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Sample records for human immunodeficiency hiv

  1. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . ...

  2. 110 HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) SEROPOSITIVITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -http://www.ajol.info/journals/ajcem ... A seroprevalence study of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in new patients attending the eye .... previous reports that Herpes zoster ophthalmicus in ..... The increase in the number of patients with mild proteinuria after treatment and its implication require ...... bacteriophage.

  3. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  4. 76 FR 72417 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... (PHS) Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV... Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) through Transplantation of Human Tissue and Organs. The 2011......

  5. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and... Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and......

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Research (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-15

    Polonis V, Corts K, Hoc"en-Lewis C, Eddy G. Production of functionally defective HIV-l reverse transcriptase can be initiated by a human peripheral blood... Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid. 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Ruiz NM, Ramirez-Rhonda CH. Tratamiento quirurjico de endocarditis. Chapter in...M.D.; Editorial Interamericana , Mexico-Buenos Aires - Madrid, 1989. Ruiz Manuscript 1989 Rivera G, Ruiz NM. Principios generales en el tratemiento

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Greenspan, J S

    2006-09-01

    HIV transmission in the health-care setting is of concern. To assess the current position in dentistry, we have reviewed the evidence to November 1, 2005. Transmission is evidently rare in the industrialized nations and can be significantly reduced or prevented by the use of standard infection control measures, appropriate clinical and instrument-handling procedures, and the use of safety equipment and safety needles. We hope that breaches in standard infection control will become vanishingly small. When occupational exposure to HIV is suspected, the application of post-exposure protocols for investigating the incident and protecting those involved from possible HIV infection further reduces the likelihood of HIV disease, and also stress and anxiety.

  8. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Patient Concerns: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Diagnoses: Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. Interventions: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Outcomes: Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456–1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. Lessons: AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections. PMID:28207511

  9. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay....

  10. Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Duvall (Melody); K. Loré (Karin); H. Blaak (Hetty); D.A. Ambrozak (David); W.C. Adams (William); K. Santos (Kathlyn); C. Geldmacher (Christof); J.R. Mascola (John); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); A. Jaye (Assan); H. Whittle (Hilton); S.L. Rowland-Jones (Sarah); R.A. Koup (Richard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process

  11. 75 FR 22814 - Guidance for Industry: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... memoranda entitled ``Revised Recommendations for the Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1...: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and Hepatitis C Virus...

  12. 75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. Notice of Intent to...

  13. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  14. Exercise and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, DeSales; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The human immune system is highly efficient and remarkably protective when functioning properly. Similar to other physiological systems, it functions best when the body is maintained with a balanced diet, sufficient rest and a moderately stress-free lifestyle. It can be disrupted by inappropriate drug use and extreme emotion or exertion. The functioning of normal or compromised immune systems can be enhanced by properly prescribed moderate exercise conditioning regimens in healthy people, and in some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected patients but not in others who unable to complete an interval training program. Regular exercise conditioning in healthy people reduces cardiovascular risk factors, increases stamina, facilitates bodyweight control, and reduces stress by engendering positive feelings of well-being. Certain types of cancer may also be suppressed by appropriate exercise conditioning. Various exercise regimens are being evaluated as adjunct treatments for medicated patients with the HIV-1 syndrome. Limited anecdotal evidence from patients suggests that moderate exercise conditioning is per se responsible for their survival well beyond expectancy. HIV-1-infected patients respond positively, both physiologically and psychologically, to moderate exercise conditioning. However, the effectiveness of any exercise treatment programme depends on its mode, frequency, intensity and duration when prescribed o complement the pathological condition of the patient. The effectiveness of exercise conditioning regimens in patients with HIV-1 infection is reviewed in this article. In addition, we discuss mechanisms and pathways, involving the interplay of psychological and physiological factors, through which the suppressed immune system can be enhanced. The immune modulators discussed are endogenous opioids, cytokines, neurotransmitters and other hormones. Exercise conditioning treatment appears to be more effective when combined with other stress management

  15. Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Cure: HIV Persistence in Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Eli A; Douek, Daniel C

    2017-03-15

    The uneven anatomic distribution of cell subsets that harbor human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during antiretroviral therapy (ART) complicates investigation of the barriers to HIV cure. Here we propose that while previous studies done largely in blood cells have led to important investigations into HIV latency, other important mechanisms of HIV persistence during ART may not be readily apparent in the bloodstream. We specifically consider as an example the question of ongoing HIV replication during ART. We discuss how growing understanding of key anatomic sanctuaries for the virus can inform future experiments aimed at further clarifying this issue. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Immunogenic compositions comprising human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mosaic Nef proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Perkins, Simon [Los Alamos, NM; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy [Los Alamos, NM; Fischer, William M [Los Alamos, NM; Theiler, James [Los Alamos, NM; Letvin, Norman [Boston, MA; Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos, NM; Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-02-21

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Nef polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated polymorphic lymphoproliferative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nador, Roland G; Chadburn, Amy; Gundappa, Girija; Cesarman, Ethel; Said, Jonathan W; Knowles, Daniel M

    2003-03-01

    The majority of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are clinically aggressive monoclonal B-cell Burkitt's lymphomas, large cell lymphomas, or immunoblastic lymphomas. In contrast, the lymphoid proliferations arising in solid organ transplant recipients, collectively referred to as posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PT-LPDs), represent a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell proliferations of variable clonal composition. During a retrospective histopathologic review of lymphoid proliferations associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection we identified 10 cases that morphologically resemble the polymorphic PT-LPDs. They arose in lymph nodes (five), lungs (two), and the parotid gland, perineum, and skin (one each). They exhibit a diffuse growth pattern and are composed of a polymorphic lymphoid cell population exhibiting a variable degree of plasmacytic differentiation, cytologic atypia, and numbers of atypical immunoblasts. A clonal B-cell population was detected by immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement and/or EBV terminal repeat analysis in 8 of the 10 (80%) cases by Southern blotting. The nongermline hybridizing bands were usually faint, however, suggesting that the clonal B-cell population represented only a subpopulation within the polymorphic lesion. Strong clonal rearrangement bands were present in one case in which there was clear morphologic evidence of transformation to diffuse large cell lymphoma. This case exhibited C-MYC, BCL-6, and p53 gene mutations. One other case exhibited a p53 gene mutation. The remaining eight cases lacked C-MYC, BCL-6, RAS, and p53 gene alterations. Clonal EBV infection was detected in 4 of the 10 (40%) lesions. Like EBV-containing PT-LPDs, all four EBV-positive HIV-associated polymorphic lesions were associated with type A EBV. The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus was detectable in two cases by polymerase chain

  18. Bilateral peripheral facial palsy in a patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Hai Jin; Nam, Ji Sun; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, June Myung; Song, Young Goo

    2006-10-31

    Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported. In this paper, we present the first case in Korea, of a bilateral facial palsy occurring as the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection.

  19. Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Chasekwa, Bernard; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H

    2017-09-15

    Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression. At 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants. HIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.

  20. HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS (HIV) TYPE-1 INFECTION STATUS AND IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HIV-INFECTION AMONG HIGH-RISK HIV-1 SERONEGATIVE HEMOPHILIACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEDERMAN, MM; JACKSON, JB; KRONER, BL; WHITE, GC; EYSTER, ME; ALEDORT, LM; HILGARTNER, MW; KESSLER, CM; COHEN, AR; KIGER, KP; GOEDERT, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 16 hemophiliacs who had a 50%-94% defined risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 infection on the basis of treatment history and from 14 controls not at risk for HIV infection. HIV-1 was not detected in any of 12 patient samples by cocultivation nor in 14 p

  1. Bilateral Peripheral Facial Palsy in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Su; Yoon, Hee Jung; Kim, Hai Jin; Nam, Ji Sun; Choi, Sung Ho; Kim, June Myung; Song, Young Goo

    2006-01-01

    Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported. In this paper, we present the first case in Korea, of a bilateral facial palsy occurring as the first cli...

  2. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein by aptamer-based biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Uda; Fatin, M. F.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Uda, M. N. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study was conducted to detect the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) Tat protein using interdigitated electrodes. The measurements and images of the IDEs' finger gaps and the images of chitosan-carbon nanotubes deposited on top of the interdigitated electrodes were taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope. The detection of HIV-1 Tat protein was done using split aptamers and aptamer tail. Biosensors were chosen as diagnostic equipment due to their rapid diagnostic capabilities.

  3. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing and False Disclosures in Heterosexual College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelich, William D.; Clark, Tonya

    2004-01-01

    The authors assessed factors that motivate individuals to report negative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test results, although they had never been tested. In particular, they investigated sexual intimacy motives associated with the needs for affiliation, sex, and dominance as contributing factors for faulty disclosures. Participants…

  4. Risk of zidovudine-induced anemia on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patients with different CD4 cell counts

    OpenAIRE

    wedayani, anak agung ayu niti; Sholikhah, Eti Nurwening; Kristin, Erna; Triyono, Erwin Astha

    2017-01-01

    Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This abnormality is associated with HIV infection itself, HIV-related opportunities infections or drug use. Zidovudine (AZT) is the most common cause of anemia in HIV patients. Recent study showed anemia in HIV patients is also associated with CD4 cell counts. Aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of anemia on HIV patients with different CD4 cell counts after AZT-based antiret...

  5. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...

  6. A Web-Based System To Enchance The Management Of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS/ Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbelusi Olutola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS, a global disease, caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is arguably the greatest health problem of this age and there is need to make first class information on the management of HIV/AIDS available through the use of Web-Based Technology. This paper examined the various ways of contacting HIV and the effort made by Information and Technology to make life easier for people living with the virus in Nigeria. Questionnaires were distributed to Doctors and people living with HIV/AIDS to access their knowledge and belief about the said disease. MySQL was used to generate the database, to store all the vital information about the patients, their Doctors and their complaints. PHP programming for the implementation of the interfaces, Dreamweaver HTML for the design of the web-based application, T-test and Microsoft Excel were used for the analysis of data collected. The study looked into the occupation, age range and the marital status of different categories of people living with the virus. It was discovered that there were quite large numbers of people who are living with the virus.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) Gag is trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 dependent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Justine E.; Marongiu, Michela; Gemma L Watkins; Anderson, Emma C.

    2016-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HI...

  8. Identification of infection of an Australian resident with the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J C; Dwyer, D E; Kazazi, F; Chew, C B; Dowton, D N; Randle, C; Singh, V; Dax, E M; Cunningham, A L

    1992-09-21

    To present the first confirmed case of human immunodeficiency virus infection type 2 (HIV-2) in an Australian resident. HIV-2 infection in a west African man resident in Sydney was diagnosed in 1992 at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, by serological testing. He was asymptomatic and the blood CD4 T-lymphocyte concentration was not significantly reduced. Infection was probably acquired before migration to Australia. The patient was initially tested for HIV-1 antibody as part of an application for permanent residency. He was in no obvious risk group or transmission category. His serum was repeatedly positive by Genetic Systems enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and borderline by Abbott EIA, was reactive to the HIV-2 peptide on a synthetic envelope peptide assay, and was strongly reactive to all HIV-2 specific viral protein bands on an HIV-2 western blot test. HIV-2 was isolated by co-cultivation of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified by hybridisation using HIV-2 specific oligonucleotide probes, with further confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. The patient was counselled regarding the clinical course and prognosis of HIV-2 infection, the possible indications for zidovudine therapy, modes of transmission of the virus and safer sex precautions. This is the first documented case of HIV-2 infection diagnosed in Australia and raises the possibility of other undetected cases. The cost effectiveness of general testing for HIV-2 needs to be assessed and formal epidemiological sentinel programs should be established to monitor specific Australian populations.

  9. Immunological changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals during HIV-specific protease inhibitor treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Katzenstein, T; Aladdin, H;

    1999-01-01

    The present study examines the influence of effective anti-retroviral treatment on immune function, evaluated by a broad array of immunological tests. We followed 12 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for 6 months after initiation of combination anti-retroviral treatment...... Vaccinia virus was increased after 3-6 months, whereas the specific HIV-directed CTL activity and the concentration and lytic activity of natural killer (NK) cells were unchanged during follow-up. These results demonstrate that the initiation of a treatment including an HIV protease inhibitor is followed...

  10. Chemokine receptors and their crucial role in human immunodeficiency virus infection: major breakthroughs in HIV research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, T B; Knudsen, T B; Eugen-Olsen, J

    1998-01-01

    Within the last three years, major progress in the understanding of acquired immune deficiency syndrome pathogenesis has been achieved. The discovery that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in addition to the CD4 receptor, requires the presence of a coreceptor in order to infect cells has led...... to a series of breakthroughs in HIV research and knowledge. These include an increased understanding of viral entry, a connection of viral phenotype to specific coreceptor use, and an unequivocal linkage of a single human gene to host susceptibility. All in all these achievements provide a number of promising...

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in seronegative infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Reyes-Terán

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some individuals repeatedly exposed to Human Immunodeficiency Virus do not seroconvert and are resistant to HIV infection. Here, in a pediatric cohort of HIV seronegative infants born of HIV-infected mothers, we have studied eight non-breastfed children in whom viral DNA was detected in their PBMC. Our objective was to assess whether silent infection in these children can be explained by the presence of integrated viral DNA. Methods The presence of viral DNA was corroborated by nested PCR with primers for gag and the nef/LTR regions of HIV-1. Integration of HIV DNA into the host genome was assessed by an Alu-LTR PCR. Amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyzes were done. Results HIV-1 DNA was detected in the earliest available PBMC sample from all eight infants, and two of them tested positive for HIV DNA at 2 years of age. Nested PCR resulted in the amplification of gag, nef/LTR and Alu-LTR fragments, which demostrated that HIV-1 DNA was integrated in the host cell genome. Each individual has a characteristic sequence pattern and is different from the LTR sequence of HXB2 prototype virus and other Mexican isolates. Conclusion HIV-1 DNA was observed in PBMC from HIV exposed seronegative children in this pediatric cohort.

  12. Necroptosis takes place in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Pan

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is characterized by progressive depletion of CD4+ T lymphocytes and dysfunction of the immune system. The numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the human body are maintained constantly by homeostatic mechanisms that failed during HIV-1 infection, resulting in progressive loss of CD4+ T cells mainly via apoptosis. Recently, a non-apoptotic form of necrotic programmed cell death, named necroptosis, has been investigated in many biological and pathological processes. We then determine whether HIV-1-infected cells also undergo necroptosis. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV-1 not only induces apoptosis, but also mediates necroptosis in the infected primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD4+ T-cell lines. Necroptosis-dependent cytopathic effects are significantly increased in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells that is lack of Fas-associated protein-containing death domain (FADD, indicating that necroptosis occurs as an alternative cell death mechanism in the absence of apoptosis. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis mainly occurs in HIV-infected cells and spares bystander damage. Treatment with necrostatin-1(Nec-1, a RIP1 inhibitor that specifically blocks the necroptosis pathway, potently restrains HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect and interestingly, inhibits the formation of HIV-induced syncytia in CD4+ T-cell lines. This suggests that syncytia formation is mediated, at least partially, by necroptosis-related processes. Furthermore, we also found that the HIV-1 infection-augmented tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α plays a key role in inducing necroptosis and HIV-1 Envelope and Tat proteins function as its co-factors. Taken together,necroptosis can function as an alternative cell death pathway in lieu of apoptosis during HIV-1 infection, thereby also contributing to HIV-1-induced cytopathic effects. Our results reveal that in addition to apoptosis, necroptosis also plays an important role in HIV-1-induced pathogenesis.

  13. Efficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection of cells lacking PDZD8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD8 is not absolutely necessary for HIV-1 infection and diminishes its attractiveness as a potential target for intervention.

  14. Upregulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by CD4 cross-linking in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, S; Oyaizu, N; Tetali, S; Romano, J; Kaplan, M; Pahwa, S

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 67 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. It supports the hypothesis that cross-linking of CD4 molecules by HIV gp120 can result in HIV upregulation and spread of infection. Underlying mechanisms include activation of latent infection by factors in addition to, or other than, tumor necrosis factor alpha.

  15. Hepatitis B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Co-infection in Nigerian Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia. Type of Article:CSWI ... Nigerian child.8 The prevalences of HIV/HBV in children from ..... Blood safety: proposal to establish World. Blood Donor Day. .... Limited Settings. The Internet.

  16. Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 Vpr expression and innate immunity influence neurovirulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballanyi Klaus

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1's biology and pathogenicity. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated dementia (HAD continues to be a devastating consequence of HIV-1 infection of the brain although the underlying disease mechanisms remain uncertain. Herein, molecular diversity within the HIV-1 non-structural gene, Vpr, was examined in RNA sequences derived from brain and blood of HIV/AIDS patients with or without HIV-associated dementia (HAD together with the ensuing pathobiological effects. Results Cloned brain- and blood-derived full length vpr alleles revealed that amino acid residue 77 within the brain-derived alleles distinguished HAD (77Q from non-demented (ND HIV/AIDS patients (77R (p vpr transcripts were more frequently detected in HAD brains (p IFN-α, MX1 and BST-2 transcript levels in human glia relative to the 77Q-HAD encoding virus (p Vpr77Q-HAD, 77R (pVpr77R-ND or Vpr null (pVpr(--containing vectors showed that the pVpr77R-ND vector induced higher levels of immune gene expression (p p IFN-α, MX1, PRKRA and BST-2 relative to 77Q-HAD peptide (p p p Conclusions These observations underscored the potent neuropathogenic properties of Vpr but also indicated viral diversity modulates innate neuroimmunity and neurodegeneration.

  17. Cytopathicity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) in Human Lymphoid Tissue Is Coreceptor Dependent and Comparable to That of HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Birgit; Penn, Michael L.; Palacios, Emil H.; Grant, Robert M.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Goldsmith, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is markedly less pathogenic than HIV-1 in vivo. Individuals infected with HIV-2 exhibit a remarkably slow rate of disease development, and these clinical properties have been attributed presumptively to an “attenuated” phenotype of HIV-2 itself. Here, we investigated the impact of coreceptor usage on the cytopathicity of HIV-2 and compared its pathogenic potential with that of HIV-1 in a unique human lymphoid histoculture model. We found that HIV-2 strains, as well as closely related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), displayed mildly or highly aggressive cytopathic phenotypes depending on their abilities to use the coreceptor CCR5 or CXCR4, respectively. A side-by-side comparison of primary X4 HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains revealed similar, high degrees of cytopathicity induced by both HIV types. Furthermore, we found that HIV-2 coreceptor specificity for CCR5 and CXCR4 determined the target cell population for T-cell depletion in lymphoid tissue. Finally, utilization of the alternate coreceptors BOB and Bonzo did not significantly increase the cytopathic properties of HIV-2. These findings demonstrate that coreceptor preference is a key regulator of target cell specificity and the cytopathic potential of HIV-2, with indistinguishable rules compared with HIV-1. Moreover, HIV-2 strains are not characterized by an intrinsically lower cytopathicity than HIV-1 strains. Therefore, direct cytopathic potential per se does not explain the unique behavior of HIV-2 in people, highlighting that other unknown factors need to be elucidated as the basis for their lesser virulence in vivo. PMID:11000231

  18. Micronutrient status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogden, J D; Baker, H; Frank, O; Perez, G; Kemp, F; Bruening, K; Louria, D

    1990-01-01

    This study surveyed serum concentrations of vitamins, electrolytes, and trace elements in subjects seropositive for HIV-1 by ELISA and confirmatory Western blot. Thirty subjects (26 males, 4 females) were recruited at a hospital clinic. Seventeen were classified as having mild or severe ARC (AIDS-related complex), 7 had AIDS, and 6 were asymptomatic. Eight had experienced weight loss of 10 pounds or more in the past 6 months. Most (93%) were anergic to skin test antigens. Percentages of subjects with below normal plasma concentrations include: zinc-30%, calcium-27%, magnesium-30%, carotenes-31%, total choline-50%, and ascorbate-27%. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had at least one abnormally low value. Percentages with above normal values include: folate-37% and carnitine-37%. Some subjects with above normal values for plasma vitamins reported self-supplementation, usually with large doses. The results suggest that one or more abnormally low concentrations of the plasma micronutrients studied here are likely to be present in the majority of HIV seropositive patients.

  19. Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meschi, Joseph; Crouch, Erika C; Skolnik, Paul;

    2005-01-01

    The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. These glycoconjugates contribute to resistance to antibody neutralization, and binding to cell surface lectins on macrophages and dendritic cells. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL......) binds to gp120 and plays a role in defence against the virus. In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly lower concentrations than MBL. The binding of SP-D was mediated by its calcium-dependent carbohydrate...... defence against HIV. A chimeric protein containing the N-terminal and collagen domains of SP-D linked to the neck and carbohydrate-recognition domains of MBL (called SP-D/MBL(neck+CRD)) had greater ability to bind to gp120 and inhibit virus replication than either SP-D or MBL. The enhanced binding of SP...

  20. Oligoclonal CD8 lymphocytes from persons with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection inhibit HIV-1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, J F; Chen, C H; Mohr, J R; Piglia, L; Oei, C; Ferrari, G; Greenberg, M L; Weinhold, K J

    1995-10-01

    CD8 lymphocytes from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected patients can suppress virus production from infected CD4 cells. Suppressive activity is separate and distinct from cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) reactivities and is likely mediated by a soluble factor(s). The majority of HIV-1 suppression studies have been done in the context of bulk CD8 cell cultures. In this study, viral suppression was characterized by clonal populations of CD8 cells derived from HIV-1-infected patients. Most of the suppressive clones were devoid of detectable CTL reactivity against env-, gag-, pol-, and nef-expressing targets. Among the suppressive clones derived from an individual patient, a marked heterogeneity was evident with respect to phenotypic markers, cytokine production, and T cell receptor V beta expression. These results suggest that noncytolytic virus suppression is oligoclonal in nature. Clones provide tools for future studies aimed at understanding the mechanism of suppression and identifying the suppressive factor.

  1. Efficient Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) Infection of Cells Lacking PDZD8

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shijian; Sodroski, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    PDZD8 can bind the capsid proteins of different retroviruses, and transient knockdown of PDZD8 results in a decrease in the efficiency of an early, post-entry event in the retrovirus life cycle. Here we used the CRISPR-CAS9 system to create cell lines in which PDZD8 expression is stably eliminated. The PDZD8-knockout cell lines were infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and murine leukemia virus as efficiently as the parental PDZD8-expressing cells. These results indicate that PDZD...

  2. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  3. Correlates of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Sexually Transmitted Infection (HIV/STI) Testing and Disclosure among HIV-Negative Collegiate Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Fuchs, Erika L.; Brady, Sonya S.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which personal, behavioral, and environmental factors are associated with human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) testing and disclosure. Participants: Nine hundred thirty HIV-negative collegiate men who have sex with men (MSM) who completed an online survey about alcohol use and…

  4. Antibody testing and counseling of dental patients at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and associated clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrah, V A; Scholtes, G A

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred six dental patients were tested between 1985 and 1987 for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) when a review of their medical histories revealed a high risk for infection. Serologic results are correlated with soft tissue and osseous findings recorded during routine head and neck and radiographic examination. Counseling recommendations for use in association with testing are outlined. A more active role for the dentist as a preventive agent is advocated to combat the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2 Gag Is Trafficked in an AP-3 and AP-5 Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine E Alford

    Full Text Available Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV types 1 and 2 are closely related lentiviruses with similar replication cycles, HIV-2 infection is associated with slower progression to AIDS, a higher proportion of long term non-progressors, and lower rates of transmission than HIV-1, likely as a consequence of a lower viral load during HIV-2 infection. A mechanistic explanation for the differential viral load remains unclear but knowledge of differences in particle production between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may help to shed light on this issue. In contrast to HIV-1, little is known about the assembly of HIV-2 particles, and the trafficking of HIV-2 Gag, the structural component of the virus, within cells. We have established that HIV-2 Gag accumulates in intracellular CD63 positive compartments, from which it may be delivered or recycled to the cell surface, or degraded. HIV-2 particle release was dependent on the adaptor protein complex AP-3 and the newly identified AP-5 complex, but much less so on AP-1. In contrast, HIV-1 particle release required AP-1 and AP-3, but not AP-5. AP-2, an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which was previously shown to be inhibitory to HIV-1 particle release, had no effect on HIV-2. The differential requirement for adaptor protein complexes confirmed that HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag have distinct cellular trafficking pathways, and that HIV-2 particles may be more susceptible to degradation prior to release.

  6. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  7. Renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus - Not just HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, P S; Ismal, K; Gowrishankar, S; Sahay, M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the various histopathological lesions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients with renal dysfunction and to establish clinicopathological correlation. Over a period of two years from January 2008 to March 2010, 27 HIV positive patients with renal dysfunction were subjected to renal biopsy. Of the 27 patients, 23 were males and four were females (85.2% males, 14.8% females). Mean age was 38.2 ± 10.36 (range 20 - 60) years. The probable mode of acquisition of HIV infection was sexual in 22 patients (81.5%). Thirteen patients (48%) had nephrotic proteinuria. The CD4 count ranged from 77 to 633/microliter. The kidneys were of normal size in 19 (70.4%) and bulky in eight (29.6%) patients. Thirteen patients required renal replacement therapy. Eleven patients had acute tubule-interstitial lesions (40.7%) while 15 (55.5%) had glomerular lesions. The various glomerular lesions were, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in five, amyloidosis in three, diffuse proliferative GN in two, and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (GN), membranous GN, minimal change disease, diabetic nephropathy, crescentic GN, and thrombotic microangiopathy were seen in one each. None of the clinical or laboratory variables, except hypertension, was found to predict glomerular versus non-glomerular lesions on biopsy. In conclusion we show that a variety of glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions can be seen on renal histology. Hence, renal biopsy is indicated in renal dysfunction associated with HIV for making proper diagnosis and therapy.

  8. Antiretroviral Drugs and Risk of Chronic Alanine Aminotransferase Elevation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Monoinfected Persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovari, Helen; Sabin, Caroline A; Ledergerber, Bruno;

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) frequently have chronic liver enzyme elevation (cLEE), the underlying cause is often unclear. Methods.  Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) Study participants without...... a consistent association between tenofovir and cLEE emerging within the first 2 years after drug initiation. This novel tenofovir-cLEE signal should be further investigated....

  9. Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Seroconversion in U.S. Navy Personnel Following Visits to Foreign Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-25

    Islands 3 475. La Napoule, France 2 426. Nagasaki, Japan 3 476. Langkawi , Malaysia 2 427. Nice, France 3 477. Larnaca, Cyprus 2 428. Oran, Algeria 3...continents and many islands of the world. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus-I) rates vary widely worldwide, and are high in many areas visited by the Navy...career histories and ship movement information to examine the relationship of visits to foreign ports with risk of HIV seropositivity and

  10. Direct phenotypical and functional dysregulation of primary human B cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Judith Perisé-Barrios

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 induces a general dysregulation of immune system. Dysregulation of B cell compartment is generally thought to be induced by HIV-related immune activation and lymphopenia. However, a direct influence of HIV-1 particles on B cells was recently proposed as the third pathway of B cells dysregulation. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the direct and specific consequences of HIV-1 contact on activation, survival, proliferation and phenotype of primary B cells in vitro. Moreover, we examined expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID mRNA that is responsible for class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM. Here, we report that changes observed in cellular proliferation, phenotypes and activation of B cells could be caused by direct contact between HIV-1 particles and primary B cells in vitro. Finally, direct HIV-1-derived B cells activation led to the increase of AID mRNA expression and its subsequent CSR function was detected in vitro. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that HIV-1 could directly induce primary B cells dysregulation triggering phenotypical and functional abilities of B cells in vitro that could explain in some extent early B-cell abnormalities in HIV disease.

  11. Pentavalent HIV-1 vaccine protects against simian-human immunodeficiency virus challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Todd; Pollara, Justin; Santra, Sampa; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pittala, Srivamshi; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Shen, Xiaoying; Parks, Robert; Goodman, Derrick; Eaton, Amanda; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Mach, Linh V.; Saunders, Kevin O.; Weiner, Joshua A.; Scearce, Richard; Sutherland, Laura L.; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, Jim; Reed, Steven G.; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Theis, James F.; Pinter, Abraham; Montefiori, David C.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Peachman, Kristina K.; Rao, Mangala; Michael, Nelson L.; Suscovich, Todd J.; Alter, Galit; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Moody, M. Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Tomaras, Georgia; Ferrari, Guido; Korber, Bette T.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2017-01-01

    The RV144 Thai trial HIV-1 vaccine of recombinant poxvirus (ALVAC) and recombinant HIV-1 gp120 subtype B/subtype E (B/E) proteins demonstrated 31% vaccine efficacy. Here we design an ALVAC/Pentavalent B/E/E/E/E vaccine to increase the diversity of gp120 motifs in the immunogen to elicit a broader antibody response and enhance protection. We find that immunization of rhesus macaques with the pentavalent vaccine results in protection of 55% of pentavalent-vaccine-immunized macaques from simian–human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge. Systems serology of the antibody responses identifies plasma antibody binding to HIV-infected cells, peak ADCC antibody titres, NK cell-mediated ADCC and antibody-mediated activation of MIP-1β in NK cells as the four immunological parameters that best predict decreased infection risk that are improved by the pentavalent vaccine. Thus inclusion of additional gp120 immunogens to a pox-prime/protein boost regimen can augment antibody responses and enhance protection from a SHIV challenge in rhesus macaques. PMID:28593989

  12. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  13. Timing of Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Associated Tuberculous Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, M. Estee; Yen, Nguyen Thi Bich; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Phu, Nguyen Hoan; Mai, Pham Phuong; Dung, Nguyen Thi; Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Tien, Nguyen Anh; Minh, N. H.; Hien, Nguyen Quang; Thai, Phan Vuong Khac; Dong, Doan The; Anh, Do Thi Tuong; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Cam; Hai, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Quy, Hoang Thi; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Simmons, Cameron Paul; de Jong, Menno; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy James

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal time to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–associated tuberculous meningitis is unknown. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of immediate versus deferred ART in patients with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis to determine whether immediate ART reduced the risk of death. Antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, lamivudine, and efavirenz) were started either at study entry or 2 months after randomization. All patients were treated with standard antituberculosis treatment, adjunctive dexamethasone, and prophylactic co-trimoxazole and were followed up for 12 months. We conducted intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and prespecified subgroup analyses. Results A total of 253 patients were randomized, 127 in the immediate ART group and 126 in the deferred ART group; 76 and 70 patients died within 9 months in the immediate and deferred ART groups, respectively. Immediate ART was not significantly associated with 9-month mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], .81–1.55; P = .50) or the time to new AIDS events or death (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .87–1.55; P = .31). The percentage of patients with severe (grade 3 or 4) adverse events was high in both arms (90% in the immediate ART group and 89% in the deferred ART group; P = .84), but there were significantly more grade 4 adverse events in the immediate ART arm (102 in the immediate ART group vs 87 in the deferred ART group; P = .04). Conclusions Immediate ART initiation does not improve outcome in patients presenting with HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. There were significantly more grade 4 adverse events in the immediate ART arm, supporting delayed initiation of ART in HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN63659091. PMID:21596680

  14. Antigenic characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein precursor incorporated into nanodiscs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kristen C.; Castillo-Menendez, Luis; Ding, Haitao; Espy, Nicole; Zhang, Shijian; Kappes, John C.; Sodroski, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into host cells is mediated by the viral envelope glycoproteins (Envs), which are derived by the proteolytic cleavage of a trimeric gp160 Env precursor. The mature Env trimer is a major target for entry inhibitors and vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies. Env interstrain variability, conformational flexibility and heavy glycosylation contribute to evasion of the host immune response, and create challenges for structural characterization and vaccine development. Here we investigate variables associated with reconstitution of the HIV-1 Env precursor into nanodiscs, nanoscale lipid bilayer discs enclosed by membrane scaffolding proteins. We identified detergents, as well as lipids similar in composition to the viral lipidome, that allowed efficient formation of Env-nanodiscs (Env-NDs). Env-NDs were created with the full-length Env precursor and with an Env precursor with the majority of the cytoplasmic tail intact. The self-association of Env-NDs was decreased by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The Env-NDs exhibited an antigenic profile expected for the HIV-1 Env precursor. Env-NDs were recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies. Of note, neutralizing antibody epitopes in the gp41 membrane-proximal external region and in the gp120:gp41 interface were well exposed on Env-NDs compared with Env expressed on cell surfaces. Most Env epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing antibodies were masked on the Env-NDs. This antigenic profile was stable for several days, exhibiting a considerably longer half-life than that of Env solubilized in detergents. Negative selection with weak neutralizing antibodies could be used to improve the antigenic profile of the Env-NDs. Finally, we show that lipid adjuvants can be incorporated into Env-NDs. These results indicate that Env-NDs represent a potentially useful platform for investigating the structural, functional and antigenic properties of the HIV-1 Env trimer in a membrane context

  15. Behaviors Influencing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission in the Context of Positive Prevention among People Living with HIV/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ramin Radfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying factors, which influence health behaviors is critical to designing appropriate and effective preventive programs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission is highly related to people behaviors and understanding factors influencing healthy behaviors among Iranian people living with HIVs (PLHIVs/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is very important to tailor an effective response to HIV/AIDS epidemic. Methods: This study was conducted as a qualitative study by methods of focus group discussion and in-depth interview in six provinces of Iran with 64 PLHIVs to determine factors influence engagement in positive prevention. Results: Knowledge and education, feelings of responsibility and positive prevention practices were identified as the primary domains of engagement. These domains were found to be influenced by feelings of ostracism and frustration, poverty, barriers to disclosure of HIV status, access to and utilization of drug abuse treatment services and antiretroviral therapy, adherence to treatment, age, religiousness, sex work, singleness, and incarceration. Conclusions: Designing new interventions and updating current interventions directed toward the aforementioned factors should be addressed by responsible Iranian authorities in order to have a national effective response on the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  16. Presentation and outcome amongst older Singaporeans living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): does age alone drive excess mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggan, Paul J; Foo, Rui Min; Olszyna, Dariusz; Chew, Nicholas S; Smitasen, Nares; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Archuleta, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    There is little detailed information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst older adults in Singapore. A retrospective study of 121 consecutive referrals of patients presenting for HIV care was conducted. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were collected. A prognostic model derived from the North American Veterans' Affairs Cohort Study (VACS) was used to estimate prognosis. The median age at presentation was 43 (range, 18 to 76). Thirty-eight patients (31%) were aged 50 or older and 106 patients (88%) were male. Older patients were more likely to be of Chinese ethnicity (P = 0.035), married (P = 0.0001), unemployed or retired (P = 0.0001), and to have acquired their infection heterosexually (P = 0.0002). The majority of patients in both groups were symptomatic at presentation. Eighty-one (67%) had CD4 counts less than 200 at baseline with no observable differences in HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) or clinical stage based on age. Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) morbidity was observed more frequently amongst older patients. The estimated prognosis of patients differed significantly based on age. Using the VACS Index and comparing younger patients with those aged 50 and above, mean 5 year mortality estimates were 25% and 50% respectively (P HIV/AIDS cases and present with more non-AIDS morbidity. This confers a poor prognosis despite comparable findings with younger patients in terms of clinical stage, AIDS-defining illness, CD4 count and HIV viral load.

  17. Activity of superior interferon α against HIV-1 in severe combined immunodeficient mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; TONG Xiao; Tadashi Nakasone; YUE Xue-tian; Naoki Yamamoto; LIU Xin-yuan; YANG Rong-ge

    2011-01-01

    Background Interferon (IFN) can inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro and in clinic.However, IFN therapy for HIV infection was limited by its moderate antiviral efficacy and its frequent adverse effects. In the present study we evaluated the anti-HIV efficacy of a novel synthesized superior interferon α (slFNα).Methods We performed in vitro experiments with HIV-1 IIB infected MT4 cells, and evaluated in vivo anti-HIV efficacy of slFNα in severe combined immunodeficient (SClD) mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SClD mice).Results We found that the 50% effective concentrations (EC5o) of slFNα against the replication of HIV-1 in MT4 cells was 0.06 ng/ml, representing stronger antiviral activity than interferon-α in vitro. In the hu-PBL-SCID mice, a dose-dependent protection pattern was observed: with 0.45 μg and 1.35 μg slFNα daily treatments, parts of SCID mice were protected from HIV infection, whereas 2.25 μg sIFNα daily treatments resulted in a terminally complete protection.Conclusions slFNα shows good anti-HIV activity both in vitro and in SCID mice, may be a promising anti-HIV agent deserving clinical investigation, especially considering the potential of IFN-α to inhibit HIV replication in patients infected with drug-resistant variants or co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  18. The timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and the risk of HBV infection following HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Michael L; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Chun, Helen M; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy C; Barthel, R Vincent; O'Connell, Robert J; Agan, Brian K

    2011-01-01

    To assess associations between the timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and vaccine effectiveness, US Military HIV Natural History Study cohort participants without HBV infection at the time of HIV diagnosis were grouped by vaccination status, retrospectively followed from HIV diagnosis for incident HBV infection, and compared using Cox proportional hazards models. A positive vaccine response was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥ 10 IU/L. Of 1,877 participants enrolled between 1989 and 2008, 441 (23%) were vaccinated prior to HIV diagnosis. Eighty percent of those who received vaccine doses only before HIV diagnosis had a positive vaccine response, compared with 66% of those who received doses both before and after HIV and 41% of those who received doses only after HIV (P HIV only). Compared with the unvaccinated, persons vaccinated only before HIV had reduced risk of HBV infection after HIV diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.75). No reduction in HBV infection risk was observed for other vaccination groups. These data suggest that completion of the vaccine series prior to HIV infection may be the optimal strategy for preventing this significant comorbid infection in HIV-infected persons.

  19. Mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T.; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman; Hahn; Beatrice H.

    2011-05-31

    The present invention relates to mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions comprising same. The polypeptides of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  20. Surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinze, Folasade; Shaver, Aaron; Raffanti, Stephen

    2017-05-15

    Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences. Our case highlights the importance of surgical excision as a treatment option in refractory herpes simplex virus anogenital infections.

  1. Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevalence in homosexual and bisexual men screened for admission to a cohort study of HIV negatives in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Project Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mariângela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Project Horizonte, an open cohort of homosexual and bisexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 negative men, is a component of the AIDS Vaccine Program, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective of this study was to compare volunteers testing HIV positive at cohort entry with a sample of those who tested HIV negative in order to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, in a population being screened for enrollment at Project Horizonte. A nested case-control study was conducted. HIV positive volunteers at entry (cases were matched by age and admission date to three HIV negative controls each. Selected variables used for the current analysis included demographic factors, sexual behavior and other risk factors for HIV infection. During the study period (1994-2001, among the 621 volunteers screened, 61 tested positive for HIV. Cases were matched to 183 HIV negative control subjects. After adjustments, the main risk factors associated with HIV infection were unprotected sex with an occasional partners, OR = 3.7 (CI 95% 1.3-10.6, receptive anal intercourse with an occasional partner, OR = 2.8 (95% CI 0.9-8.9 and belonging to the negro racial group, OR = 3.4 (CI 95% 1.1-11.9. These variables were associated with an increase in the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men at the screening for admission to an open HIV negative cohort.

  2. Hearing Loss and Quality of Life (QOL) among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected and Uninfected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, N; Torre, P; Springer, G; Cox, C; Plankey, MW

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research has established that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes hearing loss. Studies have yet to evaluate the impact on quality of life (QOL). This project evaluates the effect of hearing loss on QOL by HIV status. Methods The study participants were from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS). A total of 248 men and 127 women participated. Pure-tone air conduction thresholds were collected for each ear at frequencies from 250 through 8000 Hz. Pure-tone averages (PTAs) for each ear were calculated as the mean of air conduction thresholds in low frequencies (i.e., 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high frequencies (i.e., 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz). QOL data were gathered with the Short Form 36 Health Survey and Medical Outcome Study (MOS)-HIV instrument in the MACS and WIHS, respectively. A median regression analysis was performed to test the association of PTAs with QOL by HIV status. Results There was no significant association between hearing loss and QOL scores at low and high pure tone averages in HIV positive and negative individuals. HIV status, HIV biomarkers and treatment did not change the lack of association of low and high pure tone averages with poorer QOL. Conclusion Although we did not find a statistically significant association of hearing loss with QOL by HIV status, testing for hearing loss with aging and recommending treatment may offset any presumed later life decline in QOL.

  3. Low prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 infection in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D A; Corwin, A L; Constantine, N T; Omar, M A; Guled, A; Yusef, M; Roberts, C R; Watts, D M

    1991-12-01

    A seroepidemiologic survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), and Treponema pallidum infection among southern Somalis. Sera were collected from 1,269 study subjects in the urban area of the capital city, Mogadishu, and in the rural towns of Merka, Qoryoley, and Kismayo. The subjects included 57 prostitutes, 79 sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients, and 1,133 others, including outpatient and hospitalized patients with leprosy, tuberculosis, other infectious diseases, individuals from rehabilitation camps and secondary schools, and Ethiopian immigrants. Results indicated that none of the sera were positive for HIV-1 and HIV-2 by Western blot, but one was positive for HTLV-I. The prostitutes had a significantly higher prevalence of treponemal antibody (50.8%; P less than 0.0001) than either the STD patients (12.6%) or the other subjects (5.2%). Epidemiologic data indicated that 94% of the males and females were circumcised and only 2.6% of the males used condoms. Overall, the results of this study suggested a very low prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I infections, especially among prostitutes and STD patients, who were considered at greatest risk of contracting these retroviral infections.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  5. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research,'' published in the Federal...

  6. Chest radiography patterns in 75 adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R., E-mail: sujal.desai@nhs.ne [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Copley, S.J. [Department of Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital (United Kingdom); Barker, R.D.; Elston, C.M. [King' s College London, King' s Health Partners, Department of Respiratory Medicine, King' s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Miller, R.F. [Research Department of Infection and Public Health, Division of Population Health, University College London (United Kingdom); Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Wells, A.U. [The Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Munyati, S. [Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe); Nathoo, K. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe); Harare Central Hospital, Lobengula Road, Harare (Zimbabwe); Corbett, E.L.; Ferrand, R.A. [Clinical Research Unit, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Biomedical Research and Training Institute, Samora Machel Avenue (Zimbabwe)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate lung disease on chest radiography (CR), the relative frequency of CR abnormalities, and their clinical correlates in adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Materials and methods: CRs of 75 patients [59 inpatients (33 males; mean age 13.7 {+-} 2.3 years) and 16 outpatients (eight males; mean age 14.1 {+-} 2.1 years)] were retrospectively reviewed by three independent observers. The overall extent of disease (to the nearest 5%), its distribution, and the proportional extents (totalling 100%) of different radiographic patterns (including ring/tramline opacities and consolidation) were quantified. CR features and clinical data were compared. Results: CRs were abnormal in 51/75 (68%) with 'extensive' disease in 38/51 (74%). Ring/tramline opacities and consolidation predominated (i.e., proportional extent >50%) in 26 and 21 patients, respectively. Consolidation was significantly more common in patients hospitalized primarily for a respiratory illness than patients hospitalized for a non-respiratory illness or in outpatients (p < 0.005, {chi}{sup 2} for trend); by contrast, ring/tramline opacities did not differ in prevalence across the groups. On stepwise logistic regression, predominant consolidation was associated with progressive dyspnoea [odds ratio (OR) 5.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.60, 20.1; p < 0.01] and was associated with a primary respiratory cause for hospital admission (OR: 22.0; CI: 2.7, 181.1; p < 0.005). Ring/tramline opacities were equally prevalent in patients with and without chronic symptoms and in those admitted to hospital with respiratory and non-respiratory illness. Conclusion: In HIV-infected adolescents, evaluated in secondary practice, CR abnormalities are prevalent. The presence of ring/tramline opacities, believed to reflect chronic airway disease, is not linked chronic respiratory symptoms.

  7. Modification of AxSYM Human Immunodeficiency Virus Assay to Identify Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Korean Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Jin-Sook; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-01-01

    To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence using HIV avidity assays in Korea, we established a serological testing method to differentiate recent HIV infections from long-standing ones...

  8. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of halogenated gomisin J derivatives, new nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujihashi, T; Hara, H.; Sakata, T.; Mori, K.; Higuchi, H.; Tanaka, A.; Kaji, H.; Kaji, A

    1995-01-01

    Halogenated gomisin J (a derivative of lignan compound), represented by the bromine derivative 1506 [(6R, 7S, S-biar)-4,9-dibromo-3,10-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetramethoxy-6, 7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]cyclo-octene], was found to be a potent inhibitor of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on MT-4 human T cells (50% effective dose, 0.1 to 0.5 microM). Gomisin J derivatives were active in preventing p24 production from acutely HIV-1-infected H9 cell...

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Case reports of a rare, but important diagnosis with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456-1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections.

  10. Risk of zidovudine-induced anemia on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection patients with different CD4 cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    anak agung ayu niti wedayani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the most common hematologic abnormality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This abnormality is associated with HIV infection itself, HIV-related opportunities infections or drug use. Zidovudine (AZT is the most common cause of anemia in HIV patients. Recent study showed anemia in HIV patients is also associated with CD4 cell counts. Aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of anemia on HIV patients with different CD4 cell counts after AZT-based antiretroviral therapy (ART.This retrospective cohort study was conducted using medical record of HIV patients in Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya. Subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two group i.e. HIV patients with CD4 cell counts 200-350 cell/mm3 and those with CD4cell counts ≥350 cell/mm3. All available demographics, clinical and laboratory data of subjects before and after AZT-based ART were then recorded and evaluated. Ninety-seven HIV patients (50 male and 47 female were involved in this study. The result showed that the anemia incidence significantly increased after AZT-based ART (p0.05. Gender, age, weight and clinical stage were not associated with anemia incidence (p>0.05. In contrast, anemia incidence is associated with Hb level before AZT therapy (p<0.05. In conclusion, the anemia incidence in HIV patients after AZT based ART is not associated with the level of CD4 cell counts, however it is associated with Hb levels before AZT therapy.

