increasing HPV-related disease burden in men. Data on HPV prevalence among men in the general population are limited. In this cross...

  16. Nocardia brasiliensis: from microbe to human and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, M C

    2000-09-01

    Nocardia brasiliensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives as a saprophyte in soil. In this article the physical properties, chemical composition and taxonomic position of this species is reviewed. Human infections and an experimental model of actinomycetoma in BALB/c mice as well as the host-immune response is described.

  17. Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with. Acute Respiratory Symptoms in Ilorin, Nigeria. Olatunji Matthew Kolawole\\ Busayo Joseph Adeyemf1 and Aishat Abdulrahman. Gobir2. 1lnfectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology,. Faculty of Life Sciences ...

  18. Campylobacter: animal reservoirs, human infections, and options for control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Jaap; Newell, D.G.; Kalupahana, R.S.; Mughini Gras, Lapo

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is a frequently diagnosed disease in humans. Most infections are considered food-borne and are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli. The animal reservoirs of these Campylobacter, and the sources and routes of transmission, are described and discussed. Most warm-blooded

  19. Human skin Langerhans cells are targets of dengue virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, SJL; Grouard-Vogel, G; Mascola, [No Value; Brachtel, E; Putvatana, R; Louder, MK; Filgueira, L; Marovich, MA; Wong, HK; Blauvelt, A; Murphy, GS; Robb, ML; Innes, BL; Birx, DL; Hayes, CG; Frankel, SS

    Dengue virus (DV), an arthropod-borne flavivirus, causes a febrile illness for which there is no antiviral treatment and no vaccine(1,2). Macrophages are important in dengue pathogenesis; however, the initial target cell for DV infection remains unknown. As DV is introduced into human skin by

  20. Report of the first human case of Caulobacter sp. infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik S; Holt, Hanne M; Thiesson, Helle

    2007-01-01

    A Caulobacter sp. isolate was recovered from the dialysis fluid of a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Bacterial identification included electron microscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human Caulobacter infection. Special growth requirements suggest...

  1. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The human papillomavirus (HPV is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Host Defense in the Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Tysheena P; Shellito, Judd E

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppression associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection impacts all components of host defense against pulmonary infection. Cells within the lung have altered immune function and are important reservoirs for HIV infection. The host immune response to infected lung cells further compromises responses to a secondary pathogenic insult. In the upper respiratory tract, mucociliary function is impaired and there are decreased levels of salivary immunoglobulin A. Host defenses in the lower respiratory tract are controlled by alveolar macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As HIV infection progresses, lung CD4 T cells are reduced in number causing a lack of activation signals from CD4 T cells and impaired defense by macrophages. CD8 T cells, on the other hand, are increased in number and cause lymphocytic alveolitis. Specific antibody responses by B-lymphocytes are decreased and opsonization of microorganisms is impaired. These observed defects in host defense of the respiratory tract explain the susceptibility of HIV-infected persons for oropharyngeal candidiasis, bacterial pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, and other opportunistic infections. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Infection, Infertility, and Assisted Reproductive Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Kucharczyk, Katherine M; Estes, Jaclyn L; Gerber, Rachel S; Lekovich, Jovana P; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection common among men and women across all geographic and socioeconomic subgroups worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that HPV infection may affect fertility and alter the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. In men, HPV infection can affect sperm parameters, specifically motility. HPV-infected sperm can transmit viral DNA to oocytes, which may be expressed in the developing blastocyst. HPV can increase trophoblastic apoptosis and reduce the endometrial implantation of trophoblastic cells, thus increasing the theoretical risk of miscarriage. Vertical transmission of HPV during pregnancy may be involved in the pathophysiology of preterm rupture of membranes and spontaneous preterm birth. In patients undergoing intrauterine insemination for idiopathic infertility, HPV infection confers a lower pregnancy rate. In contrast, the evidence regarding any detrimental impact of HPV infection on IVF outcomes is inconclusive. It has been suggested that vaccination could potentially counter HPV-related sperm impairment, trophoblastic apoptosis, and spontaneous miscarriages; however, these conclusions are based on in vitro studies rather than large-scale epidemiological studies. Improvement in the understanding of HPV sperm infection mechanisms and HPV transmission into the oocyte and developing blastocyst may help explain idiopathic causes of infertility and miscarriage.

  4. A Cross-Study Biomarker Signature of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Infected with Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Gardinassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children, elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Despite of advances in diagnosis and treatment, biomarkers of RSV infection are still unclear. To understand the host response and propose signatures of RSV infection, previous studies evaluated the transcriptional profile of the human bronchial epithelial cell line—BEAS-2B—infected with different strains of this virus. However, the evolution of statistical methods and functional analysis together with the large amount of expression data provide opportunities to uncover novel biomarkers of inflammation and infections. In view of those facts publicly available microarray datasets from RSV-infected BEAS-2B cells were analyzed with linear model-based statistics and the platform for functional analysis InnateDB. The results from those analyses argue for the reevaluation of previously reported transcription patterns and biological pathways in BEAS-2B cell lines infected with RSV. Importantly, this study revealed a biosignature constituted by genes such as ABCC4, ARMC8, BCLAF1, EZH1, FAM118A, FAM208B, FUS, HSPH1, KAZN, MAP3K2, N6AMT1, PRMT2, S100PBP, SERPINA1, TLK2, ZNF322, and ZNF337 which should be considered in the development of new molecular diagnosis tools.

  5. The breakdown of the cytokine network subsequent to human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Clerici

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The acquired immunodeflciency syndrome (AIDS is a clinically multifaceted disease induced by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HIV infection results in a complex pattern of immunologic alterations that leads to the development of AIDS in the majority of HIV seropositive (HIV+ individuals. The reduction in CD4 T lymphocyte counts is the hallmark of HIV infection; nevertheless, long before the reduction in CD4 counts reaches critical levels, a series of profound and complex defects that impair the function of CD4 T lymphocytes can be detected. Thus, HIV infection is characterized by quantitative and qualitative defects affecting CD4 T lymphocytes. It was suggested recently that programmed cell death (PCD is an important mechanism leading to CD4 depletion in HIV infection, and that susceptibility of peripheral lymphocytes to PCD is differentially regulated by diverse cytokines. Thus, type 1 cytokines would protect CD4 lymphocytes against PCD, whereas type 2 cytokines would not protect against, and could augment, PCD. We suggest that the qualitative alterations of the immune response provoke the CD4 depletion characteristic of HIV disease via type 2 cytokinemediated augmentation of PCD, and are therefore ultimately responsible for the progression of HIV infection. Finally, we summarize recent data showing that three correlates of disease progression: emergence of HIV strains with syncitium-inducing ability (SI, type 1-to-type 2 cytokine shift, and CD4 depletion, are significantly associated, suggesting a complex interconnected virologic-immunologic pathogenesis of HIV infection.

  6. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  7. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Li; James Anderson

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survi...

  8. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Kirsch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92% exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  9. Unsupervised pattern discovery in human chromatin structure through genomic segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael M; Buske, Orion J; Wang, Jie; Weng, Zhiping; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William Stafford

    2012-03-18

    We trained Segway, a dynamic Bayesian network method, simultaneously on chromatin data from multiple experiments, including positions of histone modifications, transcription-factor binding and open chromatin, all derived from a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line. In an unsupervised fashion, we identified patterns associated with transcription start sites, gene ends, enhancers, transcriptional regulator CTCF-binding regions and repressed regions. Software and genome browser tracks are at http://noble.gs.washington.edu/proj/segway/.

  10. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    OpenAIRE

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmenta...

  11. Human Papillomavirus Infections in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Yale, Steven H.; Krawisz, Bruce; Tyler, Gregory C.; Evans, Anthony C.

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The incidence and mortality associated with invasive cervical cancer have declined significantly in developed countries due to widespread availability of screening with the Papanicolaou (Pap) test. However, the incidence and prevalence of non-invasive cervical intraepithelial neoplasms and genital warts related to oncogenic and nononcogenic strains of human papilloma viruses (HPV) have remained relatively stable. Recent advances in molecular diagnostics have resulted in improved characterization of various HPV types and have led to changes in terminology of Pap test findings. Changes in nomenclature may lead to confusion among primary care providers regarding how best to further evaluate abnormal cytological results. This article provides a concise overview of the approach to the treatment of genital warts and management of abnormal cervical cytology based on guidelines from the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology. It also reviews advances in HPV vaccine development and the new recombinant vaccine recently approved for use in the United States. PMID:18086908

  12. The changing pattern of pathology due to Schistosoma mansoni infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the autopsy data on hepatosplenic schistosomiasis during periods, before and after the advent of new chemotherapeutic drugs, revealed that: a the pathological presentation was the same for the two periods; b the number of cases in the last five years is progressively decreasing; c hepatosplenic disease due to schistosomiasis is becoming rare in young people. These data represent a change in the pattern of pathology in schistosomiasis, probably related to new chemotherapy.Uma revisão dos dados de necrópsias realizadas em portadores da forma hépato-esplênica da esquistossomose, feita em dois períodos, antes e após a introdução das novas e efetivas drogas contra o S. mansoni, revelou que: a as lesões encontradas foram qualitativamente as mesmas nos dois períodos; b a percentagem dos casos hépato-esplênicos mostra decréscimo progressivo nos últimos cinco anos do estudo; c os casos de esquistossomose hépato-esplênica estão se tornando raros em jovens. Tais elementos constituem uma mudança no padrão de apresentação da doença, possivelmente relacionada com a introdução da nova quimioterapia curativa.

  13. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  14. Phylogenetic evidence that two distinct Trichuris genotypes infect both humans and non-human primates.

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    Damiana F Ravasi

    Full Text Available Although there has been extensive debate about whether Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura are separate species, only one species of the whipworm T. trichiura has been considered to infect humans and non-human primates. In order to investigate potential cross infection of Trichuris sp. between baboons and humans in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, we sequenced the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of adult Trichuris sp. worms isolated from five baboons from three different troops, namely the Cape Peninsula troop, Groot Olifantsbos troop and Da Gama Park troop. This region was also sequenced from T. trichiura isolated from a human patient from central Africa (Cameroon for comparison. By combining this dataset with Genbank records for Trichuris isolated from other humans, non-human primates and pigs from several different countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa, we confirmed the identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes that infect primates. Trichuris sp. isolated from the Peninsula baboons fell into two distinct clades that were found to also infect human patients from Cameroon, Uganda and Jamaica (named the CP-GOB clade and China, Thailand, the Czech Republic, and Uganda (named the DG clade, respectively. The divergence of these Trichuris clades is ancient and precedes the diversification of T. suis which clustered closely to the CP-GOB clade. The identification of two distinct Trichuris genotypes infecting both humans and non-human primates is important for the ongoing treatment of Trichuris which is estimated to infect 600 million people worldwide. Currently baboons in the Cape Peninsula, which visit urban areas, provide a constant risk of infection to local communities. A reduction in spatial overlap between humans and baboons is thus an important measure to reduce both cross-transmission and zoonoses of helminthes in Southern Africa.

  15. Human APOBEC3 induced mutation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 contributes to adaptation and evolution in natural infection.

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    Eun-Young Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Human APOBEC3 proteins are cytidine deaminases that contribute broadly to innate immunity through the control of exogenous retrovirus replication and endogenous retroelement retrotransposition. As an intrinsic antiretroviral defense mechanism, APOBEC3 proteins induce extensive guanosine-to-adenosine (G-to-A mutagenesis and inhibit synthesis of nascent human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1 cDNA. Human APOBEC3 proteins have additionally been proposed to induce infrequent, potentially non-lethal G-to-A mutations that make subtle contributions to sequence diversification of the viral genome and adaptation though acquisition of beneficial mutations. Using single-cycle HIV-1 infections in culture and highly parallel DNA sequencing, we defined trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for APOBEC3D, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H. We then compared these APOBEC3 editing contexts with the patterns of G-to-A mutations in HIV-1 DNA in cells obtained sequentially from ten patients with primary HIV-1 infection. Viral substitutions were highest in the preferred trinucleotide contexts of the edited sites for the APOBEC3 deaminases. Consistent with the effects of immune selection, amino acid changes accumulated at the APOBEC3 editing contexts located within human leukocyte antigen (HLA-appropriate epitopes that are known or predicted to enable peptide binding. Thus, APOBEC3 activity may induce mutations that influence the genetic diversity and adaptation of the HIV-1 population in natural infection.

  16. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models to investigate human cytomegalovirus infection in neural cells.

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    Leonardo D'Aiuto

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection is one of the leading prenatal causes of congenital mental retardation and deformities world-wide. Access to cultured human neuronal lineages, necessary to understand the species specific pathogenic effects of HCMV, has been limited by difficulties in sustaining primary human neuronal cultures. Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells now provide an opportunity for such research. We derived iPS cells from human adult fibroblasts and induced neural lineages to investigate their susceptibility to infection with HCMV strain Ad169. Analysis of iPS cells, iPS-derived neural stem cells (NSCs, neural progenitor cells (NPCs and neurons suggests that (i iPS cells are not permissive to HCMV infection, i.e., they do not permit a full viral replication cycle; (ii Neural stem cells have impaired differentiation when infected by HCMV; (iii NPCs are fully permissive for HCMV infection; altered expression of genes related to neural metabolism or neuronal differentiation is also observed; (iv most iPS-derived neurons are not permissive to HCMV infection; and (v infected neurons have impaired calcium influx in response to glutamate.

  17. Mechanism of Human Papillomavirus Binding to Human Spermatozoa and Fertilizing Ability of Infected Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Foresta; Cristina Patassini; Alessandro Bertoldo; Massimo Menegazzo; Felice Francavilla; Luisa Barzon; Alberto Ferlin

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are agents of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in females and males. Precise data about the presence, mechanism of infection and clinical significance of HPV in the male reproductive tract and especially in sperm are not available. Here we show that HPV can infect human sperm, it localizes at the equatorial region of sperm head through interaction between the HPV capsid protein L1 and syndecan-1. Sperm transfected with HPV E6/E7 genes and sperm expos...

  18. Dual Transcriptome Profiling of Leishmania-Infected Human Macrophages Reveals Distinct Reprogramming Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Dillon, Laura A L; Belew, Ashton Trey; Bravo, Hector Corrada; Mosser, David M; El-Sayed, Najib M

    2016-05-10

    Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes that constitute a first line of defense against pathogens. While lethal to many microbes, they are the primary host cells of Leishmania spp. parasites, the obligate intracellular pathogens that cause leishmaniasis. We conducted transcriptomic profiling of two Leishmania species and the human macrophage over the course of intracellular infection by using high-throughput RNA sequencing to characterize the global gene expression changes and reprogramming events that underlie the interactions between the pathogen and its host. A systematic exclusion of the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis revealed a vigorous, parasite-specific response of the human macrophage early in the infection that was greatly tempered at later time points. An analogous temporal expression pattern was observed with the parasite, suggesting that much of the reprogramming that occurs as parasites transform into intracellular forms generally stabilizes shortly after entry. Following that, the parasite establishes an intracellular niche within macrophages, with minimal communication between the parasite and the host cell later during the infection. No significant difference was observed between parasite species transcriptomes or in the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with each species. Our comparative analysis of gene expression changes that occur as mouse and human macrophages are infected by Leishmania spp. points toward a general signature of the Leishmania-macrophage infectome. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that occur within mammalian cells harboring intracellular pathogens. This study characterizes the gene expression signatures of Leishmania spp. parasites and the coordinated response of infected human macrophages as the pathogen enters and persists within them. After accounting for the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis, we observed a parasite-specific response of the human macrophages early in

  19. Human Dirofilaria repens Infection in Romania: A Case Report

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    Ioana Popescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the filarial nematodes of dogs Dirofilaria repens and Dirofilaria immitis. Depending on the species involved, human infections usually manifest as one cutaneous or visceral larva migrans that forms a painless nodule in the later course of disease. Dirofilariae are endemic in the Mediterranean, particularly in Italy. They are considered as emerging pathogens currently increasing their geographical range. We present one of the few known cases of human dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in Romania. The patient developed unusual and severe clinical manifestations that mimicked pathological conditions like cellulitis or deep venous thrombosis.

  20. Human Trichinella infection outbreaks in Slovakia, 1980-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinský, Pavol; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína

    2016-03-01

    Trichinellosis, a parasitic zoonosis with world-wide distribution, causes serious health problems in humans and is also of economic importance. In Slovakia the most frequent species is T. britovi, causing disease mainly in wild life species. T. spiralis occurs less frequently and T. pseudospiralis only sporadically. The paper describes the epidemiology of six human Trichinella infection outbreaks recorded in Slovakia between 1980 and 2008. Before 1990 wild boar meat was the main source of infection. Later, risk farm practices, especially feeding of pigs with the wild animal´s offal contributed to the formation of synanthropic cycle and pig meat caused the epidemics in 1990, 2001 and 2008. Sausages prepared from pork and T. britovi infected dog meat and offered as a local food specialty on traditional folk festival in 1998 (Brezno district, Central Slovakia) were the source of the largest human outbreak recorded in Slovakia. The anti-Trichinella antibodies were detected in 336 event visitors. The main reason of repeated human epidemics in Slovakia has been the permanent circulation of Trichinella spp. in sylvatic cycle, especially in red foxes and wild boars. High population density of both animal species, persistent prevalence of trichinellosis in wild boars and even increasing positivity of red foxes suggest that the risk of human outbreaks in Slovakia persists.

  1. Infection prevention and control during prolonged human space travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged human spaceflight to another planet or an asteroid will introduce unique challenges of mitigating the risk of infection. During space travel, exposure to microgravity, radiation, and stress alter human immunoregulatory responses, which can in turn impact an astronaut's ability to prevent acquisition of infectious agents or reactivation of latent infection. In addition, microgravity affects virulence, growth kinetics, and biofilm formation of potential microbial pathogens. These interactions occur in a confined space in microgravity, providing ample opportunity for heavy microbial contamination of the environment. In addition, there is the persistence of aerosolized, microbe-containing particles. Any mission involving prolonged human spaceflight must be carefully planned to minimize vulnerabilities and maximize the likelihood of success.

  2. Relationship between cytomegalovirus infection and procoagulant changes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, R.; Tichelaar, Y. I. G. V.; Sprenger, H. G.; Mulder, A. B.; Lijfering, W. M.

    P>Cytomegalovirus is associated with hypercoagulability, and is reported to increase the risk of venous thrombosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Progression to AIDS, however, is also associated with hypercoagulability and venous thrombosis, and may result in more

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in the human immunodeficiency virus infected patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Lundbo, Lene Fogt; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share the same transmission routes; therefore, coinfection is frequent. An estimated 5-10 million individuals alone in the western world are infected with both viruses. The majority of people acquire HCV by injection drug use and...

  4. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fighting the Monster: Applying the Host Damage Framework to Human Central Nervous System Infections

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    Anil A. Panackal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The host damage-response framework states that microbial pathogenesis is a product of microbial virulence factors and collateral damage from host immune responses. Immune-mediated host damage is particularly important within the size-restricted central nervous system (CNS, where immune responses may exacerbate cerebral edema and neurological damage, leading to coma and death. In this review, we compare human host and therapeutic responses in representative nonviral generalized CNS infections that induce archetypal host damage responses: cryptococcal menigoencephalitis and tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients, pneumococcal meningitis, and cerebral malaria. Consideration of the underlying patterns of host responses provides critical insights into host damage and may suggest tailored adjunctive therapeutics to improve disease outcome.

  6. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  7. Modelling human mobility patterns using photographic data shared online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchiesi, Daniele; Preis, Tobias; Bishop, Steven; Moat, Helen Susannah

    2015-08-01

    Humans are inherently mobile creatures. The way we move around our environment has consequences for a wide range of problems, including the design of efficient transportation systems and the planning of urban areas. Here, we gather data about the position in space and time of about 16 000 individuals who uploaded geo-tagged images from locations within the UK to the Flickr photo-sharing website. Inspired by the theory of Lévy flights, which has previously been used to describe the statistical properties of human mobility, we design a machine learning algorithm to infer the probability of finding people in geographical locations and the probability of movement between pairs of locations. Our findings are in general agreement with official figures in the UK and on travel flows between pairs of major cities, suggesting that online data sources may be used to quantify and model large-scale human mobility patterns.

  8. Disruption of the human gut microbiota following Norovirus infection.

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    Adam M Nelson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota, the collection of all bacterial members in the intestinal tract, plays a key role in health. Disruption of the indigenous microbiota by a variety of stressors, including antibiotic therapy and intestinal infections, is associated with multiple health problems. We sought to determine if infection with Norovirus disrupts the gut microbiota. Barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene was used to characterize the stool microbiota in Norovirus-infected human patients (n = 38. While the microbiota in most infected patients (n = 31 resembled that seen in uninfected healthy controls, a minority of patients (n = 7 possessed a significantly altered microbiota characterized by reduced relative numbers of Bacteriodetes and a corresponding increase in Proteobacteria. In these patients, the increase in Proteobacteria was due to a single operational taxonomic unit (OTU of Escherichia coli. We cultured E. coli from Norovirus-infected patients and characterized them using PCR-ribotyping and virulence factor analysis. Multiple ribotypes were encountered, but none possessed typical virulence factors commonly carried by enteropathogenic E. coli strains. Microbiota disruption and elevated Proteobacteria were not significantly correlated to patient age, gender, sampling time following illness onset, or overall gut inflammation. These results demonstrate that some patients have a disrupted microbiota following Norovirus infection, and therefore may be at elevated risk for long-term health complications.

  9. Human Hendra virus infection causes acute and relapsing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Robertson, T; Ong, B B; Chong, J W; Yaiw, K C; Wang, L F; Ansford, A J; Tannenberg, A

    2009-06-01

    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis. Autopsy tissues were investigated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the patient with acute pulmonary syndrome but not clinical acute encephalitis, vasculitis was found in the brain, lung, heart and kidney. Occasionally, viral antigens were demonstrated in vascular walls but multinucleated endothelial syncytia were absent. In the lung, there was severe inflammation, necrosis and viral antigens in type II pneumocytes and macrophages. The rare kidney glomerulus showed inflammation and viral antigens in capillary walls and podocytes. Discrete necrotic/vacuolar plaques in the brain parenchyma were associated with antigens and viral RNA. Brain inflammation was mild although CD68(+) microglia/macrophages were significantly increased. Cytoplasmic viral inclusions and antigens and viral RNA in neurones and ependyma suggested viral replication. In the case of relapsing encephalitis, there was severe widespread meningoencephalitis characterized by neuronal loss, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, reactive blood vessels and perivascular cuffing. Antigens and viral RNA were mainly found in neurones. Vasculitis was absent in all the tissues examined. The case of acute Hendra virus infection demonstrated evidence of systemic infection and acute encephalitis. The case of relapsing Hendra virus encephalitis showed no signs of extraneural infection but in the brain, extensive inflammation and infected neurones were observed. Hendra virus can cause acute and relapsing encephalitis and the findings suggest that the pathology and pathogenesis are similar to Nipah virus infection.

