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Sample records for human il6 enhances

  1. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a transient increase in plasma IL-6 induces an anti-inflammatory environment in humans. Therefore, young healthy volunteers received a low dose of recombinant human (rh)IL-6 or saline for 3 h. Plasma IL-6 levels during rhIL-6 infusion...... number without effects on plasma epinephrine, body temperature, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that physiological concentrations of IL-6 induce an anti-inflammatory rather than an inflammatory response in humans and that IL-6, independently of TNF......-induced leukocyte trafficking....

  2. In humans IL-6 is released from the brain during and after exercise and paralleled by enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in the hippocampus of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per; Vedel, J-C; Olesen, J

    2011-01-01

    . Additionally, it was evaluated in mice whether brain release of IL-6 reflected enhanced IL-6 mRNA expression in the brain as modulated by brain glycogen levels. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects completed 4 h of ergometer rowing while the arterio-jugular venous difference (a-v diff) for IL-6 was determined....... The IL-6 mRNA and the glycogen content were determined in mouse hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex before and after 2 h treadmill running (N = 8). Results: At rest, the IL-6 a-v diff was negligible but decreased to -2.2 ± 1.9 pg ml(-1) at the end of exercise and remained low (-2.1 ± 2.1 pg ml(-1) ) 1 h...

  3. Ionizing radiation enhances IL-6 and IL-8 production by human endothelial cells

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    A. Van Der Meeren

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation exposure is known to induce an inflammatory reaction. Endothelial cells play a crucial role both in the inflammatory process and in radiation damage. Therefore, supernatants and cell lysates of 60Co-irradiated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC have been assessed for the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. After gamma irradiation, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α remained undetectable in both cell supernatants and cell lysates. However, a dose-dependent increase in the production of IL-6 and IL-8 has been demonstrated up to 6 days after exposure. These data indicate that the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 may be involved in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelium induced by exposure to ionizing radiation.

  4. Protein kinase A enhances lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by human gingival fibroblasts

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    Ara Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Periodontal disease is accompanied by inflammation of the gingiva and destruction of periodontal tissues, leading to alveolar bone loss in severe clinical cases. Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and the chemical mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 are known to play important roles in inflammatory responses and tissue degradation. Recently, we reported that the protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H-89 suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced IL-8 production by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. In the present study, the relevance of the PKA activity and two PKA-activating drugs, aminophylline and adrenaline, to LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8 and PGE2 by HGFs were examined. Methods HGFs were treated with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis and H-89, the cAMP analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP, aminophylline, or adrenaline. After 24 h, IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 levels were evaluated by ELISA. Results H-89 did not affect LPS-induced IL-6 production, but suppressed IL-8 and PGE2 production. In contrast, dbcAMP significantly increased LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production. Up to 10 μg/ml of aminophylline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at 100 μg/ml. Similarly, 0.01 μg/ml of adrenaline did not affect LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production, but they were significantly increased at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml. In the absence of LPS, H-89, dbcAMP, aminophylline, and adrenaline had no relevance to IL-6, IL-8, or PGE2 production. Conclusion These results suggest that the PKA pathway, and also PKA-activating drugs, enhance LPS-induced IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production by HGFs. However, aminophylline may not have an effect on the production of these molecules at concentrations used in clinical settings (8 to 20 μg/ml in serum. These results suggest that aminophylline does not affect inflammatory responses in periodontal disease.

  5. Short-term acetaminophen consumption enhances the exercise-induced increase in Achilles peritendinous IL-6 in humans

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    Gump, Brian S; McMullan, David R; Cauthon, David J

    2013-01-01

    Through an unknown mechanism the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor acetaminophen (APAP) alters tendon mechanical properties in humans when consumed during exercise. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is produced by tendon during exercise and is a potent stimulator of collagen synthesis. In non-tendon tissue, IL-6...

  6. Leptin enhances synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritic cartilage--mediator role of NO in leptin-induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 production.

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    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; Kukkonen, Meiju; Nieminen, Riina; Päivärinta, Unto; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE(2), IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2), and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2) production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis.

  7. Leptin Enhances Synthesis of Proinflammatory Mediators in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage—Mediator Role of NO in Leptin-Induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 Production

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    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; Kukkonen, Meiju; Nieminen, Riina; Päivärinta, Unto; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2, and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis. PMID:19688109

  8. Leptin Enhances Synthesis of Proinflammatory Mediators in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage—Mediator Role of NO in Leptin-Induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 Production

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    Katriina Vuolteenaho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK. Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2, and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis.

  9. IL-6 Inhibition Reduces STAT3 Activation and Enhances the Antitumor Effect of Carboplatin

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    Zhi-Yong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tumor-associated macrophage-produced IL-6 is an important mediator within the tumor microenvironment that promotes tumor growth. The activation of IL-6/STAT3 axis has been associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis of a variety of cancers including colorectal carcinoma and thus serves as a potential immunotherapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, it is not fully understood whether anticytokine therapy could reverse chemosensitivity and enhance the suppressive effect of chemotherapy on tumor growth. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of IL-6 inhibition therapy on the antitumor effect of carboplatin. Enhanced expression of IL-6 and activation of STAT3 were observed in human colorectal carcinoma samples compared to normal colorectal tissue, with higher levels of IL-6/STAT3 in low grade carcinomas. Treatment of carboplatin (CBP dose-dependently increased IL-6 production and STAT3 activation in human colorectal LoVo cells. Blockade of IL-6 with neutralizing antibody enhanced chemosensitivity of LoVo cells to carboplatin as evidenced by increased cell apoptosis. IL-6 blockade abolished carboplatin-induced STAT3 activation. IL-6 blockade and carboplatin synergistically reduced cyclin D1 expression and enhanced caspase-3 activity in LoVo cells. Our results suggest that inhibition of IL-6 may enhance chemosensitivity of colon cancers with overactive STAT3 to platinum agents.

  10. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

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    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ∼40 and ∼1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  11. IL-6 selectively stimulates fat metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is chronically elevated in type 2 diabetes but also during exercise. However, the exact metabolic role, and hence the physiological significance, has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of recombinant human (rh) IL-6 on human fat...... and glucose metabolism and signaling of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Eight healthy postabsorptive males were infused with either rhIL-6 or saline for 4 h, eliciting IL-6 levels of ~40 and ~1 pg/ml, respectively. Systemic, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue fat and glucose metabolism was assessed...... before, during, and 2 h after cessation of the infusion. Glucose metabolism was unaffected by rhIL-6. In contrast, rhIL-6 increased systemic fatty acid oxidation approximately twofold after 60 min, and it remained elevated even 2 h after the infusion. The increase in oxidation was followed by an increase...

  12. IL-6 and its circadian secretion in humans.

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    Vgontzas, A N; Bixler, E O; Lin, H-M; Prolo, P; Trakada, G; Chrousos, G P

    2005-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by numerous types of immune and nonimmune cells and is involved in many pathophysiologic mechanisms in humans. Many studies suggest that IL-6 is a putative 'sleep factor' and its circadian secretion correlates with sleep/sleepiness. IL-6 is elevated in disorders of excessive daytime sleepiness such as narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea. It correlates positively with body mass index and may be a mediator of sleepiness in obesity. Also the secretion of this cytokine is stimulated by total acute or partial short-term sleep loss reflecting the increased sleepiness experienced by sleep-deprived individuals. Studies that evaluated the 24-hour secretory pattern of IL-6 in healthy young adults suggest that IL-6 is secreted in a biphasic circadian pattern with two nadirs at about 08.00 and 21.00, and two zeniths at about 19.00 and 05.00 h. In contrast, following sleep deprivation or in disorders of sleep disturbance, e.g., insomnia, IL-6 peaks during the day and, based on the level of stress system activity, i.e., cortisol secretion, contributes to either sleepiness and deep sleep (low cortisol) or feelings of tiredness and fatigue and poor sleep (high cortisol). In order to address concerns about the potential impact of differences of IL-6 levels between the beginning and the end of the 24-hour blood-drawing experiment, we proceeded with a cosinor analysis of 'detrended' data in young and old healthy individuals. This new analysis did not affect the biphasic circadian pattern of IL-6 secretion in young adults, while it augmented the flattened circadian pattern in old individuals in whom the difference was greater. Finally, IL-6 appears to be somnogenic in rats and exhibits a diurnal rhythm that follows the sleep/wake cycle in these animals. We conclude that IL-6 is a mediator of sleepiness and its circadian pattern reflects the homeostatic drive for sleep. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in human sulfur mustard (HD) toxicology.

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    Arroyo, C M; Broomfield, C A; Hackley, B E

    2001-01-01

    The authors applied in vitro models of controlled damage to human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs), human skin fibroblasts (HSFs), and human breast skin tissue (HBST) to examine the mechanism responsible for sulfur mustard (HD)-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) alterations. Treatment with 100 microM HD for 24 hours resulted in a significant increased amount of IL-6 being secreted by HEKs (HD-exposed to control ratio [E/C] = 4.15 +/- 0.07) and by HSFs (E/C = 7.66 +/- 0.04). Furthermore, the HD-induced secretion of IL-6 in HEKs was neutralized with monoclonal human IL-6 antibodies. The secretion of IL-6 in HBST supernatant exposed to HD produced conflicting results. Although an increase of IL-6 was observed in control superfusion media from HBST, IL-6 levels were observed to decrease as the concentration of HD increased. Time course of IL-6 mRNA levels were performed using a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and human IL-6 mRNA assay detection kit in control and HD (100 microM)-treated HEKs cells. IL-6 mRNA transcripts in HD-exposed HEKs were first observed within 2 hours, dropped at 5 to 6 hours, and increased by approximately 2.2-fold and 8.5-fold at 24 to 48 hours after HD exposure, respectively, as detected by the Xplore mRNA Quantification System. Surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI) mass spectrometry was also applied to study the secretion pattern of IL-6 on lysate preparations of HBST. A peak in the area of 23,194 to 23,226 Da was detected using antibody coupled to the chip. This peak was assigned to correspond to the mass of the IL-6 glycoprotein. Recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) exposed to HD lacked the second disulfide bridge and was partially unfolded, as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance-nuclear Overhauser enhancement and exchange spectroscopy (NMR-NOESY). The disappearance of the resonance peak at 3.54 ppm and the appearance of a new chemical shift at 1.85 ppm suggested that a change in structure had occurred in the presence of

  14. Rapamycin-Sensitive Late-LTP is Enhanced in the Hippocampus of IL-6 Transgenic Mice.

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    Olde Engberink, Anneke; Hernandez, Ruben; de Graan, Pierre; Gruol, Donna L

    2017-11-10

    The neuroimmune factor IL-6 has been shown to regulate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), an activity-dependent enhancement of synaptic transmission that plays a central role in memory and learning. This IL-6 action was demonstrated with relatively short IL-6 exposure, and may reflect physiological actions of IL-6. IL-6 is also expressed chronically at elevated levels in the central nervous system (CNS) under pathological conditions such as neurological disorders. Little is known about the effects IL-6 on LTP under such conditions, an issue that we are addressing by electrophysiological recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampal slices from transgenic mice that persistently express elevated levels of IL-6 in the CNS (IL-6 tg). The current studies examined the long-lasting phase of LTP (late LTP; L-LTP) and the potential involvement mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a known regulator of L-LTP and a downstream partner of IL-6 signal transduction pathways. Results show that basal synaptic transmission and L-LTP were increased in hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice compared to slices from non-transgenic (non-tg) control mice. An inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin, reduced L-LTP in slices from both genotypes, and eliminated the difference in magnitude of L-LTP between IL-6 and non-tg hippocampus. There were no genotypic effect of rapamycin on basal synaptic transmission, but synaptic responses during the LTP induction protocol were reduced in IL-6 tg slices, an effect that could contribute to the reduction of L-LTP in the IL-6 tg slices. These results indicate that persistently increased levels of IL-6 can lead to alterations in mTOR regulation of L-LTP, possibly affecting learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Interleukin-6 receptor expression in contracting human skeletal muscle: regulating role of IL-6

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    Keller, Pernille; Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Contracting muscle fibers produce and release IL-6, and plasma levels of this cytokine are markedly elevated in response to physical exercise. We recently showed autocrine regulation of IL-6 in human skeletal muscle in vivo and hypothesized that this may involve up-regulation of the IL-6 receptor...

  16. Ozone Enhances Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP-Induced Interleukin-8 (IL-8 Gene Expression in Human Airway Epithelial Cells through Activation of Nuclear Factors- κB (NF-κB and IL-6 (NF-IL6

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    James Kelley

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ozone, a highly reactive oxidant gas is a major component of photochemical smog. As an inhaled toxicant, ozone induces its adverse effects mainly on the lung. Inhalation of particulate matter has been reported to cause airway inflammation in humans and animals. Furthermore, epidemiological evidence has indicated that exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5-10, including diesel exhaust particles (DEP has been correlated with increased acute and chronic respiratory morbidity and exacerbation of asthma. Previously, exposure to ozone or particulate matter and their effect on the lung have been addressed as separate environmental problems. Ozone and particulate matter may be chemically coupled in the ambient air. In the present study we determined whether ozone exposure enhances DEP effect on interleukin-8 (IL-8 gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. We report that ozone exposure (0.5 ppm x 1 hr significantly increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression in A549 cells (117 ± 19 pg/ml, n = 6, p < 0.05 as compared to cultures treated with DEP (100 μg/ml x 4 hr alone (31 ± 3 pg/ml, n = 6, or cultures exposed to purified air (24 ± 6 pg/ml, n = 6. The increased DEP-induced IL-8 gene expression following ozone exposure was attributed to ozone-induced increase in the activity of the transcription factors NF-κB and NF-IL6. The results of the present study indicate that ozone exposure enhances the toxicity of DEP in human airway epithelial cells by augmenting IL-8 gene expression, a potent chemoattractant of neutrophils in the lung.

  17. Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans

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    Starkie, Rebecca; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Jauffred, Sune

    2003-01-01

    and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli...... exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced...

  18. IL-6, but not TNF-α, increases plasma YKL-40 in human subjects

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    Nielsen, Anders R; Plomgaard, Peter; Krabbe, Karen S

    2011-01-01

    of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in the regulation of YKL-40 plasma levels, we included healthy men, who received either recombinant human (rh)IL-6 (n=6), rhTNF-a (n=8) or vehicle (n=7) for 3h. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-a reached ~ 150 and ~ 18 pg/ml, respectively, during...

  19. IL-6, but not TNF-α, increases plasma YKL-40 in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders R; Plomgaard, Peter; Krabbe, Karen S

    2011-01-01

    of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the regulation of YKL-40 plasma levels, we included healthy men, who received either recombinant human (rh)IL-6 (n=6), rhTNF-α (n=8) or vehicle (n=7) for 3h. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α reached ∼ 150 and ∼ 18 pg/ml, respectively, during...

  20. Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 enhances interleukin (IL)-1beta-stimulated release of IL-6 in cultured human astrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.; Gorter, J. A.; Rozemuller, A. J.; Yankaya, B.; Troost, D.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that human astrocytes express mRNA and receptor protein for group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Whether these receptors can influence the inflammatory and immune response and can modulate the capacity of astrocytes to produce inflammatory

  1. Athletic humans and horses: Comparative analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in trained and untrained subjects at rest

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    Supplizi Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horses and humans share a natural proclivity for athletic performance. In this respect, horses can be considered a reference species in studies designed to optimize physical training and disease prevention. In both species, interleukin-6 (IL-6 plays a major role in regulating the inflammatory process induced during exercise as part of an integrated metabolic regulatory network. The aim of this study was to compare IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in trained and untrained humans and horses. Results Nine highly trained male swimmers (training volume: 21.6 ± 1.7 h/wk in 10-12 sessions were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by eight lightly trained runners (training volume: 6.4 ± 2.6 h/wk in 3-5 sessions and nine untrained subjects. In addition, eight trained horses (training volume: 8.0 ± 2.1 h/wk in 3-4 sessions were compared with eight age-matched sedentary mares. In humans, IL-6 mRNA levels in PBMCs determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were significantly higher in highly trained subjects, whereas IL-6R expression did not differ among groups. In horses, transcripts of both IL-6 and IL-6R were significantly up-regulated in the trained group. Conclusions Up-regulation of IL-6R expression in PBMCs in horses could reflect a mechanism that maintains an adequate anti-inflammatory environment at rest through ubiquitous production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the body. These findings suggest that the system that controls the inflammatory response in horses is better adapted to respond to exercise than that in humans.

  2. Athletic humans and horses: comparative analysis of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in trained and untrained subjects at rest.

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    Capomaccio, Stefano; Cappelli, Katia; Spinsanti, Giacomo; Mencarelli, Marzia; Muscettola, Michela; Felicetti, Michela; Verini Supplizi, Andrea; Bonifazi, Marco

    2011-01-21

    Horses and humans share a natural proclivity for athletic performance. In this respect, horses can be considered a reference species in studies designed to optimize physical training and disease prevention. In both species, interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a major role in regulating the inflammatory process induced during exercise as part of an integrated metabolic regulatory network. The aim of this study was to compare IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in trained and untrained humans and horses. Nine highly trained male swimmers (training volume: 21.6 ± 1.7 h/wk in 10-12 sessions) were compared with two age-matched control groups represented by eight lightly trained runners (training volume: 6.4 ± 2.6 h/wk in 3-5 sessions) and nine untrained subjects. In addition, eight trained horses (training volume: 8.0 ± 2.1 h/wk in 3-4 sessions) were compared with eight age-matched sedentary mares. In humans, IL-6 mRNA levels in PBMCs determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were significantly higher in highly trained subjects, whereas IL-6R expression did not differ among groups. In horses, transcripts of both IL-6 and IL-6R were significantly up-regulated in the trained group. Up-regulation of IL-6R expression in PBMCs in horses could reflect a mechanism that maintains an adequate anti-inflammatory environment at rest through ubiquitous production of anti-inflammatory cytokines throughout the body. These findings suggest that the system that controls the inflammatory response in horses is better adapted to respond to exercise than that in humans.

  3. IL-6 Enhances Osteocyte-Mediated Osteoclastogenesis by Promoting JAK2 and RANKL Activity In Vitro

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    Qing Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Evidence suggests that IL-6 affects bone mass by modulating osteocyte communication towards osteoclasts. However, the mechanism by which IL-6 enhances osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory factors in serum after orthodontic surgery and their relationship between osteocytes and osteoclasts. Methods: Serum was obtained from 10 orthognathic surgery patients, and inflammatory factors were detected by ELISA. We treated the osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 with recombinant mouse IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R, and used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting to explore Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells, and the formation of osteoclasts was detected by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining. To explore the role of JAK2 in the osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis, AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor, was used to inhibit the JAK2-STAT3 pathway in osteocytes. Results: In our study, we found that IL-6 and RANKL were stimulated in serum 3-7 days after orthognathic surgery. Therefore, IL-6 and IL-6 receptor enhanced the expression of RANKL at both the mRNA and protein level in MLO-Y4. Furthermore, when MLO-Y4 cells were co-cultured with osteoclast precursor cells, it significantly stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Our study indicated that osteocytes could promote osteoclastic differentiation and the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells after stimulation with IL-6 and IL-6R. Our results also indicated that treatment with IL-6 and IL-6R increased RANKL mRNA expression and the RANKL/OPG expression ratio. Meanwhile, the phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 and Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3 also correlated with RANKL levels. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of a specific JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, on the expression of RANKL in

  4. Production of IL-6 by human myoblasts stimulated with Abeta: relevance in the pathogenesis of IBM.

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    Baron, P; Galimberti, D; Meda, L; Scarpini, E; Conti, G; Cogiamanian, F; Scarlato, G

    2001-11-13

    To determine whether amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by cultured normal muscle cells. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is characterized by the presence of rimmed vacuoles and fibrillary inclusions of Abeta in muscle fibers, and often inflammatory cells. Endomysial expression of proinflammatory molecules has suggested an ongoing immune process, but the site of sensitization and the mechanisms that trigger an inflammatory reaction is unknown. The authors used Northern blot analysis and specific immunoassays to study the expression and secretion in cell-free supernatants of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by purified human myoblasts and C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells incubated with Abeta[1-42] or Abeta[25-35] peptides. Nonstimulated muscle cells produced detectable IL-6, whereas secretion of IL-1beta and TNFalpha was absent. Incubation with Abeta peptides increased IL-6 production, whereas TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels remained undetectable. Northern blot analysis of Abeta-stimulated human myoblasts revealed an increase in IL-6 mRNA expression. Cultured muscle cells increase the constitutive production of IL-6 in response to local deposition of Abeta in sporadic IBM. IL-6 could be a CD8(+) proliferation and differentiation agent, an autocrine proteolysis-inducing factor of damaged myotubes, and a proliferation-stimulating agent for satellite cells to replace the destroyed myofibers in IBM.

  5. Sequential treatment with AT-101 enhances cisplatin chemosensitivity in human non-small cell lung cancer cells through inhibition of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1-activated IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

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    Ren T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tao Ren,1,2,* Jinlu Shan,1,* Yi Qing,1 Chengyuan Qian,1 Qing Li,1 Guoshou Lu,1 Mengxia Li,1 Chongyi Li,1 Yu Peng,1 Hao Luo,1 Shiheng Zhang,1 Weiwei Zhang,1 Dong Wang,1 Shu-Feng Zhou3 1Cancer Center, Daping Hospital and Research Institute of Surgery, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China; 2Oncology Department, The Affiliated Hospital, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: AT-101, known as R-(–-gossypol, is a potent anticancer agent, but its chemosensitizing effects remain elusive. The present study aimed to examine whether AT-101 could increase the sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells to cisplatin (CDDP and the underlying mechanisms. We evaluated the efficacy of the sequential treatment with AT-101 and CDDP using both in vitro and in vivo models. Our results showed that as compared to AT-101 or CDDP monotherapy, or AT-101 plus CDDP concurrent treatment, the sequential treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced tumor cell death. Moreover, the efficacy of the sequential treatment was also confirmed in a mouse A549 xenograft model. Our study revealed that AT-101 inhibited the reduced status of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1 and attenuated APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation by decreasing IL-6 protein expression; suppressing the STAT3–DNA binding; and reducing the expression of the downstream antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In conclusion, AT-101 enhances the sensitivity of A549 cells to CDDP in vitro and in vivo through the inhibition of APE1-mediated IL-6/STAT3 signaling activation, providing a rationale for the combined use of AT-101 and CDDP in non-small cell lung cancer chemotherapy. Keywords: AT101, NSCLC, cisplatin

  6. Structure and expression of human B cell stimulatory factor-2 (BSF-2/IL-6) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, K; Hirano, T; Watanabe, Y; Muratani, K; Matsuda, T; Nakai, S; Kishimoto, T

    1987-01-01

    The chromosomal DNA segment of human B cell stimulatory factor-2 (BSF-2/IL-6) was isolated and characterized by nucleotide sequence analysis. The human BSF-2/IL-6 gene consists of five exons and four introns and its organization shows a distinctive similarity to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor gene. The two genes have the same number of exons and introns and the size of each exon is strikingly similar. The BSF-2/IL-6 mRNA was found to be constitutively expressed in a human T cell leukemia virus-1 transformed T cell line, TCL-Na1, a bladder cell carcinoma line, T24, and an amnion derived cell line, FL. The BSF-2/IL-6 mRNA was also found to be inducible with interleukin-1 beta in an astrocytoma line, U373 and a glioblastoma line, SK-MG-4. S1 mapping and primer extension analyses showed the presence of multiple initiation sites and the preferential utilization of a different initiation site for each individual tissue tested. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3500852

  7. MspI polymorphism in the human interleukin 6 (IL 6) gene

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    Fugger, L.; Morling, N.; Bendtzen, K.; Ryder, L.; Odum, N.; Georgsen, J.; Svejgaard, A. (State Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1989-06-12

    A cDNA clone, pBSF2.28.1, containing a 1.1 kb IL 6 insert was isolated from a human T-cell line (TCL-NA1). A 915 bp Taq I-Bam HI fragment was used as a probe for Southern blotting. Msp I identifies a two-allele polymorphism with fragments of either P1: 6.3 kb or P2: 3.9 and 2.6 kbs. The allele frequency was estimated from 133 Danish Caucasoids. The human IL 6 gene has been assigned to chromosome no. 7 by Southern blot analysis of human-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Co-dominant segregation has been demonstrated in two two-generation families.

  8. The IL-6 receptor super-antagonist Sant7 enhances antiproliferative and apoptotic effects induced by dexamethasone and zoledronic acid on multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Galea, Eulalia; Forciniti, Samantha; Tagliaferri, Pierosandro; Venuta, Salvatore

    2002-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is the major growth and survival factor for multiple myeloma (MM), and has been shown to protect MM cells from apoptosis induced by a variety of agents. IL-6 receptor antagonists, which prevent the assembly of functional IL-6 receptor complexes, inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in MM cells. We have investigated whether the IL-6 receptor super-antagonist Sant7 might enhance the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects induced by the combination of dexamethasone (Dex) and zoledronic acid (Zln) on human MM cell lines and primary cells from MM patients. Here we show that each of these compounds individually induced detectable antiproliferative effects on MM cells. Sant7 significantly enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by Dex and Zln on both MM cell lines and primary MM cells. These results indicate that overcoming IL-6 mediated cell resistance by Sant7 potentiates the effect of glucocorticoides and bisphosphonates on MM cell growth and survival, providing a rationale for therapies including IL-6 antagonists in MM.

  9. Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene enhances the immunogenicity of anti-caries DNA vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ling-kai; Yu, Fei; Li, Zhao-fei; Zeng, Chang; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of co-delivering IL-6 expressing plasmid pCI-IL-6 on the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P, which encodes the surface protein antigen PAc of Streptococcus mutans. Plasmid pCI-IL-6 was constructed by inserting the murine IL-6 gene into the pCI vector. Expression of IL-6 in vitro was assessed using Western blot analysis. BALB/c mice were intranasally co-immunized with pCIA-P plus pCI-IL-6 on d 0 and 14. Anti-PAc IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) were assessed by ELISA. Splenocytes from the mice were re-stimulated with the PAc protein, and IFN-γ and IL-4 production was measured using ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was analyzed with flow cytometry. Rats were similarly immunized, and dental caries scores were determined using the Keyes method. Marked expression of IL-6 was found in COS-7 cells transfected with pCI-IL-6. In the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice, the specific IgG antibodies in serum and sIgA antibodies in saliva were significantly higher than those in the control mice at weeks 4 and 8. Moreover, the secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes in response to re-stimulation with PAc protein was significantly higher in the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice than that in the control mice, whereas the secretion of IL-4 had no significant difference. The proliferation of splenocytes from the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice was significantly higher than that from the mice immunized with pCIA-P and pCI vector. In the rat caries model, the pCI-IL-6 co-immunization rats displayed lower caries scores than the control rats. Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene significantly enhances the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine.

  10. Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene enhances the immunogenicity of anti-caries DNA vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ling-kai; Yu, Fei; Li, Zhao-fei; Zeng, Chang; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of co-delivering IL-6 expressing plasmid pCI-IL-6 on the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P, which encodes the surface protein antigen PAc of Streptococcus mutans. Methods: Plasmid pCI-IL-6 was constructed by inserting the murine IL-6 gene into the pCI vector. Expression of IL-6 in vitro was assessed using Western blot analysis. BALB/c mice were intranasally co-immunized with pCIA-P plus pCI-IL-6 on d 0 and 14. Anti-PAc IgG and secretory IgA (sIgA) were assessed by ELISA. Splenocytes from the mice were re-stimulated with the PAc protein, and IFN-γ and IL-4 production was measured using ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was analyzed with flow cytometry. Rats were similarly immunized, and dental caries scores were determined using the Keyes method. Results: Marked expression of IL-6 was found in COS-7 cells transfected with pCI-IL-6. In the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice, the specific IgG antibodies in serum and sIgA antibodies in saliva were significantly higher than those in the control mice at weeks 4 and 8. Moreover, the secretion of IFN-γ from splenocytes in response to re-stimulation with PAc protein was significantly higher in the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice than that in the control mice, whereas the secretion of IL-4 had no significant difference. The proliferation of splenocytes from the pCI-IL-6 co-immunized mice was significantly higher than that from the mice immunized with pCIA-P and pCI vector. In the rat caries model, the pCI-IL-6 co-immunization rats displayed lower caries scores than the control rats. Conclusion: Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene significantly enhances the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine. PMID:24705100

  11. In-depth immunophenotyping data of IL-6R on the human peripheral regulatory T cell (Treg compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C. Ferreira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide in this paper a detailed characterization of the human peripheral CD4+ CD127lowCD25+ regulatory T cell (Treg compartment, with a particular emphasis in defining the population expressing higher levels of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R. We provide a description of the phenotype of this population by assessing both the surface expression by flow cytometry as well as their transcriptional profile and functional features. In addition, we also present functional data describing the responsiveness of these subsets to IL-6 signalling in vitro and to IL-2 in vivo. The data presented in this paper support the research article “Human IL-6RhiTIGIT− CD4+CD127lowCD25+ T cells display potent in vitro suppressive capacity and a distinct Th17 profile” (Ferreira RC et al., 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2017.03.002 [1].

  12. Helicobacter pylori Activates IL-6-STAT3 Signaling in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Potential Roles for Reactive Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Juan-Yu; Lee, Hee Geum; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Han, Hyeong-Jun; Ngo, Hoang-Kieu-Chi; Park, Sin-Aye; Woo, Jeong-Hwa; Lee, Jeong-Sang; Na, Hye-Kyung; Cha, Young-Nam; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) that plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying H. pylori-mediated STAT3 activation is still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated H. pylori-induced activation of STAT3 signaling in AGS human gastric cancer cells and the underlying mechanism. AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori, and STAT3 activation was assessed by Western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and immunocytochemistry. To demonstrate the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in H. pylori-activated STAT3 signaling, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was utilized. The expression and production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The interaction between IL-6 and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) was determined by the immunoprecipitation assay. H. pylori activates STAT3 as evidenced by increases in phosphorylation on Tyr(705) , nuclear localization, DNA binding and transcriptional activity of this transcription factor. The nuclear translocation of STAT3 was also observed in H. pylori-inoculated mouse stomach. In the subsequent study, we found that H. pylori-induced STAT3 phosphorylation was dependent on IL-6. Notably, the increased IL-6 expression and the IL-6 and IL-6R binding were mediated by ROS produced as a consequence of H. pylori infection. H. pylori-induced STAT3 activation is mediated, at least in part, through ROS-induced upregulation of IL-6 expression. These findings provide a novel molecular mechanism responsible for H. pylori-induced gastritis and gastric carcinogenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Dietary iron enhances colonic inflammation and IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting colonic tumor development in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita C G Chua

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammation and high dietary iron are associated with colorectal cancer development. The role of Stat3 activation in iron-induced colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis was investigated in a mouse model of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. Mice, fed either an iron-supplemented or control diet, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Intestinal inflammation and tumor development were assessed by endoscopy and histology, gene expression by real-time PCR, Stat3 phosphorylation by immunoblot, cytokines by ELISA and apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Colonic inflammation was more severe in mice fed an iron-supplemented compared with a control diet one week post-DSS treatment, with enhanced colonic IL-6 and IL-11 release and Stat3 phosphorylation. Both IL-6 and ferritin, the iron storage protein, co-localized with macrophages suggesting iron may act directly on IL-6 producing-macrophages. Iron increased DSS-induced colonic epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis consistent with enhanced mucosal damage. DSS-treated mice developed anemia that was not alleviated by dietary iron supplementation. Six weeks post-DSS treatment, iron-supplemented mice developed more and larger colonic tumors compared with control mice. Intratumoral IL-6 and IL-11 expression increased in DSS-treated mice and IL-6, and possibly IL-11, were enhanced by dietary iron. Gene expression of iron importers, divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1, increased and iron exporter, ferroportin, decreased in colonic tumors suggesting increased iron uptake. Dietary iron and colonic inflammation synergistically activated colonic IL-6/IL-11-Stat3 signaling promoting tumorigenesis. Oral iron therapy may be detrimental in inflammatory bowel disease since it may exacerbate colonic inflammation and increase colorectal cancer risk.

  14. Leptin induces IL-6 expression through OBRl receptor signaling pathway in human synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Hung; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Fong, Yi-Chin; Wang, Shoou-Jyi; Chang, Yung-Sen; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Leptin is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage and synovium. However, the relationship between leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) remains obscure. Stimulation of OASFs with leptin induced IL-6 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OASFs expressed the long (OBRl) and short (OBRs) isoforms of the leptin receptor. However, OBRl, but not OBRs, antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN) abolished the leptin-mediated increase of IL-6 expression. Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 siRNA decreased leptin-induced IL-6 production. In addition, pretreatment of cells with PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 inhibitor also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Leptin-induced AP-1 activation was inhibited by OBRl, IRS-1, PI3K, or Akt inhibitors and siRNAs. Our results showed that leptin activates the OBRl receptor, which in turn activates IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1 pathway, leading to up-regulation of IL-6 expression.

  15. Leptin induces IL-6 expression through OBRl receptor signaling pathway in human synovial fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Hung Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that centrally regulates weight control, may exert proinflammatory effects in the joint, depending on the immune response. Leptin is abundantly expressed in osteoarthritis (OA cartilage and synovium. However, the relationship between leptin and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs remains obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Stimulation of OASFs with leptin induced IL-6 expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. OASFs expressed the long (OBRl and short (OBRs isoforms of the leptin receptor. However, OBRl, but not OBRs, antisense oligonucleotide (AS-ODN abolished the leptin-mediated increase of IL-6 expression. Transfection with insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 siRNA decreased leptin-induced IL-6 production. In addition, pretreatment of cells with PI3K, Akt, or AP-1 inhibitor also inhibited the potentiating action of leptin. Leptin-induced AP-1 activation was inhibited by OBRl, IRS-1, PI3K, or Akt inhibitors and siRNAs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that leptin activates the OBRl receptor, which in turn activates IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1 pathway, leading to up-regulation of IL-6 expression.

  16. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Regulates REX1 Expression Via IL-6 In Stem Cells Isolated From Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Sukarawan, Waleerat; Pavasant, Prasit; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-06-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) regulates pluripotent marker expression and cellular differentiation in various cell types. However, the mechanism by which bFGF regulates REX1 expression in stem cells, isolated from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of REX1 expression by bFGF in SHEDs. SHEDs were isolated and characterized. Their mRNA and protein expression levels were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In some experiments, chemical inhibitors were added to the culture medium to impede specific signaling pathways. Cells isolated from human exfoliated deciduous tooth dental pulp tissue expressed mesenchymal stem cell surface markers (CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105). These cells differentiated into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages, when appropriately induced. Treating SHEDs with bFGF induced REX1 mRNA expression and this effect was attenuated by pretreatment with FGFR or Akt inhibitors. Cycloheximide pretreatment also inhibited the bFGF-induced REX1 expression, implying the involvement of intermediate molecule(s). Further, the addition of an IL-6 neutralizing antibody attenuated the bFGF-induced REX1 expression by SHEDs. In conclusion, bFGF enhanced REX1 expression by SHEDs via the FGFR and Akt signaling pathways. Moreover, IL-6 participated in the bFGF-induced REX1 expression in SHEDs. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1480-1488, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Genipin Inhibits IL-1ß-Induced CCL20 and IL-6 Production from Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Shindo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Genipin, the aglycon of geniposide found in gardenia fruit has long been considered for treatment of various diseases in traditional oriental medicine. Genipin has been used as a blue colorant in food industry. Genipin has recently been reported to have some pharmacological functions, such as antimicrobial, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to examine whether genipin could modify CCL20 and IL-6, which are related to bone resorption in periodontal disease, expression in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs. Methods: CCL20 and IL-6 productions from HPDLCs were determined by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used for the detection of signal transduction molecules expressions in HPDLCs. Results: Genipin prevented IL-1ß-mediated CCL20 and IL-6 production in HPDLCs. Moreover, genipin could suppress nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK phosphorylations in IL-1ß-stimulated HPDLCs. NF-κB inhibitor and ERK inhibitor significantly inhibited IL-6 and CCL20 productions from IL-1ß-stimulated HPDLCs. Conclusions: These data provide a novel mechanism through which genipin could be used to provide direct benefits in periodontal disease to inhibit IL-6 and CCL20 productions in periodontal lesions.

  18. INCREASED IL-8 AND IL-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INCREASED IL-6 AND IL-8 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO CARBON ULTRAFINE PARTICLES.R Silbajoris1, A G Lenz2, I Jaspers3, J M Samet1. 1NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA; 2GSF-Institute for Inhalation Biology, Neuherberg, Germany; 3 CEMLB, UNC-CH, Chapel Hill, ...

  19. Phosphorylation of STAT proteins by recombinant human IL-6 in immortalized human chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2

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    Meszaros EC

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evan C Meszaros,1 Charles J Malemud1,2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatic Diseases, 2Department of Anatomy, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Two immortalized human juvenile chondrocyte cell lines, T/C28a2 and C28/I2, were employed to determine the extent to which recombinant human (rh IL-6, a known cytokine activator of the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT pathway in many cell types, caused STAT proteins to be phosphorylated. The results showed that STAT3 was constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of rhIL-6 in T/C28a2 chondrocytes. However, C28/I2 chondrocytes treated with rhIL-6 caused STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 to be phosphorylated without altering total unphosphorylated STAT proteins. STAT3 phosphorylation in response to rhIL-6 in T/C28a and C28/I2 chondrocytes was efficiently blocked by the JAK3-selective inhibitor WHI-P131 (Janex-1 and by soluble IL-6 receptor-α (sIL-6R. However, the combination of rhIL-6 and ruxolitinib, a JAK1/JAK2-selective inhibitor, was a less effective inhibitor of STAT protein activation. These findings showed that rhIL-6 activated STAT proteins in the C28/I2 chondrocyte cell line. STAT protein phosphorylation could be blocked by a JAK3-selective inhibitor or by the combination of rhIL-6 and sIL-6R. Keywords: chondrocyte cell lines, cytokine, human, signal transduction

  20. IL-27 Activates Human Trophoblasts to Express IP-10 and IL-6: Implications in the Immunopathophysiology of Preeclampsia

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    Nanlin Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the effects of IL-27 on human trophoblasts and the underlying regulatory signaling mechanisms in preeclampsia. Methods. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor (WSX-1 was studied in the placenta or sera from patients with preeclampsia. In vitro, we investigated the effects of IL-27 alone or in combination with inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α on the proinflammatory activation of human trophoblast cells (HTR-8/SVneo and the underlying intracellular signaling molecules. Results. The expression of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor α (WSX-1 was significantly elevated in the trophoblastic cells from the placenta of patients with preeclampsia compared with control specimens. In vitro, IL-27 could induce the expression of inflammatory factors IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (CXCL10/IP-10 and IL-6 in trophoblasts, and a synergistic effect was observed in the combined treatment of IL-27 and TNF-α on the release of IP-10 and IL-6. Furthermore, the production of IP-10 and IL-6 stimulated by IL-27 was differentially regulated by intracellular activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase-AKT, p38MAPK, and JAK/STAT pathways. Conclusions. These results provide a new insight into the IL-27-activated immunopathological effects mediated by distinct intracellular signal transduction molecules in preeclampsia.

  1. Effects of Olive Oil on TNF-α and IL-6 in Humans: Implication in Obesity and Frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarla, Nagendra S; Polito, Angela; Peluso, Ilaria

    2018-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 are important mediators of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. The latter plays a central role in several obesity-related pathologies, such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Besides, these cytokines have been also implicated in geriatric and cancer-induced anorexia, cachexia, sarcopenia and frailty. Potential interventions for both obesity and frailty include dietary advice and nutraceuticals. In this context, the consumption of olive oil (OO) has been associated with the health effects of the Mediterranean diet (Med-diet). This review is aimed to discuss the OO-mediated modulation of TNF- α and IL-6 in human studies and the potential implication in obesity and frailty. The reviewed studies suggest that the improvement of postprandial TNF-α and IL-6 observed with OO consumption is affected by body mass index (BMI). The effects on TNF-α and IL-6 after medium and long-term consumptions involved many factors and the cross-talk between adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and brain. Major anti-inflammatory effects were observed when OO was consumed with Med-diet, which is associated with healthy behaviors. In this context, the role of microbioma- polyphenols, diet-gene and exercise-gene interactions in the effects of OO on immune-mediated inflammatory responses involved in obesity and frailty deserves further investigation. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of OO net of possible synergistic effects with other dietary and lifestyle factors of Mediterranean area. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  3. Human IL6 stimulates bovine satellite cell proliferation through a Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, A M; Kania, J M; Reinholt, B M; Johnson, S E

    2018-01-01

    Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction. The cytokine was able to stimulate phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 tyrosine 705 (STAT3Y705) in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, thus demonstrating bioactivity. Media supplemented with recombinant human IL6 (hIL6) caused phosphorylation of STAT3Y705 in bSC and increased (P bSC proliferation. Morphologic and biochemical measures of bSC differentiation remained unchanged (P > 0.05) following treatment for 48 h with hIL6. These results support a role for hIL6 as a bSC mitogen in vitro. The inability of bIL6 to initiate an intracellular signal in bSC requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intranasal co-delivery of IL-6 gene enhances the immunogenicity of anti-caries DNA vaccine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Su, Ling-kai; Yu, Fei; Li, Zhao-fei; Zeng, Chang; Xu, Qing-an; Fan, Ming-wen

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of co-delivering IL-6 expressing plasmid pCI-IL-6 on the immunogenicity of the anti-caries DNA vaccine pCIA-P, which encodes the surface protein antigen PAc of Streptococcus mutans...

  5. Fiber type specific expression of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-18 in human skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Penkowa, Milena; Pedersen, Bente K

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is now recognized as an endocrine organ with the capacity to produce signal peptides in response to muscle contractions. Here we demonstrate that resting healthy human muscles express cytokines in a fiber type specific manner. Human muscle biopsies from seven healthy young males...... differences between the three muscles with regard to MHC I and MHC IIa mRNA expression. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-18 were solely expressed by type II fibers, whereas the expression of IL-6 was more prominent in type I compared to type II...... fibers. The fiber type specificity was found in triceps, vastus and soleus indicating that the level of daily muscle activity did not influence basal cytokine expression. The specificity of cytokine expression in different muscle fiber types in healthy young males suggests that cytokines may play...