  11. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p 150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  12. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  13. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto E; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Forty single-arm open-label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen. Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI. HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy. No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen among 3,994 women. Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women after 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction with the use of washed semen. Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission. Overall, 56.3% of couples (2,357/4,184) achieved a clinical pregnancy with the use of washed semen. Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help to further reduce the spread of HIV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus and menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapathipillai, Rupa; Hickey, Martha; Giles, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This article aims to review currently available evidence for women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and menopause and to propose clinical management algorithms. Key studies addressing HIV and menopause have been reviewed, specifically age of menopause onset in HIV-infected women, frequency of menopausal symptoms, comorbidities associated with HIV and aging (including cardiovascular disease and bone disease), treatment of menopausal symptoms, and prevention of comorbidities in HIV-infected women. Studies suggest an earlier onset of menopause in HIV-infected women, with increased frequency of symptoms. Cardiovascular disease risk may be increased in this population, with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and chronic inflammation associated with HIV, contributing to increased risk. Chronic inflammation and cART have been independently implicated in bone disease. No published data have assessed the safety and efficacy of hormone therapy in relation to symptoms of menopause, cardiovascular risk, and bone disease among HIV-infected women. Few studies on menopause have been conducted in HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women. Many questions regarding age of menopause onset, frequency of menopausal symptoms and associated complications such as bone disease and cardiovascular disease, and efficacy of treatment among HIV-infected women remain. The incidence and severity of some of these factors may be increased in the setting of HIV and cART.

  15. Clinical profile of transfusion-related human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V.S. Subbalaxmi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-related infection is an important mode of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission. There are very few reports in the literature on transfusion-related HIV from India. Methods: Retrospective study of clinical profile of patients with transfusion related HIV infection presenting to a tertiary care hospital in South India between May 1999 to December 2011. Results: Among the 1332 records of HIV positive patients reviewed, 80 (6 % had transfusion-related HIV infection; their mean age was 32.2 ± 12.2 years; there were 47 (58.8% women. Sixty nine patients (86.3% were infected with HIV- 1, while 11 patients (13.8% were infected with HIV-2 The average number of units of blood transfused was 2.8. The indications for transfusion were perioperative (n=37, 46.3%; haematologic disorders (n=15, 18.8%; trauma (n=9, 11.3%; upper gastrointestinal bleed (n=3, 3.8%; miscellaneous (n=3, 3.8% and diagnosis not clear at the time of transfusion (n=13, 16.3%. Twenty six of the 64 patients (40.6% had CD4+ count less than 200 cells/mm3 ; 32 patients (40% were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection. Conclusions: Transfusion-related HIV infection, especially due to HIV-2 remains a significant problem in India even till recently; females seem to be more often affected probably due to the more frequent need for blood transfusion in them due to gynaecologic and obstetric reasons.

  16. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rev-binding protein (HRB) is a co-factor for HIV-1 Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Alessia; Timermans, Cristina Garcia; Naessens, Evelien; Vanderstraeten, Hanne; Stove, Veronique; Verhasselt, Bruno

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-mediated CD4 downregulation is an important determinant of viral replication in vivo. Research on cellular co-factors involved in this process could lead to the identification of potential therapeutic targets. We found that CD4 surface levels were significantly higher in HIV-1-infected cells knocked-down for the HIV Rev-binding protein (HRB) compared with control cells. HRB knock-down affected CD4 downregulation induced by Nef but not by HIV-1 Vpu. Interestingly, the knock-down of the related protein HRBL (HRB-like), but not of the HRB interaction partner EPS15 (epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15), increased CD4 levels in Vpu-expressing cells significantly. Both of these proteins are known to be involved in HIV-1-mediated CD4 downregulation as co-factors of HIV-1 Nef. These results identify HRB as a previously unknown co-factor for HIV-1 Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation and highlight differences with the related protein HRBL, which affects the CD4 downregulation in a dual role as co-factor of both HIV-1 Nef and Vpu.

  17. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  18. Assessment of the Ability of a Fourth-Generation Immunoassay for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Antibody and p24 Antigen To Detect both Acute and Recent HIV Infections in a High-Risk Setting ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mark W Pandori; Hackett, John; Louie, Brian; Vallari, Ana; Dowling, Teri; Liska, Sally; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2009-01-01

    An immunoassay (IA) that simultaneously detects both antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HIV p24 antigen (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo) was evaluated for its ability to detect HIV infection by using a panel of specimens collected from individuals recently infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1). This IA was found to be capable of detecting the majority (89%) of infections, including 80% of those considered acute infections based on the presence of HIV RNA and the lack of detectable antib...

  19. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Henostroza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. METHODS: Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. RESULTS: A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88% were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%. TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6% individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8% and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%. Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22 of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. CONCLUSION: Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently

  20. The high burden of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a large Zambian prison: a public health alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henostroza, German; Topp, Stephanie M; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Maggard, Katie R; Phiri, Winifreda; Harris, Jennifer B; Krüüner, Annika; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Reid, Stewart E

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Between November 2010 and April 2011, we assessed the prevalence of TB and HIV amongst inmates entering, residing, and exiting the prison, as well as in the surrounding community. The screening protocol included complete history and physical exam, digital radiography, opt-out HIV counseling and testing, sputum smear and culture. A TB case was defined as either bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed. A total of 2323 participants completed screening. A majority (88%) were male, median age 31 years and body mass index 21.9. TB symptoms were found in 1430 (62%). TB was diagnosed in 176 (7.6%) individuals and 52 people were already on TB treatment at time of screening. TB was bacteriologically confirmed in 88 cases (3.8%) and clinically diagnosed in 88 cases (3.8%). Confirmed TB at entry and exit interventions were 4.6% and 5.3% respectively. Smear was positive in only 25% (n = 22) of bacteriologically confirmed cases. HIV prevalence among inmates currently residing in prison was 27.4%. Ineffective TB and HIV screening programs deter successful disease control strategies in prison facilities and their surrounding communities. We found rates of TB and HIV in Lusaka Central Prison that are substantially higher than the Zambian average, with a trend towards concentration and potential transmission of both diseases within the facility and to the general population. Investment in institutional and criminal justice reform as well as prison-specific health systems is urgently required.

  1. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrie O’Rourke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH, hymenialdisine (HD, and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  2. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Rourke, Aubrie; Kremb, Stephan; Bader, Theresa Maria; Helfer, Markus; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Gerwick, William H.; Brack-Werner, Ruth; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery. PMID:26861355

  3. Alkaloids from the Sponge Stylissa carteri Present Prospective Scaffolds for the Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1)

    KAUST Repository

    O’Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-02-04

    The sponge Stylissa carteri is known to produce a number of secondary metabolites displaying anti-fouling, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activity. However, the anti-viral potential of metabolites produced by S. carteri has not been extensively explored. In this study, an S. carteri extract was HPLC fractionated and a cell based assay was used to evaluate the effects of HPLC fractions on parameters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection and cell viability. Candidate HIV-1 inhibitory fractions were then analyzed for the presence of potential HIV-1 inhibitory compounds by mass spectrometry, leading to the identification of three previously characterized compounds, i.e., debromohymenialdisine (DBH), hymenialdisine (HD), and oroidin. Commercially available purified versions of these molecules were re-tested to assess their antiviral potential in greater detail. Specifically, DBH and HD exhibit a 30%–40% inhibition of HIV-1 at 3.1 μM and 13 μM, respectively; however, both exhibited cytotoxicity. Conversely, oroidin displayed a 50% inhibition of viral replication at 50 μM with no associated toxicity. Additional experimentation using a biochemical assay revealed that oroidin inhibited the activity of the HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase up to 90% at 25 μM. Taken together, the chemical search space was narrowed and previously isolated compounds with an unexplored anti-viral potential were found. Our results support exploration of marine natural products for anti-viral drug discovery.

  4. [Optimization of the immunoelectrophoresis technic (western blot) for the confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in Panama].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, J M; de Austin, E; de Moreno, N O; Ledezma, C; de Márquez, E; Blanco, R; Quiroz, E; Calzada, J; Vincensini, A R; de Martin, M C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the results of the authors' investigation to apply the western blot technique (WB UP-LCS) in the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. To do this, the authors separated the proteins of the HIV-1 virus by electrophoresis, based on their molecular weight, in poliacilamide gel with SDS (SDS-PAGE) during 3 hours at 200 volts. Then they electrotransferred these proteins to nitrocellulose paper during four hours at 200 milliamperes, with the aid of external cooling. The nitrocellulose strips were evaluated considering the incubation time (1 and 16 hours), two conjugates (human anti IgG with Peroxidase and human anti IgG Biotin plus Streptatividine with Peroxidase) and two dilutions of the patients' sera (1/50 and 1/100). Based on their results the Authors conclude that, in the first place, the optimal conditions for the test include a dilution of 1/100 of the patients serum, incubation of the serum for 16 hours and the use of the conjugate of anti human IgG with Biotin and Streptavidine with Peroxidase; secondary, that the immunologic reactivity against proteins p24 and gp 160/120 is the most important diagnostic criterion for the confirmation of infection with HIV-1 and that they obtained a diagnostic correlation of 100% at a cost which was 5 to 7 times less than that of the commercial system.

  5. Social networks and mental health among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odek, Willis Omondi

    2014-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) in developing countries can live longer due to improved treatment access, and a deeper understanding of determinants of their quality of life is critical. This study assessed the link between social capital, operationally defined in terms of social networks (group-based and personal social networks) and access to network resources (access to material and non-material resources and social support) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 554 (55% female) adults on HIV treatment through South Africa's public health system. Female study participants were involved with more group-based social networks but had fewer personal social networks in comparison to males. Access to network resources was higher among females and those from larger households but lower among older study participants. Experience of social support significantly increased with household economic status and duration at current residence. Social capital indicators were unrelated to HIV disease status indicators, including duration since diagnosis, CD4 count and viral load. Only a minority (13%) of study participants took part in groups formed by and for predominantly PLHIV (HIV support groups), and participation in such groups was unrelated to their mental or physical health. Personal rather than group-linked social networks and access to network resources were significantly associated with mental but not physical health, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings of limited participation in HIV support groups and that the participation in such groups was not significantly associated with physical or mental health may suggest efforts among PLHIV in South Africa to normalise HIV as a chronic illness through broad-based rather than HIV-status bounded social participation, as a strategy for deflecting stigma. Further research is required to examine the effects of HIV treatment on social networking and participation

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV distribution and sexual behaviors across gender and age group in an African setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Fleury Djoba Siawaya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to (1 describe the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV cases across gender and age groups in Libreville (Gabon; (2 examine Gabonese Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs-related risk behaviour. METHODS: The sampled population was people attending the "Laboratoire National de Santé Plublique". Between 2007 and 2011, 14 667 and 9 542 people respectively, were tested for CT and HIV infections. 1 854 of them were tested for both infections. We calculated CT and HIV rates across gender and age groups. Also analysed was the groups' contribution to the general CT and HIV epidemiology. STIs-related risk behaviours were assessed in 224 men and 795 women (between July 2011 and March 2013 who agreed and answered a questionnaire including questions on their marital status, number of sex partners, sexual practices, history of STIs, sex frequency and condom use. RESULTS: Data showed a 24% dropped in the CT infection rate between 2007 and 2010, followed by a 14% increase in 2011. The HIV infection rates for the same period were between 15% and 16%. The risk of a CT-positive subject getting HIV is about 0.71 times the risk of a CT-negative subject. Young adult aged between 18 and 35 years old represented 65.2% of people who had STIs. 80% of women and 66% of men confessed to an inconsistent use of condoms. 11.6% of women and 48% of men declared having multiple sex partners. 61% of questioned women and 67% of men declared knowing their HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: In this Gabonese setting, the population-aged from 18 to 35 years is the most affected by STIs. Other matters of concern are the inconsistent use of protection and sex with non-spousal or non-life partners.

  7. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of halogenated gomisin J derivatives, new nonnucleoside inhibitors of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihashi, T; Hara, H; Sakata, T; Mori, K; Higuchi, H; Tanaka, A; Kaji, H; Kaji, A

    1995-09-01

    Halogenated gomisin J (a derivative of lignan compound), represented by the bromine derivative 1506 [(6R, 7S, S-biar)-4,9-dibromo-3,10-dihydroxy-1,2,11,12-tetramethoxy-6, 7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrodibenzo[a,c]cyclo-octene], was found to be a potent inhibitor of the cytopathic effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on MT-4 human T cells (50% effective dose, 0.1 to 0.5 microM). Gomisin J derivatives were active in preventing p24 production from acutely HIV-1-infected H9 cells. The selective indices (toxic dose/effective dose) of these compounds were as high as > 300 in some systems. 1506 was active against 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine-resistant HIV-1 and acted synergistically with AZT and 2',3'-ddC. 1506 inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) in vitro but not HIV-1 protease. From the time-of-addition experiment, 1506 was found to inhibit the early phase of the HIV life cycle. A 1506-resistant HIV mutant was selected and shown to possess a mutation within the RT-coding region (at position 188 [Tyr to Leu]). The mutant RT expressed in Escherichia coli was resistant to 1506 in the in vitro RT assay. Some of the HIV strains resistant to other nonnucleoside HIV-1 RT inhibitors were also resistant to 1506. Comparison of various gomisin J derivatives with gomisin J showed that iodine, bromine, and chlorine in the fourth and ninth positions increased RT inhibitory activity as well as cytoprotective activity.

  8. "Resistance" to PSC-RANTES revisited: two mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 HIV-1 SF162 or simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV SF162-p3 do not confer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedellec, Rebecca; Coetzer, Mia; Lederman, Michael M; Offord, Robin E; Hartley, Oliver; Mosier, Donald E

    2010-06-01

    Resistance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors is well demonstrated, but resistance to macromolecular CCR5 inhibitors (e.g., PSC-RANTES) that act by both CCR5 internalization and receptor blockade had not been reported until recently (3). The report of a single simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV(SF162-p3) variant with one V3 and one gp41 sequence change in gp160 that conferred both altered replicative fitness and resistance to PSC-RANTES was therefore surprising. We introduced the same two mutations into both the parental HIV-1(SF162) and the macaque-adapted SHIV(SF162-p3) and found minor differences in entry fitness but no changes in sensitivity to inhibition by either PSC-RANTES or the small-molecule allosteric inhibitor TAK-779. We attribute the earlier finding to confounding fitness effects with inhibitor sensitivity.

  9. human immunodeficiency virus and the nervous system: an update ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    recognition in. 1981. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrolentivirus causing ... syndrome (AIDS) and eventual death. The origin of HIV in humans lies in its evolution from the simian ... brain barrier (BBB) or the blood CSF.

  10. The role of pain in quitting among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Carrie J; Gritz, Ellen R; Tamí-Maury, Irene; Baum, George P; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2017-01-01

    Smoking rates among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) are at least twice as high as rates in the general population. Consistent with the reciprocal model of pain and smoking, PLWHA with pain who smoke may use smoking as a means of coping with pain, thus presenting a potential barrier to quitting. The aim of this study is to better understand how pain relates to smoking cessation among 474 HIV-positive adults enrolled in a cell phone-delivered smoking cessation trial. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care (cessation advice and self-help materials) or 11 sessions of cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment. Pain, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), and point prevalence abstinence were collected at the 3-month treatment end and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Self-reported abstinence was biochemically verified by expired carbon monoxide (CO) level of <7 ppm. Using multilevel modeling for binary outcome data, the authors examined the relationship between pain and abstinence, from treatment end through the 12-month follow-up. Consistent with the authors' hypothesis, less pain was associated with greater likelihood of 24-hour (β = .01, t(651) = 2.53, P = .01) and 7-day (β = .01, t(651) = 2.35, P = .02) point prevalence abstinence, controlling for age, gender, baseline pain, nicotine dependence, and treatment group. No pain × treatment group interaction was observed. These results can help us to better identify PLWHA at greater risk for relapse in smoking cessation treatment. Future research may examine the effectiveness of more comprehensive smoking cessation treatment that incorporates aspects of pain management for PLWHA who smoke and have high pain and symptom burden.

  11. Correlates of Delayed Diagnosis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pulmonary Tuberculosis Suspects in a Rural HIV Clinic, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Respicious Boniface

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delay in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB diagnosis is one of the major factors that affect outcome and threatens continued spread of tuberculosis. This study aimed at determining factors associated with delayed PTB diagnosis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected individuals. Methods. A retrospective observational study was done using clinic records of HIV-infected PTB suspects attending an HIV/AIDS clinic at Tintswalo rural hospital in South Africa (SA between January 2006 and December 2007. Using routine clinic registers, 480 records were identified. Results. PTB diagnosis delay was found among 77/176 (43.8% of the patients diagnosed with PTB. The mean delay of PTB diagnosis was 170.6 days; diagnosis delay ranged 1–30 days in 27 (35.1% patients, 31–180 days in 24 (33.8% patients; 24 (31.2% patients remained undiagnosed for ≥180 days. Independent factors associated with delayed diagnosis were: older age >40 years (Odds Ratio (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.45–8.08 and virological failure (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.09–6.74. Conclusion. There is a considerable delayed PTB diagnosis among HIV-infected patients in rural SA. Older patients as well as patients with high viral load are at a higher risk of PTB diagnosis delay. Therefore efforts to reduce PTB diagnosis delay need to emphasised.

  12. Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin in HIV type 1-infected children (Pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 273).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S

    2000-02-01

    The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.

  13. Patterns of Healthcare Utilization Among Veterans Infected With Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Coinfected With HIV/HCV: Unique Burdens of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrak, Shereen; Park, Lawrence P.; Woods, Christopher; Muir, Andrew; Hicks, Charles; Naggie, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system. PMID:27704025

  14. An implementation evaluation of a voluntary counselling and testing programme for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn N. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Employee wellness programmes have become standard interventions in mostorganisations. In South Africa, these programmes invariably contain an element to addressthe problem of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiencysyndrome (AIDS in the workplace.Research purpose: The purpose of this evaluation was to assess whether or not a VoluntaryCounselling and Testing (VCT programme for HIV and AIDS, at a South African university,was implemented as intended.Motivation for the study: The evaluators were motivated to explore indications in the existingliterature about these programmes that participants in VCT programmes are often not theintended target population who live a high risk lifestyle.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive design was used to evaluate serviceutlisation, service delivery and organisational support. Questionnaire data from 285respondents who participated in the programme and programme records supplied by theprogramme staff were consulted to answer the evaluation questions.Main findings: The evaluation showed that the highest uptake for the programme occurredamongst female students. The low uptake amongst men was a concern. It was found that theprogramme was delivered as intended and that there were enough resources to implement itaccording to standards set.Practical/managerial implications: The systematic report on the programme process providedthe programme managers with practical suggestions for programme improvement.Contribution/value-add: This was the first implementation evaluation of a VCT programme ina South African university context. As such it aimed to educate programme managers to thinkevaluatively about introducing new or continuing existing programmes.

  15. The Prevalence of Different Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission Routes and Knowledge about AIDS in Infected People with HIV in Sirjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Behzadpour

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The immune system of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS is weekend because of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, and they become vulnerable to several opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens and different carcinomas. IV drug abuse, sexual contact, occupational transmission, blood transfusion and maternal-fetal transmission are well known transmission routes for HIV infection. This study was under taken to investigate the prevalence of HIV transmission routs in the HIV infected population of Sirjan, and their knowledge about the disease, in order to plan better preventive strategies. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was planned. During a 6-month period in 2010, all of the HIV infected people in Sirjan (old and new cases who had a file at the consultation center for high risk behavior, completed a valid and reliable questionnaire. Results: The definite route of transmission was not clear in any of the patients because they had more than one suspicious route. Injected drug abusers were the most common (88.4% followed by those who got tattoos (79.1%, invasive therapeutic procedures, dentistry, surgery and endoscopy (56.1%, high risk sexual behavior (62.8%, bloodletting (9.3%, injuries in the barbershop (9.3% and blood transfusion (2.3%. Conclusion: All of the HIV infected cases in Sirjan were involved with several high risk behaviors, but the major route of transmission, similar to other parts of the country was injected drug abuse. Educational programs for prevention of AIDS should be followed seriously and special attention should be paid to groups with multiple high risk behaviors.

  16. Potent Suppression of Viral Infectivity by the Peptides That Inhibit Multimerization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Vif Proteins*

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Bin; Gao, Ling; Lin LI; Lu, Zhixian; Fan, Xuejun; Patel, Charvi A.; Pomerantz, Roger J.; DuBois, Garrett C.; Zhang, Hui

    2002-01-01

    Virion infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo, but its function remains uncertain. Recently, we have shown that Vif proteins are able to form multimers, including dimers, trimers, or tetramers. Because the multimerization of Vif proteins is required for Vif function in the viral life cycle, we propose that it could be a novel target for anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. Through a phage peptide display method, we have identified ...

  17. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N......), and the cell type used as the infection target (MT4, PMC, or selected T4 lymphocytes). Inhibition was observed when viruses were preincubated with MAbs but not when cells were preincubated with MAbs before inoculation, and the MAbs were shown to precipitate 125I-labeled gp120. The MAbs therefore define...

  18. Evaluation of techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and HIV negative individuals in the city of Itajaí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelene Marchi Blatt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and intestinal parasites are common in Brazil. Previous studies have shown that infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is frequently associated with HIV infection. Strongyloidiasis is difficult to diagnosis and stool examination with conventional techniques fails to detect the helminth larvae. We made a prospective study, to test the efficacy of the agar plate technique to detect S. stercoralis in 211 HIV-positive patients and 213 HIV-negative patients in the city of Itajaí, Brazil, between September 2001 and June 2002. The feces samples of these patients were processed and analyzed according to the following methods: Lutz, formalin ethyl acetate, Baermann, Harada-Mori and agar plate culture. HIV-positive patients were more frequently infected by S. stercoralis (odds ratio= 5,.687. Among the methods used on fecal specimens, the larvae of S. stercoralis were most efficiently detected by the agar plate (69.7% method, followed by the Baermann and the formalin ethyl acetate methods (48.5% (P=0.01, Lutz (42.4% (P=0.01, and Harada-Mori culture (24% (P=0.001. Therefore agar plate culture is the most efficient method for the detection of S. stercoralis larvae and this technique should be the test of choice, especially in immunocompromised patients.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study on structure of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of HIV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Yiming; LU; Chuanzong

    2005-01-01

    The first Raman spectra of HIV1- HIV2 in human sera and hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of the virus have been obtained. The prominent Raman lines in the spectra are assigned respectively to the carbohydrates of viral glycoprotein, RNA, protein and lipid. The spectra are dominated by Raman scattering of the carbohydrates. The lines of D-Mannose and N-acetylglucosamine in carbohydrates are obvious and there is a β-configuration in the anomeric C1 position in D-Mannose. The viral RNA duplexes bound assumes an A-form geometry. The lines of backbone phosphate group, bases (involving interbase hydrogen bonding) and ribose of the RNA are complete and distinct. The secondary structure of the viral protein maintains β-helix, β-sheet, β-turn and random coil. Its side chains are rich and vary from tryptophan, phenylalanine and "buried" tyrosine; the stable conformation of the S-S bond of gauche-gauche-gauche; the two forms of C-S bonds of gauche and trans ; to sulfhydrl group and ionized and unionized carboxyl groups. The viral lipid bilayer molecules are probably in the liquid ordered phase or the gel phase. It was observed that the hypericin-induced photosensitive damage of HIV1-HIV2 in human sera changed various components of HIV1-HIV2 in different degrees : The orderly A-form viral RNA would become a disordered viral RNA. There were a breakage of interbase hydrogen bonds and disruption of vertical base-base stacking interactions. In addition, the groups of ribos and four bases were damaged obviously. A decrease in ordered structure (α-helix and α-sheet) of viral protein is accompanied by an increase in random coil. The Tyr buried in the three-dimensional structure of protein was damaged, but it was still "buried" and the damage of C-S bond of trans form was stronger. The groups of carbohydrates, including D-Mannos and N-acetyl glucosamine, in viral envelope glycoprotein had also been changed. The hydrophilic C-N bond of choline in viral lipid was damaged

  20. Radiographic resolution of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): not a sign of clinical deterioration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, J.L.; Blickman, J.G.; TerMeulen, D.C. [Dept. of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Babl, F.E. [Div. of Pediatric Infections Diseases, Boston Medical Center, MA (United States); Dept. of Pediatrics, Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States); Moloney, C.H.; Pelton, S.I. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Boston Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Background. The literature and anecdotal evidence associate the resolution of radiographic findings of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) with a decline in immune and clinical status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children. Objective. As our clinical impression was the opposite, we sought to elucidate this contradiction. Materials and methods. Of 52 pediatric patients infected with the HIV currently being followed at our institution, 20 (38.5 %) carried the diagnosis of LIP and 13 (65 %) of these have had complete resolution of radiographic findings of LIP. We retrospectively reviewed the chest radiographs, CD4 counts, and clinical history of these 13 patients. Results. Of the 13 patients who had resolution of radiographic findings, 11 (84.6 %) had no significant change in CD4 count at the time of resolution and remained clinically stable during a mean follow-up period of 32 months. Two patients (15.3 %) developed severe CD4 lymphocytopenia at the time of resolution of LIP, but clinically remained stable. None of these 13 patients had a recurrence of LIP, even with subsequent increases in CD4 count. Conclusion. We suggest that in contradiction to previously published data, resolution of LIP on chest radiographs is not an indicator for poor prognosis for the HIV-infected pediatric patient. (orig.)

  1. Disparities in the Magnitude of Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human immunodeficiency virus-related opportunistic infections between high and ... estimated 35.3 million people living with HIV (PLHIV), and. 2.3 million new HIV ...... us not erronously conclude that OIs have become a thing of the past.

  2. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Corinne; D'Angelo, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    Despite advances in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and discovery of effective prevention programs, HIV infection in American youth continues to rise, especially in minority youth. The crisis underscores the lack of access to care and wellness of our adolescent and young adult populations. Primary care practitioners who care for young adults will diagnose and/or encounter HIV-infected patients in their practice. Providers need to become familiar with the basics of HIV prevention and treatment, as well as how adolescence presents unique challenges in HIV care.

  4. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...

  5. HIV-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rabbits vaccinated with recombinant human immunodeficiency virus-like gag-env particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffar, O.K.; Smithgall, M.D.; Moran, P.A.; Travis, B.M.; Zarling, J.M.; Hu, S.L. (Department of Virology, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceutical Research Institute-Seattle, WA (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)-like gag-env particles produced in mammalian cells were inoculated into two New Zealand white rabbits. In parallel, two control rabbits were inoculated with the homologous HIV-1 virions inactivated by ultraviolet light (uv) and psoralen treatments. The humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV-1 were evaluated for both groups of animals. Recombinant particles elicited humoral immunity that was specific for all the viral structural proteins. The antibodies recognized both denatured and nondenatured proteins. Moreover, the sera neutralized the in vitro infectivity of the homologous virus in CEM cells. Importantly, the recombinant particles also generated a T helper response by priming with the HIV proteins. Similar results were observed with inactivated virus immunization. Therefore, the authors results suggest that the recombinant HIV-like particles elicit functional humoral immunity as well as cellular immunity and represent a novel vaccine candidate for AIDS.

  6. Sugar-binding proteins potently inhibit dendritic cell human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and dendritic-cell-directed HIV-1 transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turville, Stuart G; Vermeire, Kurt; Balzarini, Jan; Schols, Dominique

    2005-11-01

    Both endocytic uptake and viral fusion can lead to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transfer to CD4+ lymphocytes, either through directional regurgitation (infectious transfer in trans [I-IT]) or through de novo viral production in dendritic cells (DCs) resulting in a second-phase transfer to CD4+ lymphocytes (infectious second-phase transfer [I-SPT]). We have evaluated in immature monocyte-derived DCs both pathways of transfer with regard to their susceptibilities to being blocked by potential microbicidal compounds, including cyanovirin (CNV); the plant lectins Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin, Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, Urtica dioica agglutinin, and Cymbidium hybrid agglutinin; and the glycan mannan. I-IT was a relatively inefficient means of viral transfer compared to I-SPT at both high and low levels of the viral inoculum. CNV was able to completely block I-IT at 15 microg/ml. All other compounds except mannan could inhibit I-IT by at least 90% when used at doses of 15 microg/ml. In contrast, efficient inhibition of I-SPT was remarkably harder to achieve, as 50% effective concentration levels for plant lectins and CNV to suppress this mode of HIV-1 transfer increased significantly. Thus, our findings indicate that I-SPT may be more elusive to targeting by antiviral drugs and stress the need for drugs affecting the pronounced inhibition of the infection of DCs by HIV-1.

  7. Frequency of CCR5 Delta-32 Mutation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-seropositive and HIV-exposed Seronegative Individuals and in General Population of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Díaz

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Repeated exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV does not always result in seroconversion. Modifications in coreceptors for HIV entrance to target cells are one of the factors that block the infection. We studied the frequency of Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene in Medellin, Colombia. Two hundred and eighteen individuals distributed in three different groups were analyzed for Delta-32 mutation in ccr5 gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR: 29 HIV seropositive (SP, 39 exposed seronegative (ESN and 150 individuals as a general population sample (GPS. The frequency of the Delta-32 mutant allele was 3.8% for ESN, 2.7% for GPS and 1.7% for SP. Only one homozygous mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32 was found among the ESN (2.6%. The heterozygous genotype (ccr5/Delta-32 was found in eight GPS (5.3%, in one SP (3.4% and in one ESN (2.6%. The differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies among the three groups were not statistically significant. A comparison between the expected and the observed genotypic frequencies showed that these frequencies were significantly different for the ESN group, which indirectly suggests a protective effect of the mutant genotype (Delta-32/Delta-32. Since this mutant genotype explained the resistance of infection in only one of our ESN persons, different mechanisms of protection must be playing a more important role in this population.

  8. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts /=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.

  9. The HIV mutation browser: a resource for human immunodeficiency virus mutagenesis and polymorphism data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Norman E; Satagopam, Venkata P; Santiago-Mozos, Salvador; Villacorta-Martin, Carlos; Bharat, Tanmay A M; Schneider, Reinhard; Briggs, John A G

    2014-12-01

    Huge research effort has been invested over many years to determine the phenotypes of natural or artificial mutations in HIV proteins--interpretation of mutation phenotypes is an invaluable source of new knowledge. The results of this research effort are recorded in the scientific literature, but it is difficult for virologists to rapidly find it. Manually locating data on phenotypic variation within the approximately 270,000 available HIV-related research articles, or the further 1,500 articles that are published each month is a daunting task. Accordingly, the HIV research community would benefit from a resource cataloguing the available HIV mutation literature. We have applied computational text-mining techniques to parse and map mutagenesis and polymorphism information from the HIV literature, have enriched the data with ancillary information and have developed a public, web-based interface through which it can be intuitively explored: the HIV mutation browser. The current release of the HIV mutation browser describes the phenotypes of 7,608 unique mutations at 2,520 sites in the HIV proteome, resulting from the analysis of 120,899 papers. The mutation information for each protein is organised in a residue-centric manner and each residue is linked to the relevant experimental literature. The importance of HIV as a global health burden advocates extensive effort to maximise the efficiency of HIV research. The HIV mutation browser provides a valuable new resource for the research community. The HIV mutation browser is available at: http://hivmut.org.

  10. Thermal stability of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 receptors, CD4 and CXCR4, reconstituted in proteoliposomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A Zhukovsky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 into host cells involves the interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and receptors on the target cell. The HIV-1 receptors are CD4 and one of two chemokine receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We created proteoliposomes that contain CD4, the primary HIV-1 receptor, and one of the coreceptors, CXCR4. Antibodies against CD4 and CXCR4 specifically bound the proteoliposomes. CXCL12, the natural ligand for CXCR4, and the small-molecule CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, bound the proteoliposomes with affinities close to those associated with the binding of these molecules to cells expressing CXCR4 and CD4. The HIV-1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein bound tightly to proteoliposomes expressing only CD4 and, in the presence of soluble CD4, bound weakly to proteoliposomes expressing only CXCR4. The thermal stability of CD4 and CXCR4 inserted into liposomes was examined. Thermal denaturation of CXCR4 followed second-order kinetics, with an activation energy (E(a of 269 kJ/mol (64.3 kcal/mol and an inactivation temperature (T(i of 56°C. Thermal inactivation of CD4 exhibited a reaction order of 1.3, an E(a of 278 kJ/mol (66.5 kcal/mol, and a T(i of 52.2°C. The second-order denaturation kinetics of CXCR4 is unusual among G protein-coupled receptors, and may result from dimeric interactions between CXCR4 molecules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies with proteoliposomes containing the native HIV-1 receptors allowed an examination of the binding of biologically important ligands and revealed the higher-order denaturation kinetics of these receptors. CD4/CXCR4-proteoliposomes may be useful for the study of virus-target cell interactions and for the identification of inhibitors.

  11. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, R T; Spino, C; Kuritzkes, D; Walker, B D; Valentine, F A; Hirsch, M S; Cooney, E; Friedland, G; Kundu, S; Merigan, T C; McElrath, M J; Collier, A; Plaeger, S; Mitsuyasu, R; Kahn, J; Haslett, P; Uherova, P; deGruttola, V; Chiu, S; Zhang, B; Jones, G; Bell, D; Ketter, N; Twadell, T; Chernoff, D; Rosandich, M

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses in controlling viral replication in vivo has stimulated interest in enhancing virus-specific immunity by vaccinating infected individuals with HIV-1 or its components. These studies were undertaken to define patient populations most likely to respond to vaccination, with the induction of novel HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, and to compare the safety and immunogenicity of several candidate recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines and adjuvants. New lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) developed in 350 cells/mm(3) and were usually strain restricted. Responders tended to be more likely than nonresponders to have an undetectable level of HIV-1 RNA at baseline (P=.067). Induction of new cellular immune responses by HIV-1 envelope vaccines is a function of the immunologic stage of disease and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA level and exhibits considerable vaccine strain specificity.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus, genital ulcers and the male foreskin: synergism in HIV-1 transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessamine, P G; Plummer, F A; Ndinya Achola, J O; Wainberg, M A; Wamola, I; D'Costa, L J; Cameron, D W; Simonsen, J N; Plourde, P; Ronald, A R

    1990-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in Nairobi and elsewhere in Africa, have shown that men infected with HIV-1 more commonly have a history of genital ulcer disease compared to uninfected men. In one study, HIV infected men were three times as likely to have a recent history of genital ulcers. In a prospective study of seronegative men, those presenting with chancroid had a five-fold risk of seroconversion during follow-up compared to men presenting with urethritis. Uncircumcised men had an increased risk of seroconversion which was independent of their risk of genital ulcer disease. Over 95% of attributable risk in men with STD was either genital ulceration or the presence of a foreskin. Genital ulcers are a major risk factor for HIV infection among prostitutes. The increased risk is about 10-fold among prostitutes with ulcers compared to a cohort who did not. We hypothesize from these studies that genital ulcers are the major portals of entry for HIV infection and also increased shedding of virus infected cells into the vaginal secretions. HIV seropositive prostitutes are more susceptible to chancroid with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of genital ulcers as compared to HIV negative women. The use of condoms by their clients prevents both genital ulcer disease and HIV acquisition among prostitutes. Chancroid is more difficult to treat in HIV infected men with one-third of patients failing single dose treatment regimens as compared to less than five percent of men without HIV infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus-1 proteins with neurons : possible role in the development of human immunodeficiency virus-1-associated dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, M; Nottet, HSLM; Pereira, CF

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia is a severe neurological complication of HIV-1 infection that affects 15-20% of the patients in the late stages of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV-1-associated dementia is most probably a consequence of HIV-1 infection of the brain r

  14. Vaccine-induced protection from infection of mice by chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1, EcoHIV/NL4-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Volsky, David J; Potash, Mary Jane

    2007-12-17

    EcoHIV/NL4-3 is a chimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that can productively infect mice. This study tests the utility of EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection to reveal protective immune responses to an HIV-1 vaccine. Immunocompetent mice were first immunized with VRC 4306 which encodes subtype B consensus sequences of gag, pol, and nef and then were infected by EcoHIV/NL4-3. Anti-Gag antibodies were sampled during immunization and infection. The extent of EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection in spleen cells and peritoneal macrophages was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR). Although antibody titres were not significantly different in control and vaccinated groups, VRC 4306 immunization induced protective responses that significantly reduced virus burden in both lymphocyte and macrophage compartments. These results indicate that EcoHIV/NL4-3 infection can be controlled by HIV-1 vaccine-induced responses, introducing a small animal model to test vaccine efficacy against HIV-1 infection.

  15. Malignant syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiby Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant syphilis or Lues maligna, commonly reported in the pre-antibiotic era, has now seen a resurgence with the advent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Immunosuppression and sexual promiscuity set the stage for this deadly association of HIV and Treponema pallidum that can manifest atypically and can prove to cause diagnostic problems. We report one such case in a 30-year-old female who responded favorably to treatment with penicillin.

  16. Antenatal testing for human immunodeficiency virus. Results from the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists' National Study of HIV Infection in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, C F; Ades, A E; Hudson, C N; Peckham, C S

    1989-12-16

    Current policies on antenatal testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the main obstetric units of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland were surveyed by postal questionnaire; 294 of 299 units responded. HIV testing was available at 192 (65%) of the 294 units that responded. 414 HIV-positive pregnancies in 386 women were reported from 74 (25%) units. Most were from Scotland, the four Thames Regions, and Ireland. In 46% of the HIV-positive women the infection was identified by antenatal testing; the remainder had been tested previously and knew that they were infected. The findings support the view that selective antenatal testing should be established in areas where no testing is offered at present and possibly that testing should be offered to all pregnant women in high-prevalence areas.

  17. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoal parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Immune suppression caused by HIV infection is an important factor for atypical presentation and widespread progression of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Diffuse (disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV co-infection is emerging as an extremely serious new disease. A 38-year-old HIV-positive man presented with a 12-month history of a progressive papule and nodular eruptions on face and extremities with infiltrations of nasal and oral mucosa. We report the case due to its atypical, widespread muco-cutaneous presentation masquerading as lepromatous leprosy.

  18. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  19. Progress of bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) as non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Since the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported in 1981, AIDS, as the global disease affecting 33.2 million people in 2007, has always been an unsolved problem worldwide. Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a crucial enzyme in the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and thereby has been the prime drugs target for antiretroviral (ARV) therapy against AIDS. To date, two classes of RT inhibitors (RTIs), e.g., nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and a lot of compounds tested as RTIs have been described. To our knowledge, bis(heteroaryl)piperazines (BHAPs) have been considered as one class of promising NNRTIs, such as structurally and chemically related NNRTI delavirdine, which was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in 1997. In this mini-review, we make attempts to report the progress of synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of BHAPs, in the meantime, the synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 replication by combining delavirdine with other HIV-1 inhibitors is also discussed. It will pave the way for the design and development of BHAPs as anti-HIV-1 agents in AIDS chemotherapy in the future.

  20. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a child with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE in HIV-infected children is a scarcely reported entity with previous reports describing fulminant course. The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in altering its course remains unknown. We describe a child with HIV infection, who developed measles at 5 months of age and later developed SSPE at 14 years of age, remaining stable at 7 month follow-up, while on HAART for WHO (World Health Organisation stage IV disease. The dynamics of HIV-related immunosuppression has an impact on the clinical course of SSPE. Contrary to reported cases of fulminant progression, a classic presentation with slow progression can be expected in children on HAART. We reemphasize the recommendation of “early measles vaccination” to prevent measles infection and subsequent SSPE in these children with an increasingly good life expectancy in the era of HAART.

  2. Detection of human papilloma virus (HPV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A polymerized chain reaction (PCR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Dirasantchu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV have been shown to be etiologically related to the development of uterine, cervical, and other genital cancers, but their role in the development of malignancies at other sites is less well established. Previous studies have shown HPV in tumors of the head and neck, but its prevalence has varied depending on the detection methods and the types of tumor and/or tissue examined. This study was undertaken for the detection of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients histologically diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 10 apparently normal persons as controls were selected for the present study. Two biopsy specimens were removed surgically by incision biopsy for histopathological examination and polymerized chain reaction (PCR study. Results: Out of 25 oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects, 8 were found to be HPV positive in PCR. Out of these eight subjects, four had HPV 16 and the other four had other genotypes, and one subject was HIV positive. Conclusion: The conclusion drawn from the present study was that well-defined risk factors like HPV may play a prominent role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas, in addition to other risk factors. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary to arrive at conclusions and to explore the relationship of HPV and HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  3. Alkaloids from sponge, scaffolds for the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)

    KAUST Repository

    O'Rourke, Aubrie

    2016-05-06

    Anti-viral compounds with low cytotoxicity are identified from screening of products found in Red Sea sponges, including the sponge Stylissa carteri. The identified compounds can be brominated pyrrole-2- aminoimidazole alkaloids and derivatives thereof. Specific examples of identified compounds include oroidin, hymenialdisine, and debromohymenialdisine, as well as derivatives thereof. The compounds also can be useful scaffolds or pharmacores for further chemical modification and derivatization. Selected compounds, particularly oroidin, show selective anti-viral HIV-1 activity coupled with reduced cytotoxicity. The compounds can function as HIV reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and molecular modeling can be used to confirm inhibition.

  4. Putative cholesterol-binding sites in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovsky, Mikhail A; Lee, Po-Hsien; Ott, Albrecht; Helms, Volkhard

    2013-04-01

    Using molecular docking, we identified a cholesterol-binding site in the groove between transmembrane helices 1 and 7 near the inner membrane-water interface of the G protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV entry into cells. In this docking pose, the amino group of lysine K67 establishes a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of cholesterol, whereas tyrosine Y302 stacks with cholesterol by its aromatic side chain, and a number of residues form hydrophobic contacts with cholesterol. Sequence alignment showed that a similar putative cholesterol-binding site is also present in CCR5, another HIV coreceptor. We suggest that the interaction of cholesterol with these putative cholesterol-binding sites in CXCR4 and CCR5 is responsible for the presence of these receptors in lipid rafts, for the effect of cholesterol on their conformational stability and function, and for the role that cell cholesterol plays in the cell entry of HIV strains that use these membrane proteins as coreceptors. We propose that mutations of residues that are involved in cholesterol binding will make CXCR4 and CCR5 insensitive to membrane cholesterol content. Cholesterol-binding sites in HIV coreceptors are potential targets for steroid drugs that bind to CXCR4 and CCR5 with higher binding affinity than cholesterol, but do not stabilize the native conformation of these proteins.

  5. Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Greece. Multicentre Study on HIV-1 Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioulas, G; Paraskevis, D; Paparizos, V; Lazanas, M; Karafoulidou, A; Hatzakis, A

    1998-05-20

    The HIV-1 subtype distribution in 83 HIV-1-seropositive individuals living in Greece was investigated by using the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that partial HIV-1 gp120 sequences from 71 (86%) patients were subtype B, 5 (6%) were subtype A, 4 were subtype D (5%), 2 (2%) were subtype C, and 1 (1%) was subtype I. The subtype I isolate was documented in an intravenous drug user. A high prevalence (90-100%) of B isolates among intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs, and homosexual men was observed, in contrast to heterosexuals, among whom non-B subtypes seemed to be common (42.9%, p Greek population subtype B is the most frequent (94%), in contrast to the high prevalence (57%) of non-B isolates found in emigrants living in Greece (p Greek individual not traveling abroad was also documented. The broad HIV-1 diversity in Greece may be explained by population movements, such as migration and traveling.

  6. Noncirrhotic portal hypertension in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected adolescent

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    Aída de Fátima Thomé Barbosa Gouvêa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To alert the pediatrician who is following up HIV-infected patients about the possibility of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH in this period of life, in order to avoid the catastrophic consequences of this disease as bleeding esophageal varices. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 13 years old HIV-infected patient by vertical route was receiving didanosine (ddI for 12 years. Although the HIV viral load had been undetectable for 12 years, this patient showed gradual decrease of CD4+ T cells, prolonged thrombocytopenia and high alkaline phosphatase. Physical examination detected splenomegaly, which triggered the investigation that led to the diagnosis of severe liver fibrosis by transient elastography, probably due to hepatic toxicity by prolonged use of ddI. COMMENTS: This is the first case of NCPH in HIV-infected adolescent described in Brazil. Although, the NCPH is a rare disease entity in seropositive patients in the pediatric age group, it should be investigated in patients on long-term ddI or presenting clinical and laboratories indicators of portal hypertension, as splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase.