  10. Human innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in filarial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, S; Nutman, T B

    2018-02-01

    Filarial infections are characteristically chronic and can cause debilitating diseases governed by parasite-induced innate and adaptive immune responses. Filarial parasites traverse or establish niches in the skin (migrating infective larvae), in nonmucosal tissues (adult parasite niche) and in the blood or skin (circulating microfilariae) where they intersect with the host immune response. While several studies have demonstrated that filarial parasites and their antigens can modulate myeloid cells (monocyte, macrophage and dendritic cell subsets), T- and B-lymphocytes and skin resident cell populations, the role of innate lymphoid cells during filarial infections has only recently emerged. Despite the identification and characterization of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in murine helminth infections, little is actually known about the role of human ILCs during parasitic infections. The focus of this review will be to highlight the composition of ILCs in the skin, lymphatics and blood; where the host-parasite interaction is well-defined and to examine the role of ILCs during filarial infections. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. [Transfer factor effectiveness patients with persistent genital human papillomavirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Sotelo-Ortiz, Julieta Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Most HPV infections are cleared within two years by the immune system. Only in 5% to 10% of infected women the infection persists determining a high risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. The transfer factor (TF) or dialyzable leukocyte extract is an immunomodulator that has been successfully used as an adjuvant in the treatment of intracelular infections such as recurrent herpes virus diseases. One daily dose of transfer factor was given for five days and subsequently each week for five weeks to a group of women with persistent genital papillomavirus infection. We included 13 patients, aged 19 to 45 years, with first intercourse between the ages of 14 to 23, and a mean of three sexual partners in their lifetime. All of them had persistent HPV that had been treated before with local and ablative therapeutic options, including cervical freezing, cervical conization, cauterizing loop, imiquimod and podophyllin. Transfer factor was administered daily for 5 days, and subsequently at 7-day intervals for 5 weeks. We found a clinical significant improvement in the gynaecological evaluation of cervical, vaginal, vulvar and perineal lesions. No recurrences have developed for at least 1 year of follow-up. The use of transfer factor in women with HPV showed resolution of genital lesions, without recurrences for at least one year after the treatment was ended.

  12. Baylisascaris procyonis roundworm infection patterns in raccoons (Procyon lotor from Missouri and Arkansas, USA

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    Al-Warid H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Baylisascaris procyonis is a helminth parasite of raccoons Procyon lotor and represents a health concern in paratenic hosts, including humans and diverse domestic and wildlife species. In North America the helminth is expanding its geographic range. To better understand patterns of infection in the Ozark region of the USA, raccoons (n = 61 were collected in 2013-2014 from five counties in Missouri and Arkansas, USA and necropsied. We documented B. procyonis in all surveyed locations. The overall prevalence of B. procyonis was 44.3 % (95 % CI = 31.9 - 57.4 and was significantly higher in females than males. There were also significant differences in prevalence among raccoons sampled north and south of the Missouri River. Mean intensity was 9.9 (CI = 5.44 - 17.22, and parasites were highly aggregated among hosts such that approximately 20 % of hosts harbor 90 % of parasites. These levels of parasitism indicate that B. procyonis is common in the region and its impacts on paratenic hosts could be qualitatively similar to effects observed in other localities.

  13. De Novo Generated Human Red Blood Cells in Humanized Mice Support Plasmodium falciparum Infection.

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    Anburaj Amaladoss

    Full Text Available Immunodeficient mouse-human chimeras provide a powerful approach to study host specific pathogens like Plasmodium (P. falciparum that causes human malaria. Existing mouse models of P. falciparum infection require repeated injections of human red blood cells (RBCs. In addition, clodronate lipsomes and anti-neutrophil antibodies are injected to suppress the clearance of human RBCs by the residual immune system of the immunodeficient mice. Engraftment of NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice with human hematopoietic stem cells leads to reconstitution of human immune cells. Although human B cell reconstitution is robust and T cell reconstitution is reasonable in the recipient mice, human RBC reconstitution is generally poor or undetectable. The poor reconstitution is mainly the result of a deficiency of appropriate human cytokines that are necessary for the development and maintenance of these cell lineages. Delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human erythropoietin and interleukin-3 into humanized mice by hydrodynamic tail-vein injection resulted in significantly enhanced reconstitution of erythrocytes. With this improved humanized mouse, here we show that P. falciparum infects de novo generated human RBCs, develops into schizonts and causes successive reinvasion. We also show that different parasite strains exhibit variation in their ability to infect these humanized mice. Parasites could be detected by nested PCR in the blood samples of humanized mice infected with P. falciparum K1 and HB3 strains for 3 cycles, whereas in other strains such as 3D7, DD2, 7G8, FCR3 and W2mef parasites could only be detected for 1 cycle. In vivo adaptation of K1 strain further improves the infection efficiency and parasites can be detected by microscopy for 3 cycles. The parasitemia ranges between 0.13 and 0.25% at the first cycle of infection, falls between 0.08 and 0.15% at the second cycle, and drops to barely detectable levels at the third cycle of infection. Compared to existing

  14. Human coronavirus and severe acute respiratory infection in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-05-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.

  15. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use...... of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR.......9%. For 15 HPV types of primary interest (13 high-risk plus HPV6, 11), almost all pairs occurred more often than expected under independence; 33/105 (31.4%) were statistically significant (p...

  16. Patient referral patterns and the spread of hospital-acquired infections through national health care networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjibbe Donker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rates of hospital-acquired infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, are increasingly used as quality indicators for hospital hygiene. Alternatively, these rates may vary between hospitals, because hospitals differ in admission and referral of potentially colonized patients. We assessed if different referral patterns between hospitals in health care networks can influence rates of hospital-acquired infections like MRSA. We used the Dutch medical registration of 2004 to measure the connectedness between hospitals. This allowed us to reconstruct the network of hospitals in the Netherlands. We used mathematical models to assess the effect of different patient referral patterns on the potential spread of hospital-acquired infections between hospitals, and between categories of hospitals (University medical centers, top clinical hospitals and general hospitals. University hospitals have a higher number of shared patients than teaching or general hospitals, and are therefore more likely to be among the first to receive colonized patients. Moreover, as the network is directional towards university hospitals, they have a higher prevalence, even when infection control measures are equally effective in all hospitals. Patient referral patterns have a profound effect on the spread of health care-associated infections like hospital-acquired MRSA. The MRSA prevalence therefore differs between hospitals with the position of each hospital within the health care network. Any comparison of MRSA rates between hospitals, as a benchmark for hospital hygiene, should therefore take the position of a hospital within the network into account.

  17. Identifying topological motif patterns of human brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yongbin; Liao, Xuhong; Yan, Chaogan; He, Yong; Xia, Mingrui

    2017-05-01

    Recent imaging connectome studies demonstrated that the human functional brain network follows an efficient small-world topology with cohesive functional modules and highly connected hubs. However, the functional motif patterns that represent the underlying information flow remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated motif patterns within directed human functional brain networks, which were derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data with controlled confounding hemodynamic latencies. We found several significantly recurring motifs within the network, including the two-node reciprocal motif and five classes of three-node motifs. These recurring motifs were distributed in distinct patterns to support intra- and inter-module functional connectivity, which also promoted integration and segregation in network organization. Moreover, the significant participation of several functional hubs in the recurring motifs exhibited their critical role in global integration. Collectively, our findings highlight the basic architecture governing brain network organization and provide insight into the information flow mechanism underlying intrinsic brain activities. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2734-2750, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

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    Saike He

    Full Text Available Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  19. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  20. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace. PMID:26953692

  1. The pattern of infections among under-fives: a call for actions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various models, interventions for reduction/elimination of infectious diseases have been put forth but the strategies (in most tropical nations) have not bore the anticipated fruits. OBJECTIVES To assess the pattern of infections and its association with nutritional status among under-five years population of Dodoma in August ...

  2. Upstream-downstream gradient in infection levels by fish parasites: a common river pattern?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Koehler, A.V.; Martin, A.; Poulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 2 (2013), s. 266-274 ISSN 0031-1820 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : trematode abundance * unidirectional river flow * infection patterns * disease * River Continuum Concept * freshwater * Coitocaecum parvum * Telogaster opisthorchis * Stegodexamene anguillae * Apatemon sp. Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013

  3. HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis: A 5 year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study utilized retrospective autopsy data to examine the relationship between HIV co-infection and mortality pattern of purulent meningitis. All autopsy log books and available hospital files were reviewed for information on purulent meningitis for which autopsies were performed in 2005 through 2009 at the Pathology ...

  4. The pattern of infection and in vivo response to Chloroquine by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of infection and in vivo response of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria to Chloroquine as first line drug and Quinine, Halofantrine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as second line medications was evaluated at nested sentinel points, including Government and Private Practices, for three consecutive ...

  5. The burden, pattern and factors that contribute to periportal fibrosis in HIV-infected patients in an S. mansoni endemic rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocama, Ponsiano; Opio, Kenneth Christopher; Seremba, Emmanuel; Ajal, Paul; Apica, Betty Stephanie; Aginya, Emmanuel Odongo

    2017-06-01

    Both Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and S.mansoni infections are common in Uganda and can cause liver disease. No study has determined co-infection significance in Uganda. We carried out a study on the burden, pattern and factors that contribute to peri-portal fibrosis (PPF) in HIV infected patients attending a Primary healthcare setting at Pakwach. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the HIV clinic at Pakwach health centre IV. Data on demographics, contact with the Nile, CD4(+) cell count, ART and alcohol use were collected. Urinary Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA), was done for S. Mansoni detection. Liver scan was done for presence and pattern of PPF. HBsAg testing was performed on all participants. Data was analyzed using Stata Version 10. We enrolled 299 patients, median age 39 years (IQR 16), most were female, 210 (73%). Overall, 206 (68.9%) had PPF, majority 191 (92.7%) had pattern c, either alone (63 participants) or in combination with pattern d (128 participants). Age of 30-50 years was significantly associated with PPF (OR 2.28 p-value-0.003). We found high prevalence of S. mansoni and PPF in the HIV infected population and age was a significant factor for PPF. We recommend all HIV infected patients be examined routinely for S. mansoni infection for early anti-schistosomal treatment.

  6. [Human intestinal parasitosis: role of Dientamoeba fragilis in human infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, D; D'Annibale, M L

    2007-01-01

    The Authors report prevalences of intestinal parasitosis among home children and adults during 2002-2004, as in O&P as in acute or prolonged diarrhoea, with particular attention to the role of Dientamoeba fragilis, because often undervalued. Among 3139 subjects, 116 cases of dientamoebiasis (3.7%) and 62 of giardiasis (2.0%) were observed; not typical pathogenic protozoa were reported in 71 cases (2.3%); helminths were identified only in 8 cases (0.5%). Particularly, inside O&P group D. fragilis prevailed in 5.2% of cases (7.8% in adults and 0.5% in children) and G. duodenalis in 2.7% (3.5% and 1.3% respectively); inside acute diarrhoeas D. fragilis prevailed in 1.6% (3.9% and 0.3%) and G. duodenalis in 0.6% (1.3% and 0. 1%); inside prolonged diarrhoeas D. fragilis prevailed in 3.5 % (2.6% and 5.4%) and G. duodenalis in 3.9% (5.8% in adults and never in children). D. fragilis was more often observed among adults (6.3% of all) than among children (0.6%), like G. duodenalis (3.1% versus 0.6%). So, 107 strains of D. fragilis (92.2%) and 53 strains of G. duodenalis (85.5%) were identified in adults. D. fragilis was more frequent among females (24/39 cases, 61.5%, in the last year) while G. duodenalis was more frequent in males (13/23 cases, 56.5%). The Authors conclude underlining the importance of a permanent stain, as Giemsa stain, for a good and complete diagnosis of protozoal intestinal infections, particularly for D. fragilis.

  7. Controlled human infection models for vaccine development: Zika virus debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad

    2017-10-31

    An ethics panel, convened by the National Institute of Health and other research bodies in the USA, disallowed researchers from the Johns Hopkins University and University of Vermont from performing controlled human infection of healthy volunteers to develop a vaccine against Zika virus infection. The members published their ethical analysis and recommendations in February 2017. They have elaborated on the risks posed by human challenge with Zika virus to the volunteers and other uninvolved third parties and have systematically analysed the social value of such a human challenge experiment. They have also posited some mandatory ethical requirements which should be met before allowing the infection of healthy volunteers with the Zika virus. This commentary elaborates on the debate on the ethics of the human challenge model for the development of a Zika virus vaccine and the role of systematic ethical analysis in protecting the interests of research participants. It further analyses the importance of this debate to the development of a Zika vaccine in India.

  8. Differential patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in relict amphibian populations following severe disease-associated declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Steven M; Alvarado, Gilbert; Abarca, Juan; Zumbado, Hector; Zuñiga, Ibrahim; Wainwright, Mark; Kerby, Jacob

    2017-09-20

    Global amphibian biodiversity has declined dramatically in the past 4 decades, and many amphibian species have declined to near extinction as a result of emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, persistent or recovering populations of several amphibian species have recently been rediscovered, and such populations may illustrate how amphibian species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis may survive in the presence of Bd. We conducted field surveys for Bd infection in 7 species of Costa Rican amphibians (all species that have declined to near extinction but for which isolated populations persist) to characterize infection profiles in highly Bd-susceptible amphibians post-decline. We found highly variable patterns in infection, with some species showing low prevalence (~10%) and low infection intensity and others showing high infection prevalence (>80%) and either low or high infection intensity. Across sites, infection rates were negatively associated with mean annual precipitation, and infection intensity across sites was negatively associated with mean average temperatures. Our results illustrate that even the most Bd-susceptible amphibians can persist in Bd-enzootic ecosystems, and that multiple ecological or evolutionary mechanisms likely exist for host-pathogen co-existence between Bd and the most Bd-susceptible amphibian species. Continued monitoring of these populations is necessary to evaluate population trends (continuing decline, stability, or population growth). These results should inform efforts to mitigate impacts of Bd on amphibians in the field.

  9. Controlled Human Infection for Vaccination Against Streptococcus Pyogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-21

    Streptococcus Pyogenes Pharyngitis; Streptococcus Pharyngitis; Strep Throat; Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection; Group A Streptococcus: B Hemolytic Pharyngitis; Group A Streptococcal Infection; Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections; Bacterial Infections

  10. Epigenetic randomness, complexity and singularity of human iris patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, J; Downing, C

    2001-08-22

    We investigated the randomness and uniqueness of human iris patterns by mathematically comparing 2.3 million different pairs of eye images. The phase structure of each iris pattern was extracted by demodulation with quadrature wavelets spanning several scales of analysis. The resulting distribution of phase sequence variation among different eyes was precisely binomial, revealing 244 independent degrees of freedom. This amount of statistical variability corresponds to an entropy (information density) of about 3.2 bits mm(-2) over the iris. It implies that the probability of two different irides agreeing by chance in more than 70% of their phase sequence is about one in 7 billion. We also compared images of genetically identical irides, from the left and right eyes of 324 persons, and from monozygotic twins. Their relative phase sequence variation generated the same statistical distribution as did unrelated eyes. This indicates that apart from overall form and colour, iris patterns are determined epigenetically by random events in the morphogenesis of this tissue. The resulting diversity, and the combinatorial complexity created by so many dimensions of random variation, mean that the failure of a simple test of statistical independence performed on iris patterns can serve as a reliable rapid basis for automatic personal identification.

  11. [Microbiological characteristics and patterns of resistance in prosthetic joint infections in a referral hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Peña, Silvestre; Colín-Castro, Claudia; Hernández-Duran, Melissa; López-Jácome, Esaú; Franco-Cendejas, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The prosthetic joint infection is the most feared and catastrophic complication for cause severe physical damage to patients and, generates high economic costs. To describe the microbiological characteristics and to determine the resistance pattern in prosthetic joint infections in a reference hospital in Mexico. Patients whose prosthetic devices were withdrawn due to suspicion of septic and aseptic loosening were included. Cultures were performed to identify microorganisms and susceptibility analysis. Of the 111 patients included, 55% were diagnosed with prosthetic joint infection, with the most frequent prosthesis being of the hip (43%). Positive cultures were obtained in 97% of the infected cases, of which 75% were monomicrobial infections. The most frequent bacterial species isolated were: Staphylococcus epidermidis (31%), Enterococcus faecalis (16%), Staphylococcus aureus (13%), and Escherichia coli (8%). The resistance patterns for the Staphylococcus genus were: oxacillin (79%), erythromycin (45%) and ciprofloxacin (37%). Enterococcus faecalis showed a high percentage of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin (86%), and fluoroquinolones (43%). The large majority (86%) of Escherichia coli were extended spectrum beta-lactamases positive, in addition to having high resistance to fluoroquinolones (86%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (86%) and gentamicin (72%). The microbiological characteristics found in prosthetic joint infections vary according to the hospitals. In this series, a high proportion of coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Enterococcus spp. were found, as well as a high bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Immune-Related Gene Expression Patterns in GPV- or H9N2-Infected Goose Spleens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goose parvovirus (GPV and avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA viruses, respectively, both of which can spread in goslings and cause a significant economic loss. To explore the comprehensive transcriptome of GPV- or H9N2-infected goose spleens and to understand the immune responses induced by a DNA virus (GPV or a RNA virus (H9N2, RNA-seq was performed on the spleens of goslings at the fifth day post infection. In the present study, 2604 and 2409 differentially expressed unigenes were identified in the GPV- and H9N2-infected groups, respectively. Through KEGG pathway enrichment analyses, the up-regulated transcripts in the two virus-infected groups were mainly involved in immune-related pathways. In addition, the two virus-infected groups displayed similar expression patterns in the immune response pathways, including pattern-recognition receptor signaling pathways, the antigen processing and presentation pathway, the NF-κB signaling pathway and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, as well as cytokines. Furthermore, most of the immune-related genes, particularly TLR7, TRAF3, Mx, TRIM25, CD4, and CD8α, increased in response to GPV and H9N2 infection. However, the depression of NF-κB signaling may be a mechanism by which the viruses evade the host immune system or a strategy to achieve immune homeostasis.

  13. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.

  14. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  15. Reproducible pattern of microRNA in normal human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Line; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Gniadecki, Robert

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis via specific targeting of messenger RNA (mRNA). Aberrant mRNA expression contributes to pathological processes such as carcinogenesis. To take advantage of miRNA profiling in skin disease it is essential to investigate miRNA...... expression pattern in normal human skin. Here we investigated miRNA expression profiles from skin biopsies of 8 healthy volunteers taken from sun protected and mildly photo damaged skin using the modified protocol for miRNA extraction. We were able to show a constant pattern of miRNA expression between...... different individuals. We did not find any significant differences in miRNA expression between sun protected and mildly photodamaged skin. These results may be valuable for future design of studies on miRNA expression in skin disease....

  16. Kluyvera cryocrescens finger infection: case report and review of eighteen Kluyvera infections in human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, B C; Vijayan, H; Shekar, R

    1998-11-01

    We report a case of soft tissue infection with Kluyvera cryocrescens and a critical review of Kluyvera infections. A 31-year-old diabetic man used a new chemical for stripping the floor with his bare hands. Two days later he developed a blister on a finger which progressed to tenosynovitis in spite of intravenous nafcillin therapy. After 11 days culture and sensitivity results dictated treatment with intravenous ticarcillin/clavulanic acid. The wound was debrided twice, and later a skin flap was done. Wound cultures became sterile after 7 days of treatment with ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, and he recovered. This case represents the fourth clinical infection with K. cryocrescens and the eighteenth of Kluyvera to be reported. Four others were K. ascorbata, and the remaining ten Kluyvera infections in humans were not identified beyond genus. Our case and review of the 17 previous cases emphasize that while Kluyvera rarely cause disease, these opportunistic Gram-negative bacilli may be virulent in a variety of sites under as yet poorly defined host conditions. Sites of infection varied, but the brain and meninges were not among them. Two patients had diabetes mellitus, none had AIDS, and four died. Once shown clinically to be the cause of an infection, Kluyvera deserve aggressive treatment which acknowledges their ampicillin resistance.

  17. Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, Tristan; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Rangdaeng, Samreung; Chotivanich, Nantasak; Limtrakul, Aram; Putiyanun, Chaiwat; Suriyachai, Pornnapa; Matanasarawut, Wanmanee; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Liampongsabuddhi, Prateung; Heard, Isabelle; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc; Le Coeur, Sophie

    2017-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HPV genotypes and cytological/histological high-grade (HSIL+/CIN2+) lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort of HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Cervical specimens were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping (Papillocheck®). Any women with High-Risk-HPV (HR-HPV), and/or potentially HR-HPV (pHR-HPV) and/or ASC-US or higher (ASC-US+) lesions were referred for colposcopy. Factors associated with HR-HPV infection and with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions were investigated using mixed-effects logistic regression models. 829 women were enrolled: median age 40.4 years, on cART for a median of 6.9 years, median CD4 cell-count 536 cells/mm3, and 788 (96%) with HIV-viral loadwomen (9%) had ASC-US+ and 28 (3%) HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions. HR-HPV infection was independently associated with HSIL+/CIN2+ lesions. The prevalence of HPV infection and of cervical lesions was low. The HPV genotype distribution supports the use of 9-valent vaccine in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural Gastric Infection with Helicobacter pylori in Monkeys: A Model for Spiral Bacteria Infection in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    humans and by the persistently Infected and have gastrtis and elevated absence of an accepted animal model. specific IgG levels, all of which may... Gastrtis scoe H. pyon gG Time (mo) Corpus Antrum Corpus Antrum Corpus Antrum ratiod H. pylion-infected (n = 6) 0 1.8 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.2 1.0...light microscopy)a H. pylon (culture)* Gastrtis score’ H. pylon lgG Time (mo) Corpus Antrum Corpus Antrum Corpus Antrum ratiow H. pyllon-nfected kn = 2

  19. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  20. Diverse splicing patterns of exonized Alu elements in human tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Exonization of Alu elements is a major mechanism for birth of new exons in primate genomes. Prior analyses of expressed sequence tags show that almost all Alu-derived exons are alternatively spliced, and the vast majority of these exons have low transcript inclusion levels. In this work, we provide genomic and experimental evidence for diverse splicing patterns of exonized Alu elements in human tissues. Using Exon array data of 330 Alu-derived exons in 11 human tissues and detailed RT-PCR analyses of 38 exons, we show that some Alu-derived exons are constitutively spliced in a broad range of human tissues, and some display strong tissue-specific switch in their transcript inclusion levels. Most of such exons are derived from ancient Alu elements in the genome. In SEPN1, mutations of which are linked to a form of congenital muscular dystrophy, the muscle-specific inclusion of an Alu-derived exon may be important for regulating SEPN1 activity in muscle. Realtime qPCR analysis of this SEPN1 exon in macaque and chimpanzee tissues indicates human-specific increase in its transcript inclusion level and muscle specificity after the divergence of humans and chimpanzees. Our results imply that some Alu exonization events may have acquired adaptive benefits during the evolution of primate transcriptomes.

