WorldWideScience

Sample records for human infant medulla

  1. Optical properties of the medulla and the cortex of human scalp hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharin, Aleksey; Varghese, Babu; Verhagen, Rieko; Uzunbajakava, Natallia

    2009-03-01

    An increasing number of applications, including non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and treatment as well as various cosmetic procedures, has resulted in a need to determine the optical properties of hair and its structures. We report on the measurement of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of blond, gray, and Asian black human scalp hair at a 633-nm wavelength. Our results show that for blond and gray hair the total attenuation coefficient of the medulla is more than 200 times higher compared to that of the cortex. This difference is only 1.5 times for Asian black hair. Furthermore, we present the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex of blond, gray, light brown, and Asian black hair measured at wavelengths of 409, 532, 633, 800, and 1064 nm. The total attenuation coefficient consistently decreases with an increase in wavelength, as well as with a decrease in hair pigmentation. Additionally, we demonstrate the dependence of the total attenuation coefficient of the cortex and the medulla of Asian black hair on the polarization of incident light. A similar dependence is observed for the cortex of blond and gray hair but not for the medulla of these hair types.

  2. Isolation of pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation is based on the ovarian cortex that contains the vast majority of the follicular reserve, while the remaining tissue, the medulla is discarded. The present study describes the development of a gentle method for isolating pre...

  3. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  4. Investigating human infant anthropomorphism in products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellen, K.; Saaksjarvi, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we set out to investigate the nature and effects of infant anthropomorphism in products, i.e. products that share features of human infants. Across four studies, evidence suggests that infant anthropomorphism comprise four dimensions: sweetness, simplicity, sympathy, and smallness. We

  5. A STUDY OF NEURONAL PROFILE OF INFERIOR OLIVARY NUCLEAR COMPLEX IN FOETAL AND ADULT HUMAN MEDULLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Narasinga Rao

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: ION receives proprioceptive impulses from spino-olivary tract and conveys the fibers to the cerebellum through olivo-cerebellar tract. There is paucity of data in human olivary complex, hence the present study is done. Materials And Methods: 15 adult brains and 25 fetuses of different gestations were perfused with 10% formalin and processed for histological examination. Results: Rounded cells have been seen infiltrating the entire field. at 16 weeks of gestation. Segregation of neurons into principal, medial, and dorsal accessory olivary nuclei at 20 wks gestation. Discussion: Neuron differentiation into oval, round, multipolar types has begun at 40 wks gestation. Neurons in the olivary subdivisions are grouped in separate clusters as per Ramon y Cajal,1909; Scheibel and Scheibel, 1955, Bowman and King, 1973. Multipolar neurons dominated in adult inferior olivary nucleus. Conclusion:The greater development of neurons is a consequence of finer regulation of various movements of hands and finger associated with movement of head and eyes

  6. Human milk for the premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Premature infants are a heterogeneous group with widely differing needs for nutrition and immune protection with risk of growth failure, developmental delays, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis increasing with decreasing gestational age and birth weight. Human milk from women delivering prematurely has more protein and higher levels of many bioactive molecules compared to milk from women delivering at term. Human milk must be fortified for small premature infants to achieve adequate growth. Mother’s own milk improves growth and neurodevelopment and decreases the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis and should therefore be the primary enteral diet of premature infants. Donor milk is a valuable resource for premature infants whose mothers are unable to provide an adequate supply of milk, but presents significant challenges including the need for pasteurization, nutritional and biochemical deficiencies and a limited supply. PMID:23178065

  7. Germinoma of medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Germinoma occurring in the medulla oblongata is extremely rare. We report a case of primary intracranial germinoma arising in the medulla oblongata of a 24-year-old postpartum female who presented with progressive weakness of upper and lower limbs, seventh nerve palsy, and decreased palatal movements. Her MR imaging showed a heterointense mass lesion in the posterior portion of upper medulla, the histology of which was reported as germinoma. Germ cell tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tumors occurring in the brain stem.

  8. Fortification of human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmacher, Paula G; Adamkin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred feeding for all infants, including those of very low birth weight (milk is not available or the amount produced is not sufficient to meet daily needs, donor human milk may (should) be used in its place. However, donor human milk is generally term in quality and likely has insufficient protein to promote appropriate growth. Whether donor or mother's own milk, fortification of human milk is required to meet nutrient requirements for growth and development for these preterm infants who are at high risk for growth faltering during the hospital stay. There are multiple strategies and products that may be employed to support desired growth rates. The advent of human milk analyzers may be helpful in a more customized approach to fortification.

  9. Donor human milk for preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge a...

  10. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  11. Infant Formula Fat Analogs and Human Milk Fat: New Focus on Infant Developmental Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Long; Pande, Garima; Akoh, Casimir C

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk is generally and universally recognized as the optimal choice for nutrition during the first year of life. In certain cases in which it is not feasible to breast-feed the infant or the breast milk is not sufficient, especially in the case of preterm infants, infant formula is the next best alternative to provide nutrition to nurture the infant. Therefore, it is highly important that the nutrient composition of the infant formula is as close to breast milk as possible for proper growth and development of the infant. However, human milk is a complex dynamic matrix, and therefore significant research has been done and is still ongoing to fully understand and mimic human breast milk, particularly its fat composition. Lipids play a critical role in infant nutrition. A number of advances have been made in infant formula lipid content and composition so that formula can better simulate or mimic the nutritional functions of human maternal milk.

  12. Survival and growth of isolated pre-antral follicles from human ovarian medulla tissue during long-term 3D culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, H L; Kristensen, S G; Jiang, H

    2016-01-01

    system for more than 30 days. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation followed by transplantation is a promising fertility preservation approach for cancer patients. However, transplantation of cryopreserved tissue to patients may carry the risk of re-implanting malignant cells. Grafting...... that is normally discarded, possess a developmental potential which may be used to devise safer fertility preservation methods for patients who are at high risk of malignant contamination of their ovarian tissue. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTERESTS: The Child Cancer Foundation in Denmark (2012-26) and the EU......STUDY QUESTION: Can human pre-antral follicles isolated enzymatically from surplus medulla tissue survive and grow in vitro during long-term 3D culture? SUMMARY ANSWER: Secondary human follicles can develop to small antral follicles and remain hormonally active in an alginate-encapsulation culture...

  13. Primary medulla oblongata teratomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da; Hao, Shu-Yu; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Li-Wei; Zhang, Jun-Ting

    2014-09-01

    Medulla oblongata teratomas are rare. The authors report 2 new cases of teratomas that occurred exclusively in the medulla oblongata. The first case was in a 9-year-old boy who presented with a 6-month history of neck pain and repeated paroxysmal vomiting. Based on preoperative radiographic findings, the initial diagnosis was of an intraaxial medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma. Intraoperatively, the cystic component of the tumor was gray, gelatinous, and soft in consistency. The solid component was light pink, rubbery, and nodular in appearance, with an identifiable boundary. The lesion was completely removed. Histopathological investigation revealed a mature teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient was supported with ventilator assistance and received a tracheotomy, but died of intracranial infection. The second case was in a 10-year-old boy with intermittent headache for 1 month. Radiographs revealed an exophytic cystic and solid lesion with dorsal involvement of the medulla oblongata. The lesion was predominantly solid, pinkish gray, tenacious, and moderately vascularized, with clearly delineated surgical dissection planes. The histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of immature teratoma. Total resection was achieved, followed by postoperative chemotherapy. He was alive without recurrence of the lesion or symptoms at 59 months after surgery. Resection of medulla oblongata teratoma is challenging, with inherent surgical risks that are contingent on the tumor growth pattern. Teratomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of brainstem lesions. Chemotherapy has been suggested for immature teratomas. Long-term follow-up and larger studies of teratomas in unusual locations are required to improve practitioners' understanding of this disease's treatment and outcomes.

  14. Pain assessment in human fetus and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio

    2012-09-01

    In humans, painful stimuli can arrive to the brain at 20-22 weeks of gestation. Therefore several researchers have devoted their efforts to study fetal analgesia during prenatal surgery, and during painful procedures in premature babies. Aim of this paper is to gather from scientific literature the available data on the signals that the human fetus and newborns produce, and that can be interpreted as signals of pain. Several signs can be interpreted as signals of pain. We will describe them in the text. In infants, these signs can be combined to create specific and sensible pain assessment tools, called pain scales, used to rate the level of pain.

  15. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  16. HUMAN RHINOVIRUS CAUSES SEVERE INFECTION IN PRETERM INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Piggelen, Renee O.; van Loon, Anton M.; Krediet, Tanette G.; Verboon-Maciolek, Malgorzata A.

    2010-01-01

    Data of 11 infants (median gestational age and birth weight 30 weeks and 1520 g, respectively) with severe human rhinovirus infection (HRV) are described. Nine of 11 (82%) were preterm infants and 7 of these 9 (78%) became infected during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. All infants p

  17. Development of the human infant intestinal microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost immediately after a human being is born, so too is a new microbial ecosystem, one that resides in that person's gastrointestinal tract. Although it is a universal and integral part of human biology, the temporal progression of this process, the sources of the microbes that make up the ecosystem, how and why it varies from one infant to another, and how the composition of this ecosystem influences human physiology, development, and disease are still poorly understood. As a step toward systematically investigating these questions, we designed a microarray to detect and quantitate the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences of most currently recognized species and taxonomic groups of bacteria. We used this microarray, along with sequencing of cloned libraries of PCR-amplified SSU rDNA, to profile the microbial communities in an average of 26 stool samples each from 14 healthy, full-term human infants, including a pair of dizygotic twins, beginning with the first stool after birth and continuing at defined intervals throughout the first year of life. To investigate possible origins of the infant microbiota, we also profiled vaginal and milk samples from most of the mothers, and stool samples from all of the mothers, most of the fathers, and two siblings. The composition and temporal patterns of the microbial communities varied widely from baby to baby. Despite considerable temporal variation, the distinct features of each baby's microbial community were recognizable for intervals of weeks to months. The strikingly parallel temporal patterns of the twins suggested that incidental environmental exposures play a major role in determining the distinctive characteristics of the microbial community in each baby. By the end of the first year of life, the idiosyncratic microbial ecosystems in each baby, although still distinct, had converged toward a profile characteristic of the adult gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Infant feeding, poverty and human development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Lisa H

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The relationship between poverty and human development touches on a central aim of the International Breastfeeding Journal's editorial policy which is to support and protect the health and wellbeing of all infants through the promotion of breastfeeding. It is proposed that exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by continued breastfeeding to 12 months, could prevent 1,301,000 deaths or 13% of all child deaths under 5 years in a hypothetical year. Although there is a conventional wisdom that poverty 'protects' breastfeeding in developing countries, poverty actually threatens breastfeeding, both directly and indirectly. In the light of increasingly aggressive marketing behaviour of the infant formula manufacturers and the need to protect the breastfeeding rights of working women, urgent action is required to ensure the principles and aim of the International Code of Breastmilk Substitutes, and subsequent relevant resolutions of the World Health Assembly, are implemented. If global disparities in infant health and development are to be significantly reduced, gender inequities associated with reduced access to education and inadequate nutrition for girls need to be addressed. Improving women's physical and mental health will lead to better developmental outcomes for their children.

  19. Color Vision and Hue Categorization in Young Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The main objective of the present investigations was to determine whether or not young human infants see the physical spectrum in a categorical fashion as human adults and animals who possess color vision regularly do. (Author)

  20. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  1. Grunt communication in human infants (Homo sapiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, L; Vihman, M M; Roug-Hellichius, L; Delery, D B; Gogate, L

    1996-03-01

    Laryngeally produced vocalizations termed grunts function communicatively in many species. The vocalizations and accompanying behavior of 5 human infants videorecorded monthly at the transition to speech were analyzed to determine the frequency, physiological basis, and functional status of grunt production, a phenomenon systematically studied for the first time here. Earliest grunts occurred accompanying movement or effort; next, they accompanied acts of focal attention; and finally they were used in communication. Communicative use was followed by the onset of referential ability in language. This sequence is interpreted in relation to the physiological basis of these vocalizations in respiratory function and to additional developmental variables observed in the children. The findings have implications for the transition to the communicative repertoire in other species in which laryngeal function contributes to communication.

  2. Cross-validation of serial optical coherence scanning and diffusion tensor imaging: a study on neural fiber maps in human medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhu, Junfeng; Reuter, Martin; Vinke, Louis N; Yendiki, Anastasia; Boas, David A; Fischl, Bruce; Akkin, Taner

    2014-10-15

    We established a strategy to perform cross-validation of serial optical coherence scanner imaging (SOCS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on a postmortem human medulla. Following DTI, the sample was serially scanned by SOCS, which integrates a vibratome slicer and a multi-contrast optical coherence tomography rig for large-scale three-dimensional imaging at microscopic resolution. The DTI dataset was registered to the SOCS space. An average correlation coefficient of 0.9 was found between the co-registered fiber maps constructed by fractional anisotropy and retardance contrasts. Pixelwise comparison of fiber orientations demonstrated good agreement between the DTI and SOCS measures. Details of the comparison were studied in regions exhibiting a variety of fiber organizations. DTI estimated the preferential orientation of small fiber tracts; however, it didn't capture their complex patterns as SOCS did. In terms of resolution and imaging depth, SOCS and DTI complement each other, and open new avenues for cross-modality investigations of the brain.

  3. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  4. Illness Human - MDC_InfantMortality2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the rate of infant mortality per 1000 births in Miami-Dade County, 2006. Rate does not include out of...

  5. Feeding premature infants banked human milk homogenized by ultrasonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayol, M R; Martinez, F E; Jorge, S M; Gonçalves, A L; Desai, I D

    1993-12-01

    Premature neonates fed ultrasonically homogenized human milk had better weight gain and triceps skin-fold thickness than did a control group given untreated human milk (p homogenization of human milk appears to minimize loss of fat and thus allows better growth of premature infants.

  6. Infant formula and infant nutrition: bioactive proteins of human milk and implications for composition of infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Human milk contains an abundance of biologically active components that are highly likely to contribute to the short- and long-term benefits of breastfeeding. Many of these components are proteins; this article describes some of these proteins, such as α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, osteopontin, and milk fat globule membrane proteins. The possibility of adding their bovine counterparts to infant formula is discussed as well as the implications for infant health and development. An important consideration when adding bioactive proteins to infant formula is that the total protein content of formula needs to be reduced, because formula-fed infants have significantly higher concentrations of serum amino acids, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen than do breastfed infants. When reducing the protein content of formula, the amino acid composition of the formula protein becomes important because serum concentrations of the essential amino acids should not be lower than those in breastfed infants. Both the supply of essential amino acids and the bioactivities of milk proteins are dependent on their digestibility: some proteins act only in intact form, others act in the form of larger or small peptides formed during digestion, and some are completely digested and serve as a source of amino acids. The purity of the proteins or protein fractions, potential contaminants of the proteins (such as lipopolysaccharide), as well as the degree of heat processing used during their isolation also need to be considered. It is likely that there will be more bioactive components added to infant formulas in the near future, but guidelines on how to assess their bioactivities in vitro, in animal models, and in clinical studies need to be established. The extent of testing needed is likely going to depend on the degree of complexity of the components and their bioequivalence with the human compounds whose effects they are intended to mimic.

  7. Xe enhanced CT in the human newborn infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuse, Yozen; Nemoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Mitsumasa; Uga, Naoki; Tada, Hiroshi; Fujii, Toshi (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Machida, Keiichi; Kikuchi, Hideo; Izumi, Shigemitsu

    1990-09-01

    With a cranial computed tomography (CT) using stable xenon gas as a diffusible tracer, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 6 newborn infants with a variety of neurological abnormalities. Gestational ages and birthweights were 35 to 43 weeks and 2436 to 3540 g, respectively. Four infants exhibited hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), one infant had subdural hemorrhage and the other one was the infant with hyponatremia. A baseline CT was done during denitrogenation by 100% oxygen breathing and then a mixture of 35% xenon and 65% oxygen was breathed for 6 minutes. Six scans were obtained during the inhalation period then the infant was returned to breathing 100% oxygen and additional 7 scans were taken. Four samples of arterial blood were collected every 2 minutes before and during inhalation of the xenon gas. A rCBF was calculated with the changes of Hounsfield units in brain tissue and arterial blood. Relatively high blood flows in the region of the basal nuclei as well as decreased flows in the occipital white matter were observed in the infants with HIE. In an infant with subdural hemorrhage, the blood flows were markedly reduced in the areas adjacent to the lesion, including the basal nuclei, and frontal white matter in the opposite hemisphere. Xenon-enhanced CT by inhaling low concentration of the xenon gas enables to measure rCBF in the human newborn infants without no obvious side effect. (author).

  8. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances S; Barth, Maria E; Johnson, Stephen L; Gotlib, Ian H; Johnson, Susan C

    2011-01-01

    Ordinary variations in human infants' attachment behaviors - their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers - are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian) were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1978). The A allele of OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < 0.005). These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  9. Representation of stable social dominance relations by human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2012-05-01

    What are the origins of humans' capacity to represent social relations? We approached this question by studying human infants' understanding of social dominance as a stable relation. We presented infants with interactions between animated agents in conflict situations. Studies 1 and 2 targeted expectations of stability of social dominance. They revealed that 15-mo-olds (and, to a lesser extent, 12-mo-olds) expect an asymmetric relationship between two agents to remain stable from one conflict to another. To do so, infants need to infer that one of the agents (the dominant) will consistently prevail when her goals conflict with those of the other (the subordinate). Study 3 and 4 targeted the format of infants' representation of social dominance. In these studies, we found that 12- and 15-mo-olds did not extend their expectations of dominance to unobserved relationships, even when they could have been established by transitive inference. These results suggest that infants' expectation of stability originates from their representation of social dominance as a relationship between two agents rather than as an individual property. Infants' demonstrated understanding of social dominance reflects the cognitive underpinning of humans' capacity to represent social relations, which may be evolutionarily ancient, and may be shared with nonhuman species.

  10. Human cytomegalovirus infections in premature infants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    clinical importance of CMV infection in premature infants by breast-feeding is still unclear. This mini- ... Transmission of CMV by natural routes relates ... infection from the fresh breast milk containing the virus. ... As a result of transmission during the course of delivery ... hepatitis was speculated to be caused by primary.

  11. Phylogenetic Approach to Object Manipulation in Human and Ape Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Jacques

    1984-01-01

    Parker and Gibson's developmental model of evolution of language and intelligence in early hominids is described and discussed; data from a comparative study of object manipulation in two apes and a human infant are reported; and, human ontogenic developmental retardation in locomotion is discussed in terms of its implications for the differential…

  12. Communication about absent entities in great apes and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-12-01

    There is currently debate about the extent to which non-linguistic beings such as human infants and great apes are capable of absent reference. In a series of experiments we investigated the flexibility and specificity of great apes' (N=36) and 12 month-old infants' (N=40) requests for absent entities. Subjects had the choice between requesting visible objects directly and using the former location of a depleted option to request more of these now-absent entities. Importantly, we systematically varied the quality of the present and absent options. We found that great apes as well as human infants flexibly adjusted their requests for absent entities to these contextual variations and only requested absent entities when the visible option was of lower quality than the absent option. These results suggest that the most basic cognitive capacities for absent reference do not depend on language and are shared by humans and their closest living relatives.

  13. [Advantages of individualized fortification of human milk for preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Halleux, V; Close, A; Stalport, S; Studzinski, F; Habibi, F; Rigo, J

    2007-09-01

    Despite the benefits of human milk fortification, nutrients of human milk are not sufficient to cover the greater needs of very low birth weight and to ensure a growth similar to that of premature infants fed with preterm formula. These differences could be related to the variation in the macronutrient composition of expressed breast milk with lower protein and energy content. Unfortunately there is unusually no information on macronutrients composition prior human milk fortification. With such data, it would be possible to individualize the fortification. In order to use adjustable fortification of human milk, we have assessed a rapid and simple method using full spectrum infrared laser technology (Milkoscan) to analyze human milk composition. We describe the variation in concentration of protein, lipid and energy in the human milk received in our neonatal unit. Then we evaluate the benefit of adjustable fortification of human milk compared with standard fortification. After standard fortification the variability of protein and lipid remains with a risk of protein deficiency or excess and a risk of energy deficiency. After adjustable human milk fortification based on human milk analysis using Milkoscan, we observe a more stable protein content and a lower amount of added fortifier decreasing the risk of hyperosmolarity. Furthermore, the energy content is higher following of the fat human milk adjusted content. Up to now, our preliminary results suggest that individualized fortification of human milk improves growth rate in preterm infants (21 g/kg/d) to a level close to formula fed infants.

  14. Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR Polymorphisms and Attachment in Human Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances S Chen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ordinary variations in human infants’ attachment behaviors—their proclivity to seek and accept comfort from caregivers—are associated with a wide range of individual differences in psychological functioning in adults. The current investigation examined variation in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene as one possible source of these variations in infant attachment. One hundred and seventy-six infants (77 Caucasian, 99 non-Caucasian were classified as securely or insecurely attached based on their behavior in the Strange Situation (Ainsworth et al., 1976. The A allele at OXTR rs2254298 was associated with attachment security in the non-Caucasian infants (p < .005. These findings underscore the importance of oxytocin in the development of human social behavior and support its role in social stress-regulation and the development of trust.

  15. Vertical peak ground force in human infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozu, Arito; Haga, Nobuhiko; Tojima, Michio; Zhang, Yasu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Otake, Yuko

    2013-02-01

    Quadrupedalism is a common mode of locomotion in land animals. The load distribution between the forelimbs (FL) and hindlimbs (HL) in quadrupedalism has been of great interest to researchers, and a database of the vertical peak force (Vpk) for FL and HL has been created for various species. However, Vpk in human infant crawling, a natural form of human quadrupedalism, has not been evaluated. We aimed to study Vpk in human infant crawling. Eight healthy infants who used a typical crawling style (i.e., crawling on the hands and knees) were included. The infants were encouraged to crawl over pressure mats placed on the floor, and Vpk of FL and HL were calculated. FL Vpk was 0.631±0.087 (per BW), and HL Vpk was 0.638±0.089 (per BW). No significant difference was observed between FL and HL Vpk. The mean FL/HL Vpk ratio was -0.011 on a natural logarithmic scale. These data could be added to the current database on Vpk for quadrupedalism.

  16. Calcium and phosphorus supplementation of human milk for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Wilson, Jess; Brown, Julie

    2017-02-26

    Preterm infants are born with low skeletal stores of calcium and phosphorus. Preterm human milk provides insufficient calcium and phosphorus to meet the estimated needs of preterm infants for adequate growth. Supplementation of human milk with calcium and phosphorus may improve growth and development of preterm infants. To determine whether addition of calcium and phosphorus supplements to human milk leads to improved growth and bone metabolism of preterm infants without significant adverse effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 14 April 2016), Embase (1980 to 14 April 2016) and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 April 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases (11 May 2016) and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing supplementation of human milk with calcium and/or phosphorus versus no supplementation in hospitalised preterm infants were eligible for inclusion in this review. Two review authors (JB, JW) independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. We reported dichotomous data as risk ratios (RRs) and continuous data as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of evidence. This is an update of a 2001 review that identified no eligible trials. One trial including 40 infants met the inclusion criteria for this review. Using GRADE criteria, we judged the quality of the evidence as low owing to risk of bias (inadequate reporting of methods of randomisation, allocation concealment and/or blinding) and imprecision (wide confidence intervals and

  17. Nonlinear Control of Heart Rate Variability in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, George; Allan, Walter; Sobel, Daniel; Allan, Kenneth D.

    1996-03-01

    Nonlinear analyses of infant heart rhythms reveal a marked rise in the complexity of the electrocardiogram with maturation. We find that normal mature infants (gestation >= 35 weeks) have complex and distinctly nonlinear heart rhythms (consistent with recent reports for healthy adults) but that such nonlinearity is lacking in preterm infants (gestation parasympathetic-sympathetic interaction and function are presumed to be less well developed. Our study further shows that infants with clinical brain death and those treated with atropine exhibit a similar lack of nonlinear feedback control. These three lines of evidence support the hypothesis championed by Goldberger et al. [Goldberger, A. L., Rigney, D. R. & West, B. J. (1990) Sci. Am. 262, 43-49] that autonomic nervous system control underlies the nonlinearity and possible chaos of normal heart rhythms. This report demonstrates the acquisition of nonlinear heart rate dynamics and possible chaos in developing human infants and its loss in brain death and with the administration of atropine. It parallels earlier work documenting changes in the variability of heart rhythms in each of these cases and suggests that nonlinearity may provide additional power in characterizing physiological states.

  18. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2013-07-01

    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall.

  19. A pseudoisochromatic test of color vision for human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Michele E; Drodge, Suzanne C; Courage, Mary L; Adams, Russell J

    2014-07-01

    Despite the development of experimental methods capable of measuring early human color vision, we still lack a procedure comparable to those used to diagnose the well-identified congenital and acquired color vision anomalies in older children, adults, and clinical patients. In this study, we modified a pseudoisochromatic test to make it more suitable for young infants. Using a forced choice preferential looking procedure, 216 3-to-23-mo-old babies were tested with pseudoisochromatic targets that fell on either a red/green or a blue/yellow dichromatic confusion axis. For comparison, 220 color-normal adults and 22 color-deficient adults were also tested. Results showed that all babies and adults passed the blue/yellow target but many of the younger infants failed the red/green target, likely due to the interaction of the lingering immaturities within the visual system and the small CIE vector distance within the red/green plate. However, older (17-23 mo) infants, color- normal adults and color-defective adults all performed according to expectation. Interestingly, performance on the red/green plate was better among female infants, well exceeding the expected rate of genetic dimorphism between genders. Overall, with some further modification, the test serves as a promising tool for the detection of early color vision anomalies in early human life.

  20. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  1. Recombinant human erythropoietin improves neurological outcomes in very preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juan; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Falin; Kang, Wenqing; Gao, Liang; Guo, Jiajia; Zhang, Yanhua; Xia, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of repeated low‐dose human recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO) in the improvement of neurological outcomes in very preterm infants. Methods A total of 800 infants of ≤32‐week gestational age who had been in an intensive care unit within 72 hours after birth were included in the trial between January 2009 and June 2013. Preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive rhEPO (500IU/kg; n = 366) or placebo (n = 377) intravenously within 72 hours after birth and then once every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or moderate to severe neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. Results Death and moderate/severe neurological disability occurred in 91 of 338 very preterm infants (26.9%) in the placebo group and in 43 of 330 very preterm infants (13.0%) in the rhEPO treatment group (relative risk [RR] = 0.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27–0.59, p < 0.001) at 18 months of corrected age. The rate of moderate/severe neurological disability in the rhEPO group (22 of 309, 7.1%) was significantly lower compared to the placebo group (57 of 304, 18.8%; RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.19–0.55, p < 0.001), and no excess adverse events were observed. Interpretation Repeated low‐dose rhEPO treatment reduced the risk of long‐term neurological disability in very preterm infants with no obvious adverse effects. Ann Neurol 2016;80:24–34 PMID:27130143

  2. The origins of probabilistic inference in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Stephanie; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Reasoning under uncertainty is the bread and butter of everyday life. Many areas of psychology, from cognitive, developmental, social, to clinical, are interested in how individuals make inferences and decisions with incomplete information. The ability to reason under uncertainty necessarily involves probability computations, be they exact calculations or estimations. What are the developmental origins of probabilistic reasoning? Recent work has begun to examine whether infants and toddlers can compute probabilities; however, previous experiments have confounded quantity and probability-in most cases young human learners could have relied on simple comparisons of absolute quantities, as opposed to proportions, to succeed in these tasks. We present four experiments providing evidence that infants younger than 12 months show sensitivity to probabilities based on proportions. Furthermore, infants use this sensitivity to make predictions and fulfill their own desires, providing the first demonstration that even preverbal learners use probabilistic information to navigate the world. These results provide strong evidence for a rich quantitative and statistical reasoning system in infants.

  3. Human cytomegalovirus infant infection adversely affects growth and development in maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompels, U A; Larke, N; Sanz-Ramos, M; Bates, M; Musonda, K; Manno, D; Siame, J; Monze, M; Filteau, S

    2012-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) coinfections have been shown to increase infant morbidity, mortality, and AIDS progression. In HIV-endemic regions, maternal HIV-exposed but HIV-uninfected infants, which is the majority of children affected by HIV, also show poor growth and increased morbidity. Although nutrition has been examined, the effects of HCMV infection have not been evaluated. We studied the effects of HCMV infection on the growth, development, and health of maternally HIV-exposed and unexposed infants in Zambia. Infants were examined in a cohort recruited to a trial of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods. HIV-infected mothers and infants had received perinatal antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Growth, development, and morbidity were analyzed by linear regression analyses in relation to maternal HIV exposure and HCMV infection, as screened by sera DNA for viremia at 6 months of age and by antibody for infection at 18 months. All HCMV-seropositive infants had decreased length-for-age by 18 months compared with seronegative infants (standard deviation [z]-score difference: -0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, -.72 to -.17]; P = .002). In HIV-exposed infants, those who were HCMV positive compared with those who were negative, also had reduced head size (mean z-score difference: -0.72 [95% CI, -1.23 to -.22]; P = .01) and lower psychomotor development (Bayley test score difference: -4.1 [95% CI, -7.8 to -.5]; P = .03). HIV-exposed, HCMV-viremic infants were more commonly referred for hospital treatment than HCMV-negative infants. The effects of HCMV were unaffected by micronutrient fortification. HCMV affects child growth, development, and morbidity of African infants, particularly in those maternally exposed to HIV. HCMV is therefore a risk factor for child health in this region.

  4. New human milk fortifiers for the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Bertino

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Given its unique nutritional and functional advantages, human milk (HM should be considered as the first choice for the nutrition of all infants, including preterm newborns. Since its protein, mineral and energy contents are not suitable to meet the high needs of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW infants, HM should be fortified for these components. Fortification of HM is an important nutritional intervention in order to provide appropriate nutritional intake and appropriate growth. The standard fortification strategy has yielded inadequate protein intakes, resulting in slower growth as compared to preterm formulas. Improvement of outcomes depends on new fortification strategies, considering the large variability of HM composition. Individualized fortification, either targeted or adjustable, has been shown to be effective and practical in attaining adequate protein intakes and growth.Most commercially available multi-nutrient fortifiers and protein concentrates are derived from bovine milk (BM, which has a protein composition very different from that of HM. The use of BM proteins has been recently questioned for possible association with intestinal inflammation in VLBW infants. Recently, one HM-based fortifier was shown to be associated with lower necrotizing enterocolitis rates and lower mortality in extremely premature infants, compared to BM-based products. Other milk sources are currently under evaluation: a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial, coordinated by the Neonatal Unit of the University of Turin in collaboration with the Italian National Research Council of Turin and the University of Cagliari, is being carried out to evaluate the adequacy of fortifiers derived from donkey milk for the nutrition of preterm infants.

  5. Bioactive Proteins in Human Milk-Potential Benefits for Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Human milk contains many bioactive proteins that are likely to be involved in the better outcomes of breast-fed infants compared with those fed infant formula. Bovine milk proteins or protein fractions may be able to provide some of these benefits and may, therefore, be used for preterm infants. Recombinant human milk proteins are likely to exert bioactivities similar to those of the native human milk proteins, but considerable research is needed before they can be used in routine care of preterm infants.

  6. Comparative analysis of human milk and infant formula derived peptides following in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, M-Y; Broadhurst, M; Liu, C-P; Gathercole, J; Cheng, W-L; Qi, X-Y; Clerens, S; Dyer, J M; Day, L; Haigh, B

    2017-04-15

    It has long been recognised that there are differences between human milk and infant formulas which lead to differences in health and nutrition for the neonate. In this study we examine and compare the peptide profile of human milk and an exemplar infant formula. The study identifies both similarities and differences in the endogenous and postdigestion peptide profiles of human milk and infant formula. This includes differences in the protein source of these peptides but also with the region within the protein producing the dominant proteins. Clustering of similar peptides around regions of high sequence identity and known bioactivity was also observed. Together the data may explain some of the functional differences between human milk and infant formula, while identifying some aspects of conserved function between bovine and human milks which contribute to the effectiveness of modern infant formula as a substitute for human milk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Considerations in meeting protein needs of the human milk-fed preterm infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Hanson, Corrine; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2014-08-01

    Preterm infants provided with sufficient nutrition to achieve intrauterine growth rates have the greatest potential for optimal neurodevelopment. Although human milk is the preferred feeding for preterm infants, unfortified human milk provides insufficient nutrition for the very low-birth-weight infant. Even after fortification with human milk fortifier, human milk often fails to meet the high protein needs of the smallest preterm infants, and additional protein supplementation must be provided. Although substantial evidence exists to support quantitative protein goals for human milk-fed preterm infants, the optimal type of protein for use in human milk fortification remains uncertain. This question was addressed through a PubMed literature search of prospective clinical trials conducted since 1990 in preterm or low-birth-weight infant populations. The following 3 different aspects of protein quality were evaluated: whey-to-casein ratio, hydrolyzed versus intact protein, and bovine milk protein versus human milk protein. Because of a scarcity of current studies conducted with fortified human milk, studies examining protein quality using preterm infant formulas were included to address certain components of the clinical question. Twenty-six studies were included in the review study. No definite advantage was found for any specific whey-to-casein ratio. Protein hydrolyzate products with appropriate formulations can support adequate growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status and may reduce gastrointestinal transit time, gastroesophageal reflux events, and later incidence of atopic dermatitis in some infants. Plasma amino acid levels similar to those of infants fed exclusive human milk-based diets can be achieved with products composed of a mixture of bovine proteins, peptides, and amino acids formulated to replicate the amino acid composition of human milk. Growth and biochemical indicators of nutrition status are similar for infants fed human milk

  8. Can we define an infant's need from the composition of human milk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Jose; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Boehm, Guenther

    Human milk is recommended as the optimal nutrient source for infants and is associated with several short- and long-term benefits for child health. When accepting that human milk is the optimal nutrition for healthy term infants, it should be possible to calculate the nutritional needs of these

  9. Lycium europaeum fruit extract: antiproliferative activity on A549 human lung carcinoma cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells and assessment of its cytotoxicity on cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Wafa; Vaudry, David; Jouenne, Thierry; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major worldwide health problem and one of the leading causes of death either in developed or developing countries. Plant extracts and derivatives have always been used for various disease treatments and many anticancer agents issued from plants and vegetables are clinically recognized and used all over the world. Lycium europaeum (Solanaceae) also called "wolfberry" was known since ancient times in the Mediterranean area as a medicinal plant and used in several traditional remedies. The Lycium species capacity of reducing the incidence of cancer and also of halting or reserving the growth of cancer was reported by traditional healers. In this study, the antiproliferative capacity, protective properties, and antioxidant activity of the hydro-alcoholic fruit extract of Lycium europaeum were investigated. Results showed that Lycium extract exhibits the ability to reduce cancer cell viability, inhibits proliferation, and induces apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells and PC12 rat adrenal medulla cancer cells, in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytotoxic effect on normal rat cerebellum granule cells was assessed to be nonsignificant. Results also showed that Lycium fruit extract protected lipids, proteins, and DNA against oxidative stress damages induced by H2O2 via scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  10. [Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe; López-Arellano, Oliva

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates through comprehensive individual and family development.

  11. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Paolo Senese

    Full Text Available Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  12. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M.; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  13. Can human eyes prevent perceptual narrowing for monkey faces in human infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Fabrice; Bayet, Laurie; Quinn, Paul C; Hillairet de Boisferon, Anne; Méary, David; Dupierrix, Eve; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Perceptual narrowing has been observed in human infants for monkey faces: 6-month-olds can discriminate between them, whereas older infants from 9 months of age display difficulty discriminating between them. The difficulty infants from 9 months have processing monkey faces has not been clearly identified. It could be due to the structural characteristics of monkey faces, particularly the key facial features that differ from human faces. The current study aimed to investigate whether the information conveyed by the eyes is of importance. We examined whether the presence of Caucasian human eyes in monkey faces allows recognition to be maintained in 6-month-olds and facilitates recognition in 9- and 12-month-olds. Our results revealed that the presence of human eyes in monkey faces maintains recognition for those faces at 6 months of age and partially facilitates recognition of those faces at 9 months of age, but not at 12 months of age. The findings are interpreted in the context of perceptual narrowing and suggest that the attenuation of processing of other-species faces is not reversed by the presence of human eyes.

  14. Human milk for preterm infants: why, what, when and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Gopi; Williams, Thomas C

    2013-11-01

    A mother's expressed breast milk (MEBM) is overall the best feed for her preterm baby during the neonatal period, and is associated with improved short-term and long-term outcomes. Neonatal services should commit the resources needed to optimise its use. The place of banked donor expressed breast milk (DEBM) is less clear, but it probably has a role in reducing the risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis in preterm infants at particularly high risk. There is considerable variation in the composition of human milk and nutrient fortification is often needed to achieve intrauterine growth rates. Human milk can transmit potentially harmful micro-organisms, and pasteurisation, which denatures some of the bioactive factors, is the only known way of preventing this. This is carried out for DEBM but not MEBM in the UK. Future research on human milk should focus on (a) critical exposure periods, (b) understanding better its bioactive properties, (c) the role of DEBM and (d) nutritional quality assurance.

  15. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorella Giannì

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2 Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3 Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  16. Human Milk for Ill and Medically Compromised Infants: Strategies and Ongoing Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLauro, Sara; Unger, Sharon; Stone, Debbie; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2016-08-01

    The use of human milk (mother's own milk and/or donor milk) in ill or medically compromised infants frequently requires some adaptation to address medical diagnoses and/or altered nutrition requirements. This tutorial describes the nutrition and immunological benefits of breast milk as well as provides evidence for the use of donor milk when mother's own milk is unavailable. Several strategies used to modify human milk to meet the medical and nutrition needs of an ill or medically compromised infant are reviewed. These strategies include (1) the standard fortification of human milk to support adequate growth, (2) the novel concept of target fortification in preterm infants, (3) instructions on how to alter maternal diet to address cow's milk protein intolerance and/or allergy in breast milk-fed infants, and (4) the removal and modification of the fat in breast milk used in infants diagnosed with chylothorax.

  17. [Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium in human milk and infant formulas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, E M; Sanz Alaejos, M; Díaz Romero, C

    2002-12-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium were determined in 55 samples of mature human milk from Canary women and 5 samples of powdered infant formula. According to the literature our data fell within the normal intervals described for each kind of milk. The mean concentration of Ca, Mg, Na y K of powdered infant formula was higher than those concentrations found in the human milks. Significant differences among the concentrations of Ca, Mg and Na for the milks of the considered mothers were observed. Only the Ca intakes for infants fed with human milk were lower than those requirements recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board (1989). However, the infants fed with powdered infant formula had an adequate intake of all the studied metals. A progressive decrease of the Na, K and Ca concentrations with the lactation stage was observed. Maternal age, parity and sex of the newborns did not affect the metal concentrations significantly.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing of bifidobacterial strains from infant's faeces and human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makino, H.; Martin, R.; Ishikawa, E.; Knol, J.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be one of the most important beneficial intestinal bacteria for infants, contributing to the priming of the mucosal immune system. These microbes can also be detected in mother's milk, suggesting a potential role of human milk in the colonisation of infant's gut.

  19. Multilocus sequence typing of bifidobacterial strains from infant's faeces and human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makino, H.; Martin, R.; Ishikawa, E.; Knol, J.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are considered to be one of the most important beneficial intestinal bacteria for infants, contributing to the priming of the mucosal immune system. These microbes can also be detected in mother's milk, suggesting a potential role of human milk in the colonisation of infant's gut.

  20. Differences in the Nonverbal Requests of Great Apes and Human Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, M. H.; Tomasello, Michael; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how great apes and human infants use imperative pointing to request objects. In a series of three experiments (infants, N = 44; apes, N = 12), subjects were given the opportunity to either point to a desired object from a distance or else to approach closer and request it pro

  1. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  2. Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topál, József; Gergely, György; Erdohegyi, Agnes; Csibra, Gergely; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-09-04

    Ten-month-old infants persistently search for a hidden object at its initial hiding place even after observing it being hidden at another location. Recent evidence suggests that communicative cues from the experimenter contribute to the emergence of this perseverative search error. We replicated these results with dogs (Canis familiaris), who also commit more search errors in ostensive-communicative (in 75% of the total trials) than in noncommunicative (39%) or nonsocial (17%) hiding contexts. However, comparative investigations suggest that communicative signals serve different functions for dogs and infants, whereas human-reared wolves (Canis lupus) do not show doglike context-dependent differences of search errors. We propose that shared sensitivity to human communicative signals stems from convergent social evolution of the Homo and the Canis genera.

  3. Serum Phosphorus Levels in Premature Infants Receiving a Donor Human Milk Derived Fortifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Chetta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An elevated serum phosphorus (P has been anecdotally described in premature infants receiving human milk fortified with donor human milk-derived fortifier (HMDF. No studies have prospectively investigated serum P in premature infants receiving this fortification strategy. In this single center prospective observational cohort study, extremely premature infants ≤1250 grams (g birth weight (BW were fed an exclusive human milk-based diet receiving HMDF and serum P levels were obtained. We evaluated 93 infants with a mean gestational age of 27.5 ± 2.0 weeks (Mean ± SD and BW of 904 ± 178 g. Seventeen infants (18.3% had at least one high serum P level with a mean serum P of 9.2 ± 1.1 mg/dL occurring at 19 ± 11 days of life. For all infants, the highest serum P was inversely correlated to the day of life of the infant (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.175 and positively correlated with energy density of HMDF (p = 0.035. Serum P was not significantly related to gender, BW, gestational age, or days to full feeds. We conclude that the incidence of hyperphosphatemia was mild and transient in this population. The risk decreased with infant age and was unrelated to gender, BW, or ethnicity.

  4. Auditory-Visual Perception of Changing Distance by Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Andrews, Arlene S.; Lennon, Elizabeth M.

    1985-01-01

    Examines, in two experiments, 5-month-old infants' sensitivity to auditory-visual specification of distance and direction of movement. One experiment presented two films with soundtracks in either a match or mismatch condition; the second showed the two films side-by-side with a single soundtrack appropriate to one. Infants demonstrated visual…

  5. Randomized trial of exclusive human milk versus preterm formula diets in extremely premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to compare the duration of parenteral nutrition, growth, and morbidity in extremely premature infants fed exclusive diets of either bovine milk-based preterm formula (BOV) or donor human milk and human milk-based human milk fortifier (HUM), in a randomized trial of formula vs human...

  6. Consumption of human milk glycoconjugates by infant-associated bifidobacteria: mechanisms and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Daniel; Dallas, David C; Mills, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a rich source of nutrients and energy, shaped by mammalian evolution to provide all the nutritive requirements of the newborn. In addition, several molecules in breast milk act as bioactive agents, playing an important role in infant protection and guiding a proper development. While major breast milk nutrients such as lactose, lipids and proteins are readily digested and consumed by the infant, other molecules, such as human milk oligosaccharides and glycosylated proteins and l...

  7. Iron sufficiency in breast-fed infants and the availability of iron from human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, J A; Landaw, S A; Oski, F A

    1976-11-01

    Four infants were studied who had been exclusively breast-fed for periods varying from 8 to 18 months. All had grown sufficiently to have exhausted their prenatally acquired iron endowment with respect to meeting current needs for maintaining normal hemoglobin levels. All infants had normal hemoglobin values and normal serum iron values. Studies of iron absorption from breast milk and cow's milk were performed in ten normal adults. The absorption of iron from the human milk was significantly higher. These findings suggest that the iron present in human milk is sufficient to meet the iron requirements of the exclusively breast-fed infant until he approximately triples his birthweight.

  8. Sialyloligosaccharides in human and bovine milk and in infant formulas: variations with the progression of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sosa, S; Martín, M J; García-Pardo, L A; Hueso, P

    2003-01-01

    Several lines of research support a role for human milk oligosaccharides in the defense of breast-fed infants against pathogens. Some ofthese oligosaccharides contain at least one moiety of sialic acid and are, thus, termed sialyloligosaccharides. These constitute a significant component (>1 g/L) of human milk. It is well established that milk composition varies among species, and previous reports have indicated that one ofthe differences between human and bovine milk is precisely their contents of sialyloligosaccharides. Because most infant formulas are manufactured with bovine milk components, it follows that formula-fed and breast-fed infants ingest dissimilar quantities of these carbohydrate structures. To ascertain these differences and their impact along lactation, the contents of oligosaccharide-bound sialic acids and major sialyloligosaccharides in samples of human and bovine milk (obtained at different lactation stages) were determined. In addition, infant formulas were assayed for their sialyloligosaccharide contents. Seven sialyloligosaccharides were identified in human milk; namely, 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyllactose and sialyllacto-N-tetraoses (a and b+c), the predominant structures at all lactation stages. Five sialyloligosaccharides were identified in bovine milk, of which 6'-sialyllactosamine and 3'-sialyllactose were the most abundant. In addition, sialyloligosaccharides in human and bovine milk decreased along lactation, and infant formulas did not contain significant amounts of sialyloligosaccharides. The results point to the general conclusion that regarding both qualitative and quantitative aspects, milk from humans and cows and infant formulas have different oligosaccharide contents. In this sense, bottle-fed infants are subject to reduced sialyloligosaccharide intake as compared to breast-fed infants.

  9. Gait Transitions in Human Infants: Coping with Extremes of Treadmill Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin V Vasudevan

    Full Text Available Spinal pattern generators in quadrupedal animals can coordinate different forms of locomotion, like trotting or galloping, by altering coordination between the limbs (interlimb coordination. In the human system, infants have been used to study the subcortical control of gait, since the cerebral cortex and corticospinal tract are immature early in life. Like other animals, human infants can modify interlimb coordination to jump or step. Do human infants possess functional neuronal circuitry necessary to modify coordination within a limb (intralimb coordination in order to generate distinct forms of alternating bipedal gait, such as walking and running? We monitored twenty-eight infants (7-12 months stepping on a treadmill at speeds ranging between 0.06-2.36 m/s, and seventeen adults (22-47 years walking or running at speeds spanning the walk-to-run transition. Six of the adults were tested with body weight support to mimic the conditions of infant stepping. We found that infants could accommodate a wide range of speeds by altering stride length and frequency, similar to adults. Moreover, as the treadmill speed increased, we observed periods of flight during which neither foot was in ground contact in infants and in adults. However, while adults modified other aspects of intralimb coordination and the mechanics of progression to transition to a running gait, infants did not make comparable changes. The lack of evidence for distinct walking and running patterns in infants suggests that the expression of different functional, alternating gait patterns in humans may require neuromuscular maturation and a period of learning post-independent walking.

  10. Global infant formula: monitoring and regulating the impacts to protect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, George

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide promotion of infant formula and other commercial baby foods is leading to increased use of these products, raising concerns about their impact on the health of infants. These products are made and marketed through a global system that extends beyond the control of separate nations. As the industry is increasingly globalized, there is a growing need for guidance, monitoring, and regulation. This study suggests a path toward achieving better control of infant formula and other baby foods to ensure that infants and young children everywhere are well nourished. The negotiation of a new Optional Protocol on Children's Nutrition, to be linked to the most relevant human rights treaty, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, would bring the major issues relating to infant formula and other baby foods to the attention of the global community and all national governments.

  11. Human infants' learning of social structures: the case of dominance hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Olivier; Csibra, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    We tested 15-month-olds' capacity to represent social-dominance hierarchies with more than two agents. Our results showed that infants found it harder to memorize dominance relations that were presented in an order that hindered the incremental formation of a single structure (Study 1). These results suggest that infants attempt to build structures incrementally, relation by relation, thereby simplifying the complex problem of recognizing a social structure. Infants also found circular dominance structures harder to process than linear dominance structures (Study 2). These expectations about the shape of structures may facilitate learning. Our results suggest that infants attempt to represent social structures composed of social relations. They indicate that human infants go beyond learning about individual social partners and their respective relations and form hypotheses about how social groups are organized.

  12. Building bones in babies: can and should we exceed the human milk-fed infant's rate of bone calcium accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Steven A

    2006-11-01

    Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailability of calcium between infant formulas are unlikely to have long-term consequences. Long-term studies of the effects of infant feeding type on ultimate bone mass are needed. For now, the vitamin-replete breast-fed infant's rate of calcium accretion during the first year of life should be the standard targeted for infant formulas.

  13. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal was to evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF) and one without prebiotics (CF), and to compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM) infants. A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorptio...