  7. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F

    2013-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  8. The radiological appearance of intracranial aneurysms in adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Blignaut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is estimated at 2.3%. Limited literature is available on intracranial aneurysms in HIV-infected patients.Objectives: To describe the radiological appearance of intracranial aneurysms in HIV-positive adults.Method: In this retrospective analysis of data, 23 HIV-positive patients, of which 15 (65.2%were female, with a total of 41 aneurysms were included. The mean age was 38 years, and their median CD4 count was 305 x 106/L. Inclusion criteria comprised subarachnoid haemorrhage and confirmed intracranial aneurysms on four-vessel angiography.Results: Fifteen (65.2% patients had a single aneurysm, of which 12 (80.0% had a saccular appearance. Seven (46.7% of the single aneurysms had a neck width larger than 50% of the transverse aneurysm sac size. The mean longitudinal diameter of the aneurysm sac was 4.9 mm and the transverse diameter 4.4 mm. More than half of these aneurysms occurred at the anterior communicating artery. The median CD4 count of single-aneurysm patients was 319 x 106 /L. Eight patients (34.8% had multiple aneurysms, with a total of 26 aneurysms (range 2–6 aneurysms per patient, of which 13 (50.0% had a complex appearance. Twenty-four (92.3% of the multiple aneurysms had a neck width larger than 50% of the transverse aneurysm sac size. The mean longitudinal diameter of the aneurysm sac was 4.0 mm and the transverse diameter 3.9 mm. The multiple aneurysms occurred more commonly in the internal carotid artery. These patients had a median CD4 count of 294 x 106/L.Conclusion: HIV-associated intracranial aneurysms occur at a younger age, appear to be saccular and complex in shape, with a wide neck, and might rupture at small sizes.

  9. Medical examination of aliens--removal of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection from definition of communicable disease of public health significance. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-02

    Through this final rule, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), is amending its regulations to remove "Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection" from the definition of communicable disease of public health significance and remove references to "HIV" from the scope of examinations for aliens. Prior to this final rule, aliens with HIV infection were considered to have a communicable disease of public health significance and were thus inadmissible to the United States per the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). While HIV infection is a serious health condition, it is not a communicable disease that is a significant public health risk for introduction, transmission, and spread to the U.S. population through casual contact. As a result of this final rule, aliens will no longer be inadmissible into the United States based solely on the ground they are infected with HIV, and they will not be required to undergo HIV testing as part of the required medical examination for U.S. immigration.

  10. Maraviroc (Celsentri) for multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndegwa, S

    2007-12-01

    (1) Maraviroc belongs to a new class of antiretroviral drugs designed to block entry of HIV-1 into CD4+ T-cells via the CCR5 coreceptor. It is indicated for combination therapy in treatment-experienced adults infected with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 that is resistant to multiple antiretroviral agents. (2) Results from two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) indicate that in treatment experienced patients, maraviroc, combined with optimized background therapy (OBT), significantly decreases the level of HIV-1 RNA in the blood (viral load) when compared with OBT alone. The number of patients achieving undetectable viral loads and CD4+ cell count increases were also significantly higher in those receiving maraviroc. (3) Most patients experiencing treatment failure with maraviroc exhibit tropism changes from CCR5-tropic to CXCR4-using virus, but there is no evidence of disease progression. (4) Adverse effects reported with maraviroc include cough, fever, upper respiratory tract infections, rash, muscle and joint pain, abdominal pain, and postural hypotension (dizziness). No significant increases in cardiovascular events, hepatotoxicity, infections or malignancies have been reported with short-term maraviroc therapy. Several post-marketing studies will assess maraviroc's long-term safety for immune function, liver function, malignancy, cardiac events, and risks associated with changes in tropism. (5) Results from an ongoing trial in treatment naive patients suggest that maraviroc may not be superior in terms of viral suppression to standard therapy, but may significantly increase the number of CD4+ T-cells.

  11. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA Class I Down-Regulation by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Negative Factor (HIV-1 Nef: What Might We Learn From Natural Sequence Variants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Mwimanzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 causes a chronic infection in humans that is characterized by high plasma viremia, progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and severe immunodeficiency resulting in opportunistic disease and AIDS. Viral persistence is mediated in part by the ability of the Nef protein to down-regulate HLA molecules on the infected cell surface, thereby allowing HIV-1 to evade recognition by antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes. Extensive research has been conducted on Nef to determine protein domains that are required for its immune evasion activities and to identify critical cellular co-factors, and our mechanistic understanding of this process is becoming more complete. This review highlights our current knowledge of Nef-mediated HLA class I down-regulation and places this work in the context of naturally occurring sequence variation in this protein. We argue that efforts to fully understand the critical role of Nef for HIV-1 pathogenesis will require greater analysis of patient-derived sequences to elucidate subtle differences in immune evasion activity that may alter clinical outcome.

  12. Spectrum of Clinical Presentations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infected Patients with Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, U H; Unuigbe, E I; Wokoma, F S

    2011-01-01

    HIV infection is a multiorgan disease with the kidney not spared. A variety of renal syndromes with varying clinical presentations has been reported amongst HIV infected patients. This study aims to highlight the spectrum of clinical presentations in HIV infected patients with renal disease. HIV infected patients presenting at University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Benin City were the study population. A total of 383 patients were studied. Their biodata, clinical presentations and laboratory investigations including serum urea, creatinine and albumin, urine protein and creatinine were assessed. Their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and protein urine excretion were calculated using six equations of modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and protein: creatinine ratio respectively. Patients were stratified according to their renal functions into normal, mild, moderate and severe renal function impairment. The data was analysed using statistical software program SPSS Vs 15.0. 53.3% of 383 patients screened had renal function impairment, 40.2% mild, 37.7% moderate and 22.2% severe impairment. Mean age was 35.6±8.3, 36.0±9.9 and 36.3±8.3 years for mild, moderate and severe renal function impairment (RFI) respectively. Easy fatigability was the commonest symptoms occurring in 47.5%, 30.0%, 37.5% and 22.5% of control, mild RFI, moderate RFI and severe RFI subjects respectively (p = 0.568). Oliguria, facial and body swelling occurred more in patients with RFI especially in patients with severe renal impairment. The difference is statistically significant (p = 0.046, 0.041, and 0.033 respectively). Pallor was the commonest clinical sign occurring in 32.5%, 50.0%, 35.0% and 62.5% of control and patients with mild, moderate, and severe RFI respectively; the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.459). Ascites, facial puffiness and pedal oedema were commoner in patients with RFI especially those with severe RFI. The differences were statistically

  13. Cardiovascular implications from untreated human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jason V; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become an important cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with access to antiretroviral medications, as the risk for AIDS has fallen and life expectancy improved. Traditional CVD risk...

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: ... were analyzed using molecular biology techniques that involved RT-PCR, ... There is evidence of genetic diversity of HIV and HCV; virulent hepatitis C virus ...

  15. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones t...

  16. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M.; Rabi, S. Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R.; Mullins, James I.; Mosier, Donald E.; Siliciano, Robert F.; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  17. Adhesion and fusion efficiencies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowsky, Terrence M; Rabi, S Alireza; Nedellec, Rebecca; Daniels, Brian R; Mullins, James I; Mosier, Donald E; Siliciano, Robert F; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-22

    In about half of patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, viral populations shift from utilizing the transmembrane protein CCR5 to CXCR4, as well as or instead of CCR5, during late stage progression of the disease. How the relative adhesion efficiency and fusion competency of the viral Env proteins relate to infection during this transition is not well understood. Using a virus-cell fusion assay and live-cell single-molecule force spectroscopy, we compare the entry competency of viral clones to tensile strengths of the individual Env-receptor bonds of Env proteins obtained from a HIV-1 infected patient prior to and during coreceptor switching. The results suggest that the genetic determinants of viral entry were predominantly enriched in the C3, HR1 and CD regions rather than V3. Env proteins can better mediate entry into cells after coreceptor switch; this effective entry capacity does not correlate with the bond strengths between viral Env and cellular receptors.

  18. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charlotte A.; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods. This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results. Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7–27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4+ cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions. The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections. PMID:26613097

  19. How important are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical markers to the long-term formal employment among people living with HIV in developing countries? A study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odek, W O; Glendinning, A; Charalambous, S

    2014-01-01

    To examine the relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) clinical markers and socio-demographic characteristics with long-term formal employment among people living with HIV (PLHIV). 554 adults, 55% females, on HIV treatment for at least two years at two public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective cohort design, tracing changes in study participants' formal employment status since the first HIV-positive diagnosis. Data collection included historical medical records review and interviewer-administered questionnaires. 44% of all study participants (39% and 49% among males and females, respectively) were formally employed at the time of the study, primarily in low-skilled jobs in the private sector. The majority (83%) of males and 60% of females remained in formal employment since being diagnosed as HIV-positive. Female gender, education to grade 12 or higher, a smaller household size and being married were significantly associated with current formal employment. Formal employment was unrelated to HIV treatment indicators (CD4 count, viral load and duration since diagnosis). Of those in formal employment, 68 (28%) were aware of HIV policies at their workplaces, which was also positively associated with the duration in their current employment. PLHIV in developing country contexts can enter into and maintain formal employment, especially when treatment and workplace support are available. Thus, employer organisations should implement effective workplace HIV policies to enhance employment experiences of their workforce living with HIV. Care and support services for people on HIV treatment should also address their career development needs.

  20. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  1. Beta-cell dysfunction and low insulin clearance in insulin-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Vølund, Aage

    2005-01-01

    of diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance. Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. A composite measure of insulin sensitivity was derived from the OGTT. RESULTS: Beta-cell secretory capacity (i.e. the rate of change in insulin secretion per unit...... and diabetes mellitus (63%vs. 20%, P insulin sensitivity despite simultaneous reduction in insulin clearance.......OBJECTIVE: To obtain a better understanding of the physiological aspects of glucose homeostasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy, we evaluated separately beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity after an oral glucose load. DESIGN: Beta-cell function...

  2. Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and for Evaluating Functional Limitations in Immune System Disorders. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-02

    We are revising the criteria in the Listing of Impairments (listings) that we use to evaluate claims involving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children under titles II and XVI of the Social Security Act (Act). We also are revising the introductory text of the listings that we use to evaluate functional limitations resulting from immune system disorders. The revisions reflect our program experience, advances in medical knowledge, our adjudicative experience, recommendations from a commissioned report, and comments from medical experts and the public.

  3. Pulmonary malakoplakia associated with immunodeficiency by HTLV-1 and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Madruga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Malakoplakia is a rare chronic inflammatory disease often confused with neoplasia. In this paper we report two cases of pulmonary Malakoplakia, both with typical clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and lung cancer. A patient with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1 and diagnosis of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and another patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which was treated for tuberculosis, but, after pulmonary lobectomy, was evidenced Rodococosis equi, progressed to death.

  4. Individual Factors of Social Acceptance in Patients Infected With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV at the Yazd Behavioral Consultation Center in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background A considerable number of patients infected with HIV also have mental health problems. Individual psychotherapy is an effective way to treat these issues. Lack of social acceptance is a barrier to patients receiving proper medication and emotional/psychological support. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the individual factors of social acceptance in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Patients and Methods Fifty HIV-infected patients who were registered in the Behavioral Consultation Center entered the study. Each of them filled out a questionnaire based on the Crown-Marlow social acceptance scale. Their answers were evaluated according to the questionnaire key. Results Forty-five patients (90% were male and five (10% were female. Their ages ranged between 28 and 52 years old. Other variables researched in this study include patients’ age, sex, education, occupation, place of living, marital status, family history of HIV, and family history of psychological disorders. Employed patients experienced more social acceptance than housewives and people who were unemployed or retired. Conclusions This study showed that HIV-infected patients with jobs enjoy a great deal of acceptance from the people around them and a higher quality of life in general. It also led to suggestions for further study with the purpose of finding more effective solutions for HIV prevention and better strategies for dealing with psychological disorders. Such research could also help in providing an enhanced understanding of the potential psychological impact that AIDS has on patients in Iran.

  5. Natural variation of the nef gene in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infections in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pádua, E.; Jenkins, A.; S. Brown; Bootman, J.; Paixão, M T; Almond, N; Berry, N

    2003-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infections cause severe immunodeficiency in humans, although HIV-2 is associated frequently with reduced virulence and pathogenicity compared to HIV-1. Genetic determinants that play a role in HIV pathogenesis are relatively poorly understood but nef has been implicated in inducing a more pathogenic phenotype in vivo. However, relatively little is known about the role of nef in HIV-2 pathogenesis. To address this, the genetic composition of 44 nef a...

  6. Lipid management in human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myerson, Merle

    2015-05-01

    The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV.

  7. Establishment of the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esper Georges Kallas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Several strategies aim at characterizing the AIDS epidemic in different parts of the world. Among these, the identification of recent HIV-1 infections using the recently described serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy was employed in four testing sites of the City of São Paulo Public Health Department (CSPPHD. Those identified as recently infected were invited to participate in a prospective clinical and laboratory evaluation study. We describe the establishment of the patient identification network and the success in enrolling the participants, as well as their clinical and laboratory characteristics. From May to December 2002, 6,443 persons were tested for HIV in the four participating sites, of whom 384 (5.96% tested HIV-1 positive; 43 (11.2% of them were identified as recently infected. Twenty-two were successfully enrolled in the follow-up study, but three of them did not meet clinical and/or laboratory criteria for recent HIV-1 infection. After these exclusions, the laboratory findings revealed a median CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 585 cells/muL (inter-quartile range 25-75% [IQR], 372-754, a CD8+ T lymphocyte count of 886 cells/muL (IQR, 553-1098, a viral load of 11,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (IQR, 3,650-78,150, log10 of 4.04 (IQR 3.56-4.88. The identification of recent HIV infections is an extremely valuable way to evaluate the spread of the virus in a given population, especially when cohort studies, considered the gold standard method to evaluate incidence, are not available. This work demonstrated that establishing a network to identify such patients is a feasible task, even considering the difficulties in a large, resource-limited country or city.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus serological responses and viral burdens in HIV-infected patients treated with HAART

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Establishment of the serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esper Georges Kallas

    Full Text Available Several strategies aim at characterizing the AIDS epidemic in different parts of the world. Among these, the identification of recent HIV-1 infections using the recently described serologic testing algorithm for recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seroconversion (STARHS strategy was employed in four testing sites of the City of São Paulo Public Health Department (CSPPHD. Those identified as recently infected were invited to participate in a prospective clinical and laboratory evaluation study. We describe the establishment of the patient identification network and the success in enrolling the participants, as well as their clinical and laboratory characteristics. From May to December 2002, 6,443 persons were tested for HIV in the four participating sites, of whom 384 (5.96% tested HIV-1 positive; 43 (11.2% of them were identified as recently infected. Twenty-two were successfully enrolled in the follow-up study, but three of them did not meet clinical and/or laboratory criteria for recent HIV-1 infection. After these exclusions, the laboratory findings revealed a median CD4+ T lymphocyte count of 585 cells/muL (inter-quartile range 25-75% [IQR], 372-754, a CD8+ T lymphocyte count of 886 cells/muL (IQR, 553-1098, a viral load of 11,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (IQR, 3,650-78,150, log10 of 4.04 (IQR 3.56-4.88. The identification of recent HIV infections is an extremely valuable way to evaluate the spread of the virus in a given population, especially when cohort studies, considered the gold standard method to evaluate incidence, are not available. This work demonstrated that establishing a network to identify such patients is a feasible task, even considering the difficulties in a large, resource-limited country or city.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Xudong; Dong, Meng; Li, Ling; Wang, Xinhua; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Xiaorui; Sun, Zhenchang; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Zhaoming; Chang, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Chen, Qingjiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare subtype of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that predominantly manifests in the oral cavity. Patient concerns: Three cases of HIV-negative PBL were reported. Diagnoses: HIV-negative PBL Interventions: The patient had undergone chemotherapy. Outcomes: Clinical outcomes were very poor in Cases 1 and 3; Case 2, whose diagnosis suggested no bone marrow involvement, is still alive. Lessons subsections: These cases served to broaden the reported clinical spectrum of HIV-negative PBL. Clinicians and pathologists need to be familiar with lymphoma in the identified extra-oral PBL variation and there levant differential diagnosis procedures for this particular disease. PMID:28207555

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, S Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2015-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection.

  12. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  13. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Maryam; Arman, Soroor; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive member. METHODS: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old) with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report), General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28) and Family Assessment Device (FAD), conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0). RESULTS: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40%) and conduct problem (33.3%). There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers’ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms) in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention). CONCLUSIONS: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22091302

  14. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral stress management training on mental health, social interaction and family function in adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keypour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated stress management training to improve mental health, social interaction and family function among adolescents of families with one Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV positive member. Methods: There were 34 adolescents (13-18 years old with at least one family member living with HIV from whom finally 15 attended the study and participated in 8 weekly sessions of stress management training. The tests used in this study were: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self and parent report, General Health Questionnare-28 (GHQ-28 and Family Assessment Device (FAD, conducted before, after and three months after the intervention. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measure test using SPSS software (Version 18.0. Results: Adolescents with one HIV positive family member showed high level of emotional problem (40% and conduct problem (33.3%. There was a significant difference between before, after and 3months after intervention based on GHQ-28 mean scores and FAD mean sores (p < 0.001. There was a significant difference between mean scores of peers′ relationship based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms before and after intervention, but there was no significant difference between mean scores of pro social behavior based on SDQ (self report and parents report forms in all three stages (before, after and three months after intervention. Conclusions: Stress management training is effective in improving mental health, family function and social interaction among adolescents living with parents infected with HIV/AIDS.

  15. Seroprevalence and Co-Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Among Pregnant Women in Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Amuda, Oluwatomi Olufunke; Nzurumike, Charles; Suleiman, Muhammed Mustapha; Ikhevha Ogah, Jeremiah

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. Objectives To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional, prospective study, which was carried out among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the federal medical centre in Lokoja, Nigeria. sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-HSV status were determined by the use of a structured questionnaire and immunoassay kits, respectively. All data were analyzed using Stata statistical software (version 12), and the level of significance was determined to be P < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results Of the 250 pregnant women screened for HIV and HSV, 154 (61.6%) were in the 2nd trimester of gestation, and all of the co-infected respondents were in their 2nd trimester. Only six (2.4%) of the respondents tested positive for HIV, with all six (100%) showing positivity for HSV so the co-infection rate was six (2.4%). Co-infection was found to occur between the ages of 15 and 35 years, while higher age groups did not show any co-infection. Parity, level of education, and history of painful genital ulcers had no significant association with co-infection. Conclusions Advocacy and publicity to raise awareness of the potential public health impact of HSV and HIV co-infection in Nigeria, where anti-HSV testing is not generally performed in all populations, is therefore recommended.

  16. Association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and arterial stiffness in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilder, Justin S.; Idris, Nikmah S.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Cheung, Michael M H; Burgner, David; Kurniati, Nia; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M

    2017-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and adverse cardiovascular outcome in adults. Early recognition of changes in vascular properties might prove essential in cardiovascular prevention in HIV-infected patients. We investigated the

  17. Molecular epidemiology of co-infection with hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among adult patients in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudi, Ian; Iijima, Sayuki; Chin'ombe, Nyasha; Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Sekesai; Murakami, Shuko; Isogawa, Masanori; Hachiya, Atsuko; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the genetic characteristics of both viruses among pre-HIV-treatment patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. This cross-sectional survey involved 176 remnant plasma samples collected from consenting HIV patients (median age 35 [18-74]) between June and September 2014. HBV seromarkers were determined by high-sensitivity chemiluminescence assays. Molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted on the basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and S regions of HBV, as well as part of the HIV pol region. Of the 176 participants (65.7% female), 19 (10.8%) were positive for HBsAg (median 0.033 IU/ml (IQR 0.01-415). The HBsAg incidence was higher in men than women (P = 0.009). HBsAg-positive subjects had lower median CD4 counts (P = 0.016). HBV DNA was detectable in 12 HBsAg-positive samples (median 3.36 log cp/ml (2.86-4.51), seven being amplified and sequenced. All isolates were subgenotype A1 without HBV drug resistance mutations but each had at least one BCP/PC mutation. PreS deletion mutants and small S antigen variants M133I/T and D144G were identified. Of the 164 HIV isolates successfully genotyped, 163 (99.4%) were HIV-1 subtype C and only one was HIV-1 subtype F1. Sixteen (9.8%) had at least one drug resistance mutation, predominantly non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-related mutations, observed mostly among female participants. This study shows that co-infection with HBV is present among HIV patients enrolling into HIV care in Zimbabwe, suggesting that HBV screening and monitoring programmes be strengthened in this context. J. Med. Virol. 89:257-266, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Selective killing of human immunodeficiency virus infected cells by non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-induced activation of HIV protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smeulders Liesbeth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current antiretroviral therapy against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 reduces viral load and thereby prevents viral spread, but it cannot eradicate proviral genomes from infected cells. Cells in immunological sanctuaries as well as cells producing low levels of virus apparently contribute to a reservoir that maintains HIV persistence in the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Thus, accelerated elimination of virus producing cells may represent a complementary strategy to control HIV infection. Here we sought to exploit HIV protease (PR related cytotoxicity in order to develop a strategy for drug induced killing of HIV producing cells. PR processes the viral Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins during virus maturation, but is also implicated in killing of virus producing cells through off-target cleavage of host proteins. It has been observed previously that micromolar concentrations of certain non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs can stimulate intracellular PR activity, presumably by enhancing Gag-Pol dimerization. Results Using a newly developed cell-based assay we compared the degree of PR activation displayed by various NNRTIs. We identified inhibitors showing higher potency with respect to PR activation than previously described for NNRTIs, with the most potent compounds resulting in ~2-fold increase of the Gag processing signal at 250 nM. The degree of enhancement of intracellular Gag processing correlated with the compound's ability to enhance RT dimerization in a mammalian two-hybrid assay. Compounds were analyzed for their potential to mediate specific killing of chronically infected MT-4 cells. Levels of cytotoxicity on HIV infected cells determined for the different NNRTIs corresponded to the relative degree of drug induced intracellular PR activation, with CC50 values ranging from ~0.3 μM to above the tested concentration range (10 μM. Specific cytotoxicity was reverted by addition

  19. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vitro by anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies: peripheral glycosylation of HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 may be a target for virus neutralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Clausen, H; Nielsen, C

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrate structures are often involved in the initial adhesion of pathogens to target cells. In the present study, a panel of anticarbohydrate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was tested for their ability to inhibit in vitro human immunodeficiency virus infectivity. MAbs against three different N...... carbohydrate structures expressed by the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120, indicating that glycans of the viral envelope are possible targets for immunotherapy or vaccine development or both....

  20. Nonvertical, nonsexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paula; Pedro, Alinia; Le Bozec, Soazig; Macassa, Eugenia; Salvador, Sergio; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Blanche, Stéphane; Andersson, Sören

    2010-03-01

    In a cohort of 450 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children followed up in Maputo, Mozambique, 22 were born to HIV-uninfected mothers and had no history of sexual abuse. A case record review of these nonvertically, nonsexually infected children as well as a case-control study strongly suggests health care as possible source of infection for many of these children. This facet of the pediatric HIV epidemic should not be overlooked.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Kouhpayeh, Hamid-Reza; Moazen, Javad; Farrokhian, Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. On the other hand, a patient with HIV can acquire other infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and also STIs. Co-infections and co-morbidities can affect the treatment route of patients with HIV/AIDs. Sometimes, physicians should treat these infections before treating the HIV infection. Therefore, it is important to identify co-infection or comorbidity in patients with HIV/AIDS. This study was conducted in order to understand the prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STI co-infection. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the infectious wards of Boo-Ali hospital (Southeastern Iran) between March 2000 and January 2015. All HIV/AIDS patients were studied for sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and genital herpes. A questionnaire including data on age, sex, job, history of vaccination against HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), HCV-Ab, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, and urine culture was designed. Data was analyzed by the Chi square test and P values of VDRL. The FTA-Abs was positive for all patients who were positive for VDRL. Gonorrhea was found in seven patients (17%) and three cases had genital herpes in clinical examinations. All patients who had positive test results for these STIs

  2. Serum Zinc Concentration and C-Reactive Protein in Individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: the Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Krishna C; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-05-01

    Low zinc levels and chronic inflammation are common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Zinc deficiency may promote systemic inflammation, but research on the role of zinc in inflammation among HIV-positive individuals taking account of anti-retroviral therapy is lacking. We assessed the association between serum zinc and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in a cohort of HIV-positive individuals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 311 HIV-positive individuals (177 men and 134 women) aged 18-60 years residing in Kathmandu, Nepal. High-sensitive or regular serum CRP concentrations were measured by the latex agglutination nephelometry or turbidimetric method, and zinc concentrations were measured by the atomic absorption method. Relationships were assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The geometric means of zinc in men and women were 73.83 and 71.93 ug/dL, respectively, and of CRP were 1.64 and 0.96 mg/L, respectively. Mean serum CRP concentration was significantly decreased with increasing serum zinc concentration across zinc tertiles (P for trend = 0.010), with mean serum CRP concentration in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentration was 44.2 % lower than that in the lowest tertile. The mean serum CRP concentrations in men and women in the highest tertile of serum zinc concentrations were 30 and 35.9 % lower, respectively, than that in the lowest tertile (P for trend = 0.263 and 0.162, respectively). We found a significant inverse relation between log zinc and log CRP concentrations (beta for 1 unit change in log zinc; β = -1.79, p = 0.0003). Serum zinc concentration may be inversely associated with serum CRP concentration in HIV-positive individuals.

  3. Assessment of sex-related behaviours, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men of reproductive age in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the major public health challenges in Cameroon. This paper determined the effect of men's sex-related behaviors and HIV knowledge on reported STIs. The data came from the 2012 Cameroon's Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) that were collected from 7191 respondents in 2012. Descriptive and logistic regression methods were used for data analysis. Results showed that majority of the respondents were aware of STIs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), while 3.96% reported STIs. Also, 49.45% of the men had no wife, while 75.58% and 84.58% noted that condoms and keeping of one partner could be used to prevent HIV transmission, respectively. Wrong impressions that mosquito bites and sharing of food could lead to HIV infection were held by 31.94% and 12.44% of the men, respectively. Among those that reported STIs, 33.33%, 30.18% and 13.33% respectively used condom during sex with most recent partner, second to most recent partner and third to most recent partner, compared to 24.69%, 15.04% and 4.17% among those that did not report STIs. Logistic regression results showed that probability of STI increased significantly (p knowledge that mosquito bites cause HIV and being away for more than one month, while it significantly reduced (p knowledge that having one partner prevents STIs. It was concluded that policy initiatives and programmes to enhance right sexual knowledge and behavior among men would go a long way in reducing STI incidence in Cameroon.

  4. Response to region of difference 1 (RD1) epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals enrolled with suspected active tuberculosis: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, D; Carrara, S; Butera, O; Bizzoni, F; Casetti, R; Girardi, E; Goletti, D

    2007-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most frequent co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, and which still presents diagnostic difficulties. Recently we set up an assay based on interferon (IFN)-γ response to region of difference 1 (RD1) peptides selected by computational analysis which is associated with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication. The objective of this study was to investigate the response to RD1 selected peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals in a clinical setting. The mechanisms of this immune response and comparison with other immune assays were also investigated. A total of 111 HIV-infected individuals with symptoms and signs consistent with active tuberculosis were enrolled prospectively. Interferon (IFN)-γ responses to RD1 selected peptides and recall antigens were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results were correlated with CD4− T cell counts, individuals' characteristics, tuberculin skin test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold and T-SPOT.TB. Results from 21 (19%) individuals were indeterminate due to in vitro cell anergy. Among ‘non-anergic’ individuals, sensitivity for active tuberculosis of the assay based on RD1 selected peptides was 67% (24 of 36), specificity was 94% (three of 54). The assay also resulted positive in cases of extra-pulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary active tuberculosis. The response was mediated by CD4− effector/memory T cells and correlated with CD4− T cell counts, but not with plasma HIV-RNA load. Moreover, the RD1 selected peptides assay had the highest diagnostic odds ratio for active tuberculosis compared to tuberculin skin test (TST), QuantiFERON-TB Gold and T-SPOT.TB. RD1 selected peptides assay is associated with M. tuberculosis replication in HIV-infected individuals, although T cell anergy remains an important obstacle to be overcome before the test can be proposed as a diagnostic tool. PMID:17680823

  5. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Marchesini, Emanuela; Awad, Tahany;

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).......Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)....

  6. The Ability of an Oligomeric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Antigen To Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies against Primary HIV-1 Isolates Is Improved following Partial Deletion of the Second Hypervariable Region

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, S. W.; Lu, S.; Srivastava, I.; Cherpelis, S.; Gettie, A.; Blanchard, J.; Wang, S.; Mboudjeka, I.; Leung, L; Lian, Y.; Fong, A.; Buckner, C.; Ly, A.; Hilt, S.; Ulmer, J.

    2001-01-01

    Partial deletion of the second hypervariable region from the envelope of the primary-like SF162 virus increases the exposure of certain neutralization epitopes and renders the virus, SF162ΔV2, highly susceptible to neutralization by clade B and non-clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive) sera (L. Stamatatos and C. Cheng-Mayer, J. Virol. 78:7840–7845, 1998). This observation led us to propose that the modified, SF162ΔV2-derived envelope may elicit higher titers of cross-reactive ne...

  7. Methamphetamine enhances human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection in macrophages%甲基苯丙胺对HIV-1感染人巨噬细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 梁冰玉; 蒋俊俊; 廖艳研; 蒋敦科; 曾锦荣; 阮族明

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究甲基苯丙胺(METH)是否促进HIV-1感染人巨噬细胞及其机制.方法 采集健康成人新鲜外周血,分离单核细胞,再经贴壁法培养纯化为巨噬细胞.用METH和/或多巴胺受体D1阻滞剂对巨噬细胞作预处理,加进HIV Bal病毒感染细胞,收集细胞,检测细胞中HIV RNA的水平;同时,采用实时荧光定量PCR检测巨噬细胞多巴胺受体D1的表达,探讨METH在HIV-1感染人巨噬细胞中的作用及可能机制.结果 METH处理可增强HIV Bal在人巨噬细胞中的感染和复制,呈剂量依赖和时间效应关系;机制研究表明METH是通过细胞的多巴胺受体发挥作用,用多巴胺受体D1阻滞剂(SCH23390)可以阻断METH处理导致的人巨噬细胞感染HIV Bal的增强.此外,METH处理可以上调细胞多巴胺受体D1的表达,有助于HIV在细胞中的感染和复制.结论 METH可能通过诱导巨噬细胞多巴胺受体D1的表达,促进HIV在巨噬细胞中的感染和复制,是HIV感染的协同因子.%Objective To investigate whether methamphetamine (METH) can enhance human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in macrophages and the possible mechanism.Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from eight healthy adult donors.Monocytes were isolated from blood samples and then cultured in vitro to induce differentiation to macrophages.These macrophages were treated with METH and/or dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) antagonist,and then infected with HIV Bal strains.The levels of HIV RNA were measured in HIV Bal-infected macrophages by RT-PCR analysis.The real-time RTPCR was performed for the quantification of cellular DRD1.Results METH promoted HIV replication in macrophages in a dose and time dependent manner.This METH-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and replication in macrophages could be blocked by the DRD1 antagonist (SCH23390).Moreover,METH could induce the expression of DRD1.Conclusion METH might play a co-factor role in HIV infection in human

  8. Management of dyslipidemia in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemias are more common in the patient population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced HIV-associated morbidity and mortality and has transformed HIV disease into a chronic, manageable condition. As a result, non-AIDS-related illnesses, including cardiovascular diseases, are now the leading causes of death in the HIV-infected population. Optimizing fasting lipid parameters plays an important role in reducing cardiovascular risk in this population. This review focuses on the management of dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination ART.

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, H W; Telzak, E E; Sepkowitz, K A; Wormser, G P

    1998-12-01

    The acceptance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among patients and health care providers has had a dramatic impact on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of many opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Previously intractable opportunistic infections and syndromes are now far less common. In addition, effective antibiotic prophylactic therapies have had a profound impact on the risk of patients developing particular infections and on the incidence of these infections overall. Most notable among these are Pneumocystis carinii, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, tuberculosis, and toxoplasmosis. Nevertheless, infections continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality among patients who are infected with HIV. The role of HAART in many clinical situations is unquestioned. Compelling data from clinical trials support the use of these therapies during pregnancy to prevent perinatal transmission of HIV. HAART is also recommended for health care workers who have had a "significant" exposure to the blood of an HIV-infected patient. Both of these situations are discussed in detail in this article. In addition, although more controversial, increasing evidence supports the use of HAART during the acute HIV seroconversion syndrome. An "immune reconstitution syndrome" has been newly described for patients in the early phases of treatment with HAART who develop tuberculosis, M avium complex, and cytomegalovirus disease. Accumulating data support the use of hydroxyurea, an agent with a long history in the field of myeloproliferative disorders, for the treatment of HIV. Newer agents, particularly abacavir and adefovir dipivoxil, are available through expanded access protocols, and their roles are being defined and clarified.

  10. The surgeon and human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Jens; Kalangu, Kazadi K N

    2003-08-01

    The moral dilemmas faced by surgeons worldwide who treat patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be viewed against the background of experience in sub-Saharan countries, where the community prevalence is in excess of 25% (90% of hospital inpatients). When seeking consent for an HIV test before surgery, frank communication regarding the surgeons' perspective of risks to themselves and the patient is helpful. When consent for a test must be obtained from a substitute decision-maker, the surgeon should consider if the patient would want the decision-maker to know the result. Understanding the natural history of HIV in the surgical setting can help deal with the uncertainties encountered and should be a research priority for developing countries. International professional organizations are useful platforms for the exchange of ideas when surgeons encounter uncertainty by increasing access to journals and creating opportunities for discussion. Although supervisory bodies in some parts of the world prevent HIV-infected surgeons from putting patients at risk by offering surgery, the withdrawal of their services in developing countries can cause more harm than good. Surgeons in that position may be entitled to offer surgery but only with full disclosure of the risk of HIV infection to the patient. The decision-making process known as "accountability for reasonableness" allows surgeons to determine fairness, legitimacy, and acceptability when making resource allocation decisions involving patients with HIV.

  11. Potent and synergistic neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolates by hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin combined with monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 2G12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L

    1997-10-01

    Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization.

  12. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  13. Effects of the I559P gp41 change on the conformation and function of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 membrane envelope glycoprotein trimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmin Alsahafi

    Full Text Available The mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env trimer is produced by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor and consists of three gp120 exterior and three gp41 transmembrane subunits. The metastable Env complex is induced to undergo conformational changes required for virus entry by the binding of gp120 to the receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. An isoleucine-to-proline change (I559P in the gp41 ectodomain has been used to stabilize soluble forms of HIV-1 Env trimers for structural characterization and for use as immunogens. In the native membrane-anchored HIV-1BG505 Env, the I559P change modestly decreased proteolytic maturation, increased the non-covalent association of gp120 with the Env trimer, and resulted in an Env conformation distinctly different from that of the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env. Compared with the wild-type Env, the I559P Env was recognized inefficiently by polyclonal sera from HIV-1-infected individuals, by several gp41-directed antibodies, by some antibodies against the CD4-binding site of gp120, and by antibodies that preferentially recognize the CD4-bound Env. Some of the gp120-associated antigenic differences between the wild-type HIV-1BG505 Env and the I559P mutant were compensated by the SOS disulfide bond between gp120 and gp41, which has been used to stabilize cleaved soluble Env trimers. Nonetheless, regardless of the presence of the SOS changes, Envs with proline 559 were recognized less efficiently than Envs with isoleucine 559 by the VRC01 neutralizing antibody, which binds the CD4-binding site of gp120, and the PGT151 neutralizing antibody, which binds a hybrid gp120-gp41 epitope. The I559P change completely eliminated the ability of the HIV-1BG505 Env to mediate cell-cell fusion and virus entry, and abolished the capacity of the SOS Env to support virus infection in the presence of a reducing agent. These results suggest that differences exist between the quaternary structures of functional Env

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 long terminal repeat: analysis of regulatory elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, S. K.; Gallo, R C

    1988-01-01

    The long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and a related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac) contain cis-acting positive regulatory elements upstream and the major transactivator gene (tat) response element and a possible negative regulatory element downstream of the transcriptional initiation site. The tat response element of HIV-2 and of SIVmac was more complex than that of HIV-1. Two structurally similar subelements within the HIV-2 tat response ...

  15. High human immunodeficiency virus incidence in a cohort of Rwandan female sex workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Braunstein; C.M. Ingabire; E. Kestelyn; A.U. Uwizera; L. Mwamarangwe; J. Ntirushwa; D. Nash; N.J. Veldhuijzen; A. Nel; J. Vyankandondera; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) incidence among female sex workers in Rwanda is a key part of preparing for HIV prevention trials. HIV-negative, nonpregnant female sex workers (N =397) were tested for HIV-1, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy quarterly for 12 months, and

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Arikan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes.

  17. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  18. Cardiac Disease Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Gerald S; Leung, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Over the last 2 decades human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term management. Aging, antiretroviral therapy, chronic inflammation, and several other factors contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in patients infected with HIV. In low-income and middle-income countries where antiretroviral therapy access is limited, cardiac disease is most commonly related to opportunistic infections and end-stage manifestations of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, including HIV-associated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Cardiovascular screening, prevention, and risk factor management are important factors in the management of patients infected with HIV worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sexual Assault: A Report on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Postexposure Prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Griffith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this report is to describe an urban county hospital human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prevention protocol offering prophylactic combination antiretroviral medications to female victims of sexual assault. A retrospective chart review was conducted from June, 2007 through June, 2008 of 151 women who were prescribed antiretroviral prophylaxis by protocol. All women receiving HIV prophylaxis initially screened HIV seronegative. Of the 58 women who reported taking any HIV prophylaxis, 36 (62% were HIV screened at 12 and/or 24 weeks and none had HIV seroconverted. Although the initiation of an HIV post exposure prophylaxis protocol for sexual assault in a county hospital population is feasible, patient follow-up for counseling and HIV serostatus evaluation is an identified barrier

  20. Monocytotropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants detectable in all stages of HIV-1 infection lack T-cell line tropism and syncytium-inducing ability in primary T-cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitemaker, H; Kootstra, N A; de Goede, R E; de Wolf, F; Miedema, F; Tersmette, M

    1991-01-01

    We previously demonstrated a correlation between the presence of syncytium-inducing (SI) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants showing tropism for cell line H9 and the occurrence of rapid CD4 cell decline and progression to AIDS. In contrast, in stable asymptomatic individuals, we detected only isolates with low replication rates that were non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) and nontropic for the H9 cell line. Here, we investigated the monocytotropism of established HIV-1 isolates with a panel of isolates and with biological HIV-1 clones with distinct phenotypes. Moreover, the prevalence and biological phenotypes of monocytotropic HIV-1 variants in the course of HIV-1 infection were analyzed in comparative primary isolation studies on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). In cell-free infection studies with MDM from eight blood donors, 13 of 17 NSI isolates but only 4 of 14 SI isolates were able to infect MDM. NSI isolates also infected significantly more different donors than SI variants (median, 3 of 8 versus 0 of 8). This enhanced monocytotropism of NSI isolates was confirmed in experiments with biological HIV-1 clones with distinct phenotypes recovered from the same donor. To investigate the prevalence and biological phenotypes of monocytotropic variants in different stages of HIV-1 infection, sequential isolates from peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from nine asymptomatic individuals, five of whom progressed to AIDS and seven of whom had a known time of seroconversion, were recovered by cocultivation with both PBL and MDM. Monocytotropic variants were obtained from 37 of 42 time points. All monocytotropic variants were NSI in PBL culture and non-T-cell-line tropic, even when SI, T-cell-line-tropic HIV-1 variants could be recovered from the same patient sample by cocultivation with PBL. We conclude that monocytotropic HIV-1 variants mostly have an NSI phenotype in PBL and, in contrast to SI variants, are

  1. Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Rodrigo C S; de França, Emmanuel R; de Petribú, Kátia C L; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Quintas, Lóren F F M; Cavalcanti, Ernando L F; Kitamura, Marco A P; Magalhães, Kássia A A; Paiva, Késsia C F; Filho, Demócrito B Miranda

    2014-04-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS. A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment. Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis. The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A

    1997-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.

  3. The effect of tenidap on cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: correlation between plasma HIV-1 RNA and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezube, B J; Lederman, M M; Chapman, B; Georges, D L; Dogon, A L; Mudido, P; Reis-Lishing, J; Cheng, S L; Silberman, S L; Crumpacker, C S

    1997-09-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Tenidap decreases interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and decreases IL-6 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In this randomized double-blind study, 43 HIV-1-infected patients received tenidap (120 mg) or placebo daily for 6 weeks and then crossed over to the alternative therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Mean entry CD4 cell count was 140/microL. Analyses were performed on cytokines, acute-phase proteins, virus load, and CD4 cell counts. With the exception of small differences in plasma TNF levels, tenidap had no significant effect on these indices. Significant correlations of plasma IL-6 and TNF levels with HIV-1 RNA were noted. Six patients discontinued tenidap due to rash. The effects of tenidap in HIV-1 infection contrast to results in arthritis patients, in whom tenidap decreased plasma levels of IL-6 and acute-phase proteins.

  4. Comparison of the artus HIV-1 QS-RGQ and VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 assays for quantitative detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvir, Roee; Canducci, Filippo; Racca, Sara; Rolla, Serena; Stucchi, Sonia; Clementi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Several integrated diagnostic platforms to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type-1 viremia have been developed in recent years. We evaluated the performances of the Artus HIV-1 QS-RGQ assay, using the complete QIAsymphony RGQ workflow. 192 clinical plasma specimens and external control panel samples were analyzed, using the Artus assay and the routine Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 assay. Three samples were excluded due to amplification inhibition. Among the remaining 189 specimens, 130 samples were detected as positive (above the limit of detection by both assays; median log10 difference: 0.01) and 18 samples were detected as negative. Eight samples (4.2%), all slightly above the limit of detection of the Versant assay, were negative with the Artus assay. The remaining 33 samples (beside 3 negative by Artus assay) were positive by both assays, but below the limit of detection at least in one of them. Results from the external panel samples showed a mean Log10 variation of -0.18 and -0.45 for the Versant and the Artus assays, respectively. As both assays showed highly correlated results, the QIAsymphony RGQ system, using the Artus HIV-1 QS-RGQ assay, could be considered a potential platform for HIV-1 RNA quantification in plasma.

  5. Suppression of multiclade R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infections by a coreceptor-based anti-HIV strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Daisuke; Misumi, Shogo; Mukai, Ryouzaburo; Tachibana, Kuniomi; Umeda, Mamoru; Shibata, Hideaki; Takamune, Nobutoki; Shoji, Shozo

    2005-11-01

    A cyclic chimeric dodecapeptide (cCD) mimicking the conformation-specific domains of CCR5 and CXCR4 was prepared in which Gly-Asp links the amino and carboxyl termini of two combined pentapeptides (S169-G173 of CCR5; E179-R183 of CXCR4) derived from human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) coreceptors. The immunization of Balb/c mice with cCD conjugated with a multiple-antigen peptide (cCD-MAP) induced seven cCD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, CPMAb-I to -VII) that reacted with native CCR5 and CXCR4. Among the tested mAbs, CPMAb-I and -II potently inhibited the infection of both the R5 and X4 laboratory strains. CPMAb-III and -VI were effective against only R5 laboratory strains, and also against some X4 and R5 primary isolates. CPMAb-IV and -V had potent antiviral activities against the R5 and X4 primary isolates. In particular, CPMAb-VII was protective against not only R5 and X4 laboratory strains, but also most of the R5 and X4 primary isolates. Moreover, cCD-MAP immunization also induced antibodies that were effective against R5 and X4 multiclade HIV-1 isolates in vitro in two of three cynomolgus monkeys. Taken together, the results suggest that cCD-MAP is a candidate multiclade immunogen that can be used to block multiclade R5 and X4 HIV-1 infections.

  6. Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Kim, Sung Soon; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Oh, Hye-Ri; Choi, Ju-Yeon

    2015-04-09

    In South Korea, about 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Since 2010, raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir have been spotlighted as new drugs for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced adults with resistant HIV-1 in South Korea. In this study, we investigated potential susceptibility of pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced Korean patients to etravirine vs efavirenz and to darunavir vs amprenavir and indinavir using a modified single-round assay. Pseudoviruses derived from nine treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 were investigated by comparison with the wild-type strain pNL4-3. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated and drug susceptibility was compared. The intensity of genotypic drug resistance was classified based on the 'SIR' interpretation of the Stanford data base. Drug susceptibility was generally higher for etravirine and darunavir compared with efavirenz, amprenavir, and indinavir in pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced patients. Pseudoviruses derived from patients KRB4025 and KRB8014, who exhibited long-term use of protease inhibitors, showed an outside of tested drug concentration, especially for amprenavir and indinavir. However, they exhibited a lower fold-change in resistance to darunavir. Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated.