  1. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistic pathogen and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bentzmann, Sophie; Plésiat, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative environmental species and an opportunistic microorganism, establishes itself in vulnerable patients, such as those with cystic fibrosis or hospitalized in intensive care units. It has become a major cause of nosocomial infections worldwide (about 10% of all such infections in most European Union hospitals) and a serious threat to Public Health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have also led to the selection of resistant strains against which very few therapeutic options exist. How an environmental species can cause human infections remains a key question that still needs elucidation despite the incredibly high progress that has been made in the P. aeruginosa biology over the past decades. The workshop belonging to Current trends in Biomedicine series, which was held under the sponsorship of the Universidad International de Andalucia between the 8th and the 10th November 2010 brought in the most recent advances in the environmental life of P. aeruginosa, the human P. aeruginosa infections, the new animal models to study Pseudomonas infections, the new genetic aspects including metabolomics, genomics and bioinformatics and the community lifestyle named biofilm that accounts for P. aeruginosa persistence in humans. This workshop organized by Soeren Molin (Danemark), Juan-Luis Ramos (Spain) and Sophie de Bentzmann (France) gathered 46 researchers coming from 11 European and American countries in a small format and was hosted in the 'Sede Antonio Machado' in Baeza. It was organized in seven sessions covering animal models for P. aeruginosa pathogenesis, resistance to drugs, regulatory potency including small RNA, two component systems, extracytoplasmic function sigma factors and trancriptional regulators, new therapies emerging from dissection of molecular mechanisms, and evolutionary mechanisms of P. aeruginosa strains in patients. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  3. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, NHANES 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonawane, Kalyani; Suk, Ryan; Chiao, Elizabeth Y; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Qiu, Peihua; Wilkin, Timothy; Nyitray, Alan G; Sikora, Andrew G; Deshmukh, Ashish A

    2017-10-17

    The burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is disproportionately high among men, yet empirical evidence regarding the difference in prevalence of oral HPV infection between men and women is limited. Concordance of oral and genital HPV infection among men is unknown. To determine the prevalence of oral HPV infection, as well as the concordance of oral and genital HPV infection, among U.S. men and women. Nationally representative survey. Civilian noninstitutionalized population. Adults aged 18 to 69 years from NHANES (National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 2011 to 2014). Oral rinse, penile swab, and vaginal swab specimens were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction followed by type-specific hybridization. The overall prevalence of oral HPV infection was 11.5% (95% CI, 9.8% to 13.1%) in men and 3.2% (CI, 2.7% to 3.8%) in women (equating to 11 million men and 3.2 million women nationwide). High-risk oral HPV infection was more prevalent among men (7.3% [CI, 6.0% to 8.6%]) than women (1.4% [CI, 1.0% to 1.8%]). Oral HPV 16 was 6 times more common in men (1.8% [CI, 1.3% to 2.2%]) than women (0.3% [CI, 0.1% to 0.5%]) (1.7 million men vs. 0.27 million women). Among men and women who reported having same-sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 12.7% (CI, 7.0% to 18.4%) and 3.6% (CI, 1.4% to 5.9%), respectively. Among men who reported having 2 or more same-sex oral sex partners, the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was 22.2% (CI, 9.6% to 34.8%). Oral HPV prevalence among men with concurrent genital HPV infection was fourfold greater (19.3%) than among those without it (4.4%). Men had 5.4% (CI, 5.1% to 5.8%) greater predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection than women. The predicted probability of high-risk oral HPV infection was greatest among black participants, those who smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily, current marijuana users, and those who reported 16 or more

  5. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    whether BMPs maintain their osteoinductive capability in infected human wounds. The authors are aware of only one series describing the use of BMP in an...et al. Osteogenic protein-1 induces bone formation in the presence of bacterial infection in a rat intramuscular osteoinduction model. J Orthop Trauma

  6. Amphibian species traits, evolutionary history and environment predict Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection patterns, but not extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Dan A; Palen, Wendy J; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2017-12-01

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (B. dendrobatidis) has emerged as a major agent of amphibian extinction, requiring conservation intervention for many susceptible species. Identifying susceptible species is challenging, but many aspects of species biology are predicted to influence the evolution of host resistance, tolerance, or avoidance strategies towards disease. In turn, we may expect species exhibiting these distinct strategies to differ in their ability to survive epizootic disease outbreaks. Here, we test for phylogenetic and trait-based patterns of B. dendrobatidis infection risk and infection intensity among 302 amphibian species by compiling a global data set of B. dendrobatidis infection surveys across 95 sites. We then use best-fit models that associate traits, taxonomy and environment with B. dendrobatidis infection risk and intensity to predict host disease mitigation strategies (tolerance, resistance, avoidance) for 122 Neotropical amphibian species that experienced epizootic B. dendrobatidis outbreaks, and noted species persistence or extinction from these events. Aspects of amphibian species life history, habitat use and climatic niche were consistently linked to variation in B. dendrobatidis infection patterns across sites around the world. However, predicted B. dendrobatidis infection risk and intensity based on site environment and species traits did not reveal a consistent pattern between the predicted host disease mitigation strategy and extinction outcome. This suggests that either tolerant or resistant species may have no advantage in ameliorating disease during epizootic events, or that other factors drive the persistence of amphibian populations during chytridiomycosis outbreaks. These results suggest that using a trait-based approach may allow us to identify species with resistance or tolerance to endemic B. dendrobatidis infections, but that this approach may be insufficient to ultimately identify species at

  7. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  8. Network Analysis of Human Genes Influencing Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Infections.

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    Ettie M Lipner

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections constitute a high burden of pulmonary disease in humans, resulting in over 1.5 million deaths per year. Building on the premise that genetic factors influence the instance, progression, and defense of infectious disease, we undertook a systems biology approach to investigate relationships among genetic factors that may play a role in increased susceptibility or control of mycobacterial infections. We combined literature and database mining with network analysis and pathway enrichment analysis to examine genes, pathways, and networks, involved in the human response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. This approach allowed us to examine functional relationships among reported genes, and to identify novel genes and enriched pathways that may play a role in mycobacterial susceptibility or control. Our findings suggest that the primary pathways and genes influencing mycobacterial infection control involve an interplay between innate and adaptive immune proteins and pathways. Signaling pathways involved in autoimmune disease were significantly enriched as revealed in our networks. Mycobacterial disease susceptibility networks were also examined within the context of gene-chemical relationships, in order to identify putative drugs and nutrients with potential beneficial immunomodulatory or anti-mycobacterial effects.

  9. Human giardiasis in Serbia: asymptomatic vs symptomatic infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, A.; Klun, I.; Bobić, B.; Ivović, V.; Vujanić, M.; Živković, T.; Djurković-Djaković, O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the public health importance of giardiasis in all of Europe, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence in Western Balkan Countries (Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and FYR Macedonia) are scarce, and the relative contribution of waterborne and food-borne, or person-to-person and/or animalto- person, transmission of human giardiasis is not yet clear. To provide baseline data for the estimation of the public health risk caused by Giardia, we here review the information available on the epidemiological characteristics of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection in Serbia. Although asymptomatic cases of Giardia represent a major proportion of the total cases of infection, high rates of Giardia infection were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic populations. No waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis have been reported, and it thus seems that giardiasis mostly occurs sporadically in our milieu. Under such circumstances, control measures to reduce the high prevalence of giardiasis in Serbia have focused on person-to-person transmission, encouraging proper hygiene, but for more targeted intervention measures, studies to identify other risk factors for asymptomatic and symptomatic infections are needed. PMID:21678797

  10. Invading the Mediterranean Sea: biodiversity patterns shaped by human activities

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    Stelios eKatsanevakis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as shipping, aquaculture, and the opening of the Suez Canal, have led to the introduction of nearly 1,000 alien species into the Mediterranean Sea. We investigated how human activities, by providing pathways for the introduction of alien species, may shape the biodiversity patterns in the Mediterranean Sea. Richness of Red Sea species introduced through the Suez Canal (Lessepsian species is very high along the eastern Mediterranean coastline, reaching a maximum of 129 species per 100 km2, and declines towards the north and west. The distribution of species introduced by shipping is strikingly different, with several hotspot areas occurring throughout the Mediterranean basin. Two main hotspots for aquaculture-introduced species are observed (the Thau and Venice lagoons. Certain taxonomic groups were mostly introduced through specific pathways – fish through the Suez Canal, macrophytes by aquaculture, and invertebrates through the Suez Canal and by shipping. Hence, the local taxonomic identity of the alien species was greatly dependent on the dominant maritime activities/interventions and the related pathways of introduction. The composition of alien species differs among Mediterranean ecoregions; such differences are greater for Lessepsian and aquaculture-introduced species. The spatial pattern of native species biodiversity differs from that of alien species: the overall richness of native species declines from the north-western to the south-eastern regions, while the opposite trend is observed for alien species. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is changing, and further research is needed to better understand how the new biodiversity patterns shaped by human activities will affect the Mediterranean food webs, ecosystem functioning, and the provision of ecosystem services.

  11. Human Mobility Patterns and Cholera Epidemics: a Spatially Explicit Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, L.; Bertuzzo, E.; Righetto, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    Cholera is an acute enteric disease caused by the ingestion of water or food contaminated by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Although most infected individuals do not develop severe symptoms, their stool may contain huge quantities of V.~cholerae cells. Therefore, while traveling or commuting, asymptomatic carriers can be responsible for the long-range dissemination of the disease. As a consequence, human mobility is an alternative and efficient driver for the spread of cholera, whose primary propagation pathway is hydrological transport through river networks. We present a multi-layer network model that accounts for the interplay between epidemiological dynamics, hydrological transport and long-distance dissemination of V.~cholerae due to human movement. In particular, building on top of state-of-the-art spatially explicit models for cholera spread through surface waters, we describe human movement and its effects on the propagation of the disease by means of a gravity-model approach borrowed from transportation theory. Gravity-like contact processes have been widely used in epidemiology, because they can satisfactorily depict human movement when data on actual mobility patterns are not available. We test our model against epidemiological data recorded during the cholera outbreak occurred in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa during years 2000--2001. We show that human mobility does actually play an important role in the formation of the spatiotemporal patterns of cholera epidemics. In particular, long-range human movement may determine inter-catchment dissemination of V.~cholerae cells, thus in turn explaining the emergence of epidemic patterns that cannot be produced by hydrological transport alone. We also show that particular attention has to be devoted to study how heterogeneously distributed drinking water supplies and sanitation conditions may affect cholera transmission.

  12. Nuclear domain 10 components upregulated via interferon during human cytomegalovirus infection potently regulate viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Caroline L; Glass, Mandy S; Abendroth, Allison; McSharry, Brian P; Slobedman, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous betaherpesvirus that causes life-threatening disease in immunocompromised and immunonaïve individuals. Type I interferons (IFNs) are crucial molecules in the innate immune response to HCMV and are also known to upregulate several components of the interchromosomal multiprotein aggregates collectively referred to as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). In the context of herpesvirus infection, ND10 components are known to restrict gene expression. This raises the question as to whether key ND10 components (PML, Sp100 and hDaxx) act as anti-viral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) during HCMV infection. In this study, analysis of ND10 component transcription during HCMV infection demonstrated that PML and Sp100 were significantly upregulated whilst hDaxx expression remained unchanged. In cells engineered to block the production of, or response to, type I IFNs, upregulation of PML and Sp100 was not detected during HCMV infection. Furthermore, pre-treatment with an IFN-β neutralizing antibody inhibited upregulation of PML and Sp100 during both infection and treatment with HCMV-infected cell supernatant. The significance of ND10 components functioning as anti-viral ISGs during HCMV infection was determined through knockdown of PML, Sp100 and hDaxx. ND10 knockdown cells were significantly more permissive to HCMV infection, as previously described but, in contrast to control cells, could support HCMV plaque formation following IFN-β pre-treatment. This ability of HCMV to overcome the potently anti-viral effects of IFN-β in ND10 expression deficient cells provides evidence that ND10 component upregulation is a key mediator of the anti-viral activity of IFN-β.

  13. Human macroecology: linking pattern and process in big-picture human ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, William R; Brown, James H; Burger, Oskar; Hamilton, Marcus J; Moses, Melanie; Bettencourt, Luis M A

    2012-02-01

    Humans have a dual nature. We are subject to the same natural laws and forces as other species yet dominate global ecology and exhibit enormous variation in energy use, cultural diversity, and apparent social organization. We suggest scientists tackle these challenges with a macroecological approach-using comparative statistical techniques to identify deep patterns of variation in large datasets and to test for causal mechanisms. We show the power of a metabolic perspective for interpreting these patterns and suggesting possible underlying mechanisms, one that focuses on the exchange of energy and materials within and among human societies and with the biophysical environment. Examples on human foraging ecology, life history, space use, population structure, disease ecology, cultural and linguistic diversity patterns, and industrial and urban systems showcase the power and promise of this approach. © 2011 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2011 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  14. Role of CD4 endocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelchen-Matthews, A; Clapham, P; Marsh, M

    1995-12-01

    We have analyzed the role of CD4 endocytosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry by measuring the infection of HeLa cells expressing various CD4 constructs with endocytosis rates of between 0.2 and 30%/min in a quantitative infectious focus assay. For a number of laboratory-adapted HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains, the highest levels of infection were found on cells with very limited CD4 endocytosis, while cells with efficient CD4 uptake were only poorly infectable, suggesting that CD4 internalization is not required for HIV entry. This was confirmed in a modified assay involving prebinding of HIV-1LAI to HeLa-CD4 cells at 4 degrees C, synchronized virus entry during warming to 37 degrees C, and neutralization of virions remaining at the cell surface with anti-V3 loop antibodies. Warming cells in hypertonic medium inhibited CD4 endocytosis but did not affect the rate or the extent of infection. These studies confirm that HIV infection does not require endocytosis and that laboratory-adapted virus strains can enter HeLa-CD4 cells by fusion at the plasma membrane.

  15. [Hematological changes associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, T; Hasselbalch, H C

    1993-05-10

    Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primarily involves a subgroup of T-lymphocytic cells, but other cell types are also invaded by the virus, including cell lines within the haematopoietic system. Together with infectious, inflammatory and neoplasic processes, invasion of haematopoietic tissue explains the haematological alterations which are seen during the course of infection with HIV-1. Anaemia develops in the large proportion of patients. Thrombocytopenia frequently occurs during the course of the disease, but may be seen in some patients already at the time of diagnosis, where the condition may be misdiagnosed as "idiopathic" thrombocytopenic purpura. Neutropenia is seen in all disease stages, but is most severe in patients with advanced disease. Bone marrow changes include varying degrees of dysplasia in one or more cell lines, which in some patients may mimic a myelodysplastic syndrome. The number of plasma cells is always increased. In many patients the bone marrow stroma exhibits an increased amount of reticular fibres. HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin malignant lymphoma. Acute myelogenous leukaemia and myelomatosis have been described in patients with advanced disease. Treatment of the above mentioned haematological abnormalities aims primarily at reducing replication of HIV-1, thereby diminishing suppression of haematopoiesis by the virus infection, and at controlling the opportunistic infections during the course of the disease. Specific antiviral therapy (AZT) is most successful in correcting thrombocytopenia. The possibility of bone marrow suppression mediated by a toxic drug effect should always be considered in this patient group.

  16. Human parasitic meningitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Chen, Yao-Shen; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2013-06-01

    The major cause of eosinophilic meningitis in Taiwan is Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Humans are infected by ingesting terrestrial and freshwater snails and slugs. In 1998 and 1999, two outbreaks of eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection were reported among 17 adult male immigrant Thai laborers who had eaten raw golden apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata). Another outbreak associated with consuming a health drink consisting of raw vegetable juice was reported in 2001. These adult cases differed from reports in the 1970s and 1980s, in which most of the cases were in children. With improvements in public health and education of foreign laborers, there have since been only sporadic cases in Taiwan. Review of clinical research indicates inconsistent association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) results with clinical features of eosinophilic meningitis. MRI features were nonspecific but there was an association between the presence of high brain MRI signal intensities and severity of peripheral and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia. Inflammatory markers have been identified in the CSF of patients with eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase system may be associated with blood-brain barrier disruption. Eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis infection is not a reportable disease in Taiwan. It is important that a public advisory and education program be developed to reduce future accidental infection.

  17. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  18. Measuring serum antibody to human papillomavirus following infection or vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Ian H

    2010-06-01

    The family of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) includes more than 130 genotypes, many of which infect the genital tract, and these can be classified as low risk or high risk for induction of genital neoplasia. Two prophylactic vaccines are currently available for the prevention of genital HPV infection: a quadrivalent (Gardasil); Merck & Co. Inc) and a bivalent (Cervarix; GlaxoSmithKline) vaccine. Protection against HPV infection and associated disease is observed for at least 6.4 years following immunization with the bivalent vaccine and for at least 8.5 years with the HPV 16L1 virus-like particle of the quadrivalent vaccine. HPV vaccines induce robust immune memory, as evidenced by recall of responses after revaccination, suggesting that immunization will afford long-lasting protection. An immunological marker for ongoing protection from infection would provide information to help establish best-practice deployment of these vaccines. However, while HPV-specific antibody is likely the major mechanism of protection against HPV infection following immunization, available serological assays provide only a partial characterization of immune status, and no measured immune response has been shown to define immediate or future protection against HPV infection or associated disease. Future research efforts should therefore be directed towards correlating measures of virus-specific immune memory with continued protection against infection with the HPV types in the available vaccines, and towards determining the duration of cross-protection afforded by these vaccines against HPV types other than those incorporated in the vaccines. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macneil, Adam; Abel, Jason; Reynolds, Mary G; Lash, Rr; Fonnie, Richard; Kanneh, Lansana D; Robert, Willie; Lungay, Victor K; Goba, Augustine; Moses, Lina M; Damon, Inger K; Karem, Kevin; Bausch, Daniel G

    2011-10-28

    Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  20. Serologic evidence of human orthopoxvirus infections in Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goba Augustine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthopoxviruses, including variola virus, vaccinia virus, and monkeypox virus, have previously been documented in humans in West Africa, however, no cases of human orthopoxvirus infection have been reported in the region since 1986. We conducted a serosurvey to determine whether human exposure to orthopoxviruses continues to occur in eastern Sierra Leone. Findings To examine evidence of exposure to orthopoxviruses in the Kenema District of Sierra Leone, we collected and tested sera from 1596 persons by IgG ELISA and a subset of 313 by IgM capture ELISA. Eleven persons born after the cessation of smallpox vaccination had high orthopoxvirus-specific IgG values, and an additional 6 persons had positive IgM responses. No geographic clustering was noted. Conclusions These data suggest that orthopoxviruses continue to circulate in Sierra Leone. Studies aimed at obtaining orthopoxvirus isolates and/or genetic sequences from rodents and symptomatic humans in the area are indicated.

  1. Defining cell culture conditions to improve human norovirus infectivity assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartholomew, Rachel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valdez, Catherine O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Valentine, Nancy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dohnalkova, Alice [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ozanich, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Significant difficulties remain for determining whether human noroviruses (hNoV) recovered from water, food, and environmental samples are infectious. Three-dimensional tissue culture of human intestinal cells has shown promise in developing an infectivity assay, but reproducibility, even within a single laboratory, remains problematic. From the literature and our observations, we hypothesized that the common factors that leads to more reproducible hNoV infectivity in vitro requires that the cell line be 1) of human gastrointestinal origin, 2) expresses apical microvilli, and 3) be a positive secretor cell line. The C2BBe1 cell line, which is a brush-border producing clone of Caco-2, meets these three criteria. When challenged with Genogroup II viruses, we observed a 2 Log10 increase in viral RNA titer. A passage experiment with GII viruses showed evidence of the ability to propagate hNoV by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and microscopy. Using 3-D C2BBe1 cells improves reproducibility of the infectivity assay for hNoV, but the assay can still be variable. Two sources of variability include the cells themselves (mixed phenotypes of small and large intestine) and initial titer measurements using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) that measures all RNA vs. plaque assays that measure infectious virus.

  2. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  3. Experimental rhinovirus infection in human volunteers exposed to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, F.W.; Dubovi, E.J.; Harder, S.; Seal, E. Jr.; Graham, D.

    1988-05-01

    We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.

  4. Experimental rhinovirus infection in human volunteers exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, F W; Dubovi, E J; Harder, S; Seal, E; Graham, D

    1988-05-01

    We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.

  5. Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine, and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Gaelle; Marshall, John F; Morrell, Joanna; Robb, David; McCauley, John W; Perez, Daniel R; Parrish, Colin R; Murcia, Pablo R

    2014-08-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) have entered new host species in recent history, sometimes with devastating consequences. Canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 originated from a direct transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) in the early 2000s. We studied the infection patterns of IAVs that circulate in dogs or to which dogs are commonly exposed and showed that CIV emergence was likely

  6. Multi-level human evolution: ecological patterns in hominin phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Andrea; Pievani, Telmo

    2016-06-20

    Evolution is a process that occurs at many different levels, from genes to ecosystems. Genetic variations and ecological pressures are hence two sides of the same coin; but due both to fragmentary evidence and to the influence of a gene-centered and gradualistic approach to evolutionary phenomena, the field of paleoanthropology has been slow to take the role of macro-evolutionary patterns (i.e. ecological and biogeographical at large scale) seriously. However, several very recent findings in paleoanthropology stress both climate instability and ecological disturbance as key factors affecting the highly branching hominin phylogeny, from the earliest hominins to the appearance of cognitively modern humans. Allopatric speciation due to geographic displacement, turnover-pulses of species, adaptive radiation, mosaic evolution of traits in several coeval species, bursts of behavioral innovation, serial dispersals out of Africa, are just some of the macro-evolutionary patterns emerging from the field. The multilevel approach to evolution proposed by paleontologist Niles Eldredge is adopted here as interpretative tool, and has yielded a larger picture of human evolution that integrates different levels of evolutionary change, from local adaptations in limited ecological niches to dispersal phenotypes able to colonize an unprecedented range of ecosystems. Changes in global climate and Earth's surface most greatly affected human evolution. Precisely because it is cognitively hard for us to appreciate the long-term common destiny we share with the whole biosphere, it is particularly valuable to highlight the accumulating evidence that human evolution has been deeply affected by global ecological changes that transformed our African continent of origin.