  14. Individual recognition of human infants on the basis of cries alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J A; Gustafson, G E

    1983-11-01

    Human parents were asked to identify their infants on the basis of tape-recorded cries that they had not previously heard. The cries of twenty 30-day-old infants were recorded just prior to a feeding, then rerecorded onto a test tape containing cries from three other infants. Eighty percent of mothers were able to recognize their infants' cries, as were 45% of fathers. An additional 140 adults (non-parents) were tested in order to determine if the process of dubbing cries onto test tapes had left extraneous auditory cues to infants' identities and if the foil infants were equally discriminable. The results indicated that parents' recognition was not based on extraneous cues and that, overall, the foils were appropriate distractors in the parents' task. Thus, the majority of parents can recognize their 30-day-old infants on the sole basis of acoustic cues contained in the infants' cries. The acoustic features that underlie this recognition are now being investigated.

  15. At 6–9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that infants begin learning their native language not by learning words, but by discovering features of the speech signal: consonants, vowels, and combinations of these sounds. Learning to understand words, as opposed to just perceiving their sounds, is said to come later, between 9 and 15 mo of age, when infants develop a capacity for interpreting others’ goals and intentions. Here, we demonstrate that this consensus about the developmental sequence of human language learning is flawed: in fact, infants already know the meanings of several common words from the age of 6 mo onward. We presented 6- to 9-mo-old infants with sets of pictures to view while their parent named a picture in each set. Over this entire age range, infants directed their gaze to the named pictures, indicating their understanding of spoken words. Because the words were not trained in the laboratory, the results show that even young infants learn ordinary words through daily experience with language. This surprising accomplishment indicates that, contrary to prevailing beliefs, either infants can already grasp the referential intentions of adults at 6 mo or infants can learn words before this ability emerges. The precocious discovery of word meanings suggests a perspective in which learning vocabulary and learning the sound structure of spoken language go hand in hand as language acquisition begins. PMID:22331874

  16. At 6-9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, Elika; Swingley, Daniel

    2012-02-28

    It is widely accepted that infants begin learning their native language not by learning words, but by discovering features of the speech signal: consonants, vowels, and combinations of these sounds. Learning to understand words, as opposed to just perceiving their sounds, is said to come later, between 9 and 15 mo of age, when infants develop a capacity for interpreting others' goals and intentions. Here, we demonstrate that this consensus about the developmental sequence of human language learning is flawed: in fact, infants already know the meanings of several common words from the age of 6 mo onward. We presented 6- to 9-mo-old infants with sets of pictures to view while their parent named a picture in each set. Over this entire age range, infants directed their gaze to the named pictures, indicating their understanding of spoken words. Because the words were not trained in the laboratory, the results show that even young infants learn ordinary words through daily experience with language. This surprising accomplishment indicates that, contrary to prevailing beliefs, either infants can already grasp the referential intentions of adults at 6 mo or infants can learn words before this ability emerges. The precocious discovery of word meanings suggests a perspective in which learning vocabulary and learning the sound structure of spoken language go hand in hand as language acquisition begins.

  17. Developmental constraints of quadrupedal coordination across crawling styles in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan K; Noah, J Adam; Yang, Jaynie F

    2012-06-01

    Human infants can crawl using several very different styles; this diversity appears at first glance to contradict our previous findings from hands-and-knees crawling, which suggested that there were strict limitations on coordination, imposed either mechanically or by the developing nervous system. To determine whether coordination was similarly restricted across crawling styles, we studied free crawling overground in 22 infants who used a number of different locomotor strategies. Despite the wide variety in the use of individual limbs and even the number of limbs used, the duration of the stance phase increased with duration of cycle, whereas the duration of the swing phase remained more constant. Additionally, all infants showed organized, rhythmic interlimb coordination. Alternating patterns (e.g., trotlike) predominated (86% of infants). Alternatively, yet much less frequently, all limbs used could work in synchrony (14% of infants). Pacelike patterns were never observed, even in infants that crawled with the belly remaining in contact with the ground so that stability was not a factor. To explore the robustness of the interlimb coordination, a perturbation that prolonged swing of the leg was imposed on 14 additional infants crawling on hands and knees overground or on the treadmill. The perturbation led to a resetting of the crawling pattern, but never to a change in the coordination of the limbs. The findings concur with those regarding other infant animals, together suggesting that the nervous system itself limits the coordination patterns available at a young age.

  18. The role of oxytocin in mother-infant relations: a systematic review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Megan; Lewis, Andrew James; Ijzendoorn, Marinus van; Permezel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Oxytocin is associated with the establishment and quality of maternal behavior in animal models. Parallel investigations in humans are now under way. This article reviews the current research examining the role of oxytocin in mother-infant relations, attachment, and bonding in humans. A systematic search was made of three electronic databases and other bibliographic sources for published research studies that examined oxytocin and mother-infant relations in humans, including attachment, maternal behavior, parenting, and mother-infant relations. Eight studies were identified, all of which were unique in their methodologies, populations studied, and measures used. Seven studies found significant and strong associations between levels or patterns of oxytocin and aspects of mother-infant relations or attachment. Oxytocin appears to be of crucial importance for understanding mother-infant relationships. The findings of this review suggest that the pioneering, but preliminary, research undertaken to date is promising and that replication with larger samples is needed. Research that draws on more robust measures of attachment and bonding, as well as improved measures of oxytocin that include both central and peripheral levels, will elucidate the role of oxytocin in human mother-infant relationships. As the production of oxytocin is by no means restricted to mothers, the extension of the oxytocin studies to fathering, as well as to alloparental caregiving, would be an intriguing next step.

  19. Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Laura; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Patten, Deborah; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Slater, Rebeccah; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG) recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (reflex (>4 seconds) to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh), 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

  20. The principal fucosylated oligosaccharides of human milk exhibit prebiotic properties on cultured infant microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhuo-Teng; Chen, Ceng; Kling, David E.; Liu, Bo; McCoy, John M.; Merighi, Massimo; Heidtman, Matthew; Newburg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even greater than supplementation by fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic positive control. HMOS elevated lactate concentrations,...

  1. Developmental constraints of quadrupedal coordination across crawling styles in human infants

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Susan K.; Noah, J. Adam; Yang, Jaynie F.

    2012-01-01

    Human infants can crawl using several very different styles; this diversity appears at first glance to contradict our previous findings from hands-and-knees crawling, which suggested that there were strict limitations on coordination, imposed either mechanically or by the developing nervous system. To determine whether coordination was similarly restricted across crawling styles, we studied free crawling overground in 22 infants who used a number of different locomotor strategies. Despite the...

  2. Brain stem auditory evoked responses in human infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecox, K.; Galambos, R.

    1974-01-01

    Brain stem evoked potentials were recorded by conventional scalp electrodes in infants (3 weeks to 3 years of age) and adults. The latency of one of the major response components (wave V) is shown to be a function both of click intensity and the age of the subject; this latency at a given signal strength shortens postnatally to reach the adult value (about 6 msec) by 12 to 18 months of age. The demonstrated reliability and limited variability of these brain stem electrophysiological responses provide the basis for an optimistic estimate of their usefulness as an objective method for assessing hearing in infants and adults.

  3. Human milk and infant intestinal mucosal glycans guide succession of the neonatal intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, David S; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Infants begin acquiring intestinal microbiota at parturition. Initial colonization by pioneer bacteria is followed by active succession toward a dynamic ecosystem. Keystone microbes engage in reciprocal transkingdom communication with the host, which is essential for human homeostasis and health; therefore, these bacteria should be considered mutualists rather than commensals. This review discusses the maternal role in providing infants with functional and stable microbiota. The initial fecal inoculum of microbiota results from the proximity of the birth canal and anus; the biological significance of this anatomic proximity could underlie observed differences in microbiota between vaginal and cesarean birth. Secondary sources of inocula include mouths and skin of kin, animals and objects, and the human milk microbiome, but guiding microbial succession may be a primary role of human milk. The unique glycans of human milk cannot be digested by the infant, but are utilized by mutualist bacteria. These prebiotic glycans support expansion of mutualist microbiota, which manifests as differences in microbiota among breastfed and artificially fed infants. Human milk glycans vary by maternal genotype. Milks of genetically distinct mothers and variations in infant mucosal glycan expression support discrete microbiota. Early colonization may permanently influence microbiota composition and function, with ramifications for health.

  4. Is Imprinting an Appropriate Model for Human Infant Attachment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. L.; Leiderman, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of animal imprinting studies were generalized to attempt prediction of development of attachment in 28 polymatrically reared Kenyan Gusii infants, ages 6 to 30 months. While results provide evidence against a sensitive phase for attachment, an association was found between age of attachment and developmental level/caregiving history.…

  5. Perception of the Symmetrical Patterning of Human Gait by Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy E.; Pinto, Jeannine; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments tested infants' sensitivity to properties of point-light displays of a walker and a runner that were equivalent regarding the phasing of limb movements. Found that 3-, but not 5-month-olds, discriminated these displays. When the symmetrical phase-patterning of the runner display was perturbed by advancing two of its limbs by 25…

  6. Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Chasekwa, Bernard; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H

    2017-09-15

    Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression. At 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants. HIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.

  7. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and their respective mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Prashant K; Siddharth, Jay; Verma, Pankaj; Bavdekar, Ashish; Patole, Milind S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2012-06-01

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to harbour any microeukaryotes in their gut. In contrast, there were distinct eukaryotic microbiota present in the mothers. The investigation is the first of its kind in the comparative study of the human feces to reveal the presence of micro-eukaryotic diversity variance in infants and adults from the Indian subcontinent. The micro-eukaryotes encountered during the investigation include known gut colonizers like Blastocystis and some fungi species. Some of these micro-eukaryotes have been speculated to be involved in clinical manifestations of various diseases. The study is an attempt to highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes in the human gut.

  8. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  9. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin VH6 genes in human infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-01-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated VH6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of VH6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T–B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old. PMID:9764600

  10. Emergence of the ability to perceive dynamic events from still pictures in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Nobu; Imura, Tomoko

    2016-11-17

    The ability to understand a visual scene depicted in a still image is among the abilities shared by all human beings. The aim of the present study was to examine when human infants acquire the ability to perceive the dynamic events depicted in still images (implied motion perception). To this end, we tested whether 4- and 5-month-old infants shifted their gaze toward the direction cued by a dynamic running action depicted in a still figure of a person. Results indicated that the 5- but not the 4-month-olds showed a significant gaze shift toward the direction implied by the posture of the runner (Experiments 1, 2, and 3b). Moreover, the older infants showed no significant gaze shift toward the direction cued by control stimuli, which depicted a figure in a non-dynamic standing posture (Experiment 1), an inverted running figure (Experiment 2), and some of the body parts of a running figure (Experiment 3a). These results suggest that only the older infants responded in the direction of the implied running action of the still figure; thus, implied motion perception emerges around 5 months of age in human infants.

  11. Towards infant formula biomimetic of human milk structure and digestive behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourlieu Claire

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipids of human milk or infant formula convey most of the energy necessary to support the newborn growth. Until recently, infant formula chemical composition had been optimized but not their structure. And yet, more and more proofs of evidence have shown that lipids structure in human milk modulates digestion kinetics and is involved in metabolic programming. Indeed there is a striking difference of structure between human milk which is an emulsion based on dispersed milk fat globules (4 μm secreted by the mammary gland and submicronic neoformed lipid droplets (0.5 μm found in infant formula. These droplets result from a series of operation units. This difference of structure modifies digestion kinetics and emulsion disintegration in the intestinal tract of the newborn. This difference persists along gastric phase which is mainly dominated by acid and enzyme-induced aggregation. Lipid droplets size is thus the key parameter to control gastric lipolysis and emptying and intestinal lipolysis. This parameter also controls proteolysis since adsorbed proteins are more rapidly hydrolyzed than when in solution. In animal models, these differences of lipid structure would also impact digestive and immune systems' maturation and microbiota. Lipid structure during neonatal period would also be involved in the early programming of adipose tissues and metabolism. The supplementation of infant formulas with bovine milk fractions (milk fat globule membrane extracts, triacylglycerol or recent development of large droplets infant formula, along with new fields of innovation in neonatal nutrition, are here reviewed.

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Two Human Milk Fortifiers on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thoene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of human milk fortifiers (HMF helps to meet the high nutritional requirements of the human milk-fed premature infant. Previously available powdered products have not met the protein requirements of the preterm infant population and many neonatologists add powder protein modulars to help meet protein needs. The use of powdered products is discouraged in neonatal intensive care units (NICU due to concern for invasive infection. The use of a commercially available acidified liquid product with higher protein content was implemented to address these two concerns. During the course of this implementation, poor growth and clinically significant acidosis of infants on Acidified Liquid HMF (ALHMF was observed. The purpose of this study was to quantify those observations by comparing infant outcomes between groups receiving the ALHMF vs. infants receiving powdered HMF (PHMF. A retrospective chart review compared outcomes of human milk-fed premature infants <2000 g receiving the ALHMF (n = 23 and the PHMF (n = 46. Infant growth, enteral feeding tolerance and provision, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, metabolic acidosis, and diaper dermatitis were compared between the two groups. No infants were excluded from this study based on acuity. Use of ALHMF resulted in a higher incidence of metabolic acidosis (p = 0.002. Growth while on HMF as measured in both g/kg/day (10.59 vs. 15.37, p < 0.0001 and in g/day (23.66 vs. 31.27, p = 0.0001 was slower in the ALHMF group, on increased mean cal/kg/day (128.7 vs. 117.3, p = 0.13 with nearly twice as many infants on the ALHMF requiring increased fortification of enteral feedings beyond 24 cal/ounce to promote adequate growth (48% vs. 26%, p = 0.10. Although we were not powered to study NEC as a primary outcome, NEC was significantly increased in the ALHMF group. (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.03. Use of a LHMF in an unrestricted NICU population resulted in an increase in clinical complications within a high

  13. [Infant botulism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Absalom; Afriat, Amichay; Hubary, Yechiel; Herzog, Lior; Eisenkraft, Arik

    2014-01-01

    Infant botulism is a paralytic syndrome which manifests as a result of ingesting spores of the toxin secreting bacterium Clostridium botulinum by infants. As opposed to botulism in adults, treating infant botulism with horse antiserum was not approved due to several safety issues. This restriction has led to the development of Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV; sells under BabyBIG). In this article we review infant botulism and the advantages of treating it with BIG-IV.

  14. Human infants and baboons show the same pattern of handedness for a communicative gesture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Meunier

    Full Text Available To test the role of gestures in the origin of language, we studied hand preferences for grasping or pointing to objects at several spatial positions in human infants and adult baboons. If the roots of language are indeed in gestural communication, we expect that human infants and baboons will present a comparable difference in their pattern of laterality according to task: both should be more right-hand/left-hemisphere specialized when communicating by pointing than when simply grasping objects. Our study is the first to test both human infants and baboons on the same communicative task. Our results show remarkable convergence in the distribution of the two species' hand biases on the two kinds of tasks: In both human infants and baboons, right-hand preference was significantly stronger for the communicative task than for grasping objects. Our findings support the hypothesis that left-lateralized language may be derived from a gestural communication system that was present in the common ancestor of baboons and humans.

  15. Postnatal temporal, spatial and modality tuning of nociceptive cutaneous flexion reflexes in human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornelissen

    Full Text Available Cutaneous flexion reflexes are amongst the first behavioural responses to develop and are essential for the protection and survival of the newborn organism. Despite this, there has been no detailed, quantitative study of their maturation in human neonates. Here we use surface electromyographic (EMG recording of biceps femoris activity in preterm (4 seconds to a single noxious skin lance which decreases significantly with gestational age. This reflex is not restricted to the stimulated limb: heel lance evokes equal ipsilateral and contralateral reflexes in preterm and term infants. We further show that infant flexion withdrawal reflexes are not always nociceptive specific: in 29% of preterm infants, tactile stimulation evokes EMG activity that is indistinguishable from noxious stimulation. In 40% of term infants, tactile responses are also present but significantly smaller than nociceptive reflexes. Infant flexion reflexes are also evoked by application of calibrated punctate von Frey hairs (vFh, 0.8-17.2 g, to the heel. Von Frey hair thresholds increase significantly with gestational age and the magnitude of vFh evoked reflexes are significantly greater in preterm than term infants. Furthermore flexion reflexes in both groups are sensitized by repeated vFh stimulation. Thus human infant flexion reflexes differ in temporal, modality and spatial characteristics from those in adults. Reflex magnitude and tactile sensitivity decreases and nociceptive specificity and spatial organisation increases with gestational age. Strong, relatively non-specific, reflex sensitivity in early life may be important for driving postnatal activity dependent maturation of targeted spinal cord sensory circuits.

  16. The perceptual origins of the abstract same/different concept in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addyman, Caspar; Mareschal, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Very few experiments have studied the two item same/different relation in young human infants. This contrasts with an extensive animal literature. We tested young infants with two novel tasks designed specifically to provide convergent comparative measures. Each infant completed both tasks allowing an assessment of their understanding of the abstract concept rather than task-specific abilities. In a looking time task with photographic stimuli, we found that 8-month-olds are sensitive to the relation but 4-month-olds are not. The second task used an anticipatory eye movement paradigm with simple geometric stimuli. On each trial, two colored shapes appear and moved upwards behind an occluder. They reappeared on either the upper left or right depending on the relation between them. Infants at both ages learned and generalized the dependency but only for the different relation. These results show that human infants can learn the same/different concept but that, in strong continuity with animal results, their abilities are firmly grounded in perception.

  17. Comparative analysis of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula using varied milk delivery systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickton Darby

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression of human milk for later use is on the rise. Bottle systems are used to deliver the expressed milk. Research has shown that storage of both human milk and artificial baby milk, or infant formula, leads to a loss of ascorbic acid (commonly called Vitamin C. As milk is removed from the bottle during feeding and replaced by ambient air, it is unknown if loss of ascorbic acid occurs during the course of a feeding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the milk delivery system on levels of ascorbic acid in human milk and infant formula. The objectives are to 1 determine changes in ascorbic acid concentration during a 20 minute "feed," 2 determine if there is a difference in ascorbic acid concentration between delivery systems, and 3 evaluate if any differences are of clinical importance. Methods Commonly available bottles were used for comparison of bottle delivery systems. Mature human milk was standardized to 42 mg/L of ascorbic acid. Infant formula with iron and infant formula with docosahexanoic acid were used for the formula samples. Each sample was analyzed for ascorbic acid concentration at baseline (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Each collection of samples was completed in triplicate. Samples were analyzed for ascorbic acid using normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results Ascorbic acid concentration declined in all bottle systems during testing, Differences between the bottle systems were noted. Ascorbic acid concentrations declined to less than 40% of recommended daily intake for infants in 4 of the bottles systems at the 20 minute sampling. Conclusion The bottle systems used in this study had measurable decreases in the mean concentration of ascorbic acid. More research is needed to determine if the observed decreases are related to lower plasma ascorbic acid concentration in infants exclusively bottle fed. The decrease of ascorbic acid concentration observed in both

  18. The Narrow Fellow in the Grass: Human Infants Associate Snakes and Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoache, Judy S.; LoBue, Vanessa

    2009-01-01

    Why are snakes such a common target of fear? One current view is that snake fear is one of several innate fears that emerge spontaneously. Another is that humans have an evolved predisposition to learn to fear snakes. In the first study reported here, 9- to 10-month-old infants showed no differential spontaneous reaction to films of snakes versus…

  19. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, A; López-Sabater, M C; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgell, M; Castellote-Bargalló, A I

    2002-12-01

    To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas. Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain. One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants. We analysed the fatty acid composition of colostrum (n=40), transitional milk (n=40), mature milk (n=40) and 11 infant formulas. We also analysed the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position in colostrum (n=12), transitional milk (n=12), mature milk (n=12), and the 11 infant formulas. Human milk in Spain had low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids and high linolenic acid. Infant formulas and mature human milk had similar fatty acid composition. In mature milk, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position (86.25%), and oleic and linoleic acids were predominantly esterified at the sn-1,3 positions (12.22 and 22.27%, respectively, in the sn-2 position). In infant formulas, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-1,3 positions and oleic and linoleic acids had higher percentages at the sn-2 position than they do in human milk. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Spain seems to reflect the Mediterranean dietary habits of mothers. Infant formulas resemble the fatty acid profile of human milk, but the distribution of fatty acids at the sn-2 position is markedly different.

  20. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  1. The stereospecific triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of human milk and infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straarup, Ellen Marie; Lauritzen, L.; Færk, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Background: The stereospecific structures of the triacylglycerol molecules in human milk differ from that of cow's milk and vegetable oils, which are the fat sources used in infant formula. In human milk, palmitic acid (16:0) is predominantly esterified in the sn2 position, whereas vegetable oils...... or cow's milk fat contain most of their 16:0 in the outer positions of the triacylglycerol molecules. Furthermore, human milk contains long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are not present in either cow's milk or vegetable oils. Methods: By standard lipid analysis procedures, we examined...... the triacylglycerol structures and fatty acid profiles of fats from 28 infant formulas or formulas for special indications available in the Danish market from 1999 to 2003. Results: The total fatty acid compositions of the formulas showed a 16:0 content almost similar to human milk, whereas the content in the sn2...

  2. Associations between human milk oligosaccharides and infant body composition in the first 6 mo of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, Tanya L; Autran, Chloe; Brekke, Benjamin E; Knight, Rob; Bode, Lars; Goran, Michael I; Fields, David A

    2015-12-01

    Evidence linking breastfeeding to reduced risk of developing childhood obesity is inconclusive, yet previous studies have not considered variation in specific components of breast milk that may affect early development. We examined whether differences in the composition of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) correlate with infant growth and body composition at 1 and 6 mo of age. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads were recruited from the University Hospital at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Infants were breastfed for 6 mo. Breast-milk and infant measures were obtained at 1 and 6 mo of infant age. HMO composition was analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and infant growth (length and weight) and body composition (percentage fat, total fat, lean mass) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Relations between HMOs and infant growth and body composition were examined by using multiple linear regression. A priori covariates included maternal prepregnancy body mass index, pregnancy weight gain, and infant age and sex. Higher HMO diversity and evenness at 1 mo were associated with lower total and percentage fat mass at 1 mo. At 1 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in lacto-N-fucopentaose (LNFP) I was associated with a 0.40-kg lower infant weight (P = 0.03). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 1.11-kg lower weight (P = 0.03) and a 0.85-g lower lean mass (P = 0.01). At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in LNFPI was associated with a 0.79-g lower fat mass (P = 0.02), whereas disialyl-lacto-N-tetraose and LNFPII were associated with a 1.92-g (P = 0.02) and 0.42-g (P = 0.02) greater fat mass, respectively. At 6 mo, each 1-μg/mL increase in fucosyl-disialyl-lacto-N-hexaose and lacto-N-neotetraose was associated with 0.04% higher (P = 0.03) and 0.03% lower (P < 0.01) body fat, respectively. These findings support the hypothesis that differences in HMO composition in mother's milk are associated with infant growth and body

  3. Humanizing infant milk formula to decrease postnatal HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, David R; Altosaar, Illimar

    2007-09-01

    There are currently no safe methods for feeding babies born from the 16 million HIV-infected women living in resource-constrained countries. Breast milk can transmit HIV, and formula feeding can lead to gastrointestinal illnesses owing to unsanitary conditions and the composition of milk formulations. There is therefore a need to ensure that breast milk substitutes provide optimal health outcomes. Given that the immune properties of several breast milk proteins are known, transgenic food crops could facilitate inexpensive and safe reconstitution of the beneficial breast milk proteome in infant formulae, while keeping the HIV virus at bay. At least seven breast milk immune proteins have already been produced in food crops, and dozens more proteins could potentially be produced if fortified formula proves effective in nursing newborns born to HIV-infected mothers.

  4. Maternal Syphilis: An Independent Risk Factor for Mother to Infant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinikar, Aarti; Gupte, Nikhil; Bhat, Jayalakshmi; Bharadwaj, Renu; Kulkarni, Vandana; Bhosale, Ramesh; McIntire, Katherine N; Mave, Vidya; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Patil, Sandesh; Bollinger, Robert; Gupta, Amita

    2017-06-01

    Syphilis is associated with increased human immunodeficiency virus acquisition and sexual transmission; we examined impact on human immunodeficiency virus mother-to-child transmission among mother-infant pairs enrolled in the India Six-Week Extended-Dose Nevirapine study. Maternal syphilis, diagnosed serologically using Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titer plus Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay, was associated with 2.5-fold greater risk.

  5. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Angela M.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; David A. Mills

    2010-01-01

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific “healthy” microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a...

  6. The Composition of Human Milk and Infant Faecal Microbiota Over the First Three Months of Life: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kiera; Curley, David; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Shea, Carol-Anne; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O’Toole, Paul W.; Ross, R. Paul; Ryan, C. Anthony; Stanton, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Human milk contains a diverse array of bioactives and is also a source of bacteria for the developing infant gut. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial communities in human milk and infant faeces over the first 3 months of life, in 10 mother-infant pairs. The presence of viable Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in human milk was also evaluated. MiSeq sequencing revealed a large diversity of the human milk microbiota, identifying over 207 bacterial genera in milk samples. The phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the genera Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were the predominant bacterial groups. A core of 12 genera represented 81% of the microbiota relative abundance in milk samples at week 1, 3 and 6, decreasing to 73% at week 12. Genera shared between infant faeces and human milk samples accounted for 70–88% of the total relative abundance in infant faecal samples, supporting the hypothesis of vertical transfer of bacteria from milk to the infant gut. In addition, identical strains of Bifidobacterium breve and Lactobacillus plantarum were isolated from the milk and faeces of one mother-infant pair. Vertical transfer of bacteria via breastfeeding may contribute to the initial establishment of the microbiota in the developing infant intestine. PMID:28094284

  7. Human milk glycobiome and its impact on the infant gastrointestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Angela M; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2011-03-15

    Human milk contains an unexpected abundance and diversity of complex oligosaccharides apparently indigestible by the developing infant and instead targeted to its cognate gastrointestinal microbiota. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based tools have provided a view of the oligosaccharide structures produced in milk across stages of lactation and among human mothers. One postulated function for these oligosaccharides is to enrich a specific "healthy" microbiota containing bifidobacteria, a genus commonly observed in the feces of breast-fed infants. Isolated culture studies indeed show selective growth of infant-borne bifidobacteria on milk oligosaccharides or core components therein. Parallel glycoprofiling documented that numerous Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strains preferentially consume small mass oligosaccharides that are abundant early in the lactation cycle. Genome sequencing of numerous B. longum subsp. infantis strains shows a bias toward genes required to use mammalian-derived carbohydrates by comparison with adult-borne bifidobacteria. This intriguing strategy of mammalian lactation to selectively nourish genetically compatible bacteria in infants with a complex array of free oligosaccharides serves as a model of how to influence the human supraorganismal system, which includes the gastrointestinal microbiota.

  8. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  9. On the other hand: Increased cortical activation to human versus mechanical hands in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Marisa; Boas, David A; Wilcox, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    There is a large body of work demonstrating that infants are sensitive to the distinction between human and mechanical entities from the early months of life, and have different expectations for the way these entities move and interact. The current work investigates the extent to which the functional organization of the immature brain reflects these early emerging sensitivities. Infants aged 8months watched two kinds of hands (human or mechanical) engage in two kinds of events (one with a functional outcome and one without). Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we assessed hemodynamic activation in the left and right temporal and temporal-occipital cortex in response to these events. The neuroimaging data revealed a significantly greater increase in activation in the right middle-posterior temporal cortex to events executed by the human than the mechanical hand; the event in which the hand engaged (function or non-function) did not significantly influence hemodynamic responses. In comparison, the left middle-temporal cortex showed significantly greater activation to events executed by the human than mechanical hand, but only when the events were functionally relevant. That is, the left middle-posterior temporal cortex responded selectively to human (as compared to mechanical) agents, but only in the context of functionally relevant actions on objects. These results reveal that the immature brain is functionally specialized to support infants' processing of human and non-human agents as distinct entities. These results also shed light on the cognitive and cortical mechanisms that guide infants' learning about agentive action and object function.

  10. The Use of Multinutrient Human Milk Fortifiers in Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review of Unanswered Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Francis B; Nathan, Natalie; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Lubetzky, Ronit; Mandel, Dror

    2017-03-01

    There is evidence that multinutrient fortification of human milk increases in-hospital growth of preterm infants, but fortification has not been shown to improve long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcome. We aimed to ascertain whether randomized controlled trials have determined the effect of early versus late introduction of fortifiers on growth and/or other outcomes, and have compared the efficacy/adverse effects of human milk-based versus cow milk-based fortifiers. We conclude that there is little evidence that early introduction of human milk fortification affects important outcomes, and limited evidence that a bovine fortifier places the infant at a higher risk of NEC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Building bones in babies: can and should we exceed the human milk-fed infant's rate of bone calcium accretion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing calcium absorption and bone calcium accretion to levels above those achieved by human milk-fed, full-term infants is possible with infant formulas. However, no data support such a goal or suggest that it is beneficial to short- or long-term bone health. Small differences in the bioavailab...

  12. In vivo digestomics of milk proteins in human milk and infant formula using a suckling rat pup model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yasuaki; Phinney, Brett S; Weber, Darren; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the optimal mode of infant feeding for the first several months of life, and infant formulas serve as an alternative when breast-feeding is not possible. Milk proteins have a balanced amino acid composition and some of them provide beneficial bioactivities in their intact forms. They also encrypt a variety of bioactive peptides, possibly contributing to infant health and growth. However, there is limited knowledge of how milk proteins are digested in the gastrointestinal tract and bioactive peptides are released in infants. A peptidomic analysis was conducted to identify peptides released from milk proteins in human milk and infant formula, using a suckling rat pup model. Among the major milk proteins targeted, α-lactalbumin and β-casein in human milk, and β-lactoglobulin and β-casein in infant formula were the main sources of peptides, and these peptides covered large parts of the parental proteins' sequences. Release of peptides was concentrated to specific regions, such as residues 70-92 of β-casein in human milk, residues 39-55 of β-lactoglobulin in infant formula, and residues 57-96 and 145-161 of β-CN in infant formula, where resistance to gastrointestinal digestion was suggested. In the context of bioactive peptides, release of fragments containing known bioactive peptides was confirmed, such as β-CN-derived opioid and antihypertensive peptides. It is therefore likely that these fragments are of biological significance in neonatal health and development.

  13. Adequacy of human milk viscosity to respond to infants with dysphagia: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Bartha de Mattos de Almeida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal nutrition is an important subject in health in the short, medium and long term. In preterm newborns, nutrition assumes a predominant role for the child's overall development. Babies with uncoordinated swallowing or respiration may not have the necessary oral abilities to suck the mother's breast and will need to implement different feeding practices; one of them is changing the consistency of the milk offered. Objectives: Determine viscosity variations of untreated human and pasteurized milk without and with thickening to adapt the diet to the needs of dysphagic infants hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Cara Unit (NICU. Material and Methods: The authors altered the viscosity of natural infant powdered milk and, after thickening, determined and adopted a thickening standard for human milk. Untreated human and pasteurized milk was thickened in concentrations of 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% and the viscosity were determined every 20 minutes for a period of 60 minutes at a temperature of 37ºC. Results: The infant lactose formula thickened at concentrations of 2% and 3% produced viscosities of 8.97cP and 27.73 cP, respectively. The increases were significantly different after 1 hour. Inversely, untreated human milk at 2%, 3%, 5% and 7% produced diminished viscosity over time; the changes were more accentuated in the first 20 minutes. In pasteurized human milk, the 2% concentration had no variation in viscosity, but with the 3%, 5% and 7% concentrations, there was a significant decrease in the first 20 minutes with stability observed in the subsequent times. Conclusion: In powdered milk, the viscosity increases over time; the viscosity in human milk diminishes. The results point out the importance not only of considering the concentration of the thickener but also the time being administered after its addition to effectively treat dysphagic infants.

  14. Determination of the phospholipid content of human milk, cow's milk and various infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynast, G; Schmitz, C

    1988-12-01

    The phospholipid (PL) content of human milk, cow's milk, and various infant formulas was determined by recently developed high performance liquid chromatography (6). As the examinations promised, the content of phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and sphingomyelin (SP) was not changed by homogenization and pasteurization of cow's milk. Levels of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) were below the detection limit. Furthermore it has been proved that human milk and cow's milk are more or less identical in PL content. Some of the PL in human milk varies during the course of pregnancy and postpartum. PI, PC, and SP content in the prepartum mammarial secretion lies above the average content of mature human milk after delivery. Before the contractions start, all the PL examined show a more or less considerable decrease. PC drops to 30% of the value at the beginning of the examination six weeks before delivery. PG contents are very low throughout the whole period. Contrary to the others, PC content recovers three weeks after delivery, which may be the result of the endogenous surfactant replacement system. To compare PL content with human milk and cow's milk, 13 different infant formulas have been examined. There are considerable differences to be found in and among adapted milk, partially adapted milk, and special formulas. None of the PL examined could be found in all the infant formulas, where PG content was usually low, except in some Milupa formulas. PE and PI were not to be found in some special formulas. Most of the formulas contain high amounts of SP, in some cases higher than the amount of PC. To a certain extent infant formulas contain a considerably greater amount of other PL concentrations than human milk and cow's milk. In most of the formulas examined the PL content is generally so high, that it can be used as a source of PL for the newborn.

  15. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  16. Early influence of auditory stimuli on upper-limb movements in young human infants: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Augusta Monteiro Ferronato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that the auditory system is rather well developed at the end of the third trimester of pregnancy, it is likely that couplings between acoustics and motor activity can be integrated as early as at the beginning of postnatal life. The aim of the present mini-review was to summarize and discuss studies on early auditory-motor integration, focusing particularly on upper-limb movements (one of the most crucial means to interact with the environment in association with auditory stimuli, to develop further understanding of their significance with regard to early infant development. Many studies have investigated the relationship between various infant behaviors (e.g., sucking, visual fixation, head turning and auditory stimuli, and established that human infants can be observed displaying couplings between action and environmental sensory stimulation already from just after birth, clearly indicating a propensity for intentional behavior. Surprisingly few studies, however, have investigated the associations between upper-limb movements and different auditory stimuli in newborns and young infants, infants born at risk for developmental disorders/delays in particular. Findings from studies of early auditory-motor interaction support that the developing integration of sensory and motor systems is a fundamental part of the process guiding the development of goal-directed action in infancy, of great importance for continued motor, perceptual and cognitive development. At-risk infants (e.g., those born preterm may display increasing central auditory processing disorders, negatively affecting early sensory-motor integration, and resulting in long-term consequences on gesturing, language development and social communication. Consequently, there is a need for more studies on such implications

  17. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-01-01

    Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help determine to what

  18. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help

  19. The Social Origins of Sustained Attention in One-Year-Old Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2016-05-09

    The ability to sustain attention is a major achievement in human development and is generally believed to be the developmental product of increasing self-regulatory and endogenous (i.e., internal, top-down, voluntary) control over one's attention and cognitive systems [1-5]. Because sustained attention in late infancy is predictive of future development, and because early deficits in sustained attention are markers for later diagnoses of attentional disorders [6], sustained attention is often viewed as a constitutional and individual property of the infant [6-9]. However, humans are social animals; developmental pathways for seemingly non-social competencies evolved within the social group and therefore may be dependent on social experience [10-13]. Here, we show that social context matters for the duration of sustained attention episodes in one-year-old infants during toy play. Using head-mounted eye tracking to record moment-by-moment gaze data from both parents and infants, we found that when the social partner (parent) visually attended to the object to which infant attention was directed, infants, after the parent's look, extended their duration of visual attention to the object. Looks to the same object by two social partners is a well-studied phenomenon known as joint attention, which has been shown to be critical to early learning and to the development of social skills [14, 15]. The present findings implicate joint attention in the development of the child's own sustained attention and thus challenge the current understanding of the origins of individual differences in sustained attention, providing a new and potentially malleable developmental pathway to the self-regulation of attention.

  20. FUNCTIONAL-ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL-ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, A; AHLBORG, UG; VANDENBERG, M; BIRNBAUM, LS; BOERSMA, ER; BOSVELD, B; DENISON, MS; GRAY, LE; HAGMAR, L; HOLENE, E; HUISMAN, M; JACOBSON, SW; JACOBSON, JL; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; KOPPE, JG; KULIG, BM; MORSE, DC; MUCKLE, G; PETERSON, RE; SAUER, PJJ; SEEGAL, RF; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; TOUWEN, BCL; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; WINNEKE, G

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and endocri

  1. Presence of human milk bank is associated with elevated rate of exclusive breastfeeding in VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Moro, Guido E; Bellù, Roberto; Turoli, Daniela; De Nisi, Giuseppe; Tonetto, Paola; Bertino, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    Human milk confers health benefits of vital importance for the sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Mother's own milk is the first choice in preterm infant feeding, and every effort should be made to promote lactation. When mother's milk is not available or is insufficient, donor human milk (DHM) is recommended. Yet, occasionally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease breastfeeding is being raised. The present data collection planned by the Italian Association of Human Milk Banks (AIBLUD) in collaboration with the Italian Neonatal Network (INN) attempted to address this concern. A total of 4277 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants from 83 Italian NICUs were evaluated for this comparative analysis. The 83 Italian NICUs were divided into two groups: centers with a human milk bank (HMB) and centers without a HMB; the available parameters in the network--"any and exclusive breastfeeding rates" and "exclusive formula rate" at discharge--were compared. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at discharge was significantly higher in NICUs with a HMB than in NICUs without (29.6% vs. 16.0%, respectively). Any breastfeeding rate at discharge tended to be higher in the NICUs with HMB (60.4% vs. 52.8%, P = 0.09), and exclusive formula rate was lower in the NICUs with HMB (26.5% vs. 31.3%), but this difference was not significant. This report shows that the presence of a HMB and the use of DHM in NICU are associated with increased breastfeeding rate at discharge from the hospital for VLBW infants.

  2. Normal Thymic Size and Low Rate of Infections in Human Donor Milk Fed HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants from Birth to 18 Months of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dorthe Lisbeth; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Hoppe, Tine Ursula

    2013-01-01

    (P age had significantly fewer infections at 8 months when compared to age-matched formula-fed infants (P = 0.001). Conclusion. HIV-EU infants fed human donor milk have normal growth of thymus and contract......Objective. To evaluate the immune function in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) infants fed human donor milk. Methods. Ultrasound-obtained thymic index (Ti), T-lymphocyte subsets, and the number of infections were examined from birth to 18 months of age in 18 HIV-EU infants. The infants were compared...... to a cohort of 47 term, HIV-unexposed breastfed or formula-fed infants. Results. The thymic size at 12 months of age was not significantly different between the HIV-EU group and the control infants (P = 0.56). At 4 months of age, the HIV-EU infants had significantly fewer infections than the control infants...

  3. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  4. Sex hormone influence on human infants' sound characteristics: melody in spontaneous crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermke, Kathleen; Hain, Johannes; Oehler, Klaus; Wermke, Peter; Hesse, Volker

    2014-05-01

    The specific impact of sex hormones on brain development and acoustic communication is known from animal models. Sex steroid hormones secreted during early development play an essential role in hemispheric organization and the functional lateralization of the brain, e.g. language. In animals, these hormones are well-known regulators of vocal motor behaviour. Here, the association between melody properties of infants' sounds and serum concentrations of sex steroids was investigated. Spontaneous crying was sampled in 18 healthy infants, averaging two samples taken at four and eight weeks, respectively. Blood samples were taken within a day of the crying samples. The fundamental frequency contour (melody) was analysed quantitatively and the infants' frequency modulation skills expressed by a melody complexity index (MCI). These skills provide prosodic primitives for later language. A hierarchical, multiple regression approach revealed a significant, robust relationship between the individual MCIs and the unbound, bioactive fraction of oestradiol at four weeks as well as with the four-to-eight-week difference in androstenedione. No robust relationship was found between the MCI and testosterone. Our findings suggest that oestradiol may have effects on the development and function of the auditory-vocal system in human infants that are as powerful as those in vocal-learning animals.

  5. Increased plasma soluble human leukocyte antigen-G in persistent wheezy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahan, Fulya; Eke Gungor, Hatice; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Saraymen, Berkay

    2017-05-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I antigen characterized by limited polymorphism in its coding region, unique tissue expression pattern in physiologic conditions and immunomodulatory properties. Recently, the level of soluble (s)HLA-G was found to be higher in atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis, but this remains to be clarified in wheezy infants. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate sHLA-G in wheezy infants. The subjects consisted of infants with persistent wheezing and positive modified asthma predictive index (mAPI; n = 30; persistent group) and those with transient wheezing and negative mAPI (n = 17; transient group). sHLA-G was measured in plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophil count were measured, and skin testing was performed with a battery of 13 antigens with appropriate positive and negative controls. sHLA-G was significantly higher in the persistent wheezing (positive mAPI) group compared with the transient wheezing (negative mAPI) group (P = 0.008). There was no significant difference in peripheral blood eosinophil count and total IgE between the groups. The increased sHLA-G in infants with persistent wheeze suggests that sHLA-G may be able to be used to distinguish persistent from transient wheeze. Further comprehensive studies are needed on this topic. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Molecular typing of fecal eukaryotic microbiota of human infants and their respective mothers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prashant K Pandey; Jay Siddharth; Pankaj Verma; Ashish Bavdekar; Milind S Patole; Yogesh S Shouche

    2012-06-01

    The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to harbour any micro-eukaryotes in their gut. In contrast, there were distinct eukaryotic microbiota present in the mothers. The investigation is the first of its kind in the comparative study of the human feces to reveal the presence of micro-eukaryotic diversity variance in infants and adults from the Indian subcontinent. The micro-eukaryotes encountered during the investigation include known gut colonizers like Blastocystis and some fungi species. Some of these micro-eukaryotes have been speculated to be involved in clinical manifestations of various diseases. The study is an attempt to highlight the importance of micro-eukaryotes in the human gut.

  7. Kinematic and Gait Similarities between Crawling Human Infants and Other Quadruped Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, Ludovic; Nylén, Anna; Rosander, Kerstin; Ijspeert, Auke Jan

    2015-01-01

    Crawling on hands and knees is an early pattern of human infant locomotion, which offers an interesting way of studying quadrupedalism in one of its simplest form. We investigate how crawling human infants compare to other quadruped mammals, especially primates. We present quantitative data on both the gait and kinematics of seven 10-month-old crawling infants. Body movements were measured with an optoelectronic system giving precise data on 3-dimensional limb movements. Crawling on hands and knees is very similar to the locomotion of non-human primates in terms of the quite protracted arm at touch-down, the coordination between the spine movements in the lateral plane and the limbs, the relatively extended limbs during locomotion and the strong correlation between stance duration and speed of locomotion. However, there are important differences compared to primates, such as the choice of a lateral-sequence walking gait, which is similar to most non-primate mammals and the relatively stiff elbows during stance as opposed to the quite compliant gaits of primates. These finding raise the question of the role of both the mechanical structure of the body and neural control on the determination of these characteristics.

  8. Human infants' preference for left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores de Hevia

    Full Text Available While associations between number and space, in the form of a spatially oriented numerical representation, have been extensively reported in human adults, the origins of this phenomenon are still poorly understood. The commonly accepted view is that this number-space association is a product of human invention, with accounts proposing that culture, symbolic knowledge, and mathematics education are at the roots of this phenomenon. Here we show that preverbal infants aged 7 months, who lack symbolic knowledge and mathematics education, show a preference for increasing magnitude displayed in a left-to-right spatial orientation. Infants habituated to left-to-right oriented increasing or decreasing numerical sequences showed an overall higher looking time to new left-to-right oriented increasing numerical sequences at test (Experiment 1. This pattern did not hold when infants were presented with the same ordinal numerical information displayed from right to left (Experiment 2. The different pattern of results was congruent with the presence of a malleable, context-dependent baseline preference for increasing, left-to-right oriented, numerosities (Experiment 3. These findings are suggestive of an early predisposition in humans to link numerical order with a left-to-right spatial orientation, which precedes the acquisition of symbolic abilities, mathematics education, and the acquisition of reading and writing skills.

  9. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoene, Melissa; Lyden, Elizabeth; Weishaar, Kara; Elliott, Elizabeth; Wu, Ruomei; White, Katelyn; Timm, Hayley; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF) vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF). A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF) is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g) who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51). AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05)) and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001). AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05). However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21) and protein (p < 0.0001), mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038). Three AL-HMF infants (13%) developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056). A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). PMID:27472359

  10. Comparison of a Powdered, Acidified Liquid, and Non-Acidified Liquid Human Milk Fortifier on Clinical Outcomes in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Thoene

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We previously compared infant outcomes between a powdered human milk fortifier (P-HMF vs. acidified liquid HMF (AL-HMF. A non-acidified liquid HMF (NAL-HMF is now commercially available. The purpose of this study is to compare growth and outcomes of premature infants receiving P-HMF, AL-HMF or NAL-HMF. An Institutional Review Board (IRB approved retrospective chart review compared infant outcomes (born < 2000 g who received one of three HMF. Growth, enteral nutrition, laboratory and demographic data were compared. 120 infants were included (P-HMF = 46, AL-HMF = 23, NAL-HMF = 51. AL-HMF infants grew slower in g/day (median 23.66 vs. P-HMF 31.27, NAL-HMF 31.74 (p < 0.05 and in g/kg/day, median 10.59 vs. 15.37, 14.03 (p < 0.0001. AL-HMF vs. NAL-HMF infants were smaller at 36 weeks gestational age (median 2046 vs. 2404 g, p < 0.05. However AL-HMF infants received more daily calories (p = 0.21 and protein (p < 0.0001, mean 129 cal/kg, 4.2 g protein/kg vs. P-HMF 117 cal/kg, 3.7 g protein/kg , NAL-HMF 120 cal/kg, 4.0 g protein/kg. AL-HMF infants exhibited lower carbon dioxide levels after day of life 14 and 30 (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0038. Three AL-HMF infants (13% developed necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC vs. no infants in the remaining groups (p = 0.0056. A NAL-HMF is the most optimal choice for premature human milk-fed infants in a high acuity neonatal intensive care unit (NICU.

  11. Biological Activities of Extracellular Vesicles and Their Cargos from Bovine and Human Milk in Humans and Implications for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempleni, Janos; Aguilar-Lozano, Ana; Sadri, Mahrou; Sukreet, Sonal; Manca, Sonia; Wu, Di; Zhou, Fang; Mutai, Ezra

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) in milk harbor a variety of compounds, including lipids, proteins, noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs. Among the various classes of EVs, exosomes are of particular interest, because cargo sorting in exosomes is a regulated, nonrandom process and exosomes play essential roles in cell-to-cell communication. Encapsulation in exosomes confers protection against enzymatic and nonenzymatic degradation of cargos and provides a pathway for cellular uptake of cargos by endocytosis of exosomes. Compelling evidence suggests that exosomes in bovine milk are transported by intestinal cells, vascular endothelial cells, and macrophages in human and rodent cell cultures, and bovine-milk exosomes are delivered to peripheral tissues in mice. Evidence also suggests that cargos in bovine-milk exosomes, in particular RNAs, are delivered to circulating immune cells in humans. Some microRNAs and mRNAs in bovine-milk exosomes may regulate the expression of human genes and be translated into protein, respectively. Some exosome cargos are quantitatively minor in the diet compared with endogenous synthesis. However, noncanonical pathways have been identified through which low concentrations of dietary microRNAs may alter gene expression, such as the accumulation of exosomes in the immune cell microenvironment and the binding of microRNAs to Toll-like receptors. Phenotypes observed in infant-feeding studies include higher Mental Developmental Index, Psychomotor Development Index, and Preschool Language Scale-3 scores in breastfed infants than in those fed various formulas. In mice, supplementation with plant-derived MIR-2911 improved the antiviral response compared with controls. Porcine-milk exosomes promote the proliferation of intestinal cells in mice. This article discusses the above-mentioned advances in research concerning milk exosomes and their cargos in human nutrition. Implications for infant nutrition are emphasized, where permitted, but data in infants are

  12. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Early enteral feeding with human milk for VLBW infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nisi, G; Berti, M; De Nisi, M; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    In a NICU early enteral feeding is usually possible only when the newborn clinical conditions permit it. Because of the frequent need of umbilical/central catheters, they usually start with parenteral feeding and/or with minimal enteral feeding (trophic feeding). This kind of management is even more frequent in VLBWIs, in which the risk of NEC is very high. In this work we describe a model of early enteral exclusive feeding (EEEF) based on the use of banking human milk followed by mother milk. In the Centre of Neonatology of Trento, as in other Centers, the newborns weighing less than 750g or with a GE 26 weeks define a group in which we find critical neonates, who can not be treated with enteral feeding, and neonates whose clinical conditions permit EEEF. In particular, in a period of 16 years (1994-2009) in Trento, 308 newborns weighing 750-1249 g and GE > than 26 weeks were admitted. The 90,9 % has been treated with prenatal steroids, the 91,9 % was inborn, the 96,1% survived. In the 59,1 % of the cases (175) we gave EEEF. We could continue with a complete EEEF in the 40,2 % of the total (119 cases). The characteristics of these neonates and our centre management, based mainly on early use of banking human milk and mother milk, are detailed described.