  7. Human immunodeficiency type-1 virus (HIV-1) infection in serodiscordant couples (SDCs) does not have an impact on embryo quality or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Marco Antonio Barreto; Meseguer, Marcos; Bellver, José; Remohí, José; Pellicer, Antonio; Garrido, Nicolás

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the embryo quality in our program for human immunodeficiency type-1 virus (HIV-1) serodiscordant couples (SDCs) with the male infected in comparison with a tubal-factor infertility control group. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad, Valencia, Spain. Thirty SDC and 79 control couples without HIV-1 infection attending for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Only first cycles were considered. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and ICSI in both groups; sperm wash, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in semen sample, and capacitation by swim-up after thawing the semen sample in the SDC group; and sperm capacitation by swim-up after thawing the semen sample in the control group. ICSI procedure and embryo characteristics (fertilization, cleavage, embryo morphology, and development) and cycle outcome (ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage rates). Fertilization and cleavage rates were similar between the groups. On days 2 and 3 of embryo development, very similar embryo features were found between the groups. There was no difference in mean number of optimal embryos on day 3. When embryos were cultured up to 5-6 days, a significant increase in embryo blockage was found in the SDC group compared with the control group. The mean number of optimal blastocysts on day 6 was comparable in both groups. No difference was found regarding the number of cryopreserved and transferred embryos or implantation, pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, or miscarriage rates between the groups. HIV-1 infection in SDCs with infected males does not appear to have a significantly negative impact on embryo development or ICSI outcome.

  8. Oral lesions associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Lauren L

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated oral disease among people living with HIV infection includes oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, oral warts, herpes simplex virus ulcers, major aphthous ulcers or ulcers not otherwise specified, HIV salivary gland disease, and atypical gingival and periodontal diseases. Diagnosis of some oral lesions is based on clinical appearance and behavior, whereas others require biopsy, culture, or imaging for definitive diagnosis. Management strategies including pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are discussed in this article. Dentists also need to be cognizant of the potential oral side effects of HIV antiretroviral medications.

  9. Nurses' willingness to take care of people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)--does a teaching intervention make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockiene, Vida; Suominen, Tarja; Välimäki, Maritta; Razbadauskas, Arturas; Caplinskas, Saulius; Martinkenas, Arvydas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the impact of an education intervention programme on nurses' willingness to care for HIV-positive people in Lithuania. The study utilizes a randomized controlled trial design (RCT). The total sample comprises 185 nurses working in medical, surgical and gynaecological units, and primary health care centres from the same hospital areas in three Lithuanian hospitals. The data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 and descriptive statistics. Our educational intervention did not have an impact on the nurses' willingness to take care of people living with HIV (PLHIV), as their level of willingness was high already before the education intervention. Further research on this issue is needed to try to understand the forces acting on our nursing staff in order to ensure appropriate care for PLHIV. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbiota fúngica conjuntival: estudo comparativo entre pacientes com AIDS, pacientes infectados pelo HIV e pacientes HIV-negativos antes da era do HAART Fungal microbiota: comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus and immunocompetent individuals before the HAART era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procópio Miguel dos Santos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi pesquisada a presença de fungos na conjuntiva ocular de 23 pacientes com AIDS, 24 pacientes infectados pelo HIV, ambos de controle ambulatorial e 48 indivíduos HIV negativos, durante um ano, nos meses de fevereiro, abril, julho e outubro. O fungo mais isolado foi Penicillium sp, seguido de Aspergillus sp, Candida sp e Rhodotorula sp. Embora sem diferença significante, em todas as coletas foi verificado um crescimento maior de fungos na conjuntiva dos portadores de AIDS, seguido pelo grupo infectado pelo HIV e em menor número nos indivíduos HIV-negativos.Samples from the ocular conjunctiva of 23 patients with AIDS, 24 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and 48 immunocompetent individuals were taken during the months of February, April, July and October. During the year an increase in fungi of the conjunctiva of the AIDS patients, followed by patients infected with HIV and a smaller percentage in healtly people was observed. The most frequently isolated fungus was Penicillium sp followed by Aspergillus sp, Candida sp and Rhodotorula sp.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus in institutionalized elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luiz Gorzoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs, thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months; [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0.8 x 0.2 or 0.3. RESULTS: Four men were HIV-positive, with mean age 71.2 ± 8.6 years, LTCI stay 74.2 ± 38.1 months and length of HIV diagnosis 24.5 ± 17 months (confirmed by HICC standard screening. Three had stroke sequelae; one, dementia syndrome; two, seropositivity for syphilis; two, hepatitis B and one, hepatitis C. The main drugs used were lamivudine, zidovudine, lopinavir, ritonavir, levothyroxine, omeprazole, ranitidine, lactulose and risperidone. The estimated CD4 count was 341 ± 237/mm3. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive individuals are present in LTCIs, diagnosable through serological screening and treatable with antiretroviral drugs.

  12. Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Screening in an African District Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    De Baets, A. J.; Edidi, B. S.; Kasali, M. J.; Beelaert, G.; Schrooten, W.; Litzroth, A; Kolsteren, P; Denolf, D.; Fransen, K

    2005-01-01

    In order to evaluate alternative tests and strategies to simplify pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening at the district hospital level, a cross-sectional exploratory study was organized in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Venous and capillary phlebotomies were performed on 941 Congolese children, aged 1 month to 12 years (153 children under 18 months and 788 children more than 18 months old). The HIV prevalence rate was 4.7%. An algorithm for children more than 18 months...

  13. Heterosexual spread of human immunodeficiency virus in Edinburgh

    OpenAIRE

    France, A J; Skidmore, C A; Robertson, J R; Brettle, R P; Roberts, J J K; Burns, S. M.; Foster, C. A.; Inglis, J. M.; Galloway, W B F; Davidson, S J

    1988-01-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was investigated in 123 subjects with no apparent risk factor for infection other than having had heterosexual intercourse with a person who was either infected with HIV or at high risk of being infected with it. Seven subjects were found to be infected with the virus. Risk factors for transmission included being the regular sexual partner of an abuser of intravenous drugs and having a sexual relationship of more than 18 months' ...

  14. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Infectivity and Mechanisms of Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses how the infection of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) results in a profound immunosuppression due predominantly to a selective depletion of helper/inducer T lymphocytes that express the receptor for the virus, as well as neuropsychiatric abnormalities in the brain. (TW)

  15. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure Research: Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting and an opportunity for public comment on...

  16. Pulmonary Kaposi Sarcoma with Osseous Metastases in an Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient: A Remarkable Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirweesh, Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Yasir; Hamiz, Shaikh Fawad; Karabulut, Nigahus

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 34 Final Diagnosis: Pulmonary Kaposi’s sarcoma with bony metastatses Symptoms: Cough • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Case Report: A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15–20 pound weight loss within six months. Examination revealed oral thrush, decreased breath sounds and crackles on the right lower lung base. Imaging showed a large right perihilar mass with multiple lytic lesions involving thoracic and lumber vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and clavicles. Blood and sputum cultures, smears for acid fast bacilli, and a QUANTIferon gold test were all negative. He tested positive for HIV and his CD4 count was 7 cells/uL. Bronchoscopy with biopsy was unrevealing. Pathology of the right hilar mass was diagnostic of KS. Following initiation of antiretroviral therapy his condition dramatically improved; repeat chest CT scan showed marked regression of the bony and pulmonary lesions. Conclusions: The dual action of HAART on the recovery of the immune system and against human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) may essentially cause regression of KS lesions. PMID:28216610

  17. Attitudes and experience of Singapore doctors and dental surgeons regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L; Yong, L S; Tan, A

    1989-01-01

    A survey conducted in September 1987 among medical doctors and dental surgeons in Singapore found that most respondents expressed personal reservations and inadequacies in dealing with AIDS/HIV-positive patients and homosexuals. They were also concerned about exposure of their staff to AIDS patients and their likely reactions towards treating these patients. The risk of contagion with AIDS was a major deterrent expressed. The majority of the health professionals had no experience in the management of AIDS related conditions. Although many indicated interest in training, only less than half were willing to undergo what they perceived as the more effective clinically based training themselves.

  18. Replication of biotinylated human immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshan, Michael; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated recently the adaptation of the Escherichia coli biotin ligase BirA - biotin acceptor sequence (BAS) labeling system to produce human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viruses with biotinylated integrase (NLXIN(B)) and matrix (NLXMA(B)) proteins (Belshan et al., 2009). This report describes the construction of an HIV permissive cell line stably expressing BirA (SupT1.BirA). Consistent with the results in the previous report, NLXMA(B) replicated similar to wild-type levels and expressed biotinylated Gag and MA proteins in the SupT1.BirA cells, whereas the replication of NLXIN(B) was reduced severely. Three additional HIV type 2 (HIV-2) viruses were constructed with the BAS inserted into the vpx and vpr accessory genes. Two BAS insertions were made into the C-terminal half of the Vpx, including one internal insertion, and one at the N-terminus of Vpr. All three viruses were replication competent in the SupT1.BirA cells and their target proteins biotinylated efficiently and incorporated into virions. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the biotinylation system to label and capture HIV protein complexes in the context of replicating virus.

  19. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies and the vaccine problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, F; Weiss, R A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the great advances made in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection with antiretroviral drug treatment, a safe and efficacious HIV vaccine has yet to be developed. Here, we discuss why clinical trials and vaccine development for HIV have so far been disappointing, with an emphasis on the lack of protective antibodies. We review approaches for developing appropriate HIV immunogens and the stimulation of long-lasting B-cell responses with antibody maturation. We conclude that candidate reagents in the pipeline for HIV vaccine development are unlikely to be particularly effective. Although the major funders of HIV vaccine research and development are placing increasing emphasis on clinical product development, a genuine breakthrough in preventing HIV infection through vaccines is more likely to come from novel immunogen research.

  1. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  2. Viral Interactions in Human Lymphoid Tissue: Human Herpesvirus 7 Suppresses the Replication of CCR5-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 via CD4 Modulation▿

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens that affect the clinical course of HIV disease. Here, we identified another virus, human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) that interferes with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human lymphoid tissue, where critical events of HIV disease occur. Like the closely related HHV-6, HHV-7 suppresses the replication of CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in coinfected blocks of human lymphoid tissue. Unlike HHV-6, which affect...

  3. Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, M; Goto, T

    1996-08-01

    The ultrastructure and morphogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were elucidated by observation with several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryo-microscopy. The virus particle consists of an envelope, a core and matrix. The virus particles were observed extracellularly as having one of three profiles: (1) a centric or an eccentric electron-dense core, (2) rod-shaped electron-dense core, and (3) doughnut-shaped. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high resolution electron cryo-microscopy to be globular, and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Many projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially head parts, were found to vary in each projection. By isolation with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, HIV-1 cores were confirmed to consist of p24 protein by immunogold labeling. When the virus enters the cell, two entry modes were found: membrane fusion and endocytosis. No structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm after viral entry. In HIV-1-infected cells, positive reactions by immuno-labeling suggest that HIV-1 Gag may be produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by cytoskeletons. Then a crescent electron-dense layer was first formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle was released from the cell surface. Several cell clones producing defective particles were isolated from MT-4/HIV-1 cells. Among them, doughnut-shaped or teardrop-shaped particles were seen to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins faced each other against the inner electron dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein.

  4. Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, S S; Tetali, S; Abrams, E J; Paul, M O; Pahwa, S G

    1995-08-01

    Three human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-exposed children who had repeatedly positive DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for HIV in > or = 5 samples before seroreversion to HIV-negative status are reported. The children belong to a cohort of 210 infants who were born to HIV-infected mothers and were tested at intervals of 1 to 3 months by HIV viral culture, PCR, and p24 antigen; only the PCR was positive in > or = 5 samples in the children reported here. Their clinical features were indistinguishable from other seroreverters. All three children had a transient drop in CD4:CD8 ratio to < 1.0. The transiently positive DNA PCR in HIV-exposed infants may indicate either that HIV infection was eliminated by a strong host immune response or that infection was caused by an attenuated/defective strain of virus.

  5. The level of risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus between patients and dental staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, C; Porter, S

    1991-02-09

    Almost a decade into the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) there is adequate evidence to address the concerns of dental staff about possible transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) between patient and staff. This paper reviews that evidence and demonstrates that the risk of HIV transmission to health care workers is extremely low. Worldwide there are no reported proven cases of occupational transmission of HIV to dental staff.

  6. A simian-human immunodeficiency virus carrying the rt gene from Chinese CRF01_AE strain of HIV is sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and has a highly genetic stability in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yao, Nan; Ju, Bin; Dong, Zhihui; Cong, Zhe; Jiang, Hong; Qin, Chuan; Wei, Qiang

    2014-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 subtype CRF01_AE is one of the major HIV-1 subtypes that dominate the global epidemic. However, its drug resistance, associated mutations, and viral fitness have not been systemically studied, because available chimeric simian-HIVs (SHIVs) usually express the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (rt) gene of subtype B HIV-1, which is different from subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1. In this study, a recombinant plasmid, pRT-SHIV/AE, was constructed to generate a chimeric RT-SHIV/AE by replacing the rt gene of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239) with the counterpart of Chinese HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. The infectivity, replication capacity, co-receptor tropism, drug sensitivity, and genetic stability of RT-SHIV/AE were characterized. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE effectively infected and replicated in human T cell line and rhesus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rhPBMC). The rt gene of RT-SHIV/AE lacked the common mutation (T215I) associated with drug resistance. RT-SHIV-AE retained infectivity and immunogenicity, similar to that of its counterpart RT-SHIV/TC virus following intravenous inoculation in Chinese rhesus macaque. RT-SHIV-AE was more sensitive to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) than the RT-SHIV/TC. RT-SHIV/AE was genetically stable in Chinese rhesus macaque. The new chimeric RT-SHIV/AE may be a valuable tool for evaluating the efficacy of the rt-based antiviral drugs against the subtype CRF01_AE HIV-1.

  7. Impact of infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV on the risk of cancer among children in Malawi - preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batumba Mkume

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of infection with HIV on the risk of cancer in children is uncertain, particularly for those living in sub-Saharan Africa. In an ongoing study in a paediatric oncology centre in Malawi, children (aged ≤ 15 years with known or suspected cancers are being recruited and tested for HIV and their mothers or carers interviewed. This study reports findings for children recruited between 2005 and 2008. Methods Only children with a cancer diagnosis were included. Odds ratios (OR for being HIV positive were estimated for each cancer type (with adjustment for age ( Results Of the 586 children recruited, 541 (92% met the inclusion criteria and 525 (97% were tested for HIV. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 10%. Infection with HIV was associated with Kaposi sarcoma (29 cases; OR = 93.5, 95% CI 26.9 to 324.4 and with non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (33 cases; OR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 17.9 but not with Burkitt lymphoma (269 cases; OR = 2.2, 95% CI 0.8 to 6.4. Conclusions In this study, only Kaposi sarcoma and non-Burkitt, non-Hodgkin lymphoma were associated with HIV infection. The endemic form of Burkitt lymphoma, which is relatively frequent in Malawi, was not significantly associated with HIV. While the relatively small numbers of children with other cancers, together with possible limitations of diagnostic testing may limit our conclusions, the findings may suggest differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-related malignancies in different parts of the world.

  8. Lentivirus vectors using human and simian immunodeficiency virus elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S M; Renda, M; Nam, N Y; Klimatcheva, E; Zhu, Y; Fisk, J; Halterman, M; Rimel, B J; Federoff, H; Pandya, S; Rosenblatt, J D; Planelles, V

    1999-04-01

    Lentivirus vectors based on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) constitute a recent development in the field of gene therapy. A key property of HIV-1-derived vectors is their ability to infect nondividing cells. Although high-titer HIV-1-derived vectors have been produced, concerns regarding safety still exist. Safety concerns arise mainly from the possibility of recombination between transfer and packaging vectors, which may give rise to replication-competent viruses with pathogenic potential. We describe a novel lentivirus vector which is based on HIV, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and which we refer to as HIV/SIVpack/G. In this system, an HIV-1-derived genome is encapsidated by SIVmac core particles. These core particles are pseudotyped with VSV glycoprotein G. Because the nucleotide homology between HIV-1 and SIVmac is low, the likelihood of recombination between vector elements should be reduced. In addition, the packaging construct (SIVpack) for this lentivirus system was derived from SIVmac1A11, a nonvirulent SIV strain. Thus, the potential for pathogenicity with this vector system is minimal. The transduction ability of HIV/SIVpack/G was demonstrated with immortalized human lymphocytes, human primary macrophages, human bone marrow-derived CD34(+) cells, and primary mouse neurons. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first demonstration that the HIV-1-derived genome can be packaged by an SIVmac capsid. We demonstrate that the lentivirus vector described here recapitulates the biological properties of HIV-1-derived vectors, although with increased potential for safety in humans.

  9. Clinical Manifestations of Cytomegalovirus-Associated Posterior Uveitis and Panuveitis in Patients Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathanapitoon, Kessara; Tesavibul, Nattaporn; Choopong, Pitipol; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Kongyai, Natedao; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Kunavisarut, Paradee; Rothova, Aniki

    2013-01-01

    Importance: Little attention has been paid to clinical features of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and comorbidities of patients without HIV infection who have CMV-associated posterior uvei

  10. Electrostatic potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and rhesus macaque simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eBozek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac are assumed to have originated from simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from sooty mangabey (SIVsm. Despite their close similarity in genome structure, HIV-2 and SIVmac show different sensitivities to TRIM5α, a host restriction factor against retroviruses. The replication of HIV-2 strains is potently restricted by rhesus (Rh monkey TRIM5α, while that of SIVmac strain 239 (SIVmac239 is not. Viral capsid protein is the determinant of this differential sensitivity to TRIM5α, as the HIV-2 mutant carrying SIVmac239 capsid protein evaded Rh TRIM5α-mediated restriction. However, the molecular determinants of this restriction mechanism are unknown. Electrostatic potential on the protein-binding site is one of the properties regulating protein-protein interactions. In this study, we investigated the electrostatic potential on the interaction surface of capsid protein of HIV-2 strain GH123 and SIVmac239. Although HIV-2 GH123 and SIVmac239 capsid proteins share more than 87% amino acid identity, we observed a large difference between the two molecules with the HIV-2 GH123 molecule having predominantly positive and SIVmac239 predominantly negative electrostatic potential on the surface of the loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5. As L4/5 is one of the major determinants of Rh TRIM5α sensitivity of these viruses, the present results suggest that the binding site of the Rh TRIM5α may show complementarity to the HIV-2 GH123 capsid surface charge distribution.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus type-2-A milder, kinder virus: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannangai, R; David, S; Sridharan, G

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) belongs to the family retroviridae which is phylogenetically clusters with SIV SM from sooty mangabeys. This virus is morphologically similar to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) but has got only a 40% homology at the nucleotide level. There is a distinct geographical distribution of HIV-2 unlike HIV-1. There are currently eight subtypes/groups identified with subtype/group A responsible for the majority of infections. HIV-2 shows a considerable difference in the course of the disease. Clinical, haematological and immunological evaluation of individuals infected with HIV-2 has shown the virus to be less pathogenic than HIV-1 although the exact mechanism underlying this difference is not well defined. Similar to HIV-1, the HIV-2 isolates also showed distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics. The transmission rate for HIV-2 compared to HIV-1 is very low both by heterosexual route and mother to child transmission. The clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency associated with HIV-2 are similar to the ones seen among the HIV-1-infected individuals and they can also progress to AIDS. It is naturally resistant to NNRTI and hence the diagnosis become important as it affects the treatment strategy. Similar to HIV-1, HIV-2 strains of infected individuals also show mutations that can cause drug resistance. The current evidence suggests that there is no protective effective for HIV-2 against HIV-1.

  12. Quantitative analysis of differentially expressed saliva proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Nawei; Zhang, Zhenyu [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Feng, Shan [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Wang, Qingtao [Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Affiliated Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Malamud, Daniel [NYU College of Dentistry, 345 East 24th Street, New York, NY 10010 (United States); Deng, Haiteng, E-mail: dht@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-24

    Highlights: ► A high-throughput method for profiling and quantification of the differentially expressed proteins in saliva samples was developed. ► Identified that DMBT1, S100A7, S100A8, S100A9 and alpha defensin were up-regulated in saliva from HIV-1 seropositive patients. ► Established analytical strategies are translatable to the clinical setting. -- Abstract: In the present study, we have established a new methodology to analyze saliva proteins from HIV-1-seropositive patients before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and seronegative controls. A total of 593 and 601 proteins were identified in the pooled saliva samples from 5 HIV-1 subjects and 5 controls, respectively. Forty-one proteins were found to be differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of differentially expressed salivary proteins showed an increase of antimicrobial proteins and decrease of protease inhibitors upon HIV-1 infection. To validate some of these differentially expressed proteins, a high-throughput quantitation method was established to determine concentrations of 10 salivary proteins in 40 individual saliva samples from 20 seropositive patients before HAART and 20 seronegative subjects. This method was based on limited protein separation within the zone of the stacking gel of the 1D SDS PAGE and using isotope-coded synthetic peptides as internal standards. The results demonstrated that a combination of protein profiling and targeted quantitation is an efficient method to identify and validate differentially expressed salivary proteins. Expression levels of members of the calcium-binding S100 protein family and deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein (DMBT1) were up-regulated while that of Mucin 5B was down-regulated in HIV-1 seropositive saliva samples, which may provide new perspectives for monitoring HIV-infection and understanding the mechanism of HIV-1 infectivity.

  13. Angelica Sinensis May Provide Protection Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad Zarenezhad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress and disturbed glutathione redox system play an important role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Depletion in intracellular levels of reduced glutathione (GSH contributes to an increment in tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α-stimulated-HIV-1-transcription, activation of HIV-1-replication, sensitivity to TNF-α-induced cell death, and impairment of CD4+ cell function and survival. Therefore, several studies have investigated the effect of GSH-enhancer agents such as N-acetyl cystein in the treatment of patients with HIV infection. With regard to the beneficial effects of Angelica sinensis, a Chinese medicinal herb, on GSH redox system and the pathogenic role of GSH depletion in HIV infection and the immunomodulator effects of active ingredients of this herb, we postulated that Angelica sinensis may be of value in the treatment of HIV-infected patients.

  14. Emerging bone problems in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy, Kristin; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a high incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been observed in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This problem appears to be more frequent in patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. Other bone-related complications in HIV-infected individuals, including avascular necrosis of the hip and compression fracture of the lumbar spine, have also been reported. People living with HIV have significant alterations in bone metabolism, regardless of whether they are receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. The underlying mechanisms to account for these observations remain unknown, although studies are underway to examine the relationship between the bone abnormalities and other complications associated with HIV and antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis should be treated similarly to HIV-seronegative patients with appropriate use of nutritional supplements (calcium and vitamin D) and exercise. Hormone replacement and antiresorptive therapies might be also indicated.

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.

  16. Schistosomiasis and infection with human immunodeficiency virus 1 in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikstrup, Christian; Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo B L;

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that treatment for schistosomiasis in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) attenuated HIV replication as measured by plasma HIV RNA. We investigated systemic inflammation as measured by plasma levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor II...

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and inter-arm blood pressure difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the association between cardiovascular risk factors and inter-arm blood pressure difference(IAD) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) infection,and to confirm as to whether HIV infection promotes atherosclerosis. Methods 41 HAART-naive HIV infected-patients and 43 healthy people were

  18. Towards detecting the human immunodeficiency virus using microcantilever sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodhayb, Abdullah; Brown, Nicole; Saydur Rahman, S. M.; Harrigan, Richard; Beaulieu, L. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Detecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is difficult because the virus is prone to mutations and is in low concentrations in the body. Inside the HIV virion are two well characterized single stranded (ss) RNA molecules (viral genome) that feature both variable regions and regions that are conserved under virus mutation. In this work, microcantilever sensors have been employed as potential HIV detectors by targeting a conserved sequence of the viral genome by attempting to detect target ssDNA and ssRNA molecules that are significantly longer than the ssDNA molecules functionalized on the cantilever.

  19. Inner architecture of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, T; Imura, S; Goto, T; Nakai, M

    1993-07-01

    The cores of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) were observed by negative staining after isolation of the core with Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde. Four kinds of cores were found: asymmetric and symmetric sectoral shapes, a bar shape, and a triangular shape. These results were confirmed by the examination of ultrathin sections of whole virions. In some virions, the connection between the core and the envelope was observed after freeze fracturing. Its structure was considered to be characteristic of an intermediate stage of viral maturation. The HIV-1 core was reacted with anti-HIV-1 p24 mouse monoclonal antibody.

  20. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  1. Epidemiology of Human Immuno-deficiency Virus and Quality of Life for People Living with HIV/AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ommari Baaliy Mkangara; Shaofa NIE; Chongjian WANG; Yihua XU; Saumu Tobbi Mweri; Theresia M Kobelo; Mustaafa Bapumiia

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is increasing in prevalence in China and spread of infection from highly risk populations to the general populations was recognized. Despite the fact, there are still only few scien- tific reviews on quality of life (QOL) for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). However, many PLWHAs are struggling with social and psychological influences such as substances abuse, cultural beliefs, depression, stigma, poverty, which can affect their QOL. Public unawareness about infection and disease, willingness to seek medical care and motivation to follow therapy are indirectly influ- encing health outcome. In 2003 Chinese government has established the so-called the "Four Frees and One Care" policy. The policy was officially implemented from 2004 in some areas, yet to date it is not implemented nationwide. This paper discussed the epidemiology of HIV, underlying psychoso- cial factors affecting PLWHAs and their impact on QOL. We put forward some recommendations for stakeholders, advocacy groups, non-government organizations and Chinese government.

  2. Willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation among waitlisted patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R; Paek, Matthew J; Egbuna, Ogo; Waterman, Amy D; Pavlakis, Martha; Mandelbrot, Didier A

    2013-03-27

    We show that HIV-infected waitlisted patients (n=33) had significantly lower knowledge (P<0.001), more concerns (P=0.01), and lower willingness to pursue live-donor kidney transplantation (LDKT; P=0.02) than matched noninfected patients. The majority (78%) of patients felt that their HIV status reduced their chance of LDKT. Although limited to a single center and a small sample, our data suggest that HIV-infected patients who are waitlisted for kidney transplantation may need more education about the potential benefits of LDKT and may benefit from patient-centered decision support to facilitate a risk-benefit assessment consistent with their preferences and values.

  3. Modification of a loop sequence between α-helices 6 and 7 of virus capsid (CA protein in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 derivative that has simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac239 vif and CA α-helices 4 and 5 loop improves replication in cynomolgus monkey cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Akio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 productively infects only humans and chimpanzees but not cynomolgus or rhesus monkeys while simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac readily establishes infection in those monkeys. Several HIV-1 and SIVmac chimeric viruses have been constructed in order to develop an animal model for HIV-1 infection. Construction of an HIV-1 derivative which contains sequences of a SIVmac239 loop between α-helices 4 and 5 (L4/5 of capsid protein (CA and the entire SIVmac239 vif gene was previously reported. Although this chimeric virus could grow in cynomolgus monkey cells, it did so much more slowly than did SIVmac. It was also reported that intrinsic TRIM5α restricts the post-entry step of HIV-1 replication in rhesus and cynomolgus monkey cells, and we previously demonstrated that a single amino acid in a loop between α-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7 of HIV type 2 (HIV-2 CA determines the susceptibility of HIV-2 to cynomolgus monkey TRIM5α. Results In the study presented here, we replaced L6/7 of HIV-1 CA in addition to L4/5 and vif with the corresponding segments of SIVmac. The resultant HIV-1 derivatives showed enhanced replication capability in established T cell lines as well as in CD8+ cell-depleted primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cynomolgus monkey. Compared with the wild type HIV-1 particles, the viral particles produced from a chimeric HIV-1 genome with those two SIVmac loops were less able to saturate the intrinsic restriction in rhesus monkey cells. Conclusion We have succeeded in making the replication of simian-tropic HIV-1 in cynomolgus monkey cells more efficient by introducing into HIV-1 the L6/7 CA loop from SIVmac. It would be of interest to determine whether HIV-1 derivatives with SIVmac CA L4/5 and L6/7 can establish infection of cynomolgus monkeys in vivo.

  4. Acute hepatitis C in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV: The "Real-life Setting" proves the concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obermeier M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infection have been described recently in several cities in the western world. The epidemic affects mainly MSM who are coinfected with HIV and is supposably linked to certain sexual risk practices. Here, we compared our findings with current knowledge and recommendations. Methods HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute HCV infection were included in the retrospective analysis. The patients came from outpatient infectious disease centers in northern German cities. We looked at markers of HIV and HCV infection and compared patients who received treatment and those who did not. Treated patients were followed up to 72 weeks. Results Three hundred nineteen HIV-positive patients with the diagnosis of acute hepatitis C between 2001 and 2008 and were included in the analysis. All patients were male, 315 (99% patients were of caucasian origin, 296 (93% declared homosexual contacts as a risk factor for HCV infection, intravenous drug use was declared in 3 (1% cases. Median age at HCV diagnosis was 40 years (range 20-69 years. Median HCV viral load was 1.2 × 106 IU/mL, 222 patients (70% had HCV genotype 1, 59 (18% genotype 4. The median time of HIV infection was 5.5 years (range 0 to 22.4 years. Median HIV viral load was 110 copies/mL (range 25 to 10 × 106 copies/mL. The median CD 4 count was 461 cells/mm3 (range 55- 1331 cells/mm3. Two hundred and fourty-six patients (77% received anti-HCV treatment, and 175 (55% had completed therapy by the time of the analysis. Median treatment duration was 33 weeks (IQR 24.1-49.9. 93 of the 175 treated patients (53% reached a sustained virological response (SVR. In the multivariate analysis, ART at diagnosis, HCV RNA drop at week 12, hemoglobin levels and higher platelets were associated with SVR. Treatment duration was significantly higher in the SVR group (40.6 weeks vs 26.6 weeks, p Conclusions Our findings confirm that acute hepatitis C in

  5. Correlation of in vivo neuroimaging abnormalities with postmortem human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis and dendritic loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archibald, Sarah L.; Masliah, Eliezer; Fennema-Notestine, Christine;

    2004-01-01

    previous studies have linked brain viral levels to these alterations, other neuropathological mechanisms might also contribute to them. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between findings on premortem magnetic resonance images and postmortem neuropathologic evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV...

  6. Co‑infections of hepatitis B and C with human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-04

    Jan 4, 2015 ... Background: Hepatitis B and C viral co‑infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to affect progression ... region;[1] they equally share similar routes of transmission such as ... the southern part of Nigeria.

  7. [Parameters of the CD4-Cell count and viral load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimova, L M; Serebrovskaya, L V; Ivanova, L A; Kravchenko, A V; Buravtsova, E V

    2015-01-01

    In this work the specific features of parameters of plasma CD4 T-lymphocytes count and level virus RNA in the HIV-infected patients were studied. 22% correlation between reduction of CD4 cell count and an increase in virus RNA level was observed in persons that did not receive antiretroviral treatment during the third HIV-infection phase. During this phase of infection patients exhibited a growth of the median value of virus load in cases of both rise as decline in CD4 cell count during long observation period. In addition, towards the end of the observation period, the percentage of patients with virus load > 3.3 Ig copies/ml considerably expanded. 43% correlation between CD4 cell count and duration of the HIV-infection was detected during the fourth infection phase in persons that did not receive antiretroviral treatment. Most of the patients in the third and the fourth infection phases had essential CD4 cell count growth during antiretroviral treatment. Best values were observed in patients with the initial value of CD4 > 400 cells/μl belonging to the third HIV-infection phase.

  8. Trends in contraceptive use among women with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengyang; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Zhao, Qiuhong; Wilson, Tracey E; Weber, Kathleen M; Sanchez-Keeland, Lorraine; DʼSouza, Gypsyamber; Young, Mary; Watts, D Heather; Keller, Marla J; Cohan, Deborah; Massad, L Stewart

    2012-10-01

    To estimate trends in contraceptive use, especially long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and condoms, among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women. Human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and HIV-seronegative women in a multicenter longitudinal cohort were interviewed semiannually between 1998 and 2010 about sexual behaviors and contraceptive use. Trends in contraceptive use by women aged 18-45 years who were at risk for unintended pregnancy but not trying to conceive were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Condoms were the dominant form of contraception for HIV-seropositive women and showed little change across time. Less than 15% of these women used no contraception. Between 1998 and 2010, LARC use increased among HIV-seronegative women from 4.8% (6 of 126) to 13.5% (19 of 141, P=.02), but not significantly among seropositive women (0.9% [4 of 438] to 2.8% [6 of 213], P=.09). Use of highly effective contraceptives, including pills, patches, rings, injectable progestin, implants, and intrauterine devices, ranged from 15.2% (53 of 348) in 1998 to 17.4% (37 of 213) in 2010 (P=.55). Human immunodeficiency virus-seronegative but not HIV-seropositive LARC users were less likely than nonusers to use condoms consistently (hazard ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.32-0.81, P=.004 for seronegative women; hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 0.96-1.23 for seropositive women). Although most HIV-seropositive women use contraception, they rely primarily on condoms and have not experienced the increase in LARC use seen among seronegative women. Strategies to improve simultaneous use of condoms and LARC are needed to minimize risk of unintended pregnancy as well as HIV transmission and acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. II.

  9. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE and subtype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Oyomopito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001 as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001. After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001. We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE. Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.

  10. Functional stability of unliganded envelope glycoprotein spikes among isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitish Agrawal

    Full Text Available The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env spike is challenging to study at the molecular level, due in part to its genetic variability, structural heterogeneity and lability. However, the extent of lability in Env function, particularly for primary isolates across clades, has not been explored. Here, we probe stability of function for variant Envs of a range of isolates from chronic and acute infection, and from clades A, B and C, all on a constant virus backbone. Stability is elucidated in terms of the sensitivity of isolate infectivity to destabilizing conditions. A heat-gradient assay was used to determine T(90 values, the temperature at which HIV-1 infectivity is decreased by 90% in 1 h, which ranged between ∼40 to 49°C (n = 34. For select Envs (n = 10, the half-lives of infectivity decay at 37°C were also determined and these correlated significantly with the T(90 (p = 0.029, though two 'outliers' were identified. Specificity in functional Env stability was also evident. For example, Env variant HIV-1(ADA was found to be labile to heat, 37°C decay, and guanidinium hydrochloride but not to urea or extremes of pH, when compared to its thermostable counterpart, HIV-1(JR-CSF. Blue native PAGE analyses revealed that Env-dependent viral inactivation preceded complete dissociation of Env trimers. The viral membrane and membrane-proximal external region (MPER of gp41 were also shown to be important for maintaining trimer stability at physiological temperature. Overall, our results indicate that primary HIV-1 Envs can have diverse sensitivities to functional inactivation in vitro, including at physiological temperature, and suggest that parameters of functional Env stability may be helpful in the study and optimization of native Env mimetics and vaccines.

  11. Simultaneous and sensitive detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) drug resistant genotypes by multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Giovanina M; Vlaskin, Tatyana A; Koth, Andrew; Vaz, Louise E; Dross, Sandra E; Beck, Ingrid A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-09-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is a highly specific and relatively simple method to detect point mutations encoding HIV-1 drug-resistance, which can detect mutants comprising ≥2-5% of the viral population. Nevirapine (NVP), tenofovir (TDF) and lamivudine (3TC) are antiretroviral (ARV) drugs used worldwide for treatment of HIV infection and prevention of mother-to-child-transmission. Adapting the OLA to detect multiple mutations associated with HIV resistance to these ARV simultaneously would provide an efficient tool to monitor drug resistance in resource-limited settings. Known proportions of mutant and wild-type plasmids were used to optimize a multiplex OLA for detection of K103N, Y181C, K65R, and M184V in HIV subtypes B and C, and V106M and G190A in subtype C. Simultaneous detection of two mutations was impaired if probes annealed to overlapping regions of the viral template, but was sensitive to ≥2-5% when testing codons using non-overlapping probes. PCR products from HIV-subtype B- and C-infected individuals were tested by multiplex-OLA and compared to results of single-codon OLA. Multiplex-OLA detected mutations at codon pairs 103/181, 106/190 and 65/184 reliably when compared to singleplex-OLA in clinical specimens. The multiplex-OLA is sensitive and specific and reduces the cost of screening for NVP, TDF and/or 3TC resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  13. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  14. Anti-Group B Streptococcus antibody in infants born to mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Allen, Lauren; Kampmann, Beate; Heath, Paul Trafford; Taylor, Stephen; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Gorringe, Andrew; Jones, Christine Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-exposed uninfected infants have increased infection risk and mortality compared to HIV-unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants may be at increased risk of invasive GBS disease due to reduced maternal antibody against GBS. Methods We quantified antibodies that bind to the surface of whole Group B Streptococcus (GBS) of serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III and V using novel flow cytometry assays in South African HIV-infected and non-infected mothers and their uninfected infants. Antibody-mediated complement C3b/iC3b deposition onto GBS of these serotypes was also quantified by a novel flow cytometry assay. Results Geometric mean concentration (GMC) of both surface-binding anti-GBS antibody and antibody-mediated complement deposition onto GBS were reduced in HIV-infected women (n = 46) compared to HIV-uninfected women (n = 58) for ST1a (surface-binding: 19.3 vs 29.3; p = 0.003; complement deposition: 2.9 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STIb (24.9 vs 47.6; p = 0.003; 2.6 vs 4.9 SU/mL; p = 0.003), STII (19.8 vs 50.0; p = 0.001; 3.1 vs 6.2 SU/mL; p = 0.001), STIII (27.8 vs 60.1; p = 0.001; 2.8 vs 5.3 SU/mL; p = 0.001) and STV (121.9 vs 185.6 SU/mL; p < 0.001) and in their infants for STIa (complement deposition 9.4 vs 27.0 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STIb (13.4 vs 24.5 SU/mL; p = 0.02), STII (14.6 vs 42.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03), STIII (26.6 vs 62.7 SU/mL; p = 0.03) and STV (90.4 vs 165.8 SU/mL; p = 0.04). Median transplacental transfer of antibody from HIV-infected women to their infants was reduced compared to HIV-uninfected women for GBS serotypes II (0.42 [IQR 0.22–0.59] vs 1.0 SU/mL [0.42–1.66]; p < 0.001), III (0.54 [0.31–1.03] vs 0.95 SU/mL [0.42–3.05], p = 0.05) and V (0.51 [0.28–0.79] vs 0.75 SU/mL [0.26–2.9], p = 0.04). The differences between infants remained significant at 16 weeks of age. Conclusions Maternal HIV infection was associated with lower anti-GBS surface binding antibody concentration and antibody

  15. [Pulmonary complications in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría

    2007-08-01

    Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.

  16. Distinct replicative and cytopathic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyö, E M; Morfeldt-Månson, L; Chiodi, F; Lind, B; von Gegerfelt, A; Albert, J; Olausson, E; Asjö, B

    1988-01-01

    According to their capacity to replicate in vitro, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates can be divided into two major groups, rapid/high and slow/low. Rapid/high viruses can easily be transmitted to a variety of cell lines of T-lymphoid (CEM, H9, and Jurkat) and monocytoid (U937) origin. In contrast, slow/low viruses replicate transiently, if at all, in these cell lines. Except for a few isolates, the great majority of slow/low viruses replicate in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat-tatIII cells constitutively expressing the tatIII gene of HIV-1. The viruses able to replicate efficiently cause syncytium formation and are regularly isolated from immunodeficient patients. Poorly replicating HIV isolates, often obtained from individuals with no or mild disease, show syncytium formation and single-cell killing simultaneously or, with some isolates, cell killing only. Images PMID:2459416

  17. Drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam in an elderly patient with underlying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swe, Thein; Ali, Mir; Naing, Akari Thein

    2016-07-20

    Our search of the literature revealed no detailed case reports about drug fever induced by piperacillin/tazobactam in a patient with HIV infection although there were a few case reports about drug fever due to piperacillin/tazobactam with other comorbidities. A 63-year-old male patient with HIV positive was admitted for acute cholecystitis. He was started on piperacillin/tazobactam. For the next 8 days, he had intermittent fever up to 103°F (39.4°C) with relative bradycardia although he showed clinical improvement. There was no laboratory or imaging findings suggestive of another infectious source and drug fever was suspected. The antibiotics were stopped and after 48 hours no fever was observed until the day of discharge. Piperacillin/tazobactam can induce fever in patients with cystic fibrosis and in patients with other conditions. Drug fever may be more prevalent in patients with HIV infection. It has no characteristic pattern and may not be associated with eosinophilia.

  18. Mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RNA packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Dilley, Kari A;

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has been reported to have a distinct RNA packaging mechanism, referred to as cis packaging, in which Gag proteins package the RNA from which they were translated. We examined the progeny generated from dually infected cell lines that contain two HIV-2...... proviruses, one with a wild-type gag/gag-pol and the other with a mutant gag that cannot express functional Gag/Gag-Pol. Viral titers and RNA analyses revealed that mutant viral RNAs can be packaged at efficiencies comparable to that of viral RNA from which wild-type Gag/Gag-Pol is translated. These results...... do not support the cis-packaging hypothesis but instead indicate that trans packaging is the major mechanism of HIV-2 RNA packaging. To further characterize the mechanisms of HIV-2 RNA packaging, we visualized HIV-2 RNA in individual particles by using fluorescent protein-tagged RNA-binding proteins...

  19. [Follow-up serological study of herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus in Cuban patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resik, S; Santana, E; Rivero, J; Pérez, A B; Kourí, V; Larralde, O

    1997-01-01

    The evolution serological response against the herpes simplex virus and citomegalovirus in HIV infected patients grouped into different stages of the disease was studied. Fluctuations in the TPG of antibodies were observed in these values in a cyclical way through time. There was a greater significant difference among the TPG of antibodies against HSV in the group of asymptomatic patients compared with AIDS patients and with those who died. There is a marked decrease in the TPG of antibodies against HSV and CMV approximately one year before the death of patients.

  20. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C (HCV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection among street children in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataei B

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: There are millions of children around the world living on the street. They are at higher risk of physical, sexual and drug abuse, and have no access to health care facilities. Therefore they are at risk of viral infections such as HCV and HIV. The aim of this study was determining the prevalence of HCV and HIV infection in Isfahan street children (2005-2007."n"nMethods: The cross-sectional study was taken place on 386 street children through a nonprobable-convenience sampling method. They were requested to answer a questionnaire (demographic and behavioral data, and then they were tested for anti HCV and anti HIV antibodies."n"nResults: Among 386 street children, 270 (70% were boys and the mean age was 12.62±3.23 years. The majority of them, 267 cases (69%, were on the street for financial reasons. 353 (91.7%, 366 (94.8% and 375 (97.2% of them had no history of smoking, using alcohol or substance addiction, respectively. 40 (34.5% of girls and 12 (4.4% of boys (p<0.0001 were engaged in sex and 79 (68% of girls and 46 (17% of boys (p<0.0001 were involved in physical fighting. All of the children had negative serology for HIV infection. Nevertheless, four of them (1% were positive for HCV Ab

  1. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, C; Marianos, D; Ou, C Y; Dumbaugh, R; Witte, J; Berkelman, R; Gooch, B; Myers, G; Luo, C C; Schochetman, G

    1992-05-15

    To determine if patients of a dentist with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) became infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their dental care and, if so, to identify possible mechanisms of transmission. Retrospective epidemiologic follow-up of the dentist, his office practice, and his former patients. The practice of a dentist with AIDS in Florida. A dentist with AIDS, his health care providers and employees, and former patients of the dentist, including eight HIV-infected patients. Identification of risks for HIV transmission (if present), degree of genetic relatedness of the viruses, and identification of infection control and other office practices. Five of the eight HIV-infected patients had no confirmed exposures to HIV other than the dental practice and were infected with HIV strains that were closely related to those of the dentist. Each of the five had invasive dental procedures, done by the dentist after he was diagnosed with AIDS. Four of these five patients shared visit days (P greater than 0.2). Breaches in infection control and other dental office practices to explain these transmissions could not be identified. Although the specific incident that resulted in HIV transmission to these patients remains uncertain, the epidemiologic evidence supports direct dentist-to-patient transmission rather than a patient-to-patient route.

  2. Priming of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) CD8^+ Cytotoxic T Cells in vivo by Carrier-Free HIV Synthetic Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mary Kate; Weinhold, Kent J.; Scearce, Richard M.; Washburn, Eileen M.; Clark, Cynthia A.; Palker, Thomas J.; Haynes, Barton F.

    1991-11-01

    The generation of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a critical component of the immune response to viral infections. A safe and nontoxic vaccine for AIDS would optimally use a carrier-free synthetic peptide immunogen containing only components of HIV necessary for induction of protective immune responses. We report that hybrid synthetic peptides containing either a HIV envelope gp120 T-cell determinant (T1) or the envelope gp41 fusion domain (F) N-terminal to HIV CTL determinants are capable of priming murine CD8^+, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted anti-HIV CTLs in vivo. These data demonstrate that carrier-free, nonderivatized synthetic peptides can be used in vivo to induce anti-HIV CTL responses.

  3. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when evalua

  4. Prevalence and prognostic significance of infection with TT virus in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, JK; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Sørensen, M;

    2000-01-01

    No clear association between human disease and TT virus (TTV) has been documented. A possible pathogenic role of TTV was investigated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). TTV serum concentrations were estimated in 185 HIV-infected patients by dilution polymerase chain...

  5. Extensive astrocyte infection is prominent in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Melissa J; Wesselingh, Steven L; Cowley, Daniel; Pardo, Carlos A; McArthur, Justin C; Brew, Bruce J; Gorry, Paul R

    2009-08-01

    Astrocyte infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is considered rare, so astrocytes are thought to play a secondary role in HIV neuropathogenesis. By combining double immunohistochemistry, laser capture microdissection, and highly sensitive multiplexed polymerase chain reaction to detect HIV DNA in single astrocytes in vivo, we showed that astrocyte infection is extensive in subjects with HIV-associated dementia, occurring in up to 19% of GFAP+ cells. In addition, astrocyte infection frequency correlated with the severity of neuropathological changes and proximity to perivascular macrophages. Our data indicate that astrocytes can be extensively infected with HIV, and suggest an important role for HIV-infected astrocytes in HIV neuropathogenesis.