  7. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

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    Alcendor Donald J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV, microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC. However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta, and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited

  8. Infection and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in human brain vascular pericytes by human cytomegalovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Congenital human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections can result in CNS abnormalities in newborn babies including vision loss, mental retardation, motor deficits, seizures, and hearing loss. Brain pericytes play an essential role in the development and function of the blood–brain barrier yet their unique role in HCMV dissemination and neuropathlogy has not been reported. Methods Primary human brain vascular pericytes were exposed to a primary clinical isolate of HCMV designated ‘SBCMV’. Infectivity was analyzed by microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and qRT-PCR. Microarrays were performed to identify proinflammatory cytokines upregulated after SBCMV exposure, and the results validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methodology. In situ cytokine expression of pericytes after exposure to HCMV was examined by ELISA and in vivo evidence of HCMV infection of brain pericytes was shown by dual-labeled immunohistochemistry. Results HCMV-infected human brain vascular pericytes as evidenced by several markers. Using a clinical isolate of HCMV (SBCMV), microscopy of infected pericytes showed virion production and typical cytomegalic cytopathology. This finding was confirmed by the expression of major immediate early and late virion proteins and by the presence of HCMV mRNA. Brain pericytes were fully permissive for CMV lytic replication after 72 to 96 hours in culture compared to human astrocytes or human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). However, temporal transcriptional expression of pp65 virion protein after SBCMV infection was lower than that seen with the HCMV Towne laboratory strain. Using RT-PCR and dual-labeled immunofluorescence, proinflammatory cytokines CXCL8/IL-8, CXCL11/ITAC, and CCL5/Rantes were upregulated in SBCMV-infected cells, as were tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Pericytes exposed to SBCMV elicited higher levels of IL-6

  9. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Brink, Antoinette A. T. P.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Wolffs, Petra F. G.; de Melker, Hester E.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation

  10. Global patterns of diversity and selection in human tyrosinase gene.

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    Georgi Hudjashov

    Full Text Available Global variation in skin pigmentation is one of the most striking examples of environmental adaptation in humans. More than two hundred loci have been identified as candidate genes in model organisms and a few tens of these have been found to be significantly associated with human skin pigmentation in genome-wide association studies. However, the evolutionary history of different pigmentation genes is rather complex: some loci have been subjected to strong positive selection, while others evolved under the relaxation of functional constraints in low UV environment. Here we report the results of a global study of the human tyrosinase gene, which is one of the key enzymes in melanin production, to assess the role of its variation in the evolution of skin pigmentation differences among human populations. We observe a higher rate of non-synonymous polymorphisms in the European sample consistent with the relaxation of selective constraints. A similar pattern was previously observed in the MC1R gene and concurs with UV radiation-driven model of skin color evolution by which mutations leading to lower melanin levels and decreased photoprotection are subject to purifying selection at low latitudes while being tolerated or even favored at higher latitudes because they facilitate UV-dependent vitamin D production. Our coalescent date estimates suggest that the non-synonymous variants, which are frequent in Europe and North Africa, are recent and have emerged after the separation of East and West Eurasian populations.

  11. Conscious Perception as Integrated Information Patterns in Human Electrocorticography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A significant problem in neuroscience concerns the distinction between neural processing that is correlated with conscious percepts from processing that is not. Here, we tested if a hierarchical structure of causal interactions between neuronal populations correlates with conscious perception. We derived the hierarchical causal structure as a pattern of integrated information, inspired by the integrated information theory (IIT) of consciousness. We computed integrated information patterns from intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) from six human neurosurgical patients with electrodes implanted over lateral and ventral cortices. During recording, subjects viewed continuous flash suppression (CFS) and backward masking (BM) stimuli intended to dissociate conscious percept from stimulus, and unmasked suprathreshold stimuli. Object-sensitive areas revealed correspondence between conscious percepts and integrated information patterns. We quantified this correspondence using unsupervised classification methods that revealed clustering of visual experiences with integrated information, but not with broader information measures including mutual information and entropy. Our findings point to a significant role of locally integrated information for understanding the neural substrate of conscious object perception. PMID:29085895

  12. Human leptospirosis distribution pattern analysis in Hulu Langat, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Zuhafiza; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Tarmidi, Zakri M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper discussed the distribution pattern of human leptospirosis in the Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia. The data used in this study is leptospirosis cases’ report, and spatial boundaries. Leptospirosis cases, data were collected from Health Office of Hulu Langat and spatial boundaries, including lot and district boundaries was collected from the Department of Mapping and Surveying Malaysia (JUPEM). A total of 599 leptospirosis cases were reported in 2013, and this data was mapped based on the addresses provided in the leptospirosis cases’ report. This study uses three statistical methods to analyze the distribution pattern; Moran's I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation. The analysis was used to determine the spatial distribution and the average distance of leptospirosis cases and located the hotspot locations. Using Moran's I analysis, results indicated the cases were random, with a value of -0.202816 which show negative spatial autocorrelation exist among leptospirosis cases. The ANN analysis result, indicated the cases are in cluster pattern, with value of the average nearest neighbor ratio is -21.80. And results also show the hotspots are has been identified and mapped in the Hulu Langat District.

  13. Patterns of tsetse abundance and trypanosome infection rates among habitats of surveyed villages in Maasai steppe of northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Gwakisa, Paul S; Estes, Anna B; Salekwa, Linda P; Nnko, Happiness J; Hudson, Peter J; Cattadori, Isabella M

    2017-09-04

    Changes of land cover modify the characteristics of habitat, host-vector interaction and consequently infection rates of disease causing agents. In this paper, we report variations in tsetse distribution patterns, abundance and infection rates in relation to habitat types and age in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. In Africa, Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis negatively impacted human life where about 40 million people are at risk of contracting the disease with dramatic socio-economical consequences, for instance, loss of livestock, animal productivity, and manpower. We trapped tsetse flies in dry and wet seasons between October 2014 and May 2015 in selected habitats across four villages: Emboreet, Loiborsireet, Kimotorok and Oltukai adjacent to protected areas. Data collected include number and species of tsetse flies caught in baited traps, PCR identification of trypanosome species and extraction of monitored Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). Our findings demonstrate the variation of tsetse fly species abundance and infection rates among habitats in surveyed villages in relation to NDVI and host abundance. Results have shown higher tsetse fly abundance in Acacia-swampy ecotone and riverine habitats for Emboreet and other villages, respectively. Tsetse abundance was inconsistent among habitats in different villages. Emboreet was highly infested with Glossina swynnertoni (68%) in ecotone and swampy habitats followed by G. morsitans (28%) and G. pallidipes (4%) in riverine habitat. In the remaining villages, the dominant tsetse fly species by 95% was G. pallidipes in all habitats. Trypanosoma vivax was the most prevalent species in all infected flies (95%) with few observations of co-infections (with T. congolense or T. brucei). The findings of this study provide a framework to mapping hotspots of tsetse infestation and trypanosomiasis infection and enhance the communities to plan for

  14. Zika virus infection dysregulates human neural stem cell growth and inhibits differentiation into neuroprogenitor cells

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    Devhare, Pradip; Meyer, Keith; Steele, Robert; Ray, Ratna B; Ray, Ranjit

    2017-01-01

    The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs. Zika virus MR766 strain increased serine 139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX), a known early cellular response proteins to DNA damage. On the other hand, PRVABC59 strain upregulated serine 15 phosphorylation of p53, p21 and PUMA expression. MR766-infected cells displayed poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage. Interestingly, infection of hNSCs by both strains of Zika virus for 24 h, followed by incubation in astrocyte differentiation medium, induced rounding and cell death. However, astrocytes generated from hNSCs by incubation in differentiation medium when infected with Zika virus displayed minimal cytopathic effect at an early time point. Infected hNSCs incubated in astrocyte differentiating medium displayed PARP cleavage within 24–36 h. Together, these results showed that two distinct strains of Zika virus potentiate hNSC growth inhibition by different mechanisms, but both viruses strongly induce death in early differentiating neuroprogenitor cells even at a very low multiplicity of infection. Our observations demonstrate further mechanistic insights for impaired neuronal homeostasis during active Zika virus infection. PMID:29022904

  15. Differential Effects of Vitamins A and D on the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Monocytes during Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Tilman E; Bräuer, Julia; Hölzer, Martin; Stock, Magdalena; Riege, Konstantin; Zubiría-Barrera, Cristina; Müller, Mario M; Rummler, Silke; Skerka, Christine; Marz, Manja; Slevogt, Hortense

    2017-01-17

    Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential nutrients with a wide range of pleiotropic effects in humans. Beyond their well-documented roles in cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, tissue maintenance and bone/calcium homeostasis, both vitamins have attracted considerable attention due to their association with-immunological traits. Nevertheless, our knowledge of their immunomodulatory potential during infection is restricted to single gene-centric studies, which do not reflect the complexity of immune processes. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive RNA-seq-based approach to define the whole immunomodulatory role of vitamins A and D during infection. Using human monocytes as host cells, we characterized the differential role of both vitamins upon infection with three different pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. Both vitamins showed an unexpected ability to counteract the pathogen-induced transcriptional responses. Upon infection, we identified 346 and 176 immune-relevant genes that were regulated by atRA and vitD, respectively. This immunomodulatory activity was dependent on the inflammatory stimulus, allowing us to distinguish regulatory patterns which were specific for each stimulatory setting. Moreover, we explored possible direct and indirect mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation of the immune response. Our findings highlight the importance of vitamin-monitoring in critically ill patients. Moreover, our results underpin the potential of atRA and vitD as therapeutic options for anti-inflammatory treatment.

  16. Bacterial incidence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern in moderate and severe infections in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Asutosh; Karmakar, Partha Sarathi; Pal, Jyotirmoy; Chakraborty, Nabanita; Debnath, N B; Mukherjee, J D

    2009-01-01

    Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death and sometimes curable. Bacteria are the most common aetiology in hospitalised patients. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence of bacterial infections and their pattern of susceptibility to antibiotics in moderate and severe infections in hospitalised patients. The study was performed in the apical teaching hospital of West Bengal in the first half of 2005. Patients admitted in medical wards and medical ICU, suffering from moderate and severe infections having APACHE-II score > 5 were studied. Clinical evaluation, routine and specific investigations were done in each case. Microbiological samplings were tried on day 1, after completion of antibiotic therapy and in between as required. Aerobic BACTEC bacterial culture and sensitivity tests were done. Pending initial culture and sensitivity report empiric antibiotic therapy was started, which was modified on getting the culture and sensitivity report. Outcome was observed as no response, cured, resolved, inconclusive, died and left against medical advice. Out of 40 patients total number of samples were 54 and that of sites of infections were 48. Primary site could not be detected in 11 infections (22.9%). Commonest form was urinary tract infection and abdominal infection in community acquired infection (n=18) and pneumonia in hospital acquired infection (n = 15). Culture was positive in 33 (61.11%), Gram-negative infection was more common in general, but incidence of Gram-positive infection was also quite high and Gram-positive infection was more common in community acquired infection. In general S aureus was most common bacteria -8 (24.24%). In community acquired infection S aureus 4 (22.22%) predominated followed by E coli and in hospital acquired infection S aureus -4 (26.66%) followed by E coli and P aeruginosa. Incidence of methicillin resistant Staph aureus was low. But it constituted 50% of S aureus. No methicillin resistant Staph

  17. The Laboratory Diagnosis of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections

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    François Coutlee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are the etiological agents of several genital cancers, including cancer of the uterine cervix. The detection of HPV infection in genital samples may increase the sensitivity of primary and secondary screenings of cervical cancer. HPV testing may also improve the specificity of screening programs, resulting in the avoidance of overtreatment and cost savings for confirmatory procedures. The major determinants of clinical progression of HPV infection include persistence of HPV infection, involvement of high-risk HPV types, high HPV viral load, integration of viral DNA and presence of several potential cofactors. Signal amplification HPV-DNA detection techniques (Hybrid Capture II, Digene Corporation, USA are standardized, commercially available, and capable of detecting several high-risk HPV types. They also increase the sensitivity of screening for high-grade lesions in combination with cytology. The sensitivity of these techniques to detect high-grade lesions is higher than that of cytology, but the referral rate for colposcopy is greater. These techniques are approved for the triage to colposcopy of women with cervical smears interpreted as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. Triage and screening for cervical cancer using HPV will probably be restricted to women aged 30 years or older because of the high prevalence of infection in younger women. Amplification techniques are ideal for epidemiological studies because they minimize the misclassification of HPV infection status. These techniques can detect low HPV burden infections. Consensus primers amplify most genital types in one reaction, and the reverse hybridization of amplicons with type-specific probes allows for the typing of HPV-positive samples. Consensus PCR assays are currently under evaluation for diagnostic purposes. HPV testing is currently implemented for the clinical management of women.

  18. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands.

  19. Dynamic transcriptional signatures and network responses for clinical symptoms in influenza-infected human subjects using systems biology approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linel, Patrice; Wu, Shuang; Deng, Nan; Wu, Hulin

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that human blood transcriptional signatures may be used to support diagnosis and clinical decisions for acute respiratory viral infections such as influenza. In this article, we propose to use a newly developed systems biology approach for time course gene expression data to identify significant dynamically response genes and dynamic gene network responses to viral infection. We illustrate the methodological pipeline by reanalyzing the time course gene expression data from a study with healthy human subjects challenged by live influenza virus. We observed clear differences in the number of significant dynamic response genes (DRGs) between the symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects and also identified DRG signatures for symptomatic subjects with influenza infection. The 505 common DRGs shared by the symptomatic subjects have high consistency with the signature genes for predicting viral infection identified in previous works. The temporal response patterns and network response features were carefully analyzed and investigated.

  20. Comparing New-Generation Candidate Vaccines against Human Orthopoxvirus Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, R A; Yakubitskyi, S N; Kolosova, I V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2017-01-01

    The lack of immunity to the variola virus in the population, increasingly more frequent cases of human orthopoxvirus infection, and increased risk of the use of the variola virus (VARV) as a bioterrorism agent call for the development of modern, safe vaccines against orthopoxvirus infections. We previously developed a polyvalent DNA vaccine based on five VARV antigens and an attenuated variant of the vaccinia virus (VACV) with targeted deletion of six genes (VACΔ6). Independent experiments demonstrated that triple immunization with a DNA vaccine and double immunization with VACΔ6 provide protection to mice against a lethal dose (10 LD50) of the ectromelia virus (ECTV), which is highly pathogenic for mice. The present work was aimed at comparing the immunity to smallpox generated by various immunization protocols using the DNA vaccine and VACΔ6. It has been established that immunization of mice with a polyvalent DNA vaccine, followed by boosting with recombinant VACΔ6, as well as double immunization with VACΔ6, induces production of VACV-neutralizing antibodies and provides protection to mice against a 150 LD50 dose of ECTV. The proposed immunization protocols can be used to develop safe vaccination strategies against smallpox and other human orthopoxvirus infections.

  1. Absence of human cytomegalovirus infection in childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Iacopo; Lucchesi, Maurizio; Becciani, Sabrina; Facchini, Ludovica; Guidi, Milena; Buccoliero, Anna Maria; Moriondo, Maria; Baroni, Gianna; Stival, Alessia; Farina, Silvia; Genitori, Lorenzo; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common human pathogen which induces different clinical manifestations related to the age and the immune conditions of the host. HCMV infection seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of adult glioblastomas. The aim of our study was to detect the presence of HCMV in high grade gliomas and other pediatric brain tumors. This hypothesis might have important therapeutic implications, offering a new target for adjuvant therapies. Among 106 pediatric patients affected by CNS tumors we selected 27 patients with a positive HCMV serology. The serological analysis revealed 7 patients with positive HCMV IGG (≥14 U/mL), whom had also a high HCMV IgG avidity, suggesting a more than 6 months-dated infection. Furthermore, HCMV IGM were positive (≥22 U/mL) in 20 patients. Molecular and immunohistochemical analyses were performed in all the 27 samples. Despite a positive HCMV serology, confirmed by ELISA, no viral DNA was shown at the PCR analysis in the patients' neoplastic cells. At immunohistochemistry, no expression of HCMV antigens was observed in tumoral cells. Our results are in agreement with recent results in adults which did not evidence the presence of HCMV genome in glioblastoma lesions. We did not find any correlation between HCMV infection and pediatric CNS tumors.

  2. The Epidemiology of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xavier Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer has been recognized as a rare outcome of a common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI. The etiologic association is restricted to a limited number of viral types of the family of the Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs. The association is causal in nature and under optimal testing systems, HPV DNA can be identified in all specimens of invasive cervical cancer. As a consequence, it has been claimed that HPV infection is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. The evidence is consistent worldwide and implies both the Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCC, the adenocarcinomas and the vast majority (i.e. > 95% of the immediate precursors, namely High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HSIL/Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia 3 (CIN3/Carcinoma in situ. Co-factors that modify the risk among HPV DNA positive women include the use of oral contraceptives (OC for five or more years, smoking, high parity (five or more full term pregnancies and previous exposure to other sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT and Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2. Women exposed to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV are at high risk for HPV infection, HPV DNA persistency and progression of HPV lesions to cervical cancer.

  3. Target cell cyclophilins facilitate human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

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    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.

  4. Early Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Reprograms Human Epithelial Cells

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    María Laura Chiribao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, has the peculiarity, when compared with other intracellular parasites, that it is able to invade almost any type of cell. This property makes Chagas a complex parasitic disease in terms of prophylaxis and therapeutics. The identification of key host cellular factors that play a role in the T. cruzi invasion is important for the understanding of disease pathogenesis. In Chagas disease, most of the focus is on the response of macrophages and cardiomyocytes, since they are responsible for host defenses and cardiac lesions, respectively. In the present work, we studied the early response to infection of T. cruzi in human epithelial cells, which constitute the first barrier for establishment of infection. These studies identified up to 1700 significantly altered genes regulated by the immediate infection. The global analysis indicates that cells are literally reprogrammed by T. cruzi, which affects cellular stress responses (neutrophil chemotaxis, DNA damage response, a great number of transcription factors (including the majority of NFκB family members, and host metabolism (cholesterol, fatty acids, and phospholipids. These results raise the possibility that early host cell reprogramming is exploited by the parasite to establish the initial infection and posterior systemic dissemination.

  5. Human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, W C; Brinton, L A; García, M; Brenes, M M; Herrero, R; Gaitán, E; Tenorio, F; de Britton, R C; Rawls, W E

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate a possible association between infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, we performed a multicenter case-control study in Latin America of 759 cases of invasive cervical cancer and 1467 randomly selected age-matched controls. Demographic, sexual, behavioral, and other clinical data were obtained by interview, and HPV DNA was assayed in cervical-swab specimens with use of filter in situ hybridization. Cervical infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both was strongly associated with cervical cancer. HPV DNA was detected in 62 percent of the cases but only 32 percent of the controls, and the relative risk of cancer increased from 2.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 2.8) to 9.1 (6.1 to 13.6) with hybridization reactions of increasing strength. Although the number of sexual partners, age at first intercourse, number of live births, and Pap-smear history were also significant risk factors, the strong associations between infection with HPV 16 or 18 or both and cervical cancer persisted after we adjusted for these variables. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that genital infection with HPV 16 or 18 may have a role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. Other well-known risk factors were also identified in the study, but they did not affect the association between HPV and cervical cancer.

  6. Systemic fungal infections in patients with human inmunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cerdeira, C; Arenas, R; Moreno-Coutiño, G; Vásquez, E; Fernández, R; Chang, P

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a systemic infection caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In immunocompromised patients, primary pulmonary infection can spread to the skin and meninges. Clinical manifestations appear in patients with a CD4(+) lymphocyte count of less than 150 cells/μL. Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic mycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. It can present as diffuse pulmonary disease or as a disseminated form primarily affecting the central nervous system, the bones, and the skin. Cryptococcosis is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans (var. neoformans and var. grubii) and Cryptococcus gattii, which are members of the Cryptococcus species complex and have 5 serotypes: A, B, C, D, and AD. It is a common opportunistic infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, even those receiving antiretroviral therapy. Histopathologic examination and culture of samples from any suspicious lesions are essential for the correct diagnosis of systemic fungal infections in patients with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Human papillomavirus infection and esophageal cancer: a case report

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    Miguel A. Serra Valdés

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Currently over 216 types of human papillomavirus (HPV have been reported, but only 100 have been fully sequenced. They are able to infect cells of the basal layer of any epithelium. Evidence of HPV oncogenicity has been found. Objective. To describe a case of esophageal HPV infection associated to cancer of the esophagus. Case report. 63 years-old, African and rural origin, single, female housewife with the habit of smoking and frequent ingestion of alcohol. Four months before the diagnosis was established, the patient began to gradually develop dysphagia to solids and weight loss. Upper endoscopy shows a proliferative ulcerated lesion in the middle third of the esophagus. Biopsy is consistent with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cytology is suggestive of papillomavirus infection. Discussion. Prior esophageal papillomatosis and other risk factors contributed to the occurrence of esophageal carcinoma. Histopathology was consistent with the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma probably caused by HPV infection. Conclusion. The association between papilloma virus and esophageal cancer is rare but can be diagnosed if it is suspected and other risk factors are present, as well as if there is access to modern diagnostic means.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum gene expression measured directly from tissue during human infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tyne, Daria; Tan, Yan; Daily, Johanna P; Kamiza, Steve; Seydel, Karl; Taylor, Terrie; Mesirov, Jill P; Wirth, Dyann F; Milner, Danny A

    2014-01-01

    During the latter half of the natural 48-h intraerythrocytic life cycle of human Plasmodium falciparum infection, parasites sequester deep in endothelium of tissues, away from the spleen and inaccessible to peripheral blood. These late-stage parasites may cause tissue damage and likely contribute to clinical disease, and a more complete understanding of their biology is needed. Because these life cycle stages are not easily sampled due to deep tissue sequestration, measuring in vivo gene expression of parasites in the trophozoite and schizont stages has been a challenge. We developed a custom nCounter® gene expression platform and used this platform to measure malaria parasite gene expression profiles in vitro and in vivo. We also used imputation to generate global transcriptional profiles and assessed differential gene expression between parasites growing in vitro and those recovered from malaria-infected patient tissues collected at autopsy. We demonstrate, for the first time, global transcriptional expression profiles from in vivo malaria parasites sequestered in human tissues. We found that parasite physiology can be correlated with in vitro data from an existing life cycle data set, and that parasites in sequestered tissues show an expected schizont-like transcriptional profile, which is conserved across tissues from the same patient. Imputation based on 60 landmark genes generated global transcriptional profiles that were highly correlated with genome-wide expression patterns from the same samples measured by microarray. Finally, differential expression revealed a limited set of in vivo upregulated transcripts, which may indicate unique parasite genes involved in human clinical infections. Our study highlights the utility of a custom nCounter® P. falciparum probe set, validation of imputation within Plasmodium species, and documentation of in vivo schizont-stage expression patterns from human tissues.