  14. Energy intake from human milk covers the requirement of 6-month-old Senegalese exclusively breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne-Djigo, Anta; Kwadjode, Komlan M; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diouf, Adama; Guiro, Amadou T; Wade, Salimata

    2013-11-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months is advised by the WHO as the best practice to feed infants. Yet, some studies have suggested a gap between energy requirements and the energy provided by human milk for many infants at 6 months. In order to assess the adequacy of WHO recommendations in 6-month-old Senegalese lactating infants, a comprehensive study was designed to measure human milk intake by the dose-to-the mother 2H2O turnover method. Infants’ energy intakes were calculated using daily breast milk intake and the energy content of milk was estimated on the basis of creamatocrit. Of the fifty-nine mother–infant pairs enrolled, fifteen infants were exclusively breast-fed (Ex) while forty-four were partially breast-fed (Part). Infants’ breast milk intake was significantly higher in the Ex group (993 (SD 135) g/d, n 15) compared with the Part group (828 (SD 222) g/d, n 44, P¼0·009). Breast milk energy content as well as infants' growth was comparable in both groups. However, infants’ energy intake from human milk was significantly higher (364 (SD 50) kJ/kg per d (2586 (SD 448) kJ/d)) in the Ex group than in the Part group (289 (SD 66) kJ/kg per d (2150 (SD 552) kJ/d), P,0·01). Compared with WHO recommendations, the results demonstrate that energy intake from breast milk was low in partially breast-fed infants while exclusively breast-fed 6-month-old Senegalese infants received adequate energy from human milk alone, the most complete food for infants. Therefore, advocacy of exclusive breast-feeding until 6 months should be strengthened.

  15. Changes of Fluctuating Asymmetry with Age in Human Fetuses and Young Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Van Dongen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA, increases with stress in humans, yet little is known about how stress affects the changes of asymmetry with age. More specifically, it is unknown if fetuses experiencing a major congenital abnormality will express higher FA already during early development or only at a later age; (2 Methods: We combine two datasets to study associations between age and asymmetry in human fetuses and young infants. One population consists of fetuses from spontaneous abortions and early deceased infants where many experienced major congenital abnormalities, and a second from elicited abortions for social reasons; (3 Results: While the occurrence of major abnormalities did not seem to affect the way asymmetry decreased with age, differences between the two populations were observed; and (4 Conclusions: In one population where fetuses and young infants deceased of natural causes, asymmetry decreased rapidly until 20 weeks of age and then leveled off. Over the entire timespan (week 15–49, individuals with major congenital abnormalities showed higher FA, suggesting that developmental perturbations increase FA rapidly. In the second, more normal population with abortions solicited for social reasons, the decrease in asymmetry with age was less profound and not statistically significant, calling for further research toward understanding regional differences.

  16. Laboratory diagnosis of infection status in infants perinatally exposed to human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M O; Tetali, S; Lesser, M L; Abrams, E J; Wang, X P; Kowalski, R; Bamji, M; Napolitano, B; Gulick, L; Bakshi, S

    1996-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of infection status in infants born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of paramount importance. The comparative accuracy of five diagnostic decision rules was evaluated in 208 HIV-exposed infants (32 infected, 176 uninfected) based on laboratory testing during the first 6 months of life. Diagnostic rules A and B, which required single blood samples analyzed by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (rule A) or culture, PCR, and p24 antigen detection (rule B) were more prone to incorrect diagnoses than were rules requiring 2 blood samples analyzed by a single assay (rule C) or combinations of culture and PCR (rules D and E). Rule D, which used PCR as the initial test, established the most useful algorithm: a positive PCR result followed by a positive culture in the second sample confirmed infected status, while two consecutive negative PCR results reconfirmed as negative at 6 months of age established uninfected status.

  17. Human Parechovirus 3: The Most Common Viral Cause of Meningoencephalitis in Young Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Christian; Harrison, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) were initially classified as echoviruses. HPeVs occur worldwide, comprising up to 17 genotypes. HPeV1 and HPeV3 are most common. Clinical disease varies somewhat among genotypes. HPeV1 causes mostly gastrointestinal infections. HPeV3's prominence is due to its causing sepsis syndromes and central nervous system (CNS) infections in young infants. Currently, HPeV3 is the most common single cause of aseptic meningitis/meningoencephalitis in infants less than 90 days old in North America, usually with biannual summer-fall seasonality. HPeV3 CNS infections usually lack cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis. Mortality and sequelae are uncommon, usually accompanying initially severe or neurologically complicated acute illnesses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S S; Tetali, S; Abrams, E J; Paul, M O; Pahwa, S G

    1995-08-01

    Three human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-exposed children who had repeatedly positive DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for HIV in > or = 5 samples before seroreversion to HIV-negative status are reported. The children belong to a cohort of 210 infants who were born to HIV-infected mothers and were tested at intervals of 1 to 3 months by HIV viral culture, PCR, and p24 antigen; only the PCR was positive in > or = 5 samples in the children reported here. Their clinical features were indistinguishable from other seroreverters. All three children had a transient drop in CD4:CD8 ratio to < 1.0. The transiently positive DNA PCR in HIV-exposed infants may indicate either that HIV infection was eliminated by a strong host immune response or that infection was caused by an attenuated/defective strain of virus.

  19. Human milk fortifier with high versus standard protein content for promoting growth of preterm infants: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Dang, Dan; Lv, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Teng-Fei; Du, Jin-Feng; Wu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To compare the growth of preterm infants fed standard protein-fortified human milk with that containing human milk fortifier (HMF) with a higher-than-standard protein content. Published articles reporting randomized controlled trials and prospective observational intervention studies listed on the PubMed®, Embase®, CINAHL and Cochrane Library databases were searched using the keywords 'fortifier', 'human milk', 'breastfeeding', 'breast milk' and 'human milk fortifier'. The mean difference with 95% confidence intervals was used to compare the effect of HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content on infant growth characteristics. Five studies with 352 infants with birth weight ≤ 1750 g and a gestational age ≤ 34 weeks who were fed human milk were included in this meta-analysis. Infants in the experimental groups given human milk with higher-than-standard protein fortifier achieved significantly greater weight and length at the end of the study, and greater weight gain, length gain, and head circumference gain, compared with control groups fed human milk with the standard HMF. HMF with a higher-than-standard protein content can improve preterm infant growth compared with standard HMF. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Neurodevelopmental Impairment among Infants Born to Mothers Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Uninfected Mothers from Three Peri-Urban Primary Care Clinics in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandawasvika, Gwendoline Q.; Ogundipe, Enitan; Gumbo, Felicity Z.; Kurewa, Edith N.; Mapingure, Munyaradzi P.; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to document the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among infants enrolled in a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) in Zimbabwe using the Bayley Infant Neurodevelopmental Screener (BINS). Method: We prospectively followed up infants at three…

  1. Decreased catecholamine secretion from the adrenal medullae of chronically diabetic BB-Wistar rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, R. A.; Riley, D. A.; Lelkes, P. I.; Hillard, C. J.

    1993-01-01

    Many humans with IDDM eventually lose the capacity to secrete epinephrine from their adrenal medullae. The mechanism for this pathological change is unknown. We hypothesized that this abnormality is attributable to neuropathic changes in the greater splanchnic nerves or in the chromaffin cells that they innervate. To study this hypothesis, we isolated rat adrenal glands, perfused them ex vivo, and measured the epinephrine content of the perfusate under various conditions of stimulation. We used transmural electrical stimulation (20-80 V, at 10 Hz) to induce epinephrine secretion indirectly by selectively activating residual splanchnic nerve terminals within the isolated glands. Under these conditions, epinephrine secretion was severely attenuated in glands from female BB-Wistar rats with diabetes of 4 mo duration compared with their age-matched, nondiabetic controls. These perfused diabetic adrenal medullae also demonstrated decreased catecholamine release in response to direct chromaffin cell depolarization with 20 mM K+, evidence that a functional alteration exists within the chromaffin cells themselves. Nonetheless, total catecholamine content of adrenal medullae from these diabetic rats was not significantly different from controls, indicating that the secretory defect was not simply attributable to a difference in the amount of catecholamines stored and available for release. Herein, we also provide histological evidence of degenerative changes within the cholinergic nerve terminals that innervate these glands.

  2. Enhancing Human Milk Production With Domperidone in Mothers of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha; da Silva, Orlando P; Ito, Shinya; Kiss, Alex; Knoppert, David

    2017-02-01

    Mothers of preterm infants often are at risk of expressing an inadequate amount of milk for their infants and the use of galactogogues is often considered. Domperidone is a widely used galactogogue with little information available to guide clinicians regarding initiation, timing, and duration of treatment. Research aim: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether administration of domperidone within the first 21 days after delivery would lead to a higher proportion of mothers achieving a 50% increase in the volume of milk at the end of 14 days of treatment compared with mothers receiving placebo. Eligible mothers were randomized to one of two treatment arms: Group A-domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days; or Group B-placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days. A total of 90 mothers of infants ≤ 29 weeks gestation were randomized. Mean milk volumes at entry were similar for both groups. More mothers achieved a 50% increase in milk volume after 14 days in Group A (77.8%) compared with Group B (57.8%), odds ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval [1.02, 6.25], p = .04. A greater number of mothers experienced a 50% or more increase in human milk volume, but the absolute increase in milk volume was modest.

  3. Three-dimensional optical topography of brain activity in infants watching videos of human movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Teresa; Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Everdell, Nick; Blasi, Anna; Elwell, Clare; Hebden, Jeremy C.; Gibson, Adam

    2012-03-01

    We present 3D optical topography images reconstructed from data obtained previously while infants observed videos of adults making natural movements of their eyes and hands. The optical topography probe was placed over the temporal cortex, which in adults is responsible for cognitive processing of similar stimuli. Increases in oxyhaemoglobin were measured and reconstructed using a multispectral imaging algorithm with spatially variant regularization to optimize depth discrimination. The 3D optical topography images suggest that similar brain regions are activated in infants and adults. Images were presented showing the distribution of activation in a plane parallel to the surface, as well as changes in activation with depth. The time-course of activation was followed in the pixel which demonstrated the largest change, showing that changes could be measured with high temporal resolution. These results suggest that infants a few months old have regions which are specialized for reacting to human activity, and that these subtle changes can be effectively analysed using 3D optical topography.

  4. Acute lung injury after instillation of human breast milk or infant formula into rabbits' lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, B; Lerman, J; Endo, J; Cutz, E

    1996-06-01

    Recent interest in shortening the fasting interval after ingestion of milk products demonstrated large volumes of breast milk in the stomach 2 h after breastfeeding. Although aspiration is a rare event, if it were to occur with human breast milk, it is important to understand the extent of the lung injury that might occur. Therefore, the response to instillation of acidified breast milk and infant formula in the lungs of adult rabbits was studied. In 18 anesthetized adult rabbits, 1 of 3 fluids (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8, acidified with hydrochloric acid); saline, breast milk, or infant formula (SMA, Wyeth, Windsor, Ontario), was instilled into the lungs via a tracheotomy. The lungs were ventilated for 4 h after instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient and dynamic compliance were measured before and at hourly intervals after instillation. After 4 h, the rabbits were killed and the lungs were excised. Neutrophil infiltration was quantitated by a pathologist blinded to the instilled fluid. A histologic control group of four rabbits was ventilated under study conditions without any intratracheal fluid instillation. Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient increased and dynamic compliance decreased significantly during the 4 h after instillation of both breast milk and infant formula compared with baseline measurements and with saline controls (P formula rabbits were significantly greater than those in the control group. Instillation of acidified breast milk or infant formula (in a volume of 0.8 ml.kg-1 and pH level of 1.8) into rabbits' lungs induces acute lung injury of similar intensity that lasts at least 4 h.

  5. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arianna Aceti; Luca Maggio; Isadora Beghetti; Davide Gori; Giovanni Barone; Maria Luisa Callegari; Maria Pia Fantini; Flavia Indrio; Fabio Meneghin; Lorenzo Morelli; Gianvincenzo Zuccotti; Luigi Corvaglia; on behalf of the Italian Society of Neonatology

    2017-01-01

    ... (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic...

  6. Donor human milk for preterm infants: current evidence and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanoglu, Sertac; Corpeleijn, Willemijn; Moro, Guido; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Hojsak, Iva; Mihatsch, Walter; Mølgaard, Christian; Shamir, Raanan; Turck, Dominique; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2013-10-01

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.

  7. Gastric Emptying and Curding of Pasteurized Donor Human Milk and Mother's Own Milk in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrella, Sharon L; Hepworth, Anna R; Gridneva, Zoya; Simmer, Karen N; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of fortification and composition on gastric emptying and curding in un/fortified pairs of mother's own milk (MOM, n = 17) and pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM, n = 15) in preterm infants. Retained meal proportions (%) and curding were determined from sonography. Immediate and subsequent postprandial % were higher for PDHM (23%, P = 0.026; 15%, P = 0.006) and fortified meals (31.5%; 8.8%, both P lactose concentrations were associated with lower immediate postprandial % (all P intolerance.

  8. Control of REM sleep by ventral medulla GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franz; Chung, Shinjae; Beier, Kevin T; Xu, Min; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2015-10-15

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since been studied extensively. The medulla also contains neurons that are active during REM sleep, but whether they play a causal role in REM sleep generation remains unclear. Here we show that a GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric-acid-releasing) pathway originating from the ventral medulla powerfully promotes REM sleep in mice. Optogenetic activation of ventral medulla GABAergic neurons rapidly and reliably initiated REM sleep episodes and prolonged their durations, whereas inactivating these neurons had the opposite effects. Optrode recordings from channelrhodopsin-2-tagged ventral medulla GABAergic neurons showed that they were most active during REM sleep (REMmax), and during wakefulness they were preferentially active during eating and grooming. Furthermore, dual retrograde tracing showed that the rostral projections to the pons and midbrain and caudal projections to the spinal cord originate from separate ventral medulla neuron populations. Activating the rostral GABAergic projections was sufficient for both the induction and maintenance of REM sleep, which are probably mediated in part by inhibition of REM-suppressing GABAergic neurons in the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey. These results identify a key component of the pontomedullary network controlling REM sleep. The capability to induce REM sleep on command may offer a powerful tool for investigating its functions.

  9. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  10. Feasibility and Efficacy of Defatted Human Milk in the Treatment for Chylothorax After Cardiac Surgery in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Kristi L; DellaValle, Diane M; Buckley, Jason R; Graham, Eric M; Zyblewski, Sinai C

    2016-08-01

    Chylothorax is a well-described complication after cardiothoracic surgery in children. Medical nutritional therapy for chylothorax includes medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) formulas and reduction in enteral long-chain triglyceride intake to reduce chyle production. Human milk is usually eliminated from the diet of infants with chylothorax because of its high long-chain triglyceride content. However, given the immunologic properties of human milk, young infants with chylothorax may benefit from using human milk over human milk substitutes. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe the feasibility and efficacy of defatted human milk (DHM) for the treatment for chylothorax in infants after cardiac surgery and to compare growth outcomes between infants treated with DHM (n = 14) versus MCT formula (n = 21). There were no differences in mortality or length of hospital stay between the DHM and MCT formula treatment groups. The DHM treatment group had a significantly higher weight-for-age z-score at hospital discharge compared to the MCT formula group with median z-scores of -1 (-2 to 0.5) and -1.5 (-2 to 0), respectively (p = 0.02). In infants with chylothorax after cardiac surgery, DHM is a safe and feasible medical nutritional treatment and may have potential benefits for improved nutrition and growth.

  11. Characterization and angiogenic potential of human neonatal and infant thymus mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G; Si, Ming-Sing

    2015-04-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro.

  12. Effect of Human Milk Appetite Hormones, Macronutrients, and Infant Characteristics on Gastric Emptying and Breastfeeding Patterns of Term Fully Breastfed Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridneva, Zoya; Kugananthan, Sambavi; Hepworth, Anna R; Tie, Wan J; Lai, Ching T; Ward, Leigh C; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2016-12-28

    Human milk (HM) components influence infant feeding patterns and nutrient intake, yet it is unclear how they influence gastric emptying (GE), a key component of appetite regulation. This study analyzed GE of a single breastfeed, HM appetite hormones/macronutrients and demographics/anthropometrics/body composition of term fully breastfed infants (n = 41, 2 and/or 5 mo). Stomach volumes (SV) were calculated from pre-/post-feed ultrasound scans, then repeatedly until the next feed. Feed volume (FV) was measured by the test-weigh method. HM samples were analyzed for adiponectin, leptin, fat, lactose, total carbohydrate, lysozyme, and total/whey/casein protein. Linear regression/mixed effect models were used to determine associations between GE/feed variables and HM components/infant anthropometrics/adiposity. Higher FVs were associated with faster (-0.07 [-0.10, -0.03], p whey protein concentration was associated with higher post-feed SVs (4.99 [0.84, 9.13], p = 0.023). Longer GE time was associated with higher adiponectin concentration (2.29 [0.92, 3.66], p = 0.002) and dose (0.02 [0.01, 0.03], p = 0.005), and lower casein:whey ratio (-65.89 [-107.13, -2.66], p = 0.003). FV and HM composition influence GE and breastfeeding patterns in term breastfed infants.

  13. Of Hissing Snakes and Angry Voices: Human Infants Are Differentially Responsive to Evolutionary Fear-Relevant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to,…

  14. Of Hissing Snakes and Angry Voices: Human Infants Are Differentially Responsive to Evolutionary Fear-Relevant Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Nicole; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    Adult humans demonstrate differential processing of stimuli that were recurrent threats to safety and survival throughout evolutionary history. Recent studies suggest that differential processing of evolutionarily ancient threats occurs in human infants, leading to the proposal of an inborn mechanism for rapid identification of, and response to,…

  15. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfoli, Isabella; Ravera, Silvia; Podestà, Marina; Cossu, Claudia; Santucci, Laura; Bartolucci, Martina; Bruschi, Maurizio; Calzia, Daniela; Sabatini, Federica; Bruschettini, Matteo; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Romantsik, Olga; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pistoia, Vito; Ghiggeri, Gianmarco; Frassoni, Francesco; Candiano, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Exosomes are secreted nanovesicles that are able to transfer RNA and proteins to target cells. The emerging role of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes as promoters of aerobic ATP synthesis restoration in damaged cells, prompted us to assess whether they contain an extramitochondrial aerobic respiration capacity. Exosomes were isolated from culture medium of human MSCs from umbilical cord of ≥37-wk-old newborns or between 28- to 30-wk-old newborns (i.e.,term or preterm infants). Characterization of samples was conducted by cytofluorometry. Oxidative phosphorylation capacity was assessed by Western blot analysis, oximetry, and luminometric and fluorometric analyses. MSC exosomes express functional respiratory complexes I, IV, and V, consuming oxygen. ATP synthesis was only detectable in exosomes from term newborns, suggestive of a specific mechanism that is not completed at an early gestational age. Activities are outward facing and comparable to those detected in mitochondria isolated from term MSCs. MSC exosomes display an unsuspected aerobic respiratory ability independent of whole mitochondria. This may be relevant for their ability to rescue cell bioenergetics. The differential oxidative metabolism of pretermvs.term exosomes sheds new light on the preterm newborn's clinical vulnerability. A reduced ability to repair damaged tissue and an increased capability to cope with anoxic environment for preterm infants can be envisaged.-Panfoli, I., Ravera, S., Podestà, M., Cossu, C., Santucci, L., Bartolucci, M., Bruschi, M., Calzia, D., Sabatini, F., Bruschettini, M., Ramenghi, L. A., Romantsik, O., Marimpietri, D., Pistoia, V., Ghiggeri, G., Frassoni, F., Candiano, G. Exosomes from human mesenchymal stem cells conduct aerobic metabolism in term and preterm newborn infants.

  16. Lactational Stage of Pasteurized Human Donor Milk Contributes to Nutrient Limitations for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Valentine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mother’s own milk is the first choice for feeding preterm infants, but when not available, pasteurized human donor milk (PDM is often used. Infants fed PDM have difficulties maintaining appropriate growth velocities. To assess the most basic elements of nutrition, we tested the hypotheses that fatty acid and amino acid composition of PDM is highly variable and standard pooling practices attenuate variability; however, total nutrients may be limiting without supplementation due to late lactational stage of the milk. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional sampling of milk was obtained from five donor milk banks located in Ohio, Michigan, Colorado, Texas-Ft Worth, and California. Milk samples were collected after Institutional Review Board (#07-0035 approval and informed consent. Fatty acid and amino acid contents were measured in milk from individual donors and donor pools (pooled per Human Milk Banking Association of North America guidelines. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis, Spearman’s, or Multivariate Regression analyses with center as the fixed factor and lactational stage as co-variate. Results. Ten of the fourteen fatty acids and seventeen of the nineteen amino acids analyzed differed across Banks in the individual milk samples. Pooling minimized these differences in amino acid and fatty acid contents. Concentrations of lysine and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were not different across Banks, but concentrations were low compared to recommended levels. Conclusions. Individual donor milk fatty acid and amino acid contents are highly variable. Standardized pooling practice reduces this variability. Lysine and DHA concentrations were consistently low across geographic regions in North America due to lactational stage of the milk, and thus not adequately addressed by pooling. Targeted supplementation is needed to optimize PDM, especially for the preterm or volume restricted infant.

  17. Diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in infants by immune complex dissociation p24 assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M O; Toedter, G; Hofheinz, D; Tetali, S; Pelton, S; Marecki, M; Brena, A; Abrams, E J; Landesman, S; Pahwa, S

    1997-01-01

    Using immune complex dissociation (ICD), we retrospectively examined serum and plasma of 206 infants aged 0 to 4 months who were perinatally exposed to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All samples were analyzed in a blinded manner. Infection status was determined based on the results of HIV culture and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification. The overall diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 59% (93 samples, 73 infants), and specificity was 100% (160 samples, 133 infants). When the samples were analyzed according to age, sensitivity was highest at age 1 to 2 months (17 of 21 infants, 81%). Sensitivities at other ages were 53% at 80% at 1 to 2 months of age and 100% specificity, as evaluated, up to 4 months of age.

  18. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Penni D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1 To evaluate calcium absorption in infants fed a formula containing prebiotics (PF and one without prebiotics (CF. 2 To compare calcium absorption from these formulas with a group of human milk-fed (HM infants. Methods A dual tracer stable isotope method was used to assess calcium absorption in infants exclusively fed CF (n = 30, PF (n = 25 or HM (n = 19. Analysis of variance was used to analyze calcium intake, fractional calcium absorption, and the amount of calcium absorbed. Results Calcium intake (Mean ± SEM for PF was 534 ± 17 mg/d and 557 ± 16 mg/d for CF (p = 0.33. Fractional calcium absorption was 56.8 ± 2.6 % for PF and 59.2 ± 2.3 % for CF (p = 0.49. Total calcium absorbed for PF was 300 ± 14 mg/d and 328 ± 13 mg/d for CF (p = 0.16. For HM infants calcium intake was 246 ± 20 mg/d, fractional calcium absorption was 76.0 ± 2.9 % and total calcium absorbed was 187 ± 16 mg/d (p Conclusions Despite lower fractional calcium absorption of CF and PF compared to HM, higher calcium content in both led to higher total calcium absorption compared to HM infants. No significant effect of prebiotics was observed on calcium absorption or other markers of bone mineral metabolism.

  19. Microarray-bioinformatics analysis of altered genomic expression profiles between human fetal and infant myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Bo; LIU Ying-long; L(U) Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    Background The physiological differences between fetal and postnatal heart have been well characterized at the cellular level. However, the genetic mechanisms governing and regulating these differences have only been partially elucidated. Elucidation of the differentially expressed genes profile before and after birth has never been systematically proposed and analyzed.Methods The human oligonuclectide microarray and bioinformatics analysis approaches were applied to isolate and classify the differentially expressed genes between fetal and infant cardiac tissue samples. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the results from the microarray.Results Two hundred and forty-two differentially expressed genes were discovered and classified into 13 categories, including genes related to energy metabolism, myocyte hyperplasia, development, muscle contraction, protein synthesis and degradation, extraceUular matrix components, transcription factors, apoptosis, signal pathway molecules, organelle organization and several other biological processes. Moreover, 95 genes were identified which had not previously been reported to be expressed in the heart.Conclusions The study systematically analyzed the alteration of the gene expression profile between the human fetal and infant myocardium. A number of genes were discovered which had not been reported to be expressed in the heart. The data provided insight into the physical development mechanisms of the heart before and after birth.KONG Bo and LU Xiao-dong contributed equally to this study.

  20. Recent evidence from human and animal studies regarding iron status and infant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John

    2007-02-01

    Infants are at risk for iron deficiency as breast milk or formula is replaced by semisolid foods during weaning. The scope of this article is to briefly review new findings on developmental iron deficiency and the persistence of deficiency effects into adulthood. A lack of sufficient iron intake may significantly delay the development of the central nervous system because of alterations in morphology, neurochemistry, and bioenergics. Depending on the stage of development at the time of iron deficiency, there may be an opportunity to reverse adverse effects, but the success of repletion efforts may be time dependent. The program project on "Brain and Behavior in Early Iron Deficiency" (B. Lozoff, P.I.) undertook preclinical and clinical studies to identify the regions of the brain and behaviors affected, and perhaps irreversibly altered, by early-life iron deficiency. Multiple outcomes are being measured in humans, nonhuman primates, and rodents. Data in monkeys show significant effects on neurodevelopment with dietary iron deficiency. Findings in human infants are consistent with altered myelination and changes in monoamine functioning. Rodent studies show that effects of iron deficiency during gestation and lactation persist despite restoration of iron status at weaning. These cross-species studies indicate a vulnerable period in early development that may result in long-lasting damage.

  1. Age-Related Disruption of Steady-State Thymic Medulla Provokes Autoimmune Phenotype via Perturbing Negative Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangyan; Wang, Hongjun; Guo, Jianfei; Zhang, Zhijie; Coder, Brandon; Su, Dong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The hymic medulla plays an essential role in the generation of central tolerance by eliminating self-reactive T-cell clones through thymic negative selection and developing natural regulatory T cells. Age-related FoxN1 decline induces disruption of medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). However, it is unknown whether this perturbs central tolerance to increase autoimmune predisposition in the elderly. Using a loxP-floxed-FoxN1 (FoxN1(flox)) mouse model, which exhibits a spontaneous ubiquitous deletion of FoxN1 with age to accelerate thymic aging, we investigated whether disruption of steady-state thymic medulla results in an increase of autoimmune-prone associated with age. We demonstrated age-associated ubiquitous loss of FoxN1(flox)-formed two-dimensional thymic epithelial cysts were primarily located in the medulla. This resulted in disruption of thymic medullary steady state, with evidence of perturbed negative selection, including reduced expression of the autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene and disrupted accumulation of thymic dendritic cells in the medulla, which are required for negative selection. These provoke autoimmune phenotypes, including increased inflammatory cell infiltration in multiple organs in these mice. This finding in an animal model provides a mechanistic explanation of increased susceptibility to autoimmunity in aged humans, although they may not show clinic manifestations without induction.

  2. Identification of Probiotic Strains from Human Milk in Breastfed Infants with Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamtu Bogdan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and industrial exploitation of probiotics from human milk is a goal for worldwide milk biotechnology centres because of their modulation effect on the immune system in infants and adults. In the proposed study we have analysed fermentation patterns of Lactobacilli isolated from human milk, the reliability of API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation system and a possible link between lactose concentrations and fermentation profiles on carbohydrates. We had succesfully identified three species of Lactobacillus (paracasei ssp paracasei, fermentum, acidophilus and one unsatisfactory identification of Lactoccocus lactis ssp lactis. These strains had different carbohydrate fermentation patterns but with common characteristics and showed no statistically significant correlations between their carbohydrate metabolic trends and lactose concentrations in the milk samples.

  3. Impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samira C; Bellanger, Amandine; Ménard, Olivia; Pladys, Patrick; Le Gouar, Yann; Dirson, Emelyne; Kroell, Florian; Dupont, Didier; Deglaire, Amélie; Bourlieu, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Holder pasteurization has been reported to modify human milk composition and structure by inactivating bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) and partially denaturing some of its proteins, potentially affecting its subsequent digestion. We sought to determine the impact of human milk pasteurization on gastric digestion (particularly for proteins and lipids) in preterm infants who were fed their mothers' own milk either raw or pasteurized. In a randomized controlled trial, 12 hospitalized tube-fed preterm infants were their own control group in comparing the gastric digestion of raw human milk (RHM) with pasteurized human milk (PHM). Over a 6-d sequence, gastric aspirates were collected 2 times/d before and after RHM or PHM ingestion. The impact of milk pasteurization digestive kinetics and disintegration was tested with the use of a general linear mixed model. Despite inactivating BSSL, instantaneous lipolysis was not affected by pasteurization (mean ± SD at 90 min: 12.6% ± 4.7%; P > 0.05). Lipolysis occurred in milk before digestion and was higher for PHM than for RHM (mean ± SD: 3.2% ± 0.6% and 2.2% ± 0.8%, respectively; P milk but did affect lactoferrin and α-lactalbumin proteolysis and emulsion disintegration. Freeze-thawing and pasteurization increased the milk lipolysis before digestion but did not affect gastric lipolysis. Possible consequences on intestinal digestion and associated nutritional outcomes were not considered in this study. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02112331. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Variations of Infant and Under-five Child Mortality Rates around the World, the Role of Human Development Index (HDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Human Development Index (HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators, which apart from measuring the socio-economic development of countries can predict health outcomes. The current study aimed at determination of the effects of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality. Materials and Methods: At a cross- sectional study,data on infant and child mortality rates and values for HDI individual components were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO and the World Bank respectively. The effect of HDI individual components on infant and child mortality were derived from linear regression models. Results: During 1990-2015, infant and child mortality have declined in all countries. Most proportion of child mortality is attributed to death in infants. All HDI individual components significantly  inversely were related to infant mortality rate (IMR and among them expected years of schooling has the strongest effect with regression coefficient of β= -5.9 (95% CI: -6.63, -5.13. Conclusion: The highest IMRs have been observed for EMRO and AFRO regions of the WHO. Policies targeting women health and empowerment can have a tremendous impact on reducing child mortality rates around the world.

  5. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (type-1) in rat adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, J; Kristensen, P; Pyke, C; Danø, K

    1989-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) was identified in extracts of rat adrenal medulla, and its immunohistochemical localization was studied together with that of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). By staining of adjacent sections and by double-staining of the same section we demonstrate that the same cells of the adrenal medulla contain both PAI-1 and t-PA immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm. In addition a few ganglion cells of the adrenal medulla were found to contain PAI-1 but not t-PA. Neither of the components were found in the adrenal cortex. Analysis of extracts from isolated adrenal medulla using reverse zymography showed the presence of a plasminogen activator inhibitor with Mr approximately 46,000. The inhibitory activity disappeared when the extract was passed through a column with sepharose-coupled anti-PAI-1 IgG, while the run-through from a similar column coupled with preimmune IgG still contained the inhibitor. The present findings suggest that PAI-1 could play a role in the regulation of t-PA activity in the rat adrenal gland medullary cells.

  6. A novel infant milk formula concept: Mimicking the human milk fat globule structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Vocking, Karin; Post, Jan Andries; Van De Heijning, Bert; Acton, Dennis; Van Der Beek, Eline M; Van Baalen, Ton

    2015-12-01

    Human milk (HM) provides all nutrients to support an optimal growth and development of the neonate. The composition and structure of HM lipids, the most important energy provider, have an impact on the digestion, uptake and metabolism of lipids. In HM, the lipids are present in the form of dispersed fat globules: large fat droplets enveloped by a phospholipid membrane. Currently, infant milk formula (Control IMF) contains small fat droplets primarily coated by proteins. Recently, a novel IMF concept (Concept IMF) was developed with a different lipid architecture, Nuturis(®), comprising large fat droplets with a phospholipid coating. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), with appropriate fluorescent probes, and transmission electron microscopy were used to determine and compare the interfacial composition and structure of HM fat globules, Concept IMF fat droplets and Control IMF fat droplets. The presence of a trilayer-structured HM fat globule membrane, composed of phospholipids, proteins, glycoproteins and cholesterol, was confirmed; in addition exosome-like vesicles are observed within cytoplasmic crescents. The Control IMF fat droplets had a thick protein-only interface. The Concept IMF fat droplets showed a very thin interface composed of a mixture of phospholipids, proteins and cholesterol. Furthermore, the Concept IMF contained fragments of milk fat globule membrane, which has been suggested to have potential biological functions in infants. By mimicking more closely the structure and composition of HM fat globules, this novel IMF concept with Nuturis(®) may have metabolic and digestive properties that are more similar to HM compared to Control IMF.

  7. Premature infants have impaired airway antiviral IFNγ responses to human metapneumovirus compared to respiratory syncytial virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancham, Krishna; Perez, Geovanny F.; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Jain, Amisha; Kurdi, Bassem; Rodriguez-Martinez, Carlos E.; Preciado, Diego; Rose, Mary C.; Nino, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is unknown why human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) cause severe respiratory infection in children, particularly in premature infants. Our aim was to investigate if there are defective airway antiviral responses to these viruses in young children with history of prematurity. METHODS Nasal airway secretions were collected from 140 children ≤3 y old without detectable virus (n = 80) or with PCR-confirmed HMPV or RSV infection (n = 60). Nasal protein levels of IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-17 were determined using a multiplex magnetic bead immunoassay. RESULTS Full-term children with HMPV and RSV infection had increased levels of nasal airway IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 along with an elevation in Th1 (IFNγ)/Th2 (IL-4) ratios, which is expected during antiviral responses. In contrast, HMPV-infected premature children (< 32 wk gestation) did not exhibit increased Th1/Th2 ratios or elevated nasal airway secretion of IFNγ, CCL5, and IL-10 relative to uninfected controls. CONCLUSION Our study is the first to demonstrate that premature infants have defective IFNγ, CCL5/RANTES, and IL-10 airway responses during HMPV infection and provides novel insights about the potential reason why HMPV causes severe respiratory disease in children with history of prematurity. PMID:26086642

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in seronegative infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Reyes-Terán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some individuals repeatedly exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus do not seroconvert and are resistant to HIV infection. Here, in a pediatric cohort of HIV seronegative infants born of HIV-infected mothers, we have studied eight non-breastfed children in whom viral DNA was detected in their PBMC. Our objective was to assess whether silent infection in these children can be explained by the presence of integrated viral DNA. Methods The presence of viral DNA was corroborated by nested PCR with primers for gag and the nef/LTR regions of HIV-1. Integration of HIV DNA into the host genome was assessed by an Alu-LTR PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyzes were done. Results HIV-1 DNA was detected in the earliest available PBMC sample from all eight infants, and two of them tested positive for HIV DNA at 2 years of age. Nested PCR resulted in the amplification of gag, nef/LTR and Alu-LTR fragments, which demostrated that HIV-1 DNA was integrated in the host cell genome. Each individual has a characteristic sequence pattern and is different from the LTR sequence of HXB2 prototype virus and other Mexican isolates. Conclusion HIV-1 DNA was observed in PBMC from HIV exposed seronegative children in this pediatric cohort.

  9. Impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk and subsequent infant metabolic development: methodology and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Jill K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is on the rise and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes later in life. Recent evidence indicates that abnormalities that increase risk for diabetes may be initiated early in infancy. Since the offspring of women with diabetes have an increased long-term risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes, the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities on early nutrition and infant metabolic trajectories is of considerable interest. Human breast milk, the preferred food during infancy, contains not only nutrients but also an array of bioactive substances including metabolic hormones. Nonetheless, only a few studies have reported concentrations of metabolic hormones in human milk specifically from women with metabolic abnormalities. We aim to investigate the impact of maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy on human milk hormones and subsequently on infant development over the first year of life. The objective of this report is to present the methodology and design of this study. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted within ongoing cohort studies of women and their offspring. Pregnant women attending outpatient obstetrics clinics in Toronto, Canada were recruited. Between April 2009 and July 2010, a total of 216 pregnant women underwent a baseline oral glucose tolerance test and provided medical and lifestyle history. Follow-up visits and telephone interviews are conducted and expected to be completed in October 2011. Upon delivery, infant birth anthropometry measurements and human breast milk samples are collected. At 3 and 12 months postpartum, mothers and infants are invited for follow-up assessments. Interim telephone interviews are conducted during the first year of offspring life to characterize infant feeding and supplementation behaviors. Discussion An improved understanding of the link between maternal metabolic abnormalities in pregnancy and early infant nutrition may

  10. Geographical distribution, accumulation kinetics and infants health risk of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Tanabe, S. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide production and use of organochlorine compounds (OCs) have led to their widespread occurrence in the environment and bioaccumulation in various organisms, including humans. In Indonesia, large usage and production of OCs in the past, particularly OCs pesticides for agricultural and vector-borne disease eradication programs may implicate contaminations of OCs in the environment. Previous studies dealing with mussels as bioindicator reported widespread occurrence of OCs in the coastal environment of this country, and found hot spots of contamination in the waters surroundings Java Island. Occurrence of OCs were also reported in various environmental compartments including fish, sediment and air. However, data on levels of OCs in humans are very scarce. Hence this study has highlighted the accumulation of OCs in human milk from Indonesia, particularly in Java Island where industrial and intensive agriculture are taking place. In this study, concentrations of classical OCs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the most recently identified microcontaminants, tris (4-chlorophenyl) methanol (TCPMOH) and tris (4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) were determined in human breast milk collected from several locations in Indonesia to elucidate their distribution in relation to their site activities, to assess their possible association with maternal characteristics and to evaluate the possible potential risk of OCs in breast-milk on infant's health.

  11. CD27 expression in the human splenic marginal zone : the infant marginal zone is populated by naive B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; de Boer, NK; Dammers, PM; Kroese, FGM; Timens, W

    2001-01-01

    The splenic marginal zone of adult humans contains B cells, of which most express CD27, an antigen only recently identified as a marker for somatically, mutated memory B cells. We investigated whether and to which extent the developing marginal zone in infants arid children is populated by either

  12. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  13. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  14. Neurotrophins expression is decreased in lungs of human infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon LD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lynn D O'Hanlon, Sherry M Mabry, Ikechukwu I EkekezieChildren's Mercy Hospitals/University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USAObjectives: To evaluate neurotrophin (NT (nerve growth factor [NGF], NT-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] expression in autopsy lung tissues of human congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH infants versus that of infants that expired with: 1 "normal" lungs (controls; 2 chronic lung disease (CLD; and 3 pulmonary hypertension (PPHN.Hypothesis: NT expression will be significantly altered in CDH lung tissue compared with normal lung tissue and other neonatal lung diseases.Study design: Immunohistochemical studies for NT proteins NGF, BDNF, and NT-3 were applied to human autopsy neonatal lung tissue samples.Subject selection: The samples included a control group of 18 samples ranging from 23-week gestational age to term, a CDH group of 15 samples, a PPHN group of six samples, and a CLD group of 12 samples.Methodology: The tissue samples were studied, and four representative slide fields of alveoli/saccules and four of bronchioles were recorded from each sample. These slide fields were then graded (from 0 to 3 by three blinded observers for intensity of staining.Results: BDNF, NGF, and NT-3 immunostaining intensity scores were significantly decreased in the CDH lung tissue (n=15 compared with normal neonatal lung tissue (n=18 (P<0.001. The other neonatal pulmonary diseases that were studied, CLD and PPHN, were much less likely to be affected and were much more variable in their neurotrophin expression.Conclusion: NT expression is decreased in CDH lungs. The decreased expression of NT in CDH lung tissue may suggest they contribute to the abnormality in this condition.Keywords: nerve growth factor, NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF, neurotrophin-3, NT-3, chronic lung disease, persistent pulmonary hypertension, lung

  15. Infants' ability to respond to depth from the retinal size of human faces: comparing monocular and binocular preferential-looking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruhara, Aki; Corrow, Sherryse; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K; Yonas, Albert

    2014-11-01

    To examine sensitivity to pictorial depth cues in young infants (4 and 5 months-of-age), we compared monocular and binocular preferential looking to a display on which two faces were equidistantly presented and one was larger than the other, depicting depth from the size of human faces. Because human faces vary little in size, the correlation between retinal size and distance can provide depth information. As a result, adults perceive a larger face as closer than a smaller one. Although binocular information for depth provided information that the faces in our display were equidistant, under monocular viewing, no such information was provided. Rather, the size of the faces indicated that one was closer than the other. Infants are known to look longer at apparently closer objects. Therefore, we hypothesized that infants would look longer at a larger face in the monocular than in the binocular condition if they perceived depth from the size of human faces. Because the displays were identical in the two conditions, any difference in looking-behavior between monocular and binocular viewing indicated sensitivity to depth information. Results showed that 5-month-old infants preferred the larger, apparently closer, face in the monocular condition compared to the binocular condition when static displays were presented. In addition, when presented with a dynamic display, 4-month-old infants showed a stronger 'closer' preference in the monocular condition compared to the binocular condition. This was not the case when the faces were inverted. These results suggest that even 4-month-old infants respond to depth information from a depth cue that may require learning, the size of faces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The naturally occurring α-tocopherol stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol is predominant in the human infant brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuchan, J M; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Johnson, E J

    2016-01-01

    infant death syndrome or other conditions. RRR-α-tocopherol was the predominant stereoisomer in all brain regions (P...α-Tocopherol is the principal source of vitamin E, an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function. Infant formula is routinely supplemented with synthetic α-tocopherol, a racaemic mixture of eight stereoisomers with less bioactivity than the natural...... stereoisomer RRR-α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol stereoisomer profiles have not been previously reported in the human brain. In the present study, we analysed total α-tocopherol and α-tocopherol stereoisomers in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampus (HPC) and visual cortex (VC) of infants (n 36) who died of sudden...

  17. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahi, Malihe; Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT) techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session) for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026). Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants. PMID:27752484

  18. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  19. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  20. Oxidation products of polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas compared to human milk--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Calzada, Catherine; Makino, Asami; Michaud, Sabine; Guichardant, Michel

    2008-12-01

    Information about lipid oxidation in fresh and stored human milk compared with infant formulas is scarce. We aimed to assess n-6 and n-3 PUFA oxidation in these milks by measuring the 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 4-hydroxyhexenal (4-HHE) content. Human milk samples (n = 4), obtained from volunteer mothers, were analyzed fresh and after 1 wk at 4 degrees C or 24 h at 18 degrees C. Vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by HPLC and fatty acid profile by GC. The 4-HHE and 4-HNE contents were measured by GC-MS. Infant formulas (n = 10) were tested; their fat droplet size was measured by laser light scattering and observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Human milk samples contained 31.0 +/- 6.3 g/L of lipids and 1.14 +/- 0.26 mg/L of vitamin E. Fat droplets were smaller in infant formulas than reported in human milk. The (4-HHE/n-3 PUFA) ratio was 0.19 +/- 0.01 microg/g in fresh human milk (unchanged after storage) versus 3.6 +/- 3.1 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 4.3 +/- 3.8 microg/g in liquid formula. (4-HNE/n-6 PUFA) was 0.004 +/- 0.000 microg/g in fresh milk (0.03 +/- 0.01 microg/g after storage) versus 1.1 +/- 1.0 microg/g in dissolved powder formulas and 0.2 +/- 0.3 microg/g in liquid formula. Infant formulas also contained more MDA than human milk. n-3 PUFA were more prone to oxidation than n-6 PUFA. Whether threshold levels of 4-HHE and 4-HNE would be of health concern should be elucidated.

  1. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Carol L; Sheppard, Kelly Will

    2015-11-03

    The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70-30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP) paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal) for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p memory. Interactions between human milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  2. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the Support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L. Cheatham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to explore the relation of human milk lutein; choline; and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA with recognition memory abilities of six-month-olds. Milk samples obtained three to four months postpartum were analyzed for fatty acids, lutein, and choline. At six months, participants were invited to an electrophysiology session. Recognition memory was tested with a 70–30 oddball paradigm in a high-density 128-lead event-related potential (ERP paradigm. Complete data were available for 55 participants. Data were averaged at six groupings (Frontal Right; Frontal Central; Frontal Left; Central; Midline; and Parietal for latency to peak, peak amplitude, and mean amplitude. Difference scores were calculated as familiar minus novel. Final regression models revealed the lutein X free choline interaction was significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal and central areas (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001; respectively. Higher choline levels with higher lutein levels were related to better recognition memory. The DHA X free choline interaction was also significant for the difference in latency scores at frontal, central, and midline areas (p < 0.01; p < 0.001; p < 0.05 respectively. Higher choline with higher DHA was related to better recognition memory. Interactions between human milk nutrients appear important in predicting infant cognition, and there may be a benefit to specific nutrient combinations.

  3. Prospective Characterization of the Risk Factors for Transmission and Symptoms of Primary Human Herpesvirus Infections Among Ugandan Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Soren; Orem, Jackson; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Schiffer, Joshua T; Jerome, Keith R; Nakaganda, Annet; Wald, Anna; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection. Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical. By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Intermanual Transfer of Shapes in Preterm Human Infants from 33 to 34 + 6 Weeks Postconceptional Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Fleur; Marcus, Leila; Berne-Audeoud, Frederique; Streri, Arlette; Debillon, Thierry; Gentaz, Edouard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of preterm infants to learn an object shape with one hand and discriminate a new shape in the opposite hand (without visual control). Twenty-four preterm infants between 33 and 34 + 6 gestational weeks received a tactile habituation task with either their right or left hand followed by a tactile discrimination…

  5. Orally Mediated Sources of Calming in 1- to 3-Day-Old Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Infants who received 0.2, 0.6, or 1.0 ml of sucrose cried much less than infants who sucked a pacifier for 2, 6, 10, or 14 minutes. Sucrose infused through a pacifier reduced crying more effectively than did water infused through a pacifier. It is argued that these differences support idea of two separate functional calming systems in human…

  6. Taste-Mediated Calming in Premature, Preterm, and Full-Term Human Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara A.; Blass, Elliott M.

    1996-01-01

    Preterm and term infants were given a sucrose solution, a glucose solution, or water during a test period in which the amount of their crying was measured. Sucrose reduced crying in preterm and term infants by 91% and 93%, respectively, and glucose by 86% and 81%, respectively. Water was ineffective in reducing crying in both preterm and term…

  7. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Thorup, J M; Beck, Bjarne Lomholdt

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities.......We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities....

  8. Comment on "Differential sensitivity to human communication in dogs, wolves, and human infants".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain

    2010-07-09

    Topál et al. (Reports, 4 September 2009, p. 1269) reported that dogs' sensitivity to reading and using human signals contributes to the emergence of a spatial perseveration error (the A-not-B error) for locating objects. Here, I argue that the authors' conclusion was biased by two confounding factors: the use of an atypical A-not-B search task and an inadequate nonsocial condition as a control.

  9. Acute liver failure due to Human Herpesvirus 6 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tronconi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus, drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6 genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases’ review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus’s genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  10. [Acute liver failure due to human herpesvirus 6 in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, G M; Mariani, B; Pajno, R; Fomasi, M; Cococcioni, L; Biffi, V; Bove, M; Corsin, P; Garbetta, G; Barera, G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF) with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus), drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases' review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus's genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  11. Respiratory mechanics in an infant with perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia treated with human recombinant enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Elena; Bober, Michael B; Davey, Lauren; Zamora, Arlene; Li Puma, Annelise B; Chidekel, Aaron; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    Hypophosphatasia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficient activity of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and characterized by defective bone mineralization. In the perinatal lethal form, respiratory complications due to rachitic deformities of the thoracic cage and associated hypoplastic lungs are present. ENB-0040 is a bone-targeted human recombinant TNSALP fusion protein that aims to restore skeletal mineralization. The goal of this study was to characterize pulmonary and thoracic cage mechanics in an infant with the perinatal lethal form of hypophosphatasia under enzyme replacement therapy. Pulmonary function testing was performed on a preterm, 8-week-old patient with hypophosphatasia who was mechanically ventilated since birth because of severe chest wall insufficiency. The measurements consisted of respiratory impulse oscillation measurements (resistance and reactance), ventilatory mechanics (compliance and resistance), and thoracoabdominal motion (TAM) analysis. At baseline, chest wall compliance was 50% of normal, and the TAM indicated predominantly abdominal displacement. After 12 weeks of treatment, a consistent decrease in ventilator requirements and improvement in lung function and chest wall mechanics were observed and correlated with thoracic cage radiologic findings. Measurable changes in chest wall dynamics and respiratory mechanics using noninvasive technology were useful for respiratory management and therapeutic guidance of ENB-0040 treatment in this patient.