  6. Functional analysis of the Tat trans activator of human immunodeficiency virus type 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Fenrick, R; Malim, M H; Hauber, J; Le, S.Y.; Maizel, J; Cullen, B R

    1989-01-01

    The trans-activator (Tat) proteins of the related but distinct type 1 and type 2 human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) display incomplete functional reciprocity. One possible explanation of this observation, suggested by computer analysis of potential RNA secondary structures within the viral trans-activation response (TAR) elements, is that HIV-2 Tat requires the presentation of two viral RNA stem-loop sequences for full activity whereas HIV-1 Tat is maximally active upon presenta...

  7. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gbenga S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carried out in 2008. A total of 375 religious leaders were used. Multistage sampling technique involving five stages sampling procedures was used to select participants. The research instrument was structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Results obtained from the questionnaire were analysed using EPI-INFO computer software and data were presented in form of tables, cross tabulation and test of statistical significance. RESULTS: Result showed that the awareness of religious leaders on HIV/AIDS, premarital HIV screening and Voluntary Confidential Counselling and Testing (VCCT was high. Most of the premarital HIV screening was initiated by the religious leaders. Also, majority of leaders made premarital HIV screening compulsory which is against the right of the members. More than half of the respondents said they will conduct marriage without premarital HIV screening and more than half also said that they will conduct marriage if one of the partners is tested positive. Religion was found to influence respondents’ attitude in making premarital HIV screening mandatory, rejection among respondents members on premarital HIV screening and conduction of marriage without premarital HIV screening. CONCLUSION: In as much as premarital HIV screening is good; members should be convinced to do this screening and not to be coerced by these religious leaders, thus, stepping on one of their human right. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(2.000: 129-134

  8. BST-2 mediated restriction of simian-human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Autumn; Lau, David; Mitchell, Richard S; Hill, M Sarah; Schmitt, Kimberly; Guatelli, John C; Stephens, Edward B

    2010-10-25

    Pathogenic simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV) contain HIV-1 Vpu and SIV Nef, both shown to counteract BST-2 (HM1.24; CD317; tetherin) inhibition of virus release in a species-specific manner. We show that human and pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) restrict SHIV. We found that sequential "humanization" of the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the pig-tailed BST-2 (ptBST-2) protein resulted in a fluctuation in sensitivity to HIV-1 Vpu. Our results also show that the length of the TMD in human and ptBST-2 proteins is important for BST-2 restriction and susceptibility to Vpu. Taken together, our results emphasize the importance of tertiary structure in BST-2 antagonism and suggests that the HIV-1 Vpu transmembrane domain may have additional functions in vivo unrelated to BST-2 antagonism.

  9. WHO report. Breastfeeding, breast milk and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Statement from the Consultation held in Geneva, 23-25 June, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    The statement from the Consultation on Breastfeeding, Breast Milk, and HIV Infection, convened by the WHO Division of Family Health in June 1987, recommends breastfeeding or use of pasteurized pooled human milk in most cases. It is likely that most HIV infections in children were contracted before or during birth: it is estimated that 25-30% of babies born to HIV infected women will be infected themselves. The actual risk is unknown, but depends on several factors such as the timing of the mother's HIV infection, her immunologic and health status and her parity. Breast milk is known to confer immunologic, nutritional, psychosocial and child-spacing benefits, and probably helps to prevent the recurring infections that accelerate the progression of HIV-disease. The use of pooled human milk is preferred if mother's milk is unavailable. Donors should be screened, or if possible, tested for HIV. Wet-nurses should also be selected with care. When the mother is known to be infected with HIV, consideration should be given to the socioeconomic and ecological environment. If safe alternatives are not available, breastfeeding by the biological mother should continue to be the feeding method of choice, regardless of HIV infection status.

  10. Neuromyelitis optica in patients with coexisting human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Singh, Parbhdeep; Smith, Robert G

    2013-09-01

    Two patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and receiving antiretroviral treatment developed neuromyelitis optica (Devic's disease). One patient tested positive for serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies. Both patients were treated with high dose pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone followed by standard sessions of plasma exchange both at the onset attack and during disease relapses. For maintenance therapy, one patient received rituximab infusions and the second patient received mycophenolate mofetil orally. Despite treatment, both patients are currently wheelchair-bound due to severe paraparesis. Neuromyelitis optica can occur in the course of HIV infection and poses an ongoing therapeutic challenge.

  11. Multiple Pyarthrosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Hemophiliacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Ingram

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Classically, a swollen, painful joint in a patient with hemophilia has been considered to be due to a hemarthrosis until otherwise proven, and treated immediately with appropriate coagulation factor replacement. Two cases of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-infected hemophiliacs presenting with an initial apparent hemarthrosis, complicated subsequently by numerous pyarthroses and sepsis are described. In light of the prevalence of hiv infection in the adult hemophiliac population with arthropathy, a reappraisal of the clinical caveat of immediate infusion without joint aspiration is required.

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus associated plasmablastic lymphoma: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dinkar; Pandit, Siddharth; Jasphin, Shiny; Shetty, Akhil S.

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is the third common malignant lesion of the oral region. Plasmablastic lymphomas are rare, aggressive neoplasms occurring mostly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individual which accounts for approximately 2.6% of all NHL. It usually presents as a diffuse growth and with diffuse pattern of histological presentation. It is very difficult to differentiate this lymphoma from other NHL. Immunohistochemical evaluation of various markers is an important criteria of the diagnostic protocol. Here, we describe a case of plasmablastic lymphoma in a 50-year-old female HIV-infected patient. The diagnosis was based on histopathological examination and immunophenotyping. PMID:27795651

  13. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes...... cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi...

  14. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 by cdk inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehn-Hall Kylene

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 infection relies primarily on the administration of anti-retroviral nucleoside analogues, either alone or in combination with HIV-protease inhibitors. Although these drugs have a clinical benefit, continuous therapy with the drugs leads to drug-resistant strains of the virus. Recently, significant progress has been made towards the development of natural and synthetic agents that can directly inhibit HIV-1 replication or its essential enzymes. We previously reported on the pharmacological cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (PCI r-roscovitine as a potential inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. PCIs are among the most promising novel antiviral agents to emerge over the past few years. Potent activity on viral replication combined with proliferation inhibition without the emergence of resistant viruses, which are normally observed in HAART patients; make PCIs ideal candidates for HIV-1 inhibition. To this end we evaluated twenty four cdk inhibitors for their effect on HIV-1 replication in vitro. Screening of these compounds identified alsterpaullone as the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 with activity at 150 nM. We found that alsterpaullone effectively inhibits cdk2 activity in HIV-1 infected cells with a low IC50 compared to control uninfected cells. The effects of alsterpaullone were associated with suppression of cdk2 and cyclin expression. Combining both alsterpaullone and r-roscovitine (cyc202 in treatment exhibited even stronger inhibitory activities in HIV-1 infected PBMCs.

  15. Tuberculous meningitis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sinha, Manish Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected persons. HIV-infected patients have a high incidence of tuberculous meningitis as well. The exact incidence and prevalence of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients are not known. HIV infection does not significantly alter the clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiographic findings, or the response to therapy. Still, some differences have been noted. For example, the histopathological examination of exudates in HIV-infected patients shows fewer lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, and Langhan's type of giant cells. Larger numbers of acid-fast bacilli may be seen in the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. The chest radiograph is abnormal in up to 46% of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Tuberculous meningitis is likely to present with cerebral infarcts and mass lesions. Cryptococcal meningitis is important in differential diagnosis. The recommended duration of treatment in HIV-infected patients is 9-12 months. The benefit of adjunctive corticosteroids is uncertain. Antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis treatment should be initiated at the same time, regardless of CD4 cell counts. Tuberculous meningitis may be a manifestation of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Some studies have demonstrated a significant impact of HIV co-infection on mortality from tuberculous meningitis. HIV-infected patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculous meningitis have significantly higher mortality. The best way to prevent HIV-associated tuberculous meningitis is to diagnose and isolate infectious cases of tuberculosis promptly and administer appropriate treatment.

  16. Natural killer cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are an important source of CC-chemokines and suppress HIV-1 entry and replication in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted), which are the natural ligands of the CC-chemokine receptor CCR5, inhibit replication of MT-2- negative strains of HIV-1 by interfering with the ability of these strains to utilize CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry in CD4(+) cells. The present study investigates the capacity of natural killer (NK) cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals to produce CC-chemokines...

  17. Broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and rational design of HIV-1 vaccines%抗人类免疫缺陷病毒广谱中和抗体与疫苗设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王若珂; 郭建影; 张林琦

    2013-01-01

    自发现人类免疫缺陷病毒1型(HIV-1)30年来,科学家们不断探索有效的 HIV-1疫苗,但至今效果不理想。由于“精英患者”的广谱中和血清能起到有效的抗病毒作用,研究人员希望通过对体液保护免疫机制的研究,推动疫苗的设计和优化,为尽早研发成功 HIV疫苗提供关键理论和技术支撑。近几年来,由于技术的突破和改进,从HIV感染者中分离获得广谱中和抗体的概率和数量大大提高。本文针对近几年来分离的有代表性的广谱中和抗体,根据其不同的识别位点分为四大类进行详细介绍,并总结了从研究广谱中和抗体中所获得的疫苗设计创新思路与启示。%Antibody response is a crucial host defense against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection .In recent years , tremendous progress has been made in isolating and characterizing of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnmAbs ) from “elite neutralizers” who remain healthy despite of prolonged infection . These bnmAbs were found to target four major vulnerable sites on the envelope glycoprotein .Structural and functional characterization of these bnmAbs has provided critical foundation for our better understanding of protective antibody response in vivo .In the current review ,we summarize the characteristics of these bnmAbs and discuss on their implications for rational design of novel HIV-1 vaccines capable of inducing antibodies similar to those bnmAbs .

  18. CERVICAL CANCER AND THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as Mexico, Columbia and many developed nations), the reduction in ..... detection among human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant Thai women: implications ... Moscicki A. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations. J Adolesc ...

  19. Transurethral prostatectomy in human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hospital with urethral catheter in situ and having failed medical therapy, he opted ... Keywords: Human immunodeficiency virus infected patients, morbidity, risk of transmission, transurethral .... exposure, and the frequency of at risk exposures.

  20. Clustering patterns of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins reveal imprints of immune evasion on HIV-1 global variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yusim, K.; Kesmir, Can; Gaschen, B.;

    2002-01-01

    for amino acids that do not serve as C-terminal anchor residues. Finally, CTL epitopes are more highly concentrated in alpha-helical regions of proteins. Based on amino acid sequence characteristics, in a blinded fashion, we predicted regions in HIV regulatory and accessory proteins that would be likely...

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus and migrant labor in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochelson, K; Mothibeli, M; Leger, J P

    1991-01-01

    The authors investigate the impact of the migrant labor system on heterosexual relationships on South African mines and assess the implications for the future transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The migrant labor system has created a market for prostitution in mining towns and geographic networks of relationships within and between urban and rural communities. A section of the migrant workforce and a group of women dependent on prostitution for economic support appear especially vulnerable to contracting HIV infection since they are involved in multiple sexual encounters with different, changing partners, usually without condom protection. Furthermore, sexually transmitted disease morbidity is extensive in the general and mineworker populations. Historically, migration facilitated the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and may act similarly for HIV. Problems of combating the HIV epidemic in South Africa are discussed.

  2. Long-term survival after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among homosexual men in hepatitis B vaccine trial cohorts in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 1978-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, B A; van Benthem, B H; Buchbinder, S P; Ren, L; Vittinghoff, E; Stevens, C E; Coutinho, R A; van Griensven, G J

    1999-11-15

    Information on long-term survival after infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is limited. In hepatitis B vaccine trials in Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco, 362 gay men were followed up to 18 years (1978-1995). The median survival time from seroconversion was 12.1 years (95% confidence interval: 11.4, 12.9). The annual risk of dying increased at a constant rate until 8 years after seroconversion and then leveled off, suggesting a group that is relatively resistant to progression. These data provide a picture of the natural history of HIV-1 infection, especially in the era prior to widespread use of highly effective treatments.

  3. Current human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and its response in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Lai-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The first patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was identified in 1985; since then, as of October 31, 2010, a total accumulative number of 370 000 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS have been reported. The estimated number of patients living with HIV (PLHIV) in China was 740 000 in 2009. Although China is still a low-HIV prevalence region (rate of 0.057%), the epidemic has spread more widely from the high-risk groups to the general population. This paper covers five topics of importance, i.e., current trends of the HIV epidemic; HIV-1 subtype diversity; emergence of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR); the country's response to the disease; and future challenges and additional actions needed. This paper emphasizes sexual transmission as the predominant route of transmission and it being spread more frequently among men who have sex with men; the epidemic being concentrated over particular areas in China. We also discuss the fact that diverse HIV-1 subtypes have been found throughout the entire country and that recombinant subtypes became predominant. We also explore other topics such as the possibility of HIVDR, including primary and secondary resistance, with the use of free highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART); the integrated strategy of HIVDR surveillance and individual clinical HIVDR testing as a new attempt in China. For many years both policy-makers and professionals (including non-governmental organizations) have expressed strong commitment to prevention, control, and care of HIV/sexual transmission infection (STI), promoted the research and conducted different actions to slow the rising trend of the HIV epidemics. Although China is facing many challenges, its citizens need to be persistent on continuing the campaign of the State Council titled "Information of Strengthening Work on Prevention and Control of AIDS".

  4. Awareness, Attitude and Practices of Premarital Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Screening among Leaders of Two Predominant Religions in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Gbenga S.; Abu-Saeed Kamaldeen; Joseph Folake L.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV premarital screening is one of the practices that is prevalent and compulsory in religious communities of many African countries and is a major health issue that constitutes basic threat to fundamental human right when made mandatory. AIM: This study is therefore tailored towards assessing the awareness, attitude and practice of HIV premarital screening among religious leaders in Ilorin metropolis of Nigeria. METHOD: This study was a descriptive cross sectional survey carrie...

  5. Medical management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempen John

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS pandemic has pervasive effects on culture, economics, policy, and human development. All organs can be affected by complications of HIV/AIDS, including the eye. When sufficient resources are available and widespread antiretroviral resistance does not exist, the four available classes of antiretroviral agents - nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors - can be combined to provide highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. For many (not all patients, HAART converts an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic disease with a fairly good prognosis. Use of HAART often induces partial immune recovery, which has predominantly beneficial effects on ocular complications of AIDS. However, HAART-induced immune recovery sometimes results in immune recovery inflammatory syndromes, such as immune recovery uveitis. Use of HAART is the single most useful intervention for most patients with ocular complications of AIDS. However, specific ocular therapy is also critical to avoid blindness in the early months before immune recovery can occur, or if HAART is unavailable. Increasing availability of HAART worldwide shows great promise to alleviate one of the world′s greatest plagues. However, predictable secular trends in the AIDS epidemic make it likely that the number of cases of ocular complications of AIDS will increase substantially before they decrease. Ophthalmologists worldwide should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis - the most common ocular complication of AIDS - and should establish partnerships with physicians who are able to provide HAART. Research is needed to determine the optimal approach for managing cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource-constrained settings.

  6. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a child with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Katelyn R; Gonzalez Santiago, Tania M; Tollefson, Megha M

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by susceptibility to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. An acquired form of EDV has been described in the setting of immunosuppression, including in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present the case of an HIV-positive, adopted Haitian boy who presented with EDV. Few cases of chidren with HIV and acquired EDV have been reported and are likely underrecognized.

  7. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. 

  8. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atessa Pakfetrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center.     Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV, sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration.   Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%. The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+.   Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia.

  9. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a χ2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.2±8.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 26–35 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  10. Comparative analysis of Rev function in human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, E D; Cullen, B R

    1992-01-01

    The Rev proteins of the related but distinct human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) display incomplete functional reciprocity. One possible explanation for this observation is that HIV-2 Rev is unable to interact with the HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE1). However, an analysis of the biological activity of chimeric proteins derived from HIV-1 and HIV-2 Rev reveals that this target specificity does not map to the Rev RNA binding domain but is instead primarily determined ...

  11. Proteins, peptides, polysaccharides, and nucleotides with inhibitory activity on human immunodeficiency virus and its enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Chan, Wai Yee

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, has claimed innumerable lives in the past. Many biomolecules which suppress HIV replication and also other biomolecules that inhibit enzymes essential to HIV replication have been reported. Proteins including a variety of milk proteins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, ribonucleases, antifungal proteins, and trypsin inhibitors; peptides comprising cathelicidins, defensins, synthetic peptides, and others; polysaccharides and polysaccharopeptides; nucleosides, nucleotides, and ribozymes, demonstrated anti-HIV activity. In many cases, the mechanism of anti-HIV action has been elucidated. Strategies have been devised to augment the anti-HIV potency of these compounds.

  12. Dynamic features of the selective pressure on the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 gp120 CD4-binding site in a group of long term non progressor (LTNP subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzi Benedetta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The characteristics of intra-host human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 env evolution were evaluated in untreated HIV-1-infected subjects with different patterns of disease progression, including 2 normal progressor [NP], and 5 Long term non-progressor [LTNP] patients. High-resolution phylogenetic analysis of the C2-C5 env gene sequences of the replicating HIV-1 was performed in sequential samples collected over a 3–5 year period; overall, 301 HIV-1 genomic RNA sequences were amplified from plasma samples, cloned, sequenced and analyzed. Firstly, the evolutionary rate was calculated separately in the 3 codon positions. In all LTNPs, the 3rd codon mutation rate was equal or even lower than that observed at the 1st and 2nd positions (p = 0.016, thus suggesting strong ongoing positive selection. A Bayesian approach and a maximum-likelihood (ML method were used to estimate the rate of virus evolution within each subject and to detect positively selected sites respectively. A great number of N-linked glycosylation sites under positive selection were identified in both NP and LTNP subjects. Viral sequences from 4 of the 5 LTNPs showed extensive positive selective pressure on the CD4-binding site (CD4bs. In addition, localized pressure in the area of the IgG-b12 epitope, a broad neutralizing human monoclonal antibody targeting the CD4bs, was documented in one LTNP subject, using a graphic colour grade 3-dimensional visualization. Overall, the data shown here documenting high selective pressure on the HIV-1 CD4bs of a group of LTNP subjects offers important insights for planning novel strategies for the immune control of HIV-1 infection.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Viral Protein R (Vpr)-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest: An Analysis of Current Mechanistic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-08

    with vpr + , but not vpr - , experimental HIV strains became tetraploid . The presence of both multi- and mono-nucleated sub-populations of these 8N...the direct binding of Vpr with human 14-3-3 isoforms. This group performed a series of yeast two- hybrid screens, using wild-type and two mutant Vpr

  14. [Changes in vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez P, Ana; Alvarez P, Ana M; Wu H, Elba; Peña D, Anamaría; Vizueta R, Eloísa

    2007-10-01

    The identification of various risk factors of vertical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission resulted in the development of strategies whose aim was to decrease the mother's viral load, to reduce her child's exposure to it during delivery, and to avoid the subsequent viral exposure due to breastfeeding. The administration of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy, delivery and to the neonate (PACTG 076) proved to be useful. At a first stage, zidovudine was used. A triple combination therapy was then administered. Initially, the viral transmission in mothers who were enrolled in protocols for vertically transmitted HIV prophylaxis was reduced to 9.5%, whereas the last measurement carried out between 1998 and 2005, the initial figure was brought down to 2%. Nevertheless, the delivery of infected children whose mother's HIV status was unknown is still considered likely to happen. The main step to be taken to reduce HIV infection among children is to perform universal HIV tests during pregnancy, so that HIV positive pregnant patients conveniently receive proper prophylaxis. We look forward to achieving this by following the new prevention guidelines of vertically-transmitted HIV infection, developed by the Comisión Nacional del SIDA of the Chilean Health Ministry.

  15. Env-2dCD4 S60C complexes act as super immunogens and elicit potent, broadly neutralizing antibodies against clinically relevant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killick, Mark A; Grant, Michelle L; Cerutti, Nichole M; Capovilla, Alexio; Papathanasopoulos, Maria A

    2015-11-17

    The ability to induce a broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) response following vaccination is regarded as a crucial aspect in developing an effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The bNAbs target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) which is exposed on the virus surface, thereby preventing cell entry. To date, conventional vaccine approaches such as the use of Env-based immunogens have been unsuccessful. We expressed, purified, characterized and evaluated the immunogenicity of several unique HIV-1 subtype C Env immunogens in small animals. Here we report that vaccine immunogens based on Env liganded to a two domain CD4 variant, 2dCD4(S60C) are capable of consistently eliciting potent, broadly neutralizing antibody responses in New Zealand white rabbits against a panel of clinically relevant HIV-1 pseudoviruses. This was irrespective of the Env protein subtype and context. Importantly, depletion of the anti-CD4 antibodies appeared to abrogate the neutralization activity in the rabbit sera. Taken together, this data suggests that the Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes described here are "super" immunogens, and potentially immunofocus antibody responses to a unique epitope spanning the 2dCD4(60C). Recent data from the two available anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies, Ibalizumab and CD4-Ig (and bispecific variants thereof) have highlighted that the use of these broad and potent entry inhibitors could circumvent the need for a conventional vaccine targeting HIV-1. Overall, the ability of the unique Env-2dCD4(S60C) complexes to elicit potent bNAb responses has not been described previously, reinforcing that further investigation for their utility in preventing and controlling HIV-1/SIV infection is warranted.

  16. Challenges of respondent driven sampling to assess sexual behaviour and estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Arlene C; Chen, Mark Ic; Cavailler, Philippe; Jiang, Lili; Abdullah, Mohammed Ridzwan; Ng, Oon Tek; Chio, Martin; Koe, Stuart; Tay, Joanne; Wong, Mee Lian; Chan, Roy

    2013-07-01

    There is a lack of representative samples to provide reliable and accurate seroprevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as well as behavioural information among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Singapore. We used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM. Participants completed a survey used by Asian Internet MSM Sex Survey (AIMSS) and were tested for HIV and syphilis. We compared the characteristics of the RDS participants with STI diagnosis against those who did not have any STI diagnosis in the past 6 months. We compared RDS participants with AIMSS participants. Of 72 MSM recruited, 1 was positive for HIV (1.3%) and 4 (5.5%) tested positive for syphilis. Median age was 30 years and majority was Chinese (69.4%). RDS participants who had any STI diagnosis reported to have more use of recreational drugs (P = 0.006), and lower condom use (P = 0.054). Comparing RDS participants (n = 72) with the AIMSS participants (n = 2075), RDS respondents had ≥1 male partner in the past 6 months (P = 0.003), more casual sex partners (P = 0.012) and more STI symptoms (P = 0.019). There was no difference in terms of HIV testing and recreational drug use. The HIV and syphilis seroprevalence rates from our study are similar to previous reports conducted in high-risk MSM. In contrast to other settings, RDS did not work well among MSM in Singapore. The public health implications of our study highlight the challenges in obtaining data for HIV surveillance in assessing prevalence and risk behaviours among MSM.

  17. MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeland, E.; Jong, de M.A.W.P.; Nabatov, A.; Kalay, H.; Kooijk, van Y.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk,

  18. MUC1 in human milk blocks transmission of human immunodeficiency virus from dendritic cells to T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeland, E.; Jong, de M.A.W.P.; Nabatov, A.; Kalay, H.; Kooijk, van Y.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) occurs frequently via breast-feeding. HIV-1 targets DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells (DCs) in mucosal areas that allow efficient transmission of the virus to T cells. Here, we demonstrate that the epithelial mucin MUC1, abundant in milk,

  19. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría

    2013-01-01

    Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...

  20. Sustained Small Interfering RNA-Mediated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Inhibition in Primary Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can induce potent gene silencing by degradation of cognate mRNA. However, in dividing cells, the silencing lasts only 3 to 7 days, presumably because of siRNA dilution with cell division. Here, we investigated if sustained siRNA-mediated silencing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is possible in terminally differentiated macrophages, which constitute an important reservoir of HIV in vivo. CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor...

  1. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  2. A rare case of human immunodeficiency virus associated bilateral facial nerve palsy in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Gupta; Jitendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases are on the increase in India and worldwide, so are its various complications. Neurological complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. They can occur at any stage of the disease and can affect any level of the central or peripheral nervous systems. In the literature, several cases of HIV-associated facial paralysis have been reported; however, bilateral facial palsy is rarely reported

  3. Mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 RNA packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Dilley, Kari A;

    2011-01-01

    that specifically recognize stem-loop motifs in the viral genomes, an assay termed single virion analysis. These studies revealed that >90% of the HIV-2 particles contained viral RNAs and that RNAs derived from different viruses were copackaged frequently. Furthermore, the frequencies of heterozygous particles...... two monomeric RNAs. Additionally, single virion analyses demonstrated a similar RNA distribution in viral particles regardless of whether both viruses had a functional gag or one of the viruses had a nonfunctional gag, providing further support for the trans-packaging hypothesis. Together......Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) has been reported to have a distinct RNA packaging mechanism, referred to as cis packaging, in which Gag proteins package the RNA from which they were translated. We examined the progeny generated from dually infected cell lines that contain two HIV-2...

  4. Conjunctival Flora of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Kagmeni; Bilong, Yannick; Dohvoma, Andin Viola; Ebana, Steve Robert; Gonsu, Hortance

    2017-01-01

    To determine the conjunctival flora of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). A total of 104 conjunctival swabs from 104 HIV patients on ART underwent microbiological evaluation to describe the flora. There were 71 (68.26%) women and 33 (31.74%) men. The mean age was 42.9 ± 9.77 (range: 22-70) years. Negative cultures were found in 39 (37.50%) cases. Bacterial growth occurred in 65 (62.50%) cases. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was found in 59 eyes (90.76%), and coagulase-positive in 3 eyes (4.61%). There was a significant correlation between the duration of ART, the degrees of immunosuppression, and bacterial growth. Knowledge of the conjunctival flora in HIV patients may provide a better guideline in the choice of antibiotic for the management of ocular surface infections.

  5. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Anazi Awadh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI opportunistic infections (OIs are commonly encountered at various stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease. In view of the suppressive nature of the virus and the direct contact with the environment, the GI tract is readily accessible and is a common site for clinical expression of HIV. The subject is presented based on information obtained by electronic searches of peer-reviewed articles in medical journals, Cochrane reviews and PubMed sources. The spectrum of GI OIs ranges from oral lesions of Candidiasis, various lesions of viral infections, hepatobiliary lesions, pancreatitis and anorectal lesions. The manifestations of the disease depend on the level of immunosuppression, as determined by the CD4 counts. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the pattern of presentation, resorting mainly to features of antimicrobial-associated colitis and side effects of antiretroviral drugs. The diagnosis of GI OIs in HIV/ acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients is usually straightforward. However, subtle presentations require that the physicians should have a high index of suspicion when given the setting of HIV infection.

  6. 一起输注HIV感染者血液未被传播HIV的病例调查%A Study on transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by blood transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璋; 杨蓉蓉; 桂希恩; 罗云芳; 李芳

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the transmission rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by contaminated blood transfusion and provide information for the prevention of HIV transmission. Method:Twenty-six patients who had received blood transfusion from a donor infected with HIV were investigated and anti-HIV and anti-HCV were tested. Results:Eight of the patients died and 2 were missed. Among the other 16 patients, 15 were infected with HIV and 14 were anti-HCV positive. The transmission rates of HIV and HCV were 93.8%(15/16) and 87.5%(14/16) respectively. One patient’s anti-HIV and HIV-RNA were negative, but anti-HCV and HCV-RNA were positive. Free treatment、training and financial support were provided to all of the patients who infected with HIV. Conclusion: It is necessary to screen HIV-antibody for people who received blood transfusion without testing HIV during 1990’s in highly epidemic area of AIDS. The sceen help people who infected with HIV to get diagnosis、treatment and support earlier and to prevent the further spread of the diseases. There is very great probability to acquire HIV infection through contaminated blood transfusion, but there is exception. Some people may not susceptible to HIV infection. The mechanism needs further study.%目的了解输注HIV感染者血液传播HIV的机率及其对艾滋病防治和研究的意义。方法对某医院26名接受HIV阳性供血员血液的患者进行随访及HIV和HCV筛查。结果1995年8月8日至1996年12月27日在该医院输注某HIV感染者全血的26名患者中8人已死亡,2人失访,在筛查的16名受血者中,15人抗-HIV阳性,14人抗-HCV阳性,接受输血后,HIV 和HCV传播率分别为93.8%和87.5%。1例受血者多次检查抗-HIV均为阴性,HIV-RNA阴性,但抗-HCV阳性,HCV-RNA阳性。被发现的HIV感染者均得到了救助、治疗和培训。结论在血传播为主的艾滋病疫区,对输注未经HIV及HCV检测血液的人群进行筛查有

  7. Declined Neural Efficiency in Cognitively Stable Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Thomas; Yakupov, Renat; Nakama, Helenna; Crocket, Grace; Cole, Michael; Watters, Michael; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary Lynn; Chang, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether brain activation changes in clinically and neurocognitively normal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and in HIV-seronegative control (SN) participants over a 1-year period. Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 32 SN and 31 HIV patients (all with stable combination antiretroviral treatment) at baseline and after 1 year. Each participant performed a set of visual attention tasks with increasing attentional load (from tracking two, three, or four balls). All HIV and SN participants had normal neuropsychological function at both examinations. Results Over 1 year, HIV patients showed no change in their neurocognitive status or in task performance during fMRI. However, HIV patients showed significant 1-year increases in fMRI signals in the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices for the more difficult tasks, whereas SN control participants showed only decreases in brain activation in these regions. This resulted in significant interactions between HIV status and time of study in left insula, left parietal, left temporal, and several frontal regions (left and right middle frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate). Interpretation Because fMRI task performance remained unchanged in both groups, the HIV patients appeared to maintain performance by increasing usage of the attention network, whereas the control participants reduced usage of the attention network after 1 year. These findings suggest improved efficiency or a practice effect in the SN participants but declined efficiency of the neural substrate in HIV patients, possibly because of ongoing brain injury associated with the HIV infection, despite their apparent stable clinical course. PMID:19334060

  8. Comparative performances of serologic and molecular assays for detecting human T lymphotropic virus type 1 and type 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Rodrigues Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study evaluated several techniques currently available (commercial kits and in-house assays for diagnosing human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 in two groups of patients enrolled at HIV/AIDS specialized care services in São Paulo: Group 1 (G1, n = 1608, 1237 male/371 female, median age 44.3 years old, majority using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; G2, n = 1383, 930 male/453 female, median age of 35.6 years old, majority HAART naïve. Enzyme immunoassays [(EIA Murex and Gold ELISA] were employed for human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 screening; Western blotting (WB, INNO-LIA (LIA, real-time PCR pol (qPCR, and nested-PCR-RFLP (tax were used to confirm infection. Samples were considered human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 positive when there was reactivity using at least one of the four confirmatory assays. By serological screening, 127/2991 samples were positive or borderline, and human T lymphotropic virus infection was confirmed in 108 samples (three EIA-borderline: 56 human T lymphotropic virus type 1 [G1 (27 + G2 (29]; 45 human T lymphotropic virus type 2 [G1 (21 + G2 (24]; one human T lymphotropic virus type 1 + human T lymphotropic virus type 2 (G2; six human T lymphotropic virus [G1 (2 + G2 (4]. Although there were differences in group characteristics, human T lymphotropic viruses types 1 and 2 prevalence was similar [3.1% (G1 and 4.2% (G2, p = 0.113]. The overall sensitivities of LIA, WB, qPCR, and PCR-RFLP were 97.2%, 82.4%, 68.9%, and 68.4%, respectively, with some differences among groups, likely due to the stage of human T lymphotropic virus infection and/or HAART duration. Indeterminate immunoblotting results were detected in G2, possibly due to the seroconversion period. Negative results in molecular assays could be explained by the use of HAART, the occurrence of defective provirus and/or the low circulating proviral load. In conclusion, when determining the human T

  9. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  10. Aspects of gastrointestinal immunology and nutrition in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castello-Branco Luiz RR

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucosal surfaces have a fundamental participation in many aspects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection pathogenesis. In Brazilian HIV-1 infected subjects, loss of weight and appetite are among the most debilitating symptoms. In this review we describe a defined mucosal immunogen that has profound but transient effects on HIV viral load, and we suggest that gut associated lymphoid tissue under constant immunostimulation is likely to provide a major contribution to the total levels of HIV. We also show that hypermetabolism appears to play a role in the wasting process in Brazilian patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis.

  11. Recent Recommendations for Management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Miriam R

    2017-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic condition. HIV is not a valid reason to deny, delay, or withhold dental treatment. There are no absolute contraindications and few complications associated with comprehensive oral health care treatment delivered in an outpatient setting for asymptomatic HIV-infected patients and clinically stable patients with AIDS. Consultation with the patient's medical provider and modifications in the delivery of dental treatment may be necessary when treating patients with advanced HIV disease or other comorbid conditions. Oral health care is an integral and important part of comprehensive health care for all patients with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficacy of inosine pranobex in preventing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. The Scandinavian Isoprinosine Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Sandström, E; Petersen, C S

    1990-01-01

    We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of inosine pranobex (Isoprinosine) [corrected] in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but without manifest acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A total...... or the development of other HIV-related conditions, with the exception of thrush, which developed in fewer patients in the inosine pranobex group (P = 0.05). No serious side effects were observed. We conclude that treatment with inosine pranobex delays progression to AIDS in patients with HIV infection. The duration...

  13. Comparative expression profile of miRNA and mRNA in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Gupta

    Full Text Available Host cells respond to exogenous infectious agents such as viruses, including HIV-1. Studies have evaluated the changes associated with virus infection at the transcriptional and translational levels of the cellular genes involved in specific pathways. While this approach is useful, in our view it provides only a partial view of genome-wide changes. Recently, technological advances in the expression profiling at the microRNA (miRNA and mRNA levels have made it possible to evaluate the changes in the components of multiple pathways. To understand the role of miRNA and its interplay with host cellular gene expression (mRNA during HIV-1 infection, we performed a comparative global miRNA and mRNA microarray using human PBMCs infected with HIV-1. The PBMCs were derived from multiple donors and were infected with virus generated from the molecular clone pNL4-3. The results showed that HIV-1 infection led to altered regulation of 21 miRNAs and 444 mRNA more than 2-fold, with a statistical significance of p<0.05. Furthermore, the differentially regulated miRNA and mRNA were shown to be associated with host cellular pathways involved in cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, T-cell signaling, and immune activation. We also observed a number of inverse correlations of miRNA and mRNA expression in infected PBMCs, further confirming the interrelationship between miRNA and mRNA regulation during HIV-1 infection. These results for the first time provide evidence that the miRNA profile could be an early indicator of host cellular dysfunction induced by HIV-1.

  14. Idiopathic genital ulcers in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Clark, R A; Watts, D H; Till, M; Arrastia, C; Schuman, P; Cohn, S E; Young, M; Bessen, L; Greenblatt, R; Vogler, M; Swindells, S; Boyer, P

    1996-12-01

    A national survey of investigators caring for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was undertaken to describe the clinical presentation of idiopathic genital ulcer disease. Patients with negative syphilis and herpes simplex testing and/or negative genital ulcer biopsy were included in this study. Study participants (n = 29) were generally severely immunocompromised (median CD4 cell count was 50/mm3, and 68% had an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining opportunistic process). Thirty-seven percent had coexistent oral ulcers and 19% had their genital ulcer progress to fistula formation (four rectovaginal and one vaginal-perineal). There was generally a favorable response to topical, systemic, and intralesional steroid treatment. This study suggests that idiopathic or probable aphthous genital ulcers in women have similar clinical characteristics to aphthous oroesophageal ulcers. Although infrequent, these genital ulcers can cause severe morbidity. Further research is warranted to better define the pathophysiology and optimal management.

  15. HIV-2 and its role in conglutinated approach towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Vaccine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Diwan, Batul; Saxena, Rupali; Tiwari, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most critically acclaimed endemic diseases, caused by two lentiviruses HIV-1 and 2. HIV-2 displays intimate serological and antigenic resemblance to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) along with less pathogenicity, lower infectivity and appreciable cross reactivity with HIV-1 antigens. The present era is confronted with the challenge to fabricate a vaccine effective against all clades of both the species of HIV. But vaccine development ...

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 reservoirs: mechanisms of latency and therapeutic strategies = Reservorios del virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 (VIH-1: mecanismos de latencia y estrategias terapéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcia Anaya, Eliuth David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 can establish a latent infection in different kind of cells, which constitute the cellular reservoirs for the virus and allow its maintenance in the body indefinitely, even in patients with antiretroviral treatment. The main reservoirs of the HIV-1 are resting CD4+ T cells, although cells like monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and other cells like hematopoietic stem cells and mast cells may be reservoirs of the virus. There are different mechanisms that contribute to the establishment and maintenance of latency in those cells, and include transcriptional interference, low availability of transcription factors, chromatin condensation, some microRNA that block viral translation, and so on. The knowledge of these mechanisms is crucial for the development of new drugs that may eliminate the virus from the body and lead to a cure.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and tropical diseases: a Brazilian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G Morgado

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes recent findings on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/Aids, highlighting the role of co-infections with major tropical diseases. Such co-infections have been studied in the Brazilian context since the beginning of the Aids epidemic and are expected to be more frequent and relevant as the Aids epidemic in Brazil proceeds towards smaller municipalities and the countryside, where tropical diseases are endemic. Unlike opportunistic diseases that affect basically the immunocompromised host, most tropical diseases, as well as tuberculosis, are pathogenic on their own, and can affect subjects with mild or no immunossuppression. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapies (HAART, opportunistic diseases seem to be on decrease in Brazil, where such medicines are fully available. Benefiting from HAART in terms of restoration of the immune function, putative milder clinical courses are expected in the future for most co-infections, including tropical diseases. On the other hand, from an ecological perspective, the progressive geographic diffusion of Aids makes tropical diseases and tuberculosis a renewed challenge for Brazilian researchers and practitioners dealing with HIV/Aids in the coming years.

  18. Measuring domestic violence in human immunodeficiency virus-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikar, Seema; Verma, Ak; Bhatti, Vk; Shatabdi, S

    2012-04-01

    Violence affects the lives of millions of women worldwide, in all socioeconomic classes. Violence and the fear of violence are emerging as important risk factor contributing to the vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection for women. The objective of the present cross sectional study is to compare the experiences of domestic violence between HIV-positive and HIV-negative married women seeking treatment in a tertiary care hospital. The study is conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Pune on a randomly selected 150 married women (75 HIV-positive and 75 HIV-negative). Informed consent was obtained from all the women and also a trained counsellor was present during the process of data collection. The data was collected by interview method by taking precautions as laid down in the World Health Organization's ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence and using modified conflict tactics scale (CTS). The definition of violence followed is as per the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993. The percentage of women reporting domestic violence is 44.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.84-52.68). The proportion of physical, emotional and sexual violence reported is 38% (95% CI = 30.49-45.96), 24% (95% CI = 17.67-31.31), and 14.7% (95% CI = 9.66-21.02), respectively. The odds of reporting violence of all forms is significantly higher among HIV-positive women than among HIV-negative women (Pviolence. The findings suggest high proportion of HIV-positive women report violence then HIV-negative women which must be addressed through multilevel prevention approaches.

  19. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  20. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are coexpr......In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  1. Stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Lund, O S;

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes are coexpr......In order to study the stoichiometry of monoclonal antibody (MAb) neutralization of T-cell line-adapted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in antibody excess and under equilibrium conditions, we exploited the ability of HIV-1 to generate mixed oligomers when different env genes...

  2. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... marker and whether correction of anemia itself results in a better prognosis remain to be determined....

  3. Family and other social factors contributing to differences in human immunodeficiency virus infection between South Africa and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to draw attention to the importance of social, cultural, economic and political factors as causes of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in South Africa by comparing the current situation in this country with Banglade

  4. Family and other social factors contributing to differences in human immunodeficiency virus infection between South Africa and Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginneken, J.K.S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to draw attention to the importance of social, cultural, economic and political factors as causes of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in South Africa by comparing the current situation in this country with Banglade

  5. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Haugaard, S B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than ...

  6. Dynamics of adaptive and innate immunity in patients treated during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection: results from Maraviroc in HIV Acute Infection (MAIN) randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, M; Pogliaghi, M; Chiappetta, S; Galli, L; Pensieroso, S; Cavarelli, M; Scarlatti, G; De Biasi, S; Cossarizza, A; De Battista, D; Malnati, M; Lazzarin, A; Nozza, S; Tambussi, G

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the dynamics of innate and adaptive immunity in patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) during primary human immunodeficiency virus infection (PHI), enrolled in a prospective randomized trial (MAIN, EUDRACT 2008-007004-29). After 48 weeks of cART, we documented a reduction in activated B cells and CD8(+) T cells. Natural killer cell and dendritic cell frequencies were measured and a decrease in CD16(+) CD56(dim) with a reciprocal rise in CD56(high) natural killer cells and an increase in myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were recorded. In conclusion, 48 weeks of cART during PHI showed significant benefits for both innate and adaptive immunity.

  7. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  8. R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of fetal thymic organ culture induces cytokine and CCR5 expression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choudhary, S.K.; Choudhary, N.R.; Kimbrell, K.C.; Colasanti, J.; Ziogas, A.; Kwa, D.; Schuitemaker, H.; Camerini, D.

    2005-01-01

    Late-stage CCR5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates (R5 HIV-1) can deplete nearly all CD4+ thymocytes from human thymus/liver grafts, despite the fact that fewer than 5% of these cells express CCR5. To resolve this paradox, we studied the replication and cytopathic effects (C

  9. Changing patterns of human immunodeficiency virus-associated neuropathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Francoise

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the evolution of the pathogenic concepts associated with the infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, with emphasis to the pathology of the nervous system. Although the first description of damage to the nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS only appeared in 1982, the dramatic diffusion of the epidemic worldwide, as well as the invariably rapidly fatal outcome of the disease before the introduction of efficient treatment, generated from the beginning an enormous amount of research and re-thinking on a number of pathogenetic concepts. Less than 25 years after the first autopsy series on AIDS patients were published and the virus responsible for AIDS was identified, satisfactory definition and classification of a number of neuropathological complications of HIV infection have been established. This has led to the establishment of accurate clinical and biological diagnosis of the main neurological complications of the disease, which remain a major cause of disability and death in patients. Clinical and experimental studies have provided essential insight into the pathogenesis of CNS lesions and the natural history of the disorder. The relatively recent introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in 1995-6 dramatically improved the course of prognosis of HIV disease. However, there remain a number of unsolved pathogenetic issues, the most puzzling of which remains the precise mechanism of neuronal damage underlying the specific HIV-related cognitive disorder (HIV-dementia. In addition, although antiretroviral therapy has changed the course of neurological complications, new issues have emerged, such as the lack of improvement or even paradoxical deterioration of the neurological status in treated patients. Interpretation of these complications remains largely speculative, partly because of the small number of neuropathological studies related to the beneficial consequence of this

  10. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  11. National Surveillance of Occupational Exposure to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Ricketts

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In September 1985, a prospective study was initiated to monitor the occurrence of occupational exposures to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected blood and body fluids in Canada. This program was coordinated by the Federal Centre for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS (now the Division of HIV/AIDS Epidemiology at the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. The objective was to determine the risk to workers of acquiring HIV infection as a result of exposure to HIV-infected blood and other body fluids. To be eligible, a worker must have sustained a documented parenteral, mucous membrane or skin contact exposure to blood or body fluids from an HIV-infected person. A baseline specimen was collected within a week of the exposure and then at six weeks, 12 weeks, six months and 12 months. Information concerning the type of exposure, precautions used and post exposure treatment was submitted to the Federal Centre for AIDS on standard data collection forms. All information was anonymous, identified only by a code number. Guidelines for counselling an exposed employee were provided with enrollment material. As of July 29, 1991, 414 employees have been included in the study. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the 414 exposures (57% were needlestick injuries of which 167 (70% were sustained by nurses. Other exposures consisted of open wound contamination, eye splashes, scalpel wounds and skin contact with blood and body fluids. To date, there have been no seroconversions among workers enrolled in the surveillance program.

  12. [Prevention of nosocomial transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from HIV-positive healthcare workers. Recommendations of the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases (DVV) e.V. and the Society for Virology (GfV) e.V].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenau, H F; Gottschalk, R; Gürtler, L; Haberl, A E; Hamouda, O; Himmelreich, H; Korn, K; Mertens, T; Schmidt, K W; Schmiedel, S; Spickhoff, A; Wirz, G; Wutzler, P; Wicker, S

    2012-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases (DVV) e.V. and the Society for Virology (GfV) e.V. are the first in Europe to provide precise recommendations for the management of health care workers (HCWs) who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Requirements for HIV-infected HCWs need to be clearly defined. With a permanent viral burden of less than or equal to 50 copies/mL, HIV-positive HCWs are allowed to perform any surgery and any invasive procedure, as long as the infected HCW uses double-gloving, undergoes follow-up routinely by occupational medicine professionals, undergoes a quarterly examination of viral burden, and has a regular medical examination by a physician who has expertise in the management of HIV. Unrestricted professional activity is only possible with a strict compliance to take antiretroviral therapy and if the HIV-infected HCW strictly adheres to the recommended infection control procedures. Complete compliance with the recommendation almost certainly leads to no HIV transmission risk in patient care.