  6. Nuclear IL-33 regulates soluble ST2 receptor and IL-6 expression in primary human arterial endothelial cells and is decreased in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Dongmin [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Perros, Frédéric [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Caramori, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Meng, Chao [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Geriatrics, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai (China); Dormuller, Peter [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Chou, Pai-Chien [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Church, Colin [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Papi, Alberto; Casolari, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-Correlate, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Welsh, David; Peacock, Andrew [Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Humbert, Marc [Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Clamart (France); Adcock, Ian M. [Airways Disease, National Heart and Lung Institute (United Kingdom); Wort, Stephen J., E-mail: s.wort@imperial.ac.uk [Section of Vascular Biology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Nuclear IL-33 expression is reduced in vascular endothelial cells from PAH patients. • Knockdown of IL-33 leads to increased IL-6 and sST2 mRNA expression. • IL-33 binds homeobox motifs in target gene promoters and recruits repressor proteins. - Abstract: Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is an incurable condition leading to right ventricular failure and death and inflammation is postulated to be associated with vascular remodelling. Interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the “alarmin” family can either act on the membrane ST2 receptor or as a nuclear repressor, to regulate inflammation. We show, using immunohistochemistry, that IL-33 expression is nuclear in the vessels of healthy subjects whereas nuclear IL-33 is markedly diminished in the vessels of IPAH patients. This correlates with reduced IL-33 mRNA expression in their lung. In contrast, serum levels of IL-33 are unchanged in IPAH. However, the expression of the soluble form of ST2, sST2, is enhanced in the serum of IPAH patients. Knock-down of IL-33 in human endothelial cells (ECs) using siRNA is associated with selective modulation of inflammatory genes involved in vascular remodelling including IL-6. Additionally, IL-33 knock-down significantly increased sST2 release from ECs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that IL-33 bound multiple putative homeodomain protein binding motifs in the proximal and distal promoters of ST2 genes. IL-33 formed a complex with the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1, a transcriptional repressor. In conclusion, IL-33 regulates the expression of IL-6 and sST2, an endogenous IL-33 inhibitor, in primary human ECs and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PAH through recruitment of transcriptional repressor proteins.

  7. Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase, and c-Jun are involved in NF-kappa B-dependent IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyt, LML; Dokter, WHA; Birbenkamp, K; Koopmans, S.B.; Lummen, C; Kruijer, W; Vellenga, E

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating IL-6 gene expression in human monocytes, in particular their role in enhancing NF-kappa B

  8. NK-CD11c+ Cell Crosstalk in Diabetes Enhances IL-6-Mediated Inflammation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice. Levels of IL-6 also increased. Anti-IL-6 monoclonal antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute- and chronic-T2DM mice increased survival (to 100% and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. CD11c+ cells were the major source of IL-6 in Mtb-infected T2DM mice. Pulmonary natural killer (NK cells in Mtb-infected T2DM mice further increased IL-6 production by autologous CD11c+ cells through their activating receptors. Anti-NK1.1 antibody treatment of Mtb-infected acute-T2DM mice increased survival and reduced pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. Furthermore, IL-6 increased inflammatory cytokine production by T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with T2DM. Overall, the results suggest that NK-CD11c+ cell interactions increase IL-6 production, which in turn drives the pathological immune response and mortality associated with Mtb infection in diabetic mice.

  9. Synergistic Activations of REG Iα and REG Iβ Promoters by IL-6 and Glucocorticoids through JAK/STAT Pathway in Human Pancreatic β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyo Yamauchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reg (Regenerating gene gene was originally isolated from rat regenerating islets and its encoding protein was revealed as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for β cells. Rat Reg gene is activated in inflammatory conditions for β cell regeneration. In human, although five functional REG family genes (REG Iα, REG Iβ, REG III, HIP/PAP, and REG IV were isolated, their expressions in β cells under inflammatory conditions remained unclear. In this study, we found that combined addition of IL-6 and dexamethasone (Dx induced REG Iα and REG Iβ expression in human 1.1B4 β cells. Promoter assay revealed that a signal transducer and activator of transcription- (STAT- binding site in each promoter of REG Iα (TGCCGGGAA and REG Iβ (TGCCAGGAA was essential for the IL-6+Dx-induced promoter activation. A Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 inhibitor significantly inhibited the IL-6+Dx-induced REG Iα and REG Iβ transcription. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that IL-6+Dx stimulation increased STAT3 binding to the REG Iα promoter. Furthermore, small interfering RNA-mediated targeting of STAT3 blocked the IL-6+Dx-induced expression of REG Iα and REG Iβ. These results indicate that the expression of REG Iα and REG Iβ should be upregulated in human β cells under inflammatory conditions through the JAK/STAT pathway.

  10. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cytokines which include IL-6 is caused by IL-2, these cytokines are known to increase acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and. 5, 6 activate pro-thrombotic pathways. With regard to the relationship of this cytokine to HIV, in vitro infection of normal monocyte/macrophages with. HIV-1 has been found to ...

  11. Microbial stimulation by Mycoplasma fermentans synergistically amplifies IL-6 release by human lung fibroblasts in response to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Barchowsky, Aaron; Nemec, Antonia A; Fabisiak, James P

    2004-10-01

    Mycoplasma (MP), such as the species M. fermentans, possess remarkable immunoregulatory properties and can potentially establish chronic latent infections with little signs of disease. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex and diverse component of air pollution associated with adverse health effects. We hypothesized that MP modulate the cellular responses induced by chemical stresses such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a type of PM rich in transition metals. We assessed the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a prototypic immune-modulating cytokine, in response to PM from different sources in human lung fibroblasts (HLF) deliberately infected with M. fermentans. We found that M. fermentans and ROFA together synergistically stimulated production of IL-6 compared to either stimuli alone. Compared to several other PM, ROFA appeared most able to potentiate IL-6 release. The potentiating effect of live MP infection could be mimicked by M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), a known Toll-like receptor-2 agonist. The aqueous fraction of ROFA also contained potent IL-6 inducing activity in concert with MALP-2, and exposure to several defined metal salts indicated that Ni and, to a lesser extent V, (but not Cu) could synergistically act with MALP-2 to induce IL-6. These data indicate that microorganisms like MP can interact with environmental stimuli such as PM-derived metals to synergistically activate signaling pathways that control lung cell cytokine production and, thus, can potentially modulate adverse health effects of PM exposure.

  12. Effect of Lipoglycans from Mycobacterium Chelonae on the expression of inflammatory factors IL-8 and IL-6 in human corneal epithelial cells and its possible signal transduction pathway

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    Chun-Zhou Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the influence of Lipoglycans from Mycobacterium Chelonae(Cheon the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human corneal epithelia cells and its possible signal transduction pathway.METHODS: Lipoglycans was extracted by the Triton X-114 phase partitioning. Lipoglycans from Che were purified, by successive detergent and phenol extractions. Lipoglycans were separated by gel filtration on a Sephacryl 200 column and Sephacryl 100 column in series, followed by extensive dialisis. Purified Lipoglycans(50μg/mLwere added into culture medium to stimulate primary human corneal epithelial(HCEcells. Cells and supernatant were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24h after the stimulation. The IL-6 and IL-8 expression at mRNA level was assayed by using real time RT-PCR and the secreted IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants was measured by ELISA. Immunochemistry was used to detect the expression and location of NF-κB in HCE cells.RESULTS: After the treatment of Lipoglycans, the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 at mRNA level obviouly increased within 12h, and reached peak level at 6h(IL-8 was 36.8 times that of the blank control, and IL-6 was 32.7 times. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of IL-8 at protein level in the supernatant increased 2.8 folds at 6h(P>0.05, 13.4 folds at 12h(PPPPPCONCLUSION: Lipoglycans from Che can induce HCE cells to produce inflammatory factors(IL-6 and IL-8, and its signal transduction pathway probably is mediated by NF-κB.

  13. Effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on the response of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and FFAs to low-dose endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten; Dela, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    Effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on the response of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and FFAs to low-dose endotoxemia in humans.Krogh-Madsen R, Moller K, Dela F, Kronborg G, Jauffred S, Pedersen BK. Professor of Internal Medicine, Dept. of Infectious Diseases 7641, Univ. Hospital Rigshospitalet...

  14. Expression of IL-8, IL-6 and IL-1β in Tears as a Main Characteristic of the Immune Response in Human Microbial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, Concepcion; Linares, Marisela; Garfias, Yonathan; Loustaunau, Luisa M.; Pavon, Lenin; Perez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Jimenez-Martinez, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal infections are frequent and potentially vision-threatening diseases, and despite the significance of the immunological response in animal models of microbial keratitis (MK), it remains unclear in humans. The aim of this study was to describe the cytokine profile of tears in patients with MK. Characteristics of ocular lesions such as size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon were analyzed. Immunological evaluation included determination of interleukine (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in tear samples obtained from infected eyes of 28 patients with MK and compared with their contralateral non-infected eyes. Additionally, frequency of CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD3−CD56+ cells was also determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with MK, and compared with 48 healthy controls. Non-significant differences were observed in the size of the epithelial defect, stromal infiltration, and hypopyon. Nevertheless, we found an immunological profile apparently related to MK etiology. IL-8 > IL-6 in patients with bacterial keratitis; IL-8 > IL-6 > IL-1β and increased frequency of circulating CD3−CD56+ NK cells in patients with gram-negative keratitis; and IL-8 = IL-6 > IL-1β in patients with fungal keratitis. Characterization of tear cytokines from patients with MK could aid our understanding of the immune pathophysiological mechanisms underlying corneal damage in humans. PMID:25741769

  15. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    prepared by phenol/chloroform extraction and digested overnight with restriction enzymes. Samples were loaded onto a 0.8% agarose gel in tris-acetate EDTA...previously described [11]. The transfection of human IL6 and IL6Ra sequences (ATCC) cloned into pcDNA plasmid ( Invitro - gen) or empty vector (pcDNA

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus and its glycoprotein-350 upregulate IL-6 in human B-lymphocytes via CD21, involving activation of NF-kappaB and different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, M; Libermann, T A; Xu, J; Ahmad, A; Menezes, J

    2001-05-04

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous and highly immunotropic gamma herpesvirus that infects more than 90 % of humans worldwide. Its pathogenicity leads to a number of diseases including tumors that result from EBV's ability to readily transform B-lymphocytes and, to a lesser extent, epithelial cells. EBV utilizes CD21/CR2 as its receptor on B cells to initiate the infection process. EBV binds to CR2 through its major envelope glycoprotein-350 (gp350) and is also a remarkable immunomodulating agent. We had previously shown that EBV is capable of modulating the synthesis of a number of cytokines. We now show that while both purified recombinant gp350 (rgp350) and EBV upregulate IL-6 mRNA synthesis in B cells, EBV-induced IL-6 gene activation occurs for a significantly longer period of time (i.e. 12 hours for EBV as compared to 6 hours for rgp350). Moreover, the half-life of EBV-induced IL-6 mRNA was also significantly longer (10 hours) than that of mRNA induced by rgp350 (about 6 hours). Both EBV and gp350 enhance the binding of the NF-kappaB transcription factor, as determined by band-shift and augment NF-kappaB-mediated activation of a CAT reporter plasmid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that while the activation of IL-6 gene expression by gp350 is mediated primarily by the protein kinase C pathway, EBV can mediate its effects through multiple signaling pathways. To our knowledge this is the first report showing that the binding of a herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein to CR2 on human B cells results in the activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor leading to the upregulation of IL-6 gene expression in these lymphocytes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early 1 Protein Rewires Upstream STAT3 to Downstream STAT1 Signaling Switching an IL6-Type to an IFNγ-Like Response.

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    Thomas Harwardt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1 is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells induced to express IE1 exhibit global repression of IL6- and oncostatin M-responsive STAT3 target genes. This repression is followed by STAT1 phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 target genes normally induced by IFNγ. The observed repression and subsequent activation are both mediated through the same region (amino acids 410 to 445 in the C-terminal domain of IE1, and this region serves as a binding site for STAT3. Depletion of STAT3 phenocopies the STAT1-dependent IFNγ-like response to IE1. In contrast, depletion of the IL6 receptor (IL6ST or the STAT kinase JAK1 prevents this response. Accordingly, treatment with IL6 leads to prolonged STAT1 instead of STAT3 activation in wild-type IE1 expressing cells, but not in cells expressing a mutant protein (IE1dl410-420 deficient for STAT3 binding. A very similar STAT1-directed response to IL6 is also present in cells infected with a wild-type or revertant hCMV, but not an IE1dl410-420 mutant virus, and this response results in restricted viral replication. We conclude that IE1 is sufficient and necessary to rewire upstream IL6-type to downstream IFNγ-like signaling, two pathways linked to opposing actions, resulting in repressed STAT3- and activated STAT1-responsive genes. These findings relate transcriptional repressor and activator functions of IE1 and suggest unexpected outcomes relevant to viral pathogenesis in response to cytokines or growth factors that signal through the IL6ST-JAK1-STAT3 axis in hCMV-infected cells. Our results also reveal that IE1, a protein considered to be a key activator of the hCMV productive cycle, has an unanticipated role in tempering viral replication.

  18. Mesenchymal stem cells enhance ovarian cancer cell infiltration through IL6 secretion in an amniochorionic membrane based 3D model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touboul Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early peritoneal invasion of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC by tumoral aggregates presents in ascites is a major concern. The role of the microenvironment seems to be important in this process but the lack of adequate models to study cellular interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells does not allow to uncover the molecular pathways involved. Our goal was to study the interactions between ovarian cancer cells (OCC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC using a 3D model. Methods We used millimetric pieces of amniochorionic membrane - referred to as amniotic membrane scaffold (AMS - to create 3D peritoneal nodules mimicking EOC early invasion. We were able to measure the distribution and the depth of infiltration using confocal microsopy. We extracted MSC from the amniochorionic membrane using the markers CD34-, CD45-, CD73+, CD90+, CD105+ and CD29+ at the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS analysis. We used transwell and wound healing tests to test OCC migration and invasion in vitro. Results Here we show that OCC tumors were located in regions rich in MSC (70%. The tumors infiltrated deeper within AMS in regions rich in MSC (p Conclusions The use of tridimensional models using AMS could be a useful tool to decipher early molecular events in ovarian cancer metastasis. Cytokine inhibitors interrupting the cross-talk between OCCs and MSCs such as IL6 should be investigated as a new therapeutic approach in ovarian cancer.

  19. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  20. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  1. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  2. A Polyphenol-rich Pomegranate Fruit Extract Suppresses NF-κB and IL-6 Expression by Blocking the Activation of IKKβ and NIK in Primary Human Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Abdul; Khan, Nazir M; Ashruf, Omer S; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2017-05-01

    Pomegranate fruit extract (PE) rich in polyphenols has been shown to exert chondroprotective effects, but the mechanism is not established. Here, we used an in vitro model of inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) to investigate the potential of PE to suppress interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)-stimulated expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-6, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and investigated the mechanism of NF-κB inhibition by analyzing the activation of the kinases upstream of IκBα in primary human chondrocytes. Total and phosphorylated forms of kinases and expression of IL-6 were determined at protein and mRNA levels by western immunoblotting and Taqman assay, respectively. Dihydrorhodamine 123 staining estimated ROS generation. Pomegranate fruit extract inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of IL-6, generation of ROS, and inhibited the IL-1β-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (IKKβ), expression of IKKβ mRNA, degradation of IκBα, and activation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 in human chondrocytes. Importantly, phosphorylation of NF-κB-inducing kinase was blocked by PE in IL-1β-treated human OA chondrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that PE exerts the chondroprotective effect(s) by suppressing the production of IL-6 and ROS levels. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by PE was blocked via modulation of activation of upstream kinases in human OA chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. AZ17: a new bispecific drug targeting IL-6 and IL-23 with potential clinical use-improves psoriasis in a human xenograft transplantation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenderup, Karin; Kjeldsen, Cecilia Rosada; Shanebeck, K

    2015-01-01

    ; widely accepted to be associated with psoriasis. To meet the need for new therapeutics, we aimed to create a clinically relevant bispecific drug, by combining the inhibitory properties of anti-IL-6 and anti-IL-23 antibodies, exhibiting high affinity, high stability and the ability to be produced in high...... yield. The bispecific molecule AZ17 was created by combining high affinity binding domains originating from monoclonal antibodies targeting human IL-6 and IL-23. To allow for high and efficient production, AZ17 was assembled by site-specific bioconjugation from two individual single chain fragment...... model where psoriasis skin is transplanted onto immune-deficient mice. The data presented here suggest AZ17 to be a promising drug candidate in psoriasis and other inflammatory diseases associated with Th17 cell development....

  4. Glycine tomentella Hayata inhibits IL-1β and IL-6 production, inhibits MMP-9 activity, and enhances RAW264.7 macrophage clearance of apoptotic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Yu-Shu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the effects of Glycine tomentella Hayata (GTH, a traditional herbal medicine for treatment of rheumatic diseases on the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines and on the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 cells were cultured with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the presence or absence of ethanol extract of GTH. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and transglutaminase 2 (TG2 were assayed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 were assayed by gelatin zymography. For detecting uptake of apoptotic cells, RAW264.7 cells were cultured with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA-stained apoptotic cells and assayed by flow cytometry. Results The major components of GTH analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC chromatogram were daidzein (42.5%, epicatechin (28.8%, and naringin (9.4%. GTH treatment inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-9 but did not affect the expression of TNF-α and iNOS. GTH significantly enhanced the expression of TG2 and the clearance of apoptotic cells by RAW264.7 macrophages. Conclusions GTH inhibits proinflammatory cytokine secretion and MMP-9 activity, enhances apoptotic cell uptake and up-regulates TG2 expression. Our data show that GTH might have beneficial effects on rheumatic diseases.

  5. Baicalin downregulates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-upregulated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in human oral keratinocytes by negative regulation of TLR signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Luo

    Full Text Available Periodontal (gum disease is one of the main global oral health burdens and severe periodontal disease (periodontitis is a leading cause of tooth loss in adults globally. It also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a key virulent attribute that significantly contributes to periodontal pathogenesis. Baicalin is a flavonoid from Scutellaria radix, an herb commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for treating inflammatory diseases. The present study examined the modulatory effect of baicalin on P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs. Cells were pre-treated with baicalin (0-80 µM for 24 h, and subsequently treated with P. gingivalis LPS at 10 µg/ml with or without baicalin for 3 h. IL-6 and IL-8 transcripts and proteins were detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK proteins was analyzed by western blot. A panel of genes related to toll-like receptor (TLR signaling was examined by PCR array. We found that baicalin significantly downregulated P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8, and inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-activated NF-κB, p38 MAPK and JNK. Furthermore, baicalin markedly downregulated P. gingivalis LPS-induced expression of genes associated with TLR signaling. In conclusion, the present study shows that baicalin may significantly downregulate P. gingivalis LPS-upregulated expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in HOKs via negative regulation of TLR signaling.

  6. Dose-dependent biphasic leptin-induced proliferation is caused by non-specific IL-6/NF-κB pathway activation in human myometrial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrichon, Marina; Hadi, Tarik; Wendremaire, Maeva; Ptasinski, Clémentine; Seigneuric, Renaud; Marcion, Guillaume; Delignette, Marc; Marchet, Jacques; Dumas, Monique; Sagot, Paul; Bardou, Marc; Garrido, Carmen; Lirussi, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Leptin, an adipokine synthesized by the placenta during pregnancy, has been proposed for the management of preterm labour (PTL), as it is able to prevent in vitro uterine contractility and remodelling associated with labour onset. Another common feature of labour onset is the phenotypic switch of myometrial smooth muscle cells from a proliferative to a hypertrophic state. As proliferative effects have been demonstrated for leptin in other tissues, we aimed to investigate its ability to induce myometrial proliferation and thus to maintain uterine quiescence. Experimental Approach We stimulated human primary myometrial smooth muscle cells with leptin in the presence or absence of receptor antagonists or signalling pathway inhibitors. Key Results Leptin induced myometrial cell proliferation in a biphasic manner. At 6.25 ng·mL−1, leptin-induced proliferation was mediated by the leptin receptor and required the early activation of ERK1/2. At a concentration above 25 ng·mL−1, leptin induced direct non-specific stimulation of the IL-6 receptor, leading to NF-κB activation, and exerted anti-proliferative effects. However, at 50 ng·mL−1, leptin re-induces proliferation via IL-6 receptor stimulation that requires STAT3 and delayed ERK1/2 activation. Conclusions and Implications These data bring new insights into leptin signalling-induced myometrial proliferation and its interrelationship with the IL-6/IL-6 receptor axis. In the light of our previous work, the present study emphasizes the potential value of leptin in the pharmacological management of PTL and it also strengthens the hypothesis that leptin might be a contributory factor in the parturition-related disorders observed in obese women. PMID:25653112

  7. SNAP-23 and VAMP-3 contribute to the release of IL-6 and TNFα from a human synovial sarcoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddul, Sanjay V; Meng, Jianghui; Dolly, James Oliver; Wang, Jiafu

    2014-02-01

    Fibroblast-like synoviocytes are important mediators of inflammatory joint damage in arthritis through the release of cytokines, but it is unknown whether their exocytosis from these particular cells is SNARE-dependent. Here, the complement of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in human synovial sarcoma cells (SW982) was examined with respect to the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), before and after knockdown of a synaptosome-associated protein of molecular mass 23 kDa (SNAP-23) or the vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3). Wild-type SW982 cells expressed SNAP-23, VAMP-3, syntaxin isoforms 2-4 and synaptic vesicle protein 2C (SV2C). These cells showed Ca²⁺-dependent secretion of IL-6 and TNFα when stimulated by interleukin-1β (IL-1β) or in combination with K⁺ depolarization. Specific knockdown of SNAP-23 or VAMP-3 decreased the exocytosis of IL-6 and TNFα; the reduced expression of SNAP-23 caused accumulation of SV2 in the peri-nuclear area. A monoclonal antibody specific for VAMP-3 precipitated SNAP-23 and syntaxin-2 (and syntaxin-3 to a lesser extent). The formation of SDS-resistant complexes by SNAP-23 and VAMP-3 was reduced upon knockdown of SNAP-23. Although the syntaxin isoforms 2, 3 and 4 are expressed in SW982 cells, knockdown of each did not affect the release of cytokines. Collectively, these results show that SNAP-23 and VAMP-3 participate in IL-1β-induced Ca²⁺-dependent release of IL-6 and TNFα from SW982 cells. © 2013 FEBS.

  8. Association of SNPs from IL1A, IL1B, and IL6 Genes with Human Cytomegalovirus Infection Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wujcicka, Wioletta Izabela; Wilczyński, Jan Szczęsny; Nowakowska, Dorota Ewa

    2017-05-01

    The study was aimed to estimate the role and prevalence rates of genotypes, haplotypes, and alleles, located within the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of interleukin (IL) 1A, IL1B, and IL6 genes, in the occurrence and development of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection among pregnant women. A research was conducted in 129 pregnant women, out of whom, 65 were HCMV infected and 64 were age-matched control uninfected individuals. HCMV DNA was quantitated for UL55 gene by the real-time Q PCR in the body fluids. The genotypic statuses within the SNPs were determined by nested PCR-RFLP assays and confirmed, by sequencing for randomly selected representative PCR products. A relationship between the genotypes and alleles, as well as haplotypes and multiple variants in the studied polymorphisms, and the occurrence of HCMV infection in pregnant women, was determined using a logistic regression model. TT genotype within IL1A polymorphism significantly decreased the risk of HCMV infection (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.09-1.05; p ≤ 0.050). Considering IL6 SNP, the prevalence rate of GC genotype was significantly decreased among the HCMV infected, compared to the uninfected control individuals (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-0.99; p ≤ 0.050). Moreover, CC homozygotic status in IL6 SNP, found in pregnant women, significantly decreased the risk of congenital infection with HCMV in their offsprings (OR 0.12; p ≤ 0.050). In multiple SNP analysis, TC haplotype within the IL1 polymorphisms significantly decreased the risk of the infection in pregnant women (OR 0.38 95% CI 0.15-0.96; p ≤ 0.050). In addition, TTG complex variants for all the studied polymorphisms and TG variants for IL1B and IL6 SNPs were significantly more prevalent among the infected offsprings with symptomatic congenital cytomegaly than among the asymptomatic cases (p ≤ 0.050). In conclusion, the analyzed IL1A -889 C>T, IL1B +3954 C>T, and IL6 -174 G>C polymorphisms may be associated with the

  9. Interleukin-23 Receptor Gene Polymorphism May Enhance Expression of the IL-23 Receptor, IL-17, TNF-α and IL-6 in Behcet's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxuan Jiang

    Full Text Available Recent studies identified an association between Behcet's disease (BD and the IL-23R gene polymorphism (rs17375018 in different populations. This study examined whether this IL-23R gene polymorphism is associated with enhanced inflammatory responses.We recruited 27 BD patients and 32 controls with three genotypes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were seeded with or without anti-CD3 and CD28. Cells were incubated for 24 hours, and then supernatants were collected and stored at -20◦C until analyzed. Levels of interferon (IFN-γ, tissue necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-17 and IL-6 were detected by ELISA. IL-23R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR.The expression of IL-23R was significantly higher in both BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype compared to the AG and AA genotype with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation (all P-value < 0.05. Among the PBMCs cultured with anti-CD3 and CD28 stimulation, there was an elevated secretion of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-17 in BD patients and healthy controls with the GG genotype. However, there was no significant change in secretion of IFN- γ in BD patients and healthy controls among the genotype of this IL-23R gene polymorphism.The results suggest that the GG genotype of the rs17375018 variant in the IL-23R gene enhances pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.

  10. CRH promotes human colon cancer cell proliferation via IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and VEGF-induced tumor angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xianjun; Hong, Yali; Dai, Li; Qian, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Chao; Wu, Biao; Li, Shengnan

    2017-11-01

    Corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been demonstrated to participate in various diseases. Our previous study showed that its receptor CRHR1 mediated the development of colitis-associated cancer in mouse model. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we explored the oncogenetic role of CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer cells. Cell proliferation and colony formation assays revealed that CRH contributed to cell proliferation. Moreover, tube formation assay showed that CRH-treated colon cancer cell supernatant significantly promoted tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). And these effects could be reversed by the CRHR1 specific antagonist Antalarmin. Further investigation showed that CRH significantly upregulated the expressions of interlukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). The CRH-induced IL-6 promoted phosphorylation of janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3). STAT3 inhibition by Stattic significantly inhibited the CRH-induced cell proliferation. In addition, silence of VEGF resulted in declined tube formation induced by CRH. Taken together, CRH/CRHR1 signaling promoted human colon cancer cell proliferation via NF-κB/IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and tumor angiogenesis via NF-κB/VEGF signaling pathway. Our results provide evidence to support a critical role for the CRH/CRHR1 signaling in colon cancer progression and suggest its potential utility as a new therapeutic target for colon cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. GPR43 activation enhances psoriasis-like inflammation through epidermal upregulation of IL-6 and dual oxidase 2 signaling in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Ahmed; Ahmad, Sheikh F; Al-Harbi, Naif O; El-Sherbeeny, Ahmed M; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Almukhlafi, Talal S

    2017-05-01

    The gut is densely inhabited by commensal bacteria, which metabolize dietary fibers/undigested carbohydrates and produce short-chain fatty acids such as acetate. GPR43 is one of the receptors to sense short-chain fatty acids, and expressed in various immune and non-immune cells. Acetate/GPR43 signaling has been shown to affect various inflammatory diseases through Th17 responses and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, no study has previously explored the effects of GPR43 activation during psoriasis-like inflammation. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of acetate/phenylacetamide (GPR43 agonists) on imiquimod induced skin inflammation in mice. Mice were administered phenylacetamide/acetate followed by assessment of skin inflammation, NOXs (NOX-2, NOX-4, dual oxidases), and Th17 related signaling. Our study showed induction of epidermal GPR43 after imiquimod treatment, i.e. psoriasis-like inflammation. Acetate administration in psoriatic mice led to further increase in skin inflammation (ear thickness/myeloperoxidase activity) with concurrent increase in Th17 immune responses and epidermal dual oxidase-2 signaling. Further, topical application of GPR43 agonist, phenylacetamide led to enhanced ear thickness with concomitant epidermal IL-6 signaling as well as dual oxidase-2 upregulation which may be responsible for increased psoriasis-like inflammation. Taken together, dual oxidase-2 and IL-6 play important roles in GPR43-mediated skin inflammation. The current study suggests that GPR43 activation in psoriatic patients may lead to aggravation of psoriatic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. IL6 gene promoter polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huth, Cornelia; Heid, Iris M; Vollmert, Caren

    2006-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate a causal role of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in the development of type 2 diabetes in humans. Two common polymorphisms in the promoter of the IL-6 encoding gene IL6, -174G>C (rs1800795) and -573G>C (rs1800796), have been investigated for association with typ...

  13. Trefoil factor 3 isolated from human breast milk downregulates cytokines (IL8 and IL6 and promotes human beta defensin (hBD2 and hBD4 expression in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girolamo Jose Barrera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Trefoil factors (TFF are secretory products of mucin producing cells. They play a key role in the maintenance of the surface integrity of oral mucosa and enhance healing of the gastrointestinal mucosa by a process called restitution. TFF comprises the gastric peptides (TFF1, spasmolytic peptide (TFF2, and the intestinal trefoil factor (TFF3. They have an important and necessary role in epithelial restitution within the gastrointestinal tract. Significant amounts of TFF are present in human milk. This study aimed to determine a possible correlation between TFF3 isolated from human breast milk and levels of cytokines (IL8 and IL6 and defensins (hBD2 and hBD4 in intestinal epithelial cells HT-29 treated with trefoil. Samples of human milk were collected within 2-4 weeks postpartum from healthy human mothers (18-30-years-old by manual breast massage, and TFF3 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, isoelectric precipitation, DEAE-chromatography, and gel filtration. In this work we measured the concentrations and mRNA levels of cytokines and defensins by immunoassay (ELISA and semiquantitative RT-PCR technique, respectively. Also we measured the peroxidase activity. We present the first evidence of human milk TFF3 purification. Here we show that the presence of TFF3 isolated from milk strongly correlates with downregulation of IL8 and IL6 in human intestinal epithelial cells. On the other hand, TFF3 activated the epithelial cells in culture to produce beta defensins 2 (hBD2 and beta defensins 4 (hBD4. These findings suggest that TFF can activate intestinal epithelial cells and could actively participate in the immune system of breastfed babies by inducing the production of peptides related to innate defence, such as defensins.

  14. IL-6 amplifies TLR mediated cytokine and chemokine production: implications for the pathogenesis of rheumatic inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Caiello

    Full Text Available The role of Interleukin(IL-6 in the pathogenesis of joint and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA has been clearly demonstrated. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 contributes to the pathogenesis are not completely understood. This study investigates whether IL-6 affects, alone or upon toll like receptor (TLR ligand stimulation, the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, synovial fluid mononuclear cells from JIA patients (SFMCs and fibroblast-like synoviocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients (RA synoviocytes and signalling pathways involved. PBMCs were pre-treated with IL-6 and soluble IL-6 Receptor (sIL-6R. SFMCs and RA synoviocytes were pre-treated with IL-6/sIL-6R or sIL-6R, alone or in combination with Tocilizumab (TCZ. Cells were stimulated with LPS, S100A8-9, poly(I-C, CpG, Pam2CSK4, MDP, IL-1β. Treatment of PBMCs with IL-6 induced production of TNF-α, CXCL8, and CCL2, but not IL-1β. Addition of IL-6 to the same cells after stimulation with poly(I-C, CpG, Pam2CSK4, and MDP induced a significant increase in IL-1β and CXCL8, but not TNF-α production compared with TLR ligands alone. This enhanced production of IL-1β and CXCL8 paralleled increased p65 NF-κB activation. In contrast, addition of IL-6 to PBMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8-9 (TLR-4 ligands led to reduction of IL-1β, TNF-α and CXCL8 with reduced p65 NF-κB activation. IL-6/IL-1β co-stimulation increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-6 production. Addition of IL-6 to SFMCs stimulated with LPS or S100A8 increased CXCL8, CCL2 and IL-1β production. Treatment of RA synoviocytes with sIL-6R increased IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 production, with increased STAT3 and p65 NF-κB phosphorylation. Our results suggest that IL-6 amplifies TLR-induced inflammatory response. This effect may be relevant in the presence of high IL-6 and sIL-6R levels, such as in arthritic

  15. Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion, autocrine regulation of STAT3 signaling, and miR-21 expression, processes involved in the EMT and malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Ling, Min [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Liang, Xiao [Mental Health Center of Xuhui-CDC, Shanghai 200232 (China); Jiang, Rongrong; Wang, Bairu [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); Bian, Qian [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 211166, Jiangsu (China); Liu, Qizhan, E-mail: drqzliu@hotmail.com [Institute of Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China); The Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University (China)

    2013-11-15

    Arsenite is an established human carcinogen, and arsenite-induced inflammation contributes to malignant transformation of cells, but the molecular mechanisms by which cancers are produced remain to be established. The present results showed that, evoked by arsenite, secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, led to the activation of STAT3, a transcription activator, and to increased levels of a microRNA, miR-21. Blocking IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced miR-21 expression. For human bronchial epithelial cells, cultured in the presence of anti-IL-6 antibody for 3 days, the arsenite-induced EMT and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates miR-21in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT induced by arsenite. These data define a link from inflammation to EMT in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. This link, mediated through miRNAs, establishes a mechanism for arsenite-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite evokes IL-6 secretion. • IL-6 autocrine mediates STAT3 signaling and up-regulates miR-21expression. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced EMT.

  16. Satellite cells derived from obese humans with type 2 diabetes and differentiated into myocytes in vitro exhibit abnormal response to IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren; Broholm, Christa

    2012-01-01

    isolated satellite cells from skeletal muscle of people that were healthy (He), obese (Ob) or were obese and had type 2 diabetes (DM), and differentiated them in vitro into myocytes. Down-regulation of IL-6Rα was conserved in Ob myocytes. In addition, acute IL-6 administration for 30, 60 and 120 minutes......, resulted in a down-regulation of IL-6Rα protein in Ob myocytes compared to both He myocytes (P...

  17. Relationship of insulin, glucose, leptin, IL-6 and TNF-α in human breast milk with infant growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, D A; Demerath, E W

    2012-08-01

    Numerous appetite, growth, obesity-related hormones and inflammatory factors are found in human breast-milk, but there is little evidence on their relationship with infant body composition. OBJECTVIE: The purpose of the present cross-sectional pilot study was to assess the cross-sectional associations of appetite-regulating hormones and growth factors (leptin, insulin and glucose) and inflammatory factors (interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in human breast-milk with infant size, adiposity, and lean tissue at 1-month of age in healthy term infants. Human breast-milk was collected from nineteen exclusively breast-feeding mothers using one full breast expression between 8:00 and 10:00 a.m. The milk was then mixed, aliquoted, stored at -80°C and then centrifuged to remove the milk fat, prior to analyses using commercially available immunoassay kits; milk analytes were natural log transformed prior to analysis. Infant body composition was assessed using a Lunar iDXA v11-30.062 scanner (Infant whole body analysis enCore 2007 software, GE, Fairfield, CT). Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was positively associated with milk leptin concentration (P = 0.0027), and so maternal-BMI-adjusted Spearman correlations were examined between breast-milk analytes and infant growth and body composition variables. As previously reported, greater milk leptin was associated with lower BMIZ (BMI-for-age z-score based on WHO 2006 growth charts; r = -0.54, P = 0.03). Glucose was positively associated with relative weight (r = 0.6, P = 0.01), and both fat and lean mass (0.43-0.44, P milk insulin were associated with lower infant weight, relative weight, and lean mass (r = -0.49-0.58, P milk IL-6 was associated with lower relative weight, weight gain, percent fat, and fat mass (r = -0.55-0.70, P milk concentrations of insulin, glucose, IL-6 and TNF-α, in addition to leptin, may be bioactive and differentially influence the accrual of fat and lean body mass. © 2012

  18. Ketamine suppresses the substance P-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 by human U373MG glioblastoma/astrocytoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keisuke; Kumakura, Seiichiro; Murakami, Taisuke; Someya, Akimasa; Inada, Eiichi; Nagaoka, Isao

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide substance P (SP) is an important mediator of neurogenic inflammation within the central and peripheral nervous systems. SP has been shown to induce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders of the human brain via the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). Ketamine, an intravenous anesthetic agent, functions as a competitive antagonist of the excitatory neurotransmission N-methyl-D‑aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and also antagonizes the NK-1R by interfering with the binding of SP. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine on the SP-induced activation of a human astrocytoma cell line, U373MG, which expresses high levels of NK-1R. The results from our experiments indicated that ketamine suppressed the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by the U373MG cells. Furthermore, ketamine inhibited the SP-induced activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Taken together, these observations suggest that ketamine may suppress the SP-induced activation (IL-6 and IL-8 production) of U373MG cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of signaling molecules (namely ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB), thereby exerting anti‑inflammatory effects. Thus, ketamine may modulate SP-induced inflammatory responses by NK-1R‑expressing cells through the suppression of signaling molecules (such as ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB).

  19. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Stephen R; McClung, James P; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-09-01

    IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training. However, sustained elevations in IL-6 due to repeated bouts of unaccustomed activities or prolonged exercise with limited rest may result in untoward physiologic effects, such as accelerated muscle proteolysis and diminished nutrient absorption, and may impair normal adaptive responses to training. Recent intervention studies have explored the role of mixed meals or carbohydrate, protein, ω-3 fatty acid, or antioxidant supplementation in mitigating exercise-induced increases in IL-6. Emerging evidence suggests that sufficient energy intake before exercise is an important factor in attenuating exercise-induced IL-6 by maintaining muscle glycogen. We detail various nutritional interventions that may affect the IL-6 response to exercise in healthy human adults and provide recommendations for future research exploring the role of IL-6 in the adaptive response to exercise.-Hennigar, S. R., McClung, J. P., Pasiakos, S. M. Nutritional interventions and the IL-6 response to exercise. © FASEB.

  20. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 inhibits LPS-induced IL-6 expression in osteoblasts by suppressing CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is an important intracellular regulator of TLR4 signaling and has been implicated in several inflammatory diseases. Although SOCS3 seems to contribute to the balance between the pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6 and antiinflammatory signaling of IL-10 by ne...

  1. Brain IL-6 and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H; Alberts, I; Li, X

    2013-11-12

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Human intestinal mucosa-associated Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains with probiotic properties modulate IL-10, IL-6 and IL-12 gene expression in THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čitar, M; Hacin, B; Tompa, G; Štempelj, M; Rogelj, I; Dolinšek, J; Narat, M; Matijašić, B Bogovič

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and characterisation, as well as assessment of probiotic properties and safety. Importantly, selected strains showed the capability of colonising different parts of the intestine. The most frequently isolated species was Lactobacillus paracasei followed by Lactobacillus fermentum. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance, however, tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistance was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum and L. fermentum strains. Thirteen strains were able to ferment more than 19 different carbon sources and three out of five tested strains exerted antagonistic activity against several different indicator strains. Two Lactobacillus isolates (L. paracasei L350 and L. fermentum L930 bb) and one Bifidobacterium isolate (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis IM386) fulfilled in vitro selection criteria for probiotic strains and exhibited strong downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The selected strains represent suitable candidates for further studies regarding their positive influence on host health and could play an important role in ameliorating the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Oxidized Lipids and Lysophosphatidylcholine Induce the Chemotaxis, Up-Regulate the Expression of CCR9 and CXCR4 and Abrogate the Release of IL-6 in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolin, Johannes; Vego, Heidi; Maghazachi, Azzam A.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids through regulation of chronic inflammation play key roles in the development of various diseases. Here, we report that a mixed population of human primary monocytes migrated towards LPC, as well as oxidized linoleic acid isoforms 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE and 13-R-HODE. Incubation with 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased expression of CXCR4, the receptor for SDF-1α/CXCL12, correlated with increased monocyte migration towards SDF-1α/CXCL12. Further, we report increased expression of CCR9, the receptor for TECK/CCL25, after stimulation with these lipids. Upon examining the migratory response towards TECK/CCL25, it was observed that an increase in CCR9 expression upon pre-treatment with 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE and LPC resulted in increased migration of monocytes expressing CCR9. Only LPC but not any other lipid examined increased the influx of intracellular Ca2+ in monocytes. Finally, 9-S-HODE, 9-R-HODE, 13-R-HODE, or LPC inhibited the release of IL-6 from monocytes suggesting that these lipids may play important role in controlling inflammatory responses. PMID:25251539

  4. Excretory/secretory products of the carcinogenic liver fluke are endocytosed by human cholangiocytes and drive cell proliferation and IL6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyadet, Sujittra; Smout, Michael; Johnson, Michael; Whitchurch, Cynthia; Turnbull, Lynne; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Sotillo, Javier; Loukas, Alex; Sripa, Banchob

    2015-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia, where there is a strikingly high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA - hepatic cancer of the bile duct epithelium). Among other factors, uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products (OvES) by biliary epithelial cells has been postulated to be responsible for chronic inflammation and proliferation of cholangiocytes, but the mechanisms by which cells internalise O. viverrini excretory/secretory products are still unknown. Herein we incubated normal human cholangiocytes (H69), human cholangiocarcinoma cells (KKU-100, KKU-M156) and human colon cancer (Caco-2) cells with O. viverrini excretory/secretory products and analysed the effects of different endocytic inhibitors to address the mechanism of cellular uptake of ES proteins. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products was internalised preferentially by liver cell lines, and most efficiently/rapidly by H69 cells. There was no evidence for trafficking of ES proteins to cholangiocyte organelles, and most of the fluorescence was detected in the cytoplasm. Pretreatment with clathrin inhibitors significantly reduced the uptake of O. viverrini excretory/secretory products, particularly by H69 cells. Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products induced proliferation of liver cells (H69 and CCA lines) but not intestinal (Caco-2) cells, and proliferation was blocked using inhibitors of the classical endocytic pathways (clathrin and caveolae). Opisthorchis viverrini excretory/secretory products drove IL6 secretion by H69 cells but not Caco-2 cells, and cytokine secretion was significantly reduced by endocytosis inhibitors. This the first known study to address the endocytosis of helminth ES proteins by host epithelial cells and sheds light on the pathways by which this parasite causes one of the most devastating forms of cancer in south

  5. Effect of IL-6 on proliferation and IG production of human EBV-transformed cell lines in serum free culture media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jochems, G. J.; Jordens, R.; van Lier, R. A.; Zeijlemaker, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    To optimalize growth and Ig production of EBV transformed B cells for large scale tissue culture, we analyzed five stable monoclonal EBV-B cell lines for their responsiveness to interleukin (IL)-6 in standard medium with 5% FCS and in several serum-free media. As we previously demonstrated these

  6. Effects of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, IL-6 and cortisol concentrations on human birth weight and length: pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Smerieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The IGF system is recognised to be important for fetal growth. We previously described increased Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP-2 cord serum concentrations in intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR compared with appropriate for gestational age (AGA newborns, and a positive relationship of IGFBP-2 with Interleukin (IL-6. The role of cortisol in the fetus at birth is largely unknown, and interactions among peptides are their real effect on birth size is unknown. Furthermore, almost all studies have previously assayed peptides in serum several years after birth, and follow-up data from pregnancy are always lacking. This study aimed at establishing and clarifying the effect of cord serum insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, cortisol and IL-6 concentrations on birth length and weight. METHODS: 23 IUGR and 37 AGA subjects were followed up from the beginning of pregnancy, and were of comparable gestational age. Insulin, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, cortisol and IL-6 concentrations were assayed in cord serum at birth, and a multiple regression model was designed and applied to assess which were the significant biochemical determinants of birth size. RESULTS: Insulin, cortisol, and IL-6, showed similar concentrations in IUGR and AGA as previously described, whereas IGF-II was lower, and IGFBP-2 increased in IUGR compared with AGA. IGF-II serum concentration was found to have a significant positive effect on both birth length (r:(:0.546; p: 0.001 and weight (r:0.679; p: 0.0001. IGFBP-2 had a near significant negative effect on both birth weight (r:-0.342; p: 0.05 and length (r:-0.372; p:0.03. CONCLUSION: IGF-II cord serum concentration was shown to have a significant positive effect on both birth length and weight, whereas IGFBP-2 had a significant negative effect. Insulin, cortisol, and IL-6 cord serum concentrations had no significant effect on birth size.