  12. Distinct cerebral pathways for object identity and number in human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Izard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available All humans, regardless of their culture and education, possess an intuitive understanding of number. Behavioural evidence suggests that numerical competence may be present early on in infancy. Here, we present brain-imaging evidence for distinct cerebral coding of number and object identity in 3-mo-old infants. We compared the visual event-related potentials evoked by unforeseen changes either in the identity of objects forming a set, or in the cardinal of this set. In adults and 4-y-old children, number sense relies on a dorsal system of bilateral intraparietal areas, different from the ventral occipitotemporal system sensitive to object identity. Scalp voltage topographies and cortical source modelling revealed a similar distinction in 3-mo-olds, with changes in object identity activating ventral temporal areas, whereas changes in number involved an additional right parietoprefrontal network. These results underscore the developmental continuity of number sense by pointing to early functional biases in brain organization that may channel subsequent learning to restricted brain areas.

  13. Infant intestinal Enterococcus faecalis down-regulates inflammatory responses in human intestinal cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shugui Wang; Lydia Hui Mei Ng; Wai Ling Chow; Yuan Kun Lee

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the ability of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB)to modulate inflammatory reaction in human intestinal celllines(Caco-2,HT-29 and HCT 116).Different strains of LAB isolatedfrom new born infants and fermented milk,together withthestrains obtained from culture collectionsweretested.METHODS:LABs were treated with human intestinal cell lines.ELISA was used to detect IL-8 and TGF-β protein secretion.Cytokines and Toll like receptors (TLRs) gene expression were assessed using RT-PCR.Conditional medium,sonicated bacteria and UV killed bacteria were used to find the effecter molecules on the bacteria.Carbohydrate oxidation and protein digestion were applied to figure out the molecules'residues.Adhesion assays were further carried out.RESULTS:It was found that Enterococcus faecalis is the main immune modulator among the LABs by downregulation of IL-8 secretion and upregulation of TGF-β.Strikingly,the effect was only observed in four strains of E.faecalis out of the 27 isolated and tested.This implies strain dependent immunomodulation in the host.In addition,E.faecalis may regulate inflammatory responses through TLR3,TLR4,TLR9 and TRAF6.Carbohydrates on the bacterial cell surface are involved in both its adhesion to intestinal cells and regulation of inflammatory responses in the host.CONCLUSION:These data provide a case for the modulation of intestinal mucosal immunity in which specific strains of E.faecalis have uniquely evolved to maintain colonic homeostasis and regulate inflammatoryresponses.

  14. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  15. Development of energy and time parameters in the walking of healthy human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tasuku; Yaguramaki, Naoko; Fujita, Masaki; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Ueda, Yutaka

    2005-11-01

    Sixteen infants were analyzed longitudinally from the onset of independent walking to 3 years of age using time parameters, speed and energy recovery. Considerable variation and irregularities were observed in many parameters of infant walking, especially until 13 months of age when infants had difficulty in walking steadily step by step. Infant walking until 3 years of age was characterized by a small braking duration, caused mainly by the forward inclination of the trunk, a large relative stance phase duration, which maintained static balance, short stride length, due to the small range of the lower limb joint angle, and a small recovery of external energy. These characteristics were also predominantly evident until 13 months of age. The small recovery characteristic of infants was caused by flexed lower limb joints, pronounced irregularities in energy output, and in younger infants, slow speed. The maximum recovery up until 2 years of age, though smaller than in adults, appeared at about 0.45 dimensionless speed, which is about the same speed that adults in particular naturally and at which their maximum recovery appeared. The forward inclination of the trunk and the lower limb joint angle, influenced the development of many characteristics of bipedal walking.

  16. Longitudinal change of selected human milk oligosaccharides and association to infants' growth, an observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Norbert; Lee, Le Ye; De Castro, Carlos Antonio; Steenhout, Philippe; Thakkar, Sagar K

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is the recommended and sole nutrient source for newborns. One of the largest components of human milk is oligosaccharides (HMOs) with major constituents determined by the mother genotype for the fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2, secretor) gene. HMO variation has been related with infant microbiota establishment, diarrhea incidence, morbidity and mortality, IgE associated eczema and body composition. We investigated the (i) dependence of several major representative HMOs on the FUT2 status assessed through breast milk 2'Fucosyllactose (2'FL) and (ii) the relation of the 2'FL status with infant growth up to 4 months of life. From an open observatory, single center, longitudinal cohort study with quantitative human milk collection at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum from 50 mothers, who gave birth to 25 female and 25 male singleton infants, we collected a representative sample of human milk. We quantified the following 5 representative HMOs: 2'FL, Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT), Lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), 3'Sialyllactose (3'SL) and 6'Sialyllactose (6'SL). We grouped the milk samples and corresponding infants according to the measured milk 2'FL concentrations at 30 days of lactation, which clustered around low concentrations (95% CI of mean 12-42 mg/L) and high concentrations (95% CI of mean 1880-2460 mg/L) with the former likely representing Secretor negative mothers. Infant anthropometric measures were recorded at birth, 1, 2 and 4 months of age. Relations among the quantified HMOs and the relation of the high and low 2'FL HMOs groups with infant growth parameters were investigated via linear mixed models. The milk samples with low 2'FL concentration had higher LNT and lower LNnT concentrations compared to the samples with high 2'FL. The milk 3'- and 6'SL concentrations were independent of 2'FL. Over lactation time we observed a drop in the concentration of 2'FL, LNT, LNnT and 6'SL, especially from 1 to 2 months, while 3'SL remained at relatively constant concentration

  17. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  19. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  20. Clonal Diversity and Turnover of Streptococcus mitis bv. 1 on Shedding and Nonshedding Oral Surfaces of Human Infants during the First Year of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Bowden, George H.; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Wirth, Katherine A.; Cole, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis bv. 1 is a pioneer colonizer of the human oral cavity. Studies of its population dynamics within parents and their infants and within neonates have shown extensive diversity within and between subjects. We examined the genetic diversity and clonal turnover of S. mitis bv. 1 isolated from the cheeks, tongue, and primary incisors of four infants from birth to 1 year of age. In addition, we compared the clonotypes of S. mitis bv. 1 isolated from their mothers' saliva collected in parallel to determine whether the mother was the origin of the clones colonizing her infant. Of 859 isolates obtained from the infants, 568 were unique clones. Each of the surfaces examined, whether shedding or nonshedding, displayed the same degree of diversity. Among the four infants it was rare to detect the same clone colonizing more than one surface at a given visit. There was little evidence for persistence of clones, but when clones were isolated on multiple visits they were not always found on the same surface. A similar degree of clonal diversity of S. mitis bv. 1 was observed in the mothers' saliva as in their infants' mouths. Clones common to both infant and mothers' saliva were found infrequently suggesting that this is not the origin of the infants' clones. It is unclear whether mucosal immunity exerts the environmental pressure driving the genetic diversity and clonal turnover of S. mitis bv. 1, which may be mechanisms employed by this bacterium to evade immune elimination. PMID:16210481

  1. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  2. A peptidomic analysis of human milk digestion in the infant stomach reveals protein-specific degradation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Khaldi, Nora; Borghese, Robyn; Bhandari, Aashish; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    In vitro digestion of isolated milk proteins results in milk peptides with a variety of actions. However, it remains unclear to what degree protein degradation occurs in vivo in the infant stomach and whether peptides previously annotated for bioactivity are released. This study combined nanospray LC separation with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, comprehensive structural libraries, and informatics to analyze milk from 3 human mothers and the gastric aspirates from their 4- to 12-d-old postpartum infants. Milk from the mothers contained almost 200 distinct peptides, demonstrating enzymatic degradation of milk proteins beginning either during lactation or between milk collection and feeding. In the gastric samples, 649 milk peptides were identified, demonstrating that digestion continues in the infant stomach. Most peptides in both the intact milk and gastric samples were derived from β-casein. The numbers of peptides from β-casein, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin, lactadherin, κ-casein, serum albumin, bile salt-associated lipase, and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase were significantly higher in the gastric samples than in the milk samples (P milk and gastric samples (P milk peptides with immunomodulatory and antibacterial properties of clinical relevance to the proximal intestinal tract. Data are available via ProteomeXchange (identifier PXD000688).

  3. Relevance of human parechovirus detection in cerebrospinal fluid samples from young infants with sepsis-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeziorski, Eric; Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Bohrer, Sandrine; Pain, Jean Baptiste; Segondy, Michel; Foulongne, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    The human parechoviruses (HPeVs) were recently recognized as important viral pathogens involved in various illnesses in young children. However, routine detection is not performed in most clinical laboratories. Therefore, in this study, we aim to assess the relevance of HPeV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infants, according to clinical presentation. A total of 120 CSF specimens collected during 2012 from infants aged less than 1 year and previously reported negative for Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and enterovirus were selected. HPeV detection was performed with a commercially available real-time RT-PCR and HPeV strains from positive samples were subsequently genotyped by sequencing. HPeV RNA was detected in nine (7.5%) CSF samples. The median age of infected children was 41 days (range: 19-122 days). HPeV genotyping could be performed on five samples and three HPeV-3, one HPeV-1, and one HPeV-4 were identified. Hyperthermia associated with mottled skin was the predominant clinical presentation. Most clinical presentations of HPeV-infected infants were mild with a final diagnosis of sepsis-like illness. The median hospital stay was 3.5 days and five children received antibiotics. Routine detection of HPeV in CSF may allow differential diagnosis of enterovirus infection and improve etiologic identification of sepsis-like illness in children. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe;

    2016-01-01

    . The aim was to investigate if maternal anthropometry was associated with the content of the FAA glutamic acid or glutamine in breast milk and if there was a negative association between these FAA and current size or early infant growth in fully breastfed infants. Methods: From a subgroup of 78 mothers.......013) but the correlation was attenuated when controlling for birth length (p = 0.089). Conclusions: The hypothesis that a high content of glutamic acid and glutamine in breast milk could downregulate milk intake to a degree affecting early growth could not be confirmed. Maternal factors associated with the level...

  6. Characteristic chromatographic fingerprint study of short-chain fatty acids in human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenzuo; Liu, Yanan; Zhu, Yan; Yang, Jing; Sun, Lili; Chai, Xin; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-09-01

    Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk as food products or dietary supplements provide a range of nutrients required to both infants and adults. Recently, a growing body of evidence has revealed the beneficial roles of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), a subset of fatty acids produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to establish a chromatographic fingerprint technique to investigate SCFAs in human milk and dairy products by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The multivariate method for principal component analysis assessed differences between milk types. Human milk, infant formula, pure milk and fermented milk were grouped independently, mainly because of differences in formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid and hexanoic acid levels. This method will be important for the assessment of SCFAs in human milk and various dairy products.

  7. The concept of milk kinship in Islam: issues raised when offering preterm infants of Muslim families donor human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khuffash, Afif; Unger, Sharon

    2012-05-01

    Research has documented health benefits associated with donor human milk (DHM). Offering DHM to people of the Muslim faith raises important religious concerns for these families. Knowledge of these beliefs and an understanding of the rationale for these beliefs enable the health care team to establish rapport and build a foundation of trust with patients and their families, thereby paving the way to developing a treatment plan that is in the best interest of the patients without compromising care. This article describes the issues and a rationale for them and provides physicians caring for preterm infants of Muslim families with information to facilitate advocating DHM to those families.

  8. The emergence of use of a rake-like tool: a longitudinal study in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline eFagard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the results of a longitudinal study on five infants from age 12 to 20 months, presented with an out of reach toy and a rake-like tool within reach. Five conditions of spatial relationship between toy and rake were tested. Outcomes and types of behavior were analyzed. There were successes observed around 12 months in the condition of spatial contiguity between rake and toy, but these could not be interpreted as corresponding to full understanding of the use of the rake. At this age and for the following months, in the conditions involving spatial separation between rake and toy, infants’ strategies fluctuated between paying attention to the toy only, exploring the rake for its own sake, and connecting rake and toy but with no apparent attempt to bring the toy closer. Only between 16 and 20 months did infants fairly suddenly start to intentionally try to bring the toy closer with the tool: at this stage the infants also became able to learn from their failures and to correct their actions, as well as to benefit from demonstration from an adult. We examine the individual differences in the pattern of change in behaviors leading to tool use in the five infants, and find no increase in any one type of behaviour that systematically precedes success. We conclude that sudden success at 18 months probably corresponds to the coming together of a variety of capacities.

  9. Quantitative histology of germ cells in the undescended testes of human fetuses, neonates and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, D; Thorup, J M; Beck, B L

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the number of germ cells per tubular cross section and testicular weight in cryptorchid fetuses, neonates and infants, and characterized additional abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our series comprised 35 fetuses and 58 boys with cryptorchidism, and 22 normal fetuses...

  10. Data-driven automated acoustic analysis of human infant vocalizations using neural network tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlaumont, Anne S.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Buder, Eugene H.; Dale, Rick; Kozma, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Acoustic analysis of infant vocalizations has typically employed traditional acoustic measures drawn from adult speech acoustics, such as f0, duration, formant frequencies, amplitude, and pitch perturbation. Here an alternative and complementary method is proposed in which data-derived spectrographic features are central. 1-s-long spectrograms of vocalizations produced by six infants recorded longitudinally between ages 3 and 11 months are analyzed using a neural network consisting of a self-organizing map and a single-layer perceptron. The self-organizing map acquires a set of holistic, data-derived spectrographic receptive fields. The single-layer perceptron receives self-organizing map activations as input and is trained to classify utterances into prelinguistic phonatory categories (squeal, vocant, or growl), identify the ages at which they were produced, and identify the individuals who produced them. Classification performance was significantly better than chance for all three classification tasks. Performance is compared to another popular architecture, the fully supervised multilayer perceptron. In addition, the network’s weights and patterns of activation are explored from several angles, for example, through traditional acoustic measurements of the network’s receptive fields. Results support the use of this and related tools for deriving holistic acoustic features directly from infant vocalization data and for the automatic classification of infant vocalizations. PMID:20370038

  11. Free Amino Acids in Human Milk and Associations with Maternal Anthropometry and Infant Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Bruun, Signe; Pedersen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Free glutamic acid has an appetite regulating effect and studies with infant formula have suggested that free amino acids (FAA), especially glutamic acid, can downregulate intake. The content of glutamic acid and glutamine is high in breast milk but varies considerably between mothers...

  12. Neural Signatures of Number Processing in Human Infants: Evidence for Two Core Systems Underlying Numerical Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Daniel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral research suggests that two cognitive systems are at the foundations of numerical thinking: one for representing 1-3 objects in parallel and one for representing and comparing large, approximate numerical magnitudes. We tested for dissociable neural signatures of these systems in preverbal infants by recording event-related potentials…

  13. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Maggio, Luca; Beghetti, Isadora; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2017-08-22

    Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics' efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), p preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65-0.86), p preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  14. TANDEM COMPRESSION OF MEDULLA SPINALIS AND CAUDA AEQUINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhelyazkov Christo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze and present cases of tandem compression of medulla spinalis and cauda equina. Material and Methods: The subjects of observation were four patients with simultaneous compression of medulla spinalis and cauda equina, admitted to the Neurosurgery Clinic of the St George University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria during the period March 2012 — March 2014. The average age of the patients was 60.5 years (47–72. In one case, left-sided paramedian herniated discs were found at levels L1–2 and L4–5 combined with a concomitant stenosis, in another case — right-sided paramedian herniated discs on the level of Th12 — L1 and a degenerative stenosis at level of L3–4, in the third case — pronounced degenerative compression at level Th7–8 and a central stenosis at level of L4–5, and in the last case — degenerative stenosis at level L3–5 and spinal meningioma at level Th9–10. Results: The clinical signs of the simultaneous compression of the spinal cord and cauda equina have been examined. These signs may mislead the physician in the diagnosis of the spinal lesion, thus, resulting in inappropriate surgical strategy. Conclusion: The involvement of the spinal cord must be clinically confirmed to rule out lesions in the thoracic region. When the lumbar imaging examinations are inconclusive or cannot explain the clinical symptoms of a certain patient, it is advisable to perform a magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spin

  15. Multiple redundant medulla projection neurons mediate color vision in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnattur, Krishna V; Pursley, Randall; Lin, Tzu-Yang; Ting, Chun-Yuan; Smith, Paul D; Pohida, Thomas; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2014-01-01

    The receptor mechanism for color vision has been extensively studied. In contrast, the circuit(s) that transform(s) photoreceptor signals into color percepts to guide behavior remain(s) poorly characterized. Using intersectional genetics to inactivate identified subsets of neurons, we have uncovered the first-order interneurons that are functionally required for hue discrimination in Drosophila. We developed a novel aversive operant conditioning assay for intensity-independent color discrimination (true color vision) in Drosophila. Single flying flies are magnetically tethered in an arena surrounded by blue and green LEDs (light-emitting diodes). The flies' optomotor response is used to determine the blue-green isoluminant intensity. Flies are then conditioned to discriminate between equiluminant blue or green stimuli. Wild-type flies are successfully trained in this paradigm when conditioned to avoid either blue or green. Functional color entrainment requires the function of the narrow-spectrum photoreceptors R8 and/or R7, and is within a limited range, intensity independent, suggesting that it is mediated by a color vision system. The medulla projection neurons, Tm5a/b/c and Tm20, receive direct inputs from R7 or R8 photoreceptors and indirect input from the broad-spectrum photoreceptors R1-R6 via the lamina neuron L3. Genetically inactivating these four classes of medulla projection neurons abolished color learning. However, inactivation of subsets of these neurons is insufficient to block color learning, suggesting that true color vision is mediated by multiple redundant pathways. We hypothesize that flies represent color along multiple axes at the first synapse in the fly visual system. The apparent redundancy in learned color discrimination sharply contrasts with innate ultraviolet (UV) spectral preference, which is dominated by a single pathway from the amacrine neuron Dm8 to the Tm5c projection neurons.

  16. Probiotics and Time to Achieve Full Enteral Feeding in Human Milk-Fed and Formula-Fed Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceti, Arianna; Gori, Davide; Barone, Giovanni; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Fantini, Maria Pia; Indrio, Flavia; Maggio, Luca; Meneghin, Fabio; Morelli, Lorenzo; Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2016-07-30

    Probiotics have been linked to a reduction in the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants. Recently, probiotics have also proved to reduce time to achieve full enteral feeding (FEF). However, the relationship between FEF achievement and type of feeding in infants treated with probiotics has not been explored yet. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics in reducing time to achieve FEF in preterm infants, according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM) vs. formula). Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics, and reporting on time to reach FEF were included in the systematic review. Trials reporting on outcome according to type of feeding (exclusive HM vs. formula) were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effect or random-effects models were used as appropriate. Results were expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-five studies were included in the systematic review. In the five studies recruiting exclusively HM-fed preterm infants, those treated with probiotics reached FEF approximately 3 days before controls (MD -3.15 days (95% CI -5.25/-1.05), p = 0.003). None of the two studies reporting on exclusively formula-fed infants showed any difference between infants receiving probiotics and controls in terms of FEF achievement. The limited number of included studies did not allow testing for other subgroup differences between HM and formula-fed infants. However, if confirmed in further studies, the 3-days reduction in time to achieve FEF in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants might have significant implications for their clinical management.

  17. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  18. Antagonist muscle co-activation of limbs in human infant crawling: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Xiao, Nong; Zeng, Si Y; Wan, Xiao P; Zheng, Xiao L; Hou, Wen S

    2015-01-01

    Muscle Co-activation (MCo) is the simultaneous muscular activation of agonist and antagonist muscle groups, which provides adequate joint stability, movement accuracy during movement. Infant crawling is an important stage of motor function development that manifests non-synchronization growth and development of upper and lower limbs due to the well-known gross motor development principle of head to toe. However, the effect of MCo level for agonist and antagonist muscle groups on motor function development of limbs has not been previously reported. In this paper, sEMG signals were collected from triceps brachii (TB) and biceps brachii (BB), quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings (HS) of limbs when fourteen infants were crawling at their self-selected speed. Antagonist muscle co-activation was evaluated by measuring two common indexes (co-activation index and Pearson's correlation coefficient).A significant difference was observed between upper limbs and lower limbs, but the relationship between MCo and speed of crawling was poor. This study is an opening for further investigation including a longitudinal study and compare against infant with CNS disorders.

  19. Somatic mutation of immunoglobulin V(H)6 genes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridings, J; Dinan, L; Williams, R; Roberton, D; Zola, H

    1998-10-01

    Infants respond to antigen by making antibody that is generally of low affinity for antigen. Somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes, and selection of cells expressing mutations with improved affinity for antigen, are the molecular and cellular processes underlying the maturation of antibody affinity. We have reported previously that neonates and infants up to 2 months of age, including individuals undergoing strong immunological challenge, show very few mutated V(H)6 sequences, with low mutation frequencies in mutated sequences, and little evidence of selection. We have now examined immunoglobulin genes from healthy infants between 2 and 10 months old for mutation and evidence of selection. In this age group, the proportion of V(H)6 sequences which are mutated and the mutation frequency in mutated sequences increase with age. There is evidence of selection from 6 months old. These results indicate that the process of affinity maturation, which depends on cognate T-B cell interaction and functional germinal centres, is approaching maturity from 6 months old.

  20. Pyramidal tract abnormalities in the human fetus and infant with trisomy 18 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hajime; Miyata, Mio; Ohama, Eisaku

    2014-06-01

    Trisomy 18 or Edwards syndrome is known to exhibit various developmental abnormalities in the central nervous system. We report dominant uncrossed pyramidal tract in trisomy 18 syndrome, based on the postmortem neuropathologic study of eight consecutive autopsied fetuses and infants with trisomy 18 ranging in age from 16 to 39 weeks of gestation, including six males and two females, along with autopsy cases of a stillborn triploid infant with 69XXX and two stillborn infants without chromosomal or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Five out of eight cases with trisomy 18 showed a larger proportion of uncrossed than crossed pyramidal tract. All of these cases were male, and the anterior corticospinal tract on one side was constantly larger than the contralateral lateral corticospinal tract in the spinal cord on both sides, while the pyramidal tract was hypoplastic in female cases with trisomy 18 and a case with 69XXX. Abnormal pyramidal decussation has been found in cases with posterior fossa malformations such as occipital encephaloceles, Dandy-Walker malformation, Joubert syndrome and Möbius syndrome, but has not been described in cases with trisomy 18. Our data, together with the previous reports describing uncrossed aberrant ipsilateral pyramidal tract in patients with congenital mirror movements caused by DCC gene mutation in chromosome 18, and hypolasia and hyperplasia of the pyramidal tract in X-linked recessive disorders caused by L1CAM and Kal1 gene mutations, respectively, suggest a role of trisomy 18 in association with X-chromosome in the abnormal development of the pyramidal tract.

  1. Early life dynamics of the human gut virome and bacterial microbiome in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Efrem S; Zhou, Yanjiao; Zhao, Guoyan; Bauer, Irma K; Droit, Lindsay; Ndao, I Malick; Warner, Barbara B; Tarr, Phillip I; Wang, David; Holtz, Lori R

    2015-10-01

    The early years of life are important for immune development and influence health in adulthood. Although it has been established that the gut bacterial microbiome is rapidly acquired after birth, less is known about the viral microbiome (or 'virome'), consisting of bacteriophages and eukaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, during the first years of life. Here, we characterized the gut virome and bacterial microbiome in a longitudinal cohort of healthy infant twins. The virome and bacterial microbiome were more similar between co-twins than between unrelated infants. From birth to 2 years of age, the eukaryotic virome and the bacterial microbiome expanded, but this was accompanied by a contraction of and shift in the bacteriophage virome composition. The bacteriophage-bacteria relationship begins from birth with a high predator-low prey dynamic, consistent with the Lotka-Volterra prey model. Thus, in contrast to the stable microbiome observed in adults, the infant microbiome is highly dynamic and associated with early life changes in the composition of bacteria, viruses and bacteriophages with age.

  2. Putting the face in context: Body expressions impact facial emotion processing in human infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purva Rajhans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Body expressions exert strong contextual effects on facial emotion perception in adults. Specifically, conflicting body cues hamper the recognition of emotion from faces, as evident on both the behavioral and neural level. We examined the developmental origins of the neural processes involved in emotion perception across body and face in 8-month-old infants by measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs. We primed infants with body postures (fearful, happy that were followed by either congruent or incongruent facial expressions. Our results revealed that body expressions impact facial emotion processing and that incongruent body cues impair the neural discrimination of emotional facial expressions. Priming effects were associated with attentional and recognition memory processes, as reflected in a modulation of the Nc and Pc evoked at anterior electrodes. These findings demonstrate that 8-month-old infants possess neural mechanisms that allow for the integration of emotion across body and face, providing evidence for the early developmental emergence of context-sensitive facial emotion perception.

  3. Diminished epinephrine response to hypoglycemia despite enlarged adrenal medulla in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Kjaer, M; Mikines, K J

    1990-01-01

    )]. Cold stress or sham swim training did not increase adrenal weight or volume of adrenal medulla (P greater than 0.05). To stimulate adrenal medulla secretion, rats had an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin dose needed to suppress plasma glucose below 4.0 mM was four times greater in sedentary....../day or served as controls being either sedentary freely eating (C), food restricted (FR), sham swim trained (ST), or cold stressed (CS). Adrenal glands were weighted and cross sectioned for light microscopic determination of size of the adrenal medulla. Endurance-trained compared with control rats had heavier...

  4. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  5. Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: Relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to consistent epidemiologic evidence of the role of sexual transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants. We have assessed the extent of HPV infection during the perinatal period, and the relationship between mode of delivery and vertical transmission. Results A total of 291 pregnant women over 36 weeks of gestation were enrolled with informed consent. Exfoliative cells were collected from maternal cervix and neonatal buccal mucosa. HPV infection and genotypes were determined with an HPV DNA chip, which can recognise 24 types. The HPV-positive neonates were re-evaluated 6 months after birth to identify the presence of persistent infection. HPV DNA was detected in 18.9 % (55/291 of pregnant women and 3.4 % (10/291 of neonates. Maternal infection was associated with abnormal cytology (p = 0.007 and primiparity (p = 0.015. The infected neonates were all born to HPV-positive mothers. The rate of vertical transmission was estimated at 18.2 % (10/55 which was positively correlated with maternal multiple HPV infection (p = 0.003 and vaginal delivery (p = 0.050, but not with labour duration and premature rupture of membranes. The rate of concordance of genotype was 100 % in mother-neonate pairs with vertical transmission. The neonatal HPV DNAs found at birth were all cleared at 6 months after delivery. Conclusions Vertical transmission of HPV DNA from HPV infected mother to the neonate increased when the infant was delivered through an infected cervix. However, the absence of persistent infection in infants at 6 months after delivery may suggest temporary inoculation rather than true vertical infection.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in human milk and estimated daily intake (EDI) for the infants from eastern region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, M Jamal; Al-Salam, Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    This study presents the level of organochlorine pesticide (OC) residues in human milk samples collected from donor mothers aged from 18 to 30 years old, from four cities in Eastern district of Saudi Arabia (Al-Hassa, Al- Khobar, Al-Jubail, and Al-Dammam). Pesticides residues were extracted from the samples and analyzed using GC-MS. The results showed that, only pp'DDE and p,pDDD, were found in 82.5% and 70% of analyzed samples respectively, the total DDT were at level of 0.37, 0.32, 0.30 and 0.46 μg/L in the four cities respectively and were far below the MRL of 50 μg/L (FAO/WHO). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of DDT ingested by infant weight 3.5 kg ranged between 0.06 and 0.10 μg/kg, which is less than the ADI issued by (EFSA, 2014). Lindane (γ-HCH) found in 91.25% of the analyzed samples at level of 0.37, 0.35, 0.35 and 0.29 μg/L. The EDIs of Lindane by infant were far below the ADI of 5 μg/kg bw/day. Dieldrin and Enderin were found in 27.5% and 58.8% of samples respectively and were lower than MRL issued by FAO/WHO, but the (EDI) was higher than the ADI issued by EFSA. The isomer A-heptachlor was detected in 51% of the samples, at levels were 15 times lower than the MRL issued by FAO/WHO, but EDIs by infants were 2-4 times higher than the ADI issued by EFSA. However, the results of the four studied areas in Saudi Arabia showed no statistically different among locations (p > 0.05).

  7. Probiotics Prevent Late-Onset Sepsis in Human Milk-Fed, Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Aceti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports the role of probiotics in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to achieve full enteral feeding, and late-onset sepsis (LOS in preterm infants. As reported for several neonatal clinical outcomes, recent data have suggested that nutrition might affect probiotics’ efficacy. Nevertheless, the currently available literature does not explore the relationship between LOS prevention and type of feeding in preterm infants receiving probiotics. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of probiotics for LOS prevention in preterm infants according to type of feeding (exclusive human milk (HM vs. exclusive formula or mixed feeding. Randomized-controlled trials involving preterm infants receiving probiotics and reporting on LOS were included in the systematic review. Only trials reporting on outcome according to feeding type were included in the meta-analysis. Fixed-effects models were used and random-effects models were used when significant heterogeneity was found. The results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (CI. Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, probiotic supplementation resulted in a significantly lower incidence of LOS (RR 0.79 (95% CI 0.71–0.88, p < 0.0001. According to feeding type, the beneficial effect of probiotics was confirmed only in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants (RR 0.75 (95% CI 0.65–0.86, p < 0.0001. Among HM-fed infants, only probiotic mixtures, and not single-strain products, were effective in reducing LOS incidence (RR 0.68 (95% CI 0.57–0.80 p < 0.00001. The results of the present meta-analysis show that probiotics reduce LOS incidence in exclusively HM-fed preterm infants. Further efforts are required to clarify the relationship between probiotics supplementation, HM, and feeding practices in preterm infants.

  8. "Breastfeeding" but not at the breast: Mothers' descriptions of providing pumped human milk to their infants via other containers and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Julia P; Geraghty, Sheela R; Quaglieri, Caroline W; Yamada, Rei; Wong, Adriana J; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2017-07-01

    As pumping has become more prevalent among American women, pumped human milk (HM) is on the rise in their infants' diets in place of some or all feeding at the breast. We aimed to fill a gap in knowledge about mothers' motivations, practices and perceptions related to pumping, and about mothers' and other caregivers' motivations, practices, and perceptions related to feeding pumped HM. Results related to providing pumped HM are reported here, and results related to pumping are reported elsewhere. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews among a diverse sample of mothers whose infants were fed pumped HM (n = 20), following each up to 1 year postpartum. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis with Atlas.ti. Nearly all mothers felt bottles were necessary to meet infant HM-feeding goals. Nearly all pumped HM was fed by other caregivers because mothers typically preferred and prioritized feeding at the breast for convenience and maintaining their milk supply. Infants were bottle-fed HM for several reasons that changed over time, such as mother's absence, latch difficulty, or desire to share the burden and bonding of feeding. Feeding practices differed between feeds from bottles versus at the breast; some infants were bottle-fed on schedules but fed at the breast on demand. Mothers' methods for storing, transporting, and preparing HM varied substantially and included practices associated with loss of nutrients and microbial contamination. Mothers' reasons for bottle-feeding HM may affect how much their infants are bottle-fed. Consumption of pumped HM may not provide the same benefits to infants as feeding at the breast. These findings highlight important avenues for future research into the relationships between bottle-feeding HM and infant health, growth, and developmental outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neuronal cell death in the arcuate nucleus of the medulla oblongata in stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkerth, Rebecca D; Zanoni, Sallie; Andiman, Sarah E; Billiards, Saraid S

    2008-02-01

    The hypothesis that unexplained stillbirth arises in a similar manner as the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is based in part on shared neuropathologic features between the two entities, including hypoxic-ischemic lesions such as white matter and brainstem gliosis, as well as aplasia or hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus on the ventral surface of the medulla. The arcuate nucleus is the putative homologue of the respiratory chemosensory region at the ventral medullary surface in animals that is involved in central chemosensitivity. To determine arcuate nucleus pathology in stillbirth, and its co-occurrence with evidence of hypoxia-ischemia, we reviewed brain specimens from the archives of our hospitals from 22 consecutive stillbirths from 22 to 41 gestational weeks. Explained causes of death (n=17) included nuchal cord, acute chorioamnionitis, placental abruption, and fetal glomerulosclerosis; 5 cases were unexplained. In 12 brains, we observed nuclear karyorrhexis and/or pyknosis with cytoplasmic hypereosinophilia in neurons in the arcuate nucleus in both explained (n=8) and unexplained (n=4) cases (54.5% of total cases). Three additional cases had arcuate aplasia (n=1) or hypoplasia (n=2) (13.6% of total cases); one of the latter cases also had neuronal necrosis in the hypoplastic arcuate. The degree of gliosis in the region of the arcuate nucleus was variable across all cases, without statistically significant differences between groups with and without arcuate nucleus necrosis. Other lesions in association with (n=14) and without (n=8) arcuate nucleus abnormalities were diffuse cerebral white matter gliosis, periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), and neuronal necrosis in the hippocampus, basal ganglia, thalamus, basis pontis, and brainstem tegmentum. In 16/20 (80.0%) cases (with or without histologic necrosis of the arcuate), immunostaining with caspase-3 demonstrated positive neurons. Our findings suggest that neuronal pathology in the arcuate nucleus may be

  10. Role of sex steroids and their receptors in human preterm infants: Impacts on future treatment strategies for cerebral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Stephanie; Reich, Bettina; Heckmann, Matthias

    2015-12-15

    Preterm birth is a major risk factor for cerebral complications, such as hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, which lead to lifelong neurodevelopmental deficits. Hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, hyperoxia, and prematurity itself contribute to the extent of impaired neurodevelopment. Preterm birth leads to disruption of the placental supply of estrogens and progesterone. Postnatally, the plasma levels of estrogens and progesterone drop 100-fold. Preterm infants are deprived of the placental supply of these hormones for up to sixteen weeks. Thus, supplementation of estradiol and progesterone to mimic intrauterine conditions may potentially improve a premature infant́s extrauterine development and help protect the brain against neurological complications. However, preliminary clinical studies did not find improved outcomes except for a trend towards less cerebral palsy. The decrease in estrogen and progesterone concentrations is accompanied by persistent, high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone, which serve as precursors for maternal estrogen synthesis during pregnancy. This commentary will combine knowledge from endocrinology, pharmacology, and neonatology to explain the discrepancies between promising animal models and clinical findings. Most important targets will be classical and non-classical estrogen receptors, which interact differently-not only with estrogens but also with fetal zone steroids. The fetal zone is unique among humans and higher primates. Therefore, a clearly defined model is required to study the role of sex steroids and their receptors before further clinical studies begin.

  11. Pesticides in human milk of Western Australian women and their influence on infant growth outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gridneva, Zoya; Gay, Melvin C L; Trengove, Robert D; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T

    2017-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants in human milk (HM) at high levels are considered to be detrimental to the breastfed infant. To determine the pesticide concentration in HM, a pilot cross-sectional study of 40 Western Australian (WA) women was carried out. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a validated QuEChERS was used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a mean concentration of 62.8 ± 54.5 ng/g fat was found, whereas other organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids were not detected in HM. Overall, no association was observed between HM p,p'-DDE concentrations and maternal age, parity, body mass index and percentage fat mass. Furthermore, for the first time no significant association was found between p,p'-DDE concentrations in HM and infant growth outcomes such as weight, length, head circumference and percentage fat mass. The calculated daily intake was significantly different to the estimated daily intake of total DDTs and was well below the guideline proposed by WHO. The DDTs levels in WA have also significantly decreased by 42 - fold since the 1970s and are currently the lowest in Australia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2017-03-29

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Pulsatile compression of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Sasaki, S; Miki, S; Kawa, T; Itoh, H; Nakata, T; Takeda, K; Nakagawa, M; Naruse, S; Maeda, T

    1997-01-01

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) has been known to be a major regulating center of sympathetic and cardiovascular activities. An association between essential hypertension and neurovascular compression of the RVLM has been reported in clinical observations, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. To reconfirm this relationship, we performed MRI using a high-resolution 512 x 512 matrix in patients with essential and secondary hypertension and in normotensive subjects. The duration of hypertension and the degree of organ damage by hypertension were not significantly different between the two hypertension groups. Neurovascular compression of the RVLM was observed in 74% of the essential hypertension group, and the incidence of compression was significantly higher than in the secondary hypertension group (11%) or in the normotensive group (13%) (P model has already been reported, its underlying mechanism is not well known. Accordingly, we performed experiments to investigate whether pulsatile compression of the RVLM would increase arterial pressure and to elucidate the mechanism of the pressor response in rats. Sympathetic nerve activity, arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were increased by pulsatile compression of the RVLM. The pressor response was abolished by intravenous treatment with hexamethonium or RVLM injection of kainic acid. In summary, the results from the MRI studies suggest that neurovascular compression of the RVLM is, at least in part, causally related to essential hypertension. This was supported by the results from experimental studies using rats indicating that pulsatile compression of the RVLM increases arterial pressure by enhancing sympathetic outflow.

  14. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  15. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  16. Fatty acid composition and phospholipid types used in infant formulas modifies the establishment of human gut bacteria in germ-free mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rikke Mette Guldhammer; Licht, Tine Rask; Hellgren, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Human milk fat contains high concentrations of medium-chained fatty acids (MCFA) and triacylglycerols emulsified by a sphingomyelin-rich phospholipid membrane (milk phospholipids, MPL). Infant formula comprises mainly long-chained fatty acids (LCFA) emulsified with dairy proteins and soy lecithin...

  17. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  18. Maternal and Paternal Plasma, Salivary, and Urinary Oxytocin and Parent-Infant Synchrony: Considering Stress and Affiliation Components of Human Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Gordon, Ilanit; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna

    2011-01-01

    Studies in mammals have implicated the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in processes of bond formation and stress modulation, yet the involvement of OT in human bonding throughout life remains poorly understood. We assessed OT in the plasma, saliva, and urine of 112 mothers and fathers interacting with their 4-6-month-old infants. Parent-infant…

  19. [Prebiotics in infant health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdo, Fernando G; Menéndez, Ana M; Pita Martín de Portela, María L; Sosa, Patricia; Toca, María del C; Trifone, Liliana; Vecchiarelli, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    The composition of human milk is the main base for the development of infant formulas concerning its macronutrients and micronutrients contents and bioactive compounds. Technological advances in the composition of human milk have identified a great number of bioactive compounds such as prebiotics which are responsible for immunological protection and the prevention of different pathologies. In order to achieve similar benefits, they are part of the contents of infant formulas.

  20. Electric stimulation at sciatic nerve evokes long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in rats at various developmental phases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term potentiation of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis field potential in adult rats has already been reported; however, there is lack of correlated researches on naenonate, infant and adult rats which have different responses to pain conduction information.OBJECTIVE: To observe the various effects of electric stimulation at sciatic nerve on long-term potentiation of evoked field potential at superficial layer of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats at various developmental phases and analyze manifestations of pain conduction information at superficial layers ( Ⅰ - Ⅱ)of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis in immature rats.DESIGN: Grouping controlled study.SETTING: Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wuhan University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Physiology (provincial laboratory),Medical College of Wuhan University from March 2006 to May 2007. A total of 27 healthy male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, 17- 90 days old, SPF grade, weighing 41 -200 g, were provided by Experimental Animal Center, Medical College of Wuhan University.METHODS: Based on their birthdays, rats were divided into naenonate group (17 - 20 days old, weighing 41-52 g, n =10), infant group (35 - 50 days old, weighing 87 - 125 g, n =10) and adult group (60 - 90 days old, weighing 180 -200 g, n =7). Left sciatic nerve was separated and stimulated with single square wave (15 V, 0.5 ms). Meanwhile, evoked field potential was recorded at superficial layers of lateral T13 - L1 cornu dorsale medullae spinalis and then stimulated with high-frequent and high-intensive tetanizing current (30 -40 V, 0.5 ms, 100 Hz, 1 s per bundle, 10 s in bundle interval) four times. After the operation, onset of long-term potentiation was observed; meanwhile, amplitude changes and latency of field potential were analyzed.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Amplitude and latency changes of field potential at superficial layers of cornu dorsale medullae spinalis of rats in the three

  1. Exploratory Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Compounds Correlated with Lutein Concentration in Frontal Cortex, Hippocampus, and Occipital Cortex of Human Infant Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline C Lieblein-Boff

    Full Text Available Lutein is a dietary carotenoid well known for its role as an antioxidant in the macula, and recent reports implicate a role for lutein in cognitive function. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in both pediatric and geriatric brain tissue. In addition, cognitive function in older adults correlated with macular and postmortem brain lutein concentrations. Furthermore, lutein was found to preferentially accumulate in the infant brain in comparison to other carotenoids that are predominant in diet. While lutein is consistently related to cognitive function, the mechanisms by which lutein may influence cognition are not clear. In an effort to identify potential mechanisms through which lutein might influence neurodevelopment, an exploratory study relating metabolite signatures and lutein was completed. Post-mortem metabolomic analyses were performed on human infant brain tissues in three regions important for learning and memory: the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and occipital cortex. Metabolomic profiles were compared to lutein concentration, and correlations were identified and reported here. A total of 1276 correlations were carried out across all brain regions. Of 427 metabolites analyzed, 257 were metabolites of known identity. Unidentified metabolite correlations (510 were excluded. In addition, moderate correlations with xenobiotic relationships (2 or those driven by single outliers (3 were excluded from further study. Lutein concentrations correlated with lipid pathway metabolites, energy pathway metabolites, brain osmolytes, amino acid neurotransmitters, and the antioxidant homocarnosine. These correlations were often brain region-specific. Revealing relationships between lutein and metabolic pathways may help identify potential candidates on which to complete further analyses and may shed light on important roles of lutein in the human brain during development.

  2. Detection of the first G6P[14] human rotavirus strain in an infant with diarrhoea in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanka, Susan; Lartey, Belinda; Agbemabiese, Chantal; Dennis, Francis E; Adiku, Theophilus; Nyarko, Kofi; Ofori, Michael; Armah, George E

    2016-11-10

    Rotaviruses with G6P[14] specificity are mostly isolated in cattle and have been established as a rare cause of gastroenteritis in humans. This study reports the first detection of G6P[14] rotavirus strain in Ghana from the stool of an infant during a hospital-based rotavirus surveillance study in 2010. Viral RNA was extracted and rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genes amplified by one step RT-PCR using gene-specific primers. The DNA was purified, sequenced and genotypes determined using BLAST and RotaC v2.0. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using maximum likelihood method in MEGA v6.06 software and statistically supported by bootstrapping with 1000 replicates. Phylogenetic distances were calculated using the Kimura-2 parameter model. The study strain, GHA-M0084/2010 was characterised as G6P[14]. The VP7 gene of the Ghanaian strain clustered in G6 lineage-III together with artiodactyl and human rotavirus (HRV) strains. It exhibited the highest nucleotide (88.1 %) and amino acid (86.9 %) sequence identity with Belgian HRV strain, B10925. The VP8* fragment of the VP4 gene was closely related to HRV strains detected in France, Italy, Spain and Belgium. It exhibited the strongest nucleotide sequence identity (87.9 %) with HRV strains, PA169 and PR/1300 (Italy) and the strongest amino acid sequence identity (89.3 %) with HRV strain R2775/FRA/07 (France). The study reports the first detection of G6P[14] HRV strain in an infant in Ghana. The detection of G6P[14], an unusual strain pre-vaccine introduction in Ghana, suggests a potential compromise of vaccine effectiveness and indicates the necessity for continuous surveillance in the post vaccine era.

  3. The manual habituation and discrimination of shapes in preterm human infants from 33 to 34+6 post-conceptional age.

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    Fleur Lejeune

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Grasping at birth is well-known as a reflex in response to a stimulation of the palm of the hand. Recent studies revealed that this grasping was not only a pure reflex because human newborns are able to detect and to remember differences in shape features. The manual perception of shapes has not been investigated in preterm human infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate manual perception by preterm infants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a habituation/reaction to novelty procedure in twenty-four human preterm infants from 33 to 34+6 post-conceptional age. After habituation to an object (prism or cylinder in one hand (left or right in a habituation phase, babies were given either the same object or the other (novel object in the same hand in a test phase. We observed that after successive presentations of the same object, a decrease of the holding time is observed for each preterm infant. Moreover, a significant increase of the holding time is obtained with the presentation of the novel object. Finally, the comparison between the current performance of preterm infants and those of full-term newborns showed that preterm babies only had a faster tactile habituation to a shape. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: For the first time, the results reveal that preterm infants from 33 to 34+6 GW can detect the specific features that differentiate prism and cylinder shapes by touch, and remember them. The results suggest that there is no qualitative, but only quantitative, difference between the perceptual abilities of preterm babies and those of full-term babies in perceiving shape manually.

  4. Bovine colostrum improves neonatal growth, digestive function, and gut immunity relative to donor human milk and infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Ostenfeldt; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette Viberg

    2016-01-01

    permeability, relative to DM and IF pigs (P Relative to IF pigs, BC pigs also had lower density of mucosa-associated bacteria and of some putative pathogens in colon, together with higher intestinal villi, mucosal mass, brush-border enzyme activities, colonic short chain fatty acid levels......Mother's own milk is the optimal first diet for preterm infants, but donor human milk (DM) or infant formula (IF) is used when supply is limited. We hypothesized that a gradual introduction of bovine colostrum (BC) or DM improves gut maturation, relative to IF during the first 11 days after preterm...

  5. A Review of the Impact of Dietary Intakes in Human Pregnancy on Infant Birthweight

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    Jessica A. Grieger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies assessing maternal dietary intakes and the relationship with birthweight are inconsistent, thus attempting to draw inferences on the role of maternal nutrition in determining the fetal growth trajectory is difficult. The aim of this review is to provide updated evidence from epidemiological and randomized controlled trials on the impact of dietary and supplemental intakes of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, zinc, folate, iron, calcium, and vitamin D, as well as dietary patterns, on infant birthweight. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken via the electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. Included articles were those published in English, in scholarly journals, and which provided information about diet and nutrition during pregnancy and infant birthweight. There is insufficient evidence for omega-3 fatty acid supplements’ ability to reduce risk of low birthweight (LBW, and more robust evidence from studies supplementing with zinc, calcium, and/or vitamin D needs to be established. Iron supplementation appears to increase birthweight, particularly when there are increases in maternal hemoglobin concentrations in the third trimester. There is limited evidence supporting the use of folic acid supplements to reduce the risk for LBW; however, supplementation may increase birthweight by ~130 g. Consumption of whole foods such as fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats throughout pregnancy appears beneficial for appropriate birthweight. Intervention studies with an understanding of optimal dietary patterns may provide promising results for both maternal and perinatal health. Outcomes from these studies will help determine what sort of dietary advice could be promoted to women during pregnancy in order to promote the best health for themselves and their baby.

  6. Independent development of the Reach and the Grasp in spontaneous self-touching by human infants in the first six months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dual Visuomotor Channel Theory proposes that visually guided reaching is a composite of two movements, a Reach that advances the hand to contact the target and a Grasp that shapes the digits for target purchase. The theory is supported by biometric analyses of adult reaching, evolutionary contrasts, and differential developmental patterns for the Reach and the Grasp in visually guided reaching in human infants. The present ethological study asked whether there is evidence for a dissociated development for the Reach and the Grasp in nonvisual hand use in very early infancy. The study documents a rich array of spontaneous self-touching behavior in infants during the first six months of life and subjects the movements to analyses of body target, contact type, and Grasp. Video recordings were made of resting alert infants biweekly from birth to 6 months. In younger infants, self-touching targets included the head and trunk. As infants aged, targets became more caudal including the hips, legs, and feet. In younger infants hand contact was mainly made with the dorsum of the hand, but as infants aged contacts included palmar and eventually grasp and manipulatory contacts with the body and clothes. The relative incidence of caudal contacts and palmar contacts increased concurrently and were significantly correlated throughout the period of study. In contrast, developmental increases in self grasping emerged a few weeks after the increases observed in caudal and palmar contacts. The behavioral and temporal pattern of these spontaneous self-touching movements suggest that the Reach, in which the hand extends to make a palmar self-contact, and the Grasp, in which the digits close and make manipulatory movements, have partially independent developmental profiles. The results additionally suggest that self-touching behavior is an important developmental phase that allows for the coordination of the Reach and the Grasp prior to their use under visual

  7. A comparative study of triacylglycerol composition in Chinese human milk within different lactation stages and imported infant formula by SFC coupled with Q-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Anqi; Ma, Qiang; Bai, Hua; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-04-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the major component of milk fat are significant factors to ensure the healthy growth of infants. An efficient method for identifying TAGs in human milk (HM) and infant formula (IF) was established using supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC) coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). The results indicated the feasibility of this method with satisfactory recoveries (>80%) and correlation coefficients (r(2)⩾0.993). More than 60 TAGs in HM and 50 TAGs in IF were identified. The profiling results demonstrated that TAGs in HM were greatly affected by lactation stage. Significant differences were found between HM and IF, such as much higher medium chain TAGs and saturated TAGs in IF, indicating that the formulas developed by foreign manufacturers were not suitable for Chinese babies. This high-throughput method exhibits a huge potential for analysis of milk samples and the result may serve as an important guide for Chinese infants diet.