  13. Low immunologic response to highly active antiretroviral therapy in naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children with severe immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resino, Salvador; Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; de José, Maria Isabel; Martin-Fontelos, Pablo; Gutiérrez, Maria Dolores Gurbindo; Léon, Juan Antonio; Ramos, José Tomás; Ciria, Luis; Muñoz-Fernández, Maria Angeles

    2006-04-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to analyze the CD4 recovery of naive vertically human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with severe immunodeficiency who were followed up during at least 4 years of receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Children with baseline CD4 of or =25% after the 4th year on HAART. We conclude that starting HAART after severe immunosuppression of naive HIV-infected children may not be effective for recovery of normal %CD4.

  14. Serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to the established role of Helicobacter pylori gastritis in gastritis and duodenal ulcer in general, conflicting results have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The seroprevalence during early HIV...... infection is unknown. We retrospectively studied 102 patients with HIV infection early during the infection and in most cases in asymptomatic patients. Serological IgG antibody response to H. pylori was assessed by ELISA. Compared with an age-matched control group the seroprevalence of H. pylori positivity......) and 2 patients had H. pylori seroconverted, indicating an incidence of new infection of 2%/year. In conclusion, previous reports have underestimated the prevalence of H. pylori infection in HIV patients, which seems to be similar to that in an HIV-negative population....

  15. Expanding human immunodeficiency virus testing and counseling to reach tuberculosis clients' partners and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay-Quirk, C; Date, A; Bachanas, P; Baggaley, R; Getahun, H; Nelson, L; Granich, R

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have shown important increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC), diagnosis, and coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected tuberculosis (TB) patients. Expansion of HTC for partners and families are critical next steps to increase earlier HIV diagnoses and access to ART, and to achieve international goals for reduced TB and HIV-related morbidity, mortality, transmission and costs. TB and HIV programs should develop and evaluate feasible and effective strategies to increase access to HTC among the partners and families of TB patients, and ensure that newly diagnosed people living with HIV and HIV-infected TB patients who complete anti-tuberculosis treatment are successfully linked to ongoing HIV clinical care.

  16. Attenuation of pathogenic immune responses during infection with human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV by the tetracycline derivative minocycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia L Drewes

    Full Text Available HIV immune pathogenesis is postulated to involve two major mechanisms: 1 chronic innate immune responses that drive T cell activation and apoptosis and 2 induction of immune regulators that suppress T cell function and proliferation. Both arms are elevated chronically in lymphoid tissues of non-natural hosts, which ultimately develop AIDS. However, these mechanisms are not elevated chronically in natural hosts of SIV infection that avert immune pathogenesis despite similarly high viral loads. In this study we investigated whether minocycline could modulate these pathogenic antiviral responses in non-natural hosts of HIV and SIV. We found that minocycline attenuated in vitro induction of type I interferon (IFN and the IFN-stimulated genes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1 and TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells and PBMCs exposed to aldrithiol-2 inactivated HIV or infectious influenza virus. Activation-induced TRAIL and expression of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 in isolated CD4+ T cells were also reduced by minocycline. Translation of these in vitro findings to in vivo effects, however, were mixed as minocycline significantly reduced markers of activation and activation-induced cell death (CD25, Fas, caspase-3 but did not affect expression of IFNβ or the IFN-stimulated genes IDO1, FasL, or Mx in the spleens of chronically SIV-infected pigtailed macaques. TRAIL expression, reflecting the mixed effects of minocycline on activation and type I IFN stimuli, was reduced by half, but this change was not significant. These results show that minocycline administered after infection may protect against aspects of activation-induced cell death during HIV/SIV immune disease, but that in vitro effects of minocycline on type I IFN responses are not recapitulated in a rapid progressor model in vivo.

  17. Esophago-pleural fistula with multiple esophageal ulcers in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Soo Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Choi, Jae Phil; Son, Jin Sung [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul(Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Esophagitis is a common complication in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is caused by candidiasis, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, or idiopathic esophagitis with no detectable etiology. Esophagitis in HIV infected patient is occasionally combined with esophageal ulcers. We report chest CT findings and clinical manifestation of esophago-pleural fistula with pneumothorax in a HIV infected patient, who was treated for aspiration pneumonia and esophageal ulcers.

  18. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  19. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M;

    1991-01-01

    . This inhibition was found in infection of both lymphocytic cells and monocytoid cells. Viruses tested included six HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates propagated in different cells, as well as infectious plasma from AIDS patients. The antiviral effect of anti-Tn MAbs occurred by specific binding of the MAb to the virus......The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells...

  20. Twenty years of human immunodeficiency virus care at the Mayo Clinic: Past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Nathan W; Badley, Andrew D; Kasten, Mary J; Sampath, Rahul; Temesgen, Zelalem; Whitaker, Jennifer A; Wilson, John W; Yao, Joseph D; Zeuli, John; Rizza, Stacey A

    2016-01-01

    The Mayo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Clinic has been providing patient centered care for persons living with HIV in Minnesota and beyond for the past 20 years. Through multidisciplinary engagement, vital clinical outcomes such as retention in care, initiation of antiretroviral therapy and virologic suppression are maximized. In this commentary, we describe the history of the Mayo HIV Clinic and its best practices, providing a “Mayo Model” of HIV care that exceeds national outcomes and may be applicable in other settings. PMID:27175350

  1. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease and the Emergence of Drug Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Rødtness

    in the virus life cycle has made it a major target for drug development and active site competitive inhibitors have been successful in the battle against HIV. Unfortunately, the massive drug pressure along with high-level replication and lack of proofreading by the viral reverse transcriptase have resulted......Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) is responsible for cleaving ten different sites in the viral Gag and Gag-pol polyproteins, thereby releasing the structural proteins and enzymes necessary for the maturation and infectivity of the HIV-1 virus. The vital role of HIV-1 PR...

  2. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the era of antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velásquez, Jorge N; Ledesma, Bibiana A; Nigro, Monica G; Vittar, Natalia; Rueda, Nestor; De Carolis, Luis; Figueiras, Olga; Carnevale, Silvana; Corti, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a severe opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The lung is a major site of infection after the central nervous system. In this report we described two cases of pneumonia due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in HIV patients with antiretroviral therapy. Clinical and radiological abnormalities are not specific. Pulmonary toxoplasmosis should be considered in HIV-infected patients with late stage of HIV, CD4 count less than 100 cells/µl and a poor adherence to HAART.

  3. Full-length clone and characterization of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B' isolated from Hubei Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jian-xin; KANG Xian-jiang; ZHANG Wei; LIU Ping-ping; TONG Xiao; YANG Rong-ge

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two types of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 dominates epidemics in many different parts of the world, and HIV-2 is principally responsible for the epidemic in western Africa. In China, Zeng et al1 have reported the first individual infected with HIV-1 in 1985. And in the 1990s,there was a severe epidemic involving the HIV-1 B' strain among people who sold blood and plasma in Henan,Hubei and adjacent provinces.2 To further study in HIV/AIDS vaccines and HIV-1 drug resistance for people in these regions, we need to construct an infectious HIV-1 B' molecular clone which is representative of the virus in these areas.3 To this end, we have isolated a HIV-1 B' virus from a child who was infected with HIV-1 from his mother in Hubei province, and have constructed a full-length clone from this genome.

  4. The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T; Nakai, M; Ikuta, K

    1998-01-01

    The life-cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been studied using several techniques including immunoelectron microscopy and cryomicroscopy. The HIV-1 particle consists of an envelope, a core and the region between the core and the envelope (matrix). Virus particles in the extracellular space are observed as having various profiles: a central or an eccentric round electron-dense core, a bar-shaped electron-dense core, and immature doughnut-shaped particle. HIV-1 particles in the hydrated state were observed by high-resolution electron cryomicroscopy to be spherical and the lipid membrane was clearly resolved as a bilayer. Projections around the circumference were seen to be knob-like. The shapes and sizes of the projections, especially the head parts, were found to vary with each projection. HIV-1 cores were isolated with a mixture of Nonidet P40 and glutaraldehyde, and were confirmed to consist of HIV-1 Gag p24 protein by immunogold labelling. On infection, the HIV-1 virus was found to enter the cell in two ways: membrane fusion and endocytosis. After viral entry, no structures resembling virus particles could be seen in the cytoplasm. In the infected cells, positive reactions by immunolabelling suggest that HIV-1 Gag is produced in membrane-bound structures and transported to the cell surface by the cytoskeletons. A crescent electron-dense layer is then formed underneath the cell membrane. Finally, the virus particle is released from the cell surface and found extracellularly to be a complete virus particle with an electron-dense core. However, several cell clones producing defective mature, doughnut-shaped (immature) or teardrop-shaped particles were found to be produced in the extracellular space. In the doughnut-shaped particles, Gag p17 and p24 proteins exist facing each other against an inner electron-dense ring, suggesting that the inner ring consists of a precursor Gag protein showing a defect at the viral proteinase.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1, human protein interaction database at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, William; Sanders-Beer, Brigitte E; Katz, Kenneth S; Maglott, Donna R; Pruitt, Kim D; Ptak, Roger G

    2009-01-01

    The 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1), Human Protein Interaction Database', available through the National Library of Medicine at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/HIVInteractions, was created to catalog all interactions between HIV-1 and human proteins published in the peer-reviewed literature. The database serves the scientific community exploring the discovery of novel HIV vaccine candidates and therapeutic targets. To facilitate this discovery approach, the following information for each HIV-1 human protein interaction is provided and can be retrieved without restriction by web-based downloads and ftp protocols: Reference Sequence (RefSeq) protein accession numbers, Entrez Gene identification numbers, brief descriptions of the interactions, searchable keywords for interactions and PubMed identification numbers (PMIDs) of journal articles describing the interactions. Currently, 2589 unique HIV-1 to human protein interactions and 5135 brief descriptions of the interactions, with a total of 14,312 PMID references to the original articles reporting the interactions, are stored in this growing database. In addition, all protein-protein interactions documented in the database are integrated into Entrez Gene records and listed in the 'HIV-1 protein interactions' section of Entrez Gene reports. The database is also tightly linked to other databases through Entrez Gene, enabling users to search for an abundance of information related to HIV pathogenesis and replication.

  6. The role of monocyte-lineage cells in human immuno-deficiency virus persistence: mechanisms and progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persistence is a major barrier to the successful treatment and eradication of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In addition to resting CD4+ T cells, a significant long-lived compartment of HIV-1 infection in vivo includes blood monocytes and tissue macrophages. Studying HIV-1 persistence in monocyte-lineage cells is critical because these cells are important HIV-1 target cells in vivo. Monocyte-lineage cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, play a significant role in HIV-1 infection and transmission. These cells have been implicated as viral reservoirs that facilitate HIV-1 latency and persistence. A better understanding of HIV-1 interactions with monocyte-lineage cells can potentially aid in the development of new approaches for intervention. This minireview highlights the latest advances in understanding the role of monocyte-lineage cells in HIV-1 persistence and emphasizes new insights into the mechanisms underlying viral persistence.

  7. Action of uracil analogs on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its reverse transcriptase.

    OpenAIRE

    Piras, G; Dutschman, G E; Im, G J; B.C. Pan; Chu, S H; Cheng, Y C

    1995-01-01

    Three structural analogs of 5-ethyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-6-(phenylthio)uracil (E-BPU) inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication without cytotoxicity in vitro and were more potent than azidothymidine and were as potent as E-BPU. The target of these compounds is HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Reverse transcriptases resistant to nevirapine (tyrosine at position 181 to cysteine) and TIBO R82150 (leucine at position 100 to isoleucine) are cross resistant to E-BPU analogs. Nevira...

  8. Subcellular localization of the Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves, J.; Jallepalli, P; Gabuzda, D H

    1994-01-01

    The Vif (viral infectivity factor) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been shown to dramatically enhance the infectivity of HIV-1 virus particles during virus production. The subcellular localization of Vif was examined to elucidate cellular pathways which may be important for Vif function. Indirect immunofluorescence staining of Vif demonstrated a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution and showed that most Vif was not associated with the Golgi complex, a proposed site of lo...

  9. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the Pathogenesis and Outcome of Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme

    OpenAIRE

    Choy, Winward; Lagman, Carlito; Lee, Seung J.; Bui, Timothy T; Safaee, Michael; Yang, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background Improvement in antiviral therapies have been accompanied by an increased frequency of non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) defining malignancies, such as glioblastoma multiforme. Here, we investigated all reported cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with glioblastoma and evaluated their clinical outcomes. A comprehensive review of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms underlying glioblastoma development in the setting of HIV/AIDS is provided. Met...

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Diarrhea: Still an Issue in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikman, Andrew E.; Schonfeld, Emily; Srisarajivakul, Nalinee C.; Poles, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Over half of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience diarrhea that contributes negatively to quality of life and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Opportunistic infectious agents that cause diarrhea in patients with HIV span the array of protozoa, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. With global use of ART, the incidence of diarrhea because of opportunistic infections has decreased; however, the incidence of noninfectious diarrhea has increased. The etiology of noninfect...

  11. The Remarkable Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genetic Recombination

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Summary: The genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) results from a combination of point mutations and genetic recombination, and rates of both processes are unusually high. This review focuses on the mechanisms and outcomes of HIV-1 genetic recombination and on the parameters that make recombination so remarkably frequent. Experimental work has demonstrated that the process that leads to recombination—a copy choice mechanism involving the migration of reverse transcr...

  12. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions...

  13. Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Associated Risk Factors in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Olivia; Wu, Qishan; Ickes, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study documents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in a sample of college students and examines associated demographic and behavioral characteristics. Participants: College students aged 18 or older were randomly selected to participate in a health behavior survey at a southeastern university in September…

  14. TUBERCULOSIS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-EXPOSED OR VIRUS-INFECTED UNITED-STATES CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUTMAN, LT; MOYE, J; ZIMMER, B; TIAN, C

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the occurrence of tuberculosis exposure, infection and disease within a national sample of infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure or infection, and to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  15. Improvement of lymphocyte proliferation in human immunodeficiency virus infection after recombinant interleukin-2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an impaired ability of PBMC from 8 patients to respond upon mi...

  16. TUBERCULOSIS IN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS-EXPOSED OR VIRUS-INFECTED UNITED-STATES CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUTMAN, LT; MOYE, J; ZIMMER, B; TIAN, C

    1994-01-01

    This study was designed to provide a preliminary assessment of the occurrence of tuberculosis exposure, infection and disease within a national sample of infants and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure or infection, and to determine the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  17. Improvement of lymphocyte proliferation in human immunodeficiency virus infection after recombinant interleukin-2 treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the effect of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) on the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was examined. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), an impaired ability of PBMC from 8 patients to respond upon...

  18. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  19. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  20. Alteration in pancreatic islet function in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms behind the defects in insulin production and secretion associated with antihuman immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) therapy and the development of HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) are discussed in this article. Data suggesting insulin resistance on the beta cell an...

  1. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  2. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV and Pregnancy ... Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)? How ...

  3. Phylogenetic Analyses Indicate an Atypical Nurse-to-Patient Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Christophe P.; Schneider, Véronique M.; Grofti, Jaouad; Montigny, Joëlle; Jeantils, Vincent; Astagneau, Pascal; Rozenbaum, Willy; Lot, Florence; Frocrain-Herchkovitch, Claudie; Delphin, Nathalie; Le Gal, Frédéric; Nicolas, Jean-Claude; Milinkovitch, Michel C.; Dény, Paul

    2000-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patient with no risk factor experienced HIV type 1 (HIV-1) primary infection 4 weeks after being hospitalized for surgery. Among the medical staff, only two night shift nurses were identified as HIV-1 seropositive. No exposure to blood was evidenced. To test the hypothesis of a possible nurse-to-patient transmission, phylogenetic analyses were conducted using two HIV-1 genomic regions (pol reverse transcriptase [RT] and env C2C4), each compared with reference strains and large local control sets (57 RT and 41 C2C4 local controls). Extensive analyses using multiple methodologies allowed us to test the robustness of phylogeny inference and to assess transmission hypotheses. Results allow us to unambiguously exclude one HIV-positive nurse and strongly suggest the other HIV-positive nurse as the source of infection of the patient. PMID:10684266

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion in women with genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, P J; Pepin, J; Agoki, E; Ronald, A R; Ombette, J; Tyndall, M; Cheang, M; Ndinya-Achola, J O; D'Costa, L J; Plummer, F A

    1994-08-01

    Genital ulcers are implicated as a risk factor enhancing susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. A prospective study to determine the incidence of and risk factors associated with acquisition of HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers was done. HIV-1-seronegative women with genital ulcers attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Nairobi were followed to HIV-1 seroconversion over a 6-month period. Of 81 women, 10 seroconverted to HIV-1. The crude 6-month incidence of HIV-1 infection was 12%. Risk factors associated with seroconversion included cervical ectopy (rate ratio [RR], 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.6) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-20.4). Thus, cervical ectopy and pelvic inflammatory disease may increase susceptibility to HIV-1 in women with genital ulcers.

  5. Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas C Macdonald; Mark Nelson; Mark Bower; Thomas Powles

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively. It has yet to be clearly established whether HIV directly accelerates HCC pathogenesis or whether the rising incidence is an epiphenomenon of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, wherein the increased longevity of patients with HIV allows long-term complications of viral hepatitis and cirrhosis to develop. Answering this question will have implications for HCC surveillance and the timing of HCV/HBV therapy, which in HIV co-infection presents unique challenges. Once HCC develops, there is growing evidence that HIV co-infection should not preclude conventional therapeutic strategies, including liver transplantation.

  6. Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus from genital ulcers in Nairobi prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, J K; Coombs, R; Plummer, F; Holmes, K K; Nikora, B; Cameron, W; Ngugi, E; Ndinya Achola, J O; Corey, L

    1989-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated genital/anorectal ulcer disease as an important cofactor for acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during sexual intercourse. To better understand the mechanism for the association between genital ulcers and HIV, exudates from 62 genital ulcers of 56 HIV-seropositive prostitutes in Nairobi (Kenya) were cultured for HIV. Twenty-six ulcer cultures could not be evaluated for the presence of HIV because of bacterial or fungal contamination. HIV was isolated from 4 (11%) of the 36 remaining uncontaminated ulcer cultures (2 introital, 1 vaginal, and 1 cervical) from 4 separate women. HIV was isolated from the cervical os from only 2 of the 4 women. HIV p24 antigen was detected in exudate from 1 of the 4 culture-positive ulcers and 0 of 32 culture-negative ulcers. Genital ulcers in seropositive patients should be regarded as potential sources of HIV, which could be important in transmission of HIV during intercourse. Public health measures aimed at controlling sexually transmitted genital ulcer diseases should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs.

  7. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B;

    2003-01-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were...

  8. Markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk individuals seronegative by first generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Lauritzen, E;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 228 stored serum samples from 140 high risk individuals was examined for serological markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and HIV antigen assay. All the samples were negative in first generation enzyme...

  9. Clinical manifestations of cytomegalovirus-associated posterior uveitis and panuveitis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Pathanapitoon (Kessara); N. Tesavibul (Nattaporn); P. Choopong (Pitipol); S. Boonsopon (Sutasinee); N. Kongyai (Natedao); S. Ausayakhun (Somsanguan); P. Kunavisarut (Paradee); A. Rothova (Aniki)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractImportance: Little attention has been paid to clinical features of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in individuals without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and comorbidities of patients without HIV infection who have CMV-associated po

  10. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...

  11. Lipodystrophy in human immunodeficiency virus patients impairs insulin action and induces defects in beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ulrik B

    2003-01-01

    The pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is not fully clarified. We investigated 18 men with HALS and 18 HIV-positive males without lipodystrophy (control subjects). Duration and modality of antiretroviral therapy were...

  12. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  13. Low-dose growth hormone and human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipodystrophy syndrome: a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Flyvbjerg, A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with high doses (2-6 mg day(-1)) of human growth hormone (hGH) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) has been shown to increase concentrations of total insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) more than twofold greater than......' treatment of lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients with hGH, 0.7 mg day(-1), increased total and free IGF-I twofold and appeared safe and tolerable. The potential of low-dose hGH in the treatment of HIV-lipodystrophy awaits examination by placebo-controlled, randomized trials....

  14. Screening of Fungi from Chinese Medical Plants for Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to isolate anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural products, 97 ethanolic extracts of 90 fungi were tested for their inhibitory activity on HIV-1. Most of the extracts tested were relatively non-toxic to human lymphocytic MT-4 cells, but extracts of some fungi exhibited potent anti-HIV activity in an in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay with a selectivity index greater than 3. Most fungi were isolated from Dendrobium sp. and Taxus sp.

  15. Expression of HLA - DR Antigen of Lymphocyte in Patients with Earlylatent - syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co - infection%HIV/AIDS合并早期隐性梅毒患者淋巴细胞HLA - DR抗原表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章松平; 朱明利; 厉小玉; 周俊; 潘熠健; 李超丹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of HLA - DR antigen of lymphocyte in patients with earlylatentsyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus coinfection,and investigate the clinical significance. Methods The percentages of CD3 + HLA - DR+ and CD3 -HLA - DR of lymphocyte were detected by flow cytometry for 72 HIV/AIDS patients,45 patients with earlylatentsyphilis and human immunodeficiency virus co - infection and 35 healthy cases. Results Compared with the normal group, the percentages of CD3 + HLA - DR + antigen were significantly increased in co - infection with TP, while there was no difference in the percentage of CD3 + HLA - DR + antigen between HIV and AIDS co - infection with TP. The percentage of CD3 - HLA - DR + antigen in HIV co - infection with TP was significantly decreased in AIDS co - infection with TP and normal group,and there was no difference in the percentage of CD3 - HLA - DR + antigen in AIDS co - infection with TP and normal group. The percentages of CD3 - HLA - DR + antigen in HIV co - infection with TP was significantly decreased in those only infected with HIV, and there was no difference in the percentages of CD3 + HLA - DR + antigen between co - infection with TP and only infected with HIV. There was no difference in the percentage of CD3 + HLA - DR + and CD3 - HLA - DR + antigen between AIDS co - infection with TP and AIDS patients. Conclusion The percentages of CD3 + HLA - DR + and CD3 - HLA - DR + antigen in co - infection with TP were different with those only infected with HIV,and there was little correlation with HIV progress.%目的 研究HIV/AIDS合并早期隐性梅毒患者外周血淋巴细胞HLA - DR抗原的表达,探讨其临床意义.方法 用流式细胞仪检测72例HIV患者、45例HIV/AIDS合并早期隐性梅毒患者和35例健康体检者外周血T淋巴细胞HLA - DR抗原百分比( CD3 +HLA - DR+)和B淋巴细胞HLA- DR抗原百分比(CD3 - HLA - DR+).结果 与对照组[(6.16±2.47)%]比较,HIV

  16. [Clinical features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Guangxi autonomous region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xiangzhi; Jiang, Lanlan; Lu, Xiangchan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nianning; Tao, Renchuan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A total of 127 HIV-seropositive patients were interviewed for health information and examined for their HIV-related oral lesions according to the EC Clearing House Criteria on Oral Problems related to HIV-Infection (1992). The examinations were conducted by dental specialist and HIV specialist. The CD4 T cell count in peripheral blood of the patients was tested by flow cytometry. The patients were divided into HIV- infected group (42) and AIDS group (85) according to CDC Classification System for HIV- Infected Adults and Adolescents (revised in 1993). Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between systemic disease and oral lesions, and the difference of the prevalence of oral lesions between the two groups. Among the 127 patients, oral candidiasis (51/127), oral hairy leukoplakia (24/127) were common oral manifestation. There was no relationship between the oral manifestation and systemic disease (P = 0.397). The occurrence of oral lesions and oral candidiasis was significantly different between the two groups (χ² = 7.684, P = 0.006; χ² = 14.410, P < 0.001). The CD4 count was related to the prevalence of oral lesions (P = 0.006) and oral candidasis (P = 0.003). Most oral lesions appeared before the appearance of systemic disease. Oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia were the most common lesions.Oral lesions had no relationship with systemic disease but could be still an indicator for disease progress.

  17. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells: viral shedding and cell contact-mediated infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asin, Susana N; Wildt-Perinic, Dunja; Mason, Sarah I; Howell, Alexandra L; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-15

    We examined the mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection of human uterine epithelial cells to gain a clearer understanding of the events by which HIV-1 infects cells within the female reproductive tract. We demonstrated that these cells can be productively infected by HIV-1 and that infection is associated with viral RNA reverse transcription, DNA transcription, and secretion of infectious virus. Levels of viral DNA and secreted virus decreased gradually after infection. Moreover, virus released by the uterine epithelial cells shortly after infection was able to infect human T cell lines, but virus released later did not. In contrast, human CD4(+) T cell lines were infected after cocultivation with epithelial cells at both early and late stages of infection. These data demonstrated that HIV-1 infects human epithelial cells of upper reproductive tract origin and that productive viral infection of epithelial cells may be an important mechanism of transmission of HIV-1 infection in women.

  19. Sexual Behavior and Knowledge among Adolescents with Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Compared to HIV-Uninfected Adolescents at an Urban Tertiary Center in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Ashlesha; Pineda, Carol; Kest, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sexual behaviors and knowledge among PHIV-infected (PHIV(+)) adolescents in comparison with HIV-uninfected youths are not well understood and continue to be studied actively. Objective. To compare sexual behavior and sexual knowledge of PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents at an urban, tertiary-care center in New Jersey. Study Design. Modified Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire was administered to PHIV(+) and HIV-uninfected adolescents to assess and compare sexual behavior and knowledge over a 1-year-period. Results. Twenty-seven PHIV(+) and 100 HIV-uninfected adolescents were studied; 59% PHIV(+) and 52% HIV-uninfected adolescents were sexually active. A significantly higher proportion of PHIV(+) adolescents compared to HIV-uninfected adolescents reported ≥1 occasion of unprotected penetrative sex (p 4) sexual partners (p = 0.037). Significantly more PHIV(+) males reported receptive anal intercourse (p sexual abstinence can prevent HIV transmission and >80% adolescents in both groups did not consider multiple sexual partners a risk factor for HIV transmission. Only 25% PHIV(+) adolescents reported disclosing their seropositive status to their first sexual partners. Conclusions. High risk sexual behaviors were significantly more prevalent among PHIV(+) youths; however both groups demonstrated considerable gaps in sexual knowledge. There is an urgent need for heightening awareness about risky behaviors, interventions for prevention, and reproductive health promotion among adolescents.

  20. Peru-15 (Choleragarde(®)), a live attenuated oral cholera vaccine, is safe and immunogenic in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, W; Kim, Y H; Sah, B K; Suwanagool, S; Kim, D R; Anekthananon, A; Lopez, A L; Techasathit, W; Grahek, S L; Clemens, J D; Wierzba, T F

    2015-09-11

    Many areas with endemic and epidemic cholera report significant levels of HIV transmission. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 95% of reported cholera cases occur in Africa, which also accounts for nearly 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS globally. Peru-15, a promising single dose live attenuated oral cholera vaccine (LA-OCV), was previously found to be safe and immunogenic in cholera endemic areas. However, no data on the vaccine's safety among HIV-seropositive adults had been collected. This study was a double-blinded, individually randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolling HIV-seropositive adults, 18-45 years of age, conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, to assess the safety of Peru-15 in a HIV-seropositive cohort. 32 HIV infected subjects were randomized to receive either a single oral dose of the Peru-15 vaccine with a buffer or a placebo (buffer only). No serious adverse events were reported during the follow-up period in either group. The geometric mean fold (GMF) rise in V. cholerae O1 El Tor specific antibody titers between baseline and 7 days after dosing was 32.0 (pvaccine group compared to 1.6 (pvaccine strain. There were no significant changes in HIV viral load or CD4 T-cell counts between vaccine and placebo groups. Peru-15 was shown to be safe and immunogenic in HIV-seropositive Thai adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  2. Anemia and survival in human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Mocroft, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    The prospective, multicenter cohort study EuroSIDA has previously reported on predictors and outcomes of anemia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In a Cox proportional-hazards model with serial measures of CD4+ cell count, plasma viral load, and degrees of anemia fitted...... as time-dependent variables, the relative hazard of death increased markedly for patients with anemia versus no anemia. A clinical scoring system was developed and validated for patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy using the most recent laboratory measures. Mild and severe anemia were...... independently (Panemia. The mechanisms underlying why hemoglobin is such a strong prognostic...

  3. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Diamant Mossoro-Kpinde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France, combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx and real-time PCR (Amplix NG, for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL, across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL, 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche, with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Primary Neuritic Hansen's Disease presenting as Ulnar Nerve Abscess in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjigi, S; Herakal, K; Murthy, S C; Bathina, A; Kusuma, M R; Nikhil, K R Y

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy has been increasingly known to have an enigmatic relationship with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Co-infection may result in atypical manifestations of leprosy. A 45-year old human immunodeficiency virus-positive male; agricultural laborer presented with a swelling over right elbow, right hand deformity, generalized itching and recurrent vesicles overthe perinasal area. Clinical and investigational findings were consistent with mononeuritic type of Hansen's disease with right sided silent ulnar nerve abscess, partial claw hand. CD4+ count of the patientwas 430 cells/cmm. This patient also hadherpes simplex labialis, with HIV-associated pruritus. To the best of our knowledge such an atypical presentation has not been reported earlier.

  5. Single-photon emission computed tomography in human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu, J.C.; Yudd, A.; Van Heertum, R.L.; Grundman, M.; Hriso, E.; O' Connell, R.A.; Luck, D.; Camli, U.; King, L.N. (St. Vincent' s Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Depression or psychosis in a previously asymptomatic individual infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be psychogenic, related to brain involvement by the HIV or both. Although prognosis and treatment differ depending on etiology, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are usually unrevealing in early HIV encephalopathy and therefore cannot differentiate it from psychogenic conditions. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) with HIV encephalopathy had single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings that differed from the findings in 15 patients with non-HIV psychoses and 6 controls. SPECT showed multifocal cortical and subcortical areas of hypoperfusion. In 4 cases, cognitive improvement after 6-8 weeks of zidovudine (AZT) therapy was reflected in amelioration of SPECT findings. CT remained unchanged. SPECT may be a useful technique for the evaluation of HIV encephalopathy.

  6. Dual infection with dengue virus 3 and human immunodeficiency virus 1 in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Limonta, Daniel; Bandera, Juan Francisco; Perez, Jorge; Kouri, Gustavo; Guzman, Maria G

    2009-05-01

    Although dengue virus (DEN) endemic regions overlap with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) high incidence areas, little has been documented on HIV and DEN mixed infection. Here we report DEN/HIV concurrent infections recorded during the DEN-3 epidemic in 2001-2002 in Havana. Serologic-confirmed DEN is described in two HIV-infected subjects with dengue fever symptoms. Although patients had dengue disease, the CD4+ cells remained within normal levels and no accelerated progression of HIV disease was observed. To our knowledge, DEN cases caused by DEN-3 in HIV-infected individuals have not been reported previously. Further research is needed to diagnose this likely underreported mixed viral infection in DEN endemic areas.

  7. Tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzak, E E

    1997-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects one third of the world's population, and tuberculosis remains one of the most common infectious diseases of humans. From a global perspective, tuberculosis may be one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infections. HIV immunosuppression has had a dramatic influence on the epidemiology, natural history and clinical presentation of tuberculosis. Treatment is highly effective for drug susceptible tuberculosis and has been shown to have a significant impact on resistant, especially multidrug-resistant, tuberculosis if started promptly. Directly observed therapy and rigorous adherence to infection control principles have helped control the tuberculosis epidemic in the United States.

  8. Profile of disposition, tissue distribution and excretion of the novel anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent W-1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Xin; Dai, Wen-Bing; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Pu; Lou, Ya-Qing; Lu, Chuang; Liu, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Guo-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the disposition, distribution, excretion and plasma protein binding of 6-benzyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-5-iodouracil (W-1) in rats. Concentrations of W-1 within biological samples were determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography method. The plasma protein binding of W-1 was examined by equilibrium dialysis method. After oral administration of W-1 (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively) in self-microemulsifying drug delivery system formulation, the pharmacokinetic parameters of W-1 were as follows: the peak plasma concentrations (C max) were 0.42, 1.50 and 2.55 μg/mL, the area under the curve (AUC0-t) were 0.89, 2.27 and 3.96 µg/h mL and the plasma half-life (t 1/2) were 5.15, 3.77 and 3.77 h, respectively. Moreover, the prototype of W-1 was rapidly and extensively distributed into fifteen tissues, especially higher concentrations were detected in intestine, stomach and liver, respectively. The plasma protein binding of W-1 in rat, beagle dog and human were in the range of 97.96-99.13 %. This study suggested that W-1 has an appropriate pharmacokinetics in rats, such as rapid absorption, moderate clearance, and rapid distribution to multiple tissues. Those properties provide important information for further development W-1 as an anti-HIV-1 drug candidate.

  9. 45 CFR 96.128 - Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements regarding human immunodeficiency virus. 96.128 Section 96.128 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... human immunodeficiency virus. (a) In the case of a designated State as described in paragraph (b)...

  10. Central Nervous System Immune Activation Characterizes Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Infection Even in Participants With Minimal Cerebrospinal Fluid Viral Burden

    OpenAIRE

    Spudich, Serena; Gisslen, Magnus; Hagberg, Lars; Lee, Evelyn; Liegler, Teri; Brew, Bruce; Fuchs, Dietmar; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Cinque, Paola; Frederick M Hecht; Price, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Central nervous system (CNS) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and immune activation lead to brain injury and neurological impairment. Although HIV enters the nervous system soon after transmission, the magnitude of infection and immunoactivation within the CNS during primary HIV infection (PHI) has not been characterized.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heart Failure in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A State-of-the-Art Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald S Bloomfield; Alenezi, Fawaz; Barasa, Felix A.; Lumsden, Rebecca; Mayosi, Bongani M; Velazquez, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Successful combination therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed this disease from a short-lived infection with high mortality to a chronic disease associated with increasing life expectancy. This is true for high- as well as low- and middle-income countries. As a result of this increased life expectancy, people living with HIV are now at risk of developing other chronic diseases associated with aging. Heart failure has been common among people living with HIV in the eras...

  12. Living related donor renal transplant in human immunodeficiency virus infected patient: Case reports from tertiary care hospital in western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Dalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation (TX in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD is increasingly performed in developed countries in the era of antiretroviral therapy (ART. Management of HIV infected patients during and post-transplant is very complex and challenging due to drug interaction, infection risk and associated co-infections. We described our experience with living related donor renal TX in three HIV infected patients.

  13. Performance of a rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus antibody assay in a public health setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Kassler, W J; Haley, C; Jones, W. K.; Gerber, A R; E. J. Kennedy; George, J R

    1995-01-01

    Rapid, on-site human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing has the potential to improve the delivery of prevention services in publicly funded counseling and testing sites. The Single Use Diagnostic System (SUDS) HIV-1 is the only rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) approved for diagnostic use in the United States. To evaluate the feasibility of using SUDS in public clinics and to validate the test's performance in a public health laboratory, we conducted blinded SUDS testing on plasma sent for HIV...

  14. Action of uracil analogs on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and its reverse transcriptase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, G; Dutschman, G E; Im, G J; Pan, B C; Chu, S H; Cheng, Y C

    1995-02-01

    Three structural analogs of 5-ethyl-1-benzyloxymethyl-6-(phenylthio)uracil (E-BPU) inhibited human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication without cytotoxicity in vitro and were more potent than azidothymidine and were as potent as E-BPU. The target of these compounds is HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Reverse transcriptases resistant to nevirapine (tyrosine at position 181 to cysteine) and TIBO R82150 (leucine at position 100 to isoleucine) are cross resistant to E-BPU analogs. Nevirapine- or TIBO R82150-resistant HIV-1 were cross resistant to E-BPU analogs but were inhibited at concentrations 11- to 135-fold lower than the cytotoxic doses.

  15. Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients: A true or perceived risk?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shima; Shahbaz; Marcella; Manicardi; Giovanni; Guaraldi; Paolo; Raggi

    2015-01-01

    After the successful introduction of highly active antiretroviral agents the survival of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) in developed countries has increased substantially. This has allowed the surfacing of several chronic diseases among which cardiovascular disease(CVD) is prominent. The pathogenesis of CVD in HIV is complex and involves a combination of traditional and HIV related factors. An accurate assessment of risk of CVD in these patients is still elusive and as a consequence the most appropriate preventive and therapeutic interventions remain controversial.

  16. Gonococcal arthritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena Corrales, Gabriel; Mora Navas, Laura; Palacios Muñoz, Rosario; García López, Victoria; Márquez Solero, Manuel; Santos González, Jesús

    We report a case of gonococcal arthritis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and review 17 previously published cases; only one patient presented urethritis, and blood cultures were positive in one case. Gonococcal arthritis is rare in HIV-infected patients and is not usually associated with other symptoms. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute arthritis in patients with HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  18. Review of testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, D J; Ziegner, U H; Hooper, D G

    1992-06-01

    The performance of HIV testing requires meticulous attention to preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic variables, especially matters of patient confidentiality. Laboratory directors must pay strict attention to quality control and quality assurance practices. Careful attention to these considerations can produce a screening program in low-prevalence populations that has an extremely low false-positive rate, with a positive predictive value of greater than 99%. Issuing a clear and concise laboratory report to the clinician is important. The Fifth Consensus Conference on Testing for Human Retroviruses of the Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors, March 1990, has recommended that ELISA be reported as reactive or nonreactive; IFA as reactive, nonreactive, or nonspecific, and WB as reactive, nonreactive, or indeterminate. It is recommended that the terms positive and negative be reserved for the summary interpretation given at the conclusion of the HIV-1 antibody testing algorithm. The testing algorithm used for HIV antibody screening at Scripps Clinic is shown in Figure 3. Other algorithms for complete testing on a single sample only or on two separate samples are reported. We agree with others that the patient should not be counseled for infection with HIV until a reactive confirmatory test(s) establishes a positive diagnosis. Certain special situations in diagnostic testing deserve comment. Establishing the diagnosis of HIV infection can be difficult in seronegative persons with acute infection. Polymerase chain reaction, viral culture or antigen detection may be useful tests in this situation. However, careful interpretation of test results and close correlation with patient risk factors are important to establish the proper diagnosis. Reports of seronegative persons, some remaining seronegative over a protracted time, have raised concerns over the transfusional risk of HIV infection. Blood donor screening programs are using

  19. Validation of the Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay for diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscus, Susan A; McMillion, Takesha; Nelson, Julie A E; Miller, William C

    2013-12-01

    The qualitative Roche HIV-1 DNA Amplicor assay has been used for the past 20 years to diagnose HIV infection in infants and young children but is being phased out; hence, alternative assays must be found. The Gen-Probe Aptima qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is currently the only FDA-cleared HIV-1 nucleic acid assay approved for diagnosis, but data on the use of this assay with infant plasma are limited. We assessed Aptima's performance using control material for reproducibility and limit of detection and 394 plasma samples (0.2 to 0.5 ml) from HIV-exposed infected and uninfected infants and children for analytical sensitivity and specificity. Assays to assess within-run repeatability and between-run reproducibility indicated that the controls with 10,000 (5 of 5), 200 (5 of 5), 100 (16 of 16), 50 (12 of 12), and 25 (20 of 20) HIV-1 RNA copies/ml (cp/ml) were always positive, and negatives were always negative (20 of 20). The limit of detection was 14 cp/ml, as determined by probit analysis. The analytic sensitivity of the assay was 99.5% (189/190 samples; 95% confidence interval [CI], 97.1 to 99.9%) and specificity was 99.5% (199/200 samples; 95% CI, 97.2 to 99.9%). These results suggest that the assay is suitable for early infant diagnosis of HIV-1.

  20. Optimized Infectivity of the Cell-Free Single-Cycle Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Type 1 (HIV-1 and Its Restriction by Host Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H Kim

    Full Text Available The infectivity of retroviruses such as HIV-1 in plasma or cultured media is less than 0.1% in general, the mechanisms of which are not yet fully understood. One possible explanation among others is the potential presence of large numbers of defective virions in a virus pool, which limits the apparent infectivity of HIV virions. To test this hypothesis, we have varied the culture conditions used to generate single-cycle HIV-1 virions. Among these culture variables, virion harvest time, media change after transfection, and envelope plasmid input can all improve HIV-1 infectivity by reducing the number of defective virions. A harvest time of 18-24 hours post transfection as opposed to 48 hours, and a media change six hours post transfection both improve viral infectivity. An optimal quantity of envelope plasmid input during transfection was also found. Collectively, these conditions increased the infectivity of HIV-1 virions by sevenfold compared to normally reported values in TZM-bl indicator cell lines. These conditions also increased the infectivity of HIV-1 in CD4(+ T cells, suggesting that these conditions work by increasing the intrinsic infectivity of a virus pool. Nevertheless, these improvements on virion infectivity were marginal compared to the impact of host cells on HIV infection, which can decrease the apparent infectivity by 19-fold even for the most optimized viruses. These results suggest that the infectivity of HIV-1 virions can be optimized by reducing the number of defective virions; however, viral-cell interactions may pose a major barrier for HIV-1 infectivity.

  1. Antiretroviral effects of deoxyhypusyl hydroxylase inhibitors: a hypusine-dependent host cell mechanism for replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, L; Szabo, P; Grady, R W; Hanauske, A R; Huima-Byron, T; Slowinska, B; Zagulska, S; Hanauske-Abel, H M

    1998-06-01

    The HIV-1 protein Rev, critical for translation of incompletely spliced retroviral mRNAs encoding capsid elements, requires a host cell protein termed "eukaryotic initiation factor 5A" (eIF-5A). This is the only protein containing hypusine, a lysine-derived hydroxylated residue that determines its proposed bioactivity, the translation of a subset of cellular mRNAs controlling G1-to-S transit of the cell cycle. We postulated that inhibiting the hypusine-forming deoxyhypusyl hydroxylase (DOHH) should, by depleting eukaryotic initiation factor 5A, compromise Rev function and thus reduce HIV-1 multiplication. We now report that the alpha-hydroxypyridones, specifically mimosine, a natural product, and deferiprone, an experimental drug, inhibited deoxyhypusyl hydroxylase in T-lymphocytic and promonocytic cell lines and, in a concentration-dependent manner, suppressed replication of HIV-1. However, the alpha-hydroxypyridones did not affect the formation of unspliced or multiply spliced HIV-1 transcripts. Rather, these agents caused Rev-dependent incompletely spliced HIV-1 mRNA such as gag, but not cellular "housekeeping" mRNAs, to disappear from polysomes. Consequently, alpha-hydroxypyridone-mediated depletion of eIF-5A decreased biosynthesis of structural HIV-1 protein encoded by gag, measured as p24, whereas the induced formation of cellular protein like tumor necrosis factor alpha remained unaffected. By interfering with the translation of incompletely spliced retroviral mRNAs, these compounds restrict HIV-1 to the early, nongenerative phase of its reproductive cycle. In the inducibly HIV-1 expressing T-cell line ACH-2, the deoxyhypusyl hydroxylase inhibitors triggered extensive apoptosis, particularly of cells that actively produce HIV-1. Selective suppression of retroviral protein biosynthesis and preferential apoptosis of retrovirally infected cells by alpha-hydroxypyridones point to a novel mode of antiretroviral action.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, P A; Roderiquez, G L; Peden, K W; Norcross, M A

    1998-11-01

    The effect of macrophage (M)-tropic and T cell line (T)-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection on antigen-specific CD4 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has been studied using a CD4 CTL line specific for a peptide from influenza B virus hemagglutinin. In the absence of antigen presentation, the production of CC chemokines was low. Both the M-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1AD) and the T-tropic HIV-1 strain (HIV-1LAI) established productive infections in the CD4 CTLs, decreasing antigen-specific cytotoxicity. Peptide presented to the CD4 CTLs increased their secretion of RANTES and MIP-1beta, suppressed M-tropic HIV-1 replication, downmodulated CCR5 expression, and preserved CTL recognition. The suppression of M-tropic HIV-1 replication and downmodulation of the CCR5 receptor likely resulted from CC chemokine secretion since antibodies to CC chemokines restored M-tropic HIV-1 replication. Antigen presentation did not protect CD4 CTLs from T-tropic HIV-1 infection or preserve their CTL recognition. Thus, these CD4 CTLs do not make suppressor factors that inhibit the T-tropic HIV-1LAI isolate. The results indicate that these CD4 CTLs can either harbor or suppress M-tropic HIV-1 infection, depending on whether antigen is present. CD4 CTLs might therefore provide some protection in the early stages of HIV-1 infection when M-tropic isolates are present.

  3. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Henn

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detected in 74 patients. There were statistically significant difference between HIV positive and negative patients in sex and age. HIV-infected patients showed significantly more signs of bacteremia than HIV-negative patients. Extra-pulmonary TBC was present respectively in 13 (17.6% and 21 (22.6% HIV positive and negative patients. There was a significant difference between chest radiograph presentation in HIV positive and negative patients. There were significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. Outcome was significantly different in the two groups with a death rate of 36.5% and 10.8% in HIV-positive and in HIV-negative patients. The difference between HIV positive and negative patients may have importance in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with TBC.