  7. The activation of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 by mmLDL induces IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion in human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Favela Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease in which monocytes and macrophages are critical. These cells express CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 on their surfaces, are activated by minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL and are capable of secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was thus to demonstrate that the activation of CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 by mmLDL induces the secretion of cytokines. Methods Human monocytes and macrophages were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 prior to stimulation with mmLDL. Cytokine secretion was then compared to that observed upon mmLDL stimulation in untreated cells. Results Stimulation with mmLDL induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blocking CD14 in monocytes inhibited secretion of interleukin (IL-1β (72%, IL-6 (58% and IL-10 (63%, and blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 67%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 60%. Blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 73%, IL-6 by 69% and IL-10 by 63%. Furthermore, blocking TLR2 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 65%, IL-6 by 62% and IL-10 by 75%. In macrophages, we found similar results: blocking CD14 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 59%, IL-6 by 52% and IL-10 by 65%; blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 53%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 61%; and blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 69%, IL-6 by 67% and IL-10 by 65%. Blocking TLR2 in macrophages inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 57%, IL-6 by 40% and IL-10 by 72%. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 participate in the immune response against mmLDL by inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that the activation of these receptors by mmLDL contributes to the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis.

  8. The Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 pathway regulates growth of lung tumor initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Donatella; De Marco, Carmela; Guerriero, Ilaria; Colelli, Fabiana; Rinaldo, Nicola; Scrima, Marianna; Mirante, Teresa; De Vitis, Claudia; Zoppoli, Pietro; Ceccarelli, Michele; Riccardi, Miriam; Ravo, Maria; Weisz, Alessandro; Federico, Antonella; Franco, Renato; Rocco, Gaetano; Mancini, Rita; Rizzuto, Antonia; Gulletta, Elio; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Viglietto, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    Here we report that the PI3K/Akt1/IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway regulates generation and stem cell-like properties of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TICs). Mutant Akt1, mutant PIK3CA or PTEN loss enhances formation of lung cancer spheroids (LCS), self-renewal, expression of stemness markers and tumorigenic potential of human immortalized bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) whereas Akt inhibition suppresses these activities in established (NCI-H460) and primary NSCLC cells. Matched microarray analysis of Akt1-interfered cells and LCSs identified IL-6 as a critical target of Akt signalling in NSCLC TICs. Accordingly, suppression of Akt in NSCLC cells decreases IL-6 levels, phosphorylation of IkK and IkB, NF-kB transcriptional activity, phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of STAT3 whereas active Akt1 up-regulates them. Exposure of LCSs isolated from NSCLC cells to blocking anti-IL-6 mAbs, shRNA to IL-6 receptor or to STAT3 markedly reduces the capability to generate LCSs, to self-renew and to form tumors, whereas administration of IL-6 to Akt-interfered cells restores the capability to generate LCSs. Finally, immunohistochemical studies in NSCLC patients demonstrated a positive correlative trend between activated Akt, IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation (n = 94; p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicate that aberrant Akt signalling contributes to maintaining stemness in lung cancer TICs through a NF-kB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and provide novel potential therapeutic targets for eliminating these malignant cells in NSCLC.

  9. Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin expression on M2-polarized and tumor-associated macrophages is macrophage-CSF dependent and enhanced by tumor-derived IL-6 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Soto, Angeles; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Pérez-Maceda, Blanca; Gómez-Aguado, Fernando; Corcuera, María Teresa; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Corbí, Angel L

    2011-02-15

    Dendritic cell-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) is a human pathogen-attachment C-type lectin with no obvious murine ortholog and for which ligation leads to enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine release and altered proinflammatory cytokine production. Although induced by IL-4 in monocytes and considered as a DC marker, DC-SIGN expression on human APCs under homeostatic conditions is so far unexplained. We report in this study that M-CSF enhances DC-SIGN expression on in vitro derived anti-inflammatory macrophages and that M-CSF mediates the induction of DC-SIGN by fibroblast- and tumor cell-conditioned media. The M-CSF-inducible DC-SIGN expression along monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is dependent on JNK and STAT3 activation, potentiated by STAT3-activating cytokines (IL-6, IL-10), and abrogated by the M1-polarizing cytokine GM-CSF. In pathological settings, DC-SIGN expression is detected in tumor tissues and on ex vivo-isolated CD14(+) CD163(+) IL-10-producing tumor-associated macrophages. Importantly, DC-SIGN Abs reduced the release of IL-10 from macrophages exposed to Lewis(x)-expressing SKBR3 tumor cells. These results indicate that DC-SIGN is expressed on both wound-healing (IL-4-dependent) and regulatory (M-CSF-dependent) alternative (M2) macrophages and that DC-SIGN expression on tumor-associated macrophages might help tumor progression by contributing to the maintenance of an immunosuppressive environment.

  10. Induction of IL-6 and CCL5 (RANTES in human respiratory epithelial (A549 cells by clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus is strain specific

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    Levitz Ruth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major respiratory pathogen of infants and young children. During each seasonal epidemic, multiple strains of both subgroup A and B viruses circulate in the community. Like other RNA viruses, RSV genome replication is prone to errors that results in a heterogeneous population of viral strains some of which may possess differences in virulence. We sought to determine whether clinical isolates of RSV differ in their capacity to induce inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CCL5 (previously known as RANTES [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein], which are known to be induced in vitro and in vivo in response to RSV, during infection of A549 cells. Results Screening of subgroup A and B isolates revealed heterogeneity among strains to induce IL-6 and CCL5. We chose two subgroup B strains, New Haven (NH1067 and NH1125, for further analysis because of their marked differences in cytokine inducing properties and because subgroup B strains, in general, are less genetically heterogeneous as compared to subgroup A strains. At 12 and 24 hours post infection RSV strains, NH1067 and NH1125 differed in their capacity to induce IL-6 by an order of magnitude or more. The concentrations of IL-6 and CCL5 were dependent on the dose of infectious virus and the concentration of these cytokines induced by NH1125 was greater than that of those induced by NH1067 when the multiplicity of infection of NH1067 used was as much as 10-fold higher than that of NH1125. The induction of IL-6 was dependent on viable virus as infection with UV-inactivated virus did not induce IL-6. The difference in IL-6 induction most likely could not be explained by differences in viral replication kinetics. The intracellular level of RSV RNA, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR, was indistinguishable between the 2 strains though the titer of progeny virus produced by NH1125 was greater than that produced by

  11. Chronic IL-6 Administration Desensitizes IL-6 Response in Liver, Causes Hyperleptinemia and Aggravates Steatosis in Diet-Induced-Obese Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, Ana Luisa; Bautista, Dolores; Suarez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with fatty liver and elevated IL-6 circulating levels. IL-6 administration in rodents has yielded contradictory results regarding its effects on steatosis progression. In some models of fatty liver disease, high doses of human IL-6 ameliorate the ...

  12. In-vitro suppression of IL-6 and IL-8 release from human pulmonary epithelial cells by non-anticoagulant fraction of enoxaparin.

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    Madhur D Shastri

    Full Text Available Enoxaparin, a mixture of anticoagulant and non-anticoagulant fractions, is widely used as an anticoagulant agent. However, it is also reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Our study indicated that enoxaparin inhibits the release of IL-6 and IL-8 from A549 pulmonary epithelial cells. Their release causes extensive lung tissue damage. The use of enoxaparin as an anti-inflammatory agent is hampered due to the risk of bleeding associated with its anticoagulant fractions. Therefore, we aimed to identify the fraction responsible for the observed anti-inflammatory effect of enoxaparin and to determine the relationship between its structure and biological activities.A549 pulmonary epithelial cells were pre-treated in the presence of enoxaparin and its fractions. The levels of IL-6 and IL-8 released from the trypsin-stimulated cells were measured by ELISA. The anticoagulant activity of the fraction responsible for the effect of enoxaparin was determined using an anti-factor-Xa assay. The fraction was structurally characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance. The fraction was 2-O, 6-O or N-desulfated to determine the position of sulfate groups required for the inhibition of interleukins. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography was performed to rule out that the observed effect was due to the interaction between the fraction and trypsin or interleukins.Enoxaparin (60 μg/mL inhibited the release of IL-6 and IL-8 by >30%. The fraction responsible for this effect of enoxaparin was found to be a disaccharide composed of α-L-iduronic-acid and α-D-glucosamine-6-sulfate. It (15 μg/mL inhibited the release of interleukins by >70%. The 6-O sulphate groups were responsible for its anti-inflammatory effect. The fraction did not bind to trypsin or interleukins, suggesting the effect was not due to an artefact of the experimental model.The identified disaccharide has no anticoagulant activity and therefore eliminates the risk of bleeding

  13. High levels of neutralizing IL-6 autoantibodies in 0.1% of apparently healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    as the vaccination-induced IL-6-deficient mice. Such donors might be IL-6 deficient, and if so, IL-6 seems be dispensable for several months in otherwise healthy individuals. Such highly positive donors also explain why normal human IgG for pharmaceutical use may contain high anti-IL-6 activity. Finally, transfusion......IL-6-specific autoantibodies (aAb-IL-6) have been reported in diseased and healthy individuals. We recently established a model for aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains, based on vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues, in which titers of aAb-IL-6 above 1,000 resulted in an in vivo IL-6...... deficiency. Here, we examined aAb-IL-6 in 4,230 blood donors. Stable low titers of aAb-IL-6 were found in 9% of the donors, while 1% had titers ranging from 64 to greater than 10,000. Such aAb-IL-6-positive donors appeared normal with no overt signs of pathology. Natural and recombinant forms of IL-6 bound...

  14. β2-Adrenergic agonists augment air pollution–induced IL-6 release and thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Sergio E.; Soberanes, Saul; Urich, Daniela; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Green, David; Young, James B.; Gonzalez, Angel; Rosario, Carmen; Misharin, Alexander V.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Donnelly, Helen K.; Radigan, Kathryn A.; Perlman, Harris; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Budinger, G.R. Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes thrombotic cardiovascular events, leading to increased mortality rates; however, the link between PM and cardiovascular dysfunction is not completely understood. We have previously shown that the release of IL-6 from alveolar macrophages is required for a prothrombotic state and acceleration of thrombosis following exposure to PM. Here, we determined that PM exposure results in the systemic release of catecholamines, which engage the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on murine alveolar macrophages and augment the release of IL-6. In mice, β2AR signaling promoted the development of a prothrombotic state that was sufficient to accelerate arterial thrombosis. In primary human alveolar macrophages, administration of a β2AR agonist augmented IL-6 release, while the addition of a beta blocker inhibited PM-induced IL-6 release. Genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of the β2AR on murine alveolar macrophages attenuated PM-induced IL-6 release and prothrombotic state. Furthermore, exogenous β2AR agonist therapy further augmented these responses in alveolar macrophages through generation of mitochondrial ROS and subsequent increase of adenylyl cyclase activity. Together, these results link the activation of the sympathetic nervous system by β2AR signaling with metabolism, lung inflammation, and an enhanced susceptibility to thrombotic cardiovascular events. PMID:24865431

  15. β₂-Adrenergic agonists augment air pollution-induced IL-6 release and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Sergio E; Soberanes, Saul; Urich, Daniela; Morales-Nebreda, Luisa; Nigdelioglu, Recep; Green, David; Young, James B; Gonzalez, Angel; Rosario, Carmen; Misharin, Alexander V; Ghio, Andrew J; Wunderink, Richard G; Donnelly, Helen K; Radigan, Kathryn A; Perlman, Harris; Chandel, Navdeep S; Budinger, G R Scott; Mutlu, Gökhan M

    2014-07-01

    Acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution causes thrombotic cardiovascular events, leading to increased mortality rates; however, the link between PM and cardiovascular dysfunction is not completely understood. We have previously shown that the release of IL-6 from alveolar macrophages is required for a prothrombotic state and acceleration of thrombosis following exposure to PM. Here, we determined that PM exposure results in the systemic release of catecholamines, which engage the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) on murine alveolar macrophages and augment the release of IL-6. In mice, β2AR signaling promoted the development of a prothrombotic state that was sufficient to accelerate arterial thrombosis. In primary human alveolar macrophages, administration of a β2AR agonist augmented IL-6 release, while the addition of a beta blocker inhibited PM-induced IL-6 release. Genetic loss or pharmacologic inhibition of the β2AR on murine alveolar macrophages attenuated PM-induced IL-6 release and prothrombotic state. Furthermore, exogenous β2AR agonist therapy further augmented these responses in alveolar macrophages through generation of mitochondrial ROS and subsequent increase of adenylyl cyclase activity. Together, these results link the activation of the sympathetic nervous system by β2AR signaling with metabolism, lung inflammation, and an enhanced susceptibility to thrombotic cardiovascular events.

  16. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination...

  17. Paroxetine differentially modulates LPS-induced TNFα and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairaj, Haritha; Steury, Michael D; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2015-04-01

    Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) that is clinically used for the treatment of depression in human patients. Because of recent reports on the role of serotonin in modulating inflammation and the link between inflammation and depression, we sought to test the effect of paroxetine directly on macrophage response to an inflammatory stimulus. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of mouse macrophages significantly enhanced TNFα and IL-6 production. Paroxetine treatment of macrophages, however, significantly inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 production. In contrast, paroxetine enhanced LPS-induced TNFα production in macrophages. These effects of paroxetine were mimicked by fluoxetine, another SSRI. To determine if the effects of paroxetine are mediated via modulation of the 5-HT system, we treated macrophages with 5-HT or 5-HT receptor antagonist (LY215840) in the presence of LPS and/or paroxetine. 5-HT treatment by itself did not affect LPS-induced cytokine production. LY215840, however, reversed paroxetine's effect on LPS-induced TNFα production but not IL-6. To understand the signaling mechanisms, we examined paroxetine's effect on MAPK and NFκB pathways. While paroxetine inhibited LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation, MAPK pathways were mostly unaffected. Together these data demonstrate that paroxetine has critical but differential effects on IL-6 and TNFα production in macrophages and that it likely regulates these cytokines via distinct mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...... allergic encephalitis. Furthermore, aAb-IL-6 carrying mice displayed increased plasma TNFalpha concentrations upon challenge with LPS. Taken together, induction of IL-6 autoantibodies was possible in different mouse strains. The autoantibodies influenced experimental inflammation. This immunotherapeutic...

  19. High levels of neutralizing IL-6 autoantibodies in 0.1% of apparently healthy blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Svenson, Morten; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    as the vaccination-induced IL-6-deficient mice. Such donors might be IL-6 deficient, and if so, IL-6 seems be dispensable for several months in otherwise healthy individuals. Such highly positive donors also explain why normal human IgG for pharmaceutical use may contain high anti-IL-6 activity. Finally, transfusion...... avidly to their IgG, and their plasma strongly neutralized IL-6 in vitro. Slightly elevated concentrations of IL-6 exclusively in the form of IL-6-IgG complexes were present in their circulation. The complexes did not contain soluble IL-6 receptors. Titers of 0.1% of the blood donors were as positive...... deficiency. Here, we examined aAb-IL-6 in 4,230 blood donors. Stable low titers of aAb-IL-6 were found in 9% of the donors, while 1% had titers ranging from 64 to greater than 10,000. Such aAb-IL-6-positive donors appeared normal with no overt signs of pathology. Natural and recombinant forms of IL-6 bound...

  20. Early detection of neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis and the possible diagnostic utility of IL-6, IL-8, and CD11b in a human umbilical cord blood in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakstad, Britt; Sonerud, Tonje; Solevåg, Anne Lee

    2016-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and GBS III is the predominant strain in early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. To avoid both over- and undertreatment of infants with nonspecific signs of infection, early diagnostic tools are warranted. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in an early stage of GBS infection. A secondary aim was to assess the utility of a human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) model system of early-onset neonatal sepsis. Umbilical cord blood samples from 20 healthy term pregnancies were stimulated for 2 hours with a GBS III isolate from a patient and a commercially available GBS Ia strain. Nonstimulated samples served as controls. Leukocyte surface markers (CD11b, CD64, toll-like receptor [TLR] 2, TLR4, and TLR6) were analyzed by flow cytometry and soluble biomarkers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (interleukin [IL]-6 and -8; interferon-γ-inducing protein [IP]-10; and S100b). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for the markers. GBS III gave the highest responses and AUC values for all biomarkers. Only IL-6 and IL-8 displayed an AUC approaching 0.8 for both GBS serotypes (P5,292 pg/mL had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 1.00. IL-6 >197 pg/mL had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.95 for GBS III stimulation. CD11b on granulocytes and monocytes was the leukocyte surface marker with the highest AUC values for both GBS serotypes. In agreement with previous studies, IL-6, IL-8, and potentially CD11b could be useful in diagnosing neonatal GBS infection in an early stage. Our HUCB early-onset neonatal sepsis model may be useful for evaluating biomarkers of neonatal sepsis. The HUCB of neonates with risk factors for sepsis might even be used for diagnostic purposes, but requires further study.

  1. Early detection of neonatal group B streptococcus sepsis and the possible diagnostic utility of IL-6, IL-8, and CD11b in a human umbilical cord blood in vitro model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakstad B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Britt Nakstad,1,2 Tonje Sonerud,1,3 Anne Lee Solevåg1 1Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, 2Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Lørenskog, 3Section of Clinical Molecular Biology (EpiGen, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS infection remains a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, and GBS III is the predominant strain in early-onset GBS neonatal sepsis. To avoid both over- and undertreatment of infants with nonspecific signs of infection, early diagnostic tools are warranted. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity in an early stage of GBS infection. A secondary aim was to assess the utility of a human umbilical cord blood (HUCB model system of early-onset neonatal sepsis.Methods: Umbilical cord blood samples from 20 healthy term pregnancies were stimulated for 2 hours with a GBS III isolate from a patient and a commercially available GBS Ia strain. Nonstimulated samples served as controls. Leukocyte surface markers (CD11b, CD64, toll-like receptor [TLR] 2, TLR4, and TLR6 were analyzed by flow cytometry and soluble biomarkers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (interleukin [IL]-6 and -8; interferon-γ-inducing protein [IP]-10; and S100b. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC was calculated for the markers.Results: GBS III gave the highest responses and AUC values for all biomarkers. Only IL-6 and IL-8 displayed an AUC approaching 0.8 for both GBS serotypes (P<0.001. IL-8 >5,292 pg/mL had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 1.00. IL-6 >197 pg/mL had both a sensitivity and a specificity of 0.95 for GBS III stimulation. CD11b on granulocytes and monocytes was the leukocyte surface marker with the highest AUC values for both GBS serotypes.Conclusion: In agreement with previous studies, IL-6, IL-8, and potentially

  2. Critical appraisal of four IL-6 immunoassays.

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    Dana K Thompson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 (IL-6 contributes to numerous inflammatory, metabolic, and physiologic pathways of disease. We evaluated four IL-6 immunoassays in order to identify a reliable assay for studies of metabolic and physical function. Serial plasma samples from intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs, with expected rises in IL-6 concentrations, were used to test the face validity of the various assays. METHODS AND FINDINGS: IVGTTs, administered to 14 subjects, were performed with a single infusion of glucose (0.3 g/kg body mass at time zero, a single infusion of insulin (0.025 U/kg body mass at 20 minutes, and frequent blood collection from time zero to 180 minutes for subsequent Il-6 measurement. The performance metrics of four IL-6 detection methods were compared: Meso Scale Discovery immunoassay (MSD, an Invitrogen Luminex bead-based multiplex panel (LX, an Invitrogen Ultrasensitive Luminex bead-based singleplex assay (ULX, and R&D High Sensitivity ELISA (R&D. IL-6 concentrations measured with MSD, R&D and ULX correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation Coefficients r = 0.47-0.94, p<0.0001 but only ULX correlated (r = 0.31, p = 0.0027 with Invitrogen Luminex. MSD, R&D, and ULX, but not LX, detected increases in IL-6 in response to glucose. All plasma samples were measurable by MSD, while 35%, 1%, and 4.3% of samples were out of range when measured by LX, ULX, and R&D, respectively. Based on representative data from the MSD assay, baseline plasma IL-6 (0.90 ± 0.48 pg/mL increased significantly as expected by 90 minutes (1.29 ± 0.59 pg/mL, p = 0.049, and continued rising through 3 hours (4.25 ± 3.67 pg/mL, p = 0.0048. CONCLUSION: This study established the face validity of IL-6 measurement by MSD, R&D, and ULX but not LX, and the superiority of MSD with respect to dynamic range. Plasma IL-6 concentrations increase in response to glucose and insulin, consistent with both an early glucose-dependent response (detectable at 1

  3. Effect of IL-6 on the insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Krogh-Madsen, R; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are associated with type 2 diabetes, but its role in glucose metabolism is controversial. We investigated the effect of IL-6 on insulin-stimulated glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes patients and hypothesized that an acute, moderate IL-6 elevation would...... increase the insulin-mediated glucose uptake. Men with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin [n = 9, age 54.9 ± 9.7 (mean ± SD) yr, body mass index 34.8 ± 6.1 kg/m(2), HbA1c 7.0 ± 1.0%] received continuous intravenous infusion with either recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) or placebo. After 1 h...... in muscle biopsies. Whole body energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry. In response to the infusion of rhIL-6, circulating levels of IL-6 (P

  4. Intestinal inflammation-induced growth retardation acts through IL-6 in rats and depends on the -174 IL-6 G/C polymorphism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczenko, Andrew; Azooz, Omeia; Paraszczuk, Joanna; Idestrom, Maja; Croft, Nick M; Savage, Martin O; Ballinger, Anne B; Sanderson, Ian R

    2005-09-13

    Inflammatory diseases frequently impair linear growth. Crohn's disease inhibits growth in up to one third of affected children. In rats with trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis, 40% of growth impairment is attributable to inflammation, with the rest being due to undernutrition. In transgenic mice without inflammation, raised IL-6 retards growth, suppressing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. We hypothesized that IL-6, induced by intestinal inflammation, suppresses growth and inhibits IGF-I expression. Therefore, an anti-IL-6 Ab was given to rats with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid colitis. The Ab did not improve nutrient intake or decrease inflammation compared with untreated disease controls, but it significantly restored linear growth (P = 0.023) and increased IGF-I (P = 0.05). In humans, the IL-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism affects IL-6 transcription, with the GG genotype inducing the greatest IL-6 levels. Because IL-6 is increased in Crohn's disease, we further hypothesized that growth failure would vary with the IL-6 -174 genotype. At diagnosis, among 153 children with Crohn's disease, those with the IL-6 GG genotype were more growth-retarded than those with the GC or CC genotypes (height SD score, -0.51 vs. -0.10; P = 0.031). Also, the patients with the IL-6 GG genotype had higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein, an IL-6-induced product (36 vs. 18 mg/dl, P = 0.028). However, their risk of developing Crohn's disease was similar to other genotypes when compared with 351 healthy controls (P = 0.7). Thus, the IL-6 -174 genotype mediates growth failure in children with Crohn's disease.

  5. Intestinal inflammation-induced growth retardation acts through IL-6 in rats and depends on the –174 IL-6 G/C polymorphism in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawczenko, Andrew; Azooz, Omeia; Paraszczuk, Joanna; Idestrom, Maja; Croft, Nick M.; Savage, Martin O.; Ballinger, Anne B.; Sanderson, Ian R.

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases frequently impair linear growth. Crohn's disease inhibits growth in up to one third of affected children. In rats with trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis, 40% of growth impairment is attributable to inflammation, with the rest being due to undernutrition. In transgenic mice without inflammation, raised IL-6 retards growth, suppressing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. We hypothesized that IL-6, induced by intestinal inflammation, suppresses growth and inhibits IGF-I expression. Therefore, an anti-IL-6 Ab was given to rats with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid colitis. The Ab did not improve nutrient intake or decrease inflammation compared with untreated disease controls, but it significantly restored linear growth (P = 0.023) and increased IGF-I (P = 0.05). In humans, the IL-6 -174 G/C promoter polymorphism affects IL-6 transcription, with the GG genotype inducing the greatest IL-6 levels. Because IL-6 is increased in Crohn's disease, we further hypothesized that growth failure would vary with the IL-6 -174 genotype. At diagnosis, among 153 children with Crohn's disease, those with the IL-6 GG genotype were more growth-retarded than those with the GC or CC genotypes (height SD score, -0.51 vs. -0.10; P = 0.031). Also, the patients with the IL-6 GG genotype had higher circulating levels of C-reactive protein, an IL-6-induced product (36 vs. 18 mg/dl, P = 0.028). However, their risk of developing Crohn's disease was similar to other genotypes when compared with 351 healthy controls (P = 0.7). Thus, the IL-6 -174 genotype mediates growth failure in children with Crohn's disease. PMID:16150725

  6. Piperine inhibits IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression by suppressing p38 MAPK and STAT3 activation in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Lian, Sen; Joo, Young Eun; Chay, Kee Oh; Kim, Kyung Keun; Jung, Young Do

    2015-01-01

    Piperine, a kind of natural alkaloid found in peppers, has been reported to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities, both in vitro and in vivo. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important cytokine that activates the signal transduction, promotes tumor cell metastasis, and induces malignancy, including in gastric cancer. However, the effects of piperine on IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells have not yet been well defined. In this study, we investigated the effects of piperine on the IL-6 expression, and examined the underlying signaling pathways via RT-PCR, promoter studies and Western blotting in human gastric cancer TMK-1 cells. Our results showed that piperine inhibited interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced IL-6 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, piperine also inhibited IL-6 promoter activity. Experiments with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors and dominant negative mutant p38 MAPK indicated that p38 MAPK was essential for IL-6 expression in the TMK-1 cells. Additionally, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was also involved in the IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression in gastric cancer cells. Piperine inhibited IL-1β-induced p38 MAPK and STAT3 activation and, in turn, blocked the IL-1β-induced IL-6 expression. Furthermore, gastric cancer cells pretreated with IL-1β showed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by treatment with IL-6 siRNA, piperine, and inhibitors of p38 MAPK and STAT3. These results suggest that piperine may exert at least part of its anti-cancer effect by controlling IL-6 expression through the suppression of p38 MAPK and STAT3.

  7. Decreased leukocyte accumulation and delayed Bordetella pertussis clearance in IL-6-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuqing; Goel, Tania; Goodfield, Laura L; Muse, Sarah J; Harvill, Eric T

    2011-04-15

    IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine primarily produced by the innate immune system, has been implicated in the development of acquired immune responses, though its roles are largely undefined and may vary in the context of different diseases. Using a murine model of infection, we established that IL-6 influences the adaptive immune responses against the endemic human respiratory pathogen Bordetella pertussis. IL-6 was induced in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice by B. pertussis. IL-6(-/-) mice showed a protracted infectious course and were less efficiently protected by B. pertussis vaccination than wild-type mice. Abs from IL-6(-/-) mice, though lower in titer, efficiently reduced B. pertussis numbers in IL-6-sufficient mice. Pulmonary leukocyte recruitment and splenic or pulmonary T cell cytokine responses to B. pertussis, including Th1 and Th17 cytokine production, were lower in IL-6(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Adoptive transfer of immune wild-type CD4(+) cells ameliorated the defect of IL-6(-/-) mice in the control of B. pertussis numbers. Together, these results reveal the dysregulation of multiple aspects of adaptive immune responses in B. pertussis-infected IL-6(-/-) mice and suggest that IL-6 is involved in regulating Ab generation, pulmonary leukocyte accumulation, and T cell cytokine production in response to B. pertussis as well as the generation of effective vaccine-induced immunity against this pathogen.

  8. Genetic and bibliographic information: IL6ST [GenLibi

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IL6ST interleukin 6 signal transducer (gp130, oncostatin M receptor) human Periodontitis...iodontal Diseases (C07.465.714) > Periodontitis (C07.465.714.533) Stomatognathic Diseases (C07) > Mouth Dise...ases (C07.465) > Periodontal Diseases (C07.465.714) > Periodontitis (C07.465.714.533) > Aggressive Periodontitis (C07.465.714.533.161) 04A0389761 ...

  9. TL1A induces TCR independent IL-6 and TNF-α production and growth of PLZF+ leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichwald, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Tina Z.; Tougaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    human leukocytes purified from healthy donors. We show that TL1A, together with IL-12, IL-15 and IL-18, directly induces the production of IL-6 and TNF-α from leukocytes. Interestingly, TL1A-induced IL-6 was not produced by CD14(+) monocytes. We further show that the produced IL-6 is fully functional...

  10. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  11. Immunization against an IL-6 peptide induces anti-IL-6 antibodies and modulates the Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity reaction in cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desallais, Lucille; Bouchez, Caroline; Mouhsine, Hadley; Moreau, Gabriel; Ratsimandresy, Rojo; Montes, Matthieu; Do, Hervé; Quintin-Colonna, Françoise; Zagury, Jean-François

    2016-01-19

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) overproduction has been involved in the pathogenesis of several chronic inflammatory diseases and the administration of an anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody has been proven clinically efficient to treat them. However, the drawbacks of monoclonal antibodies have led our group to develop an innovative anti-IL-6 strategy using a peptide-based active immunization. This approach has previously shown its efficacy in a mouse model of systemic sclerosis. Here the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of this strategy was assessed in non human primates. No unscheduled death and clinical signs of toxicity was observed during the study. Furthermore, the cynomolgus monkeys immunized against the IL-6 peptide produced high levels of anti-IL-6 antibodies as well as neutralizing antibodies compared to control groups. They also showed an important decrease of the cumulative inflammatory score following a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by the Tetanus vaccine compared to control groups (minus 57,9%, P = 0.014). These findings are highly significant because the immunizing IL-6 peptide used in this study is identical in humans and in monkeys and this novel anti-IL-6 strategy could thus represent a promising alternative to monoclonal antibodies.

  12. B-cell exposure to self-antigen induces IL-10 producing B cells as well as IL-6- and TNF-α-producing B-cell subsets in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Anina; Kristensen, Birte; Hansen, Bjarke E

    2012-01-01

    Human B cells are able to secrete IL-10 after stimulation with mitogens, but their ability to produce IL-10 and regulate T-cell responses after stimulation with self-antigens is unclear. We co-cultured thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells from healthy donors with autologous T cells and observed production...... of IL-10 and TGF-β, in addition to TNF-α and IL-6. Pulsing with foreign antigen, tetanus toxoid (TT), induced a Th1-response with minimal IL-10 production. After thyroglobulin-pulsing, 1.10±0.50% of B cells and 1.00±0.20% of CD4(+) T cells produced IL-10, compared to 0.29±0.19% of B cells (P=0.01) and 0.......13±0.15% of CD4(+) T cells (P=0.006) following TT-pulsing. Thyroglobulin-stimulated, IL-10-secreting B cells were enriched within CD5(+) and CD24(high) cells. While thyroglobulin-pulsed B cells induced only modest proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, B cells pulsed with TT induced vigorous proliferation. Thus, B...

  13. Dragon (RGMb) inhibits interleukin (IL)-6 expression in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Niederkofler, Vera; Salie, Rishard; Chen, Shanzhuo; Samad, Tarek; Hong, Charles C.; Arber, Silvia; Vyas, Jatin M.; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J.; Lin, Herbert Y.

    2013-01-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMa, RGMb/Dragon and RGMc/hemojuvelin were recently found to act as BMP co-receptors that enhance BMP signaling activity. While our previous studies have shown that hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism through the BMP pathway, the role of the BMP signaling mediated by Dragon remains largely unknown. We have previously shown that Dragon is expressed in neural cells, germ cells and renal epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate that Dragon is highly expressed in macrophages. Studies with RAW264.7 and J774 macrophage cell lines reveal that Dragon negatively regulates IL-6 expression in a BMP ligand dependent manner, via the p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways but not the Smad1/5/8 pathway. We also generated Dragon knockout mice, and found that IL-6 is upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells derived from whole lung tissue of these mice compared to respective cells derived from wild type littermates. These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells, and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:21187450

  14. Inhibitory effect of human recombinant interferon gamma on synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepatoma Hep G2 cells stimulated by leukocyte cytokines, TNF alpha and IFN-beta 2/BSF-2/IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielska-Zero, D; Bereta, J; Czuba-Pelech, B; Pajdak, W; Gauldie, J; Koj, A

    1988-07-01

    Supernatants from endotoxin-stimulated human leukemic cells and human recombinant interferon-beta 2 similarly enhance synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and haptoglobin but suppress synthesis of albumin in cultured Hep G2 cells. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor only slightly affects production of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and albumin in a similar manner as leukocyte cytokines. In distinction, recombinant human interferon-gamma profoundly inhibits synthesis of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, and especially of haptoglobin, but stimulates production of alpha 2-macroglobulin thus modulating the acute phase response of these cells.

  15. The IL-6/JAK/Stat3 Feed-Forward Loop Drives Tumorigenesis and Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the importance of interleukin-6 (IL-6 in promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In human primary breast cancers, increased levels of IL-6 were found at the tumor leading edge and positively correlated with advanced stage, suggesting a mechanistic link between tumor cell production of IL-6 and invasion. In support of this hypothesis, we showed that the IL-6/Janus kinase (JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 pathway drives tumor progression through the stroma and metastatic niche. Overexpression of IL-6 in tumor cell lines promoted myeloid cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and induced metastases. We demonstrated the therapeutic potential of interrupting this pathway with IL-6 receptor blockade or by inhibiting its downstream effectors JAK1/2 or Stat3. These clinically relevant interventions did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation in vitro but had profound effects in vivo on tumor progression, interfering broadly with tumor-supportive stromal functions, including angiogenesis, fibroblast infiltration, and myeloid suppressor cell recruitment in both the tumor and pre-metastatic niche. This study provides the first evidence for IL-6 expression at the leading edge of invasive human breast tumors and demonstrates mechanistically that IL-6/JAK/Stat3 signaling plays a critical and pharmacologically targetable role in orchestrating the composition of the tumor microenvironment that promotes growth, invasion, and metastasis.

  16. IL-6 Transsignaling in Patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Kasperska-Zajac

    Full Text Available IL-6 trans-signaling is critically involved in the initiation and promotion of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, we investigated the clinical relevance of soluble members of IL-6 trans-signaling system in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU.IL-6, interleukin 6 soluble receptor (IL-6 sR and soluble gp130 (sgp130 were measured by ELISA method in plasma from CSU patients and the healthy subjects. The data were related to activation of the acute phase response as indicated by serum C-reactive protein (CRP concentration and compared between patients stratified by the disease activity.Concentrations of IL-6, IL-6 sR, sgp130 in plasma and CRP in serum were significantly elevated in CSU patients compared with the healthy controls. CRP correlated significantly with IL-6 and sgp130, similarly IL-6 correlated significantly with sgp130. By contrast, CRP and IL-6 did not correlate significantly with IL-6 sR. However, significant correlation was noted between IL-6 sR and sgp130.Concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptors were significantly elevated in patients with CSU, suggesting upregulation of the IL-6 trans-signaling in the disease. In addition, our results support the concept that the system may be involved in pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory activation in CSU patients.

  17. Direct effects of TNF-α on local fuel metabolism and cytokine levels in the placebo controlled bilaterally infused human leg; increased insulin sensitivity, increased net protein breakdown and increased IL-6 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Ermina; Nielsen, Bent Roni Ranghøj; Vendelbo, Mikkel H

    2013-01-01

    . Insulin and protein signaling in muscle biopsies was not affected by TNF-α. TNF-α directly increased net muscle protein loss, which may contribute to cachexia and general protein loss during severe illness. The finding of increased insulin sensitivity, which could relate to IL-6, is of major clinical...

  18. Novel Small Molecules Disabling the IL-6/IL-6R/GP130 Heterohexamer Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    octanol− water partition coefficient (log P) and polar surface area (PSA). Chemical 2D structure and 3D structures were generated by Molinspiration...S. O.; Guclu, F.; Hekimsoy, Z. Influence of the selective oestrogen receptor modulator (raloxifene hydrochloride) on IL-6, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta1 and

  19. IL-6, IL-17 and STAT3: a holy trinity in auto-immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Poli, Valeria

    2012-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in the regulation of the cross talk between haematopoietic/immune cells and stromal cells, including the onset and resolution of inflammation, responses to infection, tissue remodelling and cancer. It is produced, among others, by fibroblasts, endothelial cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. IL-6 can interact with both membrane-bound and soluble forms of its ligand-binding receptor, the IL-6Ralpha, triggering signalling via dimerization of gp130, the signalling subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex. This leads to the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and mainly culminates in the activation of the STAT3 transcription factor. Both IL-6 and STAT3 have recently emerged as main regulators of the differentiation and function of Th17 cells, via a positive feedback loop enhancing expression and/or activation of IL-6 itself, IL-17 and STAT3. Dysregulated IL-6 production and signalling are associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, auto-immunity and cancer, and are the object of intense translational research as promising therapeutic targets.

  20. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, which is directly regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling, is implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. Although a common, non-synonymous variant in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A>C is associated with the risk of several common diseases, with the 358Ala allele conferring protection from coronary heart disease (CHD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, atrial fibrillation (AF, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, and increased susceptibility to asthma, the variant's effect on IL-6 signaling is not known. Here we provide evidence for the association of this non-synonymous variant with the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D in two independent populations and confirm that rs2228145 is the major determinant of the concentration of circulating soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R levels (34.6% increase in sIL-6R per copy of the minor allele 358Ala; rs2228145 [C]. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of this variant, we analyzed expression of IL-6R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in 128 volunteers from the Cambridge BioResource. We demonstrate that, although 358Ala increases transcription of the soluble IL6R isoform (P = 8.3×10⁻²² and not the membrane-bound isoform, 358Ala reduces surface expression of IL-6R on CD4+ T cells and monocytes (up to 28% reduction per allele; P≤5.6×10⁻²². Importantly, reduced expression of membrane-bound IL-6R resulted in impaired IL-6 responsiveness, as measured by decreased phosphorylation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 following stimulation with IL-6 (P≤5.2×10⁻⁷. Our findings elucidate the regulation of IL-6 signaling by IL-6R, which is causally relevant to several complex diseases, identify mechanisms for new approaches to target the IL-6/IL-6R axis, and anticipate differences in treatment response to IL-6 therapies based on this common IL6R variant.

  1. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  2. Determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated IL-6 levels have been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and death. Compared to the general population, treated HIV+ persons have 50-100% higher IL-6 levels, but few data on the determinants of IL-6 levels during HIV infection currently exist....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Participants in three international HIV trials (SMART, ESPRIT and SILCAAT) with IL-6 plasma levels measured at baseline were included (N=9864). Factors independently associated with log2-transformed IL-6 level were identified by multivariate linear regression; exponentiated estimates...... corresponding to fold differences (FDs) in IL-6 were calculated. Demographics (age, gender, race, BMI) and HIV-specific variables (nadir and entry CD4 counts, HIV-RNA, use of different ART regimens) were investigated in all three trials. In SMART (N=4498), smoking, comorbidities (CVD, diabetes, hepatitis B...

  3. Protein-enriched diet, with the use of lean red meat, combined with progressive resistance training enhances lean tissue mass and muscle strength and reduces circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Robin M; O'Connell, Stella L; Mundell, Niamh L; Grimes, Carley A; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A

    2014-04-01

    Physical inactivity, inadequate dietary protein, and low-grade systemic inflammation contribute to age-related muscle loss, impaired function, and disability. We assessed the effects of progressive resistance training (PRT) combined with a protein-enriched diet facilitated through lean red meat on lean tissue mass (LTM), muscle size, strength and function, circulating inflammatory markers, blood pressure, and lipids in elderly women. In a 4-mo cluster randomized controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 y who were residing in 15 retirement villages were allocated to receive PRT with lean red meat (∼160 g cooked) to be consumed 6 d/wk [resistance training plus lean red meat (RT+Meat) group; n = 53] or control PRT [1 serving pasta or rice/d; control resistance training (CRT) group; n = 47)]. All women undertook PRT 2 times/wk and received 1000 IU vitamin D3/d. The mean (± SD) protein intake was greater in the RT+Meat group than in the CRT group throughout the study (1.3 ± 0.3 compared with 1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹, respectively; P muscle strength (18%; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.34) than did the CRT group (all P muscle strength and reducing circulating IL-6 concentrations in elderly women. This trial was registered at the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12609000223235.