  8. The renin-angiotensin system; development and differentiation of the renal medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Robdrup Tinning, Anne; Marcussen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Adverse events during fetal development can predispose the individual for cardiovascular disease later in life, a correlation known as fetal programming of adult hypertension. The "programming" events are not known but might reside in the kidneys due to these organs significant role in extracellu......Adverse events during fetal development can predispose the individual for cardiovascular disease later in life, a correlation known as fetal programming of adult hypertension. The "programming" events are not known but might reside in the kidneys due to these organs significant role...... in extracellular volume control and long term blood pressure regulation. Previously, nephron endowment and functional consequences of a low nephron number has been extensively investigated without achieving a full explanation of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. In this review, we will focus...... lesions that has been associated with hypertension later in life. A consistent finding in both experimental animal models and in human case reports is atrophy of the renal medulla with developmental lesions to both medullary nephron segments and vascular development with concomitant functional...

  9. The physiological role of AT1 receptors in the ventrolateral medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tagawa

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurons in the rostral and caudal parts of the ventrolateral medulla (VLM play a pivotal role in the regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure. Studies in several species, including humans, have shown that these regions contain a high density of AT1 receptors specifically associated with neurons that regulate the sympathetic vasomotor outflow, or the secretion of vasopressin from the hypothalamus. It is well established that specific activation of AT1 receptors by application of exogenous angiotensin II in the rostral and caudal VLM excites sympathoexcitatory and sympathoinhibitory neurons, respectively, but the physiological role of these receptors in the normal synaptic regulation of VLM neurons is not known. In this paper we review studies which have defined the effects of specific activation or blockade of these receptors on cardiovascular function, and discuss what these findings tell us with regard to the physiological role of AT1 receptors in the VLM in the tonic and phasic regulation of sympathetic vasomotor activity and blood pressure.

  10. DIRECT PROJECTIONS FROM THE CAUDAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEI TO THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA IN THE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R.; Friedrich, Victor L.; Kang, Timothy; Kukielka, Ewa; Martinelli, Giorgio P.

    2010-01-01

    While the basic pathways mediating vestibulo-ocular, -spinal, and -collic reflexes have been described in some detail, little is known about vestibular projections to central autonomic sites. Previous studies have primarily focused on projections from the caudal vestibular region to solitary, vagal and parabrachial nuclei, but have noted a sparse innervation of the ventrolateral medulla. Since a direct pathway from the vestibular nuclei to the rostral ventrolateral medulla would provide a morphological substrate for rapid modifications in blood pressure, heart rate and respiration with changes in posture and locomotion, the present study examined anatomical evidence for this pathway using anterograde and retrograde tract tracing and immunofluorescence detection in brainstem sections of the rat medulla. The results provide anatomical evidence for direct pathways from the caudal vestibular nuclear complex to the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medullary regions. The projections are conveyed by fine and highly varicose axons that ramify bilaterally, with greater terminal densities present ipsilateral to the injection site and more rostrally in the ventrolateral medulla. In the rostral ventrolateral medulla, these processes are highly branched and extremely varicose, primarily directed toward the somata and proximal dendrites of non-catecholaminergic neurons, with minor projections to the distal dendrites of catecholaminergic cells. In the caudal ventrolateral medulla, the axons of vestibular nucleus neurons are more modestly branched, with fewer varicosities, and their endings are contiguous with both the perikarya and dendrites of catecholamine-containing neurons. These data suggest that vestibular neurons preferentially target the rostral ventrolateral medulla, and can thereby provide a morphological basis for a short latency vestibulo-sympathetic pathway. PMID:21163335

  11. Loading the limb during rhythmic leg movements lengthens the duration of both flexion and extension in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Kristin E; Yang, Jaynie F

    2007-02-01

    Sensory input is critical for adapting motor outputs to meet environmental conditions. A ubiquitous force on all terrestrial animals is gravity. It is possible that when performing rhythmic movements, animals respond to load-related feedback in the same way by prolonging the muscle activity resisting the load. We hypothesized that for rhythmic leg movements, the period (extension or flexion) experiencing the higher load will be longer and vary more strongly with cycle period. Six rhythmic movements were studied in human infants (aged 3-10 mo), each providing different degrees of load-related feedback to the legs during flexion and extension of the limb. Kicking in supine provided similar loads (inertial) during flexion and extension. Stepping on a treadmill, kicking in supine against a foot-plate, and kicking in sitting loaded the legs during extension more than flexion, whereas air-stepping and air-stepping with ankle weights did the opposite. Video, electrogoniometry, surface electromyography, and contact forces were recorded. We showed that load-related feedback could make either the duration of flexion or extension longer. Within the tasks of stepping and kicking against a plate, infants who exerted lower forces showed shorter extensor durations than those who exerted higher forces. Because older babies tend to step with greater force, we wished to rule out the contribution of age. Eight babies (>8 mo old) were studied during stepping, in which we manipulated the amount of weight-bearing. The same effect of load was seen. Hence, the degree of loading directly affects the duration of extension in an incremental way.

  12. Exploring the Role of Spatial Frequency Information during Neural Emotion Processing in Human Infants

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    Sarah Jessen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced attention to fear expressions in adults is primarily driven by information from low as opposed to high spatial frequencies contained in faces. However, little is known about the role of spatial frequency information in emotion processing during infancy. In the present study, we examined the role of low compared to high spatial frequencies in the processing of happy and fearful facial expressions by using filtered face stimuli and measuring event-related brain potentials (ERPs in 7-month-old infants (N = 26. Our results revealed that infants’ brains discriminated between emotional facial expressions containing high but not between expressions containing low spatial frequencies. Specifically, happy faces containing high spatial frequencies elicited a smaller Nc amplitude than fearful faces containing high spatial frequencies and happy and fearful faces containing low spatial frequencies. Our results demonstrate that already in infancy spatial frequency content influences the processing of facial emotions. Furthermore, we observed that fearful facial expressions elicited a comparable Nc response for high and low spatial frequencies, suggesting a robust detection of fearful faces irrespective of spatial frequency content, whereas the detection of happy facial expressions was contingent upon frequency content. In summary, these data provide new insights into the neural processing of facial emotions in early development by highlighting the differential role played by spatial frequencies in the detection of fear and happiness.

  13. Human Origin Lactobacillus casei Isolated from Indonesian Infants Demonstrating Potential Characteristics as Probiotics in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo .

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The aim of this experiment was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from infant faeces and subsequent evaluation of its potential probiotics. LAB was isolated from faeces of infants who consumed breast milk as the only source of diet on L-cysteine-supplemented MRS Agar, and incubated on 37oC for 48 hours. Colonies grew on this media were then identifi ed based on morphological, physiological and molecular approaches. Morphological and physiological identifi cations based on Gram staining, shape, motility, spore formation, catalase, CO2 and NH3 production, and the ability to grow on temperature at 10oC and 45oC. Molecular identifi cation based on the amplifi cation of 16S rRNA gene. The potential application of selected isolates for probiotics was evaluated based on the ability to grow on media with low pH and the addition of 0.5% bile salts, the ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic Bacillus cereus and Eschericia coli, and in vitroadherence ability. On the basis of morphological, physiological and molecular analysis of 16S rRNA gene, it was concluded that the selected isolate 1AF was a strain of Lactobacillus casei. Evaluation of probiotic in vitro showed that 60.4% of cells were resistant

  14. Demeclocycline Attenuates Hyponatremia by Reducing Aquaporin-2 Expression in the Renal Inner Medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortenoeven, Marleen L. A.; Sinke, Anne P.; Hadrup, Niels;

    2013-01-01

    Binding of vasopressin to its type-2 receptor in renal collecting ducts induces cAMP signaling, transcription and translocation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the plasma membrane and water reabsorption from the pro-urine. Demeclocycline is currently used to treat hyponatremia in patients...... urine volume, decreased urine osmolality and reverted hyponatremia in an SIADH rat model. AQP2 and adenylate cyclase 5/6 abundances were reduced in the inner medulla, but increased in the cortex and outer medulla, in the absence of any sign of toxicity. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo data...... indicate that demeclocycline mainly attenuates hyponatremia in SIADH by reducing adenylate cyclase 5/6 expression, and consequently cAMP generation, AQP2 gene transcription and AQP2 abundance in the renal inner medulla, coinciding with a reduced vasopressin-escape response in the other collecting duct...

  15. Somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies and fibers in the medulla oblongata et spinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssmann, W G; Burnweit, C; Shehab, T; Triepel, J

    1979-10-01

    Complete serial sectioning of the medulla oblongata in monkey, cat, guinea pig, and japanese dancing mouse and incubation for somatostatin-immunoreaction was carried out. Numerous regions of the medulla oblongata such as the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis, nucleus cuneatus et gracillis, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus tractus solitarius, nucleus vestibularis, and parts of the oliva contain dense networks of somatostatin-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Cell bodies were seen in the nucleus reticularis medullae oblongatae. In the spinal cord the sections from each segment were analyzed, showing the highest concentrations of somatostatinergic fibers in the substantia gelantinosa of the columna dorsalis. Cell bodies were seen in the zona intermedia centralis, especially in the upper cervical segments. Many positive fibers were also seen in the entire zona intermedia and the columna ventralis. Especially prominent was the immunoreactivity in the zona intermediolateralis of the thoracic segments and the columna ventralis of the lower lumbar and sacral segments.

  16. Adrenomedullin receptor is found exclusively in noradrenaline-secreting cells of the rat adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, D; Thomson, L M; Michael, G J; Carroll, M; Kapas, S; Hinson, J P

    2000-04-01

    Adrenomedullin, originally identified in the adrenal medulla, has binding sites in the adrenal gland; however, its role in the adrenal medulla is unclear. This study was designed to characterise adrenomedullin binding sites in the rat adrenal medulla, using ligand binding studies, immunocytochemistry, and mRNA analysis. A single population of specific adrenomedullin receptors was identified in adrenal medullary homogenates. 125I-Adrenomedullin was displaced only by adrenomedullin1-50 and not by calcitonin gene-related peptide or amylin at concentrations up to 100 nmol/L. The receptor K(D) was 3.64 nmol/L with a receptor density of 570 fmol/mg of protein. Analysis of mRNA revealed that the genes encoding both the putative adrenomedullin receptors, termed calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and L1, were expressed in the rat adrenal medulla. Dual-colour indirect-labelled immunofluorescence was used to localise phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and the adrenomedullin receptor in the same section. PNMT is the enzyme that converts noradrenaline to adrenaline and is not expressed in noradrenaline-secreting cells. These studies revealed that both CRLR and L1 were expressed only in cells that did not express PNMT, suggesting that adrenomedullin receptors are only found in noradrenaline-secreting cells. Further evidence to support this conclusion was provided by the demonstration of colocalisation of adrenomedullin receptors with dopamine beta-hydroxylase, confirming the presence of the receptors in medullary chromaffin cells. Taken together, these data suggest that adrenomedullin acts through a specific adrenomedullin receptor in the rat adrenal medulla. RT-PCR and northern blot analysis revealed greater abundance of mRNA for L1 than for CRLR, possibly suggesting that L1 may be the major adrenomedullin receptor expressed in this tissue. As it has been reported that adrenomedullin is synthesised predominantly by adrenaline-secreting cells, it appears likely

  17. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Act Extension, 1978. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session, on S. 2523, March 1, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    This document presents the hearings before the Subcommittee on Child and Human Development on the enactment of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Act Extension of 1978. The purpose of the hearing was to determine the effectiveness of the SIDS program which was established by Public Law 93-270, to determine how it can be improved or expanded,…

  18. A phase I randomized clinical trial of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine MVA.HIVA administered to Gambian infants.

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    Muhammed O Afolabi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vaccine to decrease transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 during breast-feeding would complement efforts to eliminate infant HIV-1 infection by antiretroviral therapy. Relative to adults, infants have distinct immune development, potentially high-risk of transmission when exposed to HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS when infected. To date, there have been only three published HIV-1 vaccine trials in infants. TRIAL DESIGN: We conducted a randomized phase I clinical trial PedVacc 001 assessing the feasibility, safety and immunogenicity of a single dose of candidate vaccine MVA.HIVA administered intramuscularly to 20-week-old infants born to HIV-1-negative mothers in The Gambia. METHODS: Infants were followed to 9 months of age with assessment of safety, immunogenicity and interference with Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI vaccines. The trial is the first stage of developing more complex prime-boost vaccination strategies against breast milk transmission of HIV-1. RESULTS: From March to October 2010, 48 infants (24 vaccine and 24 no-treatment were enrolled with 100% retention. The MVA.HIVA vaccine was safe with no difference in adverse events between vaccinees and untreated infants. Two vaccine recipients (9% and no controls had positive ex vivo interferon-γ ELISPOT assay responses. Antibody levels elicited to the EPI vaccines, which included diphtheria, tetanus, whole-cell pertussis, hepatitis B virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and oral poliovirus, reached protective levels for the vast majority and were similar between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: A single low-dose of MVA.HIVA administered to 20-week-old infants in The Gambia was found to be safe and without interference with the induction of protective antibody levels by EPI vaccines, but did not alone induce sufficient HIV-1-specific responses. These data support the use of MVA carrying other transgenes as a boosting vector within more complex prime

  19. 78 FR 61383 - Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices For Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers, and Components... United States after importation of certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant... certain thermal support devices for infants, infant incubators, infant warmers, and components thereof...

  20. Serologic response to porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) in infants vaccinated with the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™: A retrospective laboratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Htay Htay; Karkada, Naveen; Jayadeva, Girish; Dubin, Gary

    2017-01-02

    In 2010, porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1) material was unexpectedly detected in the oral live-attenuated human rotavirus (RV) vaccine, Rotarix™ (GSK Vaccines, Belgium). An initial study (NCT01511133) found no immunologic response against PCV1 in 40 vaccinated infants. As a follow-up, the current study (NCT02153333), searched for evidence of post-vaccination serologic response to PCV1 in a larger number of archived serum samples. Unlike the previous study, serum anti-PCV1 antibodies were assessed with an adapted Immuno Peroxidase Monolayer Assay (IPMA) using a Vero-adapted PCV1 strain. Samples from 596 infants who participated in clinical trials of the human RV vaccine were randomly selected and analyzed. The observed anti-PCV1 antibody seropositivity rate 1-2 months post-dose 2 was approximately 1% [90% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.3-2.6] (3/299 samples) in infants who received the human RV vaccine and 0.3% [90% CI: 0.0-1.6] (1/297 samples) in those who received placebo; the difference between the groups was -0.66 [90% CI: -2.16-0.60]. One subject in the vaccinated group was also seropositive before vaccination. Notably, the seropositivity rate observed in vaccinated subjects was below that observed during assay qualification in samples from unvaccinated subjects outside of this study (2.5%; 5/200 samples). No serious adverse events had been reported in any of the 4 subjects providing anti-PCV1 positive samples during the 31-day post-vaccination follow-up period in the original studies. In conclusion, the presence of PCV1 in the human RV vaccine is considered to be a manufacturing quality issue and does not appear to pose a safety risk to vaccinated infants.

  1. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Hanan Zekri; Hanaa I. Rady

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patien...

  2. A neonatal piglet model for investigating brain and cognitive development in small for gestational age human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlowski, Emily C; Conrad, Matthew S; Lezmi, Stephane; Dilger, Ryan N; Sutton, Brad; Larsen, Ryan; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-01-01

    The piglet was investigated as a potential model for studying brain and cognitive deficits associated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). Naturally farrowed SGA (0.7-1.0 kg BW) and average for gestational age (AGA, 1.3-1.6 kg BW) piglets were obtained on postnatal day (PD) 2, placed in individual cages, and provided a nutritionally adequate milk replacer diet (285 ml/kg/d). Beginning at PD14, performance in a spatial T-maze task was assessed. At PD28, piglets were anesthetized for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assess brain structure (voxel-based morphometry), connectivity (diffusion-tensor imaging) and metabolites in the hippocampus and corpus callosum (proton MR spectroscopy). Piglets born SGA showed compensatory growth such that BW of SGA and AGA piglets was similar (P>0.05), by PD15. Birth weight affected maze performance, with SGA piglets taking longer to reach criterion than AGA piglets (pdevelopment and connectivity. None of the metabolites measured were different between groups. Collectively, the results show that SGA piglets have spatial learning deficits and abnormal development of white matter. As learning deficits and abnormalities in white matter are common in SGA human infants, the piglet is a tractable translational model that can be used to investigate SGA-associated cognitive deficits and potential interventions.

  3. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  4. Expression of Carcinoembryonic Cell Adhesion Molecule 6 and Alveolar Epithelial Cell Markers in Lungs of Human Infants with Chronic Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Linda W; Gonzalez, Robert; Barrette, Anne Marie; Wang, Ping; Dobbs, Leland; Ballard, Philip L

    2015-12-01

    The membrane protein carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM6) is expressed in the epithelium of various tissues, participating in innate immune defense, cell proliferation and differentiation, with overexpression in gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic and lung tumors. It is developmentally and hormonally regulated in fetal human lung, with an apparent increased production in preterm infants with respiratory failure. To further examine the expression and cell localization of CEACAM6, we performed immunohistochemical and biochemical studies in lung specimens from infants with and without chronic lung disease. CEACAM6 protein and mRNA were increased ~4-fold in lungs from infants with chronic lung disease as compared with controls. By immunostaining, CEACAM6 expression was markedly increased in the lung parenchyma of infants and children with a variety of chronic lung disorders, localizing to hyperplastic epithelial cells with a ~7-fold elevated proliferative rate by PCNA staining. Some of these cells also co-expressed membrane markers of both type I and type II cells, which is not observed in normal postnatal lung, suggesting they are transitional epithelial cells. We suggest that CEACAM6 is both a marker of lung epithelial progenitor cells and a contributor to the proliferative response after injury due to its anti-apoptotic and cell adhesive properties. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Chimpanzee hand preference for throwing and infant cradling:implications for the origin of human handedness

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, William D.; Kim A Bard; Jones, A; Bales, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    Calvin (i983) has hypothesized that the neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive demands of throwing may have served as important evolutionary precursors to a variety of traits( e.g., handedness, tool use, and language processing) in early hominids. Eighty-eight percent of humans throw with their right hands (Healey, Liederman, and Geschwind I986), and Calvin has argued that this right-handed throwing evolved as a result of a left-hemisphere specialization for planned sequential movement...

  6. Post discharge formula fortification of maternal human milk of very low birth weight preterm infants: an introduction of a feeding protocol in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer El Sakka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW. Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb, electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430, length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027, and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217 in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls, P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources.

  7. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  8. Severe cell reduction in the future brain cortex in human growth-restricted fetuses and infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Grethe B; Pakkenberg, Bente; Bogdanović, Nenad;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that the total number of cells in the cortical part of the cerebral wall is the same in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses, compared with normally grown fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: The total cell number in the cerebral wall...... with controls. The daily increase in brain cells in the future cortex was only half of that of the controls. In the 3 other developmental zones, no significant differences in cell numbers could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: IUGR in humans is associated with a severe reduction in cortical growth...

  9. Mapping the calcitonin receptor in human brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, Rebekah L; Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Waldvogel, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    understanding of these hormone systems by mapping CTR expression in the human brain stem, specifically the medulla oblongata. Widespread CTR-like immunoreactivity was observed throughout the medulla. Dense CTR staining was noted in several discrete nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract...

  10. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i.e. mother's age, BMI, gestational weight gain, occupation, residence and fetal growth parameters and breast milk levels of OCPs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dieldrin and PCBs. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 100% and 75% of the breast milk samples, respectively, and ranged between 24 and 2400ng/g lipid weight (lw) and infants, respectively, suggesting potential health risks. In addition, head circumference were negatively associated with p,p´-DDE in female infants, suggesting that OC exposure during pregnancy may influence fetal growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of visual and somatosensory attention of the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6 to 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-11-01

    The reach-to-eat movement is a natural act in which an object or food item is grasped and brought to the mouth. It is one of the earliest forelimb behaviours displayed by human infants, who bring almost all grasped objects to the mouth, and is used daily by adults. In adults, there is a tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the reach-to-eat movement. The target is visually engaged just as hand advance is initiated and visually disengaged just as the target is grasped. This coupling of vision and hand advance suggests that advance is mediated by visual attention and withdrawal by somatosensation. The present study examined when the tight coupling between visual attention and the advance phase of the movement develops in infancy. In a longitudinal study, eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and 20 adults reached for familiar inanimate objects and food items. Visual gaze, hand movement and hand accuracy were measured using frame-by-frame video scoring and 2D kinematic analysis. The study found that the youngest infants (6-8 months) visually engaged the target well before initiating a reaching movement and continued to fixate on the target after it was grasped and as it was brought to the mouth. Between 10 and 12 months of age, infants began to visually engage the target just as the reaching movement was initiated and visually disengaged the target as it was grasped, as did the adults. Over the same developmental time period, the infants developed rotatory hand shaping movements, precision grasping, and improved targeting accuracy both for grasping the object and placing it into the mouth. The results suggest that visual guidance of advance and somatosensory guidance of withdrawal develop together and in concert with hand movement ability and skill.

  12. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus prevention: knowledge and attitudes of women attending a rural hospital in Swaziland, Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Prudence; Kliner, Merav; Walley, John

    2014-01-01

    Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV from heterosexual sex by up to 60% and the Government of Swaziland has been promoting adult male circumcision. Infant circumcision commenced in 2013 so it is important to understand the knowledge and views of women as potential mothers, around infant circumcision for medical purposes to inform the development of the service. This study interviewed 14 women of reproductive age attending the outpatient department of Good Shepherd Mission Hospital (GSMH), a rural district hospital, on their knowledge of and attitudes to early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Participants were highly knowledgeable about the health benefits of medical circumcision, although knowledge of the comparative risks and benefits of EIMC to adult circumcision was poor. All participants would have a son circumcised; the preferred age varied from early infancy to adolescence. Complications and pain were the main barriers whilst religious and cultural reasons were mentioned both for and against circumcision. A variety of family members are important in the decision to circumcise a young boy. Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically. It will be important to provide accurate, culturally sensitive information about infant circumcision to mothers, fathers and grandparents using existing hospital and community services provided at GSMH and throughout Swaziland. Where possible services for MMC should be available to males of all ages so that families and young men may choose the most favourable age for circumcision.

  13. Sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation in relation to vitamin D status of breastfeeding mothers and infants in the global exploration of human milk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Davidson, Barbara; Woo, Jessica G; Peng, Yong-Mei; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; de Lourdes Guerrero, Maria; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2015-02-05

    Although vitamin D (vD) deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n=112), Cincinnati, Ohio (n=119), and Mexico City, Mexico (n=113). Maternal serum 25(OH)D was measured by radioimmunoassay (Mexico City) seen at 26 weeks of age during fall and winter seasons. Data collected prospectively included vD supplementation, season and sun index (sun exposure×body surface area exposed while outdoors). Differences and factors associated with vD deficiency were evaluated using appropriate statistical analysis. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was identified in 62%, 52% and 17% of Mexican, Shanghai and Cincinnati mothers, respectively (pseason (p=0.001) and sites (pSeason (p=0.022), adding formula feeding (p<0.001) and a higher sun index (p=0.085) predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  14. Use of human milk in the assessment of toxic metal exposure and essential element status in breastfeeding women and their infants in coastal Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzunov Letinić, Judita; Matek Sarić, Marijana; Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Varnai, Veda Marija; Sulimanec Grgec, Antonija; Orct, Tatjana

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant and lactating women and infants are vulnerable population groups for adverse effects of toxic metals due to their high nutritional needs and the resultant increased gastrointestinal absorption of both, essential and toxic elements. Although breastfeeding is recommended for infants worldwide, as human milk is the best source of nutrients and other required bioactive factors, it is also a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic substances including toxic metals and thus a source of infant exposure. The aim of this research was to assess health risks in breastfeeding women in the coastal area of the Republic of Croatia and their infants (N=107) due to maternal exposure to Cd and Pb via cigarette smoking, and Hg via seafood and dental amalgam fillings, and their interaction with essential elements. Biological markers of exposure were the concentrations of main toxic metals Pb, Cd and Hg in maternal blood and three types of breast milk throughout lactation stages. Biological markers of effects were the levels of essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal serum and breast milk. With regard to cigarette smoking as a source of exposure to Cd and Pb, there were effects of smoking on Cd concentration in blood and correlations between the smoking index and Cd concentrations in maternal blood (ρ=0.593; Pelement status, only Se levels in maternal serum decreased by 10% in persons who continued smoking during pregnancy compared to non-smokers. In conclusion, the levels of main toxic metals Cd, Pb and Hg and essential elements Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in maternal blood and three types of breast milk samples in the studied area of coastal Croatia showed no risk of disrupted essential element levels with regard of toxic metal exposure in both breastfeeding women and their infants.

  15. Synaptogenesis and Myelination in the Nucleus/Tractus Solitarius: Potential Role in Apnea of Prematurity, Congenital Central Hypoventilation, and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Harvey B; Flores-Sarnat, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Fetuses as early as 15 weeks' gestation exhibit rhythmical respiratory movements shown by real-time ultrasonography. The nucleus/tractus solitarius is the principal brainstem respiratory center; other medullary nuclei also participate. The purpose was to determine temporal maturation of synaptogenesis. Delayed synaptic maturation may explain neurogenic apnea or hypoventilation of prematurity and some cases of sudden infant death syndrome. Sections of medulla oblongata were studied from 30 human fetal and neonatal brains 9 to 41 weeks' gestation. Synaptophysin demonstrated the immunocytochemical sequence of synaptogenesis. Other neuronal markers and myelin stain also were applied. The nucleus/tractus solitarius was similarly studied in fetuses with chromosomopathies, metabolic encephalopathies, and brain malformations. Synapse formation in the nucleus solitarius begins at about 12 weeks' gestation and matures by 15 weeks; myelination initiated at 33 weeks. Synaptogenesis was delayed in 3 fetuses with different conditions, but was not specific for only nucleus solitarius. Delayed synaptogenesis or myelination in the nucleus solitarius may play a role in neonatal hypoventilation, especially in preterm infants and in some sudden infant death syndrome cases.

  16. Rate of vertical transmission of human papillomavirus from mothers to infants: relationship between infection rate and mode of delivery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Hyun; Lee, Si Won; Lee, In Ho; Ryu, Hyun Mee; Cho, A Reum; Kang, Young Soon; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon; Seong, Seok Ju; Shin, Son Moon; Kim, Tae Jin

    2012-01-01

    ...) in adults, various routes may be related to HPV infection in infants. We have assessed the extent of HPV infection during the perinatal period, and the relationship between mode of delivery and vertical transmission...

  17. Sun Exposure and Vitamin D Supplementation in Relation to Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekunle Dawodu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Although vitamin D (vD deficiency is common in breastfed infants and their mothers during pregnancy and lactation, a standardized global comparison is lacking. We studied the prevalence and risk factors for vD deficiency using a standardized protocol in a cohort of breastfeeding mother-infant pairs, enrolled in the Global Exploration of Human Milk Study, designed to examine longitudinally the effect of environment, diet and culture. Mothers planned to provide breast milk for at least three months post-partum and were enrolled at four weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China (n = 112, Cincinnati, Ohio (n = 119, and Mexico City, Mexico (n = 113. Maternal serum 25(OHD was measured by radioimmunoassay (<50 nmol/L was categorized as deficient. Serum 25(OHD was measured in a subset of infants (35 Shanghai, 47 Cincinnati and 45 Mexico City seen at 26 weeks of age during fall and winter seasons. Data collected prospectively included vD supplementation, season and sun index (sun exposure × body surface area exposed while outdoors. Differences and factors associated with vD deficiency were evaluated using appropriate statistical analysis. vD deficiency in order of magnitude was identified in 62%, 52% and 17% of Mexican, Shanghai and Cincinnati mothers, respectively (p < 0.001. In regression analysis, vD supplementation (p < 0.01, obesity (p = 0.03, season (p = 0.001 and sites (p < 0.001 predicted maternal vD status. vD deficiency in order of  magnitude was found in 62%, 28%, and 6% of Mexican, Cincinnati and Shanghai infants, respectively (p < 0.001. Season (p = 0.022, adding formula feeding (p < 0.001 and a higher sun index (p = 0.085 predicted higher infant vD status. vD deficiency appears to be a global problem in mothers and infants, though the prevalence in diverse populations may depend upon sun exposure behaviors and vD supplementation. Greater attention to maternal and infant vD status starting during pregnancy is warranted worldwide.

  18. Sudden cardiac death in multiple sclerosis caused by active demyelination of the medulla oblongata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengstman, G.J.D.; Kusters, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is not uncommon in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is related to the involvement of the vegetative areas of cardiac innervations in the medulla oblongata. It has been suggested that this may contribute to the occurrence of sudden death in MS. In this case report, we

  19. Antigen recognition by autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes drives homeostasis of the thymic medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Irla

    Full Text Available The thymic medulla is dedicated for purging the T-cell receptor (TCR repertoire of self-reactive specificities. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs play a pivotal role in this process because they express numerous peripheral tissue-restricted self-antigens. Although it is well known that medulla formation depends on the development of single-positive (SP thymocytes, the mechanisms underlying this requirement are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4⁺ thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes medullary plasticity in adult mice by governing the expansion and patterning of the medulla. This process exhibits strict dependence on TCR-reactivity with self-antigens expressed by mTECs, as well as engagement of the CD28-CD80/CD86 costimulatory axis. These interactions induce the expression of lymphotoxin α in autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and RANK in mTECs. Lymphotoxin in turn drives mTEC development in synergy with RANKL and CD40L. Our results show that Ag-dependent interactions between autoreactive CD4⁺ thymocytes and mTECs fine-tune homeostasis of the medulla by completing the signaling axes implicated in mTEC expansion and medullary organization.

  20. FOS EXPRESSION IN LUMBARSACRAL SPINAL CORD AND MEDULLA OBLONGATA INDUCED BY CHRONIC COLONIC INFLAMMATION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate Fos expression in rat lumbarsacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation. Methods Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group: colonic inflammation was induced in seventeen rats by intraluminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group: saline was administered intraluminally in sixteen rats; After 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of administration, lumbarsacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for Fos immunohistochemistry. Results Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-IR) neurons induced by TNBS administration were primarily distributed in deep laminae (laminae Ⅲ-Ⅳ,Ⅴ-Ⅵ) in the spinal dorsal horn and in medullary visceral zone (MVZ) in the medulla oblongata. The number of Fos-IR cells in the spinal cord and MVZ in rats after 7 and 14 days of TNBS administration were significantly higher than that in the control rats (P<0.05). After 28 days of TNBS instillation, the number of Fos-IR neurons in MVZ decreased and became comparable to the control group. However, the number of Fos cells in the spinal cord in some rats were still significantly increased compared with the control rats (P<0.05). Conclusion Fos-IR neurons after colonic inflammation recovery may play an important role in the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Medulla oblongata was a less important structure than the spinal cord in inducing visceral hypersensitivity after chronic colonic inflammation.

  1. Contribution of the renal medulla to enhanced ketogenesis with Ringer's acetate administration during hepatic inflow occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, T; Sakamoto, Y; Ando, H; Kobayashi, K

    1999-01-01

    We have reported that the administration of Ringer's acetate solution (AR) maintains plasma ketone body concentrations even during hepatic ischemia due to enhanced ketogenesis in the kidney. In this study we tried to clarify which part of the kidney, cortex or medulla, contributes to the enhanced ketogenesis. During 20 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion, AR or Ringer's lactate solution (LR) was administered. Ketone body concentrations in arterial and renal venous blood and renal cortical and medullary tissue were measured enzymatically. Results are expressed as means +/- SEM. At 20 minutes of hepatic inflow occlusion, arterial ketone body concentrations decreased to 38% of preischemic values with the LR infusion but increased under AR administration and were four times higher than that with LR. The renal arteriovenous difference in ketone body concentration was 16 +/- 14 micromol/ml before hepatic inflow occlusion and -52 +/- 14 with AR administration, indicating that renal ketogenesis occurred during hepatic ischemia. Total ketone body concentrations in the renal cortex and medulla were 56 +/- 6 and 61 +/- 5 micromol/g, respectively with LR, but increased to 186 +/- 29 and 248 +/- 25 micromol/g, respectively during AR administration. The concentration in the medulla was higher (p = 0. 12) than that in the cortex but did not reach statistical difference. Renal ketogenesis increases during hepatic inflow occlusion with AR administration. It is likely that the enhancement of ketogenesis takes place predominantly in the medulla of the kidney.

  2. Neurotrophic requirements of rat embryonic catecholaminergic neurons from the rostral ventrolateral medulla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copray, JCVM; Gibbons, H; van Roon, WMC; Comer, AM; Lipski, J

    1999-01-01

    The factors that regulate the ontogeny and differentiation of C1 adrenergic neurons located in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are completely unknown. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of a number of neurotrophic factors on the survival of E18-19 rat C1 adrenergic neuro

  3. 'Lingering' opiate deaths? Concentration of opiates in medulla and femoral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naso-Kaspar, Claire K; Herndon, Grant W; Wyman, John F; Felo, Joseph A; Lavins, Eric S; Gilson, Thomas P

    2013-10-01

    'Lingering death' cases occur when the circumstances of death indicate an opiate overdose, but measured opiate blood levels are only in the therapeutic range; death results from cardiac and respiratory depression. This study examined the relative concentration of opiates in femoral blood and in the medulla oblongata (sites for cardiac and respiratory control) from 41 cases to determine whether a difference in opiate concentration might explain lingering deaths. Opiates from blood and medulla were analyzed using GC-EI-MS in selective ion monitoring mode. Results were correlated with gross and microscopic findings of the lungs and with cause and manner of death. Opiate concentrations for morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) were higher in the medulla than in blood. The brain: blood ratio for the analytes demonstrated an increasing ratio from morphine, to codeine, to 6-AM (1.42, 2.48 and 4.86), which corresponds to the relative lipophilicity of these analytes. The average right and left lung weights were 762 and 668 g, respectively. Histologic examination showed edema, and/or polarizable microemboli, acute bronchopneumonia and acute bronchitis. The preferential distribution of opiates to medulla suggests that lingering opiate deaths may be explained, at least in part, because of higher relative concentrations of drug in brain, compared with femoral blood.

  4. Diagnostic value of renal cortex-to-medulla contrast on magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrier, F.; Hricak, H.; Justich, E.; Dooms, G.C.; Grodd, W.

    1986-05-01

    The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance contrast between the renal cortex and renal medulla as an indicator of renal disease was retrospectively studied in 38 patients (ten patients with a variety of diseases affecting the renal parenchyma, nine with renal obstruction, four with diffusely infiltrating renal-cell carcinoma, one with renal hematoma, nine with normally functioning renal allograft, and five with renal allograft failure). Twelve normal volunteers served as controls. On spin-echo (SE) images (TR 0.5 sec, TE 28 msec), the cortex-to-medulla contrast was present in the kidneys of all the normal volunteers (19% contrast +-2% S.D.) and in all the normally functioning allografts (17% contrast +-2% S.D.). Decrease or absence of cortex-to-medulla contrast (SE image with TR 0.5 sec and TE 28 msec) was found to be a sensitive but nonspecific sign of renal disease. It occurred in renal diseases of various causes and was produced by different pathophysiologic mechanisms such as edema, scarring, and tissue replacement by neoplasm or hematoma. Of the calculated T1 and T2 relaxation times and spin density of the cortex and the medulla, the T1 changes most consistently reflected renal disease.

  5. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  6. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  7. Perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from several Asian countries, and in infant formula and dairy milk from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lin; Ma, Jing; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Libelo, E Laurence; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2008-11-15

    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from

  8. Infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, R A; Brown, L W

    1979-05-01

    Infant botulism is a unique neuromuscular disease affecting infants less than six months old. It is the result of intraintestinal toxin production by C. botulinum (toxi-infection). Characteristic symptoms include constipation, lethargy, and decreased feeding. Physical examination often reveals generalized hypotonia with cranial nerve impairment. Recovery is dependent on supportive care in an intensive care setting. The relationship of this disease to the sudden infant death syndrome requires further study.

  9. The Future of Infant and Young Children's Food: Food Supply/Manufacturing and Human Health Challenges in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Carina; Maslin, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Infant food and weaning practices are highly debated with lots of unanswered questions. It is becoming more apparent that early-life feeding may have an effect on the long-term health of humans, particularly for noncommunicable diseases such as obesity and allergic diseases. It is important to understand how environmental influences in early life can affect the development of the immune system and metabolic profiling. In terms of nutrition and diet, one should consider the role of the total/whole diet, as well as particular nutrients in the development of noncommunicable diseases. Providing the appropriate nutrition for infants during the weaning age needs to address factors such as the microbial load of the food, nutrient composition, presence/absence of allergens and appropriate textures. These factors are of importance irrespective of whether the food is homemade or produced commercially, and need to take environmental factors and food resources into account.

  10. Increased sympathetic nerve activity correlates with neurovascular compression at the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendeski, Mauricio M; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda Marciano; Leite, Claudia Costa; Rubira, Marcelo Custódio; Lessa, Patricia; Krieger, Eduardo Moacyr

    2006-05-01

    We used microneurography to measure muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 25 hypertensive subjects and correlated these results with the presence or absence of signs of neurovascular compression (NVC) at the rostral ventrolateral (RVL) medulla on MRI. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on MRI findings: NVC-, no MRI evidence of NVC (N=9); NVC+contact, image showing artery in contact but not compressing the RVL medulla (N=8); and NVC+compression, image showing arterial compression of the RVL medulla (N=8). The MSNA measurements were performed at rest, after a hypothermic stimulus, and during isometric exercise. The MSNA during rest in the NVC+compression group was significantly higher than that in the NVC+contact and NVC- groups (30.4+/-3.4 versus 17.5+/-1.1 and 21.4+/-3.2 spikes per minute, respectively). However, the blood pressure in the NVC+compression group was slightly but not significantly higher than that in the other 2 groups (183+/-7/115+/-8, 174+/-6/108+/-7, and 171+/-5/110+/-5 mm Hg, respectively). The increases in MSNA, blood pressure, and heart rate during the cold pressor and isometric exercise tests were similar. Our results show that, although resting MSNA is elevated in patients with true NVC of the RVL medulla, patients without NVC or with arterial contact but not overt compression of the RVL medulla have similar MSNA. These findings are important for identifying, among hypertensive patients with NVC, individuals who may have associated physiological repercussions, such as increased sympathetic activity.

  11. A distinct layer of the medulla integrates sky compass signals in the brain of an insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil el Jundi

    Full Text Available Mass migration of desert locusts is a common phenomenon in North Africa and the Middle East but how these insects navigate is still poorly understood. Laboratory studies suggest that locusts are able to exploit the sky polarization pattern as a navigational cue. Like other insects locusts detect polarized light through a specialized dorsal rim area (DRA of the eye. Polarization signals are transmitted through the optic lobe to the anterior optic tubercle (AOTu and, finally, to the central complex in the brain. Whereas neurons of the AOTu integrate sky polarization and chromatic cues in a daytime dependent manner, the central complex holds a topographic representation of azimuthal directions suggesting a role as an internal sky compass. To understand further the integration of sky compass cues we studied polarization-sensitive (POL neurons in the medulla that may be intercalated between DRA photoreceptors and AOTu neurons. Five types of POL-neuron were characterized and four of these in multiple recordings. All neurons had wide arborizations in medulla layer 4 and most, additionally, in the dorsal rim area of the medulla and in the accessory medulla, the presumed circadian clock. The neurons showed type-specific orientational tuning to zenithal polarized light and azimuth tuning to unpolarized green and UV light spots. In contrast to neurons of the AOTu, we found no evidence for color opponency and daytime dependent adjustment of sky compass signals. Therefore, medulla layer 4 is a distinct stage in the integration of sky compass signals that precedes the time-compensated integration of celestial cues in the AOTu.

  12. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-digoxin binding by neural cells in the medulla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traurig, H.H.; Bhagat, A.; Bass, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to localize binding sites for the cardiac glycoside digoxin in the medulla of the rat in vivo. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected (IV) with /sup 3/H-digoxin and killed 30 minutes later. Autoradiographs of medullas showed evidence of /sup 3/H-digoxin binding to small- and medium-sized neural cells in the regions of the nucleus solitarius, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, area postrema, and in the zone between the area postrema and the underlying neuropil. However, the parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus were not labeled. The /sup 3/H-digoxin-labeled cells in the medulla were located mainly in the commissural and medial portions of nucleus solitarius at the level of the area postrema. Animals injected with unlabeled digoxin followed by /sup 3/H-digoxin showed reduced binding of radioactivity. The small- and medium-sized neurons of the caudal portions of the nucleus solitarius are internuncial in position with respect to cardiovascular afferents of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves and sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiovascular efferent neurons of the medulla. The results of this study suggest that these /sup 3/H-digoxin-labeled cells, presumably neurons of nucleus solitarius, may possess high affinity binding sites for digoxin. Further, the area postrema, which lacks a blood-brain barrier, may provide a portal of entry for /sup 3/H-digoxin into regions of the medulla known to contain neurons that play a role in the regulation of cardiac rhythm.

  13. Microvascular patterns in human medullary tegmentum at the level of the area postrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Morsut, Leonardo; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2005-04-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the regional differences in microvessel density (MVD) of the human medullary tegmentum in adults and newborns/infants. Transverse serial sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brainstems, taken from 16 adult and eight newborn/infant subjects, were stained with anti-von Willebrand factor (vWF) polyclonal antibodies. The boundaries of the area postrema (AP), dorsal motor vagal nucleus (DMVN), solitary tract nucleus (STN), solitary tract (ST) and hypoglossal nucleus (XII) were defined, all vessels were counted and the values were divided by the areas. In adult cases, statistically significant heterogeneity in MVD was found among the nuclei studied (P sections of the medulla of adult subjects stained with anti-vWF, all vessels showed an intense reaction of endothelial cells whereas in the DMVN, XII, STN and ST of newborns/infants, only rare, isolated vessels showed anti-vWF reactivity and in the AP, 41 +/- 21% of vessels expressed vWF. Differences in MVD among the nuclei may be related to their different functions and metabolic demands. Light and heterogeneous expression of vWF in endothelial cells of newborns/infants indicates that differentiation of microvasculature in the human medullary tegmentum extends beyond fetal stages.

  14. Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rei; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Felice, Julia P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM) to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM. PMID:27809227

  15. Mothers’ Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rei Yamada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite U.S. mothers’ wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0–1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5–4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women’s questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM.

  16. Mothers' Use of Social Media to Inform Their Practices for Pumping and Providing Pumped Human Milk to Their Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rei; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Felice, Julia P

    2016-10-31

    Despite U.S. mothers' wide adoption of pumps and bottles to provide human milk (HM) to their infants, mothers lack comprehensive, evidence-based guidelines for these practices. Thus, some women use online sources to seek information from each other. We aimed to characterize the information women sought online about pumping. We used data provided by ~25,000 women in an open cohort within a discussion forum about parenting. We examined 543 posts containing questions about providing pumped HM cross-sectionally and longitudinally in three time intervals: prenatal, 0 through 1.5 months postpartum, and 1.5 to 4.5 months postpartum. We used thematic analysis with Atlas.ti to analyze the content of posts. During pregnancy, women commonly asked questions about how and where to obtain pumps, both out-of-pocket and through insurance policies. Between 0-1.5 months postpartum, many mothers asked about how to handle pumped HM to ensure its safety as fed. Between 1.5-4.5 months postpartum, mothers sought strategies to overcome constraints to pumping both at home and at work and also asked about stopping pumping and providing their milk. Women's questions related to ensuring the safety of pumped HM represent information women need from health professionals, while their questions related to obtaining pumps suggest that women may benefit from clearer guidelines from their insurance providers. The difficulties women face at home and at work identify avenues through which families and employers can support women to meet their goals for providing HM.

  17. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  18. Energy conservation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Energy acquisition through suckling has been widely studied in rat and human infants. Processes mediating energy conservation, however, have not received the attention that they deserve. This essay, in honor of Professor Jerry Hogan, discusses parallel behaviors used by rat and human mothers to minimize energy loss in their offspring. Parallel mechanisms underlying energy preservation have been identified in rats and humans, suggesting phylogenetic conservation and possibly continuity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: In Honor of Jerry Hogan.

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in the Mother, Fetus, and Newborn Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revello, Maria Grazia; Gerna, Giuseppe

    2002-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital viral infection and mental retardation. HCMV infection, while causing asymptomatic infections in most immunocompetent subjects, can be transmitted during pregnancy from the mother with primary (and also recurrent) infection to the fetus. Hence, careful diagnosis of primary infection is required in the pregnant woman based on the most sensitive serologic assays (immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgG avidity assays) and conventional virologic and molecular procedures for virus detection in blood. Maternal prognostic markers of fetal infection are still under investigation. If primary infection is diagnosed in a timely manner, prenatal diagnosis can be offered, including the search for virus and virus components in fetal blood and amniotic fluid, with fetal prognostic markers of HCMV disease still to be defined. However, the final step for definite diagnosis of congenital HCMV infection is detection of virus in the blood or urine in the first 1 to 2 weeks of life. To date, treatment of congenital infection with antiviral drugs is only palliative both prior to and after birth, whereas the only efficacious preventive measure seems to be the development of a safe and immunogenic vaccine, including recombinant, subunit, DNA, and peptide-based vaccines now under investigation. The following controversial issues are discussed in the light of the most recent advances in the field: the actual perception of the problem; universal serologic screening before pregnancy; the impact of correct counseling on decision making by the couple involved; the role of prenatal diagnosis in ascertaining transmission of virus to the fetus; the impact of preconceptional and periconceptional infections on the prevalence of congenital infection; and the prevalence of congenitally infected babies born to mothers who were immune prior to pregnancy compared to the number born to mothers undergoing primary infection during pregnancy. PMID

  20. Newborn predictors of infant irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, M R; Froese-Fretz, A; Kotzer, A M

    1998-01-01

    To identify newborn infant behaviors that may predict infant irritability, commonly referred to as colic. A prospective, correlational design, with data collection occurring the first 4 days of life and again at 1 month of age. This study was conducted in a private hospital in a large metropolitan city in the Midwest. Sixty infants who were at low risk and full term and whose weight was appropriate for gestational age were recruited during their postpartum hospital stay. Infants with congenital anomalies, signs of illness, or high-risk factors were excluded from the study. During infants' 1-4-day hospital stays, their crying was assessed and reported by the nurses, and a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale was completed on each infant. At 1 month of age, irritability was measured using the Fussiness Rating Scale. Only two components of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale were related to development of colic or infant irritability at 1 month of age. These were the cluster of variables representing motor activity and the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale supplemental item measuring the persistence necessary on the part of the examiner to get the infant to attend to stimuli presented. The infants who were classified by parents as irritable at 1 month of age were more active and more attentive to stimuli in the first few days of life. Of interest was that the newborn nursery nurses cry ratings were not related to the later development of colic in these infants. Active infants who are sensitive to stimuli may be predisposed to infant irritability; however, further work is needed to understand the relationships of these infant characteristics to the human interactions and physical environments they encounter

  1. Fecal microbiota changes with the consumption of follow-up formulas containing Bifidobacterium spp. and/or galactooligosaccharides by rats and a follow-up infant formula containing Bifidobacterium spp. by human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Conesa, D.; Lopez, G.; Ros, G.H.; Abellan, P.; Hartemink, R.

    2006-01-01

    Seven groups of rats were fed during 1 mo using 1 infant formula containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum, 3 infant formulas containing 4-galactosyllactose at 1.2%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, and 3 infant formulas containing both ingredients. During 3 periods, corresponding to day 8 to 10

  2. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are many support groups for parents of premature babies. Ask the social worker in the neonatal intensive care unit. ... Prematurity used to be a major cause of infant deaths. Improved ... Prematurity can have long-term effects. Many premature infants ...

  3. A case study of the transfer of sup 137 Cs to the human fetus and nursing infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Lipsztein, J.L. (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)); Wrenn, M.E. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Environmental Radiation Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    A four-months pregnant woman was contaminated during an accident involving {sup 137}Cs from a teletherapy source that occurred in Brazil in September 1987. In vivo monitoring and analysis of {sup 137}Cs concentration in excreta samples (both urine and faeces) of the mother was performed. In vivo monitoring of the infant was conducted after birth. After birth, for about 90 days, which corresponds to most of the period of measurement, the infant was exclusively fed by mother's milk, which was also measured. Estimates of parameters associated with the retention and distribution of {sup 137}Cs relating to the metabolism of mother and infant were made. The results provide useful information for age-specific models describing the metabolism of {sup 137}Cs. (author).