  4. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infectivity with a broad range of lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Vestergaard, B F

    1991-01-01

    Five lectins with specificity for N- and O-linked oligosaccharides were examined for inhibition of HIV-1 and HSV-1 infectivity in vitro. HIV-1 isolate HTLVIIIB was preincubated with lectin and subsequently inoculated onto MT-4 cells. Lectins specific for N-linked oligosaccharides blocked HIV infe......-1 infection, the most potent inhibition was found with the lectin HPA. These results indicate that lectins may have a broad antiviral effect on enveloped viruses only limited by types of oligosaccharides present on individual viruses....

  5. Eosinophilia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up are unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis.

  6. Vif Proteins from Diverse Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Lineages Have Distinct Binding Sites in A3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeli; Gu, Qinyong; Jaguva Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan; Jeyaraj, Manimehalai; Schmidt, Stanislaw; Zielonka, Jörg; Perković, Mario; Heckel, Jens-Ove; Cichutek, Klaus; Häussinger, Dieter; Smits, Sander H J; Münk, Carsten

    2016-11-15

    Lentiviruses have evolved the Vif protein to counteract APOBEC3 (A3) restriction factors by targeting them for proteasomal degradation. Previous studies have identified important residues in the interface of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif and human APOBEC3C (hA3C) or human APOBEC3F (hA3F). However, the interaction between primate A3C proteins and HIV-1 Vif or natural HIV-1 Vif variants is still poorly understood. Here, we report that HIV-1 Vif is inactive against A3Cs of rhesus macaques (rhA3C), sooty mangabey monkeys (smmA3C), and African green monkeys (agmA3C), while HIV-2, African green monkey simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm), and SIVmac Vif proteins efficiently mediate the depletion of all tested A3Cs. We identified that residues N/H130 and Q133 in rhA3C and smmA3C are determinants for this HIV-1 Vif-triggered counteraction. We also found that the HIV-1 Vif interaction sites in helix 4 of hA3C and hA3F differ. Vif alleles from diverse HIV-1 subtypes were tested for degradation activities related to hA3C. The subtype F-1 Vif was identified to be inactive for degradation of hA3C and hA3F. The residues that determined F-1 Vif inactivity in the degradation of A3C/A3F were located in the C-terminal region (K167 and D182). Structural analysis of F-1 Vif revealed that impairing the internal salt bridge of E171-K167 restored reduction capacities to A3C/A3F. Furthermore, we found that D101 could also form an internal interaction with K167. Replacing D101 with glycine and R167 with lysine in NL4-3 Vif impaired its counteractivity to A3F and A3C. This finding indicates that internal interactions outside the A3 binding region in HIV-1 Vif influence the capacity to induce degradation of A3C/A3F.

  7. Study of infections among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Shadan Hospital, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukumar Gajjala Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs. HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. Aims: (1 Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission. (2 Analyze the route of transmission. Methods: This is a single-center prospective study including all the patients attending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS care center during the period of January 2014 to December 2014. Results: Among 71 patients included in this study, mean age was 30 years, 57.7% (41 patients were male, 42.3% (30 patients were female. Mean CD4 cell count of the study group was 260.11 and of patients on antiretroviral therapy increased subsequently to 553.37 cells/ml. Among the infections, the prevalence of candidiasis, tuberculosis (TB, tinea infections, seborrheic dermatitis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and Entamoeba histolytica were 36.6%, 29.58%, 4.22%, 2.82%, 4.22%, 1.4%, and 1.4%. Most predominant routes were heterosexual transmission at 94.3%. It was followed by vertical transmission seen in 2.8%. Homosexual transmission is 1.4% and intravenous drug abuse 1.4%. Conclusion: The frequency of infections among HIV/AIDS patients has got a similar linear relation with CD4 cell count. This study reports data will serve as a matrix for future evaluation. It is concluded that candidiasis, TB are the most common infections in the HIV-seropositive patients in the present study group.

  8. Induction and Characterization of Immune Responses in Small Animals Using a Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEE) Replicon System, Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Envelope Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    59 6. Baldinotti, F., D. Matteucci, P. Mazzetti, C. Giannelli, P. Bandecchi, F. Tozzini, and M. Bendinelli. 1994. Serum neutralization of feline ...immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. Methods 12:337-42. 9. Beaumont, T., A. van Nuenen, S. Broersen, W...Maggi, A. Leonildi, S. Giannecchini, C. Bergamini, and D. Matteucci. 2001. During readaptation in vivo, a tissue culture-adapted strain of feline

  9. Early determination of human immunodeficiency virus status by routine voluntary counseling and testing in Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favour Osazuwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce the burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the popularization of voluntary counseling and testing (VCT for early determination of human immunodeficiency virus status will be of immense benefit. Aim: To evaluate the uptake of voluntary counseling and testing and sero-prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus among status naïve outpatients and self-presenting VCT clients in Benin City, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the period of May 2010 to April 2011 at the University of Benin teaching hospital, Benin City. Subjects who consented were included and screened for HIV. Pre and post-test counseling was done following the world health organization guidelines. Results: Out of 10,533 subjects (7783 outpatients and 2750 self-presenting VCT clients counseled for VCT, a total of 4651(44.2% subjects; (3971(51.0% outpatients and 680 (24.7% self-presenting VCT clients, consented and accepted HIV VCT. Overall HIV prevalence was 6.4%. 270 (6.8% outpatients and 29 (4.3% self-presenting VCT clients were HIV positive. HIV was significantly associated with female gender among the outpatients (P<0.001. Conclusion: VCT uptake was low; the sero-prevalence of HIV was high. The need to employ an expanded and more purpose oriented public enlightenment campaign on the usefulness of HIV VCT should be a priority for HIV control agencies in our area.

  10. A randomized controlled trial of soap opera videos streamed to smartphones to reduce risk of sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in young urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J

    2013-01-01

    Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fcgamma receptor-mediated suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Bercoff, Danielle; David, Annie; Sudry, Hugues; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Pancino, Gianfranco

    2003-04-01

    Permissiveness of monocytes and macrophages to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is modulated by various stimuli. In this study we demonstrate that stimulation of primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) through the receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcgammaR) inhibits HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Viral p24 production was decreased by 1.5 to 3 log units in MDM infected with both R5 and X4 HIV-1 strains upon stimulation by immobilized IgG but not upon stimulation by soluble IgG or by F(ab')(2) IgG fragments. Although MDM activation by immobilized IgG induced high levels of macrophage-derived chemokine secretion as well as a sustained down-regulation of CD4 and a transient decrease in CCR5 expression, these factors did not appear to play a major role in the suppression of HIV-1 replication. Single-cycle infection of FcgammaR-stimulated MDM with HIV-1 virions pseudotyped with either HIV-1 R5 or vesicular stomatitis virus G envelopes was inhibited, suggesting a postentry restriction of viral replication. PCR analyses of HIV-1 DNA intermediate replication forms suggested that reverse transcription is not affected by stimulation with immobilized human IgG, at least during the first replication cycle. The accumulation of PCR products corresponding to nuclear unintegrated two-long-terminal-repeat circles and the relative decrease of integrated HIV-1 DNA signals suggest an inhibition of proviral integration. Our data, showing that FcgammaR-mediated activation of MDM is a potent mechanism of HIV-1 suppression, raise the possibility that FcgammaR cross-linking by immune complexes may contribute to the control of viral replication in macrophages.

  12. BIRTH-ORDER, DELIVERY ROUTE, AND CONCORDANCE IN THE TRANSMISSION OF HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TYPE-1 FROM MOTHERS TO TWINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULIEGE, AM; AMOS, CI; FELTON, S; BIGGAR, RJ; ZIEGLER, J; CRUIKSHANK, M; LEVY, J; MEATES, MA; GIBB, D; MAYAUX, MJ; TEGLAS, JP; LAURENT, C; BLANCHE, S; ROUZIOUX, C; HELLINGGIESE, G; MATTNER, U; HOEGER, PH; CONLON, T; GRIFFIN, E; DEMARIA, A; BENEDETTO, A; PRINCIPI, N; GIAQUINTO, C; GIANCOMELLI, A; MOK, J; CASABONA, J; FORTUNY, C; URIZ, S; PEREZ, JM; TUSETRUIZ, MC; LEON, P; ELORZA, JFY; CANOSA, C; BRANDLE, B; SEGER, R; NADAL, D; IRION, O; WYLER, CA; DAVIS, P; LALLEMANT, M; LALLEMANTLECOEUR, S; HITIMANA, DG; LEPAGE, P; VANDEPERRE, P; DABIS, F; MARUM, L; NDUGWA, C; TINDYEBWA, D; ACENG, E; MMIRO, F; SUTONGAS, T; OLNESS, K; LAPOINTE, N; RUBINSTEIN, A; BURGE, D; STECHENBERG, BW; COOPER, E; REGAN, AM; SHIPKOWITZ, S; WIZNIA, A; BRUNELL, PA; COURVILLE, T; RUTSTEIN, R; MCINTOSH, K; PETRU, A; OLEARY, M; CHURCH, J; TAYLOR, S; SQUIRES, J; MALLORY, M; YOGEV, R; RAKUSAN, T; PLUMLEY, S; SHELTON, MM; WILFERT, C; LANE, B; ABRAMS, EJ; RANA, S; CHANDAVASU, O; PUVABANDITSIN, S; CHOW, JH; SHAH, K; NACHMAN, S; ONEILL, R; SELWYN, P; SHOENBAUM, E; BARZILAI, A; WARFORD, R; AHERN, L; PAHWA, S; PNUGOTI, N; GARCIATRIAS, DE; BAKSHI, S; LANDESMAN, S; MENDEZ, H; MOROSO, G; MENDEZBAUTISTA, RD; FIKRIG, S; BELMAN, A; KLINE, MW; HANSON, C; EDELSON, P; HINDS, G; VANDYKE, R; CLARK, R; WARA, DW; MANIO, EB; JOHNSON, G; WELLS, L; JOHNSON, JP; ALGER, L; LUZURIAGA, K; MASTRUCCI, T; SUNKUTU, MR; RODRIGUEZ, Z; DOYLE, M; REUBEN, J; BRYSON, Y; DILLON, M; SIMPSON, BJ; ANDIMAN, W; URIBE, P; Klauke, B.

    1995-01-01

    Background: We evaluated data from prospectively identified twins to understand better the mechanisms and covariates of mother-to-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods: Using data obtained from an international collaboration and multivariate quasilikelihood modeling, we

  13. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irvine, Stephanie L.; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-01-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effe

  14. Protease inhibitor associated mutations compromise the efficacy of therapy in human immunodeficiency virus – 1 (HIV-1 infected pediatric patients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Anna

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the introduction of combined therapy with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors has resulted in considerable decrease in HIV related mortality; it has also induced the development of multiple drug-resistant HIV-1 variants. The few studies on HIV-1 mutagenesis in HIV infected children have not evaluated the impact of HIV-1 mutations on the clinical, virological and immunological presentation of HIV disease that is fundamental to optimizing the treatment regimens for these patients. Results A cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the impact of treatment regimens and resistance mutation patterns on the clinical, virological, and immunological presentation of HIV disease in 41 children (25 male and 16 female at the Robert Wood Johnson Pediatric AIDS Program in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The study participants were symptomatic and had preceding treatment history with combined ARV regimens including protease inhibitors (PIs, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs. Fifteen (36.6% children were treated with NRTI+NNRTI+ PI, 6 (14.6% with NRTI+NNRTIs, 13 (31.7% with NRTI+PIs, and the remaining 7 (17.1% received NRTIs only. Combined ARV regimens did not significantly influence the incidence of NRTI and NNRTI associated mutations. The duration of ARV therapy and the child's age had no significant impact on the ARV related mutations. The clinico-immunological presentation of the HIV disease was not associated with ARV treatment regimens or number of resistance mutations. However, primary mutations in the protease (PR gene increased the likelihood of plasma viral load (PVL ≥ 10,000 copies/mL irrespective of the child's age, duration of ARV therapy, presence of NRTI and NNRTI mutation. Viremia ≥ 10,000 copies/mL was recorded in almost all the children with primary mutations in the PR region (n = 12/13, 92.3% as compared with only 50.0% (n

  15. Transmembrane envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus SIV-mac exist as homodimers.

    OpenAIRE

    Rey, M A; Laurent, A G; McClure, J; Krust, B; Montagnier, L; Hovanessian, A G

    1990-01-01

    An 80-kilodalton glycoprotein (gp80) was produced in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected cells along with three envelope glycoproteins that we have recently reported: the extracellular glycoprotein (gp125), the envelope glycoprotein precursor (gp140), and the transient dimeric form of the precursor (gp300). gp125 and gp80 were detectable after the synthesis of gp140 and the formation of gp300. Using a specific monoclonal antibody, we showed here that gp80 is a dimeric form of...

  16. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  17. Optimization and immune recognition of multiple novel conserved HLA-A2, human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CTL epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbet, S; Nielsen, HV; Vinner, L;

    2003-01-01

    MHC-I-restricted cytotoxic responses are considered a critical component of protective immunity against viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CTLs directed against accessory and early regulatory HIV-1 proteins might be particularly effective; however, CTL epitopes....... This study demonstrates the potency of ANNs for identifying putative virus CTL epitopes, and the new HIV-1 CTL epitopes identified should have significant implications for HIV-1 vaccine development. As a novel vaccine approach, it is proposed to increase the coverage of HIV variants by including multiple...

  18. Optimization and immune recognition of multiple novel conserved HLA-A2, human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CTL epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbet, S.; Nielsen, H.V.; Vinner, L.;

    2003-01-01

    MHC-I-restricted cytotoxic responses are considered a critical component of protective immunity against viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). CTLs directed against accessory and early regulatory HIV-1 proteins might be particularly effective; however, CTL epitopes...... demonstrates the potency of ANNs for identifying putative virus CTL epitopes, and the new HIV-1 CTL epitopes identified should have significant implications for HIV-1 vaccine development. As a novel vaccine approach, it is proposed to increase the coverage of HIV variants by including multiple anchor...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  20. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  2. Co-infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1: does immune activation lead to a faster progression to AIDS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savino Wilson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data have shown that HTLV-1 is prevalent among HIV positive patients in Mozambique, although the impact of HTLV-1 infection on HIV disease progression remains controversial. Our aim was to determine the phenotypic profile of T lymphocytes subsets among Mozambican patients co-infected by HIV and HTLV-1. Methods We enrolled 29 patients co-infected by HTLV-1 and HIV (co-infected, 59 patients mono-infected by HIV (HIV and 16 healthy controls (HC, respectively. For phenotypic analysis, cells were stained with the following fluorochrome-labeled anti-human monoclonal antibodies CD4-APC, CD8-PerCP, CD25-PE, CD62L-FITC, CD45RA-FITC. CD45RO-PE, CD38-PE; being analysed by four-colour flow cytometry. Results We initially found that CD4+ T cell counts were significantly higher in co-infected, as compared to HIV groups. Moreover, CD4+ T Lymphocytes from co-infected patients presented significantly higher levels of CD45RO and CD25, but lower levels of CD45RA and CD62L, strongly indicating that CD4+ T cells are more activated under HTLV-1 plus HIV co-infection. Conclusion Our data indicate that HTLV-1/HIV co-infected patients progress with higher CD4+ T cell counts and higher levels of activation markers. In this context, it is conceivable that in co-infected individuals, these higher levels of activation may account for a faster progression to AIDS.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in Chinese infected with HIV-1 B'/C Recombinant (CRF07_BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xu G

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The characterization of HIV-1-specific T cell responses in people infected with locally circulating HIV-1 strain will facilitate the development of HIV-1 vaccine. Sixty intravenous drug users infected with HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 07_BC (CRF07_BC, which has been spreading rapidly in western China from north to south, were recruited from Xinjiang, China to assess the HIV-1-specific T cell responses at single peptide level with overlapping peptides (OLP covering the whole concensus clades B and C proteome. Results The median of the total magnitude and total number of OLPs recognized by CTL responses were 10925 SFC/million PBMC and 25 OLPs, respectively, when tested by clade C peptides, which was significantly higher than when tested by clade B peptides. The immunodominant regions, which cover 14% (58/413 of the HIV-1 proteome, are widely distributed throughout the HIV-1 proteome except in Tat, Vpu and Pol-PR, with Gag, Pol-RT, Pol-Int and Nef being most frequently targeted. The subdominant epitopes are mostly located in p24, Nef, integrase, Vpr and Vif. Of the responses directed to clade C OLPs, 61.75% (972/1574 can be observed when tested with corresponding clade B OLPs. However, Pol-PR and Vpu tend to be targeted in the clade B sequence rather than the clade C sequence, which is in line with the recombinant pattern of CRF07_BC. Stronger and broader CTL responses in subjects with CD4 cell counts ranging from 200 to 400/mm3 were observed when compared to those with less than 200/mm3 or more than 400/mm3, though there have been no significant correlations identified between the accumulative CTL responses or overall breadth and CD4 cell count or plasma viral load. Conclusion This is the first study conducted to comprehensively address T cell responses in Chinese subjects infected with HIV-1 CRF07_BC in which subtle differences in cross-reactivity were observed, though similar patterns of overall immune responses were

  4. Legionella pneumophila infection presenting as headache, confusion and dysarthria in a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 positive patient: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins Nathaniel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legionella pneumophila is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Central nervous system dysfunction is common, and diagnosis in the absence of pulmonary symptoms can be challenging. Here we describe an atypical clinical presentation of Legionella infection in a patient with HIV who was found to have an unusual neuroradiologic lesion that further served to obscure the diagnosis. This is the first such description in a patient with Legionellosis and HIV coinfection. Case presentation A 43 year-old HIV positive man presented to our hospital with dysarthria, fevers, headache, and altered mental status. Initial work-up revealed pneumonia and a lesion of the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging. He was subsequently diagnosed with Legionella pneumonia and treated with complete symptom resolution. Conclusions Neurologic abnormalities are frequent in Legionellosis, but the diagnosis may be difficult in the absence of overt respiratory symptoms and in the presence of HIV coinfection. A high index of suspicion and early initiation of empiric antibiotics is imperative since early treatment may help prevent long-term sequelae. Neuroimaging abnormalities, though rare, can help the physician narrow down the diagnosis and avoid unnecessary invasive testing. Future studies should aim to elucidate the as yet unknown role of neuroimaging in the diagnoses and prognostication of Legionellosis, as well as the interaction between Legionella infection and HIV.

  5. Association between amebic liver abscess and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection in Taiwanese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mao-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disorder in Taiwan, especially in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Thirty-three Taiwanese subjects with amebic liver abscess (ALA were examined and a possible correlation between ALA and HIV infection was investigated. Results Among ALA patients, the proportion of HIV-positive individuals increased during the study period. ALA was the first major clinical presentation in 54% of HIV patients with ALA. Overall, 58% (14/24 of HIV-infected patients had a CD4+ count > 200 cells/μL and 82.1% (23/28 had no concurrent opportunistic infection or other evidence of HIV infection. There was no marked difference in clinical characteristics between HIV-positive and HIV-negative ALA patients except the level of leukocytosis. Conclusion While the clinical characteristics described herein cannot be used to determine whether ALA patients have HIV infection, routine HIV testing is recommended in patients with ALA, even in the absence of HIV symptoms.

  6. Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lizeng, Q; Nilsson, C; Sourial, S

    2004-01-01

    Links Potent neutralizing serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) in human immunodeficiency virus type 2-exposed IgG-seronegative individuals.Lizeng Q, Nilsson C, Sourial S, Andersson S, Larsen O, Aaby P, Ehnlund M, Bjorling E. Research Center, South Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. The mechanisms behind...... the resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are still not fully understood. In the present study, we explored the HIV-2-specific humoral serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) immune response in HIV-2-exposed IgG-seronegative (EGSN) individuals. Serum samples from heterosexual EGSN individuals...... and their known HIV-2-infected partners, as well as controls originating from Guinea-Bissau in Africa, were studied. Antibody reactivity to native and recombinant envelope glycoproteins was investigated, and the capacity of purified serum IgA to neutralize HIV-2(SBL6669) was tested. Our results showed that 16...

  7. "Como Se Dice HIV?" Adapting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Messages to Reach Homosexual and Bisexual Hispanic Men: The Importance of Hispanic Cultural and Health Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdy, Matthew A.

    HIV/AIDS prevention messages catered to Anglo homosexual/bisexual men are not effective in teaching preventative behaviors to Hispanic homosexual/bisexual men. Hispanic sociocultural traits associated with homosexuality and bisexuality prevent the effectiveness of these messages. The Hispanic family is also extremely important in influencing…

  8. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  9. Risks associated with antiretroviral treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): qualitative analysis of social media data and health state utility valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Chung, Karen C; Kim, Katherine J; Paulus, Trena M; Davies, Evan W; Stewart, Katie D; McComsey, Grace A; Fordyce, Marshall W

    2017-07-01

    Despite benefits of antiretroviral therapies (ART), people with HIV infection have increased risk of cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and low bone mineral density. Some ARTs increase risk of these events. The purpose of this study was to examine patients' perspectives of these risks and estimate health state utilities associated with these risks for use in cost-utility models. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted to examine messages posted to the POZ/AIDSmeds Internet community forums, focusing on bone, kidney, and cardiovascular side effects and risks of HIV/AIDS medications. Then, health state vignettes were drafted based on this qualitative analysis, literature review, and clinician interviews. The health states (representing HIV, plus treatment-related risks) were valued in time trade-off interviews with general population participants in the UK. Qualitative analysis of the Internet forums documented patient concerns about ART risks, as well as treatment decisions made because of these risks. A total of 208 participants completed utility interviews (51.4% female; mean age 44.6 years). The mean utility of the HIV health state (virologically suppressed, treated with ART) was 0.86. Adding a description of risk resulted in statistically significant disutility (i.e., utility decreases): renal risk (disutility = -0.02), bone risk (-0.03), and myocardial infarction risk (-0.05). Patient concerns and treatment decisions were documented via qualitative analysis of Internet forum discussions, and the impact of these concerns was quantified in terms of health state utilities. The resulting disutilities may be useful for differentiating among ARTs in economic modeling of treatment for patients with HIV.

  10. Optimization of Azoles as Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Agents Guided by Free-Energy Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Zeevaart, Jacob G.; Wang, Ligong; Thakur, Vinay V.; Leung, Cheryl S.; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Bailey, Christopher M.; Domaoal, Robert A.; Anderson, Karen S.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Efficient optimization of an inactive 2-anilinyl-5-benzyloxadiazole core has been guided by free energy perturbation (FEP) calculations to provide potent non-nucleoside inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (NNRTIs). An FEP “chlorine scan” was performed to identify the most promising sites for substitution of aryl hydrogens. This yielded NNRTIs 8 and 10 with activities (EC50) of 820 and 310 nM for protection of human T-cells from infection by wild-type HIV-1. ...

  11. Viral interactions in human lymphoid tissue: Human herpesvirus 7 suppresses the replication of CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 via CD4 modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Andrea; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angélique; Vanpouille, Christophe; Origgi, Francesco; Malnati, Mauro S; Schols, Dominique; Lusso, Paolo; Margolis, Leonid B

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens that affect the clinical course of HIV disease. Here, we identified another virus, human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) that interferes with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) replication in human lymphoid tissue, where critical events of HIV disease occur. Like the closely related HHV-6, HHV-7 suppresses the replication of CCR5-tropic (R5) HIV-1 in coinfected blocks of human lymphoid tissue. Unlike HHV-6, which affects HIV-1 by upregulating RANTES, HHV-7 did not upregulate any CCR5-binding chemokine. Rather, the inhibition of R5 HIV-1 by HHV-7 was associated with a marked downregulation of CD4, the cellular receptor shared by HHV-7 and HIV-1. HHV-7-induced CD4 downregulation was sufficient for HIV-1 inhibition, since comparable downregulation of CD4 with cyclotriazadisulfonamide, a synthetic macrocycle that specifically modulates expression of CD4, resulted in the suppression of HIV infection similar to that seen in HHV-7-infected tissues. In contrast to R5 HIV-1, CXCR4-tropic (X4) HIV-1 was only minimally suppressed by HHV-7 coinfection. This selectivity in suppression of R5 and X4 HIV-1 is explained by a suppression of HHV-7 replication in X4- but not in R5-coinfected tissues. These results suggest that HIV-1 and HHV-7 may interfere in lymphoid tissue in vivo, thus potentially affecting the progression of HIV-1 disease. Knowledge of the mechanisms of interaction of HIV-1 with HHV-7, as well as with other pathogens that modulate HIV-1 replication, may provide new insights into HIV pathogenesis and lead to the development of new anti-HIV therapeutic strategies.

  12. Molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gloria I; Bautista, Christian T; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay; Carrion, Gladys; Arias, Sonia; Sateren, Warren B; Negrete, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Sanchez, Jose L; Carr, Jean K

    2006-04-01

    To study the molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains in Medellín, Colombia, 115 HIV-1-positive individuals who were recruited from an HIV outpatient hospital (Universitario San Vicente de Paul) during the period from July 2001 to January 2002 were genotyped. All samples were analyzed by envelope heteroduplex mobility assay and found to be subtype B. Twenty-four samples were randomly selected for sequencing of the protease and the reverse transcriptase regions; all isolates were found to be subtype B. Phylogenetic analysis of seven nearly full-length genomes showed that all samples were subtype B. This study shows that the HIV epidemic in Colombia continues to be dominated by the subtype B virus. The predominance of subtype B genotypes of HIV-1 strains in Medellín resembles what is seen in the nearby countries of Peru, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

  13. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucianna Helene Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase (RT is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  14. Computational drug design strategies applied to the modelling of human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lucianna Helene; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Caffarena, Ernesto Raúl

    2015-11-01

    Reverse transcriptase (RT) is a multifunctional enzyme in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 life cycle and represents a primary target for drug discovery efforts against HIV-1 infection. Two classes of RT inhibitors, the nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and the nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors are prominently used in the highly active antiretroviral therapy in combination with other anti-HIV drugs. However, the rapid emergence of drug-resistant viral strains has limited the successful rate of the anti-HIV agents. Computational methods are a significant part of the drug design process and indispensable to study drug resistance. In this review, recent advances in computer-aided drug design for the rational design of new compounds against HIV-1 RT using methods such as molecular docking, molecular dynamics, free energy calculations, quantitative structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore modelling and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity prediction are discussed. Successful applications of these methodologies are also highlighted.

  15. Aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessudo, A; Rassenti, L; Havlir, D; Richman, D; Feigal, E; Kipps, T J

    1998-08-15

    We examined the IgM VH gene subgroup use-distribution in serial blood samples of 37 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients and a group of HIV-seronegative healthy adults. The IgM VH gene repertoires of healthy adults were relatively similar to one another and were stable over time. In contrast, individuals infected with HIV had IgM VH gene repertoires that were significantly more heterogeneous and unstable. Persons at early stages of HIV infection generally had abnormal expression levels of Ig VH3 genes and frequently displayed marked fluctuations in the relative expression levels of this VH gene subgroup over time. In contrast, persons with established acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had a significantly lower incidence of abnormalities in Ig VH3 expression levels, although continued to display abnormalities and instability in the expression levels of the smaller Ig VH gene subgroups. Moreover, the skewing and/or fluctuations in the expressed-IgM VH gene repertoire appeared greatest for persons at earlier stages of HIV infection. These studies show that persons infected with HIV have aberrant and unstable expression of immunoglobulin genes suggestive of a high degree humoral immune dysregulation and ongoing humoral immune responses to HIV-associated antigens and superantigens.

  16. Potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus by MDL 101028, a novel sulphonic acid polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D L; Brennan, T M; Bridges, C G; Mullins, M J; Tyms, A S; Jackson, R; Cardin, A D

    1995-10-01

    MDL 101028, a novel biphenyl disulphonic acid urea co-polymer was designed and synthesised as a heparin mimetic. This low molecular weight polymer showed potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a number of host-cell/virus systems, including primary clinical isolates of the virus cultured in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). When compared with the heterogeneous polysulphated molecules, heparin and dextran sulphate, this chemically defined compound showed equivalent antiviral activity with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the range 0.27-3.0 micrograms/ml in the host-cell/virus systems tested. MDL 101028 also inhibited the replication of HIV type 2 and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), as well as HIV-1 variants resistant to reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Virus growth was blocked when exposure of T-lymphocytes to MDL 101028 was restricted to the virus absorption stage, or even in whole blood conditions. MDL 101028 did not irreversibly inactivate virions, and in contrast to heparin, did not inhibit the attachment of radiolabelled HIV-1 to CD4+ T-cells. MDL 101028 blocked HIV-induced cell-to-cell fusion and this activity appears to explain the mechanism of its antiviral action. The antiviral evaluation of discrete oligomer molecules of MDL 101028 showed that a polymer chain length of six repeating units had optimal potency. The lack of anticoagulant properties and significant antiviral activity in whole blood may allow the development of MDL 101028 as a treatment of HIV infections.

  17. Variation of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 reverse transcriptase within the simian immunodeficiency virus genome of RT-SHIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra A Wadford

    Full Text Available RT-SHIV is a chimera of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV containing the reverse transcriptase (RT-encoding region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 within the backbone of SIVmac239. It has been used in a non-human primate model for studies of non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We and others have identified several mutations that arise in the "foreign" HIV-1 RT of RT-SHIV during in vivo replication. In this study we catalogued amino acid substitutions in the HIV-1 RT and in regions of the SIV backbone with which RT interacts that emerged 30 weeks post-infection from seven RT-SHIV-infected rhesus macaques. The virus set points varied from relatively high virus load, moderate virus load, to undetectable virus load. The G196R substitution in RT was detected from 6 of 7 animals at week 4 post-infection and remained in virus from 4 of 6 animals at week 30. Virus from four high virus load animals showed several common mutations within RT, including L74V or V75L, G196R, L214F, and K275R. The foreign RT from high virus load isolates exhibited as much variation as that of the highly variable envelope surface glycoprotein, and 10-fold higher than that of the native RT of SIVmac239. Isolates from moderate virus load animals showed much less variation in the foreign RT than the high virus load isolates. No variation was found in SIVmac239 genes known to interact with RT. Our results demonstrate substantial adaptation of the foreign HIV-1 RT in RT-SHIV-infected macaques, which most likely reflects selective pressure upon the foreign RT to attain optimal activity within the context of the chimeric RT-SHIV and the rhesus macaque host.

  18. The immunological and virological response in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1 infected Indian individuals on haart therapy: A one-year follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannangai R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, antiretroviral therapy has become more affordable even in developing countries and it is being used in India. Fifteen HIV-1 infected individuals, who were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, were followed up for an average period of one year. The plasma viral load and CD4+ T cell estimation done at mean intervals of 5 months and 11 months after initiation of therapy showed a good response to therapy in 14 (93% individuals.

  19. Selective destruction of cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a variant of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  20. Selective Destruction Of Cells Infected With The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2006-03-28

    Compositions and methods for selectively killing a cell containing a viral protease are disclosed. The composition is a varient of a protein synthesis inactivating toxin wherein a viral protease cleavage site is interposed between the A and B chains. The variant of the type II ribosome-inactivating protein is activated by digestion of the viral protease cleavage site by the specific viral protease. The activated ribosome-inactivating protein then kills the cell by inactivating cellular ribosomes. A preferred embodiment of the invention is specific for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and uses ricin as the ribosome-inactivating protein. In another preferred embodiment of the invention, the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein is modified by attachment of one or more hydrophobic agents. The hydrophobic agent facilitates entry of the variant of the ribosome-inactivating protein into cells and can lead to incorporation of the ribosome-inactivating protein into viral particles. Still another preferred embodiment of the invention includes a targeting moiety attached to the variants of the ribosome-inactivating protein to target the agent to HIV infectable cells.

  1. MRI in human immunodeficiency virus-associated cerebral vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkefeld, J.; Lanfermann, H. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Enzensberger, W. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral ischaemia caused by inflammatory vasculopathies has been described as complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Imaging studies have shown ischaemic lesions and changes of the vascular lumen, but did not allow demonstration of abnormalities within the vessel wall itself. Two HIV-infected men presented with symptoms of a transient ischaemic attack. Initial MRI of the first showed no infarct; in the second two small lacunar lesions were detected. In both cases, multiplanar 3-mm slice contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images showed aneurysmal dilatation, with thickening and contrast enhancement of the wall of the internal carotid and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries. These findings were interpreted as indicating cerebral vasculitis. In the first patient the vasculopathy progressed to carotid artery occlusion, and he developed an infarct in the MCA territory, but then remained neurologically stable. In the second patient varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection was the probable cause of vasculitis. The clinical deficits and vasculitic MRI changes regressed with antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. (orig.)

  2. False-positive tests for syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection among intravenous drug abusers. Valencian Study Group on HIV Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, I; Bolumar, F; Moreno, R; Pardo, F J; Torres, N; Belda, J; Espacio, A

    1998-11-01

    The role of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in the production of biological false-positive reactions for syphilis was evaluated in two large samples of intravenous drug abusers and homosexual men attending AIDS prevention centers in Spain. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for false-positive tests for syphilis [OR 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.76-2.83] was observed for HIV-seropositive intravenous drug abusers; biological false-positive reactions were also more frequent (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.31) among intravenous drug abusers who were hepatitis B virus seropositive but not among those who were hepatitis C virus seropositive (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.48-1.69). Among homosexuals, the association between HIV and biological false-positive reactions was restricted to subjects who were also intravenous drug abusers, indicating the crucial role of intravenous drug abuse. Only 20.5% of intravenous drug abusers with a previous biological false-positive reaction yielded a false-positive result in their subsequent visit.

  3. Expression from second-generation feline immunodeficiency virus vectors is impaired in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mary A; Case, Scott S; Carbonaro, Denise A; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Petersen, Denise; Sabo, Kathleen M; Curran, Michael A; Engel, Barbara C; Margarian, Hovanes; Abkowitz, Janis L; Nolan, Garry P; Kohn, Donald B; Crooks, Gay M

    2002-11-01

    Vectors based on the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been developed as an alternative to those based on another lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), because of theoretical safety advantages. We compared the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in human and feline hematopoietic progenitors using second-generation HIV-1 and FIV-based vectors. Vector pairs were tested using either human cytomegalovirus or murine phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK) internal promoters and were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Vector proviral copy numbers were similar in human and feline hematopoietic primary cells and cell lines transduced by HIV-1 or FIV vectors, demonstrating that both vectors are able to transfer genes efficiently to these cell types. HIV-1 vectors were well expressed in human primary hematopoietic cells and cell lines. However, transgene expression from FIV vectors was almost undetectable in human hematopoietic cells. In contrast, the FIV vector was expressed well in primary hematopoietic feline cells and human non-hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that low transgene expression from the FIV vector is a phenomenon specific to human hematopoietic cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated decreased vector transcript levels in human CEM cells transduced with FIV relative to cells transduced with HIV-1, despite high vector copy numbers. No evidence of vector transcript instability was seen in studies of transduced CEM cells treated with actinomycin D. We conclude that FIV vectors can transfer genes into human hematopoietic cells as effectively as HIV-1 vectors, but that unknown elements in the current FIV backbone inhibit expression from FIV vectors in human hematopoietic cells.

  4. HIV-2 and its role in conglutinated approach towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Vaccine Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Batul; Saxena, Rupali; Tiwari, Archana

    2013-12-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most critically acclaimed endemic diseases, caused by two lentiviruses HIV-1 and 2. HIV-2 displays intimate serological and antigenic resemblance to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) along with less pathogenicity, lower infectivity and appreciable cross reactivity with HIV-1 antigens. The present era is confronted with the challenge to fabricate a vaccine effective against all clades of both the species of HIV. But vaccine development against HIV-1 has proven highly intricate, moreover the laborious and deficient conventional approaches has slackened the pace regarding the development of new vaccines. These concerns may be tackled with the development of HIV-2 vaccine as a natural control of HIV-1 that has been found in ancestors of HIV-2 i.e. African monkeys, mangabeys and macaques. Thereby, suggesting the notion of cross protection among HIV-2 and HIV-1. Assistance of bioinformatics along with vaccinomics strategy can bring about a quantum leap in this direction for surpassing the bottleneck in conventional approaches. These specifics together can add to our conception that HIV-2 vaccine design by in silico strategy will surely be a constructive approach for HIV-1 targeting.

  5. Increased frequency of alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanlou, Negar; Moore, David J; Chana, Gursharan; Cherner, Mariana; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Dawes, Sharron; Grant, Igor; Masliah, Eliezer; Everall, Ian P

    2009-04-01

    The frequency of neurodegenerative markers among long surviving human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is unknown, therefore, the present study investigated the frequency of alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid, and HIV-associated brain pathology in the brains of older HIV-infected individuals. We examined the substantia nigra of 73 clinically well-characterized HIV-infected individuals aged 50 to 76 years from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. We also examined the frontal and temporal cortical regions of a subset of 36 individuals. Neuritic alpha-synuclein expression was found in 16% (12/73) of the substantia nigra of the HIV+cases and none of the older control cases (0/18). beta-Amyloid deposits were prevalent and found in nearly all of the HIV+cases (35/36). Despite these increases of degenerative pathology, HIV-associated brain pathology was present in only 10% of cases. Among older HIV+adults, HIV-associated brain pathology does not appear elevated; however, the frequency of both alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid is higher than that found in older healthy persons. The increased prevalence of alpha-synuclein and beta-amyloid in the brains of older HIV-infected individuals may predict an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative disease.

  6. Postoperative Infectious Morbidities of Cesarean Delivery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Cavasin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the infectious complication rates from cesarean delivery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women, who underwent cesarean delivery at two teaching hospitals. Main outcome measures were infectious postoperative morbidity. Descriptive, comparison analysis, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. One hundred and nineteen HIV-infected women and 264 HIV-negative women delivered by cesarean section and were compared. The HIV-negative women were more likely than the HIV-infected women to deliver by emergent cesarean section (78.0% versus 51.3%, resp., .05. In a multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were associated with increased rate of post-operative endometritis (odds ratio (OR 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.41–11.91, <.01, and OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.13–8.03, <.05, resp.. Conclusion. In our facilities, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were identified as risk factors for post-operative endometritis.

  7. Antiviral effects of milk proteins : Acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Pauwels, R; deBéthune, M P; de Clercq, E; Meijer, D K; Huisman, J G

    1996-01-01

    A number of native and modified milk proteins from bovine or human sources were analyzed for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in vitro in an MT4 cell test system, The proteins investigated were lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and

  8. Antiviral effects of milk proteins : acylation results in polyanionic compounds with potent activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, P J; Kuipers, M E; Smit, C; Pauwels, R; deBéthune, M P; de Clercq, E; Meijer, D K; Huisman, J G

    1996-01-01

    A number of native and modified milk proteins from bovine or human sources were analyzed for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 in vitro in an MT4 cell test system. The proteins investigated were lactoferrin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin A, and

  9. Antibody responses to a major Pneumocystis carinii antigen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with and without P. carinii pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Nielsen, T

    1992-01-01

    Antibody responses to a major purified human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen (gp95) were determined by ELISA in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Serum IgG directed against gp95 was measured in 129 consecutive HIV-infected patients who underwent bronchoscopy for evaluation...

  10. The Biology of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus and the Infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di QIN; Chun LU

    2008-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV),also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8),is discovered in 1994 from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) lesion of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)patient.In addition to its association with KS,KSHV has also been implicated as the causative agent of two other AIDS-associated malignancies:primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).KSHV is a complex DNA virus that not only has the ability to promote cellular growth and survival for tumor development,but also can provoke deregulated angiogenesis,inflammation,and modulate the patient's immune system in favor of tumor growth.As KSHV is a necessary but not sufficient etiological factor for KS,human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a very important cofactor.Here we review the basic information about the biology of KSHV,development of pathogenesis and interaction between KSHV and HIV.

  11. Postmortem Investigations Following Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Bychkov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS is a global disease and despite intensive research it is one of the main causes of human death. Postmortem studies have proven accurate in determining the various pathologies in these patients. Aims & Objectives: Our aim was to analyze the post mortem results of individuals who died after HIV infection in the same geographical region. We evaluated the most frequent opportunistic diseases and their clinical and morphological outcomes. Methods: We studied case reports and autopsy research data from 32 patients who died after HIV infection in Smolensk, Russian Federation, between 2003 and 2008. All patients had been diagnosed with HIV infection before death, using HIV-specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and immunoblotting. Autopsy specimens of various organs were examined histologically and microbiologically. Findings: The mean survival period from the moment of detection of seropositivity in all the patients was less than five years. Twelve patients had a parenteral mode of contact, six had been infected by sexual contact, and 14 patients had unknown modes of infection. Most patients (69% had chronic hepatitis C. The main causes of death were various infectious diseases. The most common were generalized miliary tuberculosis and progressive secondary tuberculosis of the lungs. Three (9% patients had tuberculosis of the meninges and five (16% had peritoneal infections, but tuberculous peritonitis had not been diagnosed before death. Six patients had pulmonary tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia simultaneously. Two (6% patients died from bacterial sepsis as a result of cervical lymphadenitis, and eight (12.5% from abscess-forming pneumonia. The opportunistic infections revealed were Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (eight patients, cytomegaloviral pneumonia (three, bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (one and mucosal candidiasis (three. In three patients, the causes of death were advanced neoplastic processes: two cases

  12. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  13. Human immunodeficiency virus receptor and coreceptor expression on human uterine epithelial cells: regulation of expression during the menstrual cycle and implications for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Grant R; Howell, Alexandra L; Weldon, Sally; Demian, Douglas J; Collins, Jane E; O'Connell, Denise M; Asin, Susana N; Wira, Charles R; Fanger, Michael W

    2003-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is primarily a sexually transmitted disease. Identification of cell populations within the female reproductive tract that are initially infected, and the events involved in transmission of infection to other cells, remain to be established. In this report, we evaluated expression of HIV receptors and coreceptors on epithelial cells in the uterus and found they express several receptors critical for HIV infection including CD4, CXCR4, CCR5 and galactosylceramide (GalC). Moreover, expression of these receptors varied during the menstrual cycle. Expression of CD4 and CCR5 on uterine epithelial cells is high throughout the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle when blood levels of oestradiol are high. In contrast, CXCR4 expression increased gradually throughout the proliferative phase. During the secretory phase of the cycle when both oestradiol and progesterone are elevated, CD4 and CCR5 expression decreased whereas CXCR4 expression remained elevated. Expression of GalC on endometrial glands is higher during the secretory phase than during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. Because epithelial cells line the female reproductive tract and express HIV receptors and coreceptors, it is likely that they are one of the first cell types to become infected. The hormonal regulation of HIV receptor expression may affect a woman's susceptibility to HIV infection during her menstrual cycle. Moreover, selective coreceptor expression could account for the preferential transmission of R5-HIV-1 strains to women. In addition, these studies provide evidence that the uterus, and potentially the entire upper reproductive tract, are important sites for the initial events involved in HIV infection.

  14. Hepatic Clearance Prediction of Nine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate-limiting step in the overall hepatic clearance of the marketed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) in rats by predicting the experimentally determined hepatic in vivo clearance of these drugs based on in vitro clearance values for uptake and/or metabolism. In vitro uptake and metabolic clearance values were determined in suspended rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. In vivo hepatic clearance was determined afte...

  15. Tropical Diseases Screening in Immigrant Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Latent parasitic infections can reactivate because of immunosuppression. We conducted a prospective observational study of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected immigrants who visited the Infectious Diseases Department of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain, during June 2010–May 2011. Screening of the most prevalent tropical diseases (intestinal parasitosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis) was performed according t...

  16. Vanishing bile duct syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus: Nevirapine hepatotoxicity revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan; Kochar; Moises; I; Nevah; Frank; J; Lukens; Michael; B; Fallon; Victor; I; Machicao

    2010-01-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) refers to a group of disorders characterized by prolonged cholestasis as a result of destruction and disappearance ofintrahepatic bile ducts. Multiple etiologies have been indentifi ed including infections, neoplastic disorders, autoimmune conditions and drugs. The natural history of this condition is variable and may involve resolution of cholestasis or progression with irreversible damage. VBDS is extremely rare in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients an...

  17. Interaction of human dipeptidyl peptidase IV and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 transcription transactivator in Sf9 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reutter Werner

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV also known as the T cell activation marker CD26 is a multifunctional protein which is involved in various biological processes. The association of human-DPPIV with components of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV1 is well documented and raised some discussions. Several reports implicated the interaction of human-DPPIV with the HIV1 transcription transactivator protein (HIV1-Tat and the inhibition of the dipeptidyl peptidase activity of DPPIV by the HIV1-Tat protein. Furthermore, enzyme kinetic data implied another binding site for the HIV1-Tat other than the active centre of DPPIV. However, the biological significance of this interaction of the HIV1-Tat protein and human-DPPIV has not been studied, yet. Therefore, we focused on the interaction of HIV1-Tat protein with DPPIV and investigated the subsequent biological consequences of this interaction in Spodoptera frugiperda cells, using the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus system. Results The HIV1-Tat protein (Tat-BRU co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with human-DPPIV protein, following co-expression in the baculovirus-driven Sf9 cell expression system. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation of DPPIV protein was up-regulated in Tat/DPPIV-co-expressing cells after 72 h culturing and also in DPPIV-expressing Sf9 cells after application of purified recombinant Tat protein. As opposed to the expression of Tat alone, serine phosphorylation of the Tat protein was decreased when co-expressed with human-DPPIV protein. Conclusions We show for the first time that human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat co-immunoprecipitate. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the interaction of HIV1-Tat and human-DPPIV may be involved in signalling platforms that regulate the biological function of both human-DPPIV and HIV1-Tat.