  9. Population, Environmental, and Community Effects on Local Bank Vole (Myodes glareolus) Puumala Virus Infection in an Area with Low Human Incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersago, K; Schreurs, A; Linard, C

    2008-01-01

    habitat and tested for anti-PUUV IgG. Infection data were related to individual bank vole features, population demography, and environmental variables. Rare occurrence of PUUV infection was found and PUUV prevalence was low compared with data from the high NE incidence area in southern Belgium. Small...... activity patterns, local environmental conditions and rodent community structure are also likely to play a role in determining PUUV infection risk for humans....

  10. A Case of Fatal Congenital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Uğur Hatipoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome is a clinical condition caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which can be transmitted either vertically or horizontally. More than 90% of children living with HIV in developing countries have been infected through mother to child transmission during pregnancy, around the time of birth, or through breastfeeding. In order to reduce the number of infected children, increasing emphasis should be placed on preventing mother to child transmission programs with the use of antiretroviral medications in the pregnant woman during pregnancy and at delivery and, starting immediately after birth for the exposed infant. Here, we present the case of a 60-day-old infant heavily immunocompromised due to an extremely high viral burden of HIV, which was acquired perinatally from an undiagnosed and untreated mother, leading to severe bronchopneumonia, sepsis, septic shock and death.

  11. Treatment model of dengue hemorrhagic fever infection in human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Primasari, N.; Wijaya, K. P.

    2014-03-01

    The treatment model of DHF presented in this paper involves the dynamic of five time-dependent compartments, i.e. susceptible, infected, free virus particle, immune cell, and haematocrit level. The treatment model is investigated based on normalization of haematocrit level, which is expressed as intravenous fluid infusion control. We analyze the stability of the disease free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. The numerical simulations will explain the dynamic of each compartment in human body. These results show particularly that infected compartment and free virus particle compartment are tend to be vanished in two weeks after the onset of dengue virus. However, these simulation results also show that without the treatment, the haematocrit level will decrease even though not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control.

  12. Human Dectin-1 Deficiency and Mucocutaneous Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferwerda, Bart; Ferwerda, Gerben; Plantinga, Theo S.; Willment, Janet A.; van Spriel, Annemiek B.; Venselaar, Hanka; Elbers, Clara C.; Johnson, Melissa D.; Cambi, Alessandra; Huysamen, Cristal; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Jansen, Trees; Verheijen, Karlijn; Masthoff, Laury; Morré, Servaas A.; Vriend, Gert; Williams, David L.; Perfect, John R.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Adema, Gosse J.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Brown, Gordon D.; Netea, Mihai G.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Mucocutaneous fungal infections are typically found in patients who have no known immune defects. We describe a family in which four women who were affected by either recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis or onychomycosis had the early-stop-codon mutation Tyr238X in the β-glucan receptor dectin-1. The mutated form of dectin-1 was poorly expressed, did not mediate β-glucan binding, and led to defective production of cytokines (interleukin-17, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-6) after stimulation with β-glucan or Candida albicans. In contrast, fungal phagocytosis and fungal killing were normal in the patients, explaining why dectin-1 deficiency was not associated with invasive fungal infections and highlighting the specific role of dectin-1 in human mucosal antifungal defense. PMID:19864674

  13. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the

  14. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Seroepidemiology of human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Harms, Margriet; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Titia

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are worldwide-distributed zoonotic roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively. The epidemiology of these parasites in developed countries is largely unclear. Two countrywide cross-sectional serosurveys were therefore conducted in the Netherlands in 1995/1996 and 2006/2007 to investigate the prevalence, trends and risk factors for human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the general population. The Netherlands is characterized by high pig production, freedom from stray dogs and virtual absence of autochthonous infections with the human-adapted roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Over the 10 years between the two serosurveys, Toxocara seroprevalence decreased significantly from 10.7 % (n = 1159) to 8.0 % (n = 3683), whereas Ascaris seroprevalence increased significantly from 30.4 % (n = 1159) to 41.6 % (n = 3675), possibly reflecting concomitant improvements in pet hygiene management and increased exposure to pig manure-contaminated soil. Increased anti-Toxocara IgGs were associated with increasing age, male gender, contact with soil, ownership of cats, cattle or pigs, hay fever, low education, high income and non-Western ethnic origin. Increased anti-Ascaris IgGs were associated with increasing age, owning pigs, low education, childhood geophagia and non-Dutch ethnic origin. Besides identifying specific groups at highest risk of Toxocara and Ascaris infections, our results suggest that these infections mainly occur through environmental, rather than foodborne, routes, with direct contact with soil or cat and pig ownership being potentially modifiable exposures.

  16. In Vitro Cell Culture Infectivity Assay for Human Noroviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Tim M.; Honer Zu Bentrup, Kerstin A.; Orosz Coghlan, Patricia A.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Mayer, Brooke K.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.; Gerba, Charles P.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza; Nickerson, Cheryl A.

    2007-01-30

    Human noroviruses (NoV) cause severe, self-limiting gastroenteritis that typically lasts 24 - 48 hours. The true nature of NoV pathogenesis remains unknown due to the lack of suitable tissue culture or animal models. Here we show, for the first time, that NoV can infect and replicate in an organoid, three-dimensional (3-D) model of human small intestinal epithelium (INT-407). Cellular differentiation for this model was achieved by growing the cells in 3-D on porous collagen I-coated microcarrier beads under conditions of physiological fluid shear in rotating wall vessel bioreactors. Microscopy, PCR, and fluorescent in-situ hybridization were employed to provide evidence of NoV infection. CPE and norovirus RNA was detected at each of the five cell passages for both genogroup I and II viruses. Our results demonstrate that the highly differentiated 3-D cell culture model can support the natural growth of human noroviruses, whereas previous attempts using differentiated monolayer cultures failed.

  17. Associations of cytokines, sleep patterns, and neurocognitive function in youth with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Samuel B; Lu, Ming; Glaze, Daniel G; Reuben, James M; Harris, Lynnette L; Cohen, Evan N; Lee, Bang-Ning; Zhao, Enxu; Paul, Mary E; Schwarzwald, Heidi; McMullen-Jackson, Chivon; Clark, Charla; Armstrong, F Daniel; Brouwers, Pim Y; Miller, Tracie L; Colin, Andrew A; Scott, Gwendolyn B; Shahzeidi, Shahriar; Willen, Elizabeth J; Asthana, Deshratn; Lipshultz, Steven E; Thompson, Bruce W; Shearer, William T

    2012-07-01

    Youth infected with HIV at birth often have sleep disturbances, neurocognitive deficits, and abnormal psychosocial function which are associated with and possibly resulted from elevated blood cytokine levels that may lead to a decreased quality of life. To identify molecular pathways that might be associated with these disorders, we evaluated 38 HIV-infected and 35 uninfected subjects over 18-months for intracellular cytokine levels, sleep patterns and duration of sleep, and neurodevelopmental abilities. HIV infection was significantly associated with alterations of intracellular pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12), sleep factors (total time asleep and daytime sleep patterns), and neurocognitive factors (parent and patient reported problems with socio-emotional, behavioral, and executive functions; working memory-mental fatigue; verbal memory; and sustained concentration and vigilance. By better defining the relationships between HIV infection, sleep disturbances, and poor psychosocial behavior and neurocognition, it may be possible to provide targeted pharmacologic and procedural interventions to improve these debilitating conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Patient characteristics and severity of human rhinovirus infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauinger, Ina L; Bible, Jon M; Halligan, Eugene P; Bangalore, Harish; Tosas, Olga; Aarons, Emma J; MacMahon, Eithne; Tong, Cheuk Y W

    2013-09-01

    It is increasingly recognized that human rhinoviruses (HRV) can be associated with severe infections. However, conflicting results have been reported on the relative prevalence and severity of the three HRV species. The relative prevalence and clinical characteristics of HRV-A, B and C, in children attending a South London teaching hospital were investigated retrospectively. Children agedrhinovirus RNA in respiratory samples between November 2009 and December 2010 were investigated. Retrospective case review was performed and patients' characteristics recorded. Entero/rhinoviruses were the commonest viral pathogens (498/2316; 21.5%). Amongst 204 infection episodes associated with entero/rhinovirus, 167 were typed HRV, HRV-C was the most prevalent (99/167, 59.3%) followed by HRV-A (60/167; 35.9%) and HRV-B (8/167, 4.8%). The severity spectrum of HRV-A and HRV-C infections were similar and affected all parts of the respiratory tract. Co-pathogens were observed in 54 (26.5%) episodes. Severity was increased in patients with non-viral co-pathogens and those with an underlying respiratory condition. Univariate and multiple regression analyses of potential prognostic variables including age, co-pathogens and underlying respiratory illnesses showed that mono-infection with HRV-C, as compared with other HRV species, was associated with more severe disease in young children<3 years. HRV-C was the most prevalent species and on its own was associated with severe disease in children<3 years. The association between infection with HRV species and clinical presentation is complex and affected by many confounding factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. H1N1 influenza infection in children: Frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.-Y. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.H., E-mail: jhkate@skku.ed [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eo, H.; Jeon, T.Y.; Shin, K.E.; Shin, W.S.; Jung, H.N. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.-J. [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To describe the frequency, pattern, and outcome of chest radiographic abnormalities in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Materials and methods: Three hundred and fourteen paediatric patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection who underwent chest radiography at presentation at a single institution during the outbreak in 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Abnormal chest radiographic findings related to acute infection were analysed in terms of frequency, pattern, and distribution. Medical records and follow-up radiographs were also reviewed to assess clinical features and outcomes. Results: Chest lesions suggesting acute infection were identified in 49 (16%) patients (mean age 8.2 years, range approximately 1.8-18.5 years). The most common finding was prominent peribronchial marking (71%), followed by air-space opacity (51%) with or without volume decrease, generalized hyperinflation (24%), and pleural effusion (20%). Other minor findings included pneumomediastinum (n = 2) and a nodule (n = 1). Distributions were bilateral (55%) or unilateral (45%) with frequent involvement of lower (78%), and middle (59%) lung zones. Thirty-nine patients (80%) were hospitalized and six (12%) required mechanical ventilation, followed by recovery. Thirty-one out of the 33 patients that underwent follow-up radiography showed marked resolution of all radiographic abnormalities. Conclusion: The frequency of a chest radiographic abnormality was found to be low in children with H1N1 influenza infection. Although typical radiographic findings of a viral lower respiratory infection were more common, unilateral involvement and air-space opacity were common, often with pleural effusion. Furthermore, pulmonary lesions showed near complete resolution on follow-up radiographs in the majority of patients.

  20. Human Milk Bacterial and Glycosylation Patterns Differ by Delivery Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Marina; Meche, Lawrence; Mahal, Lara K; Bakacs, Elizabeth; Nardella, Deanna; Naftolin, Frederick; Bar-Yam, Naomi; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Mammals have evolved to nourish their offspring exclusively with maternal milk for around half of the lactation period, a crucial developmental window. In view of oral-breast contact during lactation and the differences in oral microbiota between cesarean section (C-section) and vaginally delivered infants, we expected differences in milk composition by delivery mode. We performed a cross-sectional study of banked human milk and found changes related to time since delivery in bacterial abundance and glycosylation patterns only in milk from women who delivered vaginally. The results warrant further research into the effects of delivery mode on milk microbes, milk glycosylation, and postpartum infant development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Immunoreactive pattern of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm against human whole saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Amado, Francisco; Cerveira, Frederico; Ferreira, Rita; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is essential to interact with microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the interest in saliva antimicrobial properties is on the rise. Here, we used an immunoproteomic approach, based on protein separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by 2DE, followed by Western-blotting, to compare human serum and saliva reactivity profile. A total of 17 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Serum and saliva presented a distinct pattern of immunoreactive proteins. Our results suggest that saliva seems to have higher propensity to react against S. epidermidis proteins with oxidoreductase activity and proteins involved with L-serine metabolic processes. We show that saliva was a powerful tool for the identification of potential S. epidermidis biofilms proteins. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analysis of antiviral response in human epithelial cells infected with hepatitis E virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip B Devhare

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a major cause of enterically transmitted acute hepatitis in developing nations and occurs in sporadic and epidemic forms. The disease may become severe with high mortality (20% among pregnant women. Due to lack of efficient cell culture system and small animal model, early molecular events of HEV infection are not yet known. In the present study, human lung epithelial cells, A549, were infected with HEV to monitor expression levels of genes/proteins in antiviral pathways. Both live and UV inactivated virus elicited robust induction of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and RANTES within 12 h of infection. Cells exposed to soluble capsid protein showed no induction suggesting the capsid structure and not the protein being detected as the pathogen pattern by cells. A delayed up-regulation of type I interferon genes only by the live virus at 48 h post HEV infection indicated the need of virus replication. However, absence of secreted interferons till 96 h suggested possible involvement of post-transcriptional regulation of type I IFN expression. HEV infected cells showed activation of both NF-κB and IRF3 transcription factors when seen at protein levels; however, reporter gene assays showed predominant expression via NF-κB promoter as compared to IRF3 promoter. Knockdown experiments done using siRNAs showed involvement of MyD88 and TRIF adaptors in generating antiviral response thus indicating role of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR3 in sensing viral molecules. MAVS knockdown surprisingly enhanced only proinflammatory cytokines and not type I IFNs. This suggested that HEV not only down-regulates RIG-I helicase like receptor mediated IFN induction but also employs MAVS in curtailing host inflammatory response. Our findings uncover an early cellular response in HEV infection and associated molecular mechanisms suggesting the potential role of inflammatory response triggered by HEV infection in host immune

  3. Human Discs Large is a new negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugi, Fabien; Muriaux, Delphine; Ramirez, Bertha Cecilia; Chabani, Sabah; Decroly, Etienne; Darlix, Jean-Luc; Blot, Vincent; Pique, Claudine

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication is positively or negatively regulated through multiple interactions with host cell proteins. We report here that human Discs Large (Dlg1), a scaffold protein recruited beneath the plasma membrane and involved in the assembly of multiprotein complexes, restricts HIV-1 infectivity. The endogenous Dlg1 and HIV-1 Gag polyprotein spontaneously interact in HIV-1-chronically infected T cells. Depleting endogenous Dlg1 in either adherent cells or T cells does not affect Gag maturation, production, or release, but it enhances the infectivity of progeny viruses five- to sixfold. Conversely, overexpression of Dlg1 reduces virus infectivity by approximately 80%. Higher virus infectivity upon Dlg1 depletion correlates with increased Env content in cells and virions, whereas the amount of virus-associated Gag or genomic RNA remains identical. Dlg1 knockdown is also associated with the redistribution and colocalization of Gag and Env toward CD63 and CD82 positive vesicle-like structures, including structures that seem to still be connected to the plasma membrane. This study identifies both a new negative regulator that targets the very late steps of the HIV-1 life cycle, and an assembly pathway that optimizes HIV-1 infectivity.

  4. Patterns of cis regulatory variation in diverse human populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of gene expression variation has long been studied with the aim to understand the landscape of regulatory variants, but also more recently to assist in the interpretation and elucidation of disease signals. To date, many studies have looked in specific tissues and population-based samples, but there has been limited assessment of the degree of inter-population variability in regulatory variation. We analyzed genome-wide gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines from a total of 726 individuals from 8 global populations from the HapMap3 project and correlated gene expression levels with HapMap3 SNPs located in cis to the genes. We describe the influence of ancestry on gene expression levels within and between these diverse human populations and uncover a non-negligible impact on global patterns of gene expression. We further dissect the specific functional pathways differentiated between populations. We also identify 5,691 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs after controlling for both non-genetic factors and population admixture and observe that half of the cis-eQTLs are replicated in one or more of the populations. We highlight patterns of eQTL-sharing between populations, which are partially determined by population genetic relatedness, and discover significant sharing of eQTL effects between Asians, European-admixed, and African subpopulations. Specifically, we observe that both the effect size and the direction of effect for eQTLs are highly conserved across populations. We observe an increasing proximity of eQTLs toward the transcription start site as sharing of eQTLs among populations increases, highlighting that variants close to TSS have stronger effects and therefore are more likely to be detected across a wider panel of populations. Together these results offer a unique picture and resource of the degree of differentiation among human populations in functional regulatory variation and provide an estimate for

  5. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2012-04-18

    We analyze the passengers\\' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously. 2012 Peng et al.

  6. Collective human mobility pattern from taxi trips in urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Peng

    Full Text Available We analyze the passengers' traffic pattern for 1.58 million taxi trips of Shanghai, China. By employing the non-negative matrix factorization and optimization methods, we find that, people travel on workdays mainly for three purposes: commuting between home and workplace, traveling from workplace to workplace, and others such as leisure activities. Therefore, traffic flow in one area or between any pair of locations can be approximated by a linear combination of three basis flows, corresponding to the three purposes respectively. We name the coefficients in the linear combination as traffic powers, each of which indicates the strength of each basis flow. The traffic powers on different days are typically different even for the same location, due to the uncertainty of the human motion. Therefore, we provide a probability distribution function for the relative deviation of the traffic power. This distribution function is in terms of a series of functions for normalized binomial distributions. It can be well explained by statistical theories and is verified by empirical data. These findings are applicable in predicting the road traffic, tracing the traffic pattern and diagnosing the traffic related abnormal events. These results can also be used to infer land uses of urban area quite parsimoniously.

  7. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >104 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Human CD4+ T Helper Cell Responses after Tick-Borne Encephalitis Vaccination and Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith H Aberle

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is a human-pathogenic flavivirus that is endemic in large parts of Europe and Asia and causes severe neuroinvasive illness. A formalin-inactivated vaccine induces strong neutralizing antibody responses and confers protection from TBE disease. CD4+ T cell responses are essential for neutralizing antibody production, but data on the functionalities of TBEV-specific CD4+ T cells in response to vaccination or infection are lacking. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the cytokine patterns of CD4+ T cell responses in 20 humans after TBE vaccination in comparison to those in 18 patients with TBEV infection. Specifically, Th1-specific cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, CD40 ligand and the Th1 lineage-specifying transcription factor Tbet were determined upon stimulation with peptides covering the TBEV structural proteins contained in the vaccine (C-capsid, prM/M-membrane and E-envelope. We show that TBEV-specific CD4+ T cell responses are polyfunctional, but the cytokine patterns after vaccination differed from those after infection. TBE vaccine responses were characterized by lower IFN-γ responses and high proportions of TNF-α+IL-2+ cells. In vaccine-induced responses-consistent with the reduced IFN-γ expression patterns-less than 50% of TBEV peptides were detected by IFN-γ+ cells as compared to 96% detected by IL-2+ cells, indicating that the single use of IFN-γ as a read-out strongly underestimates the magnitude and breadth of such responses. The results provide important insights into the functionalities of CD4+ T cells that coordinate vaccine responses and have direct implications for future studies that address epitope specificity and breadth of these responses.

  9. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, María Jesús

    2014-11-01

    There are clear sex-related biological differences between men and women. Diseases that affect the two sexes differently are studied separately. However, some diseases affect both men and women, but their incidence or outcome are clearly different. In human immunodeficiency virus infection, the potential differences in the effects of antiretroviral therapy are poorly characterized and few studies have been designed to elucidate these differences. Moreover, women are usually poorly represented in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Porokeratoma: A Possible Association with Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Caseiro Silverio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratoma is a rare, relatively newly described and still unclear entity. Here, we describe the case of a 52-year-old male patient who presented with four well-defined, verrucous and hyperkeratotic lesions. Microscopically, one of the lesions showed acanthopapillomatosis overlying compact orthokeratosis. Prominent broad and confluent cornoid lamellae were present, with no granular layer and some dyskeratotic keratinocytes. PCR sequencing and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 in the lesion. The association of porokeratoma and HPV infection has not previously been reported.

  11. Non-Human Primates Harbor Diverse Mammalian and Avian Astroviruses Including Those Associated with Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik A Karlsson

    Full Text Available Astroviruses (AstVs are positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses transmitted to a wide range of hosts via the fecal-oral route. The number of AstV-infected animal hosts has rapidly expanded in recent years with many more likely to be discovered because of the advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing. Yet no study to date has identified human AstV genotypes in animals, although diverse AstV genotypes similar to animal-origin viruses have been found in children with diarrhea and in one instance of encephalitis. Here we provide important new evidence that non-human primates (NHP can harbor a wide variety of mammalian and avian AstV genotypes, including those only associated with human infection. Serological analyses confirmed that >25% of the NHP tested had antibodies to human AstVs. Further, we identified a recombinant AstV with parental relationships to known human AstVs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests AstVs in NHP are on average evolutionarily much closer to AstVs from other animals than are AstVs from bats, a frequently proposed reservoir. Our studies not only demonstrate that human astroviruses can be detected in NHP but also suggest that NHP are unique in their ability to support diverse AstV genotypes, further challenging the paradigm that astrovirus infection is species-specific.

  12. Sexual Behaviors and Other Risk Factors for Oral Human Papillomavirus Infections in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Robert L.; Thompson, Erika L.; Kelso, Natalie E.; Friary, John; Hosford, Jennifer; Barkley, Phillip; Dodd, Virginia J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Ajinkya, Shaun; Obesso, Peter Daniel; Rashid, Mohammed H.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with a rising incidence of certain head and neck cancers, and oral sex has been associated with oral HPV. This study sought to identify more specific patterns of oral sexual activity, including self-inoculation, that are associated with oral HPV infections in young women. Methods A total of 1010 women attending a large university completed a computer-based questionnaire and provided oral specimens that were tested for any oral HPV using a Linear Array assay that detects any HPV as well as 37 HPV genotypes. Twenty-seven women provided additional samples up to 12 months after enrollment. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify oral sexual patterns and other risk factors associated with prevalent oral HPV. Results Nineteen women had prevalent oral HPV (1.9%), with 10 women (1%) having a type-specific infection. Oral HPV was significantly associated with lifetime coital sex partnership numbers (P = 0.03), lifetime and yearly oral sex partnership numbers (P lipstick, or toothbrushes (P < 0.05 for each), with an apparent dose-response for alcohol use and smoking behavior, stratified by number of sexual partners. Of 7 women with prevalent HPV who provided follow-up samples, none had evidence of a persistent type-specific infection. Conclusions These data provide additional evidence of transmission of oral HPV from oral sexual activity and also suggest possible transmission from self-inoculation or sharing of oral products. PMID:25013976

  13. Mechanism of Human Papillomavirus Binding to Human Spermatozoa and Fertilizing Ability of Infected Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Patassini, Cristina; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Francavilla, Felice; Barzon, Luisa; Ferlin, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are agents of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in females and males. Precise data about the presence, mechanism of infection and clinical significance of HPV in the male reproductive tract and especially in sperm are not available. Here we show that HPV can infect human sperm, it localizes at the equatorial region of sperm head through interaction between the HPV capsid protein L1 and syndecan-1. Sperm transfected with HPV E6/E7 genes and sperm exposed to HPV L1 capsid protein are capable to penetrate the oocyte and transfer the virus into oocytes, in which viral genes are then activated and transcribed. These data show that sperm might function as vectors for HPV transfer into the oocytes, and open new perspectives on the role of HPV infection in males and are particularly intriguing in relation to assisted reproduction techniques. PMID:21408100

  14. Mechanism of human papillomavirus binding to human spermatozoa and fertilizing ability of infected spermatozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    Full Text Available Human papillomaviruses (HPVs are agents of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in females and males. Precise data about the presence, mechanism of infection and clinical significance of HPV in the male reproductive tract and especially in sperm are not available. Here we show that HPV can infect human sperm, it localizes at the equatorial region of sperm head through interaction between the HPV capsid protein L1 and syndecan-1. Sperm transfected with HPV E6/E7 genes and sperm exposed to HPV L1 capsid protein are capable to penetrate the oocyte and transfer the virus into oocytes, in which viral genes are then activated and transcribed. These data show that sperm might function as vectors for HPV transfer into the oocytes, and open new perspectives on the role of HPV infection in males and are particularly intriguing in relation to assisted reproduction techniques.