  4. Photodynamic therapy affects the expression of IL-6 and IL-10 in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollnick, Sandra O.; Musser, David A.; Henderson, Barbara W.

    1998-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which can effectively destroy malignant tissue, also induces a complex immune response which potentiates anti-tumor immunity, but also inhibits skin contact hypersensitivity (CHS) and prolongs skin graft survival. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these effects are poorly understood, but are likely to involve meditation by cytokines. We demonstrate in a BALB/c mouse model that PDT delivered to normal and tumor tissue in vivo causes marked changes in the expression of cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. IL-6 mRNA and protein are rapidly and strongly enhanced in the PDT treated EMT6 tumor. Previous studies have shown that intratumoral injection of IL- 6 or transduction of the IL-6 gene into tumor cells can enhance tumor immunogenicity and inhibit tumor growth in experimental murine tumor systems. Thus, PDT may enhance local anti-tumor immunity by up-regulating IL-6. PDT also results in an increase in IL-10 mRNA and protein in the skin. The same PDT regime which enhances IL-10 production in the skin has been shown to strongly inhibit the CHS response. The kinetics of IL-10 expression coincide with the known kinetics of PDT induced CHS suppression and we propose that the enhanced IL-10 expression plays a role in the observed suppression of cell mediated responses seen following PDT.

  5. Correlation of Oxidative Damage with Pro-Inflammatory Markers (IL-6, TNF-α) in Meningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Gavel, Roshni; Gongopadhyay, Ajay N; Vashistha, Pooja; Rani, Anjali; Mishra, Surendra Pratap

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative damage induces alteration in the status of pro-inflammatory markers like IL-6 and TNF-α in meningocele. The study was performed with estimation of the levels of MDA (Malonyldialdehyde), SOD (Superoxide dismutase) taken as oxidative damage markers and IL-6 (interleukin 6) and TNF-α (Tumour necrosis factor alpha) taken as inflammatory markers, in the serum of meningocele patients and age, sex matched normal neonates. Correlation among the different serum levels of MDA, SOD, IL-6 and TNF-α was determined. It is a case-control study, comprising of 153 participants: 101 newborns with meningocele and 52 healthy newborns. The study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, in collaboration with the Department of Paediatric Surgery and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Sunderlal Hospital, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. The study was conducted during the period of 2012 to 2014. Serum was extracted from blood collected from both groups i.e. meningocele patient group and healthy neonatal control group. The levels of MDA and SOD were determined by spectrophotometric method. IL-6 was determined by the Human IL-6 High Sensitivity ELISA Kit and TNF-α was determined by the Human TNF-α ELISA KIT. The levels of MDA, TNF-α and IL-6 were found to be much higher and level of SOD was found lower in the patients with meningocele as compared to the normal healthy neonates. Increased MDA (oxidative damage product), IL-6, and TNF-α (inflammatory marker) and low level of SOD shows an increased inflammatory response in Meningocele. Our study shows Negative Correlation between MDA and SOD in case & control groups, while a Positive Correlation between TNF alpha and IL-6 in control & case groups.

  6. Serum IL-6 level and associated factors: hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifi S, Mokhtari A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The annual amount of mortality in ESRD exceeds the expectation and represents the recent evidences of the inflammation as its etiology. The etiology of inflammation is not clearly known. Chronic inflammation is a dominant occurrence of ESRD which increases the risk of atherosclerosis, malnutrition and peripheral vascular disease. Inflammatory responses are orchestrated by cytokines. Some of the proinflammatory cytokines like IL-6 have a crucial role in this phenomenon. The IL-6 and its receptor activity is up regulated in ESRD patients and the increased level of IL-6 predicts cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in normal and CRF patients. This study devotes itself to determining the serum level of IL-6 and factors affecting it in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis in Imam Khomeini Hospital which can represent the Iranian Society. By identifying factors affecting the serum level of IL-6 and high-risk patients we can provide treatment possibilities, a decrease in mortality and an improvement in its prognosis. "n"nMethods: In this study 42 patients in Imam Dialysis Center were chosen and their serum IL-6 levels were measured at 2 times at three month interval and at the same time blood sample analysis were done for the following: Alb CPR, Ca, P, PTH, TIBC, Ferritin, TG, Chol, LDL, HDL, Uric Acid, Hb, WBC and urea."n"nResults: The mean serum level of IL-6 in hemodialysis patients was 6.35±4.47pg/ml (minimum: 0.55, maximum: 18.25 with the normal range of 1.3±3.2pg/ml."n"nConclusions: The IL-6 level was higher than normal range in the 52% of the patients. The serum IL-6 level had a significant correlations with CPR, Ferritin, TIBC, WBC and their serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in patients with hypertension, but no significant correlation was observed between other parameters and IL-6

  7. Induced illness in interleukin-6 (IL-6) knock-out mice: a causal role of IL-6 in the development of the low 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, A; Maas, M A; Lowik, C W; Platvoet, M C; Wiersinga, W M

    1996-12-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) administration to human subjects or experimental animals induces changes in thyroid hormone metabolism resembling those in the sick euthyroid syndrome. Furthermore, the decrease in serum T3 during illness is significantly related to serum IL-6 concentrations. These findings suggest, but do not prove, a causal role for IL-6 in the development of the low T3 syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of IL-6 in the development of the sick euthyroid syndrome in IL-6 knock-out (IL-6(-/-)) mice compared to that in wild-type mice (IL-6(+/+)). Illness was induced in IL-6(-/-) and IL-6(+/+) mice by 1) administration of bacterial endotoxin (LPS), 2) infection with Listeria monocytogenes, and 3) turpentine injection in both hind limbs. Food intake was kept similar in both groups in all three experiments. Serial measurements were made of serum IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, T3, T4, corticosterone, and liver 5'-deiodinase (5'-DI) messenger RNA (mRNA) for 24 h (LPS), 96 h (L. monocytogenes), and 48 h (turpentine). Serum IL-6 increased in response to all stimuli in IL-6(+/+) mice, but not in IL-6(-/-) mice. Serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha was induced by LPS in both groups to a similar extent, but did not rise after L. monocytogenes or turpentine administration. Serum T3 and T4 decreased after all three stimuli. The decrease in serum T4 in IL-6(-/-) was similar to that in IL-6(+/+) mice. The decrease in serum T3, however, was smaller in the IL-6(-/-) mice than in the IL-6(+/+) mice; T3 levels were 1.56 +/- 0.29 and 0.99 +/- 0.15 nmol/liter, respectively, 24 h after LPS treatment (P < 0.01), 2.39 +/- 0.17 and 1.75 +/- 0.24 nmol/liter 96 h after L. monocytogenes treatment (P < 0.01), and 1.46 +/- 0.18 and 1.10 +/- 0.25 nmol/liter 48 h after turpentine treatment (P < 0.05). The smaller fall in serum T3 in IL-6(-/-) mice could not be attributed to differences in the severity of the induced illness, food intake, or corticosterone response

  8. The role of IL-6 in pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihide Nishihara

    Full Text Available Although the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA remains unclear, evidence is accumulating to support a central role for inflammation. Inflammatory responses are coordinated by various soluble cytokines of which IL-6 is one of the major proinflammatory cytokines. In this study we examined the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of experimental AAA induced by a periaortic exposure to CaCl2 in mice. We now report that the administration of MR16-1, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody specific for the mouse IL-6 receptor, mildly suppressed the development of AAA. The inhibition of IL-6 signaling provoked by MR16-1 also resulted in a suppression of Stat3 activity. Conversely, no significant changes in either NFκB activity, Jnk activity or the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp -2 and -9 were identified. Transcriptome analyses revealed that MR16-1-sensitive genes encode chemokines and their receptors, as well as factors that regulate vascular permeability and cell migration. Imaging cytometric analyses then consistently demonstrated reduced cellular infiltration for MR16-1-treated AAA. These results suggest that IL-6 plays an important but limited role in AAA pathogenesis, and primarily regulates cell migration and infiltration. These data would also suggest that IL-6 activity may play an important role in scenarios of continuous cellular infiltration, possibly including human AAA.

  9. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits VEGF expression induced by IL-6 via Stat3 in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bao-He; Chen, Hua-Yun; Zhan, Wen-Hua; Wang, Cheng-You; Cai, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Chang-Hua; He, Yu-Long

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) via suppressing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activity in gastric cancer. METHODS: Human gastric cancer (AGS) cells were treated with IL-6 (50 ng/mL) and EGCG at different concentrations. VEGF, total Stat3 and activated Stat3 protein levels in the cell lyses were examined by Western blotting, VEGF protein level in the conditioned medium was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the level of VEGF mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Stat3 nuclear translocation was determined by Western blotting with nuclear extract, and Stat3-DNA binding activity was examined with Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. IL-6 induced endothelial cell proliferation was measured with 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide assay, in vitro angiogenesis was determined with endothelial cell tube formation assay in Matrigel, and IL-6-induced angiogenesis in vitro was measured with Matrigel plug assay. RESULTS: There was a basal expression and secretion of VEGF in AGS cells. After stimulation with IL-6, VEGF expression was apparently up-regulated and a 2.4-fold increase was observed. VEGF secretion in the conditioned medium was also increased by 2.8 folds. When treated with EGCG, VEGF expression and secretion were dose-dependently decreased. IL-6 also increased VEGF mRNA expression by 3.1 folds. EGCG treatment suppressed VEGF mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. EGCG dose-dependently inhibited Stat3 activation induced by IL-6, but did not change the total Stat3 expression. When treated with EGCG or AG490, VEGF expressions were reduced to the level or an even lower level in the tumor cells not stimulated with IL-6. However, PD98059 and LY294002 did not change VEGF expression induced by IL-6. EGCG

  10. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency delays lupus nephritis in MRL-Faslpr mice: the IL-6 pathway as a new therapeutic target in treatment of autoimmune kidney disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Hannes; Relle, Manfred; Menke, Julia; Brochhausen, Christoph; Jones, Simon A; Topley, Nicholas; Galle, Peter R; Schwarting, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the pathophysiological effect of interleukin 6 (IL-6) on lupus nephritis in MRL-Fas(lpr) mice. We generated IL-6-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice using a backcross/intercross breeding scheme. Renal pathology was evaluated using immunohistochemistry detection for macrophages, lymphocytes, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling) for apoptotic cells, and renal IgG and C3 deposition by immunofluorescence staining. Expression of inflammatory markers in the spleen was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Serum cytokine concentrations were detected by FACS analysis. IL-6 deficiency was highly effective in prolonging survival and ameliorating the clinical, immunological, and histological indicators of murine systemic lupus erythematosus. During the study period of 6 months, MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-6 -/- mice showed delayed onset of proteinuria and hematuria compared to IL-6-intact control mice. Survival rate was 100% in IL-6-deficient MRL-Fas(lpr) mice and 25% in the control group at 6 months of age. The absence of IL-6 resulted in significant reduction of infiltrating macrophages in the kidney (p kidneys of MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-6 -/- compared to IL-6-intact mice. We found elevated serum levels of IL-10 and interferon-gamma in IL-6-deficient mice, while splenic mRNA showed an overall downregulation of immunoregulatory genes. IL-6 is a strong promoter of lupus nephritis and may be a promising new therapeutic target in the treatment of human lupus nephritis.

  11. Voluntary Running Suppresses Tumor Growth through Epinephrine- and IL-6-Dependent NK Cell Mobilization and Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Idorn, Manja; Olofsson, Gitte H.

    2016-01-01

    . Microarray analysis revealed training-induced upregulation of pathways associated with immune function. NK cell infiltration was significantly increased in tumors from running mice, whereas depletion of NK cells enhanced tumor growth and blunted the beneficial effects of exercise. Mechanistic analyses showed...... that NK cells were mobilized by epinephrine, and blockade of β-adrenergic signaling blunted training-dependent tumor inhibition. Moreover, epinephrine induced a selective mobilization of IL-6-sensitive NK cells, and IL-6-blocking antibodies blunted training-induced tumor suppression, intratumoral NK cell...

  12. UVA-1 exposure in vivo leads to an IL-6 surge within the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Lars Alexander; Raizner, Katharina; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Brenneisen, Peter; Gethöffer, Kerstin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2017-09-01

    UVA-1 is a known promotor of skin ageing. Cytokines like IL-1α, Il-1β or TNF-α, VEGF and IL-6 orchestrate UV effects, and IL-6 is furthermore an effector of UVA-induced photoageing. We investigated how fractionated UVA-1 doses influence the cytokine milieu and especially the IL-6 levels in the skin in vivo. In a study with 35 participants, we exposed previously unirradiated human skin to three UVA-1 irradiation regimes. Cytokine levels in interstitial skin fluid were measured up to 48 hours postexposure and compared to unirradiated control skin fluid. Our results show that IL-6 levels increased significantly after UVA-1 exposure at selected time points. The other candidates IL-1α, Il-1β or TNF-α and VEGF show no significant response after UVA-1 exposure in vivo. UVA-1 thus raises selectively IL-6 levels in vivo, a fact that underlines its role in photoageing and has potential implications for its modulatory effect on photoageing pathology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A mathematical model for IL-6-mediated, stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nör, Jacques Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics. By including the molecular details of IL-6 binding, we are able to quantify the temporal changes in fractional occupancies of bound receptors and their influence on tumor volume. There is a strong correlation between the model output and experimental data for primary tumor xenografts. We also used the model to predict tumor response to administration of the humanized IL-6R monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab (TCZ), and we found that as little as 1mg/kg of TCZ administered weekly for 7 weeks is sufficient to result in tumor reduction and a sustained deceleration of tumor growth. PMID:29351275

  14. Local translation and retrograde axonal transport of CREB regulates IL-6-induced nociceptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Tillu, Dipti V; Moy, Jamie K; Asiedu, Marina N; Mandell, Edward K; Ghosh, Sourav; Dussor, Gregory; Price, Theodore J

    2014-07-04

    Transcriptional regulation of genes by cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is essential for the maintenance of long-term memory. Moreover, retrograde axonal trafficking of CREB in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the survival of developing primary sensory neurons. We have previously demonstrated that hindpaw injection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming that is prevented by the local injection of protein synthesis inhibitors. However, proteins that are locally synthesized that might lead to this effect have not been identified. We hypothesized that retrograde axonal trafficking of nascently synthesized CREB might link local, activity-dependent translation to nociceptive plasticity. To test this hypothesis, we determined if IL-6 enhances the expression of CREB and if it subsequently undergoes retrograde axonal transport. IL-6 treatment of sensory neurons in vitro caused an increase in CREB protein and in vivo treatment evoked an increase in CREB in the sciatic nerve consistent with retrograde transport. Importantly, co-injection of IL-6 with the methionine analogue azido-homoalanine (AHA), to assess nascently synthesized proteins, revealed an increase in CREB containing AHA in the sciatic nerve 2 hrs post injection, indicating retrograde transport of nascently synthesized CREB. Behaviorally, blockade of retrograde transport by disruption of microtubules or inhibition of dynein or intrathecal injection of cAMP response element (CRE) consensus sequence DNA oligonucleotides, which act as decoys for CREB DNA binding, prevented the development of IL-6-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesic priming. Consistent with previous studies in inflammatory models, intraplantar IL-6 enhanced the expression of BDNF in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This effect was blocked by inhibition of retrograde axonal transport and by intrathecal CRE oligonucleotides. Collectively, these findings

  15. Effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhade, Geeta; Nayak, B Shivananda; Kurhade, Arvind; Unakal, Chandrasekhar; Kurhade, Krutika

    2017-09-29

    Persistent bouts of extended exercise and heavy training are associated with depressed immune cell function. It has recently been demonstrated that IL-6 is produced locally in contracting skeletal muscles and acts on a wide range of tissues. Larger amounts of IL-6 are produced in response to exercise than any other cytokines. Though the majority of existing data obtained following prolonged exercise, it remains to be explained the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters and associated changes to the duration of this type of exercise. IL-1α is produced mainly by activated macrophages, as well as neutrophils epithelial cells, and endothelial cells. It possesses metabolic, physiological, hematopoietic activities, and plays one of the central roles in the regulation of the immune responses. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of martial arts training on IL-6 and other immunological parameters among Trinidadian subjects. Sixteen healthy, nonsmoker individuals who were martial arts practitioners for last 5 15 years, aged 25.94 ±7.6.20 years (mean ± SE). Blood samples were collected to determine IL-6 and other immunological parameters at preexercise, immediately post exercise (0 Hour), 1 hour, 2 hour and 52 hours of post exercise). The IL-6 and IL-1 was measured using Human IL-6 and IL-1 β ELISA kit, blood cell count was done using automated blood cell counter and CD4, and CD3 count was performed using the automated immunofluorescence analysis by flow cytometer. The mean basal IL-6 level was 71.47 ± 4.3 and reduced to 70.1 ± 21.6 immediately after exercise and then increased to 75.70 ± 8.2 after one hour of exercise bout, returning to basal level after two hours and remained so after 52 hours. The CD4 count was decreased as low as 102.2, (much lower than immunecompromised subjects) after the bout of training but returned to normal range within 2 hours of exercise and increased even more after 52 hours. Similar trends have been

  16. Acute myotube protein synthesis regulation by IL-6-related cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Durstine, J Larry; Koh, Ho-Jin; Carver, Wayne E; Frizzell, Norma; Carson, James A

    2017-11-01

    IL-6 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, play recognized paradoxical roles in skeletal muscle mass regulation, being associated with both growth and atrophy. Overload or muscle contractions can induce a transient increase in muscle IL-6 and LIF expression, which has a regulatory role in muscle hypertrophy. However, the cellular mechanisms involved in this regulation have not been completely identified. The induction of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent myofiber protein synthesis is an established regulator of muscle hypertrophy, but the involvement of the IL-6 family of cytokines in this process is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of IL-6 and LIF administration on mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. The role of glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor and downstream signaling pathways, including phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTORC1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), was investigated by administration of specific siRNA or pharmaceutical inhibitors. Acute administration of IL-6 and LIF induced protein synthesis, which was accompanied by STAT3 activation, Akt-mTORC1 activation, and increased SOCS3 expression. This induction of protein synthesis was blocked by both gp130 siRNA knockdown and Akt inhibition. Interestingly, STAT3 inhibition or Akt downstream mTORC1 signaling inhibition did not fully block the IL-6 or LIF induction of protein synthesis. SOCS3 siRNA knockdown increased basal protein synthesis and extended the duration of the protein synthesis induction by IL-6 and LIF. These results demonstrate that either IL-6 or LIF can activate gp130-Akt signaling axis, which induces protein synthesis via mTORC1-independent mechanisms in cultured myotubes. However, IL-6- or LIF-induced SOCS3 negatively regulates the activation of myotube protein synthesis. Copyright © 2017 the

  17. IL-6 as a corneal wound healing mediator in an in vitro scratch assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz-Valsero, Isabel; Soriano-Romaní, Laura; García-Posadas, Laura; López-García, Antonio; Diebold, Yolanda

    2014-08-01

    Corneal healing process under inflammatory conditions is not fully understood. We aimed at determining the effect of an inflammatory (presence of IL-6) or anti-inflammatory (presence of IL-10) environment and a mixture of both in the expression of IL-6 signaling pathway mediators, and on corneal wound healing in an in vitro scratch assay. For that purpose, human corneal epithelial cells were cultured until confluence. The effect of IL-6 (10 ng/ml), IL-10 (20 ng/ml) or IL-6 + IL-10 exposure on the expression of IL-6R, gp130, and STAT3 was determined by Western blotting and quantitative PCR, at different time points. The monolayer was mechanically wounded using a sterile 10 μl pipette tip. Wound healing rate in the presence or absence of these cytokines was measured immediately after cytokine exposure and after 4, 8, and 24 h. The effect of mitomycin C on wound healing rate, in control and IL-6-stimulated cells, was also evaluated. Detection of proliferative cells was performed with an EdU imaging kit. For the visualization of migrating cells, cold methanol-fixed cells were incubated with an α-actinin antibody. For the statistical analysis a two-factor design of experiment method was applied. Levene test was used to contrast equality of variances. If variances were equal, ANOVA was performed to test the equality of means. If variances were not equal, a Mood's median test was performed. We observed that IL-6 and IL-10 stimulation, and their combination, increased gp130 production at different time points. STAT3 production was increased in IL-6-stimulated cells, at 72 h. An increase in pSTAT3 production was found in IL-6- and IL-10-stimulated cells, that was sustained in time in IL-6 + IL-10 co-stimulated cultures. Scraped areas had an initial width of 570.57 ± 75.82 μm. In IL-6-exposed cells wound healing closure was faster than in control cells or IL-10-exposed cells. After 8 h, wound width in IL-10-exposed cells, was also significantly smaller than

  18. Sex-specific effects of CNTF, IL6 and UCP2 polymorphisms on weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Wang, P.; Rossum, van C.T.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Veer, van 't P.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The human proteins ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and interleukin-6 (IL6) and their receptors share structural homology with leptin and its receptor. In addition, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) has been shown to participate the regulation of leptin on food intake. All three proteins are active in

  19. IL-6 RESPONSES TO GLYCAEMIC INDEX DURING RECOVERY FROM EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Hasani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of meal with different glycaemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism after maximal lengthening contractions of the knee extensors. Using a cross-over design, Material : 10 healthy males completed 5 sets of 10 lengthening (eccentric contractions at 120% 1 repetition-maximum. Subjects were randomized to consume the GI beverage (high-GI, low-GI (15% weight per volume; 3 g/kg BM or placebo in three times within 10 min following exercise, and again at 50 and 110 min during recovery time. Blood samples were collected before exercise and after 0.60, 180 min and 24 h of recovery. Results: Concentration of plasma IL-6 in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups. IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in recovery time in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 24 hours (P = 1.00, furthermore there was significant difference for IL-6 between placebo and high glycemic groups in 3hours after exercise (P=.016. Concentration of serum CK in HGI group was less than LGI and Pla groups, CK was significantly elevated at all times points during recovery in 3 groups (all P < 0.05, except for 1 hour after exercise in HGI group (P = 0.31, but there was no significant difference for CK between groups. Conclusion: In summary, consuming HGI carbohydrate during recovery from exercise attenuate plasma IL-6 concentration.

  20. Sensitization of dural afferents underlies migraine-related behavior following meningeal application of interleukin-6 (IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine headache is one of the most common neurological disorders, but the pathophysiology contributing to migraine is poorly understood. Intracranial interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels have been shown to be elevated during migraine attacks, suggesting that this cytokine may facilitate pain signaling from the meninges and contribute to the development of headache. Methods Cutaneous allodynia was measured in rats following stimulation of the dura with IL-6 alone or in combination with the MEK inhibitor, U0126. The number of action potentials and latency to the first action potential peak in response to a ramp current stimulus as well as current threshold were measured in retrogradely-labeled dural afferents using patch-clamp electrophysiology. These recordings were performed in the presence of IL-6 alone or in combination with U0126. Association between ERK1 and Nav1.7 following IL-6 treatment was also measured by co-immunoprecipitation. Results Here we report that in awake animals, direct application of IL-6 to the dura produced dose-dependent facial and hindpaw allodynia. The MEK inhibitor U0126 blocked IL-6-induced allodynia indicating that IL-6 produced this behavioral effect through the MAP kinase pathway. In trigeminal neurons retrogradely labeled from the dura, IL-6 application decreased the current threshold for action potential firing. In response to a ramp current stimulus, cells treated with IL-6 showed an increase in the numbers of action potentials and a decrease in latency to the first spike, an effect consistent with phosphorylation of the sodium channel Nav1.7. Pretreatment with U0126 reversed hyperexcitability following IL-6 treatment. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated an increased association between ERK1 and Nav1.7 following IL-6 treatment. Conclusions Our results indicate that IL-6 enhances the excitability of dural afferents likely via ERK-mediated modulation of Nav1.7 and these responses

  1. Podocytes regulate neutrophil recruitment by glomerular endothelial cells via IL-6-mediated crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuravi, Sahithi J; McGettrick, Helen M; Satchell, Simon C; Saleem, Moin A; Harper, Lorraine; Williams, Julie M; Rainger, George Ed; Savage, Caroline O S

    2014-07-01

    Stromal cells actively modulate the inflammatory process, in part by influencing the ability of neighboring endothelial cells to support the recruitment of circulating leukocytes. We hypothesized that podocytes influence the ability of glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) to recruit neutrophils during inflammation. To address this, human podocytes and human GEnCs were cultured on opposite sides of porous inserts and then treated with or without increasing concentrations of TNF-α prior to addition of neutrophils. The presence of podocytes significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment to GEnCs by up to 50% when cultures were treated with high-dose TNF-α (100 U/ml), when compared with GEnC monocultures. Importantly, this phenomenon was dependent on paracrine actions of soluble IL-6, predominantly released by podocytes. A similar response was absent when HUVECs were cocultured with podocytes, indicating a tissue-specific phenomenon. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 elicited the immunosuppressive actions of IL-6 in a process that disrupted the presentation of chemokines on GEnCs by altering the expression of the duffy Ag receptor for chemokines. Interestingly, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 knockdown in GEnCs upregulated duffy Ag receptor for chemokines and CXCL5 expression, thereby restoring the neutrophil recruitment. In summary, these studies reveal that podocytes can negatively regulate neutrophil recruitment to inflamed GEnCs by modulating IL-6 signaling, identifying a potential novel anti-inflammatory role of IL-6 in renal glomeruli. Copyright © 2014 The Authors.

  2. Enhanced expression and activation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors distinguish aneurysmal from atherosclerotic aorta: IL-6- and IL-8-dominated inflammatory responses prevail in the human aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeman, J.H.N.; Abdul-Hussien, H.; Schaapherder, A.F.M.; Bockel, J.H. van; Thüsen, J.H. vonder; Roelen, D.L.; Kleemann, R.

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of an AAA (abdominal aortic aneurysm); however, the nature of the inflammatory factors and cellular response(s) involved in AAA growth is controversial. In the present study, we set out to determine the aortic levels of inflammatory cytokines in

  3. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL- 8), Apoptotic Marker (SFAS), And Free Radicals In Egyptian Patients With Autoimmune ... The patients suffered from different types of autoimmune diseases according to their criteria, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ...

  4. Association of IL-6 and MMP-3 gene polymorphisms with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, several institutions have investigated the associations of MMP-3-1171 5A/6A and IL-6-174-G/C gene polymorphisms with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), while reports from different institutions are not consistent. Therefore, we,comprehensively and systematically performed this meta-analysis to detect ...

  5. Structure-based virtual screening and characterization of a novel IL-6 antagonistic compound from synthetic compound database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang,1,* Chunxia Qiao,1,* He Xiao,1 Zhou Lin,1 Yan Li,1 Jiyan Zhang,1 Beifen Shen,1 Tinghuan Fu,2 Jiannan Feng1 1Department of Molecular Immunology, Beijing Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, 2First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: According to the three-dimensional (3D complex structure of (hIL-6·hIL-6R·gp 1302 and the binding orientation of hIL-6, three compounds with high affinity to hIL-6R and bioactivity to block hIL-6 in vitro were screened theoretically from the chemical databases, including 3D-Available Chemicals Directory (ACD and MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR, by means of the computer-guided virtual screening method. Using distance geometry, molecular modeling and molecular dynamics trajectory analysis methods, the binding mode and binding energy of the three compounds were evaluated theoretically. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis demonstrated that all the three compounds could block IL-6 binding to IL-6R specifically. However, only compound 1 could effectively antagonize the function of hIL-6 and inhibit the proliferation of XG-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas it showed no cytotoxicity to SP2/0 or L929 cells. These data demonstrated that the compound 1 could be a promising candidate of hIL-6 antagonist. Keywords: virtual screening, structural optimization, human interlukin-6, small molecular antagonist, XG-7 cells, apoptosis

  6. Acidic environment augments FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamide, Yosuke, E-mail: m08702012@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Clinical Research Center for Allergy and Rheumatology, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara (Japan); Ishizuka, Tamotsu [Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Tobo, Masayuki [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Tsurumaki, Hiroaki [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Aoki, Haruka; Mogi, Chihiro [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Nakakura, Takashi [Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, Tokyo (Japan); Yatomi, Masakiyo; Ono, Akihiro; Koga, Yasuhiko [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan); Hisada, Takeshi [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Dobashi, Kunio [Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Maebashi (Japan); Yamada, Masanobu [Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Although blood pH is maintained in a narrow range of around pH 7.4 in living organisms, inflammatory loci are characterized by acidic conditions. Mast cells tend to reside close to the surface of the body in areas such as the mucosa and skin where they may be exposed to exogenous acids, and they play an important role in immune responses. However, little is known about the effects of extracellular acidification on the functions of mast cell. Here, we found that extracellular acidification increased the dinitrophenyl-conjugated human serum albumin (DNP-HSA)-induced production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-13 in MC/9 cells or bone marrow-derived mouse mast cells sensitized with anti-DNP IgE. Extracellular acidification also inhibited migration of MC/9 cells toward DNP-HSA. In addition, acidic pH stimulated antigen-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and protein kinase B (Akt). These findings suggest that extracellular acidification augmented antigen/IgE-induced and FcεRI-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-13 in mast cells, and that this was associated with the enhancement of p38 MAPK and Akt activation. - Highlights: • Antigen-induced IL-6 and IL-13 production was augmented by acidic pH in mast cells. • Acidic pH-induced actions were associated with activation of p38 MAPK and Akt. • Inhibition of p38 MAPK and Akt attenuated cytokine responses to acidic pH. • Acidic pH effects are not attributable to actions of known proton-sensing GPCRs.

  7. Regulation of COX-2 expression and IL-6 release by particulate matter in airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yutong; Usatyuk, Peter V; Gorshkova, Irina A; He, Donghong; Wang, Ting; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N; Samet, Jonathan M; Spannhake, Ernst Wm; Garcia, Joe G N; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2009-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) in ambient air is a risk factor for human respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The delivery of PM to airway epithelial cells has been linked to release of proinflammatory cytokines; however, the mechanisms of PM-induced inflammatory responses are not well-characterized. This study demonstrates that PM induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and IL-6 release through both a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent NF-kappaB pathway and an ROS-independent C/EBPbeta pathway in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpCs) in culture. Treatment of HBEpCs with Baltimore PM induced ROS production, COX-2 expression, and IL-6 release. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or EUK-134, in a dose-dependent manner, attenuated PM-induced ROS production, COX-2 expression, and IL-6 release. The PM-induced ROS was significantly of mitochondrial origin, as evidenced by increased oxidation of the mitochondrially targeted hydroethidine to hydroxyethidium by reaction with superoxide. Exposure of HBEpCs to PM stimulated phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and C/EBPbeta, while the NF-kappaB inhibitor, Bay11-7082, or C/EBPbeta siRNA attenuated PM-induced COX-2 expression and IL-6 release. Furthermore, NAC or EUK-134 attenuated PM-induced activation of NF-kappaB; however, NAC or EUK-134 had no effect on phosphorylation of C/EBPbeta. In addition, inhibition of COX-2 partly attenuated PM-induced Prostaglandin E2 and IL-6 release.

  8. Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α Increased Telomerase Activity through NF-κB/STAT1/STAT3 Activation, and Withaferin A Inhibited the Signaling in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyung S. Chung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing evidences of proinflammatory cytokine involvement in cancer development. Here, we found that two cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-α, activated colorectal cancer cells to be more invasive and stem-like. Combined treatment of IL-6 and TNF-α phosphorylated transcription factors STAT3 in a synergistic manner. STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB physically interacted upon the cytokine stimulation. STAT3 was bound to the promoter region of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT. IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation further enhanced STAT3 binding affinity. Stem cell marker Oct-4 was upregulated in colorectal cancer cells upon IL-6 and TNF-α stimulation. Withaferin A, an anti-inflammatory steroidal lactone, inhibited the IL-6- and TNF-α-induced cancer cell invasion and decreased colonosphere formation. Notably, withaferin A inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and abolished the STAT3, STAT1, and NF-κB interactions. Oct-4 expression was also downregulated by withaferin A inhibition. The binding of STAT3 to the hTERT promoter region and telomerase activity showed reduction with withaferin A treatments. Proinflammatory cytokine-induced cancer cell invasiveness is mediated by a STAT3-regulated mechanism in colorectal cancer cells. Our data suggest that withaferin A could be a promising anticancer agent that effectively inhibits the progression of colorectal cancer.

  9. Single administration of recombinant IL-6 restores the gene expression of lipogenic enzymes in liver of fasting IL-6-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, A L; Cabello, R; Suarez, J

    2016-01-01

    lipogenic enzymes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Gene and protein expression of lipogenic enzymes were examined in livers of wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-) ) mice during fasting and re-feeding conditions. Effects of exogenous IL-6 administration on gene expression of these enzymes were evaluated...... of hepatic lipogenic enzymes. IL-6 administration in vivo and in vitro showed that IL-6-mediated signalling was associated with the up-regulation of hepatic lipogenic enzyme genes. Moreover, silencing STAT3 in HepG2 cells attenuated IL-6 mediated up-regulation of lipogenic gene transcription levels...

  10. Effects of lactoferrin on IL-6 production by peritoneal and alveolar cells in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artym, J; Zimecki, M; Kruzel, M L

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that oral treatment with lactoferrin (LF) restores the immune response in cyclophosphamide (CP) immunocompromised mice. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the regulatory ability of LF on the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in peritoneal and alveolar cells, derived from CP-treated mice. CBA mice were injected with a single, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of CP (350 mg/kg body weight) followed by LF administered in drinking water (0.5% solution) for 21 days. The control counterparts were given water. Peritoneal and alveolar cells were isolated from mice and the production of IL-6, both spontaneous and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced, was determined in 24h cell cultures using a bioassay. The results showed increased production of IL-6 in both CP-treated mice and in mice given, in addition, LF. The administration of LF alone led also to an increase in IL-6 production by the cell cultures. Intravenous (i.v.) administration of LPS resulted in a significant increase in IL-6 serum levels in CP and CP/LF but not in LF-treated mice. Analysis of cell type composition in the peritoneal cavity revealed a strong increase in mastocyte and neutrophil content in CP and CP/LF-treated groups. Our findings suggest that enhanced IL-6 production in CP and CP/LF-treated mice may contribute to reconstitution of immune system function in immunocompromised mice.

  11. Trans-signaling of interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mediated by the soluble IL-6 receptor, but not by soluble CD5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Siegmund, Samadhi; Deseke, Malte; Lickert, Annett; Garbers, Christoph

    2017-03-18

    IL-6 exerts its pleiotropic activities on its target cells via the IL-6 alpha-receptor (IL-6R), which is expressed on a limited number of cell types. IL-6 can further signal via soluble forms of its receptor (sIL-6R), a process that has been termed trans-signaling. Recently, CD5 was described as an alternative alpha-receptor for IL-6 on B cells leading to the phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT3 via the signal-transducing β-receptor gp130 in a Jak2-dependent manner. In this study, we sought to investigate whether IL-6 was also able to signal via soluble CD5 (sCD5) analogous to IL-6 trans-signaling. We show that IL-6 indeed binds to sCD5, but that this does not lead to the activation of signal transduction or cell proliferation. Furthermore, sCD5 did also not interfere with IL-6 classic signaling, suggesting that the affinity between the two proteins was too weak to provoke a biological effect. Thus, trans-signaling of IL-6 can only occur via sIL-6R, but not sCD5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic administration of recombinant IL-6 upregulates lipogenic enzyme expression and aggravates high-fat-diet-induced steatosis in IL-6-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Vida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD in wild-type (WT and IL-6-deficient (IL-6−/− mice. Additionally, HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice were also chronically treated with recombinant IL-6 (rIL-6. Obesity in WT mice fed a HFD associated with elevated serum IL-6 levels, fatty liver, upregulation of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3, increased AMP kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK, and downregulation of the hepatic lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1. The HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice showed severe steatosis, no changes in CPT1 levels or AMPK activity, no increase in STAT3 amounts, inactivated STAT3, and marked downregulation of the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. The IL-6 chronic replacement in HFD-fed IL-6−/− mice restored hepatic STAT3 and AMPK activation but also increased the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACCα/β, FAS and SCD1. Furthermore, rIL-6 administration was associated with aggravated steatosis and elevated fat content in the liver. We conclude that, in the context of HFD-induced obesity, the administration of rIL-6 might contribute to the aggravation of fatty liver disease through increasing lipogenesis.

  13. Dragon (repulsive guidance molecule b) inhibits IL-6 expression in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Niederkofler, Vera; Salie, Rishard; Chen, Shanzhuo; Samad, Tarek A; Hong, Charles C; Arber, Silvia; Vyas, Jatin M; Weissleder, Ralph; Pittet, Mikael J; Lin, Herbert Y

    2011-02-01

    Repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family members RGMa, RGMb/Dragon, and RGMc/hemojuvelin were found recently to act as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptors that enhance BMP signaling activity. Although our previous studies have shown that hemojuvelin regulates hepcidin expression and iron metabolism through the BMP pathway, the role of the BMP signaling mediated by Dragon remains largely unknown. We have shown previously that Dragon is expressed in neural cells, germ cells, and renal epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate that Dragon is highly expressed in macrophages. Studies with RAW264.7 and J774 macrophage cell lines reveal that Dragon negatively regulates IL-6 expression in a BMP ligand-dependent manner via the p38 MAPK and Erk1/2 pathways but not the Smad1/5/8 pathway. We also generated Dragon knockout mice and found that IL-6 is upregulated in macrophages and dendritic cells derived from whole lung tissue of these mice compared with that in respective cells derived from wild-type littermates. These results indicate that Dragon is an important negative regulator of IL-6 expression in immune cells and that Dragon-deficient mice may be a useful model for studying immune and inflammatory disorders.

  14. Electrical stimulation induces IL-6 in skeletal muscle through extracellular ATP by activating Ca2+ signals and an IL-6 autocrine loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Mario; Fernández-Verdejo, Rodrigo; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an important myokine that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle cells upon exercise. We assessed IL-6 expression in response to electrical stimulation (ES) or extracellular ATP as a known mediator of the excitation-transcription mechanism in skeletal muscle. We examined whether the canonical signaling cascade downstream of IL-6 (IL-6/JAK2/STAT3) also responds to muscle cell excitation, concluding that IL-6 influences its own expression through a positive loop. Either ES or exogenous ATP (100 μM) increased both IL-6 expression and p-STAT3 levels in rat myotubes, a process inhibited by 100 μM suramin and 2 U/ml apyrase. ATP also evoked IL-6 expression in both isolated skeletal fibers and extracts derived from whole FDB muscles. ATP increased IL-6 release up to 10-fold. STAT3 activation evoked by ATP was abolished by the JAK2 inhibitor HBC. Blockade of secreted IL-6 with a neutralizing antibody or preincubation with the STAT3 inhibitor VIII reduced STAT3 activation evoked by extracellular ATP by 70%. Inhibitor VIII also reduced by 70% IL-6 expression evoked by ATP, suggesting a positive IL-6 loop. In addition, ATP increased up to 60% the protein levels of SOCS3, a negative regulator of the IL-6 signaling pathway. On the other hand, intracellular calcium chelation or blockade of IP3-dependent calcium signals abolished STAT3 phosphorylation evoked by either extracellular ATP or ES. These results suggest that expression of IL-6 in stimulated skeletal muscle cells is mediated by extracellular ATP and nucleotide receptors, involving IP3-dependent calcium signals as an early step that triggers a positive IL-6 autocrine loop. PMID:24518675

  15. Bisphenol A triggers proliferation and migration of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma via GPER mediated upregulation of IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shisheng; Wang, Bin; Tang, Qinglai; Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Xinming

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) can be accumulated into the human body via food intake and inhalation. Numerous studies indicated that BPA can trigger the tumorigenesis and progression of cancer cells. Laryngeal cancer cells can be exposed to BPA directly via food digestion, while there were very limited data concerning the effect of BPA on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Our present study revealed that nanomolar BPA can trigger the proliferation of LSCC cells. Bisphenol A also increased the in vitro migration and invasion of LSCC cells and upregulated the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2. Among various chemokines tested, the expression of IL-6 was significantly increased in LSCC cells treated with BPA for 24 hours. Neutralization antibody of IL-6 or si-IL-6 can attenuate BPA-induced proliferation and migration of LSCC cells. Targeted inhibition of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor, while not estrogen receptor (ERα), abolished BPA-induced IL-6 expression, proliferation, and migration of LSCC cells. The increased IL-6 can further activate its downstream signal molecule STAT3, which was evidenced by the results of increased phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3, while si-IL-6 and si-GPER can both reverse BPA-induced activation of STAT3. Collectively, our present study revealed that BPA can trigger the progression of LSCC via GPER-mediated upregulation of IL-6. Therefore, more attention should be paid for the BPA exposure on the development of laryngeal cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Recombinant human interleukin-6 infusion during low-intensity exercise does not enhance whole body lipolysis or fat oxidation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, N; Fischer, C P; Sacchetti, M

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the role of the cytokine IL-6 in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism during exercise in humans. Six well-trained males completed three trials of 120 min of cycle ergometry at 70% peak O(2) consumption (Vo(2 peak); MOD) and 40% Vo(2 peak) with (LOW + IL-6) and without...... (LOW) infusion of recombinant human (rh)IL-6. The dose of rhIL-6 during LOW + IL-6 elicited IL-6 concentration similar to those during MOD but without altering the circulating hormonal milieu seen in MOD. Palmitate rate of appearance (R(a)), rate of disappearance (R(d)), and oxidation were measured...

  17. Early IL-6 signalling promotes IL-27 dependent maturation of regulatory T cells in the lungs and resolution of viral immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieboda, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 is a pleiotropic, pro-inflammatory cytokine that can promote both innate and adaptive immune responses. In humans with respiratory virus infections, such as Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), elevated concentrations of IL-6 are associated with more severe disease. In contrast the polymorphisms in the Il6 promoter which favour lower IL-6 production are associated with increased risk of both RSV and Rhinovirus infections. To determine the precise contribution of IL-6 to protection and pathology we used murine models of respiratory virus infection. RSV infection resulted in increased IL-6 production both in the airways and systemically which remained heightened for at least 2 weeks. IL-6 depletion early, but not late, during RSV or Influenza A virus infection resulted in significantly increased disease associated with an influx of virus specific TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, whilst not affecting viral clearance. IL-6 acted by driving production of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-27 by macrophages and monocytes, which in turn promoted the local maturation of regulatory T cells. Concordantly IL-27 was necessary to regulate TH1 responses in the lungs, and sufficient to limit RSV induced disease. Overall we found that during respiratory virus infection the prototypic inflammatory cytokine IL-6 is a critical anti-inflammatory regulator of viral induced immunopathology in the respiratory tract through its induction of IL-27. PMID:28953978

  18. TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood after total-body and localized irradiation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, J.; Geerdink, A. G.; Rodermond, H. M.