  18. Loss of Asparagine-Linked Glycosylation Sites in Variable Region 5 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Is Associated with Resistance to CD4 Antibody Ibalizumab ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Toma, Jonathan; Weinheimer, Steven P.; Stawiski, Eric; Whitcomb, Jeannette M.; Lewis, Stanley T.; Christos J Petropoulos; Huang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Ibalizumab (formerly TNX-355) is a first-in-class, monoclonal antibody inhibitor of CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Multiple clinical trials with HIV-infected patients have demonstrated the antiviral activity, safety, and tolerability of ibalizumab treatment. A 9-week phase Ib study adding ibalizumab monotherapy to failing drug regimens led to transient reductions in HIV viral loads and the evolution of HIV-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to ibalizumab. This r...

  19. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R;

    2005-01-01

    , human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy. We studied 18 HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO) on antiretroviral therapy and 25 HIV-infected patients without lipodystrophy (controls) of whom 18 were on antiretroviral therapy and 7 were not. Posthepatic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....

  20. The predominance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 02 (CRF02_AG in West Central Africa may be related to its replicative fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butel Christelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G were obtained from a well-described Cameroonian cohort. Growth competition experiments were carried out at equal multiplicity of infection in activated T cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DC in parallel. Results Dual infection/competition experiments in activated T cells clearly indicated that CRF02_AG isolates had a significant replication advantage over the subtype A and subtype G viruses. The higher fitness of CRF02_AG was evident for isolates from patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/μL (non-AIDS or CD4+ T cell counts Conclusion We observed a higher ex vivo replicative fitness of CRF02_AG isolates compared to subtype A and G viruses from the same geographic region and showed that this was independent of the co-receptor tropism and irrespective of high or low CD4+ T cell count. This advantage in replicative fitness may contribute to the dominant spread of CRF02_AG over A and G subtypes in West and West Central Africa.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of young, college student blood donors about Human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dubey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Young people, who tend to be healthy, idealistic, and motivated, are an excellent pool of potential voluntary unpaid blood donors. Recruiting and retaining young blood donors improves the long term safety and sufficiency of a country′s blood supply. Knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV should play an important role in prevention of disease transmission. Materials and Methods: This study was a questionnaire based survey, conducted to explore the levels of knowledge, attitude, and beliefs about HIV in young college student blood donors. Results: The results showed that the proportion of participants with comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was lesser than expected. Increase in education level and male gender was found to be significantly associated with high HIV-related knowledge. The responses on the different aspects of HIV-related attitude were also varied and there is still stigma associated with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS even in the educated groups. Discussion: There was a spectrum of myths and misperceptions emphasizing the need of education that recognizes the social context of attitude towards HIV. Results from this study may contribute to the development of appropriate educational and training material for this group of donors which in turn, may assist in achieving the elusive goal of safe blood supply in future.

  2. Progressive human immunodeficiency virus-associated vasculopathy: time to revise antiretroviral therapy guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntusi, N B A; Taylor, D; Naidoo, N G; Mendelson, M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities were appreciated early in the epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), even before the aetiological agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was isolated and characterised. The aetiology and pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in HIV infection is still the subject of intense speculation, and is likely multi-factorial. HIV affects every aspect of the cardiac axis, causing pericarditis, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease and microvascular dysfunction, valvular heart disease, pulmonary vascular disease and pulmonary hypertension, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. HIV-associated vasculopathy is an increasingly recognised clinical entity, causing high morbidity and increasing mortality in southern Africa, particularly from stroke and cardiovascular disease. HIV causes disease of the vascular tree, either by a direct effect on vascular or perivascular tissue, or indirectly via immune complex-mediated mechanisms, associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. As a result, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may have an important role in controlling disease progression. We report a case of histologically defined primary HIV vasculopathy in which the chance to start HAART was initially missed and in which the patient progressed to require bilateral amputations, but obtained disease quiescence upon commencement of HAART.

  3. Low occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection among dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R S; Phelan, J A; Freeman, K; Schable, C; Friedland, G H; Trieger, N; Steigbigel, N H

    1988-01-14

    We studied 1309 dental professionals (1132 dentists, 131 hygienists, and 46 assistants) without behavioral risk factors for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine their occupational risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Subjects completed questionnaires on behavior; type, duration, and location of their dental practice; infection-control practices; and estimated numbers of potential occupational exposures to HIV. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and to hepatitis B surface antigen (unvaccinated subjects). Fifty-one percent of the subjects practiced in locations where many cases of AIDS have been reported. Seventy-two percent treated patients who had AIDS or were at increased risk for it. Ninety-four percent reported accidental puncturing of the skin with instruments used in treating patients. Adherence to recommended infection-control practices was infrequent. Twenty-one percent of unvaccinated subjects had antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen. Only one dentist without a history of behavioral risk factors for AIDS had serum antibodies to HIV. We conclude that despite infrequent compliance with recommended infection-control precautions, frequent occupational exposure to persons at increased risk for HIV infection, and frequent accidental puncturing of the skin with sharp instruments, dental professionals are at low occupational risk for HIV infection.

  4. Pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients: A study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shreevidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-reactive patients are more prone to infections. The morbidity and mortality in HIV-reactive patients is due to opportunistic infections. Most of the infections seen in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome are endemic to that geographical region. Hence, this study was undertaken to document the occurrence of pulmonary bacterial and fungal infections in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Expectorated and induced sputum samples were collected from 100 HIV-reactive patients and processed for bacterial and fungal pathogens including Pneumocystis carinii. Results: Of 100 samples, 66 were culture positive. Among the isolates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis constituted the highest number, 55 (83.3%, followed by other bacterial infections, 11 (16.6%, and fungi, 2 (3.03%. Tuberculosis patients had a CD4 count of less than 250 cells/μl with a mean count of 186 cells/μl and those with bacterial infections had a CD4 count of more than 300 cells/μl. The study showed that males were infected with HIV more than females and most of them belonged to the adult age group in the prime of their working life. Weight loss followed by fever and cough were the most common symptoms. Conclusion: M. tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic pathogen followed by bacterial pathogens infecting the lung in HIV. Low CD4 count is a dangerous signal of decreased immune status and higher chances of opportunistic infections and high mortality.

  5. Selective Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected CD4+ Lymphocytes by a Synthetic Immunomodulator Leads to Potent Virus Suppression In Vitro and in hu-PBL-SCID Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, George M.; Darcissac, Edith C. A.; Castéran, Nathalie; Amiel, Corinne; Cocude, Cécile; Truong, Marie-José; Dewulf, Joëlle; Capron, André; Mouton, Yves

    2001-01-01

    We have previously observed that the synthetic immunomodulator Murabutide inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication at multiple levels in macrophages and dendritic cells. The present study was designed to profile the activity of Murabutide on CD8-depleted phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes from HIV-1-infected subjects and on the outcome of HIV-1 infection in severe combined immunodeficiency mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes (hu-PBL-SCID mic...

  6. Broadly neutralizing antibodies targeted to mucin-type carbohydrate epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Arendrup, M

    1991-01-01

    The cancer-related mucin-type carbohydrate neoantigen Tn was found on gp160 and gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Tn neutralized infection with cell-free virus and blocked fusion between HIV-infected and uninfected cells......; this binding was inhibitable by pure Tn antigen, and indications were found that this inhibition occurred at a pre-entry step. Boosting the naturally occurring low-titer anti-Tn activity may be of prophylactic value, as suggested by the in vitro neutralization found in this study....

  7. Distal sensory polyneuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus patients and nucleoside analogue antiretroviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Jimmy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal sensory polyneuropathy, which occur commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients can occur as a consequence of the disease itself or the antiretroviral treatment the patient is receiving. Among the antiretroviral agents, nucleoside analogues are commonly associated with neuropathy and the main underlying mechanism is thought to be the mitochondrial toxicity exhibited by these agents. Clinical presentation of antiretroviral induced neuropathy is similar to that associated with the HIV infection and in many patients they may overlap. Treatment is primarily symptomatic and certain pathogenesis-based approaches have shown promising results.

  8. Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Malcolm; Beard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, 15.1 million children have been orphaned because of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). They face significant vulnerabilities, including stigma and discrimination, trauma and stress, illness, food insecurity, poverty, and difficulty accessing education. Millions of additional children who have living parents are vulnerable because their parents or other relatives are infected. This article reviews the current situation of orphans and vulnerable children, explores the underlying determinants of vulnerability and resilience, describes the response by the global community, and highlights the challenges as the HIV pandemic progresses through its fourth decade.

  9. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  10. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.;

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...

  11. Entecavir Exhibits Inhibitory Activity against Human Immunodeficiency Virus under Conditions of Reduced Viral Challenge▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pin-Fang; Nowicka-Sans, Beata; Terry, Brian; Zhang, Sharon; Wang, Chunfu; Fan, Li; Dicker, Ira; Gali, Volodymyr; Higley, Helen; Parkin, Neil; Tenney, Daniel; Krystal, Mark; Colonno, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) was developed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and is globally approved for that indication. Initial preclinical studies indicated that ETV had no significant activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in cultured cell lines at physiologically relevant ETV concentrations, using traditional anti-HIV assays. In response to recent clinical observations of anti-HIV activity of ETV in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), additional investigative studies were conducted to expand upon earlier results. An extended panel of HIV-1 laboratory and clinical strains and cell types was tested against ETV, along with a comparison of assay methodologies and resistance profiling. These latest studies confirmed that ETV has only weak activity against HIV, using established assay systems. However, a >100-fold enhancement of antiviral activity (equivalent to the antiviral activity of lamivudine) could be obtained when assay conditions were modified to reduce the initial viral challenge. Also, the selection of a M184I virus variant during the passage of HIV-1 at high concentrations of ETV confirmed that ETV can exert inhibitory pressure on the virus. These findings may have a significant impact on how future assays are performed with compounds to be used in patients infected with HIV. These results support the recommendation that ETV therapy should be administered in concert with HAART for HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. PMID:18316521

  12. False Human Immunodeficiency Virus Test Results Associated with Rheumatoid Factors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-chun Li; Fan Yang; Xiao-yun Ji; Zhong-jun Fang; Jun Liu; Yue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate if immunological factors associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affect the result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods 100 RA cases were enrolled from January 2012 to February 2013 into this study. HIV screening was conducted with ECLIA detecting both HIV-1 p24 antigen, HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with ELISA and colloidal gold method detecting HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. The samples producing positive results were submitted to the Center for Disease Control for confirmation using Western blotting method. The antibody titers of rheumatoid factors (RF) including RF-IgG, RF-IgM, RF-IgA, and CCP-IgG were analyzed by ELISA. Results The HIV positive-rate determined by ECLIA was significantly higher than that by ELISA and colloidal gold method (P Conclusion Immunological factors, including RF and anti-CCP antibody, may influence the screening of HIV by ECLIA, producing false-positive result.

  13. Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Sefa; Yayla, Çağrı; Açar, Burak; Ertem, Ahmet G; Akboğa, Mehmet K; Gökaslan, Serkan; Erdöl, Mehmet A; Sönmezer, Meliha Ç; Kaya Kiliç, Esra; Ataman Hatipoğlu, Çiğdem; Aydoğdu, Sinan; Temizhan, Ahmet

    2017-03-09

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS are known to cause cardiovascular diseases such as premature coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Recently, Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio has been shown as a novel marker of ventricular repolarization. We aimed to evaluate the ventricular repolarization using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Totally 48 patients with HIV and 60 control subjects were enrolled to the study. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT ratio and Tp-e/QTc ratio were significantly higher in patients with HIV than control subjects (all pe interval and disease duration (r=0.298, p=0.048). and inverse correlation between Tp-e interval and CD4 count(r=-0.303, p=0.036). Our study showed that Tp-e interval, Tp-e/QT and Tp-e/QTc ratios were increased in patients with HIV than control subjects.

  14. Procyanidin trimer C1 derived from Theobroma cacao reactivates latent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 provirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Takanori; Barnor, Jacob; Huu, Tung Nguyen; Morinaga, Osamu; Hamano, Akiko; Ndzinu, Jerry; Frimpong, Angela; Minta-Asare, Keren; Amoa-Bosompem, Mildred; Brandful, James; Odoom, John; Bonney, Joseph; Tuffour, Isaac; Owusu, Baffour-Awuah; Ofosuhene, Mark; Atchoglo, Philip; Sakyiamah, Maxwell; Adegle, Richard; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Ampofo, William; Koram, Kwadwo; Nyarko, Alexander; Okine, Laud; Edoh, Dominic; Appiah, Alfred; Uto, Takuhiro; Yoshinaka, Yoshiyuki; Uota, Shin; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2015-04-03

    Despite remarkable advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains incurable due to the incomplete elimination of the replication-competent virus, which persists in latent reservoirs. Strategies for targeting HIV reservoirs for eradication that involves reactivation of latent proviruses while protecting uninfected cells by cART are urgently needed for cure of HIV infection. We screened medicinal plant extracts for compounds that could reactivate the latent HIV-1 provirus and identified a procyanidin trimer C1 derived from Theobroma cacao as a potent activator of the provirus in human T cells latently infected with HIV-1. This reactivation largely depends on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways because either overexpression of a super-repressor form of IκBα or pretreatment with a MEK inhibitor U0126 diminished provirus reactivation by C1. A pan-PKC inhibitor significantly blocked the phorbol ester-induced but not the C1-induced HIV-1 reactivation. Although C1-induced viral gene expression persisted for as long as 48 h post-stimulation, NF-κB-dependent transcription peaked at 12 h post-stimulation and then quickly declined, suggesting Tat-mediated self-sustainment of HIV-1 expression. These results suggest that procyanidin C1 trimer is a potential compound for reactivation of latent HIV-1 reservoirs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus post-exposure prophylaxis among doctors in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. ... of PEP policy in the hospital. The level of knowledge concerning the high-risk fluid and three drugs used in PEP is high.

  16. Psychological problems of families and health workers dealing with people infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, M

    1991-03-01

    The psychological problems of the families of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected people, and of the health workers taking care of them, have been addressed in a few empirical studies and in several anecdotal reports and theoretical contributions. Apparently, HIV-1 infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are able to elicit a wide range of emotional reactions, from rejection and refusal to provide care to immersion in the infected person's needs and burnout. Since irrational fears and attitudes play an important role in conditioning these reactions, education may not be sufficient to change behaviour. Counselling sessions and mutual support groups are often the most appropriate contexts where fears and concerns can receive an individually tailored response, and where formal and informal caregivers can be helped to manage stress.

  17. [Gastric uptake of gallium67 in the human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera Temprado, T; Banzo Marraco, J; Abós Olivares, M D; Olave Rubio, M T; Prats Rivera, E; García López, F; Razola Alba, P

    2004-02-01

    Nowadays, the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is a chronic disease. In the frequent clinical situations with fever, lymph nodes and loss weight it is necessary to determine their etiology, for establishing a specific treatment. Gastrointestinal opportunistic infections or gastric lymphomatous or sarcomatous process, which can accumulate Ga67, may be present in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report 2 cases with gastric uptake in which endoscopy and biopsy was obtained. In the first one, with previous treatment with omeprazol and almalgate for gastroesophagic reflux, endoscopy and biopsy were normal and in the second patient an Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed. We think that gastric uptake of Ga67 in HIV patients, must indicate to the clinician to rule out associated pathologies.

  18. Associations among depression, suicidal behavior, and quality of life in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Montebovi, Franco; Lamis, Dorian A; Erbuto, Denise; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario; Pompili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the potential associations among major depression, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. METHODS: A detailed MEDLINE search was carried out to identify all articles and book chapters in English published from January 1995 to January 2015. RESULTS: Based on the main findings, the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) ranged from 14.0% to 27.2%. Furthermore, the prevalence of suicidal ideation varied from 13.6% to 31.0% whereas, attempted suicides were reported to range from 3.9% to 32.7%. Interestingly, various associated risk factors for both depression and suicide were identified in HIV patients. Finally, consistent associations were reported among MDD, suicidal ideation, and poor quality of life in individuals living with HIV. CONCLUSION: Although additional studies are needed to elucidate this complex association, our results suggest the importance of early detection of both MDD and suicidality in patients living with HIV. PMID:26279991

  19. Significance of blood analysis in hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shen; Qin Huang; Hong-Qing Sun; Reena Ghildyal

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of hepatitis virus infection on cirrhosis and liver function markers in HIV-infected hemophiliacs.METHODS:We have analyzed the immunological,liver function and cirrhosis markers in a cohort of hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses.RESULTS:There was no difference in immunological markers among co-infected patients and patients infected with HIV only and those co-infected with one or more hepatitis virus. Although liver function and cirrhosis markers remained within a normal range,there was a worsening trend in all patients co-infected with hepatitis virus C (HCV),which was further exacerbated in the presence of additional infection with hepatitis virus B (HBV).CONCLUSION:Co-infection with HIV,HBV and HCV leads to worsening of hyaluronic acid and liver function markers. Increases in serum hyaluronic acid may be suggestive of a predisposition to liver diseases.

  20. Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

    1991-01-01

    Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention.

  1. Widening the differential for brain masses in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: syphilitic cerebral gummata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Andrew M; Nelson, George A; Bell, Stephen G; Denby, Kara J; Estrada, Carlos A; Willett, Lisa L

    2013-09-01

    A 39-year-old man with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was admitted with right-sided weakness, right-sided vision loss and slurred speech, which worsened over several weeks. Brain imaging revealed bilateral intraparenchymal ring-enhancing lesions and enhancement of the right optic nerve. Serological findings were positive for venereal disease research laboratory test, whereas the cerebrospinal fluid venereal disease research laboratory test was nonreactive. Brain biopsy suggested a diagnosis of syphilitic cerebral gummata, and the patient's improvement with penicillin and dexamethasone further supported this etiology. Syphilitic cerebral gummata have rarely been reported in patients with HIV infection. This patient demonstrates that cerebral gummata should be considered in the differential diagnosis in immunocompromised patients with characteristic brain masses, that HIV and syphilis often coexist with early neurosyphilis appearing more frequently in this patient population and that normal cerebrospinal fluid studies may not represent a true lack of syphilitic activity in HIV patients.

  2. A clinico-epidemiological study of ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases with human immunodeficiency virus status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Genital ulcerative diseases are a major public health problem. The advert of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS over the past 25 years has deepened the scope of morbidity, mortality, and various forms of clinical presentations of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A total of 50 cases having Genital ulcerative diseases and STD reporting to STD clinic during the period of the year from November 2005 to December 2006 were included and detailed history and clinical examination were carried out and provisional diagnosis is made. Laboratory confirmation of clinically diagnosed cases was done using laboratory tests such as S. HIV, venereal disease research laboratory, Tzanck smear, gram stain, and Giemsa stain. In the present study, the incidence of herpes progenitalis was (38%) followed by primary syphilis (32%), chancroid (26%), lymphogranuloma venereum (02%), and genital scabies (02%). HIV sero-positivity was detected in 12% (n = 6) cases. HIV was found to be more common among genital ulcer disease patients, especially syphilis and genital herpes.

  3. Prevalence of purified protein derivative positivity in human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals in Hong Kong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志伟; 邓伟祺; 黄加庆

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of skin positivity to purified protein derivative (PPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in Hong Kong.Methods Consecutive clients of an HIV clinic were administered the PPD test and 2 units of PPD-RT23 were used. The area of induration was then measured in 48 to 72 h. Results were related to patient characteristics and HIV-related parameters.Results Eight (17.0%) out of 47 clients tested positive to the administration of 2 units of PPD-RT23. If the cutoff were raised to 10 mm according to current practice, only two (4.3%) would test positive.Conclusion The prevalence of PPD positivity in HIV-infected patients in Hong Kong is 17%, when a cutoff of 5 mm is used. This figure may form the basis for further studies on the utility of isoniazid preventive therapy in this group of patients.

  4. Current issues and considerations regarding trichomoniasis and human immunodeficiency virus in African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Smith, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis has long been recognized as one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections. However, it is only in recent years that it has been appreciated that Trichomonas may play a critical role in amplifying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Given the evidence that T. vaginalis likely promotes HIV infection, the apparent high level of Trichomonas infection in the African-American community is cause for concern. Even if T. vaginalis increases the risk of HIV transmission by a small or modest amount, it translates into a sizable population effect since Trichomonas is so common in this community. Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans.

  5. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology.

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; Robertson, D L; Hill, S C; Hui, H.; Biggar, R J; Neequaye, A E; Whelan, T M; Ho, D D; Shaw, G M

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high-level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  6. Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2:evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, F; Yue, L; ROBERTSON, DL; Hill, SC; Hui, HX; BIGGAR, RJ; NEEQUAYE, AE; WHELAN, TM; Ho, DD; Shaw, GM; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, BH

    1994-01-01

    The virulence properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) are known to vary significantly and to range from relative attenuation in certain individuals to high level pathogenicity in others. These differences in clinical manifestations may, at least in part, be determined by genetic differences among infecting virus strains. Evaluation of the full spectrum of HIV-2 genetic diversity is thus a necessary first step towards understanding its molecular epidemiology, natural history ...

  7. Cysteine residues in the Vif protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are essential for viral infectivity.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, X Y; Sova, P; Chao, W; Volsky, D J

    1994-01-01

    The infectivity factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), Vif, contains two cysteine residues which are highly conserved among animal lentiviruses. We introduced substitutions of leucine for cysteine residues in the vif gene of a full-length HIV-1 clone to analyze their roles in viral infection. Mutant viruses containing substitutions in either Cys-114, Cys-133, or both displayed a vif-negative infection phenotype similar to that of an isogeneic vif deletion mutant, namely, a cel...

  8. The Multimerization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Vif Protein: A REQUIREMENT FOR Vif FUNCTION IN THE VIRAL LIFE CYCLE*

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shicheng; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Hui

    2000-01-01

    The Vif (virion infectivity factor protein of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) is essential for viral replication in vivo and productive infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, macrophages, and H9 T-cells. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of Vif remains unknown and needs to be further determined. In this report, we show that, like many other proteins encoded by HIV-1, Vif proteins possess a strong tendency toward self-association. In relatively native conditions, Vif pr...

  9. Platelet Activation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Patients Is Not Altered with Cocaine Abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Kiebala

    Full Text Available Recent work has indicated that platelets, which are anucleate blood cells, significantly contribute to inflammatory disorders. Importantly, platelets also likely contribute to various inflammatory secondary disorders that are increasingly associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV infection including neurological impairments and cardiovascular complications. Indeed, HIV infection is often associated with increased levels of platelet activators. Additionally, cocaine, a drug commonly abused by HIV-infected individuals, leads to increased platelet activation in humans. Considering that orchestrated signaling mechanisms are essential for platelet activation, and that nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB inhibitors can alter platelet function, the role of NF-κB signaling in platelet activation during HIV infection warrants further investigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that inhibitory kappa B kinase complex (IKK activation would be central for platelet activation induced by HIV and cocaine. Whole blood from HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, with or without cocaine abuse was used to assess platelet activation via flow cytometry whereas IKK activation was analyzed by performing immunoblotting and in vitro kinase assays. We demonstrate that increased platelet activation in HIV patients, as measured by CD62P expression, is not altered with reported cocaine use. Furthermore, cocaine and HIV do not activate platelets in whole blood when treated ex vivo. Finally, HIV-induced platelet activation does not involve the NF-κB signaling intermediate, IKKβ. Platelet activation in HIV patients is not altered with cocaine abuse. These results support the notion that non-IKK targeting approaches will be better suited for the treatment of HIV-associated inflammatory disorders.

  10. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection-Associated Mortality during Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treatment in Six Provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Yu Ji; LIU Er Yong; WANG Li Ming; Jamie P MORANO; WANG Ning; Kaveh KHOSHNOOD; ZHOU Lin; CHENG Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk factors attributable to tuberculosis-related deaths in areas with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection epidemics. Methods A prospective cohort study of newly registered patients in tuberculosis (TB) dispensaries in six representative Chinese provinces was conducted from September 1, 2009 to August 31, 2011. Risk factors for TB-associated death were identified through logistic regression analysis. Results Of 19,103 newly registered pulmonary TB patients, 925 (4.8%) were found to be HIV-positive. Miliary TB and acid-fast bacillus smear-negative TB were more common among these patients. Out of a total of 322 (1.7%) deaths that occurred during TB treatment, 85 (26%) of the patients were co-infected with HIV. Multivariate analysis revealed that HIV infection was the strongest predictor of death [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.86]. Other significant mortality risk factors included presentation with miliary TB (aOR 4.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.14-7.88), ≥35 years of age (aOR 3.04), non-Han ethnicity (aOR 1.67), and farming as an occupation (aOR 1.59). For patients with TB/HIV co-infection, miliary TB was the strongest risk factor for death (aOR 5.48). A low CD4 count (≤200 cells/µL) (aOR 3.27) at the time of TB treatment initiation and a lack of antiretroviral therapy (ART) administration (aOR 3.78) were also correlated with an increased risk of death. Conclusion Infection with HIV was independently associated with increased mortality during TB treatment. Offering HIV testing at the time of diagnosis with TB, early TB diagnosis among HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, and the timely provision of ART were identified as the key approaches that could reduce the number of HIV-associated TB deaths.

  11. Plasmoblastic lymphoma associated with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Emoke; Krenács, L; Bagdi, Eniko; Pávai, Z; Macarie, I; Nagy, Elod-Erno; Demian, Smaranda

    2008-01-01

    Plasmoblastic lymphoma (PBL) is a subtype of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, typically present as extranodal disease associated with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection. PBLs are often the initial manifestation of AIDS. Here we present a case of PBL concerning the oral cavity. A 34-year-old woman presented a tumor in the oral cavity that involved the maxilla and gingiva (confirmed by CT-scan). The gingival biopsy showed a massive infiltration by large lymphoid cells with round, vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli, fine chromatin and an significant amount of basophilic cytoplasm which express CD79a, CD138, cytoplasmic lambda light chain and LCA, without staining for CD20, CD38, CD3 and CTK. Serological analysis confirmed HIV positivity. PBLs lack most B-lineage markers, but many express CD79a in at least some of the cells, therefore generate difficulties in differential diagnosis. Overall assessment and correlation of the histopathological and immunohistochemical features with the clinical findings and serology investigation are the most helpful diagnostic tools and can lead to the final diagnosis.

  12. Acceptance of referral for partners by clients testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet F

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetene Netsanet,1 Ayalew Dessie21IMA World Health SuddHealth Multi Donor Trust Fund-Basic Package of Health Services Project, Juba, South Sudan; 2United States Agency for International Development, Private Health Sector Program, Abt Associates Inc, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals who do not disclose their HIV status to their partners are more likely to present late for HIV and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS care than those who have disclosed their HIV status to their partners. A major area of challenge with regards to HIV counseling for clients is disclosure of their HIV status to their partners. The main methods of partner notification are patient referral, provider referral, contract referral, and outreach assistance. The emphasis on a plausible and comprehensive partner referral strategy for widespread positive case detection in resource-limited countries needs to be thought out and developed.Methods: A qualitative study was conducted among newly HIV-positive clients to identify partners for notification and acceptance of referral by their partners. Health service providers working in HIV testing and counseling clinics were also provided with semistructured questionnaires in order to assess their view towards partner notification strategies for clients testing positive for HIV.Results: Fifteen newly diagnosed HIV-positive clients were counseled to provide referral slips to their partners. All clients agreed and took the referral card. However, only eight were willing and actually provided the card to their partners. Five of the eight partners of clients who tested HIV-positive and who were provided with referral cards responded to the referral and were tested for HIV. Three were positive and two were negative. Nine of 11 counselors did not agree to requesting partner locator information from HIV-positive clients for contractual referral and/or outreach assistance. The findings

  13. Soluble CD163 does not predict first-time myocardial infarction in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Møller, Holger Jon; Katzenstein, Terese Lea;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble CD163 (sCD163) has been associated with arterial inflammation and non-calcified plaques in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals and has therefore been suggested as a predictive biomarker of myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: We conducted a nested case...

  14. A One-Session Human Immunodeficiency Virus Risk-Reduction Intervention in Adolescents with Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurstone, Christian; Riggs, Paula D.; Klein, Constance; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore change in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among teens in outpatient treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Method: From December 2002 to August 2004, 50 adolescents (13-19 years) with major depressive disorder, conduct disorder, and one or more non-nicotine SUD completed the Teen Health Survey (THS) at the…

  15. Liver-related deaths among persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: The D:A:D Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, R; Sabin, CA; Friis-Møller, Nina;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing proportion of deaths among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are due to complications of liver diseases. METHODS: We investigated the frequency of and risk factors associated with liver-related de...

  16. SEROPREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES TO THE HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS IN DIALYSIS WORKERS - RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BERLYNE, G; KACZMAREK, RG; HAMBURGER, S; HAMILTON, P; MOORE, RM; CHARNEY, AN; KAHN, T; GRUBER, M; KAUFMAN, CE; GOFFINET, J; BERNARD, MA

    1992-01-01

    The Center for Devices and Radiological Health, in collaboration with the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y., conducted a multi-center, multi-institutional study of the seroprevalence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among dialysis workers. Seven dia

  17. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  18. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2013-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including in-depth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions.

  19. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

  20. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in the setting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection: clinically relevant or a diagnostic problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, M; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Bräu, N; Solá, R; Moreno, S; Rockstroh, J; Smaill, F; Mendes-Correa, M C; DePamphilis, J; Torriani, F J

    2007-06-01

    The clinical relevance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, defined as detectable HBV DNA serum/liver, in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), is unclear. We determined the prevalence of serum occult HBV infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients enrolled in APRICOT, a randomized multinational trial that investigated the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) plus ribavirin for treatment of HCV. We also examined the effect of prior HBV exposure to liver histology at baseline. Only HBsAg-negative patients were eligible. At screening, serum HBV DNA was assessed by commercial assay (detection limit = 200 copies/mL). Patients were divided into four serological groups: anti-HBs+/anti-HBc+; anti-HBs-/anti-HBc+; anti-HBs+/ anti-HBc-; anti-HBs-/anti-HBc-. Baseline liver biopsy grade and stage were compared among groups. Serum HBV DNA was undetectable in all patients, (n = 866). Results of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was available for 176 patients: 60 (34.1%) anti-HBs+/anti-HBc+; 60 (34.1%) anti-HBs-/anti-HBc+; 11 (6.3%) anti-HBs+/anti-HBc-; 45 (25.6%) anti-HBs-/anti-HBc-. There were no differences among the groups in the histological grade or stage at baseline liver biopsies. Occult HBV infection in serum was not detected in this large immunocompetent cohort. Moreover, prior exposure to HBV did not appear to have any affect on baseline liver histology.

  1. Dental Practice, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aspect of the public health sector and the infection constitutes ... management of HIV-infection. ... in the overall health-care delivery to patients with HIV/ ... 82/113 respondents (72%) disagreed that the risk of HIV transmission in the dental clinic.

  2. Right and left ventricular cardiac function in a developed world population with human immunodeficiency virus studied with radionuclide ventriculography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Anne-Mette; Gerstoft, Jan; Hesse, Birger

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction has been reported in a substantial part of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies are from a time before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has significantly reduced HIV-associated......BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction has been reported in a substantial part of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, most studies are from a time before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), which has significantly reduced HIV......-associated morbidity and mortality rates. Accordingly, the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiac dysfunction may also have changed. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence of right- and left-sided cardiac dysfunction in a Danish HIV population, most of whom were undergoing HAART, with radionuclide...... ventricular ejection fraction and 6 (7%) had a reduced right ventricle ejection fraction (0.35-0.42) compared with reference values from the age- and sex-matched reference population. Patients with HIV and reduced cardiac function did not differ in the duration of HIV, CD4 count, CD4 nadir, or HIV RNA load...

  3. The Tat protein of human immunodeficiency virus-1 enhances hepatitis C virus replication through interferon gamma-inducible protein-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV is associated with faster progression of liver disease and an increase in HCV persistence. However, the mechanism by which HIV-1 accelerates the progression of HCV liver disease remains unknown. Results HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. HCV RNA levels were higher in PBMCs of patients with HIV-1/HCV co-infection than in patients with HCV mono-infection. HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activated HCV replication in a time-dependent manner, and HIV-1 Tat induced IP-10 production. In addition, the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication was blocked by anti-IP-10 monoclonal antibody, demonstrating that the effect of HIV-1 Tat on HCV replication depends on IP-10. Taken together, these results suggest that HIV-1 Tat protein activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. Conclusions HIV-1/HCV co-infection is associated with increased expression of IP-10 mRNA and replication of HCV RNA. Furthermore, both HIV-1 Tat and IP-10 activate HCV replication. HIV-1 Tat activates HCV replication by upregulating IP-10 production. These results expand our understanding of HIV-1 in HCV replication and the mechanism involved in the regulation of HCV replication mediated by HIV-1 during co-infection.

  4. CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 are major coreceptors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 variants isolated from individuals with and without plasma viremia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Blaak (Hetty); P.H.M. Boers (Patrick); R.A. Gruters (Rob); H. Schuitemaker; M.E. van der Ende (Marchina); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is generally considered capable of using a broad range of coreceptors. Since HIV-2 variants from individuals with nonprogressive infection were not studied previously, the possibility that broad coreceptor usage is a property of variants associ

  5. R5 to X4 coreceptor switch of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 B' and B'/C recombinant subtype isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yan-fang; ZHANG Xiao-yan; RUAN Yu-hua; ZHANG Yao-xin; SHAO Yi-ming; MA Li-ying; YUAN Lin; WANG Shu-hua; SUN Jian-ping; XU Wei-si; Xu Jian-qing; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue

    2007-01-01

    @@ The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 play an important role as coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entring into cells.HIV-1 isolates can be distinguished by the chemokine coreceptors. Nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), macrophage tropic viruses utilizing CCR5, are called R5 viruses;syncytium inducing (SI) isolates use CXCR4 and known as X4 viruses.

  6. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor increases CD4+ T cell counts of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving stable, highly active antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aladdin, H; Ullum, H; Dam Nielsen, S.

    2000-01-01

    counts resulted from increases in CD45RO+ memory T cells and cells expressing the CD38 activation marker. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin and Candida antigen decreased, whereas NK cell activity and plasma HIV RNA did not change during G-CSF treatment. After 24 weeks, all immune......Thirty human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CD4+ T cell counts

  7. Lentivirus-mediated RNA interference of DC-SIGN expression inhibits human immunodeficiency virus transmission from dendritic cells to T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrighi, JF; Pion, M; Wiznerowicz, M; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.; Garcia, E; Abraham, S.; Leuba, F; Dutoit, V; Ducrey-Rundquist, O; Kooijk, van Y.; Trono, D; Piguet, V

    2004-01-01

    In the early events of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, immature dendritic cells (DCs) expressing the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) receptor capture small amounts of HIV-1 on mucosal surfaces and spread viral infection to CD4(+) T

  8. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the

  9. Recombination analysis and structure prediction show correlation between breakpoint clusters and RNA hairpins in the pol gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 unique recombinant forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Lai, Alessia; Corvasce, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    Recombination is recognized as a primary force in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) evolution, increasing viral diversity through reshuffling of genomic portions. The strand-switching activity of reverse transcriptase is required to complete HIV-1 replication and can occur randomly thro...

  10. Immune responses to recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients with different CD4~+ T-lymphocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective.To compare the difference of immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV)vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-1-infected patients with different CD4+T-lymphocyte counts.Methods HIV-1 infected patients who visited clinic at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu were enrolled and divided in-+

  11. Early impairment of gut function and gut flora supporting a role for alteration of gastrointestinal mucosa in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gori, Andrea; Tincati, Camilla; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Torti, Carlo; Quirino, Tiziana; Haarman, Monique; Ben Amor, Kaouther; van Schaik, Jacqueline; Vriesema, Aldwin; Knol, Jan; Marchetti, Giulia; Welling, Gjalt; Clerici, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the h

  12. Comparison of Roche MONITOR and Organon Teknika NucliSens assays to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, P; Fiscus, S A; Smith, R M; Shepard, R; Johnson, B; Nicotera, J; Harris, V L; Clough, L A; McKinsey, J; Haas, D W

    2001-04-01

    We compared Roche MONITOR and Organon Teknika NucliSens assays for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Results of 282 assays were highly correlated (r = 0.826), with MONITOR values being 0.29 +/- 0.4 log(10) copies/ml (mean +/- standard deviation) values. Both assays can reliably quantify HIV-1 RNA in CSF.

  13. Regulatory T cells participation in the infection immunopathogenesis by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1 Participação de células T regulatórias (Tregs na imunopatogênese da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana 1 (HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabele Kazahaya Borges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 is related to the prevention and effective treatment of opportunistic infections. It is known that the main parameters to evaluate the progression of disease caused by HIV-1 is the counting of CD4 + T cells and viral load of HIV-1. Regulatory T cells has been considered the focus of intense research within the immune system as well as in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Natural regulatory T cells (Tregs CD4+CD25+ act in the modulation of immune activation, functioning as critical mediators of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Furthermore, recent studies has shown that the function of Tregs cells is not limited to the prevention of autoimmunity, but is also important to control all forms of immune responses in the context of inflammation, infection, allergy, transplantation and tumor immunity. Many authors have identified Tregs as beneficial effector cells in the context of AIDS, but other researchers disagree. Tregs can exert an important role in the immunopathology of HIV infection due to the suppressor activity on cellular activation and effector function. Thus, this review discusses the molecular and immunological aspects of Tregs in the HIV system. A sobrevivência de pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV-1 é relacionada à prevenção e ao tratamento eficaz de infecções oportunistas. É conhecido que os principais parâmetros para avaliar a progressão da doença causada pelo HIV-1 são contagem de células T CD4+ e carga viral do HIV-1. Células T regulatórias têm sido foco de intensas investigações dentro do sistema imunológico como também na patogênese de diversas doenças. Sabe-se que as células T reguladoras (Tregs CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ atuam na modulação da ativação imune, funcionando como mediadores críticos da homeostasia imune e da auto-tolerância. Além disso, recentes estudos têm demonstrado que as c

  14. Epidemic transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in renal dialysis centers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, N M; Gomatos, P J; Beck-Sagué, C M; Dietrich, U; von Briesen, H; Osmanov, S; Esparza, J; Arthur, R R; Wahdan, M H; Jarvis, W R

    2000-01-01

    In 1993 an epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection occurred among 39 patients at 2 renal dialysis centers in Egypt. The centers, private center A (PCA) and university center A (UCA) were visited, HIV-infected patients were interviewed, seroconversion rates at UCA were calculated, and relatedness of HIV strains was determined by sequence analysis; 34 (62%) of 55 patients from UCA and 5 (42%) of 12 patients from PCA were HIV-infected. The HIV seroconversion risk at UCA varied significantly with day and shift of dialysis session. Practices that resulted in sharing of syringes among patients were observed at both centers. The analyzed V3 loop sequences of the HIV strain of 12 outbreak patients were >96% related to each other. V3 loop sequences from each of 8 HIV-infected Egyptians unrelated to the 1993 epidemic were only 76%-89% related to those from outbreak strains. Dialysis patients may be at risk for HIV infection if infection control guidelines are not followed.

  15. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To improve the Zambia Prisons Service’s implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. Methods For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia’s prisons. Findings In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100 000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Conclusion Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere. PMID:25883402

  16. Specific interaction of aurintricarboxylic acid with the human immunodeficiency virus/CD4 cell receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schols, D.; Baba, M.; Pauwels, R.; Desmyter, J.; De Clercq, E. (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium))

    1989-05-01

    The triphenylmethane derivative aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA), but not aurin, selectively prevented the binding of OKT4A/Leu-3a monoclonal antibody (mAb) and, to a lesser extent, OKT4 mAb to the CD4 cell receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The effect was seen within 1 min at an ATA concentration of 10 {mu}M in various T4{sup +} cells (MT-4, U-937, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and monocytes). It was dose-dependent and reversible. ATA prevented the attachment of radiolabeled HIV-1 particles to MT-4 cells, which could be expected as the result of its specific binding to the HIV/CD4 receptor. Other HIV inhibitors such as suramin, fuchsin acid, azidothymidine, dextran sulfate, heparin, and pentosan polysulfate did not affect OKT4A/Leu-3a mAb binding to the CD4 receptor, although the sulfated polysaccharides suppressed HIV-1 adsorption to the cells at concentrations required for complete protection against HIV-1 cytopathogenicity. Thus, ATA is a selective marker molecule for the CD4 receptor. ATA also interfered with the staining of membrane-associated HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120 by a mAb against it. These unusual properties of a small molecule of nonimmunological origin may have important implications for the study of CD4/HIV/AIDS pathogenesis and possibly treatment.

  17. Oral mucocele/ranula: Another human immunodeficiency virus-related salivary gland disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syebele, Kabunda; Munzhelele, Thifhelimbilu I

    2015-05-01

    To describe clinical characteristics of oral mucoceles/ranulas, with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related salivary gland diseases. A descriptive and clinical study, with review of patient data. We reviewed 113 referred cases of oral mucocele. The following anatomical sites were identified: lip, tongue, and floor of the mouth (simple ranulas), as well as plunging ranulas. The age and gender data of the patients with oral mucoceles were recorded. The HIV status of the patients and other information were reviewed. There were 30 (26.5%) males and 83 (73.5%) females. Most patients were below 30 years of age, with the peak frequency in the first and second decade. Ranula (simple and plunging) represented 84.1% of the mucocele locations. Mucocele on the lips represented 10.6%. Seventy-two (63.7%) patients were HIV positive; and 97.2% of them had ranulas. Thirty-eight (33.6%) patients presented with plunging ranulas; and 92.1% of them were HIV positive, compared with two patients presenting with plunging ranulas in the HIV-negative group. These results strongly suggest that an HIV-positive patient is statistically (P mucoceles/ranulas, as observed in HIV-positive patients. Additionally, it suggests a possible clinical link between the two pathologies. The authors strongly support the suggestion that oral mucocele/ranula is an HIV-related salivary gland disease. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Screening for tuberculosis and testing for human immunodeficiency virus in Zambian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Katie R; Hatwiinda, Sisa; Harris, Jennifer B; Phiri, Winifreda; Krüüner, Annika; Kaunda, Kaunda; Topp, Stephanie M; Kapata, Nathan; Ayles, Helen; Chileshe, Chisela; Henostroza, German; Reid, Stewart E

    2015-02-01

    To improve the Zambia Prisons Service's implementation of tuberculosis screening and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing. For both tuberculosis and HIV, we implemented mass screening of inmates and community-based screening of those residing in encampments adjacent to prisons. We also established routine systems – with inmates as peer educators – for the screening of newly entered or symptomatic inmates. We improved infection control measures, increased diagnostic capacity and promoted awareness of tuberculosis in Zambia's prisons. In a period of 9 months, we screened 7638 individuals and diagnosed 409 new patients with tuberculosis. We tested 4879 individuals for HIV and diagnosed 564 cases of infection. An additional 625 individuals had previously been found to be HIV-positive. Including those already on tuberculosis treatment at the time of screening, the prevalence of tuberculosis recorded in the prisons and adjacent encampments – 6.4% (6428/100,000) – is 18 times the national prevalence estimate of 0.35%. Overall, 22.9% of the inmates and 13.8% of the encampment residents were HIV-positive. Both tuberculosis and HIV infection are common within Zambian prisons. We enhanced tuberculosis screening and improved the detection of tuberculosis and HIV in this setting. Our observations should be useful in the development of prison-based programmes for tuberculosis and HIV elsewhere.

  19. Detection of Cryptosporidium - specific coproantigen in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by using a commercially available immunoenzymatic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vieira Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients (group 1 and 38 clinically healthy individuals (group 2 by using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. All fecal samples collected were submitted to the Baermann, Lutz, and Ritchie methods, the Safranin/Methylene Blue, and Weber's chromotrope modified Trichrome staining techniques, and EIA. In group 1, parasitological staining techniques and EIA were both positive for Cryptosporidium sp. infection in 3/52 (5.8% samples and both negative in 45/52 (86.5% samples, while 4/52 (7.7% samples were positive in EIA and negative in parasitological staining techniques. Concerning group 2, all samples were negative by EIA and microscopy for Cryptosporidium infection. In conclusion, EIA may be an alternative method for detecting Cryptosporidium-specific coproantigen in HIV/AIDS patients.

  20. HIV and the spectrum of human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Sebastian; Nelson, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes systemic T cell destruction and reduced cell-mediated immunity that leads to a wide range of opportunistic infections and cancers. Second, it directly damages many tissues - gut, brain, lung - through mononuclear cell infection and activation. Third, through immune activation and effects on endothelia, it can cause more subtle systemic organ damage, such as chronic cardiovascular, hepatic, pulmonary and central nervous system disease. Antiretroviral treatment has enabled HIV-infected persons to live with chronic infection, although with some side-effects and mortality, including reactions due to the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). As cohorts of infected people get older, age-related diseases will combine with chronic HIV infection to produce disabilities whose scale is not yet understood. HIV is detectable in tissues by immunohistochemistry when infection loads are high, such as at first presentation. Pathologists should proactively consider HIV disease in routine diagnostic work, so as to identify more HIV-infected patients and enable their optimal management.