  4. Fetal betamethasone exposure attenuates angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas receptor expression in the dorsal medulla of adult sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Allyson C; Shaltout, Hossam A; Nautiyal, Manisha; Rose, James C; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I

    2013-06-01

    Glucocorticoids including betamethasone (BM) are routinely administered to women entering into early preterm labor to facilitate fetal lung development and decrease infant mortality; however, fetal steroid exposure may lead to deleterious long term consequences. In a sheep model of fetal programming, BM-exposed (BMX) offspring exhibit elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate by 0.5-years of age associated with changes in the circulating and renal renin-angiotensin systems (RAS). In the brain solitary tract nucleus, angiotensin (Ang) II actions through the AT1 receptor oppose the beneficial actions of Ang-(1-7) at the Mas receptor for BRS regulation. Therefore, we examined Ang peptides, angiotensinogen (Aogen), and receptor expression in this brain region of exposed and control offspring of 0.5- and 1.8-years of age. Mas protein expression was significantly lower (>40%) in the dorsal medulla of BMX animals at both ages; however, AT1 receptor expression was not changed. BMX offspring exhibited a higher ratio of Ang II to Ang-(1-7) (2.30±0.36 versus 0.99±0.28; p<0.01) and Ang II to Ang I at 0.5-years. Although total Aogen was unchanged, Ang I-intact Aogen was lower in 0.5-year BMX animals (0.78±0.06 vs. 1.94±0.41; p<0.05) suggesting a greater degree of enzymatic processing of the precursor protein in exposed animals. We conclude that in utero BM exposure promotes an imbalance in the central RAS pathways of Ang II and Ang-(1-7) that may contribute to the elevated MAP and lower BRS in this model.

  5. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds Database: A validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eParsons

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalisations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocaliser mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and Study 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive. While the adult vocalisations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalisations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalisations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of the each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions.

  6. Longitudinal study of pesticide residue levels in human milk from Western Australia during 12 months of lactation: Exposure assessment for infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian; Gridneva, Zoya; Gay, Melvin C. L.; Lai, Ching T.; Trengove, Robert D.; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2016-12-01

    The presence of pesticides in human milk (HM) is of great concern due to the potential health effects for the breastfed infant. To determine the relationships between HM pesticides and infant growth and development, a longitudinal study was conducted. HM samples (n = 99) from 16 mothers were collected at 2, 5, 9 and 12 months of lactation. A validated QuEChERS method and Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) were used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. Only p,p’-DDE, p,p’-DDT and β-HCH were detected with a mean concentration (±SD) of 52.25 ± 49.88 ng/g fat, 27.67 ± 20.96 ng/g fat and 48.00 ± 22.46 ng/g fat respectively. The concentrations of the detected pesticides decreased significantly throughout the first year of lactation. No significant relationships between HM p,p’-DDE and infant growth outcomes: weight, length, head circumference and percentage fat mass were detected. The actual daily intake (ADI) of total DDTs in this cohort was 14-1000 times lower than the threshold reference and significantly lower than the estimated daily intake (EDI). Further, the ADI decreased significantly throughout the first 12 months of lactation.

  7. α—Tocopherol Concentrations in Human Milk from Mothers of Preterm and Full—term Infants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENGMing-Gi; ZHANGGuo-Feng; 等

    1993-01-01

    α-Tocopherol content in breast milk of 28 mothers who delivered peterm infants (preterm milk)and 43 mothers who delivered full-trm infants(term milk)were measured.α-Tocopherol concentration in preterm milk did not diffe significantly from that of term milk in the first 12 days of lactation(P>0.05).There is a higher α-tocopherol concentration in the early colostrum,however,it decreases with the lactational days significantly.The investigation suggests that early breast-feedin would be beneficial to the improvement of vitamin Eintake in neonates during the early life.

  8. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  9. Resolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection-related severe pulmonary hypertension in a very low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Hüseman, Dieter; Timme, Jens; Bührer, Christoph; Obladen, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) affects approximately 0.5% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with poor prognosis. The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy for treatment of HIV-related PAH (HIV-PAH) remains controversial. Little is known about the incidence, clinical course, and therapy options for PAH in HIV-1-infected pediatric patients. Here, we report the case of a preterm infant with HIV-related life-threatening PAH, which resolved after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  10. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009 virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patients with severe H1N1 influenza infection.

  11. Positive Effect of Human Milk Feeding during NICU Hospitalization on 24 Month Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Italian Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Gibertoni; Luigi Corvaglia; Silvia Vandini; Paola Rucci; Silvia Savini; Rosina Alessandroni; Alessandra Sansavini; Maria Pia Fantini; Giacomo Faldella

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths ...

  12. Human breast milk and adipokines--A potential role for the soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R) in the regulation of infant energy intake and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, F D; Rao, P; Moore, J; Stewart, R; Ladino, Yuli Martinez; Hartmann, B T

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of different adipokines in human breast milk are thought to be able to affect energy intake of the infant. Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipose tissue and the human placenta and favors satiety. The availability of leptin in breast milk is influenced by epithelial cells of the mammary gland that are known to be able to produce leptin, as well as leptin from maternal circulation that is transported to the breast milk, and which can thus in turn reach neonatal blood after absorption. Research so far as mainly focused on leptin concentrations in breast milk. However, evidence suggests that in addition to leptin concentrations levels of the so-called soluble leptin receptor (sOb-R), the main high-affinity binding protein for leptin in humans, are necessary in order to calculate the free leptin index (FLI) and to assess function of the leptin axis. FLI is calculated from the ratio of leptin to the sOb-R, and serves as the main parameter for assessing function of the leptin axis throughout maturation and development. Here we propose that assessing sOb-R levels in addition to leptin concentrations in breast milk could serve as a valuable tool to investigate effects of the leptin axis in breast milk because sOb-R concentrations can impact available leptin levels, and which in turn can have significant implications for infant energy intake and related development.

  13. Association of human TLR1 and TLR6 deficiency with altered immune responses to BCG vaccination in South African infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Kaur Randhawa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of effective immunoprophylaxis against tuberculosis (TB remains a global priority, but is hampered by a partially protective Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine and an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of immunity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although host genetic factors may be a primary reason for BCG's variable and inadequate efficacy, this possibility has not been intensively examined. We hypothesized that Toll-like receptor (TLR variation is associated with altered in vivo immune responses to BCG. We examined whether functionally defined TLR pathway polymorphisms were associated with T cell cytokine responses in whole blood stimulated ex vivo with BCG 10 weeks after newborn BCG vaccination of South African infants. In the primary analysis, polymorphism TLR6_C745T (P249S was associated with increased BCG-induced IFN-γ in both discovery (n = 240 and validation (n = 240 cohorts. In secondary analyses of the combined cohort, TLR1_T1805G (I602S and TLR6_G1083C (synonymous were associated with increased IFN-γ, TLR6_G1083C and TLR6_C745T were associated with increased IL-2, and TLR1_A1188T was associated with increased IFN-γ and IL-2. For each of these polymorphisms, the hypo-responsive allele, as defined by innate immunity signaling assays, was associated with increased production of TH1-type T cell cytokines (IFN-γ or IL-2. After stimulation with TLR1/6 lipopeptide ligands, PBMCs from TLR1/6-deficient individuals (stratified by TLR1_T1805G and TLR6_C745T hyporesponsive genotypes secreted lower amounts of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to those with responsive TLR1/6 genotypes. In contrast, no IL-12p70 was secreted by PBMCs or monocytes. These data support a mechanism where TLR1/6 polymorphisms modulate TH1 T-cell polarization through genetic regulation of monocyte IL-10 secretion in the absence of IL-12. These studies provide evidence that functionally defined innate immune gene variants are associated with the

  14. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  15. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  16. Development of Preferences and Processes of Visual Scanning in the Human Infant During the First 3 Months of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Robert L.

    1976-01-01

    Corneal infrared photography was used to record the visual fixations of 24 infants (4-6 weeks and 10-12 weeks) exposed to simple geometric figures. The results are discussed in relation to developmental changes in responsiveness to visual figures and in increasing ability to process information. (JMB)

  17. The Dynamics of the Human Infant Gut Microbiome in Development and in Progression Toward Type1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Colonization of the fetal and infant gut microbiome results in dynamic changes in diversity, which can impact disease...core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature 457, 480–484. Vaarala, O., Atkinson, M.A., and Neu , J. (2008). The ‘‘perfect storm’’ for type 1

  18. [Histoenzymologic features of adrenal medulla ganglionic cells 60 days after exposure to detergents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecerski, V; Marjanov, M; Milićević, S

    1993-01-01

    We investigated histochemical reactions in adrenal medulla sympathic ganglionic cells in the animals who after a 30-day stay in a detergent manufactory department survived 60 days in laboratory conditions. The obtained data show a strong isocytrate dehydrogenase activity in the experimental animals; the reaction to the lactate dehydrogenase activity reflects a decrease of the ganglionic cell volume and a slight decrease of the reaction intensity. The activity of isoenzyme F is mildly increased; similarly was found for isoenzyme S. There was a significant decrease of the succinate dehydrogenase activity--all this was detected in the animals exposed to detergents. Sympathic ganglionic cells within the adrenal medulla are rather sensitive to the influence of detergents. The recovery after the exposure to their toxic effects takes more than 2 months.

  19. Autopsy case of undiagnosed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata complicated with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Motonori; Kondo, Takeshi; Morichika, Mai; Kuse, Azumi; Nakagawa, Kanako; Asano, Migiwa; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-03-01

    A Japanese man in his 30s who had congenital cerebral palsy was found unresponsive in bed. His death was confirmed after resuscitation attempts. He had a history of occasional falling (despite the use of walking sticks and a wheelchair) owing to a slowly progressive gait disturbance, and had a medical examination without full neurological re-examination. Autopsy revealed gangliocytoma in the medulla oblongata, which was diagnosed as the cause of death. Although gangliocytoma is a well-differentiated benign tumor, the almost total replacement of the medulla oblongata by the tumor cells was assumed to result in ataxia via the olivocerebellar tract and secondary cerebellar atrophy, followed by central hypoventilation and death of the patient. The symptoms caused by gangliocytoma may be overlooked owing to long-standing cerebral palsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual Loss of Rb1 and Trp53 in the Adrenal Medulla Leads to Spontaneous Pheochromocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Tonks

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a Cre/loxP system, we have determined the phenotypic consequences attributable to in vivo deletion of both Rb1 and Trp53 in the mouse adrenal medulla. The coablation of these two tumor suppressor genes during embryogenesis did not disrupt adrenal gland development but resulted in the neoplastic transformation of the neural crest-derived adrenal medulla, yielding pheochromocytomas (PCCs that developed with complete penetrance and were inevitably bilateral. Despite their typically benign status, these PCCs had profound ramifications on mouse vitality, with effected mice having a median survival of only 121 days. Evaluation of these PCCs by both immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy revealed that most Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- chromaffin cells possessed atypical chromagenic vesicles that did not seem capable of appropriately storing synthesized catecholamines. The structural remodeling of the heart in mice harboring Rb1-/-:Trp53-/- PCCs suggests that the mortality of these mice may be attributable to the inappropriate release of catecholamines from the mutated adrenal chromaffin cells. On the basis of the collective data from Rb1 and Trp53 knockout mouse models, it seems that the conversion of Rb1 loss-driven adrenal medulla hyperplasia to PCC can be greatly enhanced by the compound loss of Trp53, whereas the loss of Trp53 alone is generally ineffectual on adrenal chromaffin cell homeostasis. Consequently, the Trp53 tumor suppressor gene is an efficient genetic modifier of Rb1 loss in the development of PCC, and their compound loss in the adrenal medulla has a profound impact on both cellular homeostasis and animal vitality.

  1. Combined CMV- and HSV-1 brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchanov, J; Branding, G; Stocker, H

    2014-04-15

    We report a very rare case of a combined CMV- and HSV-1 isolated brainstem encephalitis restricted to medulla oblongata in a patient with advanced HIV disease. Neither limbic nor general ventricular involvement was detected on neuroimaging. The case highlights the importance of testing for HSV-1 and CMV in HIV-infected patients presenting with an isolated brainstem syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Asthma pregnancy alters postnatal development of chromaffin cells in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ming Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adrenal neuroendocrine plays an important role in asthma. The activity of the sympathoadrenal system could be altered by early life events. The effects of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the adrenal medulla of offspring remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aims to explore the influence of maternal asthma during pregnancy on the development and function of adrenal medulla in offspring from postnatal day 3 (P3 to postnatal day 60 (P60. Asthmatic pregnant rats (AP, nerve growth factor (NGF-treated pregnant rats (NP and NGF antibody-treated pregnant rats (ANP were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; NP and ANP were treated with NGF and NGF antibody respectively. Offspring rats from the maternal group were divided into four groups: offspring from control pregnant rats (OCP, offspring from AP (OAP, offspring from NP (ONP, and offspring from ANP (OANP. The expressions of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT protein in adrenal medulla were analyzed. The concentrations of epinephrine (EPI, corticosterone and NGF in serum were measured. Adrenal medulla chromaffin cells (AMCC were prone to differentiate into sympathetic nerve cells in OAP and ONP. Both EPI and PNMT were decreased in OAP from P3 to P14, and then reached normal level gradually from P30 to P60, which were lower from birth to adulthood in ONP. Corticosterone concentration increased significantly in OAP and ONP. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Asthma pregnancy may promote AMCC to differentiate into sympathetic neurons in offspring rats and inhibit the synthesis of EPI, resulting in dysfunction of bronchial relaxation.

  3. Chronic cardiac pressure overload induces adrenal medulla hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johanna; Lother, Achim; Hein, Lutz; Gilsbach, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    Increased activity of the sympathetic system is an important feature contributing to the pathogenesis and progression of chronic heart failure. While the mechanisms and consequences of enhanced norepinephrine release from sympathetic nerves have been intensely studied, the role of the adrenal gland in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression of heart failure is less well known. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of chronic cardiac pressure overload in mice on adrenal medulla structure and function. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks. After TAC, the degree of cardiac hypertrophy correlated significantly with adrenal weight and adrenal catecholamine storage. In the medulla, TAC caused an increase in chromaffin cell size but did not result in chromaffin cell proliferation. Ablation of chromaffin α(2C)-adrenoceptors did not affect adrenal weight or epinephrine synthesis. However, unilateral denervation of the adrenal gland completely prevented adrenal hypertrophy and increased catecholamine synthesis. Transcriptome analysis of microdissected adrenal medulla identified 483 up- and 231 downregulated, well-annotated genes after TAC. Among these genes, G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 (Grk2) and 6 and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) were significantly upregulated by TAC. In vitro, acetylcholine-induced Pnmt and Grk2 expression as well as enhanced epinephrine content was prevented by inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent signaling. Thus, activation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves innervating the adrenal medulla plays an essential role in inducing adrenal hypertrophy, enhanced catecholamine synthesis and induction of Grk2 expression after cardiac pressure overload.

  4. Decoding of Baby Calls: Can Adult Humans Identify the Eliciting Situation from Emotional Vocalizations of Preverbal Infants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Lindová

    Full Text Available Preverbal infants often vocalize in emotionally loaded situations, yet the communicative potential of these vocalizations is not well understood. The aim of our study was to assess how accurately adult listeners extract information about the eliciting situation from infant preverbal vocalizations. Vocalizations of 19 infants aged 5-10 months were recorded in 3 negative (Pain, Isolation, Demand for Food and 3 positive (Play, Reunion, After Feeding situations. The recordings were later rated by 333 adult listeners on the scales of emotional valence and intensity. Subsequently, the listeners assigned the eliciting situations in a forced choice task. Listeners were almost perfectly able to discriminate whether a recording came from a negative or a positive situation. Their discrimination may have been based on perceived valence as they consistently assigned higher valence when listening to positive, and lower valence when listening to negative, recordings. Ability to identify the particular situation within the negative or positive realm was substantially weaker, with only three of the six situations being discriminated above chance. The best discriminated situation, Play, was associated with high perceived intensity. The weak qualitative discrimination of negative situations seemed to be based on graded perception of negative recordings, from the most intense and unpleasant (assigned to Pain to the least intense and least unpleasant (assigned to Demand for Food. Parenthood and younger age, but not gender of listeners, had weak positive effects on the accuracy of judgments. Our results indicate that adults almost flawlessly distinguish positive and negative infant sounds, but are rather inaccurate regarding identification of the specific needs of the infant and may normally employ other sensory channels to gain this information.

  5. Morphological findings relating to the problem of cortex and medulla in the pineal glands of rat and hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidbüchel, U; Vollrath, L.

    1983-01-01

    Because, in previous investigations on the rat pineal gland, karyometric studies of pinealocytes from cortical and medullary regions had yielded contradictory results, experiments were carried out to resolve this problem. In immersion-fixed, paraffin-embedded pineal glands, nuclear size of cortical regions was invariably larger than that in the medulla, the nuclear size clearly depending on the plane of sectioning. The differences between cortex and medulla were abolished in (a) pineal glands...

  6. Chronic physical stress changes gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla of adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Ljubica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined how chronic forced running (CFR affects the expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes and cAMP response element-binding (CREB in the adrenal medulla and the weight of adrenal glands of rats. Also, we examined how CFR and additional acute immobilization stress affect the expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla and the concentration of catecholamines and corticosterone (CORT in the blood plasma. In this experiment we used as a model forced exercise in rats (treadmill running. We used the most advanced method for determining the level of gene expression, Real-time PCR with TaqMan probes, as well as Western blot analysis (ECL. We found that CFR decreases tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, and dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH mRNA and protein levels in the adrenal medulla. The decreased TH and DBH mRNA levels coincide with the reduced expression of CREB in the adrenal medulla and with the reduced plasma CORT level. Additionally, CFR reduces the level of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT mRNA, but elevates its protein level in the adrenal medulla and increases the concentration of adrenaline (A in the plasma. Reduced level of PNMT mRNA in the adrenal medulla coincides with reduced plasma CORT level. The additional acute immobilization stress increases gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in the adrenal medulla, as well as catecholamines and CORT levels in the plasma. The increased synthesis of PNMT enzyme in the adrenal medulla may result in an increased biosynthesis of A under chronic stress conditions. Additionally, increased level of catecholamines in the plasma after chronic physical stress is the allostatic load that may induce numerous diseases and pathological conditions.

  7. Effect of Micardis on the Expression of Renal Medulla Aquaporin-2 in Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun YAO; Jianqing WANG; Anguo DENG; Jianshe LIU; Hong ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    In current study, the effect of angiotensin receptor blocker Micardis on the localization and expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) was investigated in the renal medullary collecting duct of mice with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice were divided into three groups: normal group, DN group and Micardis-treated group. Six weeks after establishment of STZ-induced DN model in mice, the expression of AQP2 in renal medulla was detected measured by semiquantitative immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot techniques, and the localization of AQP2 by confocal immunofluorescence laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that the urinary osmolality was decreased in DN group as compared with normal group (2.39±0.11 vs 3.16±0.16, P<0.05). Although the localization of AQP2 on the renal medulla was unchanged, the expression of AQP2 was increased significantly in DN group as compared with normal group. Micardis could partly attenuate above changes. It was concluded that treatment with Micardis could partly rectify the abnormal expression of AQP2 in renal medulla of DN mice, which suggested that rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN by regulating the expression of AQP2.

  8. Study of Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants Demonstrates the Presence of Secretory Immunoglobulin A Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 Ribotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Evans, Mishell K.; Kirchherr, Jennifer L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Bowden, G. H. W.

    2004-01-01

    The mouths of three human infants were examined from birth to age 2 years to detect colonization of Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2. These bacteria did not colonize until after tooth eruption. The diversity of posteruption isolates was determined by ribotyping. Using immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we determined the reactivity of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies in saliva samples collected from each infant before and after colonization against cell wall proteins from their own A. naeslundii strains and carbohydrates from standard A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 strains. A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 carbohydrate-reactive SIgA antibodies were not detected in any saliva sample. However, SIgA antibodies reactive with cell wall proteins were present in saliva before these bacteria colonized the mouth. These antibodies could be almost completely removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus, a species known to colonize the human mouth shortly after birth. However, after colonization by A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2, specific antibodies were induced that could not be removed by absorption with A. odontolyticus. Cluster analysis of the patterns of reactivity of postcolonization salivary antibodies from each infant with antigens from their own strains showed that not only could these antibodies discriminate among strains but antibodies in saliva samples collected at different times showed different reactivity patterns. Overall, these data suggest that, although much of the salivary SIgA antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 are directed against genus-specific or more broadly cross-reactive antigens, species, genospecies, and possibly strain-specific antibodies are induced in response to colonization. PMID:15138172

  9. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  10. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only ... Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  11. Infant Curiosity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication is one in a series that reviews tips parents can use to improve the relationships with their children and the learning that happens within the family. This publication deals in particular with infant development.

  12. Infant Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care ... Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Diapers & Clothing > Infant Constipation Ages & Stages Listen Español Text ...

  13. Anti-Group B Streptococcus antibody in infants born to mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Allen, Lauren; Kampmann, Beate; Heath, Paul Trafford; Taylor, Stephen; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Gorringe, Andrew; Jones, Christine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected infants have increased infection risk and mortality compared to HIV-unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants may be at increased risk of invasive GBS disease due to reduced maternal antibody against GBS. Methods We quantified antibodies that bind to the surface of whole Group B Streptococcus (GBS) of serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III and V using novel flow cytometry assays in South African HIV-infected and non-infected mothers and their uninfected infants. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b deposition onto GBS of these serotypes was also quantified by a novel flow cytometry assay. Results Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of both surface-binding anti-GBS antibody and antibody-mediated complement deposition onto GBS were reduced in HIV-infected women (n = 46) compared to HIV-uninfected women (n = 58) for ST1a (surface-binding: 19.3 vs 29.3; p = 0.003; complement deposition: 2.9 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STIb (24.9 vs 47.6; p = 0.003; 2.6 vs 4.9 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STII (19.8 vs 50.0; p = 0.001; 3.1 vs 6.2 SU/mL; p = 0.001), STIII (27.8 vs 60.1; p = 0.001; 2.8 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.001) and STV (121.9 vs 185.6 SU/mL; p < 0.001) and in their infants for STIa (complement deposition 9.4 vs 27.0 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STIb (13.4 vs 24.5 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STII (14.6 vs 42.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03), STIII (26.6 vs 62.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03) and STV (90.4 vs 165.8 SU/mL; p = 0.04). Median transplacental transfer of antibody from HIV-infected women to their infants was reduced compared to HIV-uninfected women for GBS serotypes II (0.42 [IQR 0.22–0.59] vs 1.0 SU/mL [0.42–1.66]; p < 0.001), III (0.54 [0.31–1.03] vs 0.95 SU/mL [0.42–3.05], p = 0.05) and V (0.51 [0.28–0.79] vs 0.75 SU/mL [0.26–2.9], p = 0.04). The differences between infants remained significant at 16 weeks of age. Conclusions Maternal HIV infection was associated with lower anti-GBS surface binding antibody concentration and antibody

  14. Challenges of infant nutrition research: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alan S; Hay, William W

    2016-04-22

    Considerable advances have been made in the field of infant feeding research. The last few decades have witnessed the expansion in the number of studies on the composition and benefits of human milk. The practice of breastfeeding and use of human milk represent today's reference standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Additional research regarding the benefits of breastfeeding is needed to determine which factors in human milk and in the act of breastfeeding itself, singly or in combination, are most important for producing the beneficial effects on infant growth, body composition, and neurodevelopmental outcome. We examine evidence that breastfeeding confers health benefits and offer suggestions on how best to interpret the data and present it to the public. We also describe some examples of well-designed infant nutrition studies that provide useful and clinically meaningful data regarding infant feeding, growth, and development. Because not all mothers choose to breastfeed or can breastfeed, other appropriate feeding options should be subjected to critical review to help establish how infant formula and bottle feeding can confer benefits similar to those of human milk and the act of breastfeeding. We conclude with the overarching point that the goal of infant feeding research is to promote optimal infant growth and development. Since parents/families may take different paths to feeding their infants, it is fundamental that health professionals understand how best to interpret research studies and their findings to support optimal infant growth and development.

  15. 78 FR 23941 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality... 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant.../mchbadvisory/InfantMortality . Adobe Connect:...

  16. 21 CFR 107.230 - Elements of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elements of an infant formula recall. 107.230... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.230 Elements of an infant formula recall. A recalling firm shall conduct an infant formula recall with the following elements:...

  17. 21 CFR 107.260 - Revision of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revision of an infant formula recall. 107.260... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.260 Revision of an infant... by the infant formula. (b) Carry out additional effectiveness checks, if the agency's audits,...

  18. 21 CFR 105.65 - Infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infant foods. 105.65 Section 105.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOODS FOR SPECIAL DIETARY USE Label Statements § 105.65 Infant foods. (a) If a food (other than...

  19. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  20. Fear of heights in infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E; Kretch, Kari S; LoBue, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Based largely on the famous "visual cliff" paradigm, conventional wisdom is that crawling infants avoid crossing the brink of a dangerous drop-off because they are afraid of heights. However, recent research suggests that the conventional wisdom is wrong. Avoidance and fear are conflated, and there is no compelling evidence to support fear of heights in human infants. Infants avoid crawling or walking over an impossibly high drop-off because they perceive affordances for locomotion-the relations between their own bodies and skills and the relevant properties of the environment that make an action such as descent possible or impossible.

  1. A prospective study of cow's milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants. Incidence, pathogenetic role of early inadvertent exposure to cow's milk formula, and characterization of bovine milk protein in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A; Husby, S; Osterballe, O

    1988-01-01

    had signs of CMA in the neonatal period. Review of records from the newborn nursery revealed that all 9 infants had been exposed to cow's milk formula in amounts corresponding to approximately 0.4-3.0 g of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) during the first three days of life. Human milk samples were analyzed......A cohort of 1,749 newborns in the municipality of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) during their first year of life. Altogether 39 fulfilled the criteria for CMA (2.2%). Out of the 39 infants, 17 developed symptoms of CMA during breast...... by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the content of bovine BLG. Detectable amounts (0.5-45 ng/ml) were found in 3/9 samples of human milk against which the infants reacted clinically. Analysis of the size distribution by high pressure liquid gel permeation chromatography in combination...

  2. Clinical mimics of infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ann Marie O; Arnon, Stephen S

    2007-04-01

    Since 1992, Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been provided by the California Department of Health Services to infants with probable infant botulism, the intestinal toxemia form of human botulism. Human Botulism Immune Globulin became available in California in 1992-1997 within a randomized, controlled, double-blinded, pivotal clinical trial and subsequently became available nationwide in 1998-2003 in an open-label study until its licensure in October 2003 as BabyBIG. Thereafter, Human Botulism Immune Globulin remained available nationwide as an approved orphan-drug product. To achieve prompt neutralization of circulating botulinum toxin, the decision to treat with Human Botulism Immune Globulin has been based on clinical criteria that include a consistent history and physical findings of bulbar palsies, hypotonia, and weakness. After licensure, the charts of patients who did not have laboratory-confirmed infant botulism were reviewed to identify their actual diagnoses. The approximately 5% of 681 patients treated with Human Botulism Immune Globulin who did not have infant botulism fell into 5 categories: spinal muscular atrophy, metabolic disorders, other infectious diseases, miscellaneous, and probable infant botulism lacking laboratory confirmation.

  3. Comparison of the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on the bacterial colonization of umbilical cord in newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Abbaszadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk contains significant amounts of compounds that act as natural antimicrobial agents. This study was conducted to compare the effect of topical application of human milk and dry cord care on bacterial colonization in the umbilical cord of newborn infants. Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 174 infants in Kashan. The newborns were randomized to mother's milk group and dry cord care group from the birth. In group 1, the mother rubbed her own milk on the cord stump every 12 hours from 3 hours after birth to 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. In group 2, the mother was recommended not to use any material on the cord. Then, the cord samples were taken four times; 3hours after birth, at days 3 and 7, and 2 days after the umbilical cord separation. Results: The findings of the culture two days after umbilical cord separation indicated that low percentage of neonates in the breast milk (23.1% and dry cord care (28.8% groups had bacterial colonization. Moreover, no significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of growth of pathogenic organisms and normal flora of the skin (P>0.05. Conclusion: Given the low prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the two groups, it seems using breast milk and dry cord care are equally effective methods of taking care of umbilical cord.

  4. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...... analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method...

  5. Body-Part Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    analysis of infant development and might be able to tell something about possible motor disabilities such as cerebral palsy. In this paper, we address markerless 3D body part detection of infants using a widely available depth sensor and discuss some of the major challenges that arise. We present a method......Motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure adult human movement. However, these methods cannot be transferred directly to motion tracking of infants due to the big differences in the underlying human model. However, motion tracking of infants can be used for automatic...

  6. Potential transfer of neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) from mother to infant during breast-feeding: Predictions from human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Ersson, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; Bergström, Ulrika

    2017-04-01

    β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [(14)C]l-and [(14)C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [(14)C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with bilateral lesions in the dorsal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganzo, Koldo; Ciordia, Roberto; Gómez-Esteban, Juan C; Tijero, Beatriz; Agundez, Marta; Velasco, Fernando; Valle, Maria A; Zarranz, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TTC) is much more common than originally thought. The exact pathophysiology of TTC is unclear. The most accepted theory proposes myocardial stunning of neurogenic origin, supported by the frequent antecedent of emotional or physical stress, suggesting a catecholamine-mediated mechanism. We present a patient with this syndrome and bilateral damage of the dorsal medulla oblongata likely affecting both solitary tract nuclei. Our case points to a link between baroreflex failure and TTC, highlighting the important role of sympathetic discharge in the pathophysiology of TTC.

  8. Hypoglossal motoneurons in newborn mice receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, S; Rekling, J C

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory motor output in bilateral cranial nerves is synchronized, but the underlying synchronizing mechanisms are not clear. We used an in vitro slice preparation from newborn mice to investigate the effect of systematic transsections on respiratory activity in bilateral XII nerves. Complete...... correlations, where large-amplitude XII-bursts on one side was synchronized with small-amplitude XII-burst on the contralateral side. These characteristic amplitude correlations suggest that hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from bilateral sources. Retrograde labeling confirmed that commissural...... in bilateral XII nerves. Hypoglossal motoneurons receive respiratory drive from both sides of the medulla, possibly mediated by contralaterally projecting dendrites....

  9. Microarray analysis in caudal medulla of cattle orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L M; Basu, U; Williams, J L; Moore, S S; Guan, L L

    2011-10-25

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal disorder in cattle characterized by progressive neurodegeneration of the central nervous system. We investigated the molecular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration during prion infection through the identification of genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimentally infected and non-challenged cattle. Gene expression of caudal medulla from control and orally infected animals was compared by microarray analysis using 24,000 bovine oligonucleotides representing 16,846 different genes to identify DE genes associated with BSE disease. In total, 182 DE genes were identified between normal and BSE-infected tissues (>2.0-fold change, P bovine species.

  10. Posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular changes elicited by electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelard, H; Rivest, R; Marsden, C A

    1991-07-01

    The posterior hypothalamic receptors involved in the cardiovascular responses to electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla were investigated in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Electrical stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla produced a significant increase in systolic blood pressure. This response was significantly attenuated by the prior administration of d,l-propranolol (20 micrograms), clonidine (8 micrograms), atropine (8 micrograms) or methysergide (10 micrograms) into the posterior hypothalamus, but not by cimetidine (11 micrograms), chlorpheniramine (12 micrograms), naloxone (10 micrograms) or a vasopressin V1 antagonist (100 ng). The effect of clonidine (8 micrograms) on the pressor response to stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla was antagonized by idazoxan (66 micrograms). These results confirm that the cardiovascular changes elicited by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla area are, in part, centrally modulated by alpha 2 and beta-adrenoceptors in the posterior hypothalamus which exert respectively, inhibitory and stimulatory effect. Furthermore the results indicate the involvement of posterior hypothalamic cholinergic and serotonergic receptors in the pressor response produced by stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  12. Immunolocalization of pro- and mature-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and receptor TrkB in the human brainstem and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2010-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are essential in promoting normal development of the central nervous system. Specific functions that are affected in knockout models include respiratory control, coordination of movement and balance, and feeding activities. The expression of these markers has not yet been studied in the human infant brain. This study provides a detailed account of the distribution and localization of both pro- and mature-recombinant human (rh) forms of BDNF, and of TrkB in the human infant brainstem and hippocampus, and qualitatively compares this expression to that seen in the human adult. Using commercially available antibodies, we applied immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human brain tissue [n=8 for infant, n=6 for adult], and qualitatively analyzed the expression of proBDNF, rhBDNF and TrkB. Amongst the brainstem regions studied, the greatest expression of the markers was in the mesencephalic trigeminal of the pons, and in the medulla, the inferior olive and arcuate nucleus. The lowest expression was in the substantia nigra of the midbrain and pontine locus coeruleus. Compared to adults, all the studied markers had a higher expression in the infant brainstem nuclei of the hypoglossal, vestibular, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, prepositus, cuneate, and dorsal raphe. In the hippocampus, only TrkB showed a higher expression in infants compared to adults. We conclude that BDNF and TrkB play important roles in controlling respiration, movement, balance and feeding in the brainstem and that the TrkB receptor is the most age-sensitive component of this system, especially in the hippocampus.

  13. 78 FR 54911 - Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Thermal Support Devices for Infants, Infant Incubators, Infant Warmers and Components Thereof, DN 2976; the Commission is soliciting...

  14. Resurgence of Infant Caregiving Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzek, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Peters, Lindsay C.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the conditions likely to produce resurgence among adult human participants. The preparation was a simulated caregiving context, wherein a recorded infant cry sounded and was terminated contingent upon targeted caregiving responses. Results of Experiment 1 demonstrated resurgence with human participants in…

  15. How Infants Learn About the Visual World

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    The visual world of adults consists of objects at various distances, partly occluding one another, substantial and stable across space and time. The visual world of young infants, in contrast, is often fragmented and unstable, consisting not of coherent objects but rather surfaces that move in unpredictable ways. Evidence from computational modeling and from experiments with human infants highlights three kinds of learning that contribute to infants' knowledge of the visual world: learning vi...

  16. Differential regulation of catecholamine synthesis and transport in rat adrenal medulla by fluoxetine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATASA SPASOJEVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that chronic fluoxetine treatment acted significantly increasing plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine concentrations both in control and chronically stressed adult male rats. However, possible effects of fluoxetine on catecholamine synthesis and re-uptake in adrenal medulla have been largely unknown. In the present study the effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment on tyrosine hydroxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine synthesis, as well as a norepinephrine transporter and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 gene expressions in adrenal medulla of animals exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS for 4 weeks, were investigated. Gene expression analyses were performed using a real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Chronically stressed animals had increased tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA levels and decreased expression of both transporters. Fluoxetine increased tyrosine hydroxylase and decreased norepinephrine transporter gene expression in both unstressed and CUMS rats. These findings suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment increased plasma catecholamine levels by affecting opposing changes in catecholamine synthesis and uptake.

  17. Efficacy of clonidine in patients with essential hypertension with neurovascular contact of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Takao; Morimoto, Satoshi; Aota, Yasuko; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Toyoda, Nagaoki; Kosaki, Atsushi; Maehara, Minoru; Tanigawa, Noboru; Ikeda, Koshi; Sawada, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2010-06-01

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is an important center for regulation of sympathetic nerve activity. Several clinical studies have suggested an association between neurovascular contact (NVC) of RVLM and essential hypertension. Microvascular decompression (MVD) of RVLM decreases blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients with NVC of this region. Therefore, MVD could be a useful therapeutic strategy to reduce BP in these patients. However, as MVD is an invasive procedure, it is worthy to seek useful antihypertensive agents for hypertensive patients with NVC. It is reported that sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in patients with hypertension accompanied by NVC of RVLM. It is anticipated that sympatholytic agents could be effective in lowering BP in these patients. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of clonidine, an alpha2 adrenergic agonist, in essential hypertensives with NVC of RVLM. Thirty consecutive essential hypertensive patients with NVC and 30 consecutive essential hypertensive patients without contact were treated with clonidine for 4 weeks, and decreases in BP and plasma norepinephrine levels were compared between the two groups. Decreases in BP and plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly greater in patients with NVC than in those without contact. These results suggest that clonidine exhibits significantly greater reductions of BP and sympathetic nerve activity in essential hypertensive patients with NVC compared with those without contact of the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

  18. Effect of Micardis on the expression of renal medulla aquaporin-2 in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lijun; Wang, Jianqing; Deng, Anguo; Liu, Jianshe; Zhao, Hong

    2008-06-01

    In current study, the effect of angiotensin receptor blocker Micardis on the localization and expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) was investigated in the renal medullary collecting duct of mice with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice were divided into three groups: normal group, DN group and Micardis-treated group. Six weeks after establishment of STZ-induced DN model in mice, the expression of AQP2 in renal medulla was detected measured by semiquantitative immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot techniques, and the localization of AQP2 by confocal immunofluorescence laser scanning microscopy. The results showed that the urinary osmolality was decreased in DN group as compared with normal group (2.39+/-0.11 vs 3.16+/-0.16, PMicardis could partly attenuate above changes. It was concluded that treatment with Micardis could partly rectify the abnormal expression of AQP2 in renal medulla of DN mice, which suggested that rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in the pathogenesis of DN by regulating the expression of AQP2.

  19. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy detection of neurotransmitters in dorsomedial medulla correlate with spontaneous baroreceptor reflex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Espinosa, Maria A; Shaltout, Hossam A; Olson, John; Westwood, Brian M; Robbins, Mike E; Link, Kerry; Diz, Debra I

    2010-02-01

    Control of heart rate variability via modulation of sympathovagal balance is a key function of nucleus tractus solitarii and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus localized in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata. Normal blood pressure regulation involves precise balance of glutamate (Glu)-glutamine-gamma-aminobutyric acid transmitter systems, and angiotensin II modulates these transmitters to produce tonic suppression of reflex function. It is not known, however, whether other brain transmitters/metabolites are indicators of baroreflex function. This study establishes the concept that comprehensive baseline transmitter/metabolite profiles obtained using in vivo (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in rats with well-characterized differences in resting blood pressure and baroreflex function can be used as indices of autonomic balance or baroreflex sensitivity. Transgenic rats with over-expression of renin [m(Ren2)27] or under-expression of glial-angiotensinogen (ASrAogen) were compared with Sprague-Dawley rats. Glu concentration in the dorsal medulla is significantly higher in ASrAogen rats compared with either Sprague-Dawley or (mRen2)27 rats. Glu levels and the ratio of Glu:glutamine correlated positively with indices of higher vagal tone consistent with the importance of these neurotransmitters in baroreflex function. Interestingly, the levels of choline-containing metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and a negative correlation with sympathetic tone. Thus, we demonstrate the concept that noninvasive assessment of neurochemical biomarkers may be used as an index of baroreflex sensitivity.

  20. [Lipid parameters of the skin, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata during immersion stress in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribanov, G A; Kostiuk, N V; Abramov, Iu V; Bykov, V A; Rebrov, L B; Volodina, T V; Pertsov, S S

    1999-01-01

    The influence of short-form water immersion stress of rats on lipids in the skin, the cerebellum and the medulla oblongata was studied. The level of total lipids and absolute and relative contents of the main lipid fractions (phospholipids, nonesterified cholesterol, free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol esters) were measured. Stress induced delayed changes of the lipid component of the skin. The first significant changes of lipid fractions were only observed 20 h later after the stress procedure. These changes were retained (being at nearly constant levels) till the end of the second day. The decrease in contents of total lipids and esterified cholesterol was revealed in the cerebellum of stressed rats (in comparison to these levels in control rats). These results suggest the involvement of cholesterol metabolic system in the stress reaction. The content of total lipids decreased also in the medulla oblongata. However, levels of the main lipid fractions changed differently. The content of diglycerides increased and the content of cholesterol decreased. The data obtained suggest that degradation of triglycerides is the principle pathway of metabolic conversions of lipids. Free fatty acids formed during these processes are probably involved in the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol esters. The data indicate absolutely different mechanisms of interrelations between individual lipid fractions in the brain regions studied. Various roles of the brain structures in the stress response of the body may account for the differences revealed.

  1. Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Main, Katharina M; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2005-01-01

    phthalate (mBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (mEHP), and monoisononyl phthalate (mNP). The method is based on liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and cyclohexane (95:5) followed by two-step solid-phase extraction (SPE). Detection and quantification of the phthalate monoesters were...... these phthalates were present, albeit at different concentrations. Median values (microg L(-1)) obtained were 0.11 (mMP), 0.95 (mEP), 3.5 (mBP), 0.8 (mBzP), 9.5 (mEHP), and 101 (mNP). We also analysed seven samples of consumer milk and ten samples of infant formula. Only mBP and mEHP were detected in these samples...

  2. New supplements to infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  3. [Effects of NGF on chromaffin adrenaline-containing cells of adrenal medulla of rabbits transplanted into brains of mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselin-Hosaja, M; Derbin, C

    1993-01-01

    The graft of chromaffin adrenaline-containing (A) cells of rabbit adrenal medulla implanted to mouse brain and treated with NGF contains more survived cells 1 month after grafting than adrenal medulla alone. The cells developed either an intermediate (e.g. chromaffin cell and neuron) or a neuron-like phenotypes accompanied with a decrease in an immunoreactivity for PNMT (phenyletanolamine-N-methyltransferase). A gap junctions and attached plaques were found between grafted cells. The grafts received a synaptic input. The NGF influence on the fate of chromaffin A-containing cells is discussed.

  4. Newborn infants perceive abstract numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; Sann, Coralie; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Streri, Arlette

    2009-06-23

    Although infants and animals respond to the approximate number of elements in visual, auditory, and tactile arrays, only human children and adults have been shown to possess abstract numerical representations that apply to entities of all kinds (e.g., 7 samurai, seas, or sins). Do abstract numerical concepts depend on language or culture, or do they form a part of humans' innate, core knowledge? Here we show that newborn infants spontaneously associate stationary, visual-spatial arrays of 4-18 objects with auditory sequences of events on the basis of number. Their performance provides evidence for abstract numerical representations at the start of postnatal experience.

  5. Humoral Immunity to Commensal Oral Bacteria in Human Infants: Salivary Antibodies Reactive with Actinomyces naeslundii Genospecies 1 and 2 during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael F.; Bryan, Stacey; Evans, Mishell K.; Pearce, Cheryl L.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Sura, Patricia A.; Wientzen, Raoul; Bowden, George H. W.

    1998-01-01

    The secretory immune response in saliva to colonization by Actinomyces naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 was studied in 10 human infants from birth to 2 years of age. Actinomyces species were not recovered from the mouths of the infants until approximately 4 months after the eruption of teeth. However, low levels of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (SIgA1) and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were detected within the first month after birth. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 over this period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, the A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. The fine specificities of A. naeslundii genospecies 1- and 2-reactive SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies were examined by Western blotting of envelope proteins. Similarities in the molecular masses of proteins recognized by SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies, both within and between subjects over time, were examined by cluster analysis and showed considerable variability. Taken overall, our data suggest that among the mechanisms Actinomyces species employ to persist in the oral cavity are the induction of a limited immune response and clonal replacement with strains differing in their antigen profiles. PMID:9712779

  6. Development of rotational movements, hand shaping, and accuracy in advance and withdrawal for the reach-to-eat movement in human infants aged 6-12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Karl, Jenni M; Whishaw, Ian Q

    2012-06-01

    The reach-to-eat movement, transport of a hand to grasp an object that is withdrawn and placed in the mouth, is amongst the earliest developing functional movements of human infants. The present longitudinal study is the first description of the maturation of hand-rotation, hand shaping, and accuracy associated with the advance and withdrawal phases of the movement. Eight infants, aged 6-12 months, and eight adults, were video recorded as they reached for familiar objects or food items. Hand, arm, and trunk movements were assessed frame-by-frame with the Skilled Reaching Rating Scale, previously developed for the assessment of adult reaching, and supplementary kinematic analysis. Reach-to-eat maturation was characterized by three changes. First, for advance, a simple open hand transport gradually matured to a movement associated with pronation and hand shaping of the digits for precision grasping. Second, for withdrawal to the mouth, a direct withdrawal movement gradually became associated with hand supination that oriented the target object to the mouth. Third, associated with the maturation of rotational movements, inaccurate and fragmented hand transport and withdrawal movements developed into precise targeting of the hand-to-object and object-to-mouth. Across the age range, there was a decrease in bimanual reaching and an increase in right handed reaching. The results are discussed in relation to the idea that the maturation of the reach-to-eat movement involves the development of rotational and shaping movements of the hand and visual and somatosensory guidance of a preferred hand.

  7. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  8. Baby doe redux? The Department of Health and Human Services and the Born-Alive Infants Protection Act of 2002: a cautionary note on normative neonatal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2005-10-01

    The Born-Alive Infants Protection Act (BAIPA), passed by Congress in 2002, has attracted little publicity. Its purposes were, in part, "to repudiate the flawed notion that a child's entitlement to the protections of the law is dependent on whether that child's mother or others want him or her." Understood as antiabortion rhetoric, the bill raised little concern among physicians at the time of legislative hearings and passed in both Houses by overwhelming majorities, hardly suggesting contentious legislation. After its signing into law, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program (NRP) Steering Committee issued an opinion stating that "[BAIPA] should not in any way affect the approach that physicians currently follow with respect to the extremely premature infant." This interpretation of the law, however, may have been short sighted. In April 2005, the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) brought life to the BAIPA, announcing: "As a matter of law and policy, [DHHS] will investigate all circumstances where individuals and entities are reported to be withholding medical care from an infant born alive in potential violation of federal statutes." The agency issued instructions to state officials on how the definitional provision within the BAIPA interacts with the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). These interagency memoranda potentially resurrect dormant governmental oversight of newborn-treatment decisions and thus may have influence over normative neonatal practice. Under the BAIPA, the DHHS interprets EMTALA to protect all "born-alive" infants; hospitals and physicians violating regulatory requirements face agency-sanctioned monetary penalties or a "private right of action by any individual harmed as a direct result." According to its memorandum, the DHHS will investigate allegations of EMTALA violations whenever it finds evidence that a newborn was not provided with at least a medical

  9. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB receptor in the sudden infant death syndrome brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Samantha; Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2012-01-15

    This study compared the expression of BDNF (proBDNF and rhBDNF forms) and its receptor TrkB, in the medulla of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants and infants who died from known causes (non-SIDS). This study also evaluated these markers in association with SIDS clinical risk factors including, sleep position, cigarette smoke exposure and gender. Brainstem tissue was immunohistochemically stained and quantitative analyses were made for eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla. Compared to non-SIDS, SIDS infants had lower rhBDNF in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract and higher TrkB in the caudal dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Within the SIDS cohort, prone sleep position was associated with lower rhBDNF in the caudal arcuate nucleus, and cigarette smoke exposure was associated with lower rhBDNF and TrkB in the inferior olivary nucleus. Abnormal expression of BDNF and TrkB suggests that neuroprotective functions of the BDNF/TrkB system may be reduced in respiratory-related nuclei of SIDS infants.

  10. Reduction in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity but not muscarinic-m2 receptor immunoreactivity in the brainstem of SIDS infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, C; Tolcos, M; Leditschke, J; Campbell, P; Rees, S

    1999-03-01

    The cholinergic neurotransmitter system is vital for several brainstem functions including cardiorespiratory control and central chemosensitivity. This study has examined aspects of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the brainstem of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and control infants. The cellular localisation and the optical density of the immunoreactivity of the cholinergic enzyme choline acetyltransferase (CHAT-IR) and the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 (m2-IR) in the medulla was described in 14 SIDS and 9 control cases. There was a reduction in the number of CHAT-IR neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (control: 71.2+/-8.3% vs SIDS: 46.1+/-5.3%) and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) (control: 77.2+/-5.0% vs SIDS: 52.5+/-7.4%) and reduced optical density of CHAT-IR in the hypoglossal nucleus (control: 0.20+/-0.01 vs SIDS; 0.14+/-0.02) in SIDS infants. In contrast there were no changes in the optical density of m2-IR in the hypoglossal nucleus, the DMV, or the arcuate nucleus. Hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus was observed in one SIDS infant. These results suggest that there is a specific defect in some cholinergic motor neurons in the medulla of SIDS infants. This could lead to abnormal control of cardiovascular and respiratory function and airway patency and may be one of the contributing factors in the etiology of SIDS.

  11. Total zinc quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its speciation by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in human milk and commercial formulas: Importance in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Menéndez, Sonia; Fernández-Sánchez, María L; Fernández-Colomer, Belén; de la Flor St Remy, Rafael R; Cotallo, Gil Daniel Coto; Freire, Aline Soares; Braz, Bernardo Ferreira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises results of zinc content and its speciation in human milk from mothers of preterm and full-term infants at different stages of lactation and from synthetic formula milks. Human milk samples (colostrum, 7th, 14th, and 28th day after delivery) from Spanish and Brazilian mothers of preterm and full-term infants (and also formula milks) were collected. After adequate treatment of the sample, total Zn was determined, while speciation analysis of the Zn was accomplished by size exclusion chromatography coupled online with the ICP-MS. It is observed that total zinc content in human milk decreases continuously during the first month of lactation, both for preterm and full term gestations. All infant formulas analysed for total Zn were within the currently legislated levels. For Zn speciation analysis, there were no differences between preterm and full term human milk samples. Moreover Zn species elute mainly associated with immunoglobulins and citrate in human milk whey. Interestingly the speciation in formula milk whey turned out to be completely different as the observed Zn(2+) was bound almost exclusively to low molecular weight ligands (citrate) and only comparatively very low amounts of the metal appeared to be associated with higher mass biomolecules (e.g. proteins).