  15. Mechanism of human papillomavirus binding to human spermatozoa and fertilizing ability of infected spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Patassini, Cristina; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Menegazzo, Massimo; Francavilla, Felice; Barzon, Luisa; Ferlin, Alberto

    2011-03-07

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are agents of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in females and males. Precise data about the presence, mechanism of infection and clinical significance of HPV in the male reproductive tract and especially in sperm are not available. Here we show that HPV can infect human sperm, it localizes at the equatorial region of sperm head through interaction between the HPV capsid protein L1 and syndecan-1. Sperm transfected with HPV E6/E7 genes and sperm exposed to HPV L1 capsid protein are capable to penetrate the oocyte and transfer the virus into oocytes, in which viral genes are then activated and transcribed. These data show that sperm might function as vectors for HPV transfer into the oocytes, and open new perspectives on the role of HPV infection in males and are particularly intriguing in relation to assisted reproduction techniques.

  16. Differential Mucin Expression by Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus Infection in Human Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Del Rocío Baños-Lara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucins (MUC constitute an important component of the inflammatory and innate immune response. However, the expression of these molecules by respiratory viral infections is still largely unknown. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV are two close-related paramyxoviruses that can cause severe low respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. Currently, there is not vaccine available for neither virus. In this work, we explored the differential expression of MUC by RSV and hMPV in human epithelial cells. Our data indicate that the MUC expression by RSV and hMPV differs significantly, as we observed a stronger induction of MUC8, MUC15, MUC20, MUC21, and MUC22 by RSV infection while the expression of MUC1, MUC2, and MUC5B was dominated by the infection with hMPV. These results may contribute to the different immune response induced by these two respiratory viruses.

  17. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections and type-specific implications in cervical neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Burchell, Ann N; Schiffman, Mark; Giuliano, Anna R; de Sanjose, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Kjaer, Susanne Kruger; Muñoz, Nubia

    2008-08-19

    Worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in women with normal cytology at any given point in time is approximately 10% indicating that HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. HPV-16 is consistently the most common type and HPV-18 the second with some minor regional differences. Furthermore, across the spectrum of cervical lesions, HPV-16 is consistently the most common HPV type contributing to 50-55% of invasive cervical cancer cases strongly suggesting that this viral type has a biological advantage for transmission, persistency and transformation. The same phenomenon is observed albeit at a lower level for HPV-18 and HPV-45. Sexual behavioral patterns across age groups and populations are central to the description of the HPV circulation and of the risk of infection. The concept of group sexual behavior (in addition to individual sexual behavior) is important in exploring HPV transmission and has implications for defining and monitoring HPV and cancer prevention strategies. In natural history studies, the pattern of HPV DNA prevalence by age groups is similar to the patterns of HPV incidence. Rates of exposure in young women are high and often include multiple types. There is a spontaneous and rapid decrease of the HPV DNA detection rates in the middle-age groups followed by a second rise in the post-menopausal years. This article reviews: 1) the evidence in relation to the burden of HPV infections in the world and the contributions of each HPV type to the spectrum of cervical cellular changes spanning from normal cytology to invasive cervical cancer; 2) the critical role of the patterns of sexual behavior in the populations; and 3) selected aspects of the technical and methodological complexity of natural history studies of HPV and cervical neoplasia.

  18. Strain differences in sleep patterns of healthy and influenza-infected inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, L A; Verhulst, S J

    2003-05-01

    Influenza-infected C57BL/6J and BALB/cByJ mice respectively develop increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) during the dark phase and reduced SWS during the light phase of the 24 hour circadian cycle. To determine whether similar or alternative variations in SWS develop after influenza infection in other inbred strains of mice, we characterized the sleep patterns of additional strains both before and after influenza infection. Three strains (A/J, BALB/cByJ, and C3H/HeJ) showed light-phase SWS suppression, two strains (C57BL/6J and DBA/2J) showed dark-phase SWS enhancement, and one strain (A/J) showed dark-phase SWS suppression. Three strains (AKR/J, C57BR/cdJ, and FVB/NJ) did not show significant changes in SWS time on day two post-inoculation. Core temperatures were correlated to change in SWS time after infection, but were not correlated to SWS during the baseline period. These data support and expand the existing literature that indicates genetic modulation of sleep both in healthy mice and in mice undergoing viral infection.

  19. Distribution pattern of cholinesterase enzymes in human tooth germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandasena, T L; Jayawardena, C K; Tilakaratne, W M; Nanayakkara, C D

    2010-08-01

    The two distinct molecular forms of cholinesterase (ChE) are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Our previous studies have reported that ChE is involved in tooth development. However, further experiments are needed to understand the precise action of ChE in tooth development. This study aimed to localise types of ChE in human tooth germs, and identify their distribution pattern. ChE were localised in frozen sections of jaws which were prepared from dead fetuses, neonates and stillborns who were free from visible abnormalities by Karnovsky and Root method. AChE was identified in the inner and outer enamel epithelia including the cervical loop region, stratum intermedium and preameloblasts of tooth germs at bell stage. Secretory ameloblasts were free from staining. The bud and cap stages of permanent tooth germs showed AChE activity on the lingual aspect and top surface of the epithelial ingrowths, respectively. BuChE activity was localised in the degenerating dental lamina. Our study reported the first evidence of localisation of ChE in human tooth development and identified the possible molecular form of ChE in tooth germs as AChE. Also, our results have provided strong evidence to speculate the action of AChE is on the cells of enamel organ during tooth development.

  20. Anal high-risk human papillomavirus infection and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia detected in women and heterosexual men infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    OpenAIRE

    Gandra S; Azar A; Wessolossky M

    2015-01-01

    Sumanth Gandra, Aline Azar, Mireya WessolosskyDivision of Infectious Disease and Immunology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USABackground: Although anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal cytological abnormalities are highly prevalent among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM), there are insufficient data on these abnormalities among HIV-infected heterosexual men (HSM) and women. In this study, we evalu...

  1. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

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    Huang Zhuoran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence is useful for finding unusual patterns in biological sequences. Results Using relative entropy, we visualized the periodic patterns in the context of substitutions in human orthologous genes. Neighbouring patterns differed both among substitution categories and within a category that occurred at three codon positions. Transition tended to occur in periodic sequences relative to transversion. Periodic signals were stronger in a set of flanking sequences of substitutions that occurred at the third-codon positions than in those that occurred at the first- or second-codon positions. To determine how the three-base periodicity was affected near the substitution sites, we fitted a sine model to the values of the relative entropy. A sine of period equal to 3 is a good approximation for the three-base periodicity at sites not in close vicinity to some substitutions. These periods were interrupted near the substitution site and then reappeared away from substitutions. A comparative analysis between the native and codon-shuffled datasets suggested that the codon usage frequency was not the sole origin of the three-base periodicity, implying that the native order of codons also played an important role in this periodicity. Synonymous codon shuffling revealed that synonymous codon usage bias was one of the factors responsible for the observed three-base periodicity. Conclusions Our results offer an efficient way to illustrate unusual periodic patterns in the context of substitutions and provide further insight into the origin of three

  2. Bordetella petrii Infection with Long-lasting Persistence in Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Coustumier, Alain; Njamkepo, Elisabeth; Cattoir, Vincent; Guillot, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    We report the repeated isolation of Bordetella petrii in the sputum of a 79-year-old female patient with diffuse bronchiectasis and persistence of the bacterium for >1 year. The patient was first hospitalized due to dyspnea, which developed into severe cough with purulent sputum that yielded B. petrii on culture. After this first episode, the patient was hospitalized an additional 4 times with bronchorrhea symptoms. The isolates collected were analyzed by using biochemical, genotypic, and proteomic tools. Expression of specific proteins was analyzed by using serum samples from the patient. The B. petrii isolates were compared with other B. petrii isolates collected from humans or the environment and with isolates of B. pertussis, B. parapertussis, B. bronchiseptica, and B. holmesii, obtained from human respiratory tract infections. Our observations indicate that B. petrii can persist in persons with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease as has been previously demonstrated for B. bronchiseptica. PMID:21470449

  3. Neglected pathogens: bacterial infections in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A review of the literature (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, D N; Danziger, L H

    1993-01-01

    Bacterial infections, including those that cause infection in the healthy host as well as those that are more opportunistic, occur very commonly among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial infections are a direct result of the severe humoral and cellular immune defects found in these patients. Epidemiologic factors such as intravenous drug use and stage of HIV infection may also play important roles. Pulmonary, bloodstream, gastrointestinal, central nervous system, skin and soft tissue, and catheter-related infections are common, as are endocarditis, prostatitis, and others. Frequently reported pathogens are common organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and enteric gram-negative pathogens, as well as less typical ones such as Listeria monocytogenes and Nocardia sp. The frequency of infection is specific to organ system and pathogen, often being many times higher than in immunocompetent hosts. Prompt recognition and aggressive therapy are required to reduce morbidity and mortality due to these infections.

  4. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia R Ikeda

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV.Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures.Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001 and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001. Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking.Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  5. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R; Barcellos, Nemora T; Alencastro, Paulo R; Wolff, Fernando H; Moreira, Leila B; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B M; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, Pdrinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6-13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9-3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population.

  6. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia.

  7. INFECTION WITH HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS IN CERVICAL NEOPLASIA

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    Eduard Crauciuc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish if the infection with human papilloma virus (HPV presents a potential irreversible evolution towards malignancy. Materials and methods. The study was made on a number of 1885 patients that were suspected to have cervical neoplasia, which were monitored between 2001-2010 in „Elena-Doamna” Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Ia�i, the Military Hospital Gala�i, the County Hospital Gala�i and the Emergency Hospital Buzau. Results and discussions. The study proved that the risk of contacting a genital infection with HPV and cervical cancer is influenced by the sexual activity, the risk of getting infected with HPV during a person’ s lifetime is at least 50% for those sexually active. Conclusions. The patients benefited from colposcopy and biopsy only if the repeated cytology suggested more severe changes. The conservative conduct is represented by a repeated cytology when the patients are admitted into the lot (the initial cytology is performed before this moment

  8. Clinical and genetic features of human metapneumovirus infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Yun, Ki Wook; Lim, Jae Woo; Lee, Mi Kyung; Lim, In Seok; Choi, Eung Sang

    2016-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is one of the main pathogens responsible for respiratory tract infection in children. From 2011 to 2013, nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from Korean children and tested for hMPV on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The genotype of hMPV in each sample was identified on PCR-restriction length polymorphism analysis of the fusion gene. We divided patients into three groups according to degree of fever. Patients with fever peaking at >39.5°C or lasting >7 days were classified as the high fever (HF) group; those with fevers peaking at features of hMPV infection were compared between the HF and LF groups. We classified 80 subjects into the HF group and 84 subjects into the LF group. Mean absolute neutrophil count (5625 ± 4418 vs 4072 ± 3076/μL, P = 0.010) and C-reactive protein (2.39 ± 3.39 vs 0.96 ± 1.77 mg/dL, P = 0.001) were higher in the HF group. Wheezing (5.0% vs 32.1%, P < 0.001) and dyspnea (2.5% vs 15.5%, P = 0.010) were more frequently seen in the LF group. Genotype distribution was similar in the two groups. Two distinct clinical presentations of hMPV infection were identified in this study. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. The Global Economic and Health Burden of Human Hookworm Infection.

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    Sarah M Bartsch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control.We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection resulted in a total 2,126,280 DALYs using 2004 disability weight estimates and 4,087,803 DALYs using 2010 disability weight estimates (excluding cognitive impairment outcomes. Including cognitive impairment did not significantly increase DALYs worldwide. Total productivity losses varied with the probability of anemia and calculation method used, ranging from $7.5 billion to $138.9 billion annually using gross national income per capita as a proxy for annual wages and ranging from $2.5 billion to $43.9 billion using minimum wage as a proxy for annual wages.Even though hookworm is classified as a neglected tropical disease, its economic and health burden exceeded published estimates for a number of diseases that have received comparatively more attention than hookworm such as rotavirus. Additionally, certain large countries that are transitioning to higher income countries such as Brazil and China, still face considerable hookworm burden.

  10. Syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and targeting prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkess, J R; Kudlac, J; Istre, G R

    1990-11-01

    To examine the interaction between syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Oklahoma, we conducted an unlinked HIV seroprevalence survey using serum specimens submitted to the Oklahoma State Department of Health for serologic test for syphilis. Of specimens with positive results from fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (FTA-ABS), 6.3% were HIV-1 seropositive compared to 0.8% of those that had negative results from FTA-ABS. Among specimens positive for syphilis, HIV-1 seropositivity was found almost exclusively among those from persons 20 to 39 years of age and more often among those from men than those from women (9.9% vs 1.3%). Of syphilis-positive specimens from 20- to 39-year-old men, 17.6% were HIV-1 seropositive. In Oklahoma, an area with a relatively low overall prevalence of HIV-1 infection, targeting prevention efforts to young adults who test positive for syphilis should be an efficient way to reach some persons at high risk for HIV-1 infection.

  11. Ex Vivo Perfusion Treatment of Infection in Human Donor Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, D; Cypel, M; Bonato, R; Machuca, T N; Iskender, I; Hashimoto, K; Linacre, V; Chen, M; Coutinho, R; Azad, S; Martinu, T; Waddell, T K; Hwang, D M; Husain, S; Liu, M; Keshavjee, S

    2016-04-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a platform to treat infected donor lungs with antibiotic therapy before lung transplantation. Human donor lungs that were rejected for transplantation because of clinical concern regarding infection were randomly assigned to two groups. In the antibiotic group (n = 8), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h with high-dose antibiotics (ciprofloxacin 400 mg or azithromycin 500 mg, vancomycin 15 mg/kg, and meropenem 2 g). In the control group (n = 7), lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h without antibiotics. A quantitative decrease in bacterial counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was found in all antibiotic-treated cases but in only two control cases. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were significantly lower in the antibiotic group compared with the control group. EVLP with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy significantly improved pulmonary oxygenation and compliance and reduced pulmonary vascular resistance. Perfusate endotoxin levels at 12 h were strongly correlated with levels of perfusates tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β at 12 h. In conclusion, EVLP treatment of infected donor lungs with broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly reduced BAL bacterial counts and endotoxin levels and improved donor lung function. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  12. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  13. A dual drug regimen synergistically blocks human parainfluenza virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Benjamin; Dirr, Larissa; El-Deeb, Ibrahim M.; Altmeyer, Ralf; Guillon, Patrice; von Itzstein, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Human parainfluenza type-3 virus (hPIV-3) is one of the principal aetiological agents of acute respiratory illness in infants worldwide and also shows high disease severity in the elderly and immunocompromised, but neither therapies nor vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection, respectively. Using a multidisciplinary approach we report herein that the approved drug suramin acts as a non-competitive in vitro inhibitor of the hPIV-3 haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN). Furthermore, the drug inhibits viral replication in mammalian epithelial cells with an IC50 of 30 μM, when applied post-adsorption. Significantly, we show in cell-based drug-combination studies using virus infection blockade assays, that suramin acts synergistically with the anti-influenza virus drug zanamivir. Our data suggests that lower concentrations of both drugs can be used to yield high levels of inhibition. Finally, using NMR spectroscopy and in silico docking simulations we confirmed that suramin binds HN simultaneously with zanamivir. This binding event occurs most likely in the vicinity of the protein primary binding site, resulting in an enhancement of the inhibitory potential of the N-acetylneuraminic acid-based inhibitor. This study offers a potentially exciting avenue for the treatment of parainfluenza infection by a combinatorial repurposing approach of well-established approved drugs.

  14. Incidence of cervical human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Pinto, C; García-Carrasco, M; Vallejo-Ruiz, V; Méndez-Martínez, S; Taboada-Cole, A; Etchegaray-Morales, I; Muñóz-Guarneros, M; Reyes-Leyva, J; López-Colombo, A

    2017-08-01

    Objectives Our objective was to study the incidence, persistence and clearance of human papillomavirus infection in systemic lupus erythematosus women and assess risk factors for persistence of human papillomavirus infection. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational cohort study of 127 systemic lupus erythematosus women. Patients were evaluated at baseline and at three years. Traditional and systemic lupus erythematosus women-related disease risk factors were collected. Gynaecological evaluations and cervical cytology screening were made. Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping were made by polymerase chain reaction and linear array. Results The cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection increased from 22.8% at baseline to 33.8% at three years; p = human papillomavirus infection was 10.1 per 1000 patient-months. At three years, 47 (88.6%) prevalent infections were cleared. Independent risk factors associated with incident human papillomavirus infection included more lifetime sexual partners (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-3.0) and cumulative cyclophosphamide dose (odds ratio = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-12.8). Conclusions In systemic lupus erythematosus women, the cumulative prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, including high risk-human papillomavirus and multiple human papillomavirus infections, may increase over time. Most persistent infections were low risk-human papillomavirus. The number of lifetime sexual partners and the cumulative cyclophosphamide dose were independently associated with incident human papillomavirus infection.

  15. Plague and other human infections caused by Yersinia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzker, M; Sauer, H; Sobe, D

    2001-01-01

    With an estimated 100 million victims, pandemically and epidemically occurring plague has been looked upon as a classical scourge of mankind during the last two millenia. Without treatment at least 50% of the affected individuals die from infection with Yersinia pestis, a bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The disease takes a fulminant course. After an incubation period of 2-6 days, bubonic plague primarily attacks one group of lymph nodes. The onset of pulmonic plague, transmitted by droplet infection, takes place within several hours and causes bronchopneumonia. Early recognition facilitates a promising antibiotic therapy with tetracycline, streptomycin or chloramphenicol. Human beings acquire the bacteria through bites of fleas from domestic rats in densely populated cities of countries with low hygienic standards, or sporadically in the open country from infected wild rodents. Laboratory procedure includes microscopy supplemented by immunofluorescence and cultivation of the bacterium from clinical material. Direct serology and PCR result in a fast detection of specific antigens or nucleotide sequences. Determination of serum antibodies is principally used for epidemiological investigation. Today, physicians in the civilized western world lack experience for the recognition of plague, and analytical techniques for diagnosis are only available in some specialized laboratories. Yersiniosis becomes primarily manifest as gastroenteritis caused by Yersinia enterocolitica or as pseudoappendicitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and requires antibiotics only in severe septic cases. Different extraintestinal symptoms may be observed in dependence on the patient's HLA type and gender. The ubiquitous germ is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route via infected domestic or farm animals and contaminated food. The relevant virulence factors are encoded on a 70 kB plasmid common to all Yersinia species and strains that are human pathogens. The

  16. Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis infection among humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lake, Camille M.; Chastain, Holly M.; Fisk, David; Handali, Sukwan; Kahn, Philip L.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm) infection is common in raccoons and can cause devastating pathology in other animals, including humans. Limited information is available on the frequency of asymptomatic human infection. We tested 150 adults from California, USA, for B. procyonis antibodies; 11 were seropositive, suggesting that subclinical infection does occur.

  17. Seroprevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis Infection among Humans, Santa Barbara County, California, USA, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lake, Camille M; Chastain, Holly M; Fisk, David; Handali, Sukwan; Kahn, Philip L; Montgomery, Susan P; Wilkins, Patricia P; Kuris, Armand M; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2017-08-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis (raccoon roundworm) infection is common in raccoons and can cause devastating pathology in other animals, including humans. Limited information is available on the frequency of asymptomatic human infection. We tested 150 adults from California, USA, for B. procyonis antibodies; 11 were seropositive, suggesting that subclinical infection does occur.

  18. The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Gaunt, Eleanor; Rossen, John W. A.; Templeton, Kate E.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; van der Hoek, Lia

    Background: It is unknown to what extent the human coronaviruses (HCoVs) OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63 infect healthy children. Frequencies of infections are only known for hospitalized children. Objectives: Comparing infection frequencies in children who have mild infections with frequencies in

  19. The dominance of human coronavirus OC43 and NL63 infections in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Ronald; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Gaunt, Eleanor; Rossen, John W. A.; Templeton, Kate E.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; van der Hoek, Lia

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is unknown to what extent the human coronaviruses (HCoVs) OC43, HKU1, 229E and NL63 infect healthy children. Frequencies of infections are only known for hospitalized children. Objectives: Comparing infection frequencies in children who have mild infections with frequencies in

  20. [Pattern recognition and activation effect of mast cells in vitro infected by Brucella suis S2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiran; Yan, Weijiao; Wang, Bei; Rong, Ruixue; Ding, Jiabo; Zhang, Leifang; Hao, Manliang; Mao, Kairong; Wang, Jiaxin

    2013-11-01

    To study the pattern recognition and activation effect of mast cells infected by Brucella (B.) suis S2. Mast cells derived from bone marrow in vitro were infected by B.suis S2. The change in the cell morphology was observed with Wrights-Giemsa's staining, and cell degranulation was tested with toluidine blue staining. The extracellular levels of histamine, IFN-γ and IL-12 of mast cells at 1 and 12 h after infection were detected by indirect ELISA. The uptake pattern of mast cells to B.suis S2 was determined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The expressions of TLR4 and TLR8 mRNA were detected by RT-PCR at 12 and 24 h after infection by B.suis S2, and the TLR4 and TLR8 protein expressions were detected by flow cytometry at 24 h. The form of mast cells infected by B.suis S2 was obviously changed. Significant degranulation was observed at 1 h, and at 1, 12 h post-infection by B.suis S2, the content of histamine secreted by mast cells was significantly higher than that of normal control group (PB.suis S2 bound to the mast cell surface and were not uptaken into the mast cells. Compared with the control group, the expression of TLR4 mRNA increased after 12 h infection by B.suis S2, and was reduced at 24 h. The expression of TLR4 protein rose at 24 h, but the expression of TLR8 mRNA and protein did not alter at 12 and 24 h after infection by B.suis S2. B.suis S2 can bind to the cell surface and activate mast cells, cause their degranulation, induce the release of histamine, but IFN-γ and IL-12 were not found during the observing time. The mechanism may be that B.suis S2 can be recognized by mast cells through TLR4 but can not be phagocytosed by mast cells.