    1998-01-01

    The levels of TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 in circulating blood of female WAG/Rij rats were assessed both after total-body irradiation (TBI) and localized irradiation of the right hind leg. The results show that enhanced levels of IL-1 in the circulation reflect a stress situation presumably resulting from

  19. Innate inhibition of adaptive immunity: Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced IL-6 inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagabhushanam, Vijaya; Solache, Alejandra; Ting, Li-Min; Escaron, Claire J; Zhang, Jennifer Y; Ernst, Joel D

    2003-11-01

    In humans and in mice, control of the intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), requires IFN-gamma. Although the adaptive immune response results in production of substantial amounts of IFN-gamma in response to Mtb, the immune response is unable to eradicate the infection in most cases. We have previously reported evidence that Mtb inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma, suggesting that this may limit the ability of IFN-gamma to stimulate macrophages to kill Mtb. We have also observed that uninfected macrophages, adjacent to infected macrophages in culture, exhibit decreased responses to IFN-gamma. Here we report that IL-6 secreted by Mtb-infected macrophages inhibits the responses of uninfected macrophages to IFN-gamma. IL-6 selectively inhibits a subset of IFN-gamma-responsive genes at the level of transcriptional activation without inhibiting activation or function of STAT1. Inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma by IL-6 requires new protein synthesis, but this effect is not attributable to suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 or 3. These results reveal a novel function for IL-6 and indicate that IL-6 secreted by Mtb-infected macrophages may contribute to the inability of the cellular immune response to eradicate infection.

  20. Evaluating Blood Parameters, P53, and IL6 in Personnel of Copper Complex: A Comparison with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadis Ahmadiraad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Industrial pollution including trace elements is the ability to exert many biological effects such as cancer and inflammatory diseases on humans. Therefore, in this study, some of the inflammation and cancer awareness factors such as P53 and IL6 and some blood indices are examined along with trace elements to which people are normally exposed. Materials & Methods: The population includes 45 workers subjected to trace elements who are studied in comparison with the control group with some biochemical parameters such as WBC, RBC, and CRP. In addition, gene expressions of p53 and IL6 are measured by Real time PCR technique. Results: The results show that the gene expressions of IL6 and P53 increases significantly (P –Value p53=0.00, IL6=0.0037. Furthermore, the number of red and white blood cells demonstrate a substantial upsurge. The level of liver enzymes of ALT and AST grows. Additionally, ALP reduces and CRP is negative in all the subjects. (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The results confirm that industrial pollution is able to induce some changes in gene expressions of P53, IL6, and some blood parameters. It may create serious risks for people who will be exposed to pollution in the future.

  1. IL-6 signaling in diabetic nephropathy: From pathophysiology to therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigerlová, Eva; Battaglia-Hsu, Shyue-Fang

    2017-10-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling participates in inflammation responses central to the progression of DN. Current evidence suggests that these IL-6 responses are mediated via gp130-STAT3 dependent mechanisms which, on one hand, trigger globally the transition from innate to adaptive immune response, and on the other hand act locally for tissue remodeling and immune cell infiltration. In diabetic conditions the role of IL-6 is not well elucidated. Both IL-6 classical signaling pathway via receptor IL-6R (IL-6R) and IL-6 trans-signaling pathway via soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) were shown to participate in the pathogenesis and progression of DN, and IL-6 appears to influence renal cells also in an autocrine manner. To date, evidence is limited. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of our current understanding on the role of IL-6 signaling in DN and to delineate challenges for future research. Putative sequential events related to IL-6 secretion by different cell populations in diabetic conditions are outlined. Further, we discuss potential applications of anti-IL-6 therapy in the context of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ROLE OF IL-6 IN EXPERIMENTAL ARTHRITIS CAUSED BY TRANSFER OF ARTHRITOGENIC ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Drutskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 exerts important functions on immune regulation. In case of high expression, IL-6 may promote autoimmune disorders, e.g., arthritis. Systemic IL-6 blockers based on monoclonal antibodies against IL-6, or its specific receptor subunit, are already used in clinical settings, adding to a range of known biological drugs, such as, TNF blockers. Rheumatic disorders and their experimental therapy are reproducible in mice. This study revealed systemically increased levels of IL-6 in developing arthritis caused by transfer of pathogenic antibodies, as well as the effects of IL-6 neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against murine IL-6. Our results suggest a pathogenic role of the two cytokines, TNF and IL-6, in experimental arthritis induced by passive transfer of anti-collagen antibodies.

  3. Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model for the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are considered important for induction and pathogenesis of EAE/MS disease...

  4. IL-6 signalling in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke N. Ritschel

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, circulating levels of IL-6 and CRP, but not the soluble forms of the receptor (sIL-6R or the receptor signalling subunit (sgp130 were associated with the extent of myocardial necrosis. The biological importance of the IL-6/gp130-mediated signalling pathways in patients with acute myocardial infarction and dysglycemia should be further elucidated.

  5. Contraction and AICAR Stimulate IL-6 Vesicle Depletion From Skeletal Muscle Fibers In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans P M M; Brandauer, Josef; Schjerling, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that interleukin 6 (IL-6) is released from contracting skeletal muscles; however, the cellular origin, secretion kinetics, and signaling mechanisms regulating IL-6 secretion are unknown. To address these questions, we developed imaging methodology to study IL-6 in fixed mouse...

  6. Comparison of the G-174C polymorphism of interleukin (IL)-6 in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphism of G-174C in the interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter could affect both the transcription and secretion of IL-6 and may be involved in inflammation related to and the pathogenesis of infectious diseases and chronic diseases. However, IL-6 G-174C polymorphism may differ in various ethnic groups. We recruited 300 ...

  7. Effect of low-dose ketamine on post-operative serum IL-6 production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum IL-6 and IL-1β levels were analyzed using ELIZA assay of pre-coated micro wells. Ketamine sup- pressed serum IL-6 at PACU with reduced increase at 24 hours. There was no reaction in 98% of IL-1β assayed. Conclusion: Low-dose ketamine attenuated early serum IL-6 levels due to surgical response with reduced ...

  8. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Takehiro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. Methods BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1 or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA. Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. Results The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Conclusions Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury.

  9. Thyrotropin regulates IL-6 expression in CD34+ fibrocytes: clear delineation of its cAMP-independent actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Raychaudhuri

    Full Text Available IL-6 plays diverse roles in normal and disease-associated immunity such as that associated with Graves' disease (GD. In that syndrome, the orbit undergoes remodeling during a process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. Recently, CD34(+ fibrocytes were found to infiltrate the orbit in TAO where they transition into CD34(+ orbital fibroblasts. Surprisingly, fibrocytes display high levels of functional thyrotropin receptor (TSHR, the central antigen in GD. We report here that TSH and the pathogenic anti-TSHR antibodies that drive hyperthyroidism in GD induce IL-6 expression in fibrocytes and orbital fibroblasts. Unlike TSHR signaling in thyroid epithelium, that occurring in fibrocytes is completely independent of adenylate cyclase activation and cAMP generation. Instead TSH activates PDK1 and both AKT/PKB and PKC pathways. Expression and use of PKCβII switches to that of PKCµ as fibrocytes transition to TAO orbital fibroblasts. This shift is imposed by CD34(- orbital fibroblasts but reverts when CD34(+ fibroblasts are isolated. The up-regulation of IL-6 by TSH results from coordinately enhanced IL-6 gene promoter activity and increased IL-6 mRNA stability. TSH-dependent IL-6 expression requires activity at both CREB (-213 to -208 nt and NF-κB (-78 to -62 nt binding sites. These results provide novel insights into the molecular action of TSH and signaling downstream for TSHR in non-thyroid cells. Fibrocytes neither express adenylate cyclase nor generate cAMP and thus these findings are free from any influence of cAMP-related signaling. They identify potential therapeutic targets for TAO.

  10. Human freedom and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilinger, Jan-Christoph; Crone, Katja

    2014-02-01

    Ideas about freedom and related concepts like autonomy and self-determination play a prominent role in the moral debate about human enhancement interventions. However, there is not a single understanding of freedom available, and arguments referring to freedom are simultaneously used to argue both for and against enhancement interventions. This gives rise to misunderstandings and polemical arguments. The paper attempts to disentangle the different distinguishable concepts, classifies them and shows how they relate to one another in order to allow for a more structured and clearer debate. It concludes in identifying the individual underpinnings and the social conditions of choice and decision-making as particularly salient dimensions of freedom in the ethical debate about human enhancement.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits IL-6 expression via PPARγ-mediated expression of catalase in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Ah; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-07-01

    Cerulein pancreatitis mirrors human acute pancreatitis. In pancreatic acinar cells exposed to cerulein, reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate inflammatory signaling by Janus kinase (JAK) 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, and cytokine induction. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) acts as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), which mediates the expression of some antioxidant enzymes. We hypothesized that DHA may induce PPARγ-target catalase expression and reduce ROS levels, leading to the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 activation and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated acinar cells. Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells were treated with DHA in the presence or absence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, or treated with the PPARγ agonist troglitazone, and then stimulated with cerulein. Expression of IL-6 and catalase, ROS levels, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and nuclear translocation of PPARγ were assessed. DHA suppressed the increase in ROS, JAK2/STAT3 activation, and IL-6 expression induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ and catalase expression in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Troglitazone inhibited the cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression, but induced catalase expression similar to DHA in AR42J cells. GW9662 abolished the inhibitory effect of DHA on cerulein-induced increase in ROS and IL-6 expression in AR42J cells. DHA-induced expression of catalase was suppressed by GW9662 in cerulein-stimulated AR42J cells. Thus, DHA induces PPARγ activation and catalase expression, which inhibits ROS-mediated activation of JAK2/STAT3 and IL-6 expression in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...... on the legitimacy to legislate and on whether the existing legal framework is appropriate to address the various concerns. In order to do so, it is crucial to establish clear legal definitions. Precise distinctions between interventions on the human body are intrinsically difficult to formulate. However, subject......-matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...

  13. Serum Levels of IL-6 Type Cytokines and Soluble IL-6 Receptors in Active B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and in Cladribine Induced Remission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Robak

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130. The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA, as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%, OSM in 20/25 (80% of untreated and 14/38 (37.8% of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05. However, in the patients treated with 2-CdA the IL-6 level was significantly lower (P0.05. We have found significant positive correlation between the levels of sIL6R and the lymphocytes count in CLL patients (Ρ=0.423; P<0.001. In addition, sIL-6R and OSM serum concentrations correlated also with CLL Rai stage. In conclusion, the serum level of IL-6, OSM and sIL-6R, but not LIF and sgp130, are useful indicators of CLL activity.

  14. Astrocyte-targeted expression of IL-6 protects the CNS against a focal brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes; Lago, Natalia

    2003-01-01

    The effect of CNS-targeted IL-6 gene expression has been thoroughly investigated in the otherwise nonperturbed brain but not following brain injury. Here we examined the impact of astrocyte-targeted IL-6 production in a traumatic brain injury (cryolesion) model using GFAP-IL6 transgenic mice....... This study demonstrated that transgenic IL-6 production significantly increased wound healing following the cryolesion. Thus, at 20 days postlesion (dpl) the GFAP-IL6 mice showed almost complete wound healing compared to litter mate nontransgenic controls. It seems likely that a reduced inflammatory response...... neuropathological insult such as following traumatic injury, a clear neuroprotective role is evident....

  15. The role of intratumoral and systemic IL-6 in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Højfeldt, Grith Westergaard; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several cancer forms including breast cancer. The pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 is a key player in systemic inflammation, regulating both the inflammatory response and tissue metabolism during acute stimulations. Here, we...... circulating IL-6 and risk of breast cancer, prognosis for patients with prevalent disease, adverse effects and interventions to control systemic IL-6 levels in patients are discussed. In summary, direct application of IL-6 on breast cancer cells inhibits proliferation in estrogen receptor positive cells......, while high circulating IL-6 levels are correlated with a poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. This discrepancy reflects distinct roles of IL-6, with elevated systemic levels being a biomarker for tumor burden, physical inactivity, and impaired metabolism, while local intratumoral IL-6 signaling...

  16. Maternal IL-6 can cause T-cell-mediated juvenile alopecia by non-scarring follicular dystrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen E P; Maus, Rachel L G; Davis, Tessa R; Sundberg, John P; Gil, Diana; Schrum, Adam G

    2016-03-01

    Aiming to decipher immunological mechanisms of the autoimmune disorder alopecia areata (AA), we hypothesized that interleukin-6 (IL-6) might be associated with juvenile-onset AA, for which there is currently no experimental model. Upon intramuscular transgenesis to overexpress IL-6 in pregnant female C57BL/6 (B6) mice, we found that the offspring displayed an initial normal and complete juvenile hair growth cycle, but developed alopecia around postnatal day 18. This alopecia was patchy and reversible (non-scarring) and was associated with upregulation of Ulbp1 expression, the only mouse homolog of the human AA-associated ULBP3 gene. Alopecia was also associated with inflammatory infiltration of hair follicles by lymphocytes, including alpha-beta T cells, which contributed to surface hair loss. Despite these apparently shared traits with AA, lesions were dominated by follicular dystrophy that was atypical of human AA disease, sharing some traits consistent with B6 alopecia and dermatitis. Additionally, juvenile-onset alopecia was followed by complete, spontaneous recovery of surface hair, without recurrence of hair loss. Prolonging exposure to IL-6 prolonged the time to recovery, but once recovered, repeating high-dose IL-6 exposure de novo did not re-induce alopecia. These data suggest that although substantial molecular and cellular pathways may be shared, functionally similar alopecia disorders can occur via distinct pathological mechanisms. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Dermatology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Distinct Effects of IL-6 Classic and Trans-Signaling in Bone Fracture Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystaz, Katja; Kaiser, Kathrin; Kovtun, Anna; Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Fischer, Verena; Rapp, Anna E; Liedert, Astrid; Strauss, Gudrun; Waetzig, Georg H; Rose-John, Stefan; Ignatius, Anita

    2018-02-01

    Bone healing is a complex process with closely linked phases of inflammation, regeneration, and remodeling. IL-6 may crucially regulate this process; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. IL-6 signals are transmitted via the transmembrane glycoprotein 130 by two distinct mechanisms: classic signaling using the membrane-anchored IL-6 receptor and trans-signaling using its soluble form. Herein, we investigated the hypothesis that IL-6 classic and trans-signaling have different functions during bone healing. To investigate fracture healing, 12-week-old C57BL/6J mice underwent a femur osteotomy. To study the function of IL-6 during the inflammatory phase, either an anti-IL-6 antibody, which inhibits IL-6 classic and trans-signaling, or soluble glycoprotein 130 fusion protein, which selectively blocks trans-signaling, was injected after 30 minutes and 48 hours. To analyze IL-6 effects in the repair phase, compounds were injected from day 7 onwards. Global IL-6 inhibition in the early phase after fracture reduced systemic inflammation, the recruitment of immune cells, and bone regeneration, resulting in delayed fracture healing. Global IL-6 inhibition during the repair phase disturbed bone formation and remodeling. In contrast, inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling exerted minor effects on the immune response and did not influence bone repair, suggesting that the classic pathway accounts for most of the effects observed after global IL-6 inhibition. Our results reveal that IL-6 classic signaling, but not IL-6 trans-signaling, is essential for bone repair. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble interleukin 6 receptor (sIL-6R) mediates colonic tumor cell adherence to the vascular endothelium: a mechanism for metastatic initiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowdall, J F

    2012-02-03

    The mechanisms by which surgery increases metastatic proliferation remain poorly characterized, although endotoxin and immunocytes play a role. Recent evidence suggests that endothelial adherence of tumor cells may be important in the formation of metastases. Soluble receptors of interleukin-6 (sIL-6R) shed by activated neutrophils exert IL-6 effects on endothelial cells, which are unresponsive under normal circumstances. This study examined the hypothesis that sIL-6R released by surgical stress increases tumor cell adherence to the endothelium. Neutrophils (PMN) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Soluble IL-6R release was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Colonic tumor cells transfected with green fluorescent protein and endothelial cells were exposed to sIL-6R, and tumor cell adherence and transmigration were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Basal release of sIL-6R from PMN was 44.7 +\\/- 8.2 pg\\/ml at 60 min. This was significantly increased by endotoxin and CRP (131 +\\/- 16.8 and 84.1 +\\/- 5.3, respectively; both P < 0.05). However, tumor necrosis factor-alpha did not significantly alter sIL-6R release. Endothelial and tumor cell exposure to sIL-6R increased tumor cell adherence by 71.3% within 2 h but did not significantly increase transmigration, even at 6 h. Mediators of surgical stress induce neutrophil release of a soluble receptor for IL-6 that enhances colon cancer cell endothelial adherence. Since adherence to the endothelium is now considered to be a key event in metastatic genesis, these findings have important implications for colon cancer treatment strategies.

  19. HIF-1α Activation Attenuates IL-6 and TNF-α Pathways in Hippocampus of Rats Following Transient Global Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Xing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was to examine the role played by hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α in regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs pathway in the rat hippocampus after cardiac arrest (CA induced-transient global ischemia followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. Those PICs include interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. Methods: A rat model of CA induced by asphyxia was used in the current study. Following CPR, the hippocampus CA1 region was obtained for ELISA to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs; and Western Blot analysis to determine the protein levels of PIC receptors. Results: Our data show that IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were significant elevated in the hippocampus after CPR as compared with control group. This was companied with increasing of HIF-1α and the time courses for HIF-1α and PICs were similar. In addition, PIC receptors, namely IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR1 were upregulated in CA rats. Also, stimulation of HIF-1α by systemic administration of ML228, HIF-1α activator, significantly attenuated the amplified IL-6/IL-6R and TNF-α /TNFR1 pathway in the hippocampus of CA rats, but did not modify IL-1β and its receptor. Moreover, ML228 attenuated upregulated expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis evoked by CA. Conclusion: Transient global ischemia induced by CA increases the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α and thereby leads to enhancement in their respective receptor in the rat hippocampus. Stabilization of HIF-1α plays a role in attenuating amplified expression IL-6R, TNFR1 and Caspase-3 in the processing of transient global ischemia. Results of our study suggest that PICs contribute to cerebral injuries evoked by transient global ischemia and in this pathophysiological process activation of HIF-1α improves tissues against ischemic injuries. Our data revealed specific signaling pathways in alleviating CA-evoked global cerebral ischemia by elucidating that

  20. Intestinal inflammation-induced growth retardation acts through IL-6 in rats and depends on the –174 IL-6 G/C polymorphism in children

    OpenAIRE

    Sawczenko, Andrew; Azooz, Omeia; Paraszczuk, Joanna; Idestrom, Maja; Croft, Nick M.; Savage, Martin O.; Ballinger, Anne B.; Sanderson, Ian R.

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases frequently impair linear growth. Crohn's disease inhibits growth in up to one third of affected children. In rats with trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid-induced colitis, 40% of growth impairment is attributable to inflammation, with the rest being due to undernutrition. In transgenic mice without inflammation, raised IL-6 retards growth, suppressing insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. We hypothesized that IL-6, induced by intestinal inflammation, suppresses growth and inhibi...

  1. IL-17 Activates the IL-6/STAT3 Signal Pathway in the Proliferation of Hepatitis B Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zongqiang; Luo, Ding; Wang, Dongdong; Ma, Linjie; Zhao, Yingpeng; Li, Li

    2017-01-01

    We performed this study to determine the role of IL-17 in the immune microenvironment of hepatitis B virus- (HBV-) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HepG2 cells were treated with IL-17, STAT3 inhibitor S31-201 or IL-6 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (IL-6 mAb). Cell proliferation and migration were compared using the Cell Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell assays, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), Western Blot, ELISA, immunofluorescence and histological staining were used for determining the expression levels of IL-17, IL-6, MCP-1, CCL5, VEGF, STAT3 and p-STAT3. HCC xenograft models were constructed in wild type and IL-17 knockout mice to clarify the effects of IL-17 on HCC in vivo. Exogenous IL-17 enhanced the proliferation and migration of HepG2 cells, and it activated the phosphorylation of STAT3. RT-qPCR and ELISA showed that IL-17 promoted the expression of IL-6. The CCK-8 and Transwell assays showed that S31-201 or IL-6 mAb remarkably reversed the promotion effects of proliferation and migration by exogenous IL-17 in HepG2 cells. Additionally, IL-6 could promote the phosphorylation of STAT3, while IL-6 mAb acted as an inhibitor, and exogenous IL-17 could neutralize the inhibitory effects of IL-6 mAb. In vivo, compared to the wild type mice, the tumor volume, weight, density and size were decreased in IL-17 knockout mice. Additionally, the expression levels of p-STAT3, IL-6, MCP-1, CCL5 and VEGF decreased in IL-17 knockout mice. IL-17 can enhance the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and in vivo via activating the IL-6/STAT3 pathway. Therefore, the IL-17/IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for HBV-related HCC. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Protein kinase CK2 modulates IL-6 expression in inflammatory breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drygin, Denis, E-mail: ddrygin@cylenepharma.com; Ho, Caroline B.; Omori, Mayuko; Bliesath, Joshua; Proffitt, Chris; Rice, Rachel; Siddiqui-Jain, Adam; O' Brien, Sean; Padgett, Claire; Lim, John K.C.; Anderes, Kenna; Rice, William G.; Ryckman, David

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the potential cross-talk between CK2 and IL-6. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of CK2 by siRNA or CX-4945 inhibits expression of IL-6 in models of IBC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of IBC patient in the clinic with CX-4945 reduces her IL-6 plasma levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CK2 is a potential therapeutic target for IL-6 driven diseases. -- Abstract: Inflammatory breast cancer is driven by pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokines. One of them Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in cancer cell proliferation and survival, and promotes angiogenesis, inflammation and metastasis. While IL-6 has been shown to be upregulated by several oncogenes, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is not well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the pleotropic Serine/Threonine kinase CK2 is implicated in the regulation of IL-6 expression in a model of inflammatory breast cancer. We used siRNAs targeted toward CK2 and a selective small molecule inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, to inhibit the expression and thus suppress the secretion of IL-6 in in vitro as well as in vivo models. Moreover, we report that in a clinical trial, CX-4945 was able to dramatically reduce IL-6 levels in plasma of an inflammatory breast cancer patient. Our data shed a new light on the regulation of IL-6 expression and position CX-4945 and potentially other inhibitors of CK2, for the treatment of IL-6-driven cancers and possibly other diseases where IL-6 is instrumental, including rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Sex Differences in the Relationship of IL-6 Signaling to Cancer Cachexia Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzler, Kimbell L.; Hardee, Justin P.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Narsale, Aditi A.; Sato, Shuichi; Davis, J. Mark; Carson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    A devastating aspect of cancer cachexia is severe loss of muscle and fat mass. Though cachexia occurs in both sexes, it is not well-defined in the female. The Apc Min/+ mouse is genetically predisposed to develop intestinal tumors; circulating IL-6 is a critical regulator of cancer cachexia in the male Apc Min/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IL-6 signaling and cachexia progression in the female Apc Min/+ mouse. Male and female Apc Min/+ mice were examined during the initiation and progression of cachexia. Another group of females had IL-6 overexpressed between 12-14 weeks or 15-18 weeks of age to determine whether IL-6 could induce cachexia. Cachectic female Apc Min/+ mice lost body weight, muscle mass, and fat mass; increased muscle IL-6 mRNA expression was associated with these changes, but circulating IL-6 levels were not. Circulating IL-6 levels did not correlate with downstream signaling in muscle in the female. Muscle IL-6r mRNA expression and SOCS3 mRNA expression as well as muscle IL-6r protein and STAT3 phosphorylation increased with severe cachexia in both sexes. Muscle SOCS3 protein increased in cachectic females but decreased in cachectic males. IL-6 overexpression did not affect cachexia progression in female Apc Min/+ mice. Our results indicate that female Apc Min/+ mice undergo cachexia progression that is at least initially IL-6-independent. Future studies in the female will need to determine mechanisms underlying regulation of IL-6 response and cachexia induction. PMID:25555992

  4. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Zaken Sigal; Meckel Yoav; Nemet Dan; Kassem Eias; Eliakim Alon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes w...

  5. IL6-174G > C genetic polymorphism influences antidepressant treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Serafim; Santos, Marlene; Lima, Luís; Mota-Pereira, Jorge; Pimentel, Paulo; Maia, Dulce; Correia, Diana; Gomes, Sofia; Cruz, Agostinho; Medeiros, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Major depressive disorder is a condition associated with dysregulated cytokine levels; among these, IL6. Furthermore, genetic variations within cytokine genes have been proposed to predict antidepressant treatment outcome. This study aims to evaluate the role of IL6-174G > C and IL6R D358A A > C functional polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse, and treatment resistant depression (TRD). The referred polymorphisms were genotyped in 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months. It was found that patients carrying IL6-174 GC genotype present a protection towards the development of TRD (OR = 0.242; 95% CI = 0.068-0.869; p = .038), when compared with GG genotype. Additionally, carriers of IL6-174 CC genotype remit earlier than patients with IL6-174 GG/GC genotypes, with a median time to remission of 6 weeks for CC carriers and 15 weeks for GG or GC carriers (p = .030, Log-rank test). No association was found between IL6R D358A genetic polymorphism and any of the treatment phenotypes evaluated. The IL6-174G > C polymorphism influences antidepressant treatment outcome in this sub-set of MDD patients, providing a putative mechanistic link for the dysregulated IL-6 levels described in the literature in patients with TRD.

  6. Effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the vascular smooth muscle contraction in abdominal aorta of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Ting; Shan, Jing-Li; Sun, Peng; Yang, Ting-Ting; Chang, Xin-Wen; Li, Sen; Wang, Paulus S; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2011-10-31

    Patients with type 1 diabetes are at a risk of hypertension. However, the mechanisms behind the findings are not completely known. The aim of the present study was to investigate involvement of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on the contraction of abdominal aorta in rats with type 1 diabetes. IL-6 levels in the plasma of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were determined by ELISA. The abdominal aorta was dissected free of fat and connective tissues and then cut into spiral rings. The endothelium-denuded strip was vertically suspended in tissue chambers containing 5 ml Krebs solution at 37 degrees C and bubbled continuously with 95% O2-5% CO2. The effects of phenylephrine (Phe) on the contractile responses of abdominal aorta were recorded. The effects of IL-6 and anti-rat IL-6 antibody on the Phe-induced response were also examined. Plasma levels of IL-6 increased time-dependently in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Phe caused concentration-dependent contraction in aortic rings. Phe-induced contractions were higher in vascular strips of STZ-induced diabetic rats than that of control rats. Pretreatment of vascular strips with IL-6 for 1 h did not cause contraction but enhanced the contraction in response to Phe. Treatment of the vascular strips with an anti-IL-6 antibody for 1 h decreased the Phe-induced contractions. These results suggest that IL-6 causes vascular smooth muscle contraction in abdominal aorta of rats with type 1 diabetes.

  7. IL-6 secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of gastric cancer via JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Zhenjia; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jiaanfang; Li, Chen; Yan, Min; Zhu, Zhenggang; Liu, Bingya; Su, Liping

    2017-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), as the activated fibroblasts in tumor stroma, are important modifiers of tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor-promoting properties of CAFs in gastric cancer remain unclear. Here, we show that CAFs isolated from gastric cancer produce significant amounts of interleukin-6 (IL-6). CAFs enhances the migration and EMT of gastric cancer cells through the secretion of IL-6 that activates Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK2/STAT3) pathway in gastric cancer cells, while deprivation of IL-6 using a neutralizing antibody or inhibition of JAK/STAT3 pathway with specific inhibitor AG490 markedly attenuates these phenotypes in gastric cancer cells induced by CAFs. Moreover, silencing IL-6 expression in CAFs or inhibiting JAK2/STAT3 pathway in gastric cancer cells impairs tumor peritoneal metastasis induced by CAFs in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that CAFs in the tumor microenvironment promote the progression of gastric cancer through IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling, and IL-6 targeted therapy could be a complementary approach against gastric cancer by exerting their action on stromal fibroblasts. PMID:28186964

  8. Prothrombotic State in Asthma Is Related to Increased Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines, IL-6 and TNFα, in Peripheral Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan-Socha, Stanislawa; Mastalerz, Lucyna; Cybulska, Agnieszka; Zareba, Lech; Kremers, Romy; Zabczyk, Michal; Pulka, Grazyna; Iwaniec, Teresa; Hemker, Coenraad; Undas, Anetta

    2017-08-01

    Recently, we have reported that asthma is associated with enhanced plasma thrombin formation and impaired fibrinolysis. The mechanisms underlying the prothrombotic state in this disease are unknown. Our aim was to investigate whether prothrombotic alterations in asthmatics are associated with inflammation. We studied 164 adult, white, stable asthmatics and 72 controls matched for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and smoking. Plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, and serum periostin were evaluated using ELISAs, and their associations with thrombin generation, fibrinolytic capacity, expressed as clot lysis time (CLT), and platelet markers were later analyzed. Asthma was characterized by 62% higher plasma IL-6 and 35% higher TNFα (both, p < 0.0001). Inflammatory cytokines were higher in sporadic and persistent asthmatics compared to controls, also after adjustment for potential confounders. IL-6 was inversely related to the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/vital capacity (FEV1/VC) spirometry index after correction for age, sex, and BMI. IL-6 and TNFα were associated with C-reactive protein in asthmatics (β = 0.6 [95% CI, 0.54-0.67] and β = 0.33 [95% CI, 0.25-0.41], respectively) and controls (β = 0.43 [95% CI, 0.29-0.57] and β = 0.33 [95% CI, 0.18-0.48], respectively). In asthma, IL-6 and TNFα positively correlated with the endogenous thrombin potential (β = 0.35 [95% CI, 0.28-0.42] and β = 0.15 [95% CI, 0.07-0.23], respectively) but not with CLT or platelet markers. However, TNFα predicted CLT in a multiple linear regression model. Periostin was not associated with any hemostatic parameters. Enhanced thrombin generation is driven in asthma by a systemic inflammatory state mediated by IL-6 and to a lesser extent TNFα, however, not periostin. TNFα might contribute to impaired fibrinolysis.

  9. Sex bias in experimental immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury in BALB/c mice: suggested roles for Tregs, estrogen, and IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhee Cho

    Full Text Available Immune-mediated, drug-induced liver injury (DILI triggered by drug haptens is more prevalent in women than in men. However, mechanisms responsible for this sex bias are not clear. Immune regulation by CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs and 17β-estradiol is crucial in the pathogenesis of sex bias in cancer and autoimmunity. Therefore, we investigated their role in a mouse model of immune-mediated DILI.To model DILI, we immunized BALB/c, BALB/cBy, IL-6-deficient, and castrated BALB/c mice with trifluoroacetyl chloride-haptenated liver proteins. We then measured degree of hepatitis, cytokines, antibodies, and Treg and splenocyte function.BALB/c females developed more severe hepatitis (p<0.01 and produced more pro-inflammatory hepatic cytokines and antibodies (p<0.05 than did males. Castrated males developed more severe hepatitis than did intact males (p<0.001 and females (p<0.05. Splenocytes cultured from female mice exhibited fewer Tregs (p<0.01 and higher IL-1β (p<0.01 and IL-6 (p<0.05 than did those from males. However, Treg function did not differ by sex, as evidenced by absence of sex bias in programmed death receptor-1 and responses to IL-6, anti-IL-10, anti-CD3, and anti-CD28. Diminished hepatitis in IL-6-deficient, anti-IL-6 receptor α-treated, ovariectomized, or male mice; undetectable IL-6 levels in splenocyte supernatants from ovariectomized and male mice; elevated splenic IL-6 and serum estrogen levels in castrated male mice, and IL-6 induction by 17β-estradiol in splenocytes from naïve female mice (p<0.05 suggested that 17β-estradiol may enhance sex bias through IL-6 induction, which subsequently discourages Treg survival. Treg transfer from naïve female mice to those with DILI reduced hepatitis severity and hepatic IL-6.17β-estradiol and IL-6 may act synergistically to promote sex bias in experimental DILI by reducing Tregs. Modulating Treg numbers may provide a therapeutic approach to DILI.

  10. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and low O(2) concentration (1%) synergize to improve the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (pre-CFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević-Filipović, Milica; Petakov, Marijana; Hermitte, Francis; Debeissat, Christelle; Krstić, Aleksandra; Jovcić, Gordana; Bugarski, Dijana; Lafarge, Xavier; Milenković, Pavle; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanović, Zoran

    2007-07-01

    Low O(2) concentration (1%) favors the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and inhibits committed progenitors (CFC). Since IL-6 influences both stem cells and committed progenitors at 20% O(2), we studied its effects in cultures at 1% O(2). The pre-CFC activity in Lin- population of mouse bone marrow was analyzed following 10 days of serum-free culture in medium (LC1) supplemented with IL-3 with and without IL-6, at 20 and 1% O(2) and phenotypic differentiation and proliferative history monitored. The IL-6 receptor expression and initiation of VEGF-A synthesis were also investigated. At 20% O(2), the effects of IL-6 on pre-CFC were negligible but effects on CFC were apparent; conversely, at 1% O(2), the IL-6 enhances activity of pre-CFC but not of CFC. Unlike at 20% O(2), at 1% O(2) a subpopulation of cells remained Lin- in spite of extensive proliferation. However, the absolute number of Lin- cells, did not correlate with pre-CFC activity. A relative increase in VEGF transcripts at 1% O(2) in presence of IL-3 alone was enhanced by the addition of IL-6. IL-6 enhanced pre-CFC activity at 1% O(2) and this was correlated to the induction of VEGF. These data reinforce the concept that physiologically low oxygenation of bone marrow is a regulator of stem cell maintenance. Since the 20% O(2) does not exist in tissues in vivo, further studies in vitro at lower O(2) concentrations should revise our knowledge relating to cytokine effects on stem and progenitor cells.

  11. Signalling pathways associated with IL-6 production and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induction in prostate epithelial cells stimulated with Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, I H; Kim, J H; Kim, S S; Ahn, M H; Ryu, J S

    2016-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) has been found in patient tissue of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and suggested to cause chronic prostatitis. IL-6 is known as one of the important factors of chronic inflammation in prostate cancer. Patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) had higher levels of IL-6 in seminal plasma. Furthermore, inflammatory conditions induced by pathogen infections have been shown to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we investigated the signals involved in IL-6 production by human prostate epithelial cells (PECs) stimulated with Tv and examined whether Tv induces EMT in PECs. We found that PECs stimulated with Tv increased the production of IL-6, as well as the expression of TLR2, TLR4, MAPKs (p38, JNK, ERK), NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3, and levels of ROS. Inhibition of TLR2 or TLR4 reduced IL-6 production as well as expression of these other factors, and agents inhibiting ROS, MAPKs, NF-κB and JAK reduced IL-6 production. However, when PECs were stimulated with Tv, transcripts of mesenchymal cell markers increased, and epithelial cell markers decreased. In addition, the induction of EMT was suppressed by inhibitors of JAK or NF-κB. These findings are the first evidence that Tv infection of prostate epithelial cells may induce EMT. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of Lutein on Hyperosmoticity-Induced Upregulation of IL-6 in Cultured Corneal Epithelial Cells and Its Relevant Signal Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chun Chao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a common disorder characterized by deficiency of tear. Hyperosmoticity of tear stimulates inflammation and damage of ocular surface tissues and plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. Cultured human corneal epithelial (CE cells were used for the study of effects of lutein and hyperosmoticity on the secretion of IL-6 by CE cells. Cell viability of CE cells was not affected by lutein at 1–10 μM as determined by MTT assay. Hyperosmoticity significantly elevated the secretion of IL-6 by CE cells as measured by ELISA analysis. The constitutive secretion of IL-6 was not affected by lutein. Lutein significantly and dose-dependently inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6. Phosphorylated- (p- p38 MAPK, p-JNK levels in cell lysates and NF-κB levels in cell nuclear extracts were increased by being exposed to hyperosmotic medium. JNK, p38, and NF-κB inhibitors decreased hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6. Lutein significantly inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced elevation of NF-κB, p38, and p-JNK levels. We demonstrated that lutein inhibited hyperosmoticity-induced secretion of IL-6 in CE cells through the deactivation of p38, JNK, and NF-κB pathways. Lutein may be a promising agent to be explored for the treatment of dry eye.

  13. Evaluation of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Srilata Puru; P A, Mahesh; B S, Jayaraj; Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Jahromi, Sarah Raeiszadeh; Yadav, Manish Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Even though IL-6 and MMP-9 are associated with airway inflammation in asthma, there is paucity of data in Indian population. To determine the levels of IL-6 and MMP-9 in the serum of patients suffering from asthma, and correlate with (a) disease severity, as per GINA guidelines; (b) clinical phenotypes; and (c) response to treatment. The levels of IL-6 and MMP-9 were compared between moderate persistent asthma (n = 25), severe persistent asthma (n = 25) and normal controls (n = 30). IL-6 and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA (R&D Systems Inc., USA and Canada) and compared between controls and asthmatics and between groups of different asthma severity, clinical variables, spirometry, and allergen sensitization. Spirometry was repeated after 2 months of ICS+LABA to assess response to treatment in relation to baseline IL-6 and MMP-9 levels. We observed a significant difference in both IL-6 and MMP-9 levels among asthmatics versus controls (p asthma (p asthma duration, total IgE, AEC, number of allergens sensitized and degree of sensitization. No significant correlation (p > 0.5) was observed with IL-6 and MMP-9 levels and FEV1 improvement after 2 months of ICS+LABA. Higher levels of IL-6 and MMP-9 were observed in asthmatics as compared to controls and in severe persistent asthma as compared to moderate persistent asthma, higher levels of MMP-9 was associated with lower lung functions.

  14. IL-6 gene polymorphisms and sepsis in icu adult romanian patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Anca Meda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the correlations between the interleukin-6 IL-6 -174 G/C and IL-6 -572 G/C gene polymorphisms and sepsis risk and severity in adult ICU patients.

  15. Influence of the IL6 Gene in Susceptibility to Systemic Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M.C.; Simeon, C.P.; Vonk, M.C.; Callejas-Rubio, J.L.; Espinosa, G.; Carreira, P.; Blanco, F.J.; Narvaez, J.; Tolosa, C.; Roman-Ivorra, J.A.; Gomez-Garcia, I.; Garcia-Hernandez, F.J.; Gallego, M.; Garcia-Portales, R.; Egurbide, M.V.; Fonollosa, V.; Garcia de la Pena, P.; Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez-Gay, M.A.; The Spanish Scleroderma, G.; Hesselstrand, R.; Riemekasten, G.; Witte, T.; Voskuyl, A.E.; Schuerwegh, A.J.; Madhok, R.; Fonseca, C.; Denton, C.; Nordin, A.; Palm, O.; Laar, J.M. van; Hunzelmann, N.; Distler, J.H.; Kreuter, A.; Herrick, A.; Worthington, J.; Koeleman, B.P.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Martin, J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a genetically complex autoimmune disease; the genetic component has not been fully defined. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a crucial role in immunity and fibrosis, both key aspects of SSc. We investigated the influence of IL6 gene in the susceptibility and

  16. Clinical Significance of Serum IL-6 and TNF-α Levels in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mojgan; Gozashti, Mohammad Hossein; Aghadavood, Majid; Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-10-01

    Several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) facilitate its diagnosis, including abdominal obesity, hyperlipidemia, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance. The production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) seem to be associated with MetS components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels with MetS and its components. This case-control study investigated 250 subjects, comprising 125 healthy controls from the Kerman Blood Transfusion Organization and 125 MetS patients. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were greater in MetS patients than in controls. However, no correlation was observed between MetS components and IL-6 or TNF-α serum levels. Patients with MetS had significantly greater serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels than the controls, supporting the evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease. Additionally, IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels may predict MetS. The lack of association between IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels and MetS components remains to be investigated by further research.

  17. Pulmonary expression of oncostatin M (OSM) promotes inducible BALT formation independently of IL-6, despite a role for IL-6 in OSM-driven pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Fernando M; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Fritz, Dominik; Randall, Troy D; Xing, Zhou; Richards, Carl D

    2013-08-01

    Inducible BALT (iBALT) is associated with immune responses to respiratory infections as well as with local pathology derived from chronic inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, we assessed the role of oncostatin M (OSM) in B cell activation and iBALT formation in mouse lungs. We found that C57BL/6 mice responded to an endotracheally administered adenovirus vector expressing mouse OSM, with marked iBALT formation, increased cytokine (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12), and chemokine (CXCL13, CCL20, CCL21, eotaxin-2, KC, and MCP-1) production as well as inflammatory cell accumulation in the airways. B cells, T cells, and dendritic cells were also recruited to the lung, where many displayed an activated phenotype. Mice treated with control adenovirus vector (Addl70) were not affected. Interestingly, IL-6 was required for inflammatory responses in the airways and for the expression of most cytokines and chemokines. However, iBALT formation and lymphocyte recruitment to the lung tissue occurred independently of IL-6 and STAT6 as assessed in gene-deficient mice. Collectively, these results support the ability of OSM to induce B cell activation and iBALT formation independently of IL-6 and highlight a role for IL-6 downstream of OSM in the induction of pulmonary inflammation.

  18. Interleukin-6-induced Twist and N-cadherin enhance melanoma cell metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yi-Rang; Lee, Jin-Sub; Lee, Seok-Jong; Seok, Seung-Hyeok

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma patients frequently have elevated serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is correlated with a poor prognosis. IL-6 activates STAT3 phosphorylation, inducing the transcription of genes that regulate tumor cell proliferation and antiapoptosis. In addition, recent evidence suggests that IL-6 induces the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and enhances the invasiveness of tumor cells of epithelial origin. However, it is unknown whether IL-6 affects mesenchymal tumor cells. In this study, we examined the effects of IL-6 on melanoma cells and found that IL-6 can enhance their metastatic potential by regulating the expression of Twist and N-cadherin. First, we confirmed that human melanoma tissues express IL-6 (especially at the lesion site), the IL-6 receptor, N-cadherin, and nuclear Twist. Next, we found that IL-6 induces STAT3 phosphorylation in WM-266-4 human melanoma cells, resulting in transient upregulation of Twist, which is a key regulator of metastasis. Importantly, the expression of N-cadherin, a protein downstream of Twist, was also increased on the cell surface after treatment with IL-6. These cells showed enhanced invasiveness, assessed using an invasion assay, and formed more metastatic nodules in the lungs of NOD-SCID mice after an intravenous injection. Importantly, melanoma cells with knocked-down N-cadherin formed less lung nodules compared with control in the NOD-SCID mouse model. Our data suggest that increased serum IL-6 in cancer patients could increase the invasiveness of melanoma cells and accelerate metastasis. Blocking IL-6 in the melanoma microenvironment may therefore inhibit disease progression.