  12. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  13. Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child. Does using infant formula increase risk for dental fluorosis? Because most infant formulas contain low levels of ... I use affect my child’s chance of getting dental fluorosis? Three types of infant formula are available in ...

  14. Infant Contingency/Extinction Performance after Observing Partial Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Catherine; Toland, Cynthia; King, Rose Ann; Martin, Lisa Maas

    2005-01-01

    Social information gathering by infants 6 and 12 months old was examined as a foundation for later social learning that may be uniquely human. Infant performance on a contingency/extinction task was studied following a caregiver demonstration of the contingency on varied reinforcement schedules. Infants who observed caregivers receive any…

  15. Disruption of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF immunoreactivity in the human Kölliker-Fuse nucleus in victims of unexplained fetal and infant death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Lavezzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have demonstrated that the neurotrophin brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF is required for the appropriate development of the central respiratory network, a neuronal complex in the brainstem of vital importance to sustaining life. The pontine Kölliker-Fuse nucleus (KFN is a fundamental component of this circuitry with strong implications in the pre- and postnatal breathing control. This study provides detailed account for the cytoarchitecture, the physiology and the BDNF behaviour of the human KFN in perinatal age. We applied immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brainstem samples (from 45 fetuses and newborns died of both known and unknown causes, to analyze BDNF, gliosis and apoptosis patterns of manifestation. The KFN showed clear signs of developmental immaturity, prevalently associated to BDNF altered expression, in high percentages of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS victims. Our results indicate that BDNF pathway dysfunctions can derange the normal KFN development so preventing the breathing control in the sudden perinatal death.The data presented here are also relevant to a better understanding of how the BDNF expression in the KFN can be involved in several human respiratory pathologies such as the Rett’s and the congenital central hypoventilation syndromes.

  16. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  17. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Gibertoni

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  18. Cell therapy of pain: Characterization of human fetal chromaffin cells at early adrenal medulla development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Aziza, J; Sol, J C; Courtade-Saïdi, M; Chatelin, S; Evra, C; Parant, O; Lazorthes, Y; Jozan, S

    2006-04-01

    Adult adrenal chromaffin cells are being utilized for therapeutic transplantation. With the prospect of using fetal chromaffin cells in pain therapy, we studied their phenotype, proliferative power, function, and growth in vitro and in situ in order to determine the optimal time for implantation. Between 7 and 10 gestational weeks (GW), we isolated, in vitro, two types of chromaffin cells with a noradrenergic phenotype akin to that observed, in situ. Among the adherent chromaffin cells first observed in vitro, only a few samples expressed met-enkephalin, whereas almost all the neurosphere-like colonies, which appeared later, expressed it. However, neither of the two types of populations expressed an adrenergic phenotype in line with that observed in situ. At the upper limits of the voluntary abortion period authorized in France, this phenotype (12 GW) and met-enkephalin expression (13 GW) were evidenced in situ. For the first time in man, we demonstrate the secretion of noradrenaline in vitro by the two populations of cells. Consistent with this result, we also noted dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH) mRNA expression in vitro and in situ within this period. These observations on the expression of these biological factors indicate that 9-10 GW would be the best stage for sampling these cells for preclinical transplantation experiments.

  19. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  20. 婴幼儿人巨细胞病毒感染的临床表现和糖蛋白B基因分型%Clinical manifestations of human cytomegalovirus infection of infants and genotype of glycoprotein B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆晓东; 单小云; 袁青; 朱以军; 郑雅萍; 徐瑞龙

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the clinical manifestations of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) activate infection of infants and its relationship with genotype of glycoprotein B. Methods: ELISA method was used to detect 51 infants with positive HCMV diagnosed by HCMV - IgM, and the different clinical symptoms were analyzed. Genotyping of HCMV glycoprotein B was performed among 43 infants by nested PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) . Results: Among 51 infants with HCMV infection, 25. 49% of them were systemic infection and 74. 51% of them were single organ infection, the proportions of HCMV inclusion disease and hepatitis were 25.49% and 21.57%, respectively. The results of genotyping of HCMV glycoprotein B among 43 infants: 20 infants with glycoprotein B Ⅰ genotype, 7 infants with glycoprotein B Ⅱ genotype, 9 infants with glycoprotein B Ⅲ genotype, 4 infants with glycoprotein B Ⅰ genotype and glycoprotein B Ⅱ genotype, 2 infants with glycoprotein B Ⅰ genotype and glycoprotein B Ⅲ genotype, one infant with glycoprotein B Ⅱ genotype and glycoprotein B Ⅲ genotype, no infant was found with glycoprotein B Ⅳ genotype; glycoprotein B Ⅰ genotype accounted for 46. 51%.Conclusion: The clinical manifestations of infantile HCMV infection are various; glycoprotein B Ⅰ genotype is in the majority among HCMV infected infants.%目的:了解婴幼儿人巨细胞病毒(HCMV)活动性感染的临床表现,以及与糖蛋白B(gB)基因型的关系.方法:ELISA法检测HCMV-lgM确定的HCMV阳性的婴幼儿51例,对其不同临床症状进行分析.对其中43例患儿使用套式PCR(nPCR)法加限制性长度多态性分析(RFLP)进行HCMV gB基因分型.结果:在51例HCMV感染患儿中全身性感染和单脏器感染分别占25.49%和74.51%,HCMV包涵体病和肝炎分别占25.49%和21.57%.43例患儿HCMV gB的基因分型结果为,gBI型20例,gBⅡ型7例,gBⅢ型9例,gB Ⅰ、Ⅱ混合型4例,gBⅠ、Ⅲ混合型2

  1. Leptin into the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM augments renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Barnes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone released from adipose tissue. While this hormone normally acts to reduce feeding behavior and increase energy expenditure, in obesity, resistance to these effects occurs even though the hormone is released in large amounts. Although leptin no longer works to suppress feeding in the obese, leptin retains its potent effects on other autonomic functions such as blood pressure regulation. Leptin has been associated with hypertension and increased sympathetic autonomic activity. Therefore, leptin is emerging as a major contributor to the hypertensive state observed in obesity. Sympathetic control of blood pressure is maintained principally by autonomic reflex control circuits in the caudal brainstem. The rostral ventral-lateral medulla (RVLM is the primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system, sending excitatory fibers to sympathetic preganglionic neurons to regulate sympathetic control over resistance vessels and blood pressure. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that neurons in the ventral lateral medulla express leptin receptors (ObRb. Our present study using pseudo-rabies multi-synaptic retrograde tract tracing and immunohistochemical methods revealed that neurons within the RVLM that send sympathetic projections to the kidney express leptin receptors. Acute microinjection of leptin (1 and 3µg; 40nL into the RVLM evoked a significant increase in Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA. When the 3µg dose of leptin was preceded with a leptin antagonist, (SLAN-4; 1ng, it attenuated the cardiovascular response of leptin. Taken together, these data suggest that leptin’s actions within the RVLM may influence blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity.

  2. Polyethylene glycol reduces early and long-term cold ischemia-reperfusion and renal medulla injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Jean Pierre; Hauet, Thierry; Han, Zeqiu; Goujon, Jean Michel; Petit, Isabelle; Mauco, Gerard; Eugene, Michel; Carretier, Michel; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2002-09-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) after transplantation is a major cause of delayed graft function, which has a negative impact on early and late graft function and improve acute rejection. We have previously shown that polyethylene glycol (PEG) and particularly PEG 20M has a protective effect against cold ischemia and reperfusion injury in an isolated perfused pig and rat kidney model. We extended those observations to investigate the role of PEG using different doses (30g or 50g/l) added (ICPEG30 or ICPEG50) or not (IC) to a simplified preservation solution to reduce IRI after prolonged cold storage (48-h) of pig kidneys when compared with Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions. The study of renal function and medulla injury was performed with biochemical methods and proton NMR spectroscopy. Histological and inflammatory cell studies were performed after reperfusion (30-40 min) and on days 7 and 14 and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), a mitochondrial protein involved in cholesterol homeostasis, was also studied. The results demonstrated that ICPEG30 improved renal function and reduced medulla injury. ICPEG30 also improved tubular function and strongly protect mitochondrial integrity. Post-IRI inflammation was strongly reduced in this group, particularly lymphocytes TCD4(+), PBR expression was influenced by IRI in the early period and during the development of chronic dysfunction. This study clearly shows that PEG has a beneficial effect in renal preservation and suggests a role of PBR as a marker IRI and repair processes.

  3. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3′-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota. PMID:28079170

  4. Growth and Morbidity of Gambian Infants are Influenced by Maternal Milk Oligosaccharides and Infant Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jasmine C. C.; Lewis, Zachery T.; Krishnan, Sridevi; Bernstein, Robin M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Mills, David A.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Zivkovic, Angela M.

    2017-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) play an important role in the health of an infant as substrate for beneficial gut bacteria. Little is known about the effects of HMO composition and its changes on the morbidity and growth outcomes of infants living in areas with high infection rates. Mother’s HMO composition and infant gut microbiota from 33 Gambian mother/infant pairs at 4, 16, and 20 weeks postpartum were analyzed for relationships between HMOs, microbiota, and infant morbidity and growth. The data indicate that lacto-N-fucopentaose I was associated with decreased infant morbidity, and 3‧-sialyllactose was found to be a good indicator of infant weight-for-age. Because HMOs, gut microbiota, and infant health are interrelated, the relationship between infant health and their microbiome were analyzed. While bifidobacteria were the dominant genus in the infant gut overall, Dialister and Prevotella were negatively correlated with morbidity, and Bacteroides was increased in infants with abnormal calprotectin. Mothers nursing in the wet season (July to October) produced significantly less oligosaccharides compared to those nursing in the dry season (November to June). These results suggest that specific types and structures of HMOs are sensitive to environmental conditions, protective of morbidity, predictive of growth, and correlated with specific microbiota.

  5. Nutritional management of newborn infants: Practical guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ming Ben

    2008-01-01

    The requirements of growth and organ development create a challenge in nutritional management of newborn infants, especially premature newborn and intestinal-failure infants. Since their feeding may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis, some high-risk infants receive a small volume of feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN) without enteral feeding. This review summarizes the current research progress in the nutritional management of newborn infants. Searches of MEDLINE (1998-2007), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 3, 2007), abstracts and conference proceedings, references from relevant publications in the English language were performed, showing that breast milk is the preferred source of nutrients for enteral feeding of newborn infants. The number of nutrients found in human milk was recommended as a guideline in establishing the minimum and maximum levels in infant formulas. The fear of necrotizing enterocolitis and feeding intolerance are the major factors limiting the use of the enteral route as the primary means of nourishing premature infants. PN may help to meet many of the nutritional needs of these infants, but has significant detrimental side effects. Trophic feedings (small volume of feeding given at the same rate for at least 5 d) during PN are a strategy to enhance the feeding tolerance and decrease the side effects of PN and the time to achieve full feeding. Human milk is aey component of any strategy for enteral nutrition of all infants. However, the amounts of calcium, phosphorus, zinc and other nutrients are inadequate to meet the needs of the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during growth. Therefore, safe and effective means to fortify human milk are essential to the care of VLBW infants.

  6. Human breast milk contamination with phthalates and alterations of endogenous reproductive hormones in infants three months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Mortensen, Gerda Krog; Kaleva, Marko M

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis.......Phthalates adversely affect the male reproductive system in animals. We investigated whether phthalate monoester contamination of human breast milk had any influence on the postnatal surge of reproductive hormones in newborn boys as a sign of testicular dysgenesis....

  7. The pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rat rostral ventrolateral medulla involves multiple peripheral mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita C. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study, the peripheral mechanism that mediates the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla was investigated. METHOD: Angiotensin-(1-7 (25 pmol was bilaterally microinjected in the rostral ventrolateral medulla near the ventral surface in urethane-anesthetized male Wistar rats that were untreated or treated (intravenously with effective doses of selective autonomic receptor antagonists (atenolol, prazosin, methyl-atropine, and hexamethonium or a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist [d(CH25 -Tyr(Me-AVP] given alone or in combination. RESULTS: Unexpectedly, the pressor response produced by angiotensin-(1-7 (16 ± 2 mmHg, n = 12, which was not associated with significant changes in heart rate, was not significantly altered by peripheral treatment with prazosin, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist, hexamethonium or methyl-atropine. Similar results were obtained in experiments that tested the association of prazosin and atenolol; methyl-atropine and the vasopressin V1 antagonist or methyl-atropine and prazosin. Peripheral treatment with the combination of prazosin, atenolol and the vasopressin V1 antagonist abolished the pressor effect of glutamate; however, this treatment produced only a small decrease in the pressor effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. The combination of hexamethonium with the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist or the combination of prazosin, atenolol, the vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist and methyl-atropine was effective in blocking the effect of angiotensin-(1-7 at the rostral ventrolateral medulla. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that angiotensin-(1-7 triggers a complex pressor response at the rostral ventrolateral medulla that involves an increase in sympathetic tonus, release of vasopressin and possibly the inhibition of a vasodilatory mechanism.

  8. Different cardiovascular neuron groups in the ventral reticular formation of the rostral medulla in rabbits: single neurone studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, E; Ootsuka, Y; Terui, N

    2000-03-15

    To examine whether the cardiovascular neurons of the ventral medulla consist of functionally different kinds of neurons, single neuronal activity of the ventral medulla, activity of the renal sympathetic nerves (RSNA), blood flow of the ear (EarBF) and arterial pressure (AP) were recorded in urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized and immobilized rabbits during electrical stimulation of the aortic nerve (AN, baroreceptor afferent fibers) and electrical stimulation of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) that reduced EarBF but less affected on AP and RSNA. The dorsolateral funiculus of the second cervical cord was stimulated to evoke antidromic spikes of medullary neurons. Two kinds of reticulo-spinal neurons were identified. Activities of one kind of neurons were facilitated by stimulation of DMH (latency 48.6+/-27.6 ms, n=11) but they did not respond to stimulation of the AN. Therefore, it was presumed that these neurons controlled vasomotion of the ear through the vasoconstrictor neurons in the spinal cord but did not participate in regulation of systemic AP. Activities of the other neurons were inhibited by stimulation of the AN (latency 47.8+/-8 4 ms, n=16) but they did not respond to the DMH stimulation. These neurons were identical to those reported previously as the RVLM neurons, and they contributed to regulate systemic AP but might not participate in control of cutaneous vascular movement. The former neurons were located medially to the latter in the reticular formation of the rostral ventral medulla. These results provided evidence at the single neuronal level that the cardiovascular neurons in the ventral medulla were consisted of functionally different sympatho-excitatory neurons and they were located at the different sites in the rostral ventral medulla.

  9. Current concepts in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Y L; Paige, D M

    1992-01-01

    Nutritional needs vary during the first year of life according to the infant's individualized pattern of growth and amount of physical activity. After delivery, the infant must make many physiologic adjustments, develop immunologic defenses, and take in adequate nutrients for survival. The type and consistency of foods change as the gastrointestinal system matures and becomes able to metabolize the components and excrete the needed metabolites of increasingly complex foods. The recommended dietary allowance for infancy is based on the amount of nutrients provided to healthy infants in human milk during the first six months of life and on the consumption of formula and increasing amounts of solid food during the second six months. The introduction of solid foods should parallel the developmental changes that occur within the central nervous system throughout the first year; these provide a level of readiness for the infant to manage foods of various textures from full liquid to soft. Even though significant technologic advances have led to changes in the way infants can be fed, human milk is still the optimal choice. Most women can be encouraged to breast-feed regardless of their own nutritional status or dietary intake. Contraindications can be managed on an individual basis. If women do not elect to breast-feed, suitable commercial formulas are available. The important issue in feeding is that of providing a variety of appropriately prepared foods offered in a nonjudgmental atmosphere so that the foundation is laid for the development of good food habits.

  10. Improving Infant Nutrition: Breast Milk as the Benchmark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, J.

    2017-01-01

    Bridging the gap between commercial infant formulas and the complexities of human breast milk means shifting current commercial production schemes and prioritizing important bioactive ingredients essential for neonates.

  11. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of human bocavirus in Danish infants: results from a prospective birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Høgh, Mette; Høgh, Birthe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus that has been detected in respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and in feces from children with gastroenteritis. However, its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease is not de......BACKGROUND: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a recently discovered parvovirus that has been detected in respiratory samples from children with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) and in feces from children with gastroenteritis. However, its role as a causative agent of respiratory disease...

  12. 21 CFR 107.250 - Termination of an infant formula recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of an infant formula recall. 107.250... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.250 Termination of an infant formula recall. The recalling firm may submit a recommendation for termination of the recall...

  13. 21 CFR 107.220 - Scope and effect of infant formula recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. 107... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA Infant Formula Recalls § 107.220 Scope and effect of infant formula recalls. (a) The requirements of this subpart apply: (1) When the Food and...

  14. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  15. FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF HUMAN-MILK TRIGLYCERIDE SPECIES - POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR OPTIMAL STRUCTURES OF INFANT FORMULA TRIGLYCERIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, CH; HOVING, EB; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    Human milk triglycerides (TGs) were separated into 14 fractions by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with light-scattering detection (LSD). Subsequent fractionation by reversed-phase HPLC-LSD resulted in 75 subfractions. The major 48 were analysed by gas chromatography for the

  16. Triglycerides, fatty acids, sterols, mono- and disaccharides and sugar alcohols in human milk and current types of infant formula milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; vanBeusekom, CM; Nijeboer, HJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in the fatty acid composition, sterols, minor carbohydrates and sugar alcohols between human and formula milk. Design: We analyzed the concentrations of triglycerides, sterols, di- and monosaccharides and sugar alcohols, as well as the fatty acid composition of

  17. FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF HUMAN-MILK TRIGLYCERIDE SPECIES - POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR OPTIMAL STRUCTURES OF INFANT FORMULA TRIGLYCERIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, CH; HOVING, EB; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    Human milk triglycerides (TGs) were separated into 14 fractions by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with light-scattering detection (LSD). Subsequent fractionation by reversed-phase HPLC-LSD resulted in 75 subfractions. The major 48 were analysed by gas chromatography for

  18. FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF HUMAN-MILK TRIGLYCERIDE SPECIES - POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR OPTIMAL STRUCTURES OF INFANT FORMULA TRIGLYCERIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WINTER, CH; HOVING, EB; MUSKIET, FAJ

    1993-01-01

    Human milk triglycerides (TGs) were separated into 14 fractions by silver ion high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with light-scattering detection (LSD). Subsequent fractionation by reversed-phase HPLC-LSD resulted in 75 subfractions. The major 48 were analysed by gas chromatography for the

  19. Mother-infant transfer of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies following vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) virus-like particle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Saah, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

  20. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934, Two Strains Isolated from Human Milk, to Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammatory biomarker calprotectin, in both blood and fecal samples was also assessed. For this purpose, five preterm infants received two daily doses (~109 CFU of a 1 : 1 mixture of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934. Bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques in all the fecal samples. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in nearly all fecal samples while L. salivarius PS12934 was detected in all the infants at numerous sample collection points and B. breve PS12929 appeared in five fecal samples. Finally, a noticeable decrease in the fecal calprotectin levels was observed along time.

  1. Persistent organochlorine residues in human breast milk from Hanoi and Hochiminh City, Vietnam contamination, accumulation kinetics and risk assessment for infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Someya, Masayuki; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Watanabe, Mafumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach

    2004-06-01

    Despite the ban on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in most of the developed nations, their usage continued until recently in many Asian developing countries including Vietnam, for agricultural purposes and vector-borne disease eradication programs. In this study, we collected human breast milk samples from the two big cities in Vietnam: Hanoi (n=42) and Hochiminh (n=44) and determined the concentrations of persistent OCs such as PCBs, DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and tris-4-chlorophenyl-methane (TCPMe). The contamination pattern of OCs was in the order of DDTs > PCBs > HCHs > CHLs{approx}HCB{approx}TCPMe. Compilation of available data indicated that DDT residue levels in human breast milk from Vietnam were among the highest values reported for Asian developing countries as well as developed nations. This result suggests recent usage of DDTs in both north and south Vietnam. Interestingly, in both cities, the p,p'-DDT portion was higher in multiparas than those in primiparas. Considering the fact that the interval between the first and the second child of a mother in Vietnam is usually short, this result probably indicates continuous intake of DDTs in the population. Analysis of infant exposure to DDTs via breast milk suggested that the daily intake rates for number of individuals are close to or above the threshold for adverse effects which may raise concern on children health. - It is suggested that daily intake rates of persistent organochlorines in mothers in Vietnam may result in health risk for nursing children.

  2. Interleukin-8 and Its Receptors in Human Milk from Mothers of Full-Term and Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Adem; Tunc, Turan; Erdem, Galip; Yerebasmaz, Neslihan; Tas, Ahmet; Beken, Serdar; Basbozkurt, Gokalp; Saldir, Mehmet; Zenciroglu, Aysegul; Yaman, Halil

    2016-06-01

    In addition to its nutritional benefits, human milk also has bioactive elements. Limited immunological functions of newborns are supported and altered by the immunological elements of mother milk. Chemokines are of importance among these immune factors. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been demonstrated in mother's milk, and its receptors, CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR)-1 and CXCR-2, were detected on cells, responsible for immunological reactions and mammary glandular cells. The soluble forms of these receptors are yet to be described in human milk. In this study, it was aimed to assess the IL-8 levels and the concentrations of its receptors in colostrum and mature mother's milk in regard to preterm and term delivery. The results of this study indicated a decline in IL-8 levels with the lactation stage, but no difference was observed between term and preterm mother's milk. Regarding the CXCR-1 and CXCR-2, the concentrations of these receptors were similar in both colostrum and mature milk. Furthermore, there was not any significant difference between term and preterm mother's milk. In conclusion, this is the first study to investigate the concentrations of CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 with the levels of IL-8 in colostrum and mature human milk of term and preterm newborns. The alterations in IL-8 levels were similar in some of the studies reported. CXCR-1 and CXCR-2 levels did not demonstrate any significant difference. Further studies are required to investigate the soluble forms of these receptors and their relation to IL-8 with larger cohort.

  3. 人乳多不饱和脂肪酸含量与婴儿食物过敏关系的研究%Correlation between contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid in human breast milk and food allergy in infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄于娟; 黎海芪

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To explore the correlation between contents of α-LNA、DHA、AA and LA in human milk and the development of food allergy in infants.[Methods]Cross-sectional study was conducted; breastfed infants aged 3~6 months were enrolled as well as their mothers; human milk samples were collected in the out-patient clinic, contents of PUFAs in human milk were analysed with HPLC method.Infants were diagnosed as food allergy according to R.Sporik's method in our out-patient clinic.[Results]10 infants were diagnosed as food allergy, and 21 normal as control.Contents of α-LNA、AA and LA in human milk of food-allergy group were higher than those in control group(P<0.05), except the contents of DHA.[Conclusions]The results suggest that human milk rich in n-6 PUFA such as LA and AA may be a risk factor to the development of food allergy in infants.%[目的]研究人乳多不饱和脂肪酸(polyunsaturated fatty acid,PUFA)含量与婴儿发生食物过敏的关系.[方法]采集3~6月人乳喂养婴儿母亲的乳汁,高效液相色谱法法检测其中α-LNA、DHA(n-3组)和LA、AA含量(n-6组);按R.Sporik标准确立婴儿食物过敏,比较食物过敏与正常婴儿母亲乳汁中PUFA含量的差异性.[结果]31例3~6月龄人乳喂养婴儿中10例发生食物过敏,过敏婴儿母亲乳汁中LA、AA及α-LNA含量增高(P<0.05)、DHA含量差异无统计学意义.[结论]食物过敏婴儿的母亲乳汁中α-LNA、LA、AA含量升高,提示人乳PUFA代谢异常可能与婴儿发生食物过敏有关.

  4. 3-D refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Songyi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Nab, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions for fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed of RBCs from cord blood of newborn infants, and of adult RBCs from mothers or non-pregnant women, employing optical holographic micro-tomography. Optical measurements of 3-D refractive index distributions, and of dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs, enabled retrieval of the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significant larger than those of RBCs from non-pregnant women, and cord RBCs have more flattened shapes than RBCs in adults. In addition, the Hb content in the cord RBCs of newborns was significantly greater. The Hb concentration in cord RBCs was higher than for non-pregnant women or maternal RBCs, but t...

  5. Model-Based Motion Tracking of Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo;

    2014-01-01

    Even though motion tracking is a widely used technique to analyze and measure human movements, only a few studies focus on motion tracking of infants. In recent years, a number of studies have emerged focusing on analyzing the motion pattern of infants, using computer vision. Most of these studies...... are based on 2D images, but few are based on 3D information. In this paper, we present a model-based approach for tracking infants in 3D. The study extends a novel study on graph-based motion tracking of infants and we show that the extension improves the tracking results. A 3D model is constructed...... that resembles the body surface of an infant, where the model is based on simple geometric shapes and a hierarchical skeleton model....

  6. Inferences about infants' visual brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2013-11-01

    We discuss hypotheses that link the measurements we can make with infants to inferences about their developing neural mechanisms. First, we examine evidence from the sensitivity to visual stimulus properties seen in infants' responses, using both electrophysiological measures (transient and steady-state recordings of visual evoked potentials/visual event-related potentials) and behavioral measures and compare this with the sensitivity of brain processes, known from data on mammalian neurophysiology and human neuroimaging. The evidence for multiple behavioral systems with different patterns of visual sensitivity is discussed. Second, we consider the analogies which can be made between infants' behavior and that of adults with identified brain damage, and extend these links to hypothesize about the brain basis of visual deficits in infants and children with developmental disorders. Last, we consider how these lines of data might allow us to form "inverse linking hypotheses" about infants' visual experience.

  7. Developmental competence of oocytes isolated from surplus medulla tissue in connection with cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken-Jensen, Helle N; Kristensen, Stine G; Jeppesen, Janni V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the developmental competence of immature oocytes collected from surplus medulla tissue in connection with ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. DESIGN: Cohort comparative study. SETTING: University laboratory in Denmark from 2011-2012. POPULATION: 69...... girls and women (0-38 years of age) who each had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation. METHODS: Ovaries were obtained directly from the local hospital or from collaborating hospitals (two to five hours' transport on ice). Immature oocytes were aspirated from large antral follicles visible...... on the ovaries, and collected from the saline solution, containing surplus medulla tissue, following dissection of the ovarian cortical tissue for cryopreservation. The immature oocytes were cultured for 48 h in an Embryoscope™ Time-lapse System or in culture dishes overlaid with liquid paraffin using commercial...

  8. Vitrification of in vitro matured oocytes collected from surplus ovarian medulla tissue resulting from fertility preservation of ovarian cortex tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Huiqun; Jiang, Hong; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the maturation rate of immature oocytes collected from ovarian medulla tissue normally discarded during preparation of ovarian cortical tissue for fertility preservation. Further we evaluated survival of derived MII oocytes following vitrification...... and warming. METHODS: 36 patients aged from 8 to 41 years who had one ovary excised for fertility preservation were included. Oocytes were collected from the medulla tissue and matured in vitro 44-48 h followed by vitrification. Number of oocytes collected, the rates of maturation and post-warming survival...... of cortical tissue may pose a risk of relapse, but the IVM approach is currently too inefficient to be the only method used for fertility preservation....

  9. Perfluorinated carboxylic acids in human breast milk from Spain and estimation of infant's daily intake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motas Guzmàn, Miguel [Área de Toxicología, Universidad de Murcia, Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia (Spain); Clementini, Chiara [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Pérez-Cárceles, Maria Dolores; Jiménez Rejón, Sandra [Department of Legal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Murcia & Instituto Murciano de Investigacion Biomedica (IMIB), (IMIB-VIRGEN DE LA ARRIXACA), Murcia (Spain); Cascone, Aurora; Martellini, Tania [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Guerranti, Cristiana [University of Siena, Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, Via Mattioli, 4, 53100 Siena (Italy); Bioscience Research Center, Via Aurelia Vecchia 32, 58015 Orbetello, GR (Italy); Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.it [Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Human milk samples were collected from 67 mothers in 2014 at a Primary Care Centre in Murcia (Spain) and analyzed for perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs). Concentrations measured for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoDA) ranged from < LOQ (< 10 ng/L) to 397 ng/L with a mean concentration of 66 ± 68 ng/L and a median of 29 ng/L. The presence of these compounds was revealed in 50 samples out of 67 analyzed. Influence of number of pregnancies and food habits on PFCAs concentrations was also investigated. Statistically significant differences in PFCA levels were found when the women were divided into maternal age classes and into the categories primiparae and multiparae. A greater transfer of PFC during breastfeeding by primiparous was evidenced and thus a higher exposure to these contaminants for the first child. Moreover, it was possible to hypothesize that the content of PFCs is in general correlated to the eating habits of donors and, in particular, with the fish consumption. Finally, PFOA daily intakes and risk index (RI) were estimated for the first six months of life and we found that ingestion rates of PFOA did not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). - Graphical abstract: Figure SI 1. Concentrations (ng/L) of PFCs recovered in 67 samples of human breast milk. - Highlights: • Perfluorinated carboxylic acids were analyzed in a set of 67 breast milk samples collected from Spanish women. • PFOA appeared as the major contributor to the total perfluorinated carboxylic acids. • PFOA concentrations were significantly higher in milk of primiparous participants. • PFOA daily intake and risk index were estimated for the firsts six month of life.

  10. SPINAL CORD MECHANISMS MEDIATING BEHAVIORAL HYPERALGESIA INDUCED BY NEUROKININ-1 TACHYKININ RECEPTOR ACTIVATION IN THE ROSTRAL VENTROMEDIAL MEDULLA

    OpenAIRE

    Lagraize, S. C.; Guo, W; Yang, K.; Wei, F.; Ren, K; Dubner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperalgesia in animal injury models is linked to activation of descending raphespinal modulatory circuits originating in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM). A neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist microinjected into the RVM before or after inflammation produced by complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) resulted in an attenuation of thermal hyperalgesia. A transient (acute) or a continuous infusion of Substance P (SP) microinjected into the RVM of non-inflamed animals led to similar pain hype...

  11. Asociación de los tipos de carencia y grado de desarrollo humano con la mortalidad infantil en México, 2008 Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Sinoe Medina-Gómez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo fue conocer la asociación entre los diferentes tipos de carencia social y económica y los niveles de mortalidad infantil reportados durante el 2008 en México. Se realizó un estudio ecológico, analizando la correlación y el riesgo relativo entre el índice de desarrollo humano y distintos niveles de carencias sociales y económicas con las tasas de mortalidad infantil reportadas a nivel nacional y estatal. Existe una fuerte correlación entre un mayor nivel de desarrollo humano con una menor tasa de mortalidad. La carencia educativa y el atraso en la calidad y espacio de la vivienda se asocian con una mayor tasa de mortalidad infantil. Si bien la mortalidad infantil en México ha disminuido notablemente en los últimos 28 años, su reducción no ha sido homogénea y se mantienen inequidades que determinan las tasas de mortalidad en relación a los niveles diferenciados de pobreza. Es necesario el diseño de programas con una visión transdisciplinaria que permitan disminuir las tasas de mortalidad con el pleno desarrollo de los individuos y sus familiasThe aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates

  12. Exaggerated sympathoexcitatory reflexes develop with changes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Domitila A; Schreihofer, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Obesity leads to altered autonomic reflexes that reduce stability of mean arterial pressure (MAP). Sympathoinhibitory reflexes such as baroreflexes are impaired, but reflexes that raise MAP appear to be augmented. In obese Zucker rats (OZR) sciatic nerve stimulation evokes larger increases in MAP by unknown mechanisms. We sought to determine the autonomic underpinnings of this enhanced somatic pressor reflex and whether other sympathoexcitatory reflexes are augmented. We also determined whether their final common pathway, glutamatergic activation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), was enhanced in male OZR compared with lean Zucker rats (LZR). Sciatic nerve stimulation or activation of the nasopharyngeal reflex evoked larger rises in splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) (79% and 45% larger in OZR, respectively; P reflexes were still exaggerated in OZR (167% and 69% larger, respectively, P reflexes and physiological responses to RVLM activation were comparable. These data suggest that the ability of glutamate to activate the RVLM becomes enhanced in adult OZR and may contribute to the development of exaggerated sympathoexcitatory responses independent of impaired baroreflexes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. B and C types natriuretic peptides modify norepinephrine uptake and release in the rat adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, M S; Presas, M F; Bianciotti, L G; Rodriguez-Fermepin, M; Ambros, R; Fernandez, B E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously reported that atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) modulates adrenomedullar norepinephrine (NE) metabolism. On this basis, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of B and C types natriuretic peptides (BNP and CNP) on the uptake, intracellular distribution and release of 3H-NE. Experiments were carried out in rat adrenal medulla slices incubated "in vitro." Results showed that 100 nM of both, CNP and BNP, enhanced total and neuronal NE uptake. Both peptides (100 nM) caused a rapid increase in NE uptake during the first minute, which was sustained for 60 min. NE intracellular distribution was only modified by CNP (100 nM), which increased the granular fraction and decreased the cytosolic pool. On the other hand, spontaneous as well as evoked (KCl) NE release, was decreased by BNP and CNP (50 and 100 nM for spontaneous release and 1, 10, 50 and 100 nM for evoked output). The present results suggest that BNP and CNP may regulate catecholamine secretion and modulate adrenomedullary biological actions mediated by catecholamines, such as blood arterial pressure, smooth muscle tone, and metabolic activities.

  14. Effect of moxonidine on putative sympathetic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Antonio R

    2004-01-01

    We used an intracellular recording technique in vitro to investigate the effects of moxonidine on neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) with electrophysiological properties similar to premotor sympathetic neurons in vivo. These neurons were classified as firing regularly and irregularly, according to previous reports. Moxonidine is a sympathoinhibitory and antihypertensive agent that is thought to be a ligand of alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors and imidazoline type-1 receptors in the RVLM. Moxonidine (2-10 microM) was applied to the perfusate on 4 irregularly firing neurons, and 2 regularly firing neurons. Moxonidine (2 microM) produced only minor depolarization in 2 of these neurons. However, on 4 tested neurons, moxonidine (10 microM) elicited a profound inhibitory effect with hyperpolarization (near -20 mV); these neurons practically ceased firing. These changes were partially reversible. The results would indicate that neurons in the RVLM, recorded in vitro and with similar electrophysiological characteristics to a group of neurons previously identified in vivo in the same bulbar region as barosensitive premotor sympathetic neurons, can be modulated by imidazoline-derivative adrenergic agonists. These results could help to understand the hypotensive effects of moxonidine.

  15. The identification of prostaglandins E2, F2α and A2 from rabbit kidney medulla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. B.; Crowshaw, K.; Takman, B. H.; Attrep, Katherine A.; Gougoutas, J. Z.

    1967-01-01

    Rabbit kidney medulla (10kg.) was homogenized in 5mm-disodium hydrogen phosphate and deproteinized with ethanol, and the concentrated supernatant solution was extracted at pH8 with light petroleum and at pH2 with chloroform. The acidic lipids present in the chloroform phase were separated on silicic acid columns into three biologically active fractions. The first fraction contained only vasodepressor activity; the second fraction contained both vasodepressor and non-vascular-smooth-muscle-stimulating activity; the third fraction contained both vasopressor and non-vascular-smooth-muscle-stimulating activity. Purification of each fraction by reversed-phase partition and thick-layer chromatography yielded three pure acids. Thin-layer chromatographic, spectroscopic and mass-spectral analysis of the acids and their methyl esters established their structures as prostaglandins E2, F2α and A2. Evidence is presented demonstrating that part or all of the prostaglandin A2 is formed during the isolation procedures from endogenous prostaglandin E2. PMID:16742553

  16. Quantitation of iodine-123 MIBG uptake by normal adrenal medulla in hypertensive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomanji, J.; Flatman, W.D.; Horne, T.; Fettich, J.; Britton, K.E.; Ross, G.; Besser, G.M.

    1987-03-01

    Eighteen hypertensive patients with a clinical suspicion of pheochromocytoma and raised or borderline raised plasma catecholamine and urinary vanillyl mandelic acid (VMA) levels were studied by scintigraphy using /sup 123/I-labeled metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG). None of these patients had any scintigraphic evidence of pheochromocytoma at the time of study or on subsequent clinical follow-up. A quantitative approach was taken to calculate the adrenal medullary uptake of (/sup 123/I)MIBG in these patients. Three different methods of quantitation were evaluated using data acquired from an anthropomorphic phantom and analysed by three independent observers. In the patient studies 34 out of 35 adrenal medullas were visualized with uptake in the range of 0.01-0.22% of the administered dose 22 hr postinjection which was calculated using the preferred quantitation method. This is an appropriate control group range for comparison with patients who have proven norepinephrine and epinephrine secreting tumors. A quantitative approach to (/sup 123/I)MIBG imaging provides an important tool for studying adrenomedullary pathophysiology.

  17. Influence of colloid, preservation medium and trimetazidine on renal medulla injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Carole; Dutheil, Delphine; Petit, Isabelle; Zhang, Keqiang; Eugene, Michel; Touchard, Guy; Wahl, Anne; Seguin, Francois; Milinkevitch, Serge; Hauet, Thierry; Mauco, Gerard

    2004-08-04

    In organ transplantation, preservation injury is an important factor which could influence short-term and long-term graft outcome. The renal medulla is particularly sensitive to oxidant stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Using an autotransplant pig kidney model, we investigated renal function and medullary damage determined between day 1 and week 2 after 24- or 48-h cold storage in different preservation solutions: University of Wisconsin solution (UW), Hopital Edouard Herriot solution (a high Na+ version of UW), ECPEG (high Na+ preservation solution with PEG) and ICPEG (a high K+ version of ECPEG) with or without trimetazidine (TMZ). TMZ improved renal preservation and increased renal function when added in each preservation solution (particularly HEH and ECPEG). Medullary damage led to the early appearance of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) followed by 1H-NMR in urine and plasma. TMZ and ECPEG is the most efficient association to reduce medullary damage. This study clarifies the role of colloid and polarity solution and the role of mitochondrial protection by TMZ.

  18. Superoxide Mediates Depressive Effects Induced by Hydrogen Sulfide in Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyun Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S plays a crucial role in the regulation of blood pressure and oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S exerts its cardiovascular effects by reducing oxidative stress via inhibition of NADPH oxidase activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM. We examined cell distributions of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS and effects of H2S on reactive oxygen species (ROS and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We found that CBS was expressed in neurons of the RVLM, and the expression was lower in SHRs than in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Microinjection of NaHS (H2S donor, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM, a CBS agonist, or Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor into the RVLM reduced the ROS level, NADPH oxidase activity, and MAP, whereas microinjection of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA, a CBS inhibitor increased MAP. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular infusion of NaHS inhibited phosphorylation of p47phox, a key step of NADPH oxidase activation. Since decreasing ROS level in the RVLM reduces MAP and heart rate and increasing H2S reduces ROS production, we conclude that H2S exerts an antihypertensive effect via suppressing ROS production. H2S, as an antioxidant, may be a potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Cellular localization of P2Y(2) purinoceptor in rat renal inner medulla and lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, B K; Ginns, S M; Krane, C M; Nielsen, S; Knepper, M A

    2000-01-01

    Physiological and pharmacological studies have demonstrated that extracellular ATP, acting through P2Y(2) purinoceptor, modulates water permeability of renal medullary collecting duct cells and the secretion of ions, mucin, and surfactant phospholipids by respiratory epithelia. Here we provide direct molecular evidence for the expression of P2Y(2) purinoceptor in these cells. RT-PCR confirmed P2Y(2) purinoceptor mRNA expression in rat lung and kidney and demonstrated expression in renal collecting ducts. Northern analysis showed that both lung and kidney express one 3.6-kb P2Y(2) purinoceptor mRNA transcript. Immunoblots using peptide-derived polyclonal antibody to P2Y(2) purinoceptor showed that inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) express two distinct and specific products (47 and 105 kDa) and account for the majority of the receptor expression in inner medulla, whereas the 105-kDa form is predominant in lung. Immunoperoxidase labeling on cryosections showed localization of receptor protein in the apical and basolateral domains of IMCD principal cells and in the secretory cells (Clara cells and goblet cells) of the terminal respiratory bronchioles.

  20. Medial prefrontal depressor response: involvement of the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, N C; Verberne, A J

    2000-01-14

    The importance of neurones of the caudal and rostral ventrolateral medulla (CVLM and RVLM, respectively) in mediation of the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response was studied in halothane-anaesthetised rats. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the RVLM produced by microinjection of bicuculline (50 nl, 2 mM, n = 6) resulted in reversal of the depressor (-9.5 +/- 1.2 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-6.5 +/- 5.7 units) responses to pressor (+7.8 +/- 3.5 mm Hg) and sympathoexcitatory (+19.3 +/- 12.5 units) responses and simultaneous blockade of baroreceptor reflex-mediated sympathoinhibition. Baroreflex blockade was reflected by a significant reduction in the gain (slope of the blood pressure vs. lumbar sympathetic nerve discharge regression line) of the reflex. Microinjection of the excitatory amino acid antagonist kynurenic acid (100 nl, 50 mM, n = 6) into the CVLM blocked the baroreflex and significantly reduced the depressor (-9.6 +/- 0.4 to -6.9 +/- 0.6 mm Hg) and lumbar sympathetic (-4.0 +/- 2.1 to 2.9 +/- 1.9 units) responses to medial prefrontal cortex stimulation. These results support the hypothesis that the medial prefrontal cortex depressor response is mediated by a pathway which converges at the level of the RVLM and which is only partly dependent on an excitatory input to caudal ventrolateral medullary neurones.

  1. Gene expression in the medulla following oral infection of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luciane M; Basu, Urmila; Khaniya, Bina; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Williams, John L; Moore, Stephen S; Guan, Le Luo

    2011-01-01

    The identification of variations in gene expression in response to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may help to elucidate the mechanisms of neuropathology and prion replication and discover biomarkers for disease. In this study, genes that are differentially expressed in the caudal medulla tissues of animals infected with different doses of PrP(BSE) at 12 and 45 mo post infection were compared using array containing 24,000 oligonucleotide probes. Data analysis identified 966 differentially expressed (DE) genes between control and infected animals. Genes identified in at least two of four experiments (control versus 1-g infected animals at 12 and 45-mo; control versus 100-g infected animals at 12 and 45 mo) were considered to be the genes that may be associated with BSE disease. From the 176 DE genes associated with BSE, 84 had functions described in the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of 14 genes revealed that prion infection may cause dysfunction of several different networks, including extracellular matrix (ECM), cell adhesion, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, complement and coagulation cascades, MAPK signaling, neurodegenerative disorder, SNARE interactions in vesicular transport, and the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta signaling pathways. The identification of DE genes will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuropathology in bovine species. Additional studies on larger number of animals are in progress in our laboratory to investigate the roles of these DE genes in pathogenesis of BSE.

  2. Outcomes for Extremely Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C.; Costarino, Andrew T.; Stayer, Stephen A.; Brett, Claire; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for four years and is now approximately 11.5%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23–24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal EDC. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (ELBW) (premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91–95% (compared to 85–89%) avoids excess mortality. However, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending The development of neonatal neurocognitive care visits may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages. The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, since therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of ELBW infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve

  3. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    Premature birth is a significant cause of infant and child morbidity and mortality. In the United States, the premature birth rate, which had steadily increased during the 1990s and early 2000s, has decreased annually for 7 years and is now approximately 11.39%. Human viability, defined as gestational age at which the chance of survival is 50%, is currently approximately 23 to 24 weeks in developed countries. Infant girls, on average, have better outcomes than infant boys. A relatively uncomplicated course in the intensive care nursery for an extremely premature infant results in a discharge date close to the prenatal estimated date of confinement. Despite technological advances and efforts of child health experts during the last generation, the extremely premature infant (less than 28 weeks gestation) and extremely low birth weight infant (death and disability with 30% to 50% mortality and, in survivors, at least 20% to 50% risk of morbidity. The introduction of continuous positive airway pressure, mechanical ventilation, and exogenous surfactant increased survival and spurred the development of neonatal intensive care in the 1970s through the early 1990s. Routine administration of antenatal steroids during premature labor improved neonatal mortality and morbidity in the late 1990s. The recognition that chronic postnatal administration of steroids to infants should be avoided may have improved outcomes in the early 2000s. Evidence from recent trials attempting to define the appropriate target for oxygen saturation in preterm infants suggests arterial oxygen saturation between 91% and 95% (compared with 85%-89%) avoids excess mortality; however, final analyses of data from these trials have not been published, so definitive recommendations are still pending. The development of neonatal neurocritical intensive care units may improve neurocognitive outcomes in this high-risk group. Long-term follow-up to detect and address developmental, learning, behavioral, and

  4. Modulation of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes in adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia by treadmill exercise of stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilovic, Ljubica; Spasojevic, Natasa; Dronjak, Sladjana

    2012-03-01

    The sympatho-adrenal system represents one of the main systems involved in the response to stressful events because its stress-induced activation results in an increased release of catecholamines. Exercise training acts as an important modulator of sympatho-adrenal system, adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia being two components of this system. This study aimed at investigating physical exercise-related changes in gene expression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the adrenal medulla and stellate ganglia of chronically psychosocially stressed adult rats exposed daily to 20-min treadmill exercise for 12 weeks, using TaqMan RT-PCR assay. Chronic psychosocial stress decreased gene expression of the examined enzymes in the adrenal medulla and treadmill exercise did not lead to further modulation of the corresponding gene expression. On the other hand, chronic psychosocial stress produced a significant increase of TH (about 51%) and DBH (about 103%) gene expression in stellate ganglia, while treadmill exercise decreased gene expression of these enzymes to control levels in psychosocially stressed rats. Our data indicate that treadmill exercise leads to a decreased gene transcription of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes in stellate ganglia and attenuation of cardiac noradrenaline production in stressful situations. Reduction of catecholamine synthesis in stellate ganglia may be linked to the beneficial effects of treadmill exercise on cardiovascular system in stressed animals.

  5. Neuroprotective role of heat shock protein 70 in the rostral ventrolateral medulla during acute mevinphos intoxication in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi; Chang, Alice Y W; Chan, Samuel H H

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) is a family of highly conserved proteins that respond to stress and participate actively in cytoprotection. Within the HSP family, HSP70 is the major inducible member that confers protection against cell death. This study investigated whether HSP70 plays a neuroprotective role at the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), the origin of sympathetic neurogenic vasomotor tone in the medulla oblongata where the organophosphate insecticide mevinphos (Mev) acts to elicit cardiovascular toxicity. Experiments were carried out in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were maintained under propofol anesthesia. Intravenous administration of Mev (960 microg/kg) induced a significant increase in the HSP70 level in the ventrolateral medulla during phase I ('pro-life' phase), and returned to baseline during phase II ('pro-death' phase) Mev intoxication. Compared to artificial cerebrospinal fluid, normal mouse serum (1:20), or sense hsp70 oligonucleotide (50 pmol) pretreatment, microinjection of an anti-HSP70 antiserum (1:20) or an antisense hsp70 oligonucleotide (50 pmol) bilaterally into the RVLM significantly increased mortality, shortened the duration of phase I intoxication and augmented the induced hypotension in rats that received Mev (960 microg/ kg, i.v.). These results suggest that HSP70 induced in the RVLM during Mev intoxication provides neuroprotection against the organophosphate poison via prevention of cardiovascular depression.

  6. Structural brain mutant of Drosophila melanogaster with reduced cell number in the medulla cortex and with normal optomotor yaw response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, K. F.; Heisenberg, M.