  1. Biology of Zika Virus Infection in Human Skin Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Dejarnac, Ophélie; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Ekchariyawat, Peeraya; Neyret, Aymeric; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Perera-Lecoin, Manuel; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Choumet, Valérie; Briant, Laurence; Desprès, Philippe; Amara, Ali; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée

    2015-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferon-stimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus. Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors. Indeed, skin immune cells, including dermal

  2. Changes in Bacterial Resistance Patterns of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Rationale for Empirical Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, İbrahim; Çiçek, Neslihan; Güven, Serçin; Altuntaş, Ülger; Bıyıklı, Neşe; Yıldız, Nurdan; Alpay, Harika

    2017-09-29

    The causative agent spectrum and resistance patterns of urinary tract infections in children are affected by many factors. To demonstrate antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections and changing ratio in antibiotic resistance by years. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We analysed antibiotic resistance patterns of isolated Gram (-) bacteria during the years 2011-2014 (study period 2) in children with urinary tract infections. We compared these findings with data collected in the same centre in 2001-2003 (study period 1). Four hundred and sixty-five uncomplicated community-acquired Gram (-) urinary tract infections were analysed from 2001-2003 and 400 from 2011-2014. Sixty-one percent of patients were female (1.5 girls : 1 boy). The mean age of children included in the study was 3 years and 9 months. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacteria isolated during both periods of the study (60% in study period 1 and 73% in study period 2). Bacteria other than E. coli demonstrated a higher level of resistance to all of the antimicrobials except trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole than E. coli bacteria during the years 2011-2014. In our study, we found increasing resistance trends of urinary pathogens for cefixime (from 1% to 15%, pUrinary pathogens showed a decreasing trend for nitrofurantoin (from 17% to 7%, p=0.0001). No significant trends were detected for ampicillin (from 69% to 71%), amoxicillin-clavulanate (from 44% to 43%), cefazolin (from 39% to 32%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (from 32% to 31%), cefuroxime (from 21% to 18%) and ceftriaxone (from 10% to 14%) between the two periods (p>0.05). In childhood urinary tract infections, antibiotic resistance should be evaluated periodically and empiric antimicrobial therapy should be decided according to antibiotic sensitivity results.

  3. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  4. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  5. Comprehensive Control of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Related Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F. Xavier; Broker, Thomas R.; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L.; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L.; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E.; Schiller, John T.; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Fisher, William A.; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A.; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J.; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  6. Comprehensive control of human papillomavirus infections and related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, F Xavier; Broker, Thomas R; Forman, David; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Gillison, Maura L; Doorbar, John; Stern, Peter L; Stanley, Margaret; Arbyn, Marc; Poljak, Mario; Cuzick, Jack; Castle, Philip E; Schiller, John T; Markowitz, Lauri E; Fisher, William A; Canfell, Karen; Denny, Lynette A; Franco, Eduardo L; Steben, Marc; Kane, Mark A; Schiffman, Mark; Meijer, Chris J L M; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Castellsagué, Xavier; Kim, Jane J; Brotons, Maria; Alemany, Laia; Albero, Ginesa; Diaz, Mireia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2013-12-31

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of

  7. Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf sporozoite (SPZ-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%; 12 of 19 (63% on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8. The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7 before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200. Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis

  8. Mucocutaneous Leishmania tropica infection in a dog from a human cutaneous leishmaniasis focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Zivotofsky, Doni; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Botero, Ana-Maria

    2014-03-24

    Leishmania tropica is a causative agent of cutaneous leishmanaisis in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of southeastern Europe. Although transmission of L. tropica has been reported as anthroponotic, in Israel it was found to have a zoonotic pattern. A one year old male Pekingese dog from Maale Adumim, a focus of L. tropica human cutaneous leishmaniasis near Jerusalem, was presented by its owner with a large proliferative red mucocutaneous lesion on the lip between the mouth and nose. Physical examination and a biochemistry panel were normal and a complete blood count showed mild leukocytosis with lymphocytosis and eosinophilia. A biopsy of the lesion was suggestive of the presence of Leishmania organisms. Serology for Leishmania sp. by ELISA was positive and an aspirate from the lesion showed a large number of Leishmania amastigotes. ITS1-HRM-PCR of the lesion was positive and sequencing indicated that infection was caused by L. tropica, which was also cultured from the lesion. Blood PCR was negative. The dog responded well to allopurinol treatment and its lesion shrunk considerably within one month of therapy and healed after two months. Only a few cases of dog infection with L. tropica have been described to date. They were reported from Morocco and Iran and involved infection of visceral organs. This is the first report of focal mucocutaneous L. tropica infection in a dog and its response to anti-leishmanial treatment. Domestic and wild canines should be evaluated for being possible animal reservoirs for human L. tropica infection in endemic areas or merely accidental hosts.

  9. Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colles, Frances M; Cain, Russell J; Nickson, Thomas; Smith, Adrian L; Roberts, Stephen J; Maiden, Martin C J; Lunn, Daniel; Dawkins, Marian Stamp

    2016-01-13

    Campylobacter is the commonest bacterial cause of gastrointestinal infection in humans, and chicken meat is the major source of infection throughout the world. Strict and expensive on-farm biosecurity measures have been largely unsuccessful in controlling infection and are hampered by the time needed to analyse faecal samples, with the result that Campylobacter status is often known only after a flock has been processed. Our data demonstrate an alternative approach that monitors the behaviour of live chickens with cameras and analyses the 'optical flow' patterns made by flock movements. Campylobacter-free chicken flocks have higher mean and lower kurtosis of optical flow than those testing positive for Campylobacter by microbiological methods. We show that by monitoring behaviour in this way, flocks likely to become positive can be identified within the first 7-10 days of life, much earlier than conventional on-farm microbiological methods. This early warning has the potential to lead to a more targeted approach to Campylobacter control and also provides new insights into possible sources of infection that could transform the control of this globally important food-borne pathogen. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Syversen, Unni; Åsvold, Bjørn O; Bofin, Anna M; Aune, Guro; Nordbø, Svein A; Vaidya, Karishma M; Karmacharya, Biraj M; Afset, Jan E; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    In this study we aimed to determine the overall and type-specific prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and risk factors for such infection among women in rural Nepal, and to investigate the distribution of HPV infection by cervical cytology. The study was conducted among women aged ≥15 years in five rural villages within Kavre District in Nepal. Sociodemographic data and information on risk factors for cervical cancer were obtained through an interview, and a cervical specimen was collected for HPV DNA detection and typing using the Anyplex™ ll HPV28 Detection system, and for Papanicolaou test. Among the 1289 women in whom a valid HPV result was obtained the median age was 40 years (range 17-86 years). Overall, the HPV prevalence was 14.4%, 7.9% for high-risk and 6.5% for low-risk HPV types, and was similar between age groups. The five most common HR types were HPV-18 (2.3%), HPV-51 (1.2%), HPV-59 (1.1%), HPV-31 (0.9%), and HPV-16 (0.8%). The prevalence of high-risk types in women with and without abnormal cytology was 8.3 and 7.7%, respectively. HPV infection was associated with current smoking, formal education, and being married to a husband with at least one previous marriage. This is the first population-based study to report the prevalence of a broad range of HPV types among women from rural Nepal. These data are crucial for development of preventive strategies to reduce cervical cancer burden in the country. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Human papillomavirus infection in women from tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Márquez, Noé; Jaime Jiménez-Aranda, Lucio; Sánchez-Alonso, Patricia; Santos-López, Gerardo; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica

    2010-07-01

    Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL). Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5%) was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19%) in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.

  13. Human papillomavirus infection in women from Tlaxcala, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Velázquez-Márquez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is an important health problem in women living in developing countries. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV is the most important risk factor associated with cervical cancer. Little information exists about HPV genotype distribution in rural and suburban regions of Mexico. Thus, we determined the prevalence of HPV genotypes in women from Tlaxcala, one of the poorest states in central Mexico, and we evaluated age infection prevalence and risk factors associated with cervical neoplasm. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 236 women seeking gynecological care at the Mexican Institute for Social Security in Tlaxcala, Mexico. Cervical scrapings were diagnosed as normal, low-grade, and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL, HGSIL. Parallel samples were used to detect HPV genotypes by PCR assays using type-specific primers for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31. An epidemiological questionnaire was applied. Prevalence of HPV infection was 31.3%. From the infected samples, prevalence of HPV 16 was 45.9%; HPV 18, 31.1%; HPV 31, 16.2%; HPV 6, 10.8%; HPV 11, 6.7%. With regard to age, the highest HPV prevalence (43.5% was found in the 18- to 24-year-old group and the lowest (19% in the 45- to 54-year-old group. None of the risk factors showed association with cervical neoplasia grade. HPV 16 was the most common in cervical lesions. HPV was present in 22% of normal samples and, of these, 82.6% represented high-risk HPVs. Tlaxcala showed HPV prevalence comparable to that of the largest cities in Mexico, with higher prevalence for HPV 31.

  14. Antioxidant nutrients: associations with persistent human papillomavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, A R; Papenfuss, M; Nour, M; Canfield, L M; Schneider, A; Hatch, K

    1997-11-01

    Research from the past several years has definitively shown intermediate and high risk-type human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to play a significant role in cervical carcinogenesis. Persistent compared with intermittent infection appears to confer an elevated risk, and cofactors may be necessary to allow the virus to progress to cervical cancer. We explored the association between circulating concentrations of the antioxidant nutrients (alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and ascorbate) and persistent HPV infection among 123 low-income Hispanic women who were all nonsmokers and were not currently using vitamin and mineral supplements. In addition, the association between these nutrients and grade of cervical pathology, independent of HPV status, was assessed. Intermediate and high risk-type HPV infection was assessed by the Digene Hybrid Capture System at two time points, 3 months apart. At the second interview, cytology, colposcopy, and a fasting blood draw were conducted. Mean concentrations of serum and plasma antioxidant nutrients were calculated within categories of HPV status (two times HPV negative, one time HPV positive, and two times HPV positive) and colposcopy. Adjusted mean concentrations of serum beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were on average 24% (P < 0.05) lower among women two times HPV positive compared with either two times HPV negative or one time HPV positive. Independent of HPV status, alpha-tocopherol was significantly inversely associated with grade of cervical dysplasia (normal, 21.57 microM; cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III, 17.27 microM). The results obtained in this study need to be confirmed in larger cohort studies with a longer follow-up period.

  15. Geospatial patterns of human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erik J; Hughes, John; Oakes, J Michael; Pankow, James S; Kulasingam, Shalini L

    2015-08-27

    To identify factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and to determine the geographic distribution of vaccine uptake while accounting for spatial autocorrelation. This study is cross-sectional in design using data collected via the Internet from the Survey of Minnesotans About Screening and HPV study. The sample consists of 760 individuals aged 18-30 years nested within 99 ZIP codes surrounding the downtown area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. In all, 46.2% of participants had received ≥ 1 dose of HPV vaccine (67.7% of women and 13.0% of men). Prevalence of HPV vaccination was found to exhibit strong spatial dependence ([Formula: see text] = 0.9951) across ZIP codes. Accounting for spatial dependence, age (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.83) and male gender (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.07) were negatively associated with vaccination, while liberal political preferences (OR=4.31, 95% CI 2.32 to 8.01), and college education (OR=2.58, 95% CI 1.14 to 5.83) were found to be positively associated with HPV vaccination. Strong spatial dependence and heterogeneity of HPV vaccination prevalence were found across ZIP codes, indicating that spatial statistical models are needed to accurately identify and estimate factors associated with vaccine uptake across geographic units. This study also underscores the need for more detailed data collected at local levels (eg, ZIP code), as patterns of HPV vaccine receipt were found to differ significantly from aggregated state and national patterns. Future work is needed to further pinpoint areas with the greatest disparities in HPV vaccination and how to then access these populations to improve vaccine uptake. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Shaping human mortality patterns through intrinsic and extrinsic vitality processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND While historical declines in human mortality are clearly shaped by lifestyle and environmental improvements, modeling patterns is difficult because intrinsic and extrinsic processes shape mortality through complex stochastic interactions. OBJECTIVE To develop a stochastic model describing intrinsic and extrinsic mortality rates and quantify historical mortality trends in terms of parameters describing the rates. METHODS Based on vitality, a stochastic age-declining measure of survival capacity, extrinsic mortality occurs when an extrinsic challenge exceeds the remaining vitality and intrinsic mortality occurs with the complete loss of vitality by aging. Total mortality depends on the stochastic loss rate of vitality and the magnitude and frequency of extrinsic challenges. Parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. RESULTS Fitting the model to two centuries of adult Swedish period data, intrinsic mortality dominated in old age and gradually declined over years. Extrinsic mortality increased with age and exhibited step-like decline over years driven by high-magnitude, low-frequency challenges in the 19th century and low-magnitude high-frequency challenges in the 20th century. CONCLUSIONS The Swedish mortality was driven by asynchronous intrinsic and extrinsic processes, coinciding with well-known epidemiological patterns involving lifestyle and health care. Because the processes are largely independent, predicting future mortality requires projecting trends of both processes. COMMENTS The model merges point-of-view and classical hazard rate mortality models and yields insights not available from either model individually. To obtain a closed form the intrinsic-extrinsic interactions were simplified, resulting in biased, but correctable, parameters estimates.

  17. Chest radiological patterns predict the duration of mechanical ventilation in children with RSV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prodhan, Parthak [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Pediatric Critical Care and Cardiology, College of Medicine, Little Rock, AR (United States); Westra, Sjirk J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lin, James [Mattel Children' s Hospital at UCLA, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Karni-Sharoor, Sarit [Shaarei Tzedek Medical Center, Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Jerusalem (Israel); Regan, Susan [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Noviski, Natan [Massachusetts General Hospital, Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    RSV-infected children demonstrate various radiographic features, some of which are associated with worse clinical outcomes. To investigate whether specific chest radiological patterns in RSV-infected children with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in the peri-intubation period are associated with prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation. We included RSV-infected children <1 year of age admitted with ARF from 1996 through 2002 to the pediatric intensive care unit at Massachusetts General Hospital. Their chest radiographs were evaluated at three time-points: preintubation (day -1) and days 1 and 2 after intubation. Univariate and multiple logistic regressions models were utilized to investigate our objective. The study included 46 children. Using day 1 chest radiograph findings to predict duration of mechanical ventilation of >8 days, a backward stepwise regression arrived at a model that included age and right and left lung atelectasis. Using day 2 chest radiograph results, the best model included age and left lung atelectasis. A model combining the two days' findings yielded an area under the ROC curve of 0.92 with a satisfactory fit (P = 0.95). Chest radiological patterns around the time of intubation can identify children with RSV-associated ARF who would require prolonged mechanical ventilation. (orig.)

  18. Pattern Recognition via the Toll-Like Receptor System in the Human Female Genital Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaei Nasu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal surface of the female genital tract is a complex biosystem, which provides a barrier against the outside world and participates in both innate and acquired immune defense systems. This mucosal compartment has adapted to a dynamic, non-sterile environment challenged by a variety of antigenic/inflammatory stimuli associated with sexual intercourse and endogenous vaginal microbiota. Rapid innate immune defenses against microbial infection usually involve the recognition of invading pathogens by specific pattern-recognition receptors recently attributed to the family of Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs synthesized by microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses as well as endogenous ligands associated with cell damage. Members of the TLR family, which includes 10 human TLRs identified to date, recognize distinct PAMPs produced by various bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. The available literature regarding the innate immune system of the female genital tract during human reproductive processes was reviewed in order to identify studies specifically related to the expression and function of TLRs under normal as well as pathological conditions. Increased understanding of these molecules may provide insight into site-specific immunoregulatory mechanisms in the female reproductive tract.

  19. Infection of human keratinocytes by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae isolated from milk of the bovine udder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Rodrigues, Catarina; Alves-Barroco, Cynthia; Raposo, Luís R; Costa, Mafalda N; Fortunato, Elvira; Baptista, Pedro Viana; Fernandes, Alexandra R; Santos-Sanches, Ilda

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae (SDSD) are considered exclusive animal pathogens; however, a putative zoonotic upper limb cellulitis, a prosthetic joint infection and an infective endocarditis were described in humans. To unravel if bovine SDSD isolates are able to infect human cells, the adherence and internalization to human primary keratinocytes of two bovine SDSD strains isolated from milk collected from udder were analyzed. Bacterial adhesion assays and confocal microscopy indicate a high adherence and internalization of SDSD isolates to human cells, suggesting for the first time the ability of bovine isolates to infect human cells. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Distinctive pattern of white matter injury in neonates with rotavirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jung Sook; Kim, Young-Soo; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Ji Sook; Park, Eun Sil; Lim, Jae-Young; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Youn, Hee-Shang; Choi, Dae Seob; Chung, Ju-Young; Han, Tae-Hee; Park, Chan-Hoo

    2015-01-06

    To report a consecutive series of neonates with seizures or apnea and displaying white matter injuries with distinctive magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) pattern, and to discuss the high positive rate of rotavirus infection seen in these patients. In a retrospective review of neonates who were admitted to a tertiary referral center with seizures or apnea, we found a distinctive pattern of white matter injury (symmetrical restricted diffusion in the periventricular white matter and white matter tracts including the corpus callosum) in 18 patients. We describe the clinical and laboratory features of these 18 neonates. Additional PCR analyses for rotaviruses and parechoviruses were performed on banked frozen samples of CSF of 4 patients and blood of 15 patients. All 18 patients were born at term and healthy until symptoms occurred 4-7 days after birth. No history of asphyxia was observed. Only 1 patient presented with fever, and no patient showed a rash. All patients except 1 (94.4%) were rotavirus-positive in stool samples. However, neither rotaviruses nor enteroviruses/parechoviruses were detected in the CSF and blood. Tissue loss was observed in 5 of 8 subjects on repeat MRI scans. Neonates with this distinctive DWI pattern had a high positive rate of rotavirus infection, without evidence of other pathogens, and were characterized as term newborns with neurologic symptoms arising approximately the fifth day after birth. Although the specificity of this pattern is unclear, rotavirus testing should be considered for neonates presenting with this DWI pattern. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  1. Dual RNAseq shows the human mucosal immunity protein, MUC13, is a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection

    KAUST Repository

    LaMonte, Gregory

    2017-10-03

    The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium malaria infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using a genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we identify the human mucosal immunity gene, Mucin13 (MUC13), as strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm that MUC13 expression is upregulated in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, distinguishing both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes across all Human-infecting Plasmodium species. This data presents a novel interface of host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium, in that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed to assist the progression of infection.

  2. Patterns of cervical coinfection with multiple human papilloma virus types in a screening population in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Bryan; Rebolj, Matejka; Rygaard, Carsten; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bonde, Jesper

    2013-03-15

    Patterns of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection suggest that HPV genotypes are not independent of each other. This may be explained by risk factors common to all HPV infections, but type-specific biological factors may also play a role. This raises the question of whether widespread use of the quadrivalent vaccine (covering HPV6, 11, 16, 18) may indirectly affect the prevalence of any non-vaccine types. Routine screening samples from 5014 Danish women were tested for 35 HPV genotypes (including 13 high-risk) using the Genomica CLART(®) HPV2 kit, which is a low-density microarray based on PCR amplification. Simulation studies were performed both under independence between genotypes and under a common dependence structure as would arise from common risk factors, and simulation results were compared to observed coinfection patterns. Overall HPV prevalence was 37.4%, with multiple infections in 17.9%. For 15 HPV types of primary interest (13 high-risk plus HPV6, 11), almost all pairs occurred more often than expected under independence; 33/105 (31.4%) were statistically significant (p<0.05 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). The pairwise odds ratios showed significant heterogeneity (Woolf's test p<0.0001). For simulations based on common dependence, three pairs had observed to expected (O/E) ratios significantly different than 1 (31/68, O/E=4.20; 51/68, O/E=2.52; 33/58, O/E=3.27; all p<0.05 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). HPV68 occurred in multiple infections nearly four times as often as expected under common dependence (p<0.005 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). These results indicate some interaction between HPV types, and suggest that common risk factors do not entirely explain the observed HPV coinfection pattern, although no evidence is found that the prevalence of any types not targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine may be indirectly increased or decreased after widespread use of the vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  4. Antibiotic Resistant Pattern of Helicobacter Pylori Infection Based on Molecular Tests in Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannarath, Sengdao; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Rasachak, Bouachanh; Mairiang, Pisaln; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Mahachai, Varocha

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of standard treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining because of antibiotic resistance. Clarithromycin resistance is also increasing in many Asian countries. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of H. pylori infection and clinical association in Laos. A total of 329 Lao dyspeptic patients who underwent gastroscopy at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos during December 2010-March 2012 were enrolled in this study. During gastroscopy, 4 biopsies were collected (2 each from the antrum and body) for CLO-test and histopathology. Only the positive CLO-test gastric tissues was stored at -80° in a freezer until DNA was extracted and a GenoType®HelicoDR test was conducted for detecting mutations in the rrl gene encoding 23S rRNA (clarithromycin resistance) and mutations in gyrA gene (fluoroquinolone resistance) . Of the total, 119 Lao patients (36.2%) were infected with H. pylori including 59 males (49.6%) and 60 females (50.4%) with a mean age of 46 years. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance of H. pylori infection was demonstrated in 15 (12.6%) and 16 strains (13.4%) respectively. In clarithromycin resistance, the number of patients who had education above primary school and BMI≥ 25 kg/m2 were significantly higher than those who had education below primary school and BMILao was significantly higher than those of non- lowland (highland and midland) Lao ethnic groups (16.7% vs 0%, P-value= 0.039). H. pylori infections remain common in Laos. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection are growing problems. Education above primary school and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 might be predictors for clarithromycin resistance and lowland Lao ethnicity might be predictors for fluoroquinolone resistance with H. pylori infection in Laos.

  5. Enhanced Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening for Mycoplasma genitalium in Human Immunodeficiency Virus -Infected US Air Force Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakre, Shilpa; Casimier, Rosemary O; Danboise, Brooke A; Peel, Sheila A; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T; Okulicz, Jason F

    2017-10-16

    Three-site genital and extragenital screening for Mycoplasma genitalium in 102 asymptomatic Air Force members with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection revealed 19 (18.6%) cases of M. genitalium, commonly (58%) in rectal samples. Because M. genitalium is associated with both HIV acquisition and transmission, these findings suggest that it should be included in routine screening of HIV-infected individuals for sexually transmitted infections. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Alveolar macrophages infected with Ames or Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis elicit differential molecular expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia D Langel

    Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages (AMs phagocytose Bacillus anthracis following inhalation and induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to mediate the activation of innate immunity. Ames, the virulent strain of B. anthracis, contains two plasmids that encode the antiphagocytic poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule and the lethal toxin. The attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis, which lacks the plasmid encoding capsule, is widely adapted as a vaccine strain. Although differences in the outcome of infection with the two strains may have originated from the presence or absence of an anti-phagocytic capsule, the disease pathogenesis following infection will be manifested via the host responses, which is not well understood. To gain understanding of the host responses at cellular level, a microarray analysis was performed using primary rhesus macaque AMs infected with either Ames or Sterne spores. Notably, 528 human orthologs were identified to be differentially expressed in AMs infected with either strain of the B. anthracis. Meta-analyses revealed genes differentially expressed in response to B. anthracis infection were also induced upon infections with multiple pathogens such as Francisella Novicida or Staphylococcus aureus. This suggests the existence of a common molecular signature in response to pathogen infections. Importantly, the microarray and protein expression data for certain cytokines, chemokines and host factors provide further insights on how cellular processes such as innate immune sensing pathways, anti-apoptosis versus apoptosis may be differentially modulated in response to the virulent or vaccine strain of B. anthracis. The reported differences may account for the marked difference in pathogenicity between these two strains.

  7. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Regalbuto, Elisa; Pierucci, Federica; Arvia, Rosaria; Mazzoli, Sandra; Gori, Alessia; de Giorgi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-17

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin) obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9) was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples). The frequency of infection increased with the patient's age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39)]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022) but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036) and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028). These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC.Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in healthy skin (viral replication and expression

  8. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakrzewska Krystyna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and basal cell carcinoma (BCC is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9 was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. Results All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples. The frequency of infection increased with the patient’s age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022 but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091. There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036 and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC. Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in

  9. Mycoviruses : future therapeutic agents of invasive fungal infections in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Sande, W. W. J.; Lo-Ten-Foe, J. R.; van Belkum, A.; Netea, M. G.; Kullberg, B. J.; Vonk, A. G.

    Invasive fungal infections are relatively common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and are still associated with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, these infections are often complicated by resistance or refractoriness to current antimicrobial agents. Therefore, an urgent need

  10. Mycoviruses : future therapeutic agents of invasive fungal infections in humans?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, W.W. van de; Lo-Ten-Foe, J.R.; Belkum, A. van; Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are relatively common opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients and are still associated with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, these infections are often complicated by resistance or refractoriness to current antimicrobial agents. Therefore, an urgent need

  11. Prevalence of Anal Dysplasia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takaaki; Sigel, Keith; Gaisa, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus-infected men who have sex with men are at high risk for anal cancer, little is known about the prevalence of anal dysplasia in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected transgender women. Our study found that prevalence rates of abnormal anal cytology and histology in HIV-infected transgender women were similar to those in HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

  12. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-11-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  13. Patterns, entropy, and predictability of human mobility and life

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Mohtaschemi, Mikael; Hartonen, Tuomo; Alava, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Cellular phones are now offering an ubiquitous means for scientists to observe life: how people act, move and respond to external influences. They can be utilized as measurement devices of individual persons and for groups of people of the social context and the related interactions. The picture of human life that emerges shows complexity, which is manifested in such data in properties of the spatiotemporal tracks of individuals. We extract from smartphone-based data for a set of persons important locations such as "home", "work" and so forth over fixed length time-slots covering the days in the data-set. This set of typical places is heavy-tailed, a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1.7. To analyze the regularities and stochastic features present, the days are classified for each person into regular, personal patterns. To this are superimposed fluctuations for each day. This randomness is measured by "life" entropy, computed both before and after finding the clustering so as to subtract the c...

  14. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monsivais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  15. Differences in intermittent and continuous fecal shedding patterns between natural and experimental Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infections in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this paper is to study shedding patterns of cows infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). While multiple single farm studies of MAP dynamics were reported, there is not large-scale meta-analysis of both natural and experimental infections. Large difference...

  16. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Velásquez, Jorge N.; Bibiana A Ledesma; Nigro, Monica G; Natalia Vittar; Nestor Rueda; Luis De Carolis; Olga Figueiras; Silvana Carnevale; Marcelo Corti

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 c...

  17. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Nepal: Patterns of Human Fatalities and Injuries Caused by Large Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Krishna Prasad; Paudel, Prakash Kumar; Neupane, Prem Raj; Köhl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Injury and death from wildlife attacks often result in people feeling violent resentment and hostility against the wildlife involved and, therefore, may undermine public support for conservation. Although Nepal, with rich biodiversity, is doing well in its conservation efforts, human-wildlife conflicts have been a major challenge in recent years. The lack of detailed information on the spatial and temporal patterns of human-wildlife conflicts at the national level impedes the development of effective conflict mitigation plans. We examined patterns of human injury and death caused by large mammals using data from attack events and their spatiotemporal dimensions collected from a national survey of data available in Nepal over five years (2010-2014). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. The results show that Asiatic elephants and common leopards are most commonly involved in attacks on people in terms of attack frequency and fatalities. Although one-horned rhinoceros and bears had a higher frequency of attacks than Bengal tigers, tigers caused more fatalities than each of these two species. Attacks by elephants peaked in winter and most frequently occurred outside protected areas in human settlements. Leopard attacks occurred almost entirely outside protected areas, and a significantly greater number of attacks occurred in human settlements. Attacks by one-horned rhinoceros and tigers were higher in the winter, mainly in forests inside protected areas; similarly, attacks by bears occurred mostly within protected areas. We found that human settlements are increasingly becoming conflict hotspots, with burgeoning incidents involving elephants and leopards. We conclude that species-specific conservation strategies are urgently needed, particularly for leopards and elephants. The implications of our findings for minimizing conflicts and conserving these imperiled species are discussed.

  18. Dengue human infection models to advance dengue vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Christian P; Whitehead, Stephen S; Durbin, Anna P

    2015-12-10

    Dengue viruses (DENV) currently infect approximately 400 million people each year causing millions to seek care and overwhelming the health care infrastructure in endemic areas. Vaccines to prevent dengue and therapeutics to treat dengue are not currently available. The efficacy of the most advanced candidate vaccine against symptomatic dengue in general and DENV-2 in particular was much lower than expected, despite the ability of the vaccine to induce neutralizing antibody against all four DENV serotypes. Because seroconversion to the DENV serotypes following vaccination was thought to be indicative of induced protection, these results have made it more difficult to assess which candidate vaccines should or should not be evaluated in large studies in endemic areas. A dengue human infection model (DHIM) could be extremely valuable to down-select candidate vaccines or therapeutics prior to engaging in efficacy trials in endemic areas. Two DHIM have been developed to assess the efficacy of live attenuated tetravalent (LATV) dengue vaccines. The first model, developed by the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases at the U. S. National Institutes of Health, utilizes a modified DENV-2 strain DEN2Δ30. This virus was derived from the DENV-2 Tonga/74 that caused only very mild clinical infection during the outbreak from which it was recovered. DEN2Δ30 induced viremia in 100%, rash in 80%, and neutropenia in 27% of the 30 subjects to whom it was given. The Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR) is developing a DHIM the goal of which is to identify DENV that cause symptomatic dengue fever. WRAIR has evaluated seven viruses and has identified two that meet dengue fever criteria. Both of these models may be very useful in the evaluation and down-selection of candidate dengue vaccines and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-human primates in outdoor enclosures: Risk for infection with rodent-borne hantaviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, M; Essbauer, S.S.; Rang, A.; Schröder, J.; Splettstoesser, W.D.; Kretzschmar, C.; Krüger, D.H.; Groschup, M. H.; Mätz-Rensing, K; Ulrich, R. G.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Different species of non-human primates have been exploited as animal disease models for human hantavirus infections. To study the potential risk of natural hantavirus infection of non-human primates, we investigated serum samples from non-human primates of three non-human primate species living in outdoor enclosures of the German Primate Center (GPC), Gottingen, located in a hantavirus endemic region of central Germany. For that purpose we used serological assays based on...

  20. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu André L P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human Papillomavirus (HPV is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: Inhibition of infection of human monocytes by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Freitas, Rafael; Lonien, Sandra Cristina Heim; Malvezi, Aparecida Donizette; Silveira, Guilherme Ferreira; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Bordignon, Juliano; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2017-11-01

    Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential for progression of the parasite life cycle and development of Chagas disease. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) and other eicosanoids potently modulate host response and contribute to Chagas disease progression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of aspirin (ASA), a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on the T. cruzi invasion and its influence on nitric oxide and cytokine production in human monocytes. The pretreatment of monocytes with ASA or SQ 22536 (adenylate-cyclase inhibitor) induced a marked inhibition of T. cruzi infection. On the other hand, the treatment of monocytes with SQ 22536 after ASA restored the invasiveness of T. cruzi. This reestablishment was associated with a decrease in nitric oxide and PGE 2 production, and also an increase of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 by cells pre-treated with ASA. Altogether, these results reinforce the idea that the cyclooxygenase pathway plays a fundamental role in the process of parasite invasion in an in vitro model of T. cruzi infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking human beta retrovirus infection with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A L; Zhang, G

    2010-01-01

    Several environmental agents have been linked with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) that include bacteria, xenobiotics and viruses. A human beta retrovirus (HBRV) related to mouse mammary tumor virus has been cloned and characterized from patients with PBC. This agent can be detected in the majority of patients' perihepatic lymph nodes by immunochemistry and RT-PCR. The HBRV has recently been isolated in culture and integration sites have been identified in the genome of patients to provide convincing evidence of beta retrovirus infection in patients. Three lines of evidence support a role for the virus in PBC. First, the beta retrovirus is linked with aberrant expression of mitochondrial protein(s) on the biliary epithelium cell (BEC) surface, a disease specific phenotype. Second, the related agent, mouse mammary tumor virus has been linked with autoimmune biliary disease in the NOD.c3c4 mouse model for PBC. In this mouse model, the virus is localized to diseased biliary epithelium that also display aberrant expression of the mitochondrial autoantigens. In translational studies, both patients with PBC and NOD.c3c4 mice demonstrate significant improvement in biliary disease with combination antiviral therapy. An overview of the biological relevance of the beta retrovirus infection in PBC will be discussed in this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Dermatomyositis in a human immunodeficiency virus infected person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marfatia Yogesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to study an autoimmune condition like dermatomyositis (DM in the setting of immunosupression due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. An HIV seropositive female aged 30 years, presented with a nonitchy rash over the face, breathlessness, diarrhoea and difficulty in raising her hands above her head. A heliotrope rash around the eyes, Gottron′s papules and proximal muscle weakness were found to be present. C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase levels were raised, but creatinine phosphokinase and anti-nuclear antibody profile were normal. Her HIV serostatus was confirmed by Western blotting, keeping in mind the potential for false positive HIV serology in an autoimmune disorder. Her CD4 count was 379 cells/mm 3 . An X-ray of the chest showed bilateral pleural effusion with raised pleural fluid adenosine deaminase levels. Clinical findings and laboratory investigations favored the diagnosis of DM and HIV infection with tuberculous effusion in an HIV seropositive patient. She was treated with antibiotics, four-drug anti-tubercular treatment, systemic steroids and later, antiretroviral treatment. Chances of a false positive antibody test for HIV should be considered in a patient having an autoimmune disease such as DM.

  4. Human Trichostrongylus colubriformis Infection in a Rural Village in Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Phimmayoi, Inthava; Phanhanan, Vilayphone; Boupha, Boungnong; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-01-01

    In Lahanam Village, Savannakhet Province, Laos, 125 of 253 villagers (49.4%) were found by fecal examination to harbor hookworm eggs. The eggs were heterogeneous in morphology and size, suggesting infections of mixed nematode species. To confirm the hookworm egg species, on a voluntary basis, 46 hookworm egg–positive participants were treated with albendazole, and post-treatment adult worms were collected from purged fecal samples. The common human hookworm was found in only 3 participants; 1 case of Necator americanus, and 2 cases of Ancylostoma duodenale. In contrast, adult Trichostrongylus worms were expelled from most participants (43 of 46, 93.5%). The Trichostrongylus species were confirmed by morphology and internal transcribed spacer 2 sequences; all worms were of the same species (T. colubriformis). In addition, some Trichostrongylus worms were obtained from a goat in the same village and identified as T. colubriformis. The results suggested that T. colubriformis was the main zoonotic species causing hookworm infections in the village. PMID:21212201

  5. Brucella melitensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis depict overlapping gene expression patterns induced in infected THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudian, M; Derakhshandeh, A; Ghahramani Seno, M M

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens infecting mammalian cells have developed various strategies to suppress and evade their hosts' defensive mechanisms. In this line, the intracellular bacteria that are able to survive and propagate within their host cells must have developed strategies to avert their host's killing attitude. Studying the interface of host-pathogen confrontation can provide valuable information for defining therapeutic approaches. Brucellosis, caused by the Brucella strains, is a zoonotic bacterial disease that affects thousands of humans and animals around the world inflicting discomfort and huge economic losses. Similar to many other intracellular dwelling bacteria, infections caused by Brucella are difficult to treat, and hence any attempt at identifying new and common therapeutic targets would prove beneficial for the purpose of curing infections caused by the intracellular bacteria. In THP-1 macrophage infected with Brucella melitensis we studied the expression levels of four host's genes, i.e. EMP2, ST8SIA4, HCP5 and FRMD5 known to be involved in pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our data showed that at this molecular level, except for FRMD5 that was downregulated, the other three genes were upregulated by B. melitensis. Brucella melitensis and M. tuberculosis go through similar intracellular processes and interestingly two of the investigated genes, i.e. EMP2 and ST4SIA8 were upregulated in THP-1 cell infected with B. melitensis similar to that reported for THP-1 cells infected with M. tuberculosis. At the host-pathogen interaction interface, this study depicts overlapping changes for different bacteria with common survival strategies; a fact that implies designing therapeutic approaches based on common targets may be possible.

  6. Spatial heterogeneity and co-occurrence patterns of human mucosal-associated intestinal microbiota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Zhigang; Geng, Jiawei; Tang, Xiaodan; Fan, Hong; Xu, Jinchao; Wen, Xiujun; Ma, Zhanshan Sam; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Human gut microbiota shows high inter-subject variations, but the actual spatial distribution and co-occurrence patterns of gut mucosa microbiota that occur within a healthy human instestinal tract...

  7. HANPP Collection: Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Patterns in Human Appropriation of Net Primary Productivity (HANPP) portion of the HANPP Collection represents a digital map of human appropriation of net...

  8. Human Alveolar Macrophages May Not Be Susceptible to Direct Infection by a Human Influenza Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettensohn, David B; Frampton, Mark W; Nichols, Joan E; Roberts, Norbert J

    2016-12-01

    The current studies were undertaken to determine the susceptibility of human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in comparison with autologous peripheral blood-derived monocytes-macrophages (PBMs). AMs and PBMs were exposed to IAV in vitro and examined for their ability to bind and internalize IAV, and synthesize viral proteins and RNA. PBMs but not AMs demonstrated binding and internalization of the virus, synthesizing viral proteins and RNA. Exposure of AMs in the presence of a sialidase inhibitor or anti-IAV antibody resulted in viral protein synthesis by the cells. Exposure of AMs to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled IAV in the presence of anti-fluorescein isothiocyanate antibody also resulted in viral protein synthesis. Thus, human AMs are apparently not susceptible to direct infection by a human IAV but are likely to be infected indirectly in the setting of exposure in the presence of antibody that binds the challenging strain of IAV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Baboon (Papio spp. as a Model of Human Ebola Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L.White

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Baboons are susceptible to natural Ebola virus (EBOV infection and share 96% genetic homology with humans. Despite these characteristics, baboons have rarely been utilized as experimental models of human EBOV infection to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactics and therapeutics in the United States. This review will summarize what is known about the pathogenesis of EBOV infection in baboons compared to EBOV infection in humans and other Old World nonhuman primates. In addition, we will discuss how closely the baboon model recapitulates human EBOV infection. We will also review some of the housing requirements and behavioral attributes of baboons compared to other Old World nonhuman primates. Due to the lack of data available on the pathogenesis of Marburg virus (MARV infection in baboons, discussion of the pathogenesis of MARV infection in baboons will be limited.

  10. Kinetic analysis of ex vivo human blood infection by Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Moreno

    Full Text Available The leishmanioses, vector-borne diseases caused by the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania, are transmitted to susceptible mammals by infected phlebotomine sand flies that inoculate promastigotes into hemorrhagic pools created in host skin. We assumed that promastigotes are delivered to a blood pool, and analyzed early promastigote interactions (0-5 min with host components, which lead to parasite endocytosis by blood leukocytes, and to host infection. Promastigotes were incubated with NHS or with heparinized blood in near-physiological conditions, and we used cell radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry to measure the on-rate constants (k(+1 of promastigote interactions with natural opsonins and erythrocytes. We obtained quantitative data for parasitized cells to determine the time-course of promastigote binding and internalization by blood leukocytes. In these reactions, promastigotes bind natural opsonins, immune adhere to erythrocytes and activate complement cytolysis, which kills approximately 95% of promastigotes by 2 min post-infection. C3-promastigote binding is a key step in opsonization; nascent C3-promastigotes are the substrate for two simultaneous reactions, C3-promastigote immune adherence (IA to erythrocytes and complement-mediated promastigote killing. The k(+1 for IA was 75-fold greater than that for promastigote killing, showing that IA facilitates promastigote endocytosis and circumvents lysis. At 5 min post-infection, when reaction velocity is still linear and promastigote concentration is not limiting, 17.4% of granulocytes and 10.7% of monocytes had bound promastigotes, of which approximately 50% and approximately 25%, respectively, carried surface-bound (live or internalized (live and dead leishmanias. Of other leukocyte types, 8.5% of B cells bound but did not internalize promastigotes, and T cells, NK cells and CD209(+ dendritic cells did not bind parasites. These data show that, once in contact with blood, promastigote

  11. Activity of antiretroviral drugs in human infections by opportunistic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Galhardo Demarchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is used in patients infected with HIV. This treatment has been shown to significantly decrease opportunist infections such as those caused by viruses, fungi and particularly, protozoa. The use of HAART in HIV-positive persons is associated with immune reconstitution as well as decreased prevalence of oral candidiasis and candidal carriage. Antiretroviral therapy benefits patients who are co-infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8, Epstein-Barr virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV, parvovirus B19 and cytomegalovirus (CMV. HAART has also led to a significant reduction in the incidence, and the modification of characteristics, of bacteremia by etiological agents such as Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococcus, non-typhoid species of Salmonella, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. HAART can modify the natural history of cryptosporidiosis and microsporidiosis, and restore mucosal immunity, leading to the eradication of Cryptosporidium parvum. A similar restoration of immune response occurs in infections by Toxoplasma gondii. The decline in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis/HIV co-infection can be observed after the introduction of protease inhibitor therapy. Current findings are highly relevant for clinical medicine and may serve to reduce the number of prescribed drugs thereby improving the quality of life of patients with opportunistic diseases.A terapia HAART (terapia antirretroviral altamente ativa é usada em pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV e demonstrou diminuição significativa de infecções oportunistas, tais como as causadas por vírus, fungos, protozoários e bactérias. O uso da HAART está associado com a reconstituição imunológica e diminuição na prevalência de candidíase oral. A terapia antirretroviral beneficia pacientes co-infectados pelo HIV, v

  12. Genital human papillomavirus infection among women in Bangladesh: findings from a population-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrun Nahar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. METHODS: We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler. HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR using a consensus primer set. RESULTS: Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13-4.11 compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05-3.55 compared to women whose husbands lived with them. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening.

  13. HumanViCe: Host ceRNA network in virus infected cells in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman eGhosal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Host-virus interaction via host cellular components has been an important field of research in recent times. RNA interference mediated by short interfering RNAs and microRNAs (miRNA, is a widespread anti-viral defence strategy. Importantly, viruses also encode their own miRNAs. In recent times miRNAs were identified as key players in host-virus interaction. Furthermore, viruses were shown to exploit the host miRNA networks to suite their own need. The complex cross-talk between host and viral miRNAs and their cellular and viral targets forms the environment for viral pathogenesis. Apart from protein-coding mRNAs, non-coding RNAs may also be targeted by host or viral miRNAs in virus infected cells, and viruses can exploit the host miRNA mediated gene regulatory network via the competing endogenous RNA effect. A recent report showed that viral U-rich non-coding RNAs called HSUR, expressed in primate virus herpesvirus saimiri (HVS infected T cells, were able to bind to three host miRNAs, causing significant alteration in cellular level for one of the miRNAs. We have predicted protein coding and non protein-coding targets for viral and human miRNAs in virus infected cells. We identified viral miRNA targets within host non-coding RNA loci from AGO interacting regions in three different virus infected cells. Gene ontology (GO and pathway enrichment analysis of the genes comprising the ceRNA networks in the virus infected cells revealed enrichment of key cellular signalling pathways related to cell fate decisions and gene transcription, like Notch and Wnt signalling pathways, as well as pathways related to viral entry, replication and virulence. We identified a vast number of non-coding transcripts playing as potential ceRNAs to the immune response associated genes; e.g. APOBEC family genes, in some virus infected cells. All these information are compiled in HumanViCe, a comprehensive database that provides the potential ceRNA networks in virus

  14. Global patterns and trends in human-wildlife conflict compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenelle, Jeremy; Nyhus, Philip J

    2017-04-25

    Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear, and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We reviewed research on wildlife-damage compensation to determine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments. We analyzed 288 publications referencing wildlife compensation and identified 138 unique compensation programs. These publications reported US$222 million (adjusted for inflation) spent on compensation in 50 countries since 1980. Europeans published the most articles, and compensation funding was highest in Europe, where depredation by wolves and bears was the most frequently compensated damage. Authors of the publications we reviewed made twice as many negative comments as positive comments about compensation. Three-quarters of the negative comments related to program administration. Conversely, three-quarters of the positive comments related to program outcomes. The 3 most common suggestions to improve compensation programs included requiring claimants to employ damage-prevention practices, such as improving livestock husbandry or fencing of crops to receive compensation (n = 25, 15%); modifying ex post compensation schemes to some form of outcome-based performance payment (n = 21, 12%); and altering programs to make compensation payments more quickly (n = 14, 8%). We suggest that further understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of compensation as a conflict-mitigation tool will require more systematic evaluation of the factors driving these opinions and that differentiating process and outcomes and understanding

  15. Echinacea extracts modulate the pattern of chemokine and cytokine secretion in rhinovirus-infected and uninfected epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Arnason, J T; Burt, A; Hudson, J B

    2006-02-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea are among the most widely used herbal medicines throughout Europe and North America for the prevention or treatment of