  19. Encephalitozoon intestinalis inhibits dendritic cell differentiation through an IL-6-dependent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Bernal Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMicrosporidia are a group of intracellular pathogens causing self-limited and severe diseases in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals, respectively. A cellular type 1 adaptive response, mediated by IL-12, IFNg, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells has been shown to be essential for host resistance, and dendritic cells (DC play a key role at eliciting anti-microsporidial immunity. We investigated the in vitro response of DC and DC precursors/progenitors to infection with Encephalitozoon intestinalis (Ei, a common agent of human microsporidosis. Ei-exposed DC cultures up-regulated the surface expression of MHC class II and the costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40, only when high loads of spores were used. A vigorous secretion of IL-6 but not of IL-1b or IL-12p70 was also observed in these cultures. Ei-exposed DC cultures consisted of immature infected and mature bystander DC, as assessed by MHC class II and costimulatory molecules expression, suggesting that intracellular Ei spores deliver inhibitory signals in DC. Moreover, Ei selectively inhibited the secretion of IL-12p70 in LPS-stimulated DC. Whereas Ei-exposed DC promoted allogeneic naïve T cell proliferation and IL-2 and IFNg secretion in DC-CD4+ T cell co-cultures, separated co-cultures with bystander or infected DCs showed stimulation or inhibition of IFNg secretion, respectively. When DC precursors/progenitors were exposed to Ei spores, a significant inhibition of DC differentiation was observed without shifting the development towards cells phenotypically or functionally compatible with myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Neutralization experiments demonstrated that this inhibitory effect is IL-6-dependent. Altogether this investigation reveals a novel potential mechanism of immune escape of microsporidian parasites through the modulation of DC differentiation and maturation.

  20. Increased serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in women with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Sigbritt; Näsman, Birgitta; Olsson, Tommy

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that hypercortisolism contributes to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the fact that excess glucocorticoid exposure has potent adverse effects on the central nervous system. In contrast, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has been linked to a broad range of beneficial physiological effects including neuronal excitability and neuroprotection and even memory enhancing properties. Of note, proinflammatory cytokines are present in neuritic plaques (a hallmark of AD) and may regulate cortisol/DHEA release. In this exploratory study, we hypothesized that there is a flattened diurnal curve of cortisol and DHEA in mild to moderate AD, linked to increased cytokine levels. Diurnal profiles of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and DHEA were studied in 15 patients with mild to moderate AD (7 men and 8 women, 75.6 ± 5.5 years) and 15 healthy elderly controls (7 men and 8 women, 73.3 ± 5.8 years, respectively). Interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and soluble TNF receptors were analyzed. Women with AD had significantly increased morning levels of ACTH, DHEA, and IL-6 compared to healthy elderly women. Cortisol levels were significantly increased in men with AD at 0300 h versus healthy elderly men, in spite of slightly decreased ACTH levels. Our data suggest important sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation and steroid hormone clearance in patients with AD. Increased secretion of IL-6 may have a contributory role in this difference.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide increases IL-6 secretion via activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway to up-regulate RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ke; Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Xianxian; Wu, Xiangnan; Liu, Wenjia; Li, Xiaoyu; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in bone resorption, which involves numerous cytokines through various signaling pathways. RANKL and interleukin (IL)-6 are two important cytokines that are involved in bone remodeling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LPS on RANKL and IL-6 gene expression, the relationship of RANKL and IL-6, and the role of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) on IL-6 secretion induced by LPS in MLO-Y4 cells. The cells were stimulated by LPS at different concentrations (1, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 ng/mL) for different durations (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 h), and the mRNA expressions of RANKL and IL-6 were determined by PCR. In the presence of 100 ng/mL LPS at different time points (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 4 h), IL-6 secretion and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the cells were determined by ELISA and western blotting, respectively. STAT3 phosphorylation in cells simulated by 100 ng/mL LPS at different time points (0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h) was assessed by western blotting. We found that LPS significantly up-regulated RANKL expression and activated the ERK1/2 pathway to induce IL-6 mRNA expression and protein synthesis in MLO-Y4 cells. However, the increased IL-6 was blocked by pre-treatment of MLO-Y4 cells with the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 (10 µM), and the enhanced RANKL was blocked by the STAT3 inhibitor S3I-201 (100 µM). Our results indicate that LPS up-regulates osteocyte expression of RANKL and IL-6, and the increased RANKL is associated with the up-regulation of IL-6, which involves the ERK1/2 pathway. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  2. Acquisition of resistance to trastuzumab in gastric cancer cells is associated with activation of IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch positive feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Sun, Limin; Chen, Hongyu; Deng, Que; Liu, Yanjun; Yu, Ming; Ma, Yuanfang; Guo, Ning; Shi, Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate that prolonged treatment by trastuzumab induced resistance of NCI-N87 gastric cancer cells to trastuzumab. The resistant cells possessed typical characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)/cancer stem cells and acquired more invasive and metastatic potentials both in vitro and in vivo. Long term treatment with trastuzumab dramatically inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, but triggered the activation of STAT3. The level of IL-6 was remarkably increased, implicating that the release of IL-6 that drives the STAT3 activation initiates the survival signaling transition. Furthermore, the Notch activities were significantly enhanced in the resistant cells, companied by upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged-1 and the Notch responsive genes Hey1 and Hey2. Inhibiting the endogenous Notch pathway reduced the IL-6 expression and restored the sensitivities of the resistant cells to trastuzumab. Blocking of the STAT3 signaling abrogated IL-6-induced Jagged-1 expression, effectively inhibited the growth of the trastuzumab resistant cells, and enhanced the anti-tumor activities of trastuzumab in the resistant cells. These findings implicate that the IL-6/STAT3/Jagged-1/Notch axis may be a useful target and that combination of the Notch or STAT3 inhibitors with trastuzumab may prevent or delay clinical resistance and improve the efficacy of trastuzumab in gastric cancer. PMID:25669984

  3. Association of IL-6, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, and depression in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, Christian Friedrich; Kühnhardt, Dagmar; Bartholomae, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Schmid, Peter; Possinger, Kurt; Flath, Bernd Christian; Lüftner, Diana

    2010-09-01

    Evidence suggests that cytokines (IL-6) and alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis play a crucial role in the etiology of depression. Patients with cancer show elevated prevalence rates for depression. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between these abnormalities and depression. Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and cortisol were measured in cancer patients with (N = 31) and without depression (N = 83). The relative diurnal variation of cortisol (cortisol VAR), expressed in percentage, was calculated. There was a significant difference in median plasma concentration of IL-6 between the patients with depression and those without (18.7 vs 2.7 pg/mL; P < .001). Relative cortisol VAR was decreased in depressed patients as compared with patients without depression (11.72% vs 60.6%, P = .037). A positive correlation between the depressive symptoms and IL-6 concentration was found (r = 0.469, P < .001). Negative correlations were found between cortisol VAR versus depressive symptoms and cortisol VAR versus IL-6 (r = -0.6, P < .001 and r = -0.52, P < .001, respectively). IL-6 (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.2; P = .006) and cortisol VAR (OR = 1.3; 95%CI = 1.0-1.4; P = .02) are independently associated with depression. Depression in cancer is associated with increased plasma IL-6 concentrations and dysfunction of the HPA axis.

  4. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  5. Fibrinogen and clot-related phenotypes determined by fibrinogen polymorphisms: Independent and IL-6-interactive associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Toinét Cronjé

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 induces the expression of fibrinogen, and polymorphic variation within the fibrinogen genes is believed to alter the magnitude of this expression. The identification of the functional relevance of individual fibrinogen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs has been hindered by the high linkage disequilibrium (LD reported in the European fibrinogen gene locus. This study investigated two novel and 12 known fibrinogen SNPs of potential functional relevance, in 2010 Tswana individuals known to have low LD. We aimed to identify functional polymorphisms that contribute to clot-related phenotypes and total and γ' fibrinogen concentrations independently and through their interaction with IL-6, by taking advantage of the high fibrinogen and IL-6 concentrations and the low LD reported in black South Africans. Fibrinogen was significantly associated with IL-6, thereby mediating associations of IL-6 with clot formation and structure, although attenuating the association of IL-6 with clot lysis time. None of the common European fibrinogen haplotypes was present in this study population. Putative functional fibrinogen SNPs FGB-rs7439150, rs1800789 (-1420G/A and rs1800787 (-148C/T were significantly associated with fibrinogen concentration and altered clot properties, with several associations significantly influenced by IL-6 concentrations. The impact of harbouring several minor fibrinogen SNP alleles on the association of IL-6 and fibrinogen concentration was cumulative, with possession of each additional minor allele showing a stronger relationship of IL-6 with fibrinogen. This was also reflected in differences in clot properties, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Therefore, when investigating the effect of fibrinogen genetics on fibrinogen concentrations and CVD outcome, the possible interactions with modulating factors and the fact that SNP effects seem to be additive should be taken into account.

  6. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 receptors ameliorates gastrointestinal dysfunction in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, J; Buckley, M M; O'Halloran, K D; O'Malley, D

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease characterized by progressive deterioration and degeneration of striated muscle. A mutation resulting in the loss of dystrophin, a structural protein which protects cells from contraction-induced damage, underlies DMD pathophysiology. Damage to muscle fibers results in chronic inflammation and elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, loss of cellular dystrophin also affects neurons and smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with complaints such as hypomotility, pseudo-obstruction, and constipation reported in DMD patients. Using dystrophin-deficient mdx mice, studies were carried out to examine colonic morphology and function compared with wild-type mice. Treatment with neutralizing IL-6 receptor antibodies (xIL-6R) and/or the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) 2 receptor agonist, urocortin 2 (uro2) was tested to determine if they ameliorated GI dysfunction in mdx mice. Mdx mice exhibited thickening of colonic smooth muscle layers and delayed stress-induced defecation. In organ bath studies, neurally mediated IL-6-evoked contractions were larger in mdx colons. In vivo treatment of mdx mice with xIL-6R normalized defecation rates and colon lengths. Uro2 treatment did not affect motility or morphology. The potentiated colonic contractile response to IL-6 was attenuated by treatment with xIL-6R. These findings confirm the importance of dystrophin in normal GI function and implicate IL-6 as an important regulator of GI motility in the mdx mouse. Inhibition of IL-6 signaling may offer a potential new therapeutic strategy for treating DMD-associated GI symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. [Value of IL-6 and IL-8 in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Xia; Liu, Guang-Hui; Zhang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the significance of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. This was a prospective study conducted between August 2014 and February 2015. A total of 140 neonates who were suspected infectious were enrolled and classified into a sepsis group (n=49) and a local infection group (n=91). Sixty-one neonates who were non-infectious served as the control group. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 were measured before treatment and 3 days after treatment. The value of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Before treatment, serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the sepsis group were higher than those in the local infection and control groups (Psepsis group remained higher than that in the local infection and control groups (Pneonatal sepsis were 87.8%, 79.6% and 81.6% respectively; when the cut-off value of serum IL-8 was 54 pg/mL, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of serum IL-6 for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis were 77.6%, 63.8% and 67.2% respectively. With the combination of serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis were 71.4%, 86.2% and 82.6% respectively. IL-6 and IL-8 participate in the inflammatory response and the serum levels of both vary with the severity of infection. The diagnostic value of IL-6 for neonatal sepsis is higher than IL-8. The combined detection of serum levels IL-6 and IL-8 may increase the accuracy of diagnosis of neonatal sepsis.

  8. IL-6 and TNF-α in unmedicated adults with ADHD: Relationship to cortisol awakening response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, M; Armario, A; Palomar, G; Corrales, M; Carrasco, J; Richarte, V; Ferrer, R; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A

    2017-05-01

    There is preliminary evidence that the immune system's cytokines may have impact on ADHD in children. Nevertheless, studies exploring the possible role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in adults with ADHD are lacking. This study aimed to assess differences in serum IL-6 and TNF-α between patients and controls and their possible relationship to resting cortisol. 108 adults with ADHD (DSM-IV), 44 inattentive and 64 combined, age ranging between 18 and 55 years, and 27 healthy controls were included. Major psychiatric disorders and organic comorbidities were excluded. Serum samples for IL-6 and TNF-α and salivary samples to assess cortisol awakening response were collected on the same day. Analysis of variance was applied to study differences in IL-6 and TNF-α between groups. Pearson correlations were used to study associations between IL-6, TNF-α, and CAR. There were no significant differences in serum IL-6 or TNF-α levels between patients and controls or between combined and inattentive patients. Negative associations between IL-6 (r=-0.386, p=0.020), TNF-α (r=-0.372, p=0.023) and cortisol awakening response were found in the inattentive subtype, whereas no association was seen in the combined subtype. A negative correlation between IL-6 and cortisol was also present in the control group (r=-0.44, 0.030). The peripheral pro-inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, do not appear to be primarily involved in ADHD in adults, although the role of other inflammatory markers cannot be ruled out. The differences regarding the association between IL-6 and TNF-α and morning cortisol response suggest possible underlying neurobiological differences between the inattentive or combined patients that merit further studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

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    Dawn Nyawira Maranga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P<0.05 elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness.

  10. IL-6 is Upregulated in Late-Stage Disease in Monkeys Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyawira Maranga, Dawn; Kagira, John Maina; Kinyanjui, Christopher Kariuki; Muturi Karanja, Simon; Wangari Maina, Naomi; Ngotho, Maina

    2013-01-01

    The management of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is constrained by lack of simple-to-use diagnostic, staging, and treatment tools. The search for novel biomarkers is, therefore, essential in the fight against HAT. The current study aimed at investigating the potential of IL-6 as an adjunct parameter for HAT stage determination in vervet monkey model. Four adult vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) were experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and treated subcuratively at 28 days after infection (dpi) to induce late stage disease. Three noninfected monkeys formed the control group. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples were obtained at weekly intervals and assessed for various biological parameters. A typical HAT-like infection was observed. The late stage was characterized by significant (P < 0.05) elevation of CSF IL-6, white blood cell count, and total protein starting 35 dpi with peak levels of these parameters coinciding with relapse parasitaemia. Brain immunohistochemical staining revealed an increase in brain glial fibrillary acidic protein expression indicative of reactive astrogliosis in infected animals which were euthanized in late-stage disease. The elevation of IL-6 in CSF which accompanied other HAT biomarkers indicates onset of parasite neuroinvasion and show potential for use as an adjunct late-stage disease biomarker in the Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24194772

  11. Model Based Targeting of IL-6-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Cultured Primary Hepatocytes to Improve Application of the JAK Inhibitor Ruxolitinib

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    Svantje Sobotta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IL-6 is a central mediator of the immediate induction of hepatic acute phase proteins (APP in the liver during infection and after injury, but increased IL-6 activity has been associated with multiple pathological conditions. In hepatocytes, IL-6 activates JAK1-STAT3 signaling that induces the negative feedback regulator SOCS3 and expression of APPs. While different inhibitors of IL-6-induced JAK1-STAT3-signaling have been developed, understanding their precise impact on signaling dynamics requires a systems biology approach. Here we present a mathematical model of IL-6-induced JAK1-STAT3 signaling that quantitatively links physiological IL-6 concentrations to the dynamics of IL-6-induced signal transduction and expression of target genes in hepatocytes. The mathematical model consists of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODE and the model parameters were estimated by a maximum likelihood approach, whereas identifiability of the dynamic model parameters was ensured by the Profile Likelihood. Using model simulations coupled with experimental validation we could optimize the long-term impact of the JAK-inhibitor Ruxolitinib, a therapeutic compound that is quickly metabolized. Model-predicted doses and timing of treatments helps to improve the reduction of inflammatory APP gene expression in primary mouse hepatocytes close to levels observed during regenerative conditions. The concept of improved efficacy of the inhibitor through multiple treatments at optimized time intervals was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Thus, combining quantitative data generation with mathematical modeling suggests that repetitive treatment with Ruxolitinib is required to effectively target excessive inflammatory responses without exceeding doses recommended by the clinical guidelines.

  12. Interleukin 6 (IL 6 ) as a predictor outcome in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interleukin 6 (IL6) as a predictor outcome in patients with compensated cirrhosis and symptomatic gall stones after cholecystectomy. E Ragab, A Hegazy, M Morshed, S El-Awadi, W Khafagi, A Moatamed ...

  13. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  14. The contribution of IL-6 to beta 3 adrenergic receptor mediated adipose tissue remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzelle, Samyra L; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Peppler, Willem T; Castellani, Laura; Wright, David C

    2015-01-01

    The chronic activation of beta 3 adrenergic receptors results in marked alterations in adipose tissue morphology and metabolism, including increases in mitochondrial content and the expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. Acute treatment with CL 316,243, a beta 3 adrenergic agonist, induces the expression of interleukin 6. Interestingly, IL-6 has been shown to induce mitochondrial genes in cultured adipocytes. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to examine the role of interleukin 6 in mediating the in vivo effects of CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue. Circulating IL-6, and markers of IL-6 signaling in white adipose tissue were increased 4 h following a single injection of CL 316,243 in C57BL6/J mice. Once daily injections of CL 316,243 for 5 days increased the protein content of a number of mitochondrial proteins including CORE1, Cytochrome C, PDH, MCAD, and Citrate Synthase to a similar extent in adipose tissue from WT and IL-6−/− mice. Conversely, CL 316,243-induced increases in COXIV and phosphorylated AMPK were attenuated in IL-6−/− mice. Likewise, the slight, but significant, CL 316,243-induced increases in ATGL, PEPCK, and PPARγ, were reduced or absent in adipose tissue IL-6−/− mice. The attenuated response to CL 316,243 in white adipose tissue in IL-6−/− mice was associated with reductions in whole-body oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in the light phase. Our findings suggest that IL-6 plays a limited role in CL 316,243-mediated adipose tissue remodeling. PMID:25713332

  15. Is puberty an accelerator of type 1 diabetes in IL6-174CC females?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillespie, Kathleen M; Nolsøe, Runa; Betin, Virginie M

    2005-01-01

    The pubertal peak in onset of type 1 diabetes occurs earlier in girls than boys. We postulated that this sex difference might be mediated in part by estrogen or by genes regulated by estrogen, such as the interleukin-6 (IL6) gene. Previous studies concerning the role of an estrogen-sensitive sing...... may contribute to accelerated onset of type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible females. This phenomenon may be orchestrated by the action of estrogen on the IL6 promoter....

  16. Th17-Inducing Cytokines IL-6 and IL-23 Are Crucial for Granuloma Formation during Experimental Paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Fabrine Sales Massafera Tristão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, a chronic granulomatous disease caused by the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, has the highest mortality rate among systemic mycosis. The T helper 1-mediated immunity is primarily responsible for acquired resistance during P. brasiliensis infection, while susceptibility is associated with Th2 occurrence. Th17 is a population of T CD4+ cells that, among several chemokines and cytokines, produces IL-17A and requires the presence of IL-1, IL-6, and TGF-β for differentiation in mice and IL-23 for its maintenance. Th17 has been described as an arm of the immune system that enhances host protection against several bacterial and fungal infections, as Pneumocystis carinii and Candida albicans. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the Th17 immune response and the role of Th17-associated cytokines (IL-6, IL-23, and IL-17A during experimental PCM. First, we observed that P. brasiliensis infection [virulent yeast strain 18 of P. brasiliensis (Pb18] increased the IL-17A production in vitro and all the evaluated Th17-associated cytokines in the lung tissue from C57BL/6 wild-type mice. In addition, the deficiency of IL-6, IL-23, or IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA impaired the compact granuloma formation and conferred susceptibility during infection, associated with reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, IFN-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase enzyme expression. Our data suggest that IL-6 production by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs is important to promote the Th17 differentiation during Pb18 infection. In accordance, the adoptive transfer of BMDMs from C57BL/6 to infected IL-6−/− or IL-17RA−/− mice reduced the fungal burden in the lungs compared to nontransferred mice and reestablished the pulmonary granuloma formation. Taken together, these results suggest that Th17-associated cytokines are involved in the modulation of immune response and granuloma formation during

  17. IL-6 KO mice develop experimental amoebic liver infection with eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Villaseñor, Eréndira; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Ramos-Martínez, Espiridión; Néquiz-Avendaño, Mario; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro

    2007-12-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates various aspects of the immune response, such as acute phase reaction and hematopoiesis, and is an important signal that coordinates activities of liver cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes. Amoebic liver lesions have been studied, usually in hamsters, due to the problem of abscess development in mice. We report here the development of an experimental amoebic liver abscess (ALA) model in mice deficient in IL-6. Axenically grown amoebae were injected directly into the livers of C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and IL-6 KO -/- mice; the abscesses produced were counted and the inflammatory process was examined on 5, 10, and 20 days postinfection. Our results showed that IL-6 KO -/- mice develop ALA, in contrast to the WT strain, which usually do not have signs of abscess or infection. Histological analysis of the abscesses showed extended inflammatory response, mainly mediated by eosinophils, which strongly infiltrate the abscess in IL-6 K -/- mice. The present results suggest that in mice, IL-6 could play a role in the resistance against ALA.

  18. Brain IL-6 elevation causes neuronal circuitry imbalances and mediates autism-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hongen; Chadman, Kathryn K; McCloskey, Daniel P; Sheikh, Ashfaq M; Malik, Mazhar; Brown, W Ted; Li, Xiaohong

    2012-06-01

    Abnormal immune responses have been reported to be associated with autism. A number of studies showed that cytokines were increased in the blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid of autistic subjects. Elevated IL-6 in autistic brain has been a consistent finding. However, the mechanisms by which IL-6 may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism are not well understood. Here we show that mice with elevated IL-6 in the brain display many autistic features, including impaired cognitive abilities, deficits in learning, abnormal anxiety traits and habituations, as well as decreased social interactions. IL-6 elevation caused alterations in excitatory and inhibitory synaptic formations and disrupted the balance of excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmissions. IL-6 elevation also resulted in an abnormal change in the shape, length and distributing pattern of dendritic spines. These findings suggest that IL-6 elevation in the brain could mediate autistic-like behaviors, possibly through the imbalances of neural circuitry and impairments of synaptic plasticity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Glioma Stem Cells but Not Bulk Glioma Cells Upregulate IL-6 Secretion in Microglia/Brain Macrophages via Toll-like Receptor 4 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Hu, Feng; Derkow, Katja; Haage, Verena; Euskirchen, Philipp; Harms, Christoph; Lehnardt, Seija; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral macrophages and resident microglia constitute the dominant glioma-infiltrating cells. The tumor induces an immunosuppressive and tumor-supportive phenotype in these glioma-associated microglia/brain macrophages (GAMs). A subpopulation of glioma cells acts as glioma stem cells (GSCs). We explored the interaction between GSCs and GAMs. Using CD133 as a marker of stemness, we enriched for or deprived the mouse glioma cell line GL261 of GSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Over the same period of time, 100 CD133(+ )GSCs had the capacity to form a tumor of comparable size to the ones formed by 10,000 CD133(-) GL261 cells. In IL-6(-/-) mice, only tumors formed by CD133(+ )cells were smaller compared with wild type. After stimulation of primary cultured microglia with medium from CD133-enriched GL261 glioma cells, we observed an selective upregulation in microglial IL-6 secretion dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Our results show that GSCs, but not the bulk glioma cells, initiate microglial IL-6 secretion via TLR4 signaling and that IL-6 regulates glioma growth by supporting GSCs. Using human glioma tissue, we could confirm the finding that GAMs are the major source of IL-6 in the tumor context. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Treponema pallidum flagellin FlaA2 induces IL-6 secretion in THP-1 cells via the Toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yafeng; Xu, Man; Xiao, Yongjian; Liu, Zhuoran; Jiang, Chuanhao; Kuang, Xingxing; Wang, Chuan; Wu, Haiying; Peng, Jing; Li, Chun; Wang, Yu; Liu, Huaming; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Xiaotuan; Zhao, Feijun; Zeng, Tiebing; Liu, Shuangquan; Wu, Yimou

    2017-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum membrane proteins are considered as potent inducers in the initiation and development of inflammation. In the present study, the mechanism that leads to the production of interleukin 6 (IL-6), one of the key proinflammatory cytokines, by human monocytic THP-1 cells when these cells are treated with T. pallidum flagellin FlaA2 was investigated. Stimulation with flagellin FlaA2 can induce IL-6 expression in human monocytes and augment the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but has no effect on the phosphorylation of JNK. Likewise, FlaA2-induced IL-6 production was found to be attenuated by inhibitors for ERK, p38, and NF-κB, but not by JNK inhibitor. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that flagellin FlaA2 could stimulate the translocation of IκBα from the cytosol to the nucleus, and this phenomenon could be inhibited by the specific inhibitor BAY11-7082. FlaA2-induced IL-6 expression was also proved to be abrogated by transfection with dominant negative (DN) plasmid of MyD88. We further demonstrated that transfection with DN-TLR2 was sufficient to attenuate IL-6 expression and the phosphorylation of ERK, p38, and IκBα. These results suggest that flagellin FlaA2 induces IL-6 production via signaling pathways involving TLR2, MyD88, ERK, p38, and NF-κB in monocytes, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of T. pallidum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  2. Quercetin abrogates IL-6/STAT3 signaling and inhibits glioblastoma cell line growth and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaud-Levesque, Jonathan; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Beliveau, Richard, E-mail: oncomol@nobel.si.uqam.ca

    2012-05-01

    Evidence has suggested that STAT3 functions as an oncogene in gliomagenesis. As a consequence, changes in the inflammatory microenvironment are thought to promote tumor development. Regardless of its origin, cancer-related inflammation has many tumor-promoting effects, such as the promotion of cell cycle progression, cell proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. Given that IL-6, a major cancer-related inflammatory cytokine, regulates STAT3 activation and is upregulated in glioblastoma, we sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the chemopreventive flavonoid quercetin on glioblastoma cell proliferation and migration triggered by IL-6, and to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. In this study, we show that quercetin is a potent inhibitor of the IL-6-induced STAT3 signaling pathway in T98G and U87 glioblastoma cells. Exposure to quercetin resulted in the reduction of GP130, JAK1 and STAT3 activation by IL-6, as well as a marked decrease of the proliferative and migratory properties of glioblastoma cells induced by IL-6. Interestingly, quercetin also modulated the expression of two target genes regulated by STAT3, i.e. cyclin D1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Moreover, quercetin reduced the recruitment of STAT3 at the cyclin D1 promoter and inhibited Rb phosphorylation in the presence of IL-6. Overall, these results provide new insight into the role of quercetin as a blocker of the STAT3 activation pathway stimulated by IL-6, with a potential role in the prevention and treatment of glioblastoma.

  3. Role of muscle IL-6 in gender-specific metabolism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Molinero

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to further explore the physiological roles of muscle-derived IL-6. Adult-floxed and conditional skeletal muscle IL-6 knock out male and female mice were used to study energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry at rest and during treadmill exercise, and body temperature cycle during the light phase and energy intake (response to fast/refeeding. We also evaluated the responses to leptin and the activity of the insulin signalling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver by phosphorylation of Akt at Ser 473. The stress response was also studied. Results indicate a relevant role of muscle IL-6 in maintaining energy homeostasis, especially in males. Absence of muscle IL-6 in male mice results in lower core body temperature in the light phase, increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER both at rest and during exercise, increased expression of TCA cycle marked gene, citrate synthase in muscle, reduced fat storage and decreased body weight and food consumption in response to leptin. In females, muscle IL-6 deficiency increases VO2 and CO2 levels similarly. Also in contrast to males, energy expenditure (EE measured over 48h reveals a significant elevation in female mice with muscle IL-6 deficiency; moreover, they show a modified response to fasting-refeeding and to restraint stress. The present results contribute to the understanding of the role of muscle IL-6 in male and female mouse metabolism, not only during exercise but also in the basal state and in situations where energy balance is altered.

  4. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM. PMID:26722442

  5. IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in plasma cell mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Yu-Hui; Jiang, Yi-Na; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xiao-Jiang; Ren, Yu; Han, Shui-Ping; Liu, Pei-Jun; Xu, Jing; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cell mastitis (PCM), a particular type of mastitis, mainly occurs in females at nonpregnant and nonlactating stages. The infiltration of abundant plasma cells and lymphocytes is the hallmark of the disease. The incidence rate of PCM increased gradually and its pathogenesis remained unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway, which is vital not only for the differentiation of plasma cells but also for survival of plasma cells and T lymphocytes, in 30 PCM cases, 10 acute mastitis cases and 10 normal breast tissues by immunohistochemical analysis. IL-6 level was significantly higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group. The positive rate of IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining in PCM samples was 93.3% (28/30) and 70% (21/30), respectively, and there was a significant positive association between IL-6 and p-STAT3 staining (r=0.408, P=0.025). In PCM group, the rate of nipple retraction was 40% (12/30). Significantly higher IL-6 expression was found in PCM patients with nipple retraction than in other PCM patients. However, no significant difference in IL-6 or p-STAT3 staining was detected between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. In addition, Bcl-2 level was higher in PCM patients than in acute mastitis patients or normal group, but there was no difference in Bcl-2 immunostaining between PCM patients experiencing recurrence and other PCM patients. These indicate that IL-6/STAT3 signaling is activated in PCM and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCM.

  6. A study on relationship between elderly sarcopenia and inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ai-Lin; Hu, Hui-Ying; Rong, Yu-Dong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun-Xiong; Zhou, Xin-Zi

    2017-07-12

    This report aims to study the relationship between sarcopenia of elderly in community and inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α. A total of 441 elders who undertook physical examinations were included into this study. The age of these subjects were >60, in which 235 subjects were male and 206 subjects were female. According to the diagnostic standards of sarcopenia set by EWGSOP and AWGS, these subjects were divided into two groups: sarcopenia, and non-sarcopenia groups. The living habits, disease status, biochemical indexes, and levels of IL-6 and TNF-α of these subjects were investigated. The morbidity rate of sarcopenia was 17.02% in male subjects and 18.9% in female subjects. In elderly subjects >80 years old, morbidity rate was 25.3% in male subjects and 35.1% in female subjects. The history of smoking in patients with sarcopenia was long, and their regular exercise history was short (P TNF-α levels between these two groups were statistically significant (P TNF-α levels, and ALB was negatively correlated to IL-6; while BMI and VFA were positively correlated to TNF-α levels, and SMM, HDL-C, Hb, HG were negatively correlated to IL-6 level (P TNF-α, while VFA was the independent risk factor of IL-6. The onset of sarcopenia was associated with poor exercise habits, disease history, and nutritional status. The emergence of sarcopenia was accompanied by increased levels of inflammation factors TNF-α and IL-6. Plasma albumin, BMI, and VFA were inflammatory factor predictors of TNF and IL-6.

  7. Prevention of colitis-associated cancer: natural compounds that target the IL-6 soluble receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, Cate; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Awasthi, Shanjana; Ramalingam, Satish; Anant, Shrikant

    2012-12-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer increases in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and a growing body of evidence shows the critical role of interleukin (IL-6) in this process. IL-6 is both a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine whose effects are mediated through activation of STAT3. Recent studies have also demonstrated that IL-6 trans-signaling through its soluble receptor occurs in IBD and cancer. IL-6 trans-signaling therefore is emerging as an attractive approach to diminish the inflammatory signals in conditions of chronic inflammation. The purpose of cancer chemoprevention is to either delay the onset or progression from precancerous lesions. Natural compounds because of their low toxicity render themselves excellent candidates that can be administered over the lifetime of an individual. With the focus of managing IBD over a long time and preventing onset of colitis-associated cancer, we believe that there should be increased research focus on identifying chemopreventive compounds that can render themselves to long term use possibly for the lifetime of predisposed individuals. Here, we review the role of IL-6 signaling in IBD and colitis-associated cancer and underscore the importance of searching for natural compounds that would target the IL-6 trans-signaling pathway as a way to diminish chronic inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly hamper the progression to colon cancer. We propose that effective screening and identification of natural chemopreventive compounds that target IL-6 trans-signaling has important implications for the development of optimal strategies against cancer development triggered by inflammation.

  8. The β-adrenoceptor agonist clenbuterol is a potent inhibitor of the LPS-induced production of TNF-α and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeboud, C.A.; Monshouwer, M.; Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van; Witkamp, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective and Design: To investigate the suppressive effects of the β-agonist clenbuterol on the release of TNF-α and IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-model of inflammation, both in vitro and in vivo. Material and Subjects: Human U-937 cell line (monocyte-derived macrophages), and male Wistar rats

  9. Effect of astrocyte-targeted production of IL-6 on traumatic brain injury and its impact on the cortical transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Albert; Molinero, Amalia; Borup, Rehannah

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is one of the key players in the response of the brain cortex to injury. We have described previously that astrocyte-driven production of IL-6 (GFAP-IL6) in transgenic mice, although causing spontaneous neuroinflammation and long term damage, is beneficial after an acute (fre...

  10. DMPD: Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12773095 Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulati...):1-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its... regulation. PubmedID 12773095 Title Principles of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytoki

  11. The effect of IL6-174C/G polymorphisms on postprandial triglycerides metabolism in the GOLDN study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronically elevated IL-6 affects lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Individuals genetically predisposed to higher IL-6 secretion may be at risk of dyslipidemia, especially during the postprandial phase. We investigated the effect of genetic variants at the IL6 locus on postprandial lipemia in US Whi...

  12. Monocyte Subsets Coregulate Inflammatory Responses by Integrated Signaling through TNF and IL-6 at the Endothelial Cell Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimen, Myriam; Yates, Clara M; McGettrick, Helen M; Ward, Lewis S C; Harrison, Matthew J; Apta, Bonita; Dib, Lea H; Imhof, Beat A; Harrison, Paul; Nash, Gerard B; Rainger, G Ed

    2017-04-01

    Two major monocyte subsets, CD14+CD16- (classical) and CD14+/dimCD16+ (nonclassical/intermediate), have been described. Each has different functions ascribed in its interactions with vascular endothelial cells (EC), including migration and promoting inflammation. Although monocyte subpopulations have been studied in isolated systems, their influence on EC and on the course of inflammation has been ignored. In this study, using unstimulated or cytokine-activated EC, we observed significant differences in the recruitment, migration, and reverse migration of human monocyte subsets. Associated with this, and based on their patterns of cytokine secretion, there was a difference in their capacity to activate EC and support the secondary recruitment of flowing neutrophils. High levels of TNF were detected in cocultures with nonclassical/intermediate monocytes, the blockade of which significantly reduced neutrophil recruitment. In contrast, classical monocytes secreted high levels of IL-6, the blockade of which resulted in increased neutrophil recruitment. When cocultures contained both monocyte subsets, or when conditioned supernatant from classical monocytes cocultures (IL-6hi) was added to nonclassical/intermediate monocyte cocultures (TNFhi), the activating effects of TNF were dramatically reduced, implying that when present, the anti-inflammatory activities of IL-6 were dominant over the proinflammatory activities of TNF. These changes in neutrophil recruitment could be explained by regulation of E-selectin on the cocultured EC. This study suggests that recruited human monocyte subsets trigger a regulatory pathway of cytokine-mediated signaling at the EC interface, and we propose that this is a mechanism for limiting the phlogistic activity of newly recruited monocytes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors.

  13. High therapeutic concentration of prazosin up-regulates angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zu-Yau; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2012-12-01

    Alteration of the oxidative stress of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells can influence the expressions of genes favored angiogenesis. Quinone reductase 2 which can activate quinones leading to reactive oxygen species production is a melatonin receptor known as MT3. Prazosin prescribed for benign prostate hyperplasia and hypertension is a potent antagonist for MT3. This study was to investigate the influence of therapeutic concentrations of prazosin (0.01 and 0.1μM) on cell proliferation and differential expressions of CCL2, CCL20, CXCL6, CXCL10, IL8 and IL6 genes related to inflammation and/or oxidative stress in human HCC cell lines. Two HCC cell lines including one without susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress (cell line A; HCC24/KMUH) and one with this effect (cell line B; HCC38/KMUH) were investigated by 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin. The premixed WST-1 cell proliferation reagent was applied for proliferation assay. Differential expressions of genes were examined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin did not influence cell proliferation in both cell lines. Both 0.01 and 0.1μM prazosin in cell line A and 0.01μM prazosin in cell line B did not cause differential expressions of tested genes. However, 0.1μM prazosin caused remarkable up-regulation of IL6 gene and slightly up-regulation of CCL2 gene in cell line B. In conclusion, high therapeutic concentration of prazosin can up-regulate angiogenic IL6 and CCL2 genes in human HCC cells susceptible to amphotericin B-induced oxidative stress. Clinical application of prazosin in patients with HCC should consider this possibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic significance of IL-6 and IL-8 in tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendiran, Soundravally; Senthil Kumar, G P; Nimesh, Archana; Dhiman, Pooja; Shivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S

    2016-10-01

    As there are no specific non-invasive markers for the diagnosis of tubal ectopic pregnancy, our objective in the present study was to explore the role of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 in the diagnosis of ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy. Twenty-eight women with tubal ectopic pregnancy, 31 patients with intrauterine abortion and 29 gestational age matched women having normal intrauterine pregnancy were included in the study. Five millilitre of blood was collected at the time of admission, serum was separated and stored at -70 °C for subsequent analysis of β hCG, IL-6 and IL-8 levels. The level of IL-6 was a significant increase in the women with tubal ectopic pregnancy compared to intrauterine abortion and normal pregnancy. IL-8 levels decrease significantly in the tubal ectopic pregnancy and in intrauterine abortion patients when compared with the normal pregnancy group. At the cutoff of 26.48 pg/ml IL-6 level predicted the tubal ectopic pregnancy with moderate accuracy. Therefore, it can be concluded that measurement of IL-6 may have relevance in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy as a novel inflammatory serum biomarkers.

  15. THE EFFECT OF GLYCEMIC INDEX ON PLASMA IL-6 IN SUB-MAX EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani S.H.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examined the effect of a pre-exercise meal with different glycemic index (GI on plasma IL-6 concentration and glucose metabolism during sub-max exercise (endurance performance run. Material : Ten men completed 1 h running at 70%-75% VO2max on a level treadmill on three occasions. In each trial, one of the three prescribed beverages as meal, i.e. high GI and low GL or placebo was consumed by the subjects 45 min before exercise. Blood samples were collected before, after, 1h and 24h after exercise. Result: Concentration of Plasma IL-6 in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups, IL-6 tended to significantly increase after exercise in groups (all P < 0.05, also there was significant difference for plasma IL-6 concentration between placebo and low glycemic groups in after exercise (P=.003 and 1hour after exercise (P=.005 . CK was significantly elevated at all- time points after exercise in 3 groups (all P < 0.05. Concentration of serum CK in LGI group was less than HGI and Pla groups but there not significantly. The consumption of the LGI beverage before exercise could minimize the increasing of plasma IL-6 concentration immediately after exercise and during the 1 h recovery period compared with the HGI beverage and Pla. Conclusion: This result suggested that the LGI beverage consumed as pre-exercise meal could modify the inflammatory response in prolonged exercise.

  16. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowski, Roman; Pastor, Josep; Szczubiał, Marek; Piech, Tomasz; Bochniarz, Mariola; Wawron, Władysław; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta

    2015-09-26

    Pyometra is a serious bacterial infection of the uterus affecting female dogs and manifests as an accumulation of pus in the uterine lumen. The aim of the study was to assess changes in serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 concentrations in bitches with pyometra undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (controls) and bitches with pyometra before surgery, and 3 and 10 days after ovariohysterectomy. Before surgery, bitches with pyometra had significantly higher serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 than the controls. After surgery, the serum concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 decreased significantly. In healthy dogs, the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 showed a significant increase 3 days after surgery followed by a decrease on day 10. An increase in serum concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 was present before surgery in bitches with pyometra and 3 days after ovariohysterectomy in healthy controls. Concentrations decreased after ovariohysterectomy and/or proper healing, suggesting that these cytokines can be useful for assessment of the postoperative period in bitches.

  17. Molecular modeling and SPRi investigations of interleukin 6 (IL6) protein and DNA aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhinehardt, Kristen L; Vance, Stephen A; Mohan, Ram V; Sandros, Marinella; Srinivas, Goundla

    2017-06-22

    Interleukin 6 (IL6), an inflammatory response protein has major implications in immune-related inflammatory diseases. Identification of aptamers for the IL6 protein aids in diagnostic, therapeutic, and theranostic applications. Three different DNA aptamers and their interactions with IL6 protein were extensively investigated in a phosphate buffed saline (PBS) solution. Molecular-level modeling through molecular dynamics provided insights of structural, conformational changes and specific binding domains of these protein-aptamer complexes. Multiple simulations reveal consistent binding region for all protein-aptamer complexes. Conformational changes coupled with quantitative analysis of center of mass (COM) distance, radius of gyration (Rg), and number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in each IL6 protein-aptamer complex was used to determine their binding performance strength and obtain molecular configurations with strong binding. A similarity comparison of the molecular configurations with strong binding from molecular-level modeling concurred with Surface Plasmon Resonance imaging (SPRi) for these three aptamer complexes, thus corroborating molecular modeling analysis findings. Insights from the natural progression of IL6 protein-aptamer binding modeled in this work has identified key features such as the orientation and location of the aptamer in the binding event. These key features are not readily feasible from wet lab experiments and impact the efficacy of the aptamers in diagnostic and theranostic applications.

  18. IL-6/STAT3/ARF: the guardians of senescence, cancer progression and metastasis in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencik, Jan; Wiebringhaus, Robert; Susani, Martin; Culig, Zoran; Kenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in men worldwide. It remains a clinical challenge to identify lethal metastatic prostate cancers, which escape standard therapeutic intervention. Aberrant interleukin-6 (IL-6) / signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signalling and loss of p53 occur during prostate cancer progression to metastatic disease. The abnormality of the IL-6/STAT3/p53 axis is frequently accompanied by other genetic alterations; however, its potential role as an important mediator of oncogenic reprogramming, invasion and metastatic transformation remains unknown. The failure of anti-IL-6 treatments is still unexplained and may be due to an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of the in vivo role of IL-6/STAT3 in prostate cancer. The identification of the alternative reading frame protein (ARF) / murine double minute protein (MDM2) / p53 tumour suppressor pathway potentially involving the IL-6/STAT3 axis as a restricting factor in prostate cancer deficient in the tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) opened new avenues to currently available therapies. This review summarises the current knowledge on the role of crucial pathways driving prostate cancer progression as well as metastatic disease and discusses the potential use of novel specific target molecules and how it can be exploited to avoid overtreatment and increase quality of life.

  19. The expression of IL6 and 21 in crossbred calves upregulated by inactivated trivalent FMD vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Sankar, M; Narayanan, K; Bisht, Punam; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B

    2014-04-03

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease and a whole-virus inactivated trivalent virus vaccine is the mainstay for controlling the disease in India. The protective humoral immune response to FMD vaccination is a complex, but, tightly regulated process mediated by the interplay of interleukins (IL). Based on the specific role of IL6 and 21 in adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that inactivated trivalent FMD vaccine would stimulate IL6 and 21 expression in the circulating lymphocytes. The expressions of IL6 and 21 were assayed on 0, 28, 60, 90, and 120 d post-vaccination (DPV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with simultaneous assessment of FMDV antibody titer by liquid phase blocking ELISA. The results revealed that the peak expression of IL6 and 21 was on DPV 28 which correlated well with the FMDV antibody titer and plummeted to the prevaccination titer level by 60 DPV. As IL21 is the final effector of antibody production as compared to IL6, we investigated the expression of IL21 in calves that had protective titer (>1.8) with the unprotected group (<1.8). Expression of IL21 on 28 DPV was numerically higher in the protected than that of the unprotected group of calves.

  20. TGF-β and IL-6 family signalling crosstalk: an integrated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Shabnam; Babon, Jeff; Wagner, John; Manton, Jonathan H; Tan, Chin Wee; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Wormald, Sam; Burgess, Antony W

    2017-06-01

    Mathematical models for TGF-β and IL-6 signalling have been linked, providing a platform for analyzing the crosstalk between the systems. An integrated IL-6:TGF-β model was developed via a reduced set of reaction equations which incorporate both feedback loops and appropriate time-delays for transcription and translation processes. The model simulates stable, robust and realistic responses to both ligands. Pulsatile (multiple pulses) inputs for both TGF-β and IL-6 have been simulated to investigate the effects of each ligand on the sensitivity, equilibrium and dynamic responses of the integrated signalling system. In our simulations the crosstalk between constant IL-6 and TGF-β signalling via SMAD7 does not appear to be sufficient to render the cells resistant to TGF-β inhibition. However, the simulations predict that pulsatile IL-6 stimulation would increase SMAD7 levels substantially and consequentially, lead to resistance to TGF-β. The model also allows the prediction of the integrated signalling pathway responses to the mutation of key components, e.g. Gp130 (F/F).

  1. Echocardiographic Evaluation of the Relationship Between inflammatory factors (IL6, TNFα, hs-CRP) and Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension in patients with COPD. A Cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Khalil; Rashidi, Farid; Namdar, Hossein; Ghaffari, Mohammadreza; Sharifi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory mechanism appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of various types of human pulmonary hypertension such as idiopathic PAH (IPAH) and PAH associated" with connective tissue disease. Although we know that inflammatory factors such as IL6 and TNFα have an important role in IPAH, there is limited information about the relationship between acute phase reactants and pulmonary hypertension occurring secondary to pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). This cross-sectional study was carried out on 94 patients who had COPD. Patients with a recent history of systemic steroid and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) use, infection, trauma or surgery, gastrointestinal bleeding, coronary artery disease (CAD) and Hypertension were excluded. Body plethysmography and transthoracic echocardiography were done. Blood samples for each patient included were drawn for complete blood count (CBC), IL6, TNFα and highly sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP). Twenty patients (28.6%) had pulmonary hypertension. The difference between the mean IL6 and hs-CRP in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension was significant (7 pg/ml vs. 4.4 pg/ml and 13.04 pg/ml vs. 3.31 pg/ml) (p=0.006 and p=0.000). There was a correlation between IL6 and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (r=0.35, p=0.003). After adjustment forage, sex, serum Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, O2Sat, FEV1, FVC the relationship between the IL6, hs-CRP and the presence of pulmonary hypertension remained significant (p=0.022, p=0.026). Inflammatory factors such as IL6 and hs-CRP are independent risk factors for pulmonary hypertension in COPD patients.

  2. Leukemia inhibitory factor enhances endometrial stromal cell decidualization in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Lin Shuya

    Full Text Available Adequate differentiation or decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESC is critical for successful pregnancy in humans and rodents. Here, we investigated the role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF in human and murine decidualization. Ex vivo human (H ESC decidualization was induced by estrogen (E, 10(-8 M plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10(-7 M. Exogenous LIF (≥50 ng/ml induced STAT3 phosphorylation in non-decidualized and decidualized HESC and enhanced E+MPA-induced decidualization (measured by PRL secretion, P100 pg/mg G-CSF, IL6, IL8, and MCP1. Decidualized HESC secreted IL6, IL8, IL15 and MCP1. LIF (50 ng/ml up-regulated IL6 and IL15 (P<0.05 secretion in decidualized HESC compared to 0.5 ng/ml LIF. In murine endometrium, LIF and LIFR immunolocalized to decidualized stromal cells on day 5 of gestation (day 0 = day of plug detection. Western blotting confirmed that LIF and the LIFR were up-regulated in intra-implantation sites compared to inter-implantation sites on Day 5 of gestation. To determine the role of LIF during in vivo murine decidualization, intra-peritoneal injections of a long-acting LIF antagonist (PEGLA; 900 or 1200 µg were given just post-attachment, during the initiation of decidualization on day 4. PEGLA treatment reduced implantation site decidual area (P<0.05 and desmin staining immuno-intensity (P<0.05 compared to control on day 6 of gestation. This study demonstrated that LIF was an important regulator of decidualization in humans and mice and data provides insight into the processes underlying decidualization, which are important for understanding implantation and placentation.

  3. Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Enhances Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Joanne; Li, Priscilla; Lane, Natalie; Dimitriadis, Evdokia

    2011-01-01

    Adequate differentiation or decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESC) is critical for successful pregnancy in humans and rodents. Here, we investigated the role of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in human and murine decidualization. Ex vivo human (H) ESC decidualization was induced by estrogen (E, 10−8 M) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10−7 M). Exogenous LIF (≥50 ng/ml) induced STAT3 phosphorylation in non-decidualized and decidualized HESC and enhanced E+MPA-induced decidualization (measured by PRL secretion, P100 pg/mg G-CSF, IL6, IL8, and MCP1. Decidualized HESC secreted IL6, IL8, IL15 and MCP1. LIF (50 ng/ml) up-regulated IL6 and IL15 (P<0.05) secretion in decidualized HESC compared to 0.5 ng/ml LIF. In murine endometrium, LIF and LIFR immunolocalized to decidualized stromal cells on day 5 of gestation (day 0 = day of plug detection). Western blotting confirmed that LIF and the LIFR were up-regulated in intra-implantation sites compared to inter-implantation sites on Day 5 of gestation. To determine the role of LIF during in vivo murine decidualization, intra-peritoneal injections of a long-acting LIF antagonist (PEGLA; 900 or 1200 µg) were given just post-attachment, during the initiation of decidualization on day 4. PEGLA treatment reduced implantation site decidual area (P<0.05) and desmin staining immuno-intensity (P<0.05) compared to control on day 6 of gestation. This study demonstrated that LIF was an important regulator of decidualization in humans and mice and data provides insight into the processes underlying decidualization, which are important for understanding implantation and placentation. PMID:21966484

  4. TRPA1 Mechanoreceptors Mediate the IL-6 Response to a Single PD Dwell in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Jennische, Eva; Cavallini, Nicola; Braide, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    The development of modern, biocompatible peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids has not entirely eliminated the local pro-inflammatory effects of PD fluid administration. The present study was performed in order to establish the importance of known signaling pathways connected to mechano-, osmo- and chemo-sensors of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family for the acute inflammatory response to PD. Rats were exposed to a single 4-hour dwell of lactate-buffered, 2.5% glucose, filter-sterilized PD fluid through an implanted PD catheter. In some groups, the PD dwell was preceded by intravenous administration of blockers of TRPV1 (BCTC), TRPA1 (HC030031), or neurokinin 1 (NK1) (Spantide II) receptors. Cytokine messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expressions were quantified in tissue biopsies (real-time polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]), and cytokine concentrations were quantified in dialysate samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Tissue expressions of TRPV1, TRPA1, and NK1 were evaluated immuno-histochemically. The PD dwell induced peritoneal synthesis of Il1b, Tnf, and Il6 and a secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) into the dialysate. The catheter implantation already induced the transcription of Il1b and Tnf but did not significantly affect Il6 transcription. The Il6 response to the PD dwell could be virtually eliminated by blocking TRPA1 but was not affected by TRPV1 blockade. Blocking the substance P receptor, NK1, produced an insignificant trend towards Il6 inhibition. TRPA1 and NK1 showed a stronger immuno-reactivity than TRPV1 on cells of the peritoneal tissue. The results show that IL-6 synthesis and secretion were connected to acute PD fluid exposure, and this response was triggered by TRPA1 receptors, possibly located to non-neuronal cells. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  5. Association of plasma IL-6 and Hsp70 with HRV at different levels of PAHs metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ye

    Full Text Available Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs is associated with reduced heart rate variability (HRV, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, but the mechanism is not well understood.We hypothesized that PAHs might induce systemic inflammation and stress response, contributing to altered cardiac autonomic function.HRV indices were measured using a 3-channel digital Holter monitor in 800 coke oven workers. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 were determined using ELISA. Twelve urinary PAHs metabolites (OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.We found that significant dose-dependent relationships between four urinary OH-PAHs and IL-6 (all Ptrend<0.05; and an increase in quartiles of IL-6 was significantly associated with a decrease in total power (TP and low frequency (LF (Ptrend = 0.014 and 0.006, respectively. In particular, elevated IL-6 was associated in a dose-dependent manner with decreased TP and LF in the high-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05, but not in the low-PAHs metabolites groups. No significant association between Hsp70 and HRV in total population was found after multivariate adjustment. However, increased Hsp70 was significantly associated with elevated standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN, TP and LF in the low-PAHs metabolites groups (all Ptrend<0.05. We also observed that both IL-6 and Hsp70 significantly interacted with multiple PAHs metabolites in relation to HRV.In coke oven workers, increased IL-6 was associated with a dose-response decreased HRV in the high-PAHs metabolites groups, whereas increase of Hsp70 can result in significant dose-related increase in HRV in the low-PAHs metabolites groups.

  6. Simultaneous immunoassay analysis of plasma IL-6 and TNF-α on a microchip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Abe

    Full Text Available Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA using a 96-well plate is frequently employed for clinical diagnosis, but is time-and sample-consuming. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. The microchip was made of cyclic olefin copolymer with 4 straight microchannels. For the construction of the sandwich ELISA for interleukin-6 (IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, we used a piezoelectric inkjet printing system for the deposition and fixation of the 1st anti-IL-6 antibody or 1st anti-TNF-α antibody on the surface of the each microchannel. After the infusion of 2 µl of sample to the microchannel and a 20 min incubation, 2 µl of biotinylated 2nd antibody for either antigen was infused and a 10 min incubation. Then 2 µl of avidin-horseradish peroxidase was infused; and after a 5 min incubation, the substrate for peroxidase was infused, and the luminescence intensity was measured. Calibration curves were obtained between the concentration and luminescence intensity over the range of 0 to 32 pg/ml (IL-6: R(2 = 0.9994, TNF-α: R(2 = 0.9977, and the detection limit for each protein was 0.28 pg/ml and 0.46 pg/ml, respectively. Blood IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations of 5 subjects estimated from the microchip data were compared with results obtained by the conventional method, good correlations were observed between the methods according to linear regression analysis (IL-6: R(2 = 0.9954, TNF-α: R(2 = 0.9928. The reproducibility of the presented assay for the determination of the blood IL-6 and TNF-α concentration was comparable to that obtained with the 96-well plate. Simultaneous detection of blood IL-6 and TNF-α was possible by the deposition and fixation of each 1st antibody on the surface of a separate microchannel. This assay enabled us to determine simultaneously blood IL-6 and TNF-α with accuracy, satisfactory sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and

  7. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous...... adipose tissue (AT) was removed either immediately after, 4h or 10h after exercise as well as from mice not running acutely. Moreover, AT was sampled at resting conditions after 5 weeks of exercise training. Results: AT leptin mRNA decreased immediately after a single running exercise bout in both...

  8. Bone morphogenetic proteins 2, 4, and 9 stimulate murine hepcidin 1 expression independently of Hfe, transferrin receptor 2 (Tfr2), and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truksa, Jaroslav; Peng, Hongfan; Lee, Pauline; Beutler, Ernest

    2006-07-05

    Recently, it has been suggested that hepcidin, a peptide involved in iron homeostasis, is regulated by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), apparently by binding to hemojuvelin (Hjv) as a coreceptor and signaling through Smad4. We investigate the role of Hfe, Tfr2 (transferrin receptor 2), and IL-6 in BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP9-stimulated up-regulation of murine hepcidin, because these molecules, like Hjv, are known to be involved in hepcidin signaling. We show that the BMP signaling pathway acts independently of Hfe, Tfr2, and IL-6: The response to BMP2, BMP4, and BMP9 is similar in isolated hepatocytes of wild-type, Hfe(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and Tfr2(m) mutant mice. The potency of different human BMPs in stimulating hepcidin transcription by murine primary hepatocytes is BMP9 > BMP4 > BMP2. However, in human HepG2 cells, BMP4 and BMP9 are equally potent, whereas BMP2 requires a higher dose to become an effective hepcidin activator. Moreover, all of the tested BMPs are more potent regulators of hepcidin than IL-6 and thus are the most potent known stimulators of hepcidin transcription.

  9. Differential effects of IL-2 and IL-6 on the development of three distinct precursor T-cell populations in the thymus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, N; Kikutani, H; Kishimoto, T

    1990-01-01

    Three distinct T-cell precursors: bone marrow cells that express low levels of the Thy-1 antigen but no lineage markers (Thy-1-lo/BM); CD4-, CD8-, and CD3- thymocytes that express low levels of the Thy-1 antigen (Thy-1-lo/Thym); and CD4-, CD8-, and CD3- thymocytes that express high levels of the Thy-1 antigen and the IL-2 R alpha chain (Thy-1+/IL2R+) were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). These three populations expanded with different kinetics in the thymus of irradiated recipient mice after intrathymic transfer. When a high dose of human recombinant IL-2 (r-IL-2) or human recombinant IL-6 (r-IL-6) was administered, r-IL-6 accelerated donor Thy-1+/IL2R+ to differentiate, whereas r-IL-2 blocked normal differentiation and expansion of donor Thy-1-lo/Thym, but did not show any significant effect on donor Thy-1+/IL2R+. Neither r-IL-2 nor r-IL-6 worked directly on donor Thy-1-lo/BM in this transfer system.

  10. HIV-1 is not a major driver of increased plasma IL-6 levels in chronic HIV-1 disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Carey L.; Biancotto, Angélique; Funderburg, Nicholas T.; Pilch-Cooper, Heather A.; Valdez, Hernan; Margolis, Leonid; Sieg, Scott F.; McComsey, Grace A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Lederman, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Increased plasma IL-6 levels have been associated with HIV-1 disease progression risk, yet the drivers of IL-6 production in HIV-1 infection are not known. This study was designed to explore the relationship between HIV-1 replication and IL-6 induction. Design Correlations between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA were examined in two clinical studies. To more directly assess the induction of IL-6 by HIV-1, several cell and tissue types that support HIV-1 replication in vivo were infected with HIV-1 and expression of IL-6 was measured. Methods Spearman’s rank correlations were used to examine the relationship between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA. Macrophages, and colonic and lymph node histocultures were infected with HIV-1 or stimulated with bacterial products, LPS or flagellin, and IL-6 levels in supernatant were measured by ELISA or multiplex bead assay. Results In the clinical studies there was weak or no correlation between plasma levels of IL-6 and HIV-1 RNA but IL-6 levels were correlated with plasma levels of the LPS coreceptor CD14. Macrophages stimulated with LPS or flagellin showed robust production of IL-6, but there was no increase in IL-6 production after HIV-1 infection. IL-6 expression was not increased in lymph node histocultures obtained from HIV-1 infected subjects nor after productive HIV-1 infection of colonic or lymph node histocultures ex vivo. Conclusions We find no evidence that HIV-1 replication is an important driver of IL-6 expression in vivo or in in vitro systems. PMID:22659649

  11. IL-6 trans-signaling system in intra-amniotic inflammation, preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah Y; Buhimschi, Irina A; Dulay, Antonette T; Ali, Unzila A; Zhao, Guomao; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Bahtiyar, Mert O; Thung, Stephen F; Funai, Edmund F; Buhimschi, Catalin S

    2011-03-01

    Classic IL-6 signaling is conditioned by the transmembrane receptor (IL-6R) and homodimerization of gp130. During trans-signaling, IL-6 binds to soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R), enabling activation of cells expressing solely gp130. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) selectively inhibits IL-6 trans-signaling. To characterize amniotic fluid (AF) IL-6 trans-signaling molecules (IL-6, sIL-6R, sgp130) in normal gestations and pregnancies complicated by intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI), we studied 301 women during second trimester (n = 39), third trimester (n = 40), and preterm labor with intact (n = 131, 85 negative IAI and 46 positive IAI) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM; n = 91, 61 negative IAI and 30 positive IAI). ELISA, Western blotting, and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate AF, placenta, and amniochorion for protein and mRNA expression of sIL-6R, sgp130, IL-6R, and gp130. Tissues were immunostained for IL-6R, gp130, CD15(+) (polymorphonuclear), and CD3(+) (T cell) inflammatory cells. The ability of sIL-6R and sgp130 to modulate basal and LPS-stimulated release of amniochorion matrix metalloprotease-9 was tested ex vivo. We showed that in physiologic gestations, AF sgp130 decreases toward term. AF IL-6 and sIL-6R were increased in IAI, whereas sgp130 was decreased in PPROM. Our results suggested that fetal membranes are the probable source of AF sIL-6R and sgp130. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed increased IL-6R and decreased gp130 expression in amniochorion of women with IAI. Ex vivo, sIL-6R and LPS augmented amniochorion matrix metalloprotease-9 release, whereas sgp130 opposed this effect. We conclude that IL-6 trans-signaling molecules are physiologic constituents of the AF regulated by gestational age and inflammation. PPROM likely involves functional loss of sgp130.

  12. Elevated plasma concentrations of IL-6 and elevated APACHE II score predict acute kidney injury in patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Lakhmir S; Seneff, Michael G; Nelson, David R; Williams, Mark; Levy, Howard; Kimmel, Paul L; Macias, William L

    2007-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients with severe sepsis (SS), and the predictors of AKI in this population have not been well characterized. The study group was the placebo group of the Prospective Recombinant Human Activated Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) data set. PROWESS is a prospective, randomized, controlled study of the use of drotrecogin alpha (activated) for the treatment of SS. Placebo patients who had an admission renal sepsis organ failure score of 2 or more were excluded. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 25% or 0.3 mg/dl during the first week postbaseline. The incidence of relevant parameters was then compared in patients with and without AKI. Half of the patients were randomly assigned to a model-building data set, and multivariable Cox regression was used to determine risk factors. Factors that remained significant in the remaining "model validation" data set were considered significant. Of the 840 patients in the placebo group, 547 met inclusion criteria. Of the 547 patients, 127 (23.2%) patients met criteria for AKI. The mean age of the 547 patients was 59.8 +/- 17.0, and 43.3% of the cohort were female. The ethnicity breakdown was as follows: White 83.2%, black 5.9%, and other 11%. Univariate analyses indicated that patients with AKI had a higher incidence of a dependence on the basis of activity of daily living scale (38.6 versus 26.7%; P = 0.01), a lower baseline platelet count (193,000 versus 222,000; P = 0.02), a higher baseline respiratory Sepsis Organ Failure Assessment score (2.9 versus 2.7; P = 0.02), higher preinfusion Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score (24.8 versus 22.0; P = 0.0002), older age (63.7 versus 58.7 yr; P = 0.008), and higher log IL-6 (6.6 versus 5.8; P = 0.0006). In a multivariable Cox regression, the predictors of AKI were log IL-6 (P APACHE II (P = 0.0008). Increased log IL-6 and APACHE II score are significant risk

  13. Regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production by reciprocal cell-to-cell interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts through IL-1α in ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchigami, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kibe, Toshiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Koyama, Hirofumi; Kishida, Shosei; Iijima, Mikio [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Nishizawa, Yoshiaki [Kagoshima University Faculty of Medicine, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Hijioka, Hiroshi; Fujii, Tomomi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Ueda, Masahiro [Natural Science Centre for Research and Education, Kagoshima University, 1-21-24 Koorimoto, Kagoshima 890-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Norifumi [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kiyono, Tohru [Department of Virology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuouku, Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Kishida, Michiko, E-mail: kmichiko@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • We studied the interaction between tumor cells and fibroblasts in ameloblastoma. • AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted significantly high IL-1α levels. • IL-1α derived from AM-3 cells promoted IL-6 and IL-8 secretion of fibroblasts. • IL-6 and IL-8 activated the cellular motility and proliferation of AM-3 cells. - Abstract: Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic benign tumor that occurs in the jawbone, which invades bone and reoccurs locally. This tumor is treated by wide surgical excision and causes various problems, including changes in facial countenance and mastication disorders. Ameloblastomas have abundant tumor stroma, including fibroblasts and immune cells. Although cell-to-cell interactions are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, intercellular communications in ameloblastoma have not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined interactions between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts via soluble factors in ameloblastoma. We used a human ameloblastoma cell line (AM-3 ameloblastoma cells), human fibroblasts (HFF-2 fibroblasts), and primary-cultured fibroblasts from human ameloblastoma tissues, and analyzed the effect of ameloblastoma-associated cell-to-cell communications on gene expression, cytokine secretion, cellular motility and proliferation. AM-3 ameloblastoma cells secreted higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1α than HFF-2 fibroblasts. Treatment with conditioned medium from AM-3 ameloblastoma cells upregulated gene expression and secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 of HFF-2 fibroblasts and primary-cultured fibroblast cells from ameloblastoma tissues. The AM3-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts was neutralized by pretreatment of AM-3 cells with anti-IL-1α antibody and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Reciprocally, cellular motility of AM-3 ameloblastoma cells was stimulated by HFF-2 fibroblasts in IL-6 and IL-8 dependent manner. In conclusion, ameloblastoma cells and stromal fibroblasts behave

  14. Liposomal Nanoparticles Carrying anti-IL6R Antibody to the Tumour Microenvironment Inhibit Metastasis in Two Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunlei; Chen, Yanan; Gao, Wenjuan; Chang, Antao; Ye, Yujie; Shen, Wenzhi; Luo, Yunping; Yang, Shengyong; Sun, Peiqing; Xiang, Rong; Li, Na

    2017-01-01

    Tumour microenvironment (TME) contributes significantly towards potentiating the stemness and metastasis properties of cancer cells. IL6-Stat3 is one of the important cell signaling pathways in mediating the communication between tumour and immune cells. Here, we have systematically developed a novel anti-CD44 antibody-mediated liposomal nanoparticle delivery system loaded with anti-IL6R antibody, which could specifically target the TME of CD44+ breast cancer cells in different mouse models for triple negative and luminal breast cancer. This nanoparticle had an enhanced and specific tumour targeting efficacy with dramatic anti-tumour metastasis effects in syngeneic BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 cells as was in the syngeneic MMTV-PyMT mice. It inhibited IL6R-Stat3 signaling and moderated the TME, characterized by the reduced expression of genes encoding Stat3, Sox2, VEGFA, MMP-9 and CD206 in the breast tissues. Furthermore, this nanoparticle reduced the subgroups of Sox2+ and CD206+ cells in the lung metastatic foci, demonstrating its inhibitory effect on the lung metastatic niche for breast cancer stem cells. Taken together, the CD44 targeted liposomal nanoparticles encapsulating anti-IL6R antibody achieved a significant effect to inhibit the metastasis of breast cancer in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer mouse models. Our results shed light on the application of nanoparticle mediated cancer immune-therapy through targeting TME.

  15. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sigal Ben-Zaken; Yoav Meckel; Dan Nemet; Eias Kassem; Alon Eliakim

    2017-01-01

    .... The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners...

  16. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6-174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zaken, Sigal; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Kassem, Eias; Eliakim, Alon

    2017-09-01

    The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively) compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  17. Effect of low-dose ketamine on post-operative serum IL-6 production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Surgery and Anesthesia cause an excessive pro-inflammatory response. Mulago Hospital is faced with staff shortage making post-operative pain management difficult.Interleukin-6 (IL-6) drives inflammatory pain, endothelial cell dysfunction and fibrogenesis. Ketamine is cheap and, readily available.

  18. IL-6 contributes to an immune tolerance checkpoint in post germinal center B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yi; Wang, Ying-Hua; Diamond, Betty

    2012-02-01

    The generation of a B cell repertoire involves producing and subsequently purging autoreactive B cells. Receptor editing, clonal deletion and anergy are key mechanisms of central B cell tolerance. Somatic mutation of antigen-activated B cells within the germinal center produces a second wave of autoreactivity; but the regulatory mechanisms that operate at this phase of B cell activation are poorly understood. We recently identified a post germinal center tolerance checkpoint, where receptor editing is re-induced to extinguish autoreactivity that is generated by somatic hypermutation. Re-induction of the recombinase genes RAG1 and RAG2 in antigen-activated B cells requires antigen to engage the B cell receptor and IL-7 to signal through the IL-7 receptor. We demonstrate that this process requires IL-6 to upregulate IL-7 receptor expression on post germinal center B cells. Diminishing IL-6 by blocking antibody or haplo-insufficiency leads to reduced expression of the IL-7 receptor and RAG and increased titers of anti-DNA antibodies following immunization with a peptide mimetope of DNA. The dependence on IL-6 to initiate receptor editing is B cell intrinsic. Interestingly, estradiol decreases IL-6 expression thereby increasing the anti-DNA response. Our data reveal a novel regulatory cascade to control post germinal center B cell autoreactivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapoli, Luca; Girardi, Ambra; Palmieri, Annalisa; Carinci, Francesco; Testori, Tiziano; Zuffetti, Francesco; Monguzzi, Riccardo; Lauritano, Dorina

    2012-12-01

    Periodontitis is a disease mainly caused by a chronic infection of tissues that support the teeth. Several factors, such as diabetes, smoking and oral care, as well as genetic susceptibility can influence both the risk to develop periodontitis and its progression. The aim of the investigation was to test whether alleles of candidate genes were associated with periodontitis. A case control study was performed with a cohort of 184 patients with chronic periodontitis and 231 healthy controls from the Italian population. A total of six single nucleotide polymorphisms from five candidate genes, i.e., IL1A, IL1B, IL6, IL10 and vitamin D receptor, were investigated. Evidence of association were obtained for rs1800795 mapping in IL6 (P value = 0.01) as well as for the rs1800872 mapping in IL10 (P = 0.04). The rarer variant allele lowered the risk to develop periodontitis at IL6 (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.69 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.51-0.93]) and increased the risk at IL10 (OR = 1.38 [95% CI 1.01-1.86]). The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  20. Serum IL 6 and umbilical artery Doppler indices in pre-eclamptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To study the changes in serum IL 6 levels in pre-eclamptic patients and to detect any correlation between these changes and changes in the umbilical artery Doppler velocimetry. Methods: In Shatby Hospital, 100 pregnant women, at or beyond 32 weeks were selected and divided into three groups: group A with ...

  1. Serum IL 6 and umbilical artery Doppler indices in pre-eclamptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medhat Y. Anwer

    2016-03-07

    Mar 7, 2016 ... tion was found between maternal serum IL 6 levels and S/D ratio and RI in severe pre-eclamptic ... new onset of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of ... Exclusion criteria. Multiple pregnancy, pregnancy complicated with diabetes mel- litus or thyrotoxicosis or pyelonephritis, hypertension diag-.

  2. Reg Gene Expression in Periosteum after Fracture and Its In Vitro Induction Triggered by IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Tohma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The periosteum is a thin membrane that surrounds the outer surface of bones and participates in fracture healing. However, the molecular signals that trigger/initiate the periosteal reaction are not well established. We fractured the rat femoral bone at the diaphysis and fixed it with an intramedullary inserted wire, and the expression of regenerating gene (Reg I, which encodes a tissue regeneration/growth factor, was analyzed. Neither bone/marrow nor muscle showed Reg I gene expression before or after the fracture. By contrast, the periosteum showed an elevated expression after the fracture, thereby confirming the localization of Reg I expression exclusively in the periosteum around the fractured areas. Expression of the Reg family increased after the fracture, followed by a decrease to basal levels by six weeks, when the fracture had almost healed. In vitro cultures of periosteal cells showed no Reg I expression, but the addition of IL-6 significantly induced Reg I gene expression. The addition of IL-6 also increased the cell number and reduced pro-apoptotic gene expression of Bim. The increased cell proliferation and reduction in Bim gene expression were abolished by transfection with Reg I siRNA, indicating that these IL-6-dependent effects require the Reg I gene expression. These results indicate the involvement of the IL-6/Reg pathway in the osteogenic response of the periosteum, which leads to fracture repair.

  3. Hyper-inflammation and skin destruction mediated by rosiglitazone activation of macrophages in IL-6 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Lopa M; Rosenjack, Julie; Au, Liemin

    2015-01-01

    (Rosi), a medication recently reintroduced as a drug to treat diabetes and with known anti-inflammatory properties, paradoxically generates pro-inflammatory macrophages. This is observed in both IL-6-deficient mice and control wild-type mice experimentally induced to produce high titers of auto...

  4. Effect of low-dose ketamine on post-operative serum IL-6 production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ity of 1500 beds and an accident and emergency depart- ment that receives about 48,000 patients per year9. There ... rhagic and septic shock, results have shown significantly elevated levels of IL-1β, TNF and IL-6 with ... ro-surgery patients, epileptics, emergencies' or spinal and local infiltration anaesthesia plus those that ...

  5. IL-6 Production by Dendritic Cells Is Dispensable for CD8+ Memory T-Cell Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Daudelin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following activation, naïve CD8+ T cells will differentiate into effectors that differ in their ability to survive: some will persist as memory cells while the majority will die by apoptosis. Signals given by antigen-presenting cells (APCs at the time of priming modulate this differential outcome. We have recently shown that, in opposition to dendritic cell (DC, CD40-activated B-(CD40-B cell vaccination fails to efficiently produce CD8+ memory T cells. Understanding why CD40-B-cell vaccination does not lead to the generation of functional long-lived memory cells is essential to define the signals that should be provided to naïve T cells by APCs. Here we show that CD40-B cells produce very low amount of IL-6 when compared to DCs. However, supplementation with IL-6 during CD40-B-cell vaccination did not improve memory generation. Furthermore, IL-6-deficient DCs maintained the capacity to promote the formation of functional CD8+ effectors and memory cells. Our results suggest that in APC vaccination models, IL-6 provided by the APCs is dispensable for proper CD8+ T-cell memory generation.

  6. Exercise promotes IL-6 release from legs in older men with minor response to unilateral immobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reihmane, Dace; Gram, Martin; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major contributor to low-grade systemic inflammation. Most of the studies characterizing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) release from exercising legs have been done in young, healthy men, but studies on inactivity in older people are lacking. The...

  7. Cocaine abuse and effects in the serum levels of cytokines IL-6 and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fernanda Pedrotti; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Lhullier, Alfredo Cardoso; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Jansen, Karen; Portela, Luis Valmor; Lara, Diogo R; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Wiener, Carolina David; Oses, Jean Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is capable of activating the innate immune system in the CNS resulting in deregulation of homeostasis between pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10 respectively, in cocaine users from a young population-based sample. This is a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population-based survey, with individuals of 18 and 35 years old. Two groups were selected: 24 healthy controls and 12 subjects who reported cocaine use. Serum IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA using a commercial kit. There was a statistically significant increase in IL-6 (p=0.037) and decrease in IL-10 (p=0.007) serum levels, between cocaine users and the control group. There was also an increase in the ratio IL-6/IL-10 (p=0.013) among cocaine users individuals, when compared to the control group. Our results suggest that cocaine users showed an activation of the immune system when compared a control group, demonstrating a disruption in the balance of pro and antiinflammatory cytokines. Thus, peripheral cytokines may represent a putative biomarkers for cocaine users, contributing to the development of diagnosis and effective treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interleukin 6 (IL6) as a predictor outcome in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham Ragab

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... No patients in this study had CTP class c cirrhosis. IL-6 was measured by ELISA, postoperative pain .... logic activity index based on the assessment of portal inflam- matory infiltrate, interface hepatitis and parenchymal necrosis ..... Esp 2005;78:238–45. [28] Geiger TM, Tebb ZD, Sato E, Miedema BW, Awad ...

  9. Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-6 and JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan P. Čokić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent JAK1/2 inhibitor trial in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs showed that reducing inflammation can be more beneficial than targeting gene mutants. We evaluated the proinflammatory IL-6 cytokine and JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes in circulating CD34+ cells of MPNs. Regarding laboratory data, leukocytosis has been observed in polycythemia vera (PV and JAK2V617F mutation positive versus negative primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients. Moreover, thrombocytosis was reduced by JAK2V617F allele burden in essential thrombocythemia (ET and PMF. 261 significantly changed genes have been detected in PV, 82 in ET, and 94 genes in PMF. The following JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes had augmented expression in CD34+ cells of MPNs: CCND3 and IL23A regardless of JAK2V617F allele burden; CSF3R, IL6ST, and STAT1/2 in ET and PV with JAK2V617F mutation; and AKT2, IFNGR2, PIM1, PTPN11, and STAT3 only in PV. STAT5A gene expression was generally reduced in MPNs. IL-6 cytokine levels were increased in plasma, as well as IL-6 protein levels in bone marrow stroma of MPNs, dependent on JAK2V617F mutation presence in ET and PMF patients. Therefore, the JAK2V617F mutant allele burden participated in inflammation biomarkers induction and related signaling pathways activation in MPNs.

  10. Lack of IL-6 increases blood–brain barrier permeability in fungal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    − mice ... Interleukin (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine, and numerous studies have shown that IL‐6 influences the integrity of the blood–brain barrier. In this study we ... Dates. Manuscript received: 16 June 2014; Accepted: 10 November 2014 ...

  11. IL-6 variant is associated with metastasis in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abana, Chike O; Bingham, Brian S; Cho, Ju Hwan; Graves, Amy J; Koyama, Tatsuki; Pilarski, Robert T; Chakravarthy, A Bapsi; Xia, Fen

    2017-01-01

    Although tumor metastases remain significant drivers of mortality, the genetic factors that increase the risks of metastases are not fully identified. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has emerged as an important factor in breast cancer progression with IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants shown to affect survival. We hypothesized that SNPs of the IL-6 promoter at rs1800795 in breast cancer patients are associated with distant metastases. We performed an initial case-control study using Vanderbilt University Medical Center's BioVU, a genomic biobank linked to de-identified electronic medical records in the Synthetic Derivative database, to identify germline SNPs that may predict the development of metastatic disease to any site from any solid tumor including breast cancer. We identified a SNP in IL-6: rs1800795 to be of significance and evaluated this finding using a separate, matched-pair cohort of breast cancer patients with and without metastases from The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. The initial study suggested that GG relative to CG at rs1800795 (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.14-2.02; p = 0.004) was significantly associated with the development of metastases. This association was also observed in the Ohio State University cohort (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.06-4.71; p = 0.001). There were no significant relationships between rs1800795 status and any patient or tumor characteristics, including estrogen receptor status. These findings suggest that GG SNP at IL-6: rs1800795 may indicate an increased risk of metastasis of primary breast cancer. Further studies in larger population sets are warranted as advanced screening and prophylactic intervention might be employed in GG carriers.

  12. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  13. 17β-estradiol exerts anticancer effects in anoikis-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines by targeting IL-6/STAT3 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seulki, E-mail: sl10f@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minjong, E-mail: minjonglee2@naver.com [Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University Hospital, 156 Baengnyeong-ro, Chuncheon-si, Gangwon-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Bin, E-mail: kkimjp@hanmail.net [Hormel Institute, University of Minnesota, 801 16th Ave NE, Austin, MN, 55912 (United States); Jo, Ara, E-mail: loveara0315@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Ju, E-mail: creatioex@gmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Su Jong, E-mail: ydoctor2@hanmail.net [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: pindra@empal.com [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jung-Hwan, E-mail: yoonjh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon Jun, E-mail: yoonjun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine and Liver Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-13

    17β-Estradiol (E2) has been proven to exert protective effects against HCC; however, its mechanism on HCC proliferation and suppression of invasion remains to be further explored. Because HCC up-regulates serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3), molecular agents that attenuate IL-6/STAT3 signaling can potentially suppress HCC development. In this study, we examined involvement of E2 in anoikis resistance that induces invasion capacities and chemo-resistance. Huh-BAT and HepG2 cells grown under anchorage-independent condition were selected. The anoikis-resistant (AR) cells showed stronger chemo-resistance against sorafenib, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin compared to adherent HCC cells. AR HCC cells exhibited decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the N-cadherin and vimentin compared to adherent HCC cells. We then demonstrated that E2 suppressed cell proliferation in AR HCC cells. IL-6 treatment enhanced invasive characteristics, and E2 reversed it. Regarding mechanism of E2, it decreased in the phosphorylation of STAT3 that overexpressed on AR HCC cells. The inhibitory effect of E2 on cell growth was accompanied with cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and caspase-3/9/PARP activation through c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these findings suggested that E2 inhibited the proliferation of AR HCC cells through down-regulation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Thus, E2 can be a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of metastatic or chemo-resistant HCC. -- Highlights: •Anoikis-resistant HCC cells characterized chemo-resistant and metastatic potentials. •17β-Estradiol down-regulated IL-6/STAT3 signaling in anoikis-resistant HCC cells. •17β-Estradiol suppressed cell proliferation by inducing G2/M phase arrest and apoptosis though JNK phosphorylation.

  14. Estrogen Metabolism-Associated CYP2D6 and IL6-174G/C Polymorphisms in Schistosoma haematobium Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma haematobium is a human blood fluke causing a chronic infection called urogenital schistosomiasis. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (SCC constitutes chronic sequelae of this infection, and S. haematobium infection is accounted as a risk factor for this type of cancer. This infection is considered a neglected tropical disease and is endemic in numerous countries in Africa and the Middle East. Schistosome eggs produce catechol-estrogens. These estrogenic molecules are metabolized to active quinones that induce modifications in DNA. The cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes are a superfamily of mono-oxygenases involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism, the generation of DNA damaging procarcinogens, and the response to anti-estrogen therapies. IL6 Interleukin-6 (IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed in various tissues. This cytokine is largely expressed in the female urogenital tract as well as reproductive organs. Very high or very low levels of IL-6 are associated with estrogen metabolism imbalance. In the present study, we investigated the polymorphic variants in the CYP2D6 gene and the C-174G promoter polymorphism of the IL-6 gene on S. haematobium-infected children patients from Guine Bissau. CYP2D6 inactivated alleles (28.5% and IL6G-174C (13.3% variants were frequent in S. haematobium-infected patients when compared to previously studied healthy populations (4.5% and 0.05%, respectively. Here we discuss our recent findings on these polymorphisms and whether they can be predictive markers of schistosome infection and/or represent potential biomarkers for urogenital schistosomiasis associated bladder cancer and infertility.

  15. New insights into the cellular, biochemical, and molecular basis of postmenopausal and senile osteoporosis: roles of IL-6 and gp130.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolagas, S C; Bellido, T; Jilka, R L

    1995-02-01

    It is well established that osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption, are derived from hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GM), whereas the bone-forming osteoblasts are of the same lineage as the mesenchymal stromal cells of the bone marrow. Moreover, it is widely accepted that osteoclast formation depends on cells of the stromal/osteoblastic lineage. The appreciation of the ontogeny of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, the interaction between them, and the role of local factors that regulate their development has led to the emergence of new insights into the pathophysiology of the osteopenias associated with estrogen deficiency and senescence. Consistent with histomorphometric data from humans, there is now evidence from studies in animal models suggesting that a critical cellular change caused by the loss of ovarian, as well as testicular, function is an increase in osteoclastogenesis. This change is apparently mediated by an increase in the production of the osteoclastogenic cytokine interleukin-6 by cells of the bone marrow, which follows the removal of an inhibiting control of estrogens or androgens on IL-6. The inhibiting effect of sex steroids on IL-6 production is mediated by their respective receptors and is exerted indirectly on the transcriptional activity of the proximal 225 bp sequence of the IL-6 gene promoter. Besides its effects on IL-6 production, loss of gonadal function may also cause an increase in the sensitivity of the osteoclastic precursors to the action of cytokines such as IL-6, due to an upregulation of the gp130 signal transduction pathway.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  17. IL-6 anti-inflammatory activity in pleural effusion post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António M S Chibante

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The local inflammatory reaction aspects of pleural behaviour post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (PCABG are not completely evident, demanding further study and observation. Aim: To evaluate the behaviour of some cytokines and the possible anti-inflammatory activity of IL-6 (a protein involved in cortisone synthesis on acute PCABG pleural fluid, since this cytokine is usually considered as an acute phase reaction protein associated to high concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in immediate inflammatory reactions. Material and methods: The concentrations of the TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, VEGF and TGF-beta cytokines in 16 transudates and 43 exudates in acute PCABS pleural fluid of patients were analysed by the ELISA method 2, 24 and 48 hours after surgery at the Instituto do Coração and Serviço de Pneumologia da USP, Brazil. Results: While no increase was seen in either TNF-alpha or IL-2 in any of the three tests, IL-1beta increased after 24 until 48 hours, coinciding with the TGF-beta curve decline which fell from the beginning to reach the transudates levels. IL-8 reminded higher from the beginning and through the two subsequent tests while VEGF levels were elevated from the first test and continued high for the following 24 and 48 hours. IL-6 had high concentrations from the beginning, suggesting an anti-inflammatory activity at the three times of testing. Conclusions: We conclude that IL-6 seems to play an important anti-inflammatory part which is superior to the anti-inflammatory activity of TGF-beta in PCABG pleural effusions. This performance of IL-6 breaks with the traditional idea of it being a pro-inflammatory acute phase reaction cytokine, at least in this type of pleural effusion. This seems to be the first study involving the favourable behaviour of IL-6 in the inflammatory reaction of pleura in the acute phase of PCABG surgery. Resumo: Introdução: O comportamento pleural p

  18. Overexpression of S100A7 protects LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and stimulates IL-6 and IL-8 in HaCaT cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyan Sun

    Full Text Available S100A7 (or psoriasin is distributed in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes of normal human epidermis, and it is overexpressed in many epidermal inflammatory diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces mitochondrial function changes, which play important roles in multiple cellular mechanisms including inflammation. Although S100A7 expression is regulated by various factors in the human epidermis during inflammation, whether S100A7 interacts with mitochondria in keratinocytes is not clear.Our study was designed to investigate whether S100A7 could prohibit mitochondrial dysfunction and stimulate cytokines in cultured normal HaCaT cells treated with LPS.We generated HaCaT cells that constitutively express enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP-S100A7 (S100A7-EGFP or EGFP alone, as a control. Here, we show that S100A7-EGFP HaCaT cells exhibit an increase in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. qRT-PCR revealed that expression of three main mitochondrial biogenesis-associated genes was significantly increased: PPAR-coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α, the mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF1. S100A7 overexpression increased mtDNA content and effectively increased intracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP production, while decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS generation. S100A7 overexpression also significantly decreased the expression of Mfn2 and increased DRP1 expression compared with control EGFP cells. S100A7 down-regulated the expression of the autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1 and LC3B. S100A7 also increased expression of IL-6 and IL-8 cytokines. Knockdown of S100A7 decreased MMP and disrupted mitochondrial homeostasis.These findings demonstrate that S100A7 stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis and increases mitochondrial function in HaCaT cells treated with LPS; and S100A7 also promotes secretion of IL-6 and IL-8.

  19. Increased plasma levels of IL-6 in bacteremic periodontis patients after scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Bacteremia frequently occurs after dental treatment. Periodontal inflammation may influence the incidence, magnitude and duration of bacteremia. The presence of circulating oral bacteria or bacterial components may induce cytokine synthesis in blood cells, which may contribute to the development...... or exacerbation of atherosclerosis. The present study tested the hypothesis that bacteremia occurring after scaling in periodontitis patients results in altered plasma levels of cytokines. Twenty periodontitis patients were subjected to scaling. Blood samples at baseline and at 0.5, 10 and 30 minutes postscaling...... were examined for bacteremia whereas baseline and eight-hour postscaling blood samples were examined for the levels of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12p70. IL-6 levels were significantly increased eight hours after scaling, while IL-8 was significantly decreased. No systematic changes...

  20. The role of inflammation in vascular insulin resistance with focus on IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kirsten; Pedersen, B.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present review focuses on the possible role of interleukin-(IL)-6 in vascular insulin resistance. The endothelium plays an important role in regulating the tone of the vasculature by releasing nitric oxide (NO) to the smooth muscles of the vessels, thereby regulating the distribution of blood...... flow to the various tissues in relation to their energy demand. A dysfunctioning endothelium has been associated with both initiation and progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease and has been shown to predate the onset of hyperglycemia in the natural history of type 2 diabetes...... dysfunction and these cytokines. With regard to vascular insulin resistance, the available data point to a direct pathogenic role of TNF-alpha in mediating endothelial dysfunction, whereas with regard to IL-6 evidence is sparse and does not allow any firm conclusions Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9...

  1. Resting IL-6 and TNF-α Level in Children of Different Weight and Fitness Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosick, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Hackney, A.; Battaglini, Claudio; Combs, Terry; Harrell, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Reports suggest children with high aerobic fitness (VO2max; mL/kg/min) have healthier profiles of TNF-α and IL-6; however, research has not accounted for differences in adiposity between high-fit and low-fit individuals. Thus, this study examined differences in inflammatory markers of obese and normal weight children of different fitness levels, using two different VO2max units: per unit of fat free mass (VO2FFM) or total body mass (VO2kg). Children (n = 124; ages 8–12) were divided into four matched groups; normal weight high-fit (NH), normal weight low-fit (NL), obese high-fit (OH), and obese low-fit (OL). Height, weight, skinfolds, body mass index (BMI), and predicted VO2max were measured and a morning, fasting blood sample taken. IL-6 was elevated in the NL and OL groups compared with the NH group, as well as the OL group compared with the OH group. No differences were found in TNF-α. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and the two units of predicted VO2max did not differ suggesting that either VO2FFM or VO2kg can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. The relationship between IL-6 or TNF-α and predicted VO2max, whether expressed per mass or per fat-free mass was similar, suggesting that both can be used to describe aerobic power when studying inflammation and exercise in youth. Given the polar design of this study, this relationship should be confirmed including overweight subjects. PMID:23504656

  2. Resveratrol inhibits IL-6-induced ovarian cancer cell migration through epigenetic up-regulation of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi, Alessandra; Phadngam, Suratchanee; Morani, Federica; Galetto, Alessandra; Alabiso, Oscar; Chiorino, Giovanna; Isidoro, Ciro

    2017-03-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine released by cancer-associated fibroblasts, has been linked to the invasive and metastatic behavior of ovarian cancer cells. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with the potential to inhibit cancer cell migration. Here we show that Resveratrol and IL-6 affect in an opposite manner the expression of RNA messengers and of microRNAs involved in cell locomotion and extracellular matrix remodeling associated with the invasive properties of ovarian cancer cells. Among the several potential candidates responsible for the anti-invasive effect promoted by Resveratrol, here we focused our attention on ARH-I (DIRAS3), that encodes a Ras homolog GTPase of 26-kDa. This protein is known to inhibit cell motility, and it has been shown to regulate autophagy by interacting with BECLIN 1. IL-6 down-regulated the expression of ARH-I and inhibited the formation of LC3-positive autophagic vacuoles, while promoting cell migration. On opposite, Resveratrol could counteract the IL-6 induction of cell migration in ovarian cancer cells through induction of autophagy in the cells at the migration front, which was paralleled by up-regulation of ARH-I and down-regulation of STAT3 expression. Spautin 1-mediated disruption of BECLIN 1-dependent autophagy abrogated the effects of Resveratrol, while promoting cell migration. The present data indicate that Resveratrol elicits its anti-tumor effect through epigenetic mechanisms and support its inclusion in the chemotherapy regimen for highly aggressive ovarian cancers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Increased Prevalence of the IL-6 -174C Genetic Polymorphism in Long Distance Swimmers

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    Ben-Zaken Sigal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The IL-6 -174G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP functionally affects IL-6 activity, with the G-allele associated with increased IL-6 levels. The C-allele was found to be associated with exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and athletic performance among elite swimmers and runners. The study sample included 180 track and field athletes and 80 swimmers. Track and field athletes were assigned to three sub-groups: long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and short-distance runners. Swimmers were assigned to two subgroups: long-distance swimmers and short-distance swimmers. The control group consisted of 123 non-athletic healthy individuals. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood following a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher in the long-distance swimmers (18 and 43%, respectively compared to the long-distance runners (3 and 14%, respectively, p < 0.001; middle-distance runners (4 and 22%, respectively, p < 0.001; and controls (5 and 19%, respectively, p < 0.001. In addition, the CC genotype and C-allele frequency were significantly higher (p < 0.001 in long-distance swimmers compared to short-distance swimmers (18 versus 5% and 43 versus 29% for the CC genotype and C-allele frequency, respectively. The higher frequency of the C-allele and CC genotype among long-distance swimmers suggests that the rarity of exercise-associated rhabdomyolysis among swimmers is probably related to other sports-specific or water-related protective mechanisms. It is possible that swimming selection in talented endurance athletes who are C-allele carriers represents an example of genetically-dependent sports selection.

  4. Serum concentration of IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ in Vitiligo patients

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    Suman Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo is an acquired depigmenting disorder characterized by the loss of functional melanocytes from the epidermis. Although the etiology of vitiligo is unknown, over the last few years, substantial data from clinical research has greatly supported the ′Autoimmune theory′ and this is supported by the frequent association of vitiligo with disorders that have an autoimmune origin, including Hashimoto′s thyroiditis, Graves disease, type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and Addison′s disease. As cytokines are important mediators of immunity, there is evidence to suggest that they play a major role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Aim: Keeping this in view we have assayed sera for cytokine IL-6, IL-2, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, and IFNγ in 80 cases of vitiligo and compared it with healthy subjects, in order to find out whether they play a role in the pathogenesis of vitiligo or not. Materials and Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFNγ were done by the indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The mean serum IL-6 and IL-2 levels in the patient group were significantly higher when compared with those of the normal controls. The mean serum IFNγ level in patients with vitiligo was significantly lower than that in the control group. There was no significant difference in the serum level of TNF-α between vitiligo and healthy controls. Conclusion : An increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-2 in vitiligo patients may play an important role in melanocytic cytotoxicity. Thus, we speculate that the cytokine production of epidermal microenvironment may be involved in vitiligo.

  5. IL-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 Levels in Gyneco-Obstetric Infections

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    Beatriz Basso

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. During pregnancy cytokines and inflammatory mediators stimulate the expression of prostaglandin, the levels of which determine the onset of labor. The aim of this work was to study interleukin IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the vaginal discharge, serum and urine of pregnant women with genitourinary infection before and after specific treatment. One hundred and fifty-one patients were studied during the second or third trimester of their pregnancy.

  6. Allergen-induced IL-6 trans-signaling activates γδ T cells to promote type 2 and type 17 airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Md Ashik; Revez, Joana A; Loh, Zhixuan; Simpson, Jennifer; Zhang, Vivian; Bain, Lisa; Varelias, Antiopi; Rose-John, Stefan; Blumenthal, Antje; Smyth, Mark J; Hill, Geoffrey R; Sukkar, Maria B; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Phipps, Simon

    2015-10-01

    A variant in the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) gene increases asthma risk and is predicted to decrease IL-6 classic signaling and increase IL-6 trans-signaling. This suggests that inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling, but not classic signaling, might suppress allergic airway inflammation. We sought to determine whether IL-6 signaling contributes to (1) acute experimental asthma induced by clinically relevant allergens and (2) variation in asthma clinical phenotypes in asthmatic patients. Mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) or cockroach at day 0, treated with IL-6R inhibitors at day 13, and challenged with the same allergen at days 14 to 17. End points were measured 3 hours after the final challenge. IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) expression in induced sputum of asthmatic patients was correlated with asthma clinical phenotypes. Both HDM and cockroach induced a type 2/type 17 cytokine profile and mixed granulocytic inflammation in the airways. Both allergens increased IL-6 expression in the airways, but only cockroach induced sIL-6R expression. Therefore HDM challenge promoted IL-6 classic signaling but not trans-signaling; in this model treatment with anti-IL-6R did not suppress airway inflammation. In contrast, cockroach-induced inflammation involved activation of IL-6 trans-signaling and production of IL-17A by γδ T cells. Anti-IL-6R, selective blockade of sIL-6R, or γδ T-cell deficiency significantly attenuated cockroach-induced inflammation. Asthmatic patients with high airway IL-6 and sIL-6R levels were enriched for the neutrophilic and mixed granulocytic subtypes. Experimental asthma associated with both high IL-6 and high sIL-6R levels in the airways is attenuated by treatment with IL-6R inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Acyclic Triterpenoids from Alpinia katsumadai Inhibit IL-6-Induced STAT3 Activation

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    Hyun-Jae Jang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Alpinia katsumadai yielded two new acyclic triterpenoids, 2,3,6,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,6,11,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-7,10,14,18-tetraene (3 and 2,3,6,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-7-methylenetetracosa-10,14,18-triene (4, as well as two known compounds, 2,3,22,23-tertrahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-6,10,14,18-tetraene (1 and 2,3,5,22,23-pentahydroxy-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-tetracosa-6,10,14,18-tetraene (2. The absolute configurations of 2 and 3, which were determined by means of a modified Mosher’s method, are suggested as (3R; 5S; 22R and (3R; 22R, respectively. Compounds 1–4 inhibited IL-6-induced JAK2/STAT3 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, with IC50 values of 0.67, 0.71, 2.18, and 2.99 μM. Moreover, IL-6-stimulated phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly suppressed in U266 cells by the administration of A. katsumadai EtOH extract and Compounds 1 and 2. These results suggest that major phytochemicals, Compounds 1 and 2, obtained from A. katsumadai may be useful candidates for designing new IL-6 inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents.

  8. Solitary plasmacytoma of the tonsillar site associated with actinomyces infection: the possible role of IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, R; Rosini, S; Aiello, F B; Rullo, A; Croce, A; Lattanzio, G; Viola, P

    2012-01-01

    ExtraMedullary Plasmacytoma (EMP) is a rare plasma cell tumor. It can occur in the upper aerodigestive tract and presents as a large nodule causing local compressive symptoms. A 79-year old woman presented to Otorhinolaryngology Department with progressive hearing loss and no other symptoms. Following PET/TC examination due to the suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disease, the patient underwent tonsillectomy and the diagnosis of solitary EMP was formulated. In addition to that, the histological examination of the tonsillar tissue revealed large colonies of filamentous bacteria, showing abundant sulphur granules and Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon; these evidences indicating the presence of a chronic Actinomyces infection. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity of the neoplastic plasma cells. Interestingly, a marked IL-6 immunoreactivity was also found in the tissue surrounding the Actinomyces colonies. In the present study we report for the first time a solitary EMP associated with Actinomycosis. It is tempting to speculate that the unsuspected and untreated Actinomyces infection, through chronic IL-6 production, could contribute to the neoplastic transformation of plasma cells.

  9. Atg7 Regulates Brain Angiogenesis via NF-κB-Dependent IL-6 Production

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    Shi-Fang Zhuang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The formation of brain vasculature is an essential step during central nervous system development. The molecular mechanism underlying brain angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. The role of Atg7, an autophagy-related protein, in brain angiogenesis was investigated in this study. We found that the microvessel density in mice brains with endothelial-specific knockout of Atg7 (Atg7 EKO was significantly decreased compared to wild-type control. Consistently, in vitro angiogenesis assays showed that Atg7 knockdown impaired angiogenesis in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Further results indicated that knockdown of Atg7 reduced interleukin-6 (IL-6 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells, which is mediated by NF-κB-dependent transcriptional control. Interestingly, exogenous IL-6 restored the impaired angiogenesis and reduced cell motility caused by Atg7 knockdown. These results demonstrated that Atg7 has proangiogenic activity in brain angiogenesis which is mediated by IL-6 production in a NF-κB-dependent manner.

  10. IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun and STAT3 expression in B-CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Halina; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Sajewicz, Joanna; Choroszyńska, Dorota; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Osiak, Magdalena; Pająk, Natalia; Tomczak, Waldemar; Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Baszak, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of functionally abnormal, monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, resulting in a reduction count of normal immunocompetent cells and their impaired immune function. The defect in transmission of signals from various types of extracellular receptors, leading to aberrant cytokines and transcription factors gene expression, may underlie the basis of immune failure in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 expression. In response to antigenic stimulation IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 proteins induce mutual activity. The subject of the study was subpopulations of leukemic lymphocytes (CD5+ CD19+) and CD19+ B cells from healthy donors (control group). Our results provide evidence that the regulation of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 gene expression in CLL B cells is clearly different from normal B lymphocytes. In B-CLL STAT3 expression in unstimulated lymphocytes is significantly higher (pCLL in comparison with the control group, in all cases (pCLL stage according Rai we revealed decreasing c-Jun expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, along with advancing stage of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The IL6R variation Asp(358)Ala is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gregory A; Robinson, Mac B; Hastie, Annette T; Li, Xingnan; Li, Huashi; Moore, Wendy C; Howard, Timothy D; Busse, William W; Erzurum, Serpil C; Wenzel, Sally E; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2012-08-01

    The IL6R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4129267 has recently been identified as an asthma susceptibility locus in subjects of European ancestry but has not been characterized with respect to asthma severity. The SNP rs4129267 is in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1) with the IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp(358)Ala). This IL6R coding change increases IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) shedding and promotes IL-6 transsignaling. We sought to evaluate the IL6R SNP rs2228145 with respect to asthma severity phenotypes. The IL6R SNP rs2228145 was evaluated in subjects of European ancestry with asthma from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Lung function associations were replicated in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) cohort. Serum soluble IL-6R levels were measured in subjects from SARP. Immunohistochemistry was used to qualitatively evaluate IL-6R protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and endobronchial biopsies. The minor C allele of IL6R SNP rs2228145 was associated with a lower percent predicted FEV(1) in the SARP cohort (P= .005), the CSGA cohort (P= .008), and in a combined cohort analysis (P= .003). Additional associations with percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC ratio, and PC(20) were observed. The rs2228145 C allele (Ala(358)) was more frequent in severe asthma phenotypic clusters. Elevated serum soluble IL-6R levels were associated with lower percent predicted FEV(1) (P= .02) and lower percent predicted FVC (P= .008) (n= 146). IL-6R protein expression was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages, airway epithelium, vascular endothelium, and airway smooth muscle. The IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp(358)Ala) is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma and might identify subjects at risk for more severe asthma. IL-6 transsignaling might have a pathogenic role in the lung. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  12. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia,

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    Maria Ines de Albuquerque Wilasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. Methods: The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child–Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. Results: IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (p < 0.001, 0.21 vs. 0.14 (p = 0.007, and 0.65 vs. 0.36 (p = 0.004, respectively. IL-6 and IL-10 were positively correlated with disease severity (0.450 [p = 0.001] and 0.410; [p = 0.002], respectively. TNF-α did not show a significant correlation with disease severity (0.100; p = 0.478. Regarding nutritional evaluation, IL-6 was negatively correlated with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.493; p < 0.001 and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.503; p < 0.001, respectively. IL-10 exhibited a negative correlation with the standard deviation score of height-for-age (−0.476; p < 0.001 and the standard deviation score of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age (−0.388; p = 0.004. TNF-α did not show any significance in both anthropometric parameters (−0.083 (p = 0.555 and −0.161 (p = 0.253. Conclusion: The authors suggest that, in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status.

  13. Co-expression of tissue factor and IL-6 in immature endothelial cells of cerebral cavernous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noshiro, Shouhei; Mikami, Takeshi; Kataoka-Sasaki, Yuko; Sasaki, Masanori; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Ohtaki, Shunya; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Kocsis, Jeffery D; Honmou, Osamu

    2017-03-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are congenital abnormal clusters of capillaries that are prone to leaking and thought to result from a disorder of endothelial cells. The underlying pathology of CCM is not fully understood. We analyzed the expression of tissue factor (TF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in CCMs to determine the association of TF and IL-6 with clinical and pathological findings. Thirteen cases of operative specimens of sporadic CCMs were included in this study. The expression of messenger RNA of TF and IL-6 was assayed and the association with clinical factors was investigated. Then, the distribution of TF and IL-6 was examined with immunofluorescence. The mRNA expression of TF of CCMs was significantly higher than that of the control (p=0.017), and was correlated with the number of hemorrhage appearances (p=0.190, ρ=0.62). The mRNA expression level of IL-6 was significantly correlated with the mRNA expression level of TF (p=0.034, ρ=0.58). Examination of immunostained sections indicated that TF(+) cells were also positive for IL-6, and distributed around normal endothelial cells. Moreover, the TF(+)/IL-6(+) cells expressed CD31 and VEGFR2. The expressions of IL-6 and TF were correlated, and both were present in the same immature endothelial cells. TF is elevated in CCM and might mediate progressive events. These factors may play a prognostic role in CCM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of IL-6 in exercise training- and cold-induced UCP1 expression in subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet; Murholm, Maria; Carey, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    expression. The effect of daily intraperitoneal injections of IL-6 (3 ng/g) in C57BL/6 mice for 7 days on iWAT UCP1 expression was examined. In addition, the expression of UCP1 in iWAT was determined in response to 3 days of cold exposure (4°C) and 5 weeks of exercise training in wild type (WT) and whole...... body IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. Repeated injections of IL-6 in C57BL/6 mice increased UCP1 mRNA but not UCP1 protein content in iWAT. Cold exposure increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA content similarly in IL-6 KO and WT mice, while exercise training increased iWAT UCP1 mRNA in WT mice but not in IL-6 KO mice....... Additionally, a cold exposure-induced increase in iWAT UCP1 protein content was blunted in IL-6 KO mice, while UCP1 protein content in iWAT was lower in both untrained and exercise trained IL-6 KO mice than in WT mice. In conclusion, repeated daily increases in plasma IL-6 can increase iWAT UCP1 mRNA content...

  15. Diagnostic and Prognostic Impact of Circulating YKL-40, IL-6, and CA 19.9 in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Christensen, Ib J; Werner, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that high plasma YKL-40 and IL-6 associate with pancreatic cancer and short overall survival.......We tested the hypothesis that high plasma YKL-40 and IL-6 associate with pancreatic cancer and short overall survival....

  16. Role of IFN-gamma and IL-6 in a protective immune response to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice

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    Autenrieth Ingo B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia outer protein (Yop H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye, which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to address whether and how YopH affects the innate immune response to Ye in mice. Results For this purpose, mice were infected with wild type Ye (pYV+ or a YopH-deficient Ye mutant strain (ΔyopH. CD11b+ cells were isolated from the infected spleen and subjected to gene expression analysis using microarrays. Despite the attenuation of ΔyopH in vivo, by variation of infection doses we were able to achieve conditions that allow comparison of gene expression in pYV+ and ΔyopH infection, using either comparable infection courses or splenic bacterial burden. Gene expression analysis provided evidence that expression levels of several immune response genes, including IFN-γ and IL-6, are high after pYV+ infection but low after sublethal ΔyopH infection. In line with these findings, infection of IFN-γR-/- and IL-6-/- mice with pYV+ or ΔyopH revealed that these cytokines are not necessarily required for control of ΔyopH, but are essential for defense against infection with the more virulent pYV+. Consistently, IFN-γ pretreatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM strongly enhanced their ability in killing intracellular Ye bacteria. Conclusion In conclusion, this data suggests that IFN-γ-mediated effector mechanisms can partially compensate virulence exerted by YopH. These results shed new light on the protective role of IFN-γ in Ye wild type infections.

  17. Effect of IL-6R Inhibition with Tocilizumab on the Proteome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from a Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Michael Kruse; Andersen, Marlene; Bennike, Tue Bjerg

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The availability of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) has increased during the last decade, and while focus has been on treating clinical symptoms, the associated changes in the immune system remains poorly understood. Several key immunological...... regulators, including Interleukin (IL)-6 are intimately associated with rheumatoid arthritis disease progression. In this proof-of-concept case study we assess the immunological changes in multiple important immune cell populations to treatment with the commonly applied bDMARD tocilizumab, a humanized....... A combined total of 4,343 proteins were identified at metabolic, inflammatory and signaling pathways of each immune cell type as a result of the IL-6R inhibition. The CD14+ cells were...

  18. Low Dose Theophylline Showed an Inhibitory Effect on the Production of IL-6 and IL-8 in Primary Lung Fibroblast from Patients with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Feng, Ming-xiang; Qu, Jie-ming

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the abnormal and chronic lung inflammation. We hypothesized that lung fibroblasts could contribute to the local inflammation and investigated whether low dose theophylline had a beneficial effect on fibroblasts inflammation. Subjects undergoing lobectomy for bronchial carcinoma were enrolled and divided into COPD and control groups according to spirometry. Primary human lung fibroblasts were cultured from peripheral lung tissue distant to tumor tissue. There was a significant increase in both the mRNA expressions and protein levels for IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts in COPD group, and the values were negatively correlated with lung function (P theophylline treatment. In addition, theophylline at the dose of 5 μg/mL reduced the increased production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by 1 μg/mL LPS in primary human lung fibroblasts. Our data suggest that lung fibroblasts participate in the chronic inflammation in COPD by releasing IL-6 and IL-8, and low dose theophylline can alleviate the proinflammatory mediators' production by fibroblasts. PMID:22363103

  19. Cathepsin S Is Involved in Th17 Differentiation Through the Upregulation of IL-6 by Activating PAR-2 after Systemic Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Masato Dekita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Positive links have been found between periodontitis and numerous diseases in humans via persistent inflammation throughout the body. However, the main factors responsible for maintaining this pro-inflammatory condition are poorly understood. The spleen, the largest secondary immune organ, is a central hub regulating the immune response/inflammation due to the dendritic cell (DC response to CD4+ T cell subtype differentiation, and lysosomal proteinase cathepsin S (CatS is known to be involved in DC functions. In the present study, we found that CatS-induced IL-6 production by splenic DCs subsequently promotes Th17 differentiation, in response to systemic exposure to lipopolysaccharide derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis (PgLPS. The population of CD11c+ DCs was significantly increased in the splenic marginal zone (MZ locally of wild-type (DBA/2 mice with splenomegaly but not in that of CatS deficient (CatS-/- mice after systemic exposure to PgLPS for 7 consecutive days (5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal. Similarly, the population of Th17+CD4+ T cells was also significantly increased in the splenic MZ of wild-type mice but not in that of CatS-/- mice after PgLPS exposure. Furthermore, the increase in the Th17+ CD4+ T cell population paralleled increases in the levels of CatS and IL-6 in CD11c+ cells in the splenic MZ. In isolated primary splenic CD11c+ cells, the mRNA expression and the production of IL-6 was dramatically increased in wild-type mice but not in CatS-/- mice after direct stimulation with PgLPS (1 μg/ml, and this PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 expression was completely abolished by pre-treatment with Z-Phe-Leu-COCHO (Z-FL, the specific inhibitor of CatS. The PgLPS activated protease-activated receptor (PAR 2 in the isolated splenic CD11c+ cells was also significantly inhibited by CatS deficiently. In addition, the PgLPS-induced increase in the IL-6 production by splenic CD11c+ cells was completely abolished by pre-treatment with

  20. Low Dose Theophylline Showed an Inhibitory Effect on the Production of IL-6 and IL-8 in Primary Lung Fibroblast from Patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by the abnormal and chronic lung inflammation. We hypothesized that lung fibroblasts could contribute to the local inflammation and investigated whether low dose theophylline had a beneficial effect on fibroblasts inflammation. Subjects undergoing lobectomy for bronchial carcinoma were enrolled and divided into COPD and control groups according to spirometry. Primary human lung fibroblasts were cultured from peripheral lung tissue distant to tumor tissue. There was a significant increase in both the mRNA expressions and protein levels for IL-6 and IL-8 in fibroblasts in COPD group, and the values were negatively correlated with lung function (P<0.05. For COPD fibroblasts, the protein levels of IL-6 and IL-8 decreased from 993.0 ± 738.9 pg/mL to 650.1 ± 421.9 pg/mL (P=0.014 and from 703.1 ± 278.0 pg/mL to 492.0 ± 214.9 pg/mL (P=0.001, respectively, with 5 μg/mL theophylline treatment. In addition, theophylline at the dose of 5 μg/mL reduced the increased production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by 1 μg/mL LPS in primary human lung fibroblasts. Our data suggest that lung fibroblasts participate in the chronic inflammation in COPD by releasing IL-6 and IL-8, and low dose theophylline can alleviate the proinflammatory mediators’ production by fibroblasts.

  1. Blockade of the IL-6 trans-signalling/STAT3 axis suppresses cachexia in Kras-induced lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A; McLeod, L; Alhayyani, S; Szczepny, A; Watkins, D N; Chen, W; Enriori, P; Ferlin, W; Ruwanpura, S; Jenkins, B J

    2017-05-25

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and is frequently associated with the devastating paraneoplastic syndrome of cachexia. The potent immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 has been linked with the development of lung cancer as well as cachexia; however, the mechanisms by which IL-6 promotes muscle wasting in lung cancer cachexia are ill-defined. In this study, we report that the gp130F/F knock-in mouse model displaying hyperactivation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 via the common IL-6 cytokine family signalling receptor, gp130, develops cachexia during Kras-driven lung carcinogenesis. Specifically, exacerbated weight loss, early mortality and reduced muscle and adipose tissue mass were features of the gp130F/F:KrasG12D model, but not parental KrasG12D mice in which STAT3 was not hyperactivated. Gene expression profiling of muscle tissue in cachectic gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice revealed the upregulation of IL-6 and STAT3-target genes compared with KrasG12D muscle tissue. These cachectic features of gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice were abrogated upon the genetic normalization of STAT3 activation or ablation of IL-6 in gp130F/F:KrasG12D:Stat3-/+ or gp130F/F:KrasG12D:Il6-/- mice, respectively. Furthermore, protein levels of the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R), which is the central facilitator of IL-6 trans-signalling, were elevated in cachectic muscle from gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice, and the specific blockade of IL-6 trans-signalling, but not classical signalling, with an anti-IL-6R antibody ameliorated cachexia-related characteristics in gp130F/F:KrasG12D mice. Collectively, these preclinical findings identify trans-signalling via STAT3 as the signalling modality by which IL-6 promotes muscle wasting in lung cancer cachexia, and therefore support the clinical evaluation of the IL-6 trans-signalling/STAT3 axis as a therapeutic target in advanced lung cancer patients presenting with cachexia.

  2. Subclinical atherogenesis in patients with mild psoriasis: A role for IL-6?

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    Michelle Larissa Zini Lise

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: A link of psoriasis with subclinical atherosclerosis has been postulated and cytokine network might intermediate this association. Few data are available in patients with mild psoriasis. We evaluated carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in drug-free psoriatic individuals and controls. In parallel, we searched for associations of cIMT with disease activity indexes and serum interleukins (IL in psoriatic patients. Method: An experienced radiologist performed the cIMT analyses. Cytokine concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry. Disease activity was evaluated based on psoriasis area and severity index (PASI as well as body surface area (BSA. Results: Sixty-five (65 patients and 64 controls were studied. Mean age of patients (50.9 years did not differ from controls (p=0.362. A low PASI and BSA (0.05. Smoking habit and diabetes mellitus predominated in cases (p=0.002. An altered cIMT (≥ 0.9 mm was more frequent in cases than in controls (23.8% versus 8.5%, adjusted p=0.045. Mean cIMT was higher in cases with a borderline significance (p=0.057. cIMT scores did not correlate to PASI (rs=0.066; p=0.250 or BSA (rs=0.175; p=0.185, but did correlate significantly with serum IL-6 (rs=0.26; p=0.005. Conclusion: Subclinical atherosclerosis was more frequent in patients with mild psoriasis than controls. cIMT in psoriatic individuals correlated with serum IL-6, pointing to an eventual proatherogenic role of IL-6 in these patients. Newer studies should clarify the connection of atherogenesis with cytokines in psoriasis.

  3. Skeletal Muscle Derived IL-6 in Liver and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

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    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet

    was to investigate the effect of exercise on key factors in liver glucose and fat metabolism. This study demonstrated that PDH and ACC phosphorylation was decreased and that changes in hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase protein content does not contribute to gluconeogenesis during 1h of exercise in mice. These findings...... indicate that during 1h of exercise the liver utilizes carbohydrates for oxidation rather than gluconeogenesis and that gluconeogenic activity during 1h of exercise is not regulated through increases in protein content. The aim of study III was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle derived IL-6...

  4. Eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids from Salvia plebeia inhibit IL-6-induced STAT3 activation.

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    Jang, Hyun-Jae; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Hwang, Joo Tae; Kim, Mi-Hwa; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Kyungsook; Kim, Young-Ho; Lee, Seung Woong; Rho, Mun-Chual

    2016-10-01

    Seven eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid lactones and the known plebeiolide C were isolated from an ethanol-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Salvia plebeia R. Br. Their structures were determined via NMR and MS, and their absolute configurations were elucidated using ECD, and X-ray crystallographic analysis, as well as the modified Mosher ester method. All isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on IL6-induced STAT3 promoter activation in stably transfected Hep3B cells. Of these isolates, eudebeiolide D exhibited an inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.1 μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® decreases LPS-induced IL-6 release from murine macrophages.

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    Schulte-Michels, J; Runkel, F; Gokorsch, S; Häberlein, H

    2016-03-01

    IL-6 plays a key role in the course of inflammatory processes as well as in the regulation of immune responses by the release of different cytokines. IL-6 is produced e.g. by macrophages recruited to the airways in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli like allergens and respiratory viruses. Patients with inflammatory airway diseases therefore may benefit from therapies targeting the IL-6 pathway, e.g. reduction of the IL-6 release. Within this context, we tested the influence of the ivy leaves dry extract EA 575® on the LPS-induced release of IL-6 from murine macrophages (J774.2). One point seven µg/ml (5 µM) corticosterone served as positive control and was able to reduce LPS-induced IL-6 release by 46 ± 4%. EA 575® was tested in concentrations between 40 and 400 µg/ml. EA 575® decreased the LPS-induced IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and statistically significant by 25 ± 4%, 32 ± 4%, and 40 ± 7% in concentrations of 80, 160, and 400 µg/ml, respectively. The present data suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of EA 575® used in therapy of chronic- and acute inflammatory airway diseases accompanied with cough.

  6. The early IL-6 and IL-10 response in trauma is correlated with injury severity and mortality

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    Stensballe, J; Christiansen, M; Tønnesen, E

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trauma has previously been shown to influence interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels, but the association of injury severity and mortality with IL-6 and IL-10 responses in the early phase of accidental trauma remains to be investigated. We wished to describe serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10...... period. Serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 were measured upon arrival and at 6, 12, and 24 h after admittance using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between Injury Severity Score (ISS) and levels of IL-6 and IL-10. Analysis of variance was used...... to describe the IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in relation to 30-day mortality in a mixed-effect model repeated measures analysis. RESULTS: Mortality was 10.9% (29/265) at 30 days. A significant increase of both IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations was found over time, and a significant correlation was found between...

  7. IL-6 upregulation contributes to the reduction of miR-26a expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

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    Zhang, Yafei [People' s Liberation Army, Department of Oncology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Command, Wuhan (China); Third Military Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Zhang, Bicheng [People' s Liberation Army, Department of Oncology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Command, Wuhan (China); Zhang, Anran [Third Military Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Li, Xiaohua [Fourth Military Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Xi' an (China); Liu, Jian; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Yong; Gao, Jianfei [People' s Liberation Army, Department of Oncology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Command, Wuhan (China); Fang, Dianchun [Third Military Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology, Southwest Hospital, Chongqing (China); Rao, Zhiguo [People' s Liberation Army, Department of Oncology, Wuhan General Hospital of Guangzhou Command, Wuhan (China)

    2012-09-28

    A recent study showed that miR-26a is downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and that this downregulation is an independent predictor of survival. Interestingly, the same study also reported that miR-26a downregulation causes a concomitant elevation of IL-6 expression. Because miR-26a expression was found to be transcriptionally downregulated by oncogene c-Myc in various cancers, and the expression of c-Myc was increased by IL-6 stimulation, we hypothesized that IL-6 contributes to reduction of miR-26a in hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum IL-6 was measured by ELISA and miR-26a was detected by qRT-PCR. The data of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who had undergone surgical tumor resection revealed that serum IL-6 could be considered to be a predictor of survival up to 5 years for hepatocellular carcinoma patients (log-rank test, P < 0.05). We observed that the serum IL-6 concentration was inversely correlated with miR-26a expression in cancerous tissues (Pearson correlation test, r = -0.651, P < 0.01). Furthermore, by in vitro experiments with HepG2 cells, we showed that IL-6 stimulation can lead to miR-26a suppression via c-Myc activation, whereas in normal hepatocyte LO2 cells incubation with IL-6 had no significant effect on miR-26a expression. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-26a reduction in hepatocellular carcinoma might be due to IL-6 upregulation.

  8. A four-step model for the IL-6 amplifier, a regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masaaki; Hirano, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    short (Ogura et al., 2008; Hirano, 2010; Murakami et al., 2011). Thus, certain class II MHC-associated, tissue-specific autoimmune diseases, including some RA subtypes, may be induced by local events that cause an antigen-independent accumulation of effector CD4+ T cells followed by the induction of the IL-6 amplifier in the affected tissue. In other words, in certain cases, the target tissue itself may determine the specificity of the autoimmune disease via activation of the IL-6 amplifier. To explain this hypothesis, we have proposed a four-step model for MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases (Murakami et al., 2011): (1) T cell activation regardless of antigen specificity; (2) local events inducing a tissue-specific accumulation of activated T cells; (3) transient activation of the IL-6 amplifier; and (4) enhanced sensitivity to cytokines in the target tissue. The interaction of these events results in chronic activation of the IL-6 amplifier and subsequent manifestation of autoimmune diseases. Thus, the IL-6 amplifier, which is chronically activated by these four events, is a critical regulator of chronic inflammations in tissue-specific MHC class II-associated autoimmune diseases.

  9. Theobroma cacao increases cells viability and reduces IL-6 and sVCAM-1 level in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients.

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    Rahayu, Budi; Baktiyani, Siti Candra Windu; Nurdiana, Nurdiana

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether an ethanolic extract of Theobroma cacao bean is able to increase cell viability and decrease IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. At confluency, endothelial cells were divided into six groups, which included control (untreated), endothelial cells exposed to plasma from normal pregnancy, endothelial cells exposed to 2% plasma from preeclamptic patients (PP), endothelial cells exposed to PP in the presence of ethanolic extract of T. cacao (PP+TC) at the following three doses: 25, 50, and 100 ppm. The analysis was performed in silico using the Hex 8.0, LigPlus and LigandScout 3.1 software. Analysis on IL-6 and sVCAM-1 levels were done by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seven of them could bind to the protein NFκB (catechin, leucoanthocyanidin, niacin, phenylethylamine, theobromine, theophylline, and thiamin). This increase in IL-6 was significantly (Pcacao extract. Plasma from PP significantly increased sVCAM-1 levels compared to untreated cells. This increase in sVCAM-1 was significantly attenuated by all doses of the extract. In conclusion, T. cacao extract prohibits the increase in IL-6 and sVCAM-1 in endothelial cells induced by plasma from preeclamptic patients. Therefore this may provide a herbal therapy for attenuating the endothelial dysfunction found in preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid and Slow Progressors Show Increased IL-6 and IL-10 Levels in the Pre-AIDS Stage of HIV Infection.

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    Rúbia M de Medeiros

    Full Text Available Cytokines are intrinsically related to disease progression in HIV infection. We evaluated the plasma levels of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in extreme progressors, including slow (SPs and rapid (RPs progressors, who were thus classified based on clinical and laboratory follow-up covering a period of time before the initiation of HAART, ranging from 93-136.5 months for SPs and 7.5-16.5 months for RPs. Analyses were also performed based on the different stages of HIV infection (chronic, pre-HAART individuals-subjects sampled before initiating HAART but who initiated therapy from 12 to 24 months-and those receiving HAART. The plasma cytokine levels of 16 HIV-infected rapid progressors and 25 slow progressors were measured using a Human Th1/Th2/Th17 CBA kit. The IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels differed significantly between the stages of HIV infection. The IL-6 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in chronically infected SPs and HIV-seronegative individuals. The IL-10 levels were higher in slow progressors pre-HAART than in slow progressors receiving HAART and HIV-seronegative controls, and in rapid progressors, the IL-10 levels were higher in pre-HAART subjects than in HIV-seronegative controls. The results reflect the changes in the cytokine profile occurring during different clinical stages in HIV+ subjects. Our results suggest an association between increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels and pre-HAART stages independent of the slow or rapid progression status of the subjects. Thus, increased IL-6 and IL-10 levels could indicate a global inflammatory status and could be used as markers of the disease course in HIV-infected individuals.

  11. IL-6 regulation on skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling during cancer cachexia in the ApcMin/+ mouse

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    White James P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle protein turnover regulation during cancer cachexia is being rapidly defined, and skeletal muscle mitochondria function appears coupled to processes regulating muscle wasting. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and the expression of proteins regulating mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics are disrupted in severely cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. It has not been determined if these changes occur at the onset of cachexia and are necessary for the progression of muscle wasting. Exercise and anti-cytokine therapies have proven effective in preventing cachexia development in tumor bearing mice, while their effect on mitochondrial content, biogenesis and dynamics is not well understood. The purposes of this study were to 1 determine IL-6 regulation on mitochondrial remodeling/dysfunction during the progression of cancer cachexia and 2 to determine if exercise training can attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction and the induction of proteolytic pathways during IL-6 induced cancer cachexia. Methods ApcMin/+ mice were examined during the progression of cachexia, after systemic interleukin (IL-6r antibody treatment, or after IL-6 over-expression with or without exercise. Direct effects of IL-6 on mitochondrial remodeling were examined in cultured C2C12 myoblasts. Results Mitochondrial content was not reduced during the initial development of cachexia, while muscle PGC-1α and fusion (Mfn1, Mfn2 protein expression was repressed. With progressive weight loss mitochondrial content decreased, PGC-1α and fusion proteins were further suppressed, and fission protein (FIS1 was induced. IL-6 receptor antibody administration after the onset of cachexia improved mitochondrial content, PGC-1α, Mfn1/Mfn2 and FIS1 protein expression. IL-6 over-expression in pre-cachectic mice accelerated body weight loss and muscle wasting, without reducing mitochondrial content, while PGC-1α and Mfn1/Mfn2 protein expression was suppressed and FIS1 protein expression

  12. IL-6 trans-Signaling-Dependent Rapid Development of Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cell Function

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    Jan P. Böttcher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune control of infections with viruses or intracellular bacteria relies on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that use granzyme B (GzmB for elimination of infected cells. During inflammation, mature antigen-presenting dendritic cells instruct naive T cells within lymphoid organs to develop into effector T cells. Here, we report a mechanistically distinct and more rapid process of effector T cell development occurring within 18 hr. Such rapid acquisition of effector T cell function occurred through cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs in the absence of innate immune stimulation and known costimulatory signaling. Rather, interleukin-6 (IL-6 trans-signaling was required and sufficient for rapid induction of GzmB expression in CD8+ T cells. Such LSEC-stimulated GzmB-expressing CD8+ T cells