    1981-01-01

    KS58, one out of six known alleles of the small optic lobes (sol) gene in Drosophila melanogaster, reduces the cell number in the medulla cortex by degeneration of ganglion cells in the pupae to about 50%. Also, about half the volume of the medulla and lobula complex neuropils is missing. Many Golgistained cells in the mutant optic lobes resemble their homologues in wild type. However, special classes of transmedullary columnar neurons projecting to the lobula or to both lobula and lobula plate are not seen in the mutant. Some neurons linking the lobula complex to the central brain send branches to the medulla (the branches do not exist in wild type); some other types seem to be missing. The fate mapping of the KS58 focus reveals a location ventral to the head bristles and in sine oculis (so) flies the mutation further reduces the rudiments of the optic lobes normally seen. Therefore the sol phenotype is not induced by mutant eyes and the primary gene action seems to be on nervous tissue. The structural alterations of the small optic lobes are reflected in visual orientation behavior. The optomotor yaw response, however, is almost quantitatively preserved. The respective neural network should still be present in the mutant optic lobes. Images PMID:16592962

  7. In vitro modulation of tumor necrosis factor α production in THP-1 cells by lactic acid bacteria isolated from healthy human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladda, Boonyarut; Theparee, Talent; Chimchang, Juntana; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Taweechotipatr, Malai

    2015-06-01

    The human microbiota is a source of probiotics capable of modulating the host immune system. In this study, we collected fecal samples from 100 healthy infants and isolated lactic acid bacteria which were screened for immune modulating effects on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production. Cell-free culture supernatants from 26 isolates were able to decrease TNF-α production in vitro and three of the isolates were selected as candidate probiotics (MSMC39-1, MSMC39-3, MSMC57-1). These isolates were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing as Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus casei, and Weissella confusa respectively. All three isolates were acid tolerant and bile tolerant to pH 3.0 and 4% bile respectively. Preparations of cell-free culture supernatants were processed and tested, and revealed that cell-free culture supernatants of isolates L. paracasei MSMC39-1, L. casei MSMC39-3, and W. confusa MSMC57-1 decreased the production of TNF-α significantly and were heat resistant. Only L. paracasei MSMC39-1 supernatant was proteinase-K sensitive. The effects of viable bacteria, heat-killed bacteria, and sonicated bacteria were compared. The heat-killed preparations of isolate W. confusa MSMC57-1 decreased the production of TNF-α. Sonicated cell preparations did not significantly alter TNF-α production. For isolates L. paracasei MSMC39-1 and L. casei MSMC39-3, this suggests that a substance in the cell-free culture supernatant may be responsible for in vitro cytokine modulation.

  8. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: Levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Adibroto, Tussy A. [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT), JL. MH. Thamrin 8, Jakarta (Indonesia); Hartono, Phillipus [National Seafarming Development Centre (NSDC), JL. Yos Sudarso, Hanura Padang Cermin, Lampung (Indonesia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2006-01-15

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada. - Specific residents were exposed to high levels of DDTs in Indonesia.

  9. Specific accumulation of organochlorines in human breast milk from Indonesia: levels, distribution, accumulation kinetics and infant health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryanto, Agus; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Iwata, Hisato; Adibroto, Tussy A; Hartono, Phillipus; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    This study determined concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine compound (OC) pesticides in the milk samples of women from the general population in four locations of Indonesia. The most prevalent residues of OCs were DDTs, PCBs and hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), whereas other OCs such as chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane and hexachlorobenzene were lower. The levels of OCs varied between locations and individuals, with DDTs higher in suburban and rural areas than urban localities, may be due to the differences in food habits and sources between the individuals and locations. Data from Purwakarta site indicated continuing DDT exposure, which may confirm recent usage of DDT in Indonesia. A positive correlation was observed between concentration of OCs in human milk and age of mothers, primiparas women having higher OCs than multiparas, suggesting these parameters play an important role influencing the OC burdens in lactating women. Some individuals accumulated DDTs and HCHs in breast milk close to or even higher than the TDI (tolerable daily intake) guidelines proposed by Health Canada.

  10. Noise Exclusion Ability in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geroldene Tsui

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An important perceptual ability is to filter out background distractions from relevant information. However, prior research has not identified when this begins in humans. Our study aims to investigate whether noise exclusion ability occurs in infancy. Infants' contrast sensitivity function (CSF was measured by a Baynesian adaptive inference method. Infants' attention was directed to the middle of a monitor where an 8.72 degree static Gabor grating was presented on the left or right side of the monitor. In half the trials, the grating was presented against a gray background; in the other half, against a 16% contrast random-dot noise background. The experimenter and two independent coders judged which side the infants gazed at (force-choice preferential looking paradigm. One-hundred babies aged from 4 to 10 months satisfied the 70% interrater consistency criterion for inclusion. Four parameters defined the best-fitted CSF for each infant. Of these, peak spatial frequency, bandwidth and truncation of CSF were similar in conditions with and without noise. The peak gain estimate was most significantly impaired by external noise, but a marked 31% improvement was observed in 7- to 10-month-olds. This may be the first sign of development of human's noise exclusion ability, and is worth further study.

  11. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  12. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  13. Infant feeding practice in medieval Japan: stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of human skeletons from Yuigahama-minami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutaya, Takumi; Shimomi, Akina; Nagaoka, Tomohito; Sawada, Junmei; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yoneda, Minoru

    2015-02-01

    A longer breastfeeding duration provides various positive effects in subadult health because of abundant immunological factors and nutrients in human breast milk, and decreases the natural fertility of a population through lactational amenorrhea. In this study, we measured stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the bone collagen of three adults and 45 subadults from the Yuigahama-minami site (from 12th to 14th century) in Kamakura, the early medieval capital of Japan. Marine foods, C3 -based terrestrial foods, and freshwater fish are the primarily protein sources for adults. The changes in the nitrogen isotope ratios of subadults suggest that the relative dietary protein contribution from breast milk started to decrease from 1.1 years of age and ended at 3.8 years. The age at the end of weaning in the Yuigahama-minami population was greater than that in the typical non-industrial populations, a premodern population in the Edo period Japan, and medieval populations in the UK. Skeletons of townspeople from medieval Kamakura indicate severe nutritional stress (e.g., enamel hypoplasia and cribra orbitalia), yet this longer duration of breastfeeding did not compensate adverse effects for nutritional deficiency. The longer breastfeeding period may have been a consequence of complementary food shortage and bad health of subadults. Kamakura experienced urbanization and population increase in the early medieval period. The younger age-at-death distribution and high nutritional stresses in the Yuigahama-minami population and later weaning, which is closely associated with longer inter-birth interval for mothers, suggests that Kamakura developed and increased its population by immigration during urbanization.

  14. Antimicrobial Protein and Peptide Concentrations and Activity in Human Breast Milk Consumed by Preterm Infants at Risk of Late-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Hibbert, Julie; Kok, Chooi Heen; Zhang, Guicheng; Doherty, Dorota A.; Richmond, Peter; Burgner, David; Simmer, Karen; Davidson, Donald J.; Currie, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs) in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS), a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. Study design Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (≤32 weeks gestation) was collected on days 7 (n = 88) and 21 (n = 77) postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. Results Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. Conclusions The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens. PMID:25643281

  15. Antimicrobial protein and Peptide concentrations and activity in human breast milk consumed by preterm infants at risk of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Trend

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated the levels and antimicrobial activity of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs in breast milk consumed by preterm infants, and whether deficiencies of these factors were associated with late-onset neonatal sepsis (LOS, a bacterial infection that frequently occurs in preterm infants in the neonatal period. STUDY DESIGN: Breast milk from mothers of preterm infants (≤ 32 weeks gestation was collected on days 7 (n = 88 and 21 (n = 77 postpartum. Concentrations of lactoferrin, LL-37, beta-defensins 1 and 2, and alpha-defensin 5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antimicrobial activity of breast milk samples against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae was compared to the activity of infant formula, alone or supplemented with physiological levels of AMPs. Samples of breast milk fed to infants with and without subsequent LOS were compared for levels of AMPs and inhibition of bacterial growth. RESULTS: Levels of most AMPs and antibacterial activity in preterm breast milk were higher at day 7 than at day 21. Lactoferrin was the only AMP that limited pathogen growth >50% when added to formula at a concentration equivalent to that present in breast milk. Levels of AMPs were similar in the breast milk fed to infants with and without LOS, however, infants who developed LOS consumed significantly less breast milk and lower doses of milk AMPs than those who were free from LOS. CONCLUSIONS: The concentrations of lactoferrin and defensins in preterm breast milk have antimicrobial activity against common neonatal pathogens.

  16. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ning Sun; Jin-Yan Luo; Zhi-Ren Rao; Li Lan; Li Duan

    2005-01-01

    AIM:- To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them.METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS);control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally.After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae Ⅰ-Ⅱ)of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V),posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae Ⅸ). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive)neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae Ⅲ-Ⅳ, V-Ⅵ). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8,29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P<0.05). The density of GFAP in MVZ was significantly higher after 3 d of TNBS administration (34.3±2.5, P<0.05). After 28 d of TNBS administration,the density of GFAP in the spinal cord and MVZ decreased and became comparable to that of the controls (18.0±4.9,14.6±6.4, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons.With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced.

  17. 77 FR 7594 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...: Department of Health and Human Services' programs that focus on reducing infant mortality and improving...

  18. 77 FR 36549 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...: Department of Health and Human Services' programs that focus on reducing infant mortality and improving...

  19. 77 FR 64524 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...: Department of Health and Human Services' programs that focus on reducing infant mortality and improving...

  20. 76 FR 39112 - Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee on Infant Mortality...: Department of Health and Human Services' programs that focus on reducing infant mortality and improving...

  1. Greater mortality and mordidity in extremely preterm infants fed a diet containing cow milk protein products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. EP infants <1,250 g birth weight recei...

  2. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  3. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  4. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding are good. This is due to immature abdominal muscles used for pushing and does not need to ... holding, rocking, or cuddling. The infant's growth or development does not appear normal. Your infant seems to ...

  5. Auditory Responses of Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Betty Springer; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Forty infants, 3- to 12-months-old, participated in a study designed to differentiate the auditory response characteristics of normally developing infants in the age ranges 3 - 5 months, 6 - 8 months, and 9 - 12 months. (Author)

  6. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  7. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas,Yvan; DE GREEF, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  8. Trial of Immune Globulin in Infant Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A 5-year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the orphan drug Human Botulism Immune Globulin Intravenous (BIG-IV in 122 infants in California with confirmed infant botulism (75 caused by type A Clostridium botulinum toxin, and 47 by type B toxin was conducted at the California Department of Health Services, Richmond, CA; National Botulism Surveillance and Reference Laboratory, CDC and P, Atlanta; and Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Berkeley.

  9. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  10. Hip Problems in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hip problems later in life? ResourcesScreening for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by LM French, M.D., and FR Dietz, ... 2014 Categories: Family Health, Infants and ToddlersTags: dislocation, dysplasia, external, femoral, hip, infants, internal, problems, socket, torsion Family Health, Infants ...

  11. [Early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in infants: The prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in Equatorial Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Tato, Luis Manuel; Vargas, Antonio; Álvarez, Patrícia; Avedillo, Pedro; Nzi, Eugenia; Abad, Carlota; Guillén, Sara; Fernández-McPhee, Carolina; Ramos, José Tomás; Holguín, África; Rojo, Pablo; Obiang, Jacinta

    2016-11-01

    Great efforts have been made in the last few years in order to implement the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program in Equatorial Guinea (GQ). The aim of this study was to evaluate the rates of mother-to-child HIV transmission based on an HIV early infant diagnosis (EID) program. A prospective observational study was performed in the Regional Hospital of Bata and Primary Health Care Centre Maria Rafols, Bata, GQ. Epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological characteristics of HIV-1-infected mothers and their exposed infants were recorded. Dried blood spots (DBS) for HIV-1 EID were collected from November 2012 to December 2013. HIV-1 genome was detected using Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 kPCR assay. Sixty nine pairs of women and infants were included. Sixty women (88.2%) had WHO clinical stage 1. Forty seven women (69.2%) were on antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy. Forty five infants (66.1%) received postnatal antiretroviral prophylaxis. Age at first DBS analysis was 2.4 months (IQR 1.2-4.9). One infant died before a HIV-1 diagnosis could be ruled out. Two infants were HIV-1 infected and started HAART before any symptoms were observed. The rate of HIV-1 transmission observed was 2.9% (95%CI 0.2-10.5). The PMTCT rate was evaluated for the first time in GQ based on EID. EID is the key for early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and to reduce the mortality associated with HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of rostral ventromedial medulla neurons by noxious stimulation of cutaneous and deep craniofacial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasabov, Sergey G; Malecha, Patrick; Noack, Joseph; Tabakov, Janneta; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Bereiter, David A; Simone, Donald A

    2015-01-01

    The rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) projects to the medullary and spinal dorsal horns and is a major source of descending modulation of nociceptive transmission. Traditionally, neurons in the RVM are classified functionally as on, off, and neutral cells on the basis of responses to noxious cutaneous stimulation of the tail or hind paw. On cells facilitate nociceptive transmission, off cells are inhibitory, whereas neutral cells are unresponsive to noxious stimuli and their role in pain modulation is unclear. Classification of RVM neurons with respect to stimulation of craniofacial tissues is not well defined. In isoflurane-anesthetized male rats, RVM neurons first were classified as on (25.5%), off (25.5%), or neutral (49%) cells by noxious pinch applied to the hind paw. Pinching the skin overlying the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) altered the proportions of on (39.2%), off (42.2%), and neutral (19.6%) cells. To assess the response of RVM cells to specialized craniofacial inputs, adenosine triphosphate (ATP; 0.01-1 mM) was injected into the TMJ and capsaicin (0.1%) was applied to the ocular surface. TMJ and ocular surface stimulation also resulted in a reduced proportion of neutral cells compared with hind paw pinch. Dose-effect analyses revealed that on and off cells encoded the intra-TMJ concentration of ATP. These results suggest that somatotopy plays a significant role in the functional classification of RVM cells and support the notion that neutral cells likely are subgroups of on and off cells. It is suggested that a portion of RVM neurons serve different functions in modulating craniofacial and spinal pain conditions.

  13. Bradykinin and histamine-induced cytosolic calcium increase in capillary endothelial cells of bovine adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, Raúl; Cortés, Magdalena P; Alvarez, Rocío; Delpiano, Marco A

    2014-09-01

    We have assessed the effect of bradykinin and histamine on the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i ) of bovine adrenal medulla capillary endothelial cells (BAMCECs). To measure [Ca(2+)]i changes in BAMCECs the intracellular fluorescent probe, fluo-3 AM, was used. Bradykinin (3 µM) produced a transient monophasic increase in [Ca(2+)]i , which was depressed by B1650 (0.1 µM), a B2-bradykinin receptor antagonist (D-Arg-[Hyp(3), Thi(5,8) , D-Phe(7)]-Bradykinin). Similarly, increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by histamine was also depressed by tripolidine (0.1 µM), an H1-histamine receptor antagonist. [Ca(2+)]i increase induced by both agonists was unaffected in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or presence of antagonists of voltage operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs). Thapsigargin (1 µM) did not abolish the increase of [Ca(2+)]i produced by bradykinin, but abolished that of histamine. In contrast, caffeine (100 µM), abolished the [Ca(2+)]i response induced by bradykinin (3 µM), but did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i increase induced by histamine (100 µM). The results indicate the presence of B2 bradykinin- and H1 histamine-receptors in BAMCECs. Liberation of Ca(2+) induced by both agonists occurs through 2 different intracellular mechanisms. While bradykinin activates a sarco(endo) plasmic reticulum (SER) containing a SER Ca(2+) -ATPase (SERCA) thapsigargin-insensitive, histamine activates a SER containing a SERCA thapsigargin-sensitive. We suggest that the increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by bradykinin and histamine could be of physiological relevance, modulating adrenal gland microcirculation.

  14. AT1 receptor in rostral ventrolateral medulla mediating blunted baroreceptor reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-ya GAO; Feng ZHANG; Ying HAN; Han-jun WANG; Ying ZHANG; Rui GUO; Guo-qing ZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of AT1 receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in mediating the blunted baroreceptor reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Intravenous injections of graded doses of phenylephrine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/kg) increased the blood pressure to elicit the baroreceptor reflex in both SHR and normotensive Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane. The baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) was determined before and after microinjection of Ang Ⅱ, losartan, or AT1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the RVLM. AT1 receptor protein level in the RVLM was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The BRS was significantly decreased in SHR compared with normal rats. Bilateral microinjection of AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (250 nmol/h) into the RVLM partly reversed the blunted BRS in SHR, but had no significant effect on the BRS in normal rats. Ang Ⅱ (1.5 nmol/h) significantly inhibited the BRS in normal rats, which was completely abolished by pretreatment with losartan. However, no significant change in the BRS was observed after microinjection of Ang Ⅱ into the RVLM in SHR. Bilateral microinjection of AT1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides(ASODN) into the RVLM partially recovered the blunted BRS in SHR after 3 h, but no significant change in the BRS was observed in normal rats. The AT1 receptor protein level significantly decreased after administration of ASODN.CONCLUSION: Blockage of AT1 receptor or inhibition of AT1 receptor protein synthesis in the RVLM enhanced the BRS in SHR, suggesting that the enhanced activities of AT1 receptor in the RVLM contribute to the blunted BRS in SHR.

  15. Medulla oblongata transcriptome changes during presymptomatic natural scrapie and their association with prion-related lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filali Hicham

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathogenesis of natural scrapie and other prion diseases is still poorly understood. Determining the variations in the transcriptome in the early phases of the disease might clarify some of the molecular mechanisms of the prion-induced pathology and allow for the development of new biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy. This study is the first to focus on the identification of genes regulated during the preclinical phases of natural scrapie in the ovine medulla oblongata (MO and the association of these genes with prion deposition, astrocytosis and spongiosis. Results A custom microarray platform revealed that 86 significant probes had expression changes greater than 2-fold. From these probes, we identified 32 genes with known function; the highest number of regulated genes was included in the phosphoprotein-encoding group. Genes encoding extracellular marker proteins and those involved in the immune response and apoptosis were also differentially expressed. In addition, we investigated the relationship between the gene expression profiles and the appearance of the main scrapie-associated brain lesions. Quantitative Real-time PCR was used to validate the expression of some of the regulated genes, thus showing the reliability of the microarray hybridization technology. Conclusions Genes involved in protein and metal binding and oxidoreductase activity were associated with prion deposition. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP was associated with changes in the expression of genes encoding proteins with oxidoreductase and phosphatase activity, and the expression of spongiosis was related to genes encoding extracellular matrix components or transmembrane transporters. This is the first genome-wide expression study performed in naturally infected sheep with preclinical scrapie. As in previous studies, our findings confirm the close relationship between scrapie and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Medulla Oblongata Mechanism of Inhibitory Effect of Thermal Stimulation to Nociceptive Colorectal Distention in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Li; Pei-Jing Rong; Xin-Yan Gao; Hui Ben; Hong Cai; Bing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To discuss mechanism of moxibustion (thermal stimulation) effect and best moxibustion stimulus parameter. Methods: Experiments were performed on 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Unit discharges from individual single neuron were recorded extracellularly with glass-microelectrode in Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis (SRD). Visceral-intrusive stimulation is done by colorectal distension. Thermal stimulation with different temperature (40°C, 42°C, 44°C, 46°C, 48°C, 50°C, 52°C) and different stimulus area (diameter of circle:1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, 3.0 cm, 3.5 cm, 4.0cm) was applied around RN12 during nociceptive colorectal distension. Results: SRD neurons could be activated by visceral stimulation within noxious range. Under low temperature of stimulus, especially under 45°C of pain threshold to ordinary people, visceral nociceptive afferent facilitated thermal stimulus from the body surface. While after thermal stimulation reached a harmful degree, the thermal stimulus will inhibit visceral nociceptive afferent. Moreover, statistics show that the higher the temperature is, the smaller the size of stimulation area is needed, and they correlate with each other negatively. Conclusion: Visceral nociception could be inhibited by somatic thermal stimulation with specific parameter at medulla level. According to our finding, best thermal stimulation temperature is around 48°C and the best size of stimulation area is around 3.14-7.07cm2 (with 2.0-3.0cm diameter).

  17. Trigeminal-Rostral Ventromedial Medulla circuitry is involved in orofacial hyperalgesia contralateral to tissue injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Bryan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies have shown that complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced masseter inflammation and microinjection of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β into the subnucleus interpolaris/subnucleus caudalis transition zone of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Vi/Vc can induce contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia in rat models. We have also shown that contralateral hyperalgesia is attenuated with a lesion of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM, a critical site of descending pain modulation. Here we investigated the involvement of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry in mediating contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia after an injection of CFA into the masseter muscle. Results Microinjection of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (5 nmol, n=6 into the ipsilateral Vi/Vc attenuated the CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia but not the ipsilateral hyperalgesia. Intra-RVM post-treatment injection of the NK1 receptor antagonists, RP67580 (0.5-11.4 nmol and L-733,060 (0.5-11.4 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced bilateral hyperalgesia and IL-1β induced bilateral hyperalgesia. Serotonin depletion in RVM neurons prior to intra-masseter CFA injection prevented the development of contralateral hyperalgesia 1–3 days after CFA injection. Inhibition of 5-HT3 receptors in the contralateral Vi/Vc with direct microinjection of the select 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, Y-25130 (2.6-12.9 nmol, attenuated CFA-induced contralateral hyperalgesia. Lesions to the ipsilateral Vc prevented the development of ipsilateral hyperalgesia but did not prevent the development of contralateral hyperalgesia. Conclusions These results suggest that the development of CFA-induced contralateral orofacial hyperalgesia is mediated through descending facilitatory mechanisms of the RVM-Vi/Vc circuitry.

  18. Localization and production of peptide endocannabinoids in the rodent CNS and adrenal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Stefanie C; Ralvenius, William T; Gachet, M Salomé; Fritschy, Jean-Marc; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Gertsch, Jürg

    2015-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and their endogenous arachidonic acid-derived agonists 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide, which play important neuromodulatory roles. Recently, a novel class of negative allosteric CB1 receptor peptide ligands, hemopressin-like peptides derived from alpha hemoglobin, has been described, with yet unknown origin and function in the CNS. Using monoclonal antibodies we now identified the localization of RVD-hemopressin (pepcan-12) and N-terminally extended peptide endocannabinoids (pepcans) in the CNS and determined their neuronal origin. Immunohistochemical analyses in rodents revealed distinctive and specific staining in major groups of noradrenergic neurons, including the locus coeruleus (LC), A1, A5 and A7 neurons, which appear to be major sites of production/release in the CNS. No staining was detected in dopaminergic neurons. Peptidergic axons were seen throughout the brain (notably hippocampus and cerebral cortex) and spinal cord, indicative of anterograde axonal transport of pepcans. Intriguingly, the chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla were also strongly stained for pepcans. We found specific co-expression of pepcans with galanin, both in the LC and adrenal gland. Using LC-MS/MS, pepcan-12 was only detected in non-perfused brain (∼ 40 pmol/g), suggesting that in the CNS it is secreted and present in extracellular compartments. In adrenal glands, significantly more pepcan-12 (400-700 pmol/g) was measured in both non-perfused and perfused tissues. Thus, chromaffin cells may be a major production site of pepcan-12 found in blood. These data uncover important areas of peptide endocannabinoid occurrence with exclusive noradrenergic immunohistochemical staining, opening new doors to investigate their potential physiological function in the ECS. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Fluorescent Tools in Neuropharmacology'.

  19. AT1 receptor in rostral ventrolateral medulla mediating blunted baroreceptor reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-yaGAO; FengZHANG; YingHAN; Han-junWANG; YingZHANG; RuiGUO; Guo-qingZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of AT1 receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in mediating the blunted baroreceptor reflex in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). METHODS: Intravenous injections of graded doses of phenylephrine (1, 5, 10, 20, and 40μg/kg) increased the blood pressure to elicit the baroreceptor reflex in both SHR and normotensive Wistar rats anesthetized with urethane. The baroreceptor reflex sensitivity (BRS) was determined before and after microinjection of Ang II, losartan, or AT1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides into the RVLM. AT1 receptor protein level in the RVLM was measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The BRS was significantly decreased in SHR compared with normal rats. Bilateral microinjection of AT~ receptor antagonist losartan (250 nmol/h) into the RVLM partly reversed the blunted BRS in SHR, but had no significant effect on the BRS in normal rats. Ang II (1.5 nmol/h) significantly inhibited the BRS in normal rats, which was completely abolished by pretreatment with losartan. However, no significant change in the BRS was observed after microinjection of Ang Ⅱ into the RVLM in SHR. Bilateral microinjection of AT1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN) into the RVLM partially recovered the blunted BRS in SHR after 3 h, but no significant change in the BRS was observed in normal rats. The AT1 receptor protein level significantly decreased after administration of ASODN. CONCLUSION: Blockage of AT1 receptor or inhibition of AT1 receptor protein synthesis in the RVLM enhanced the BRS in SHR, suggesting that the enhanced activities of AT1 receptor in the RVLM contribute to the blunted BRS in SHR.

  20. Context-dependent social evaluation in 4.5-month-old human infants: The role of domain-general versus domain-specific processes in the development of social evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kiley eHamlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish friends from foes allows humans to engage in mutually beneficial cooperative acts while avoiding the costs associated with cooperating with the wrong individuals. One way to do so effectively is to observe how unknown individuals behave toward third parties, and to selectively cooperate with those who help others while avoiding those who harm others. Recent research suggests that a preference for prosocial over antisocial individuals emerges by the time that infants are 3 months of age, and by 8 months, but not before, infants evaluate others’ actions in context: they prefer those who harm, rather than help, individuals who have previously harmed others. Currently there are at least two reasons for younger infants’ failure to show context-dependent social evaluations. First, this failure may reflect fundamental change in infants’ social evaluation system over the first year of life, in which infants first prefer helpers in any situation and only later evaluate prosocial and antisocial actors in context. On the other hand, it is possible that this developmental change actually reflects domain-general limitations of younger infants, such as limited memory and processing capacities. To distinguish between these possibilities, 4.5-month-olds in the current studies were habituated, rather than familiarized as in previous work, to one individual helping and another harming a third party, greatly increasing infants’ exposure to the characters’ actions. Following habituation, 4.5-month-olds displayed context-dependent social preferences, selectively reaching for helpers of prosocial and hinderers of antisocial others. Such results suggest that younger infants’ failure to display global social evaluation in previous work reflected domain-general rather than domain-specific limitations.

  1. Two cases of type A infant botulism in Grenoble, France: no honey for infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Gautier; Pelloux, Isabelle; Gayot, Armelle; Wroblewski, Isabelle; Popoff, Michel-Robert; Mazuet, Christelle; Maurin, Max; Croizé, Jacques

    2012-03-01

    We report two severe cases of infant botulism diagnosed at Grenoble University Hospital, France, respectively in 2006 and 2009. Both cases were characterized by a delay in diagnosis, severe neurological manifestations and extended period of hospitalization in intensive care unit, but a complete recovery. Infant botulism is a rare but life-threatening disease. It primarily affects infants, and the main risk factor is honey ingestion. Diagnosis should be systematically evoked by pediatricians in infants suffering from constipation, fatigue, muscle weakness, difficult feeding and altered cry, but before the onset of generalized flaccid paralysis, so as to administer specific treatment (BabyBIG®, a human derived botulinum antitoxin) at an early stage of the disease when it is most effective. In conclusion, parents should be aware of the role of honey as a source of spores of Clostridium botulinum and therefore infant botulism in the first year of life.

  2. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the o

  3. Newborn infants detect the beat in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, I.; Háden, G.P.; Ladinig, O.; Sziller, I.; Honing, H.

    2009-01-01

    To shed light on how humans can learn to understand music, we need to discover what the perceptual capabilities with which infants are born. Beat induction, the detection of a regular pulse in an auditory signal, is considered a fundamental human trait that, arguably, played a decisive role in the

  4. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  5. Advances in nutrition of the newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane E; Cormack, Barbara E; Alexander, Tanith; Alsweiler, Jane M; Bloomfield, Frank H

    2017-04-22

    Nutrition of newborn infants, particularly of those born preterm, has advanced substantially in recent years. Extremely preterm infants have high nutrient demands that are challenging to meet, such that growth faltering is common. Inadequate growth is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, and although improved early growth is associated with better cognitive outcomes, there might be a trade-off in terms of worse metabolic outcomes, although the contribution of early nutrition to these associations is not established. New developments include recommendations to increase protein supply, improve formulations of parenteral lipids, and provide mineral supplements while encouraging human milk feeding. However, high quality evidence of the risks and benefits of these developments is lacking. Clinical trials are also needed to assess the effect on preterm infants of experiencing the smell and taste of milk, to determine whether boys and girls should be fed differently, and to test effects of insulin and IGF-1 supplements on growth and developmental outcomes. Moderate-to-late preterm infants have neonatal nutritional challenges that are similar to those infants born at earlier gestations, but even less high quality evidence exists upon which to base clinical decisions. The focus of research in nutrition of infants born at term is largely directed at new formula products that will improve cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Providing the most effective nutrition to preterm infants should be prioritised as an important focus of neonatal care research to improve long-term metabolic and developmental outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of the Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A; McMillion, Takesha; Nelson, Julie A E; Miller, William C

    2013-12-01

    The qualitative Roche HIV-1 DNA Amplicor assay has been used for the past 20 years to diagnose HIV infection in infants and young children but is being phased out; hence, alternative assays must be found. The Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is currently the only FDA-cleared HIV-1 nucleic acid assay approved for diagnosis, but data on the use of this assay with infant plasma are limited. We assessed Aptima's performance using control material for reproducibility and limit of detection and 394 plasma samples (0.2 to 0.5 ml) from HIV-exposed infected and uninfected infants and children for analytical sensitivity and specificity. Assays to assess within-run repeatability and between-run reproducibility indicated that the controls with 10,000 (5 of 5), 200 (5 of 5), 100 (16 of 16), 50 (12 of 12), and 25 (20 of 20) HIV-1 RNA copies/ml (cp/ml) were always positive, and negatives were always negative (20 of 20). The limit of detection was 14 cp/ml, as determined by probit analysis. The analytic sensitivity of the assay was 99.5% (189/190 samples; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.9%) and specificity was 99.5% (199/200 samples; 95% CI, 97.2 to 99.9%). These results suggest that the assay is suitable for early infant diagnosis of HIV-1.

  7. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  8. Diaper Dermatitis in Infants Admitted to Social Pediatrics Health Center: Role of Socio-demographic Factors and Infant Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, Semra; Kivanc-Altunay, Ilknur; Sarikaya, Sezgi

    2015-10-01

    To determine infant diaper dermatitis (DD) at pediatrics health center; its relation to socio-demographic factors and infant care. The study included 113 infants aged 0-24 mo. Data on infants' age, sex, weight, mothers' education, nutrition, diaper change frequency, cleaning methods and prophylactic cream use were recorded. Infants with minimum one time rash, were accepted to have DD. Seventy six (67.3 %) infants had DD [32 girls (42.1 %), 44 boys (57 %), mean age: 6.5 mo]. Infants with DD had significantly higher age than those without (p 0.001). DD frequency in infants ≥4.5 mo-old was 5.8(2.4-13.7) times more than in infants ≤4.5 mo. Cleaning material types did not affect DD frequency. No significant difference was observed in DD with diaper change of ≤3 times and ≥4 times. Significant difference in DD increase was observed with supplementary food intake vs. without it (p 0.000). DD frequency in infants with supplementary food intake was 6.4 times (2.4-17.1) more than in those without it. Human milk intake was statistically significant in causing less occurrence of DD as shown in univariate model (p food intake and lack of cream use seem to be accountable for DD whereas human milk intake lessened the occurrence of DD. Mothers should be informed on dermatitis care and encouraged for breastfeeding.

  9. NTP-CERHR monograph on Soy Infant Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Soy infant formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contains estrogenic isoflavones ("phytoestrogens") that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not generally considered hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy infant formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements. Soy infant formula was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of the: (1)availability of large number of developmental toxicity studies in laboratory animals exposed to the isoflavones found in soy infant formula (namely, genistein) or other soy products, as well as a number of studies on human infants fed soy infant formula, (2)the availability of information on exposures in infants fed soy infant formula, and (3)public concern for effects on infant or child development. The NTP evaluation was conducted through its Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) and completed in September 2010. The results of this soy infant formula evaluation are published in an NTP Monograph. This document contains the NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which presents NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP Monograph also contains an expert panel report prepared to assist the NTP in reaching conclusions on soy infant formula. The NTP concluded there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). This

  10. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla contribute to neurogenic hypertension induced by systemic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Kay LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation in the brain, which enhances sympathetic drive, plays a significant role in cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Oxidative stress in rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM that augments sympathetic outflow to blood vessels is involved in neural mechanism of hypertension. We investigated whether neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in RVLM contribute to hypertension following chronic systemic inflammation. Methods In normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, systemic inflammation was induced by infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the peritoneal cavity via an osmotic minipump. Systemic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured under conscious conditions by the non-invasive tail-cuff method. The level of the inflammatory markers in plasma or RVLM was analyzed by ELISA. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot or immunohistochemistry. Tissue level of superoxide anion (O2·- in RVLM was determined using the oxidation-sensitive fluorescent probe dihydroethidium. Pharmacological agents were delivered either via infusion into the cisterna magna with an osmotic minipump or microinjection bilaterally into RVLM. Results Intraperitoneal infusion of LPS (1.2 mg/kg/day for 14 days promoted sustained hypertension and induced a significant increase in plasma level of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, or interleukin-1β (IL-1β. This LPS-induced systemic inflammation was accompanied by activation of microglia, augmentation of IL-1β, IL-6, or TNF-α protein expression, and O2·- production in RVLM, all of which were blunted by intracisternal infusion of a cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor, NS398; an inhibitor of microglial activation, minocycline; or a cytokine synthesis inhibitor, pentoxifylline. Neuroinflammation in RVLM was also associated with a COX-2-dependent downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an

  11. Opposite effects of actively and passively acquired immunity to the carrier on responses of human infants to a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barington, T; Gyhrs, A; Kristensen, Kim

    1994-01-01

    Vaccination of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) capsular polysaccharide (HibCP) coupled to carrier proteins has proven protective against invasive Hib diseases in several trials. However, insufficient immunogenicity has been noted in certain populations. Therefore, studies analyzing...... factors influencing the antibody response to conjugate vaccines are needed. In this study, the response to HibCP coupled to tetanus toxoid (TT) was examined in relation to (i) priming with or coadministration of the carrier protein and (ii) the levels of passively acquired maternal TT antibodies. One...... hundred forty-four infants were vaccinated with HibCP-TT at 5 and 6 months. They were randomized into three groups that received TT as part of a diphtheria-tetanus-polio vaccine at either 6 and 7 months (group A), 5 and 6 months (group B), or 4 and 5 months (group C). Maternally acquired TT antibodies...

  12. Acquired methemoglobinemia in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Mutlu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the etiologic factors of acquired methemoglobinemia in infants younger than three months in our region. Material and Methods: This study was carried out retrospectively in infants with methemoglobinemia admitted to Karadeniz Technical University, Pediatric Clinic, during the period 2000-2009. Infants with methemoglobinemia were identified according to the medical records or ICD-10 code. Results: Nine infants with acquired methemoglobinemia (8 male, 1 female were included in the study. Seven cases were associated with the use of prilocaine for circumcision, one case with the use of prilocaine-lidocaine for local pain therapy, and one case with neonatal sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus.Conclusion: Prilocaine should not be used in infants less than three months of age because of the risk of methemoglobinemia. Ascorbic acid is an effective therapy if methylene blue is not obtained. It should not be forgotten that sepsis caused by S. aureus may cause methemoglobinemia in infants.

  13. Crawling-Onset Age Predicts Visual Cliff Avoidance in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John E.; Rader, Nancy

    1981-01-01

    Two experiments tested the effects of crawling-onset age, amount of crawling experience, and testing age on avoidance of the deep side of a visual cliff apparatus by human infants. Crawling-onset age disciminated between infants because crawling during the tactile phase interferes with later visual control of locomotion. (Author/RD)

  14. Newborn Infants and the Moral Significance of Intellectual Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmas, Simo

    1999-01-01

    Presents moral philosophical arguments regarding life-saving medical treatment that may be more available to infants without disabilities than to infants with intellectual disabilities. Argues that human well-being is not based merely on individual characteristics, but is a result of the individual's relation to other people. (Author/CR)

  15. Parent-Infant Communication and the Neurobiology of Emotional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schore, Allan N.

    The interactive creation of an attachment bond of affective communication between the psychobiologically attuned primary caregiver and the infant is central to human emotional development. These emotional transactions directly influence the experience-dependent maturation of the infant's early developing right hemisphere, which is in a growth…

  16. Alteration of microRNA expressions in the pons and medulla in rats after 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Keiko; Kushida, Masahiko; Miyata, Kaori; Sumida, Kayo; Takeda, Shuji; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2016-10-01

    Although 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) is widely used as a neurotoxicant to cause axonopathy due to accumulation of neurofilaments in several rodent models, its mechanism of neurotoxicity has not been fully understood. In particular, no information regarding microRNA (miRNA) alteration associated with IDPN is available. This study was conducted to reveal miRNA alteration related to IDPN-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were administered IDPN (20, 50, or 125 mg/kg/day) orally for 3, 7, and 14 days. Histopathological features were investigated using immunohistochemistry for neurofilaments and glial cells, and miRNA alterations were analyzed by microarray and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Nervous symptoms such as ataxic gait and head bobbing were observed from Day 9 at 125 mg/kg. Axonal swelling due to accumulation of neurofilaments was observed especially in the pons, medulla, and spinal cord on Day 7 at 125 mg/kg and on Day 14 at 50 and 125 mg/kg. Furthermore, significant upregulation of miR-547* was observed in the pons and medulla in treated animals only on Day 14 at 125 mg/kg. This is the first report indicating that miR-547* is associated with IDPN-induced neurotoxicity, especially in an advanced stage of axonopathy.

  17. CHBPR Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Detection of Neurotransmitters in Dorsomedial Medulla Correlate with Spontaneous Baroreceptor Reflex Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Espinosa, Maria A.; Shaltout, Hossam A.; Olson, John; Westwood, Brian M.; Robbins, Mike E.; Link, Kerry; Diz, Debra I.

    2010-01-01

    Control of heart rate variability (HRV) via modulation of sympathovagal balance is a key function of nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus localized in the dorsomedial medulla oblongata. Normal blood pressure regulation involves precise balance of glutamate-glutamine-GABA (Glu-Gln-GABA) transmitter systems, and angiotensin (Ang) II modulates these transmitters to produce tonic suppression of reflex function. It is not known, however, whether other brain transmitters/metabolites are indicators of baroreflex function. This study establishes the concept that comprehensive baseline transmitter/metabolite profiles obtained using in vivo 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H MRS) in rats with well characterized differences in resting blood pressure and baroreflex function can be used as indices of autonomic balance or baroreflex sensitivity. Glu concentration in dorsal medulla is significantly higher in ASrAogen rats compared to either SD and (mRen2)27. Glu levels and the ratio of Glu/Gln correlated positively with indices of higher vagal tone consistent with the importance of these neurotransmitters in baroreflex function. Interestingly, the levels of choline containing metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and a negative correlation with sympathetic tone. Thus, we demonstrate the concept that non-invasive assessment of neurochemical biomarkers may be used as an index of baroreflex sensitivity. PMID:20065146

  18. The importance of the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavřínová, A; Behuliak, M; Zicha, J

    2016-07-18

    Catecholaminergic system plays an important role in hypertension development. The available results on mRNA expression of catecholaminergic system genes in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are often contradictory. One of the possible causes might be the use of various reference genes as internal controls. In the present study, we searched for suitable reference genes in adrenal medulla or sympathetic ganglia of SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, which would enable reliable comparison of mRNA expression between these two strains. The mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR in adrenal medulla and superior cervical ganglia of 4-week-old or 24-week-old SHR and WKY rats. We evaluated 12 reference genes by three software tools (Normfinder, BestKeeper, geNorm) and compared them for the standardization of mRNA expression. Combination of reference genes Hprt1 and Ywhaz in adrenal medulla and Gapdh and 18S in sympathetic ganglia were chosen as the best ones. 18S was found as applicable reference gene in both tissues. We found many alterations in expression of catecholaminergic system genes in adrenal medulla and sympathetic ganglia of SHR. The usage of the most or the least stable reference gene as internal control changed results moderately in sympathetic ganglia but seriously in adrenal medulla. For example, tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) gene was underexpressed in adrenal medulla of adult SHR using the appropriate reference gene but unchanged after the standardization to the least stable reference gene. Our results indicate the importance of appropriate internal control. The suitability of reference genes should be checked again in the case of change in experimental conditions.

  19. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  20. Prebiotics in infant formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  1. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  2. Crawling is Associated with More Flexible Memory Retrieval by 9-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Jane; Gross, Julien; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used a deferred imitation paradigm to explore the effect of crawling on memory retrieval by 9-month-old human infants. Infants observed an experimenter demonstrate a single target action with a novel object and their ability to reproduce that action was assessed after a 24-hr delay. Some infants were tested with the…

  3. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drysdale, Simon B.; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M.; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L.; Greenough, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants bo

  4. Brain Basis of Early Parent-Infant Interactions: Psychology, Physiology, and "in vivo" Functional Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, James E.; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P.; Kose, Samet; Strathearn, Lane

    2007-01-01

    Parenting behavior critically shapes human infants' current and future behavior. The parent-infant relationship provides infants with their first social experiences, forming templates of what they can expect from others and how to best meet others' expectations. In this review, we focus on the neurobiology of parenting behavior, including our own…

  5. Role of the medulla oblongata in normal and high arterial blood pressure regulation: the contribution of Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravo, Sergio L; Campos, Ruy R; Colombari, Eduardo; Sato, Mônica A; Bergamaschi, Cássia M; Pedrino, Gustavo R; Ferreira-Neto, Marcos L; Lopes, Oswaldo U

    2009-09-01

    Several forms of experimental evidence gathered in the last 37 years have unequivocally established that the medulla oblongata harbors the main neural circuits responsible for generating the vasomotor tone and regulating arterial blood pressure. Our current understanding of this circuitry derives mainly from the studies of Pedro Guertzenstein, a former student who became Professor of Physiology at UNIFESP later, and his colleagues. In this review, we have summarized the main findings as well as our collaboration to a further understanding of the ventrolateral medulla and the control of arterial blood pressure under normal and pathological conditions.

  6. Hemorrhagic Onset of Hemangioblastoma Located in the Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Presenting with Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy and Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Gekka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a case of dorsal medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma with fourth ventricular hemorrhage. A 23-year-old female developed sudden consciousness disturbance, and CT revealed hemorrhage in all cerebral ventricles and a hyperdense mass in the cisterna magna. Although the reddish tumor located in the dorsal medulla oblongata was successfully removed, she suffered from severe tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE because of baroreflex failure and damage to the solitary tract nuclei. After intensive care for 12 weeks following surgery, she was discharged without any neurological or radiological deficits. Pathogenesis of TTC/NPE is discussed in this paper.

  7. The adrenals of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana: A few observations. 2. The zona reticularis, medullary capsule, F - zone and medulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. W. Strassberger

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the zona reticularis, medullary capsule, F-zone and medulla of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana is described. Three types of cells, arranged as described in other mammals, are found in the zona reticularis. Organelles in this zone are as descibed for other cells that secrete steroids. The ultrastructure of the cells in the F-zone is very similar to that of cells that secrete steroids. Two types of cells, roughly similar to those of other mammals, are found in the medulla.

  8. Glucocorticoid impairs growth of kidney outer medulla and accelerates loop of Henle differentiation and urinary concentrating capacity in rat kidney development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Madsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Finn Thomsen

    2006-01-01

    administration of DEXA (P1-P11) reduced selectively the area and thickness of the outer medulla and the number of PCNA-positive cells. DEXA (P8-12) increased urinary and papillary osmolality in normohydrated and water-deprived pups and led to osmotic equilibrium between interstitium and urine, whereas apoptotic...... and GADD153-positive cells increased in the inner medulla. TAL-associated NaCl transporters Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, Na-K-ATPase-alpha(1), Na/H exchanger type 3, and ROMK increased significantly at weaning and in response to DEXA. We conclude that a low level of circulating glucocorticoid is permissive...

  9. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  10. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  11. Stress reactivity in 15-month-old infants: links with infant temperament, cognitive competence, and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bakel, Hedwig J A; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne

    2004-04-01

    In a sample of eighty-five 15-month-old infants, salivary cortisol was obtained prior to and following a potentially stressful episode in which the child was confronted with a stranger and with a frightening robot. Infant characteristics such as anger proneness, cognitive competence, and attachment security were expected to be related to cortisol reactivity during the stressful event. The results showed higher cortisol reactivity in more anger-prone infants and in infants with higher levels of cognitive development as assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (N. Bayley, 1969). Attachment security, assessed with the Attachment Q-Set (AQS; E. Waters, 1995), was found to moderate the relation between cognitive level and cortisol reactivity; the positive relation between cognitive development and cortisol response was found in only infants with low AQS security scores. The findings may have important implications for research in the development of self-regulation in humans as well as in studies with animals.

  12. Mother-infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James J; Ball, Helen L; Gettler, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an evolutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge clinical wisdom regarding "normal" infant sleep, and over the past two decades the perspective of evolutionary pediatrics has challenged the supremacy of pediatric sleep medicine in defining what are appropriate sleep environments and behaviors for healthy human infants. In this review, we employ a biocultural approach that integrates diverse lines of evidence in order to illustrate the limitations of pediatric sleep medicine in adopting a view of infants that prioritizes recent western social values over the human infant's biological heritage. We review what is known regarding infant sleeping arrangements among nonhuman primates and briefly explore the possible paleoecological context within which early human sleep patterns and parent-infant sleeping arrangements might have evolved. The first challenges made by anthropologists to the pediatric and SIDS research communities are traced, and two decades of studies into the behavior and physiology of mothers and infants sleeping together are presented up to the present. Laboratory, hospital and home studies are used to assess the biological functions of shared mother-infant sleep, especially with regard to breastfeeding promotion and SIDS reduction. Finally, we encourage other anthropologists to participate in pediatric sleep research using the unique skills and insights anthropological data provide. By employing comparative, evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives an anthropological approach stimulates new research insights that influence the traditional medical paradigm and help to make it more inclusive

  13. Baby care products: possible sources of infant phthalate exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Karr, Catherine J; Lozano, Paula; Brown, Elizabeth; Calafat, Antonia M; Liu, Fan; Swan, Shanna H

    2008-02-01

    Phthalates are man-made chemicals found in personal care and other products. Recent studies suggest that some phthalates can alter human male reproductive development, but sources of infant exposure have not been well characterized. We investigated the relationship between phthalate metabolite concentrations in infant urine and maternal reported use of dermally applied infant care products. We measured 9 phthalate metabolites in 163 infants who were born in 2000-2005. An infant was considered to have been exposed to any infant care product that the mother reported using on her infant within 24 hours of urine collection. Results of multiple linear regression analyses are reported as the ratio of metabolite concentrations (with 95% confidence intervals) in exposed and unexposed infants. We standardized concentrations by forming z scores and examined combined exposure to multiple metabolites. In most (81%) infants, > or = 7 phthalate metabolites were above the limit of detection. Exposure to lotion was predictive of monoethyl phthalate and monomethyl phthalate concentrations, powder of monoisobutyl phthalate, and shampoo of monomethyl phthalate. Z scores increased with number of products used. Most associations were stronger in younger infants. Phthalate exposure is widespread and variable in infants. Infant exposure to lotion, powder, and shampoo were significantly associated with increased urinary concentrations of monoethyl phthalate, monomethyl phthalate, and monoisobutyl phthalate, and associations increased with the number of products used. This association was strongest in young infants, who may be more vulnerable to developmental and reproductive toxicity of phthalates given their immature metabolic system capability and increased dosage per unit body surface area.

  14. Crawling with Virus: Translational Insights from a Neonatal Mouse Model on the Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dahui; Saravia, Jordy; Siefker, David; Shrestha, Bishwas; Cormier, Stephania A

    2015-10-07

    The infant immune response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) remains incompletely understood. Here we review the use of a neonatal mouse model of RSV infection to mimic severe infection in human infants. We describe numerous age-specific responses, organized by cell type, observed in RSV-infected neonatal mice and draw comparisons (when possible) to human infants.

  15. Infant food applications of complex carbohydrates: Structure, synthesis, and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Dorothy L; Craft, Kelly M; Townsend, Steven D

    2017-01-02

    Professional health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) recommend breast milk as the sole source of food during the first year of life. This position recognizes human milk as being uniquely suited for infant nutrition. Nonetheless, most neonates in the West are fed alternatives by 6 months of age. Although inferior to human milk in most aspects, infant formulas are able to promote effective growth and development. However, while breast-fed infants feature a microbiota dominated by bifidobacteria, the bacterial flora of formula-fed infants is usually heterogeneous with comparatively lower levels of bifidobacteria. Thus, the objective of any infant food manufacturer is to prepare a product that results in a formula-fed infant developing a breast-fed infant-like microbiota. The goal of this focused review is to discuss the structure, synthesis, and function of carbohydrate additives that play a role in governing the composition of the infant microbiome and have other health benefits.

  16. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  17. Ultrasound: Infant Hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Ultrasound: Infant Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > Ultrasound: Infant Hip A A A What's in this ... en los lactantes What It Is A hip ultrasound is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  19. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  20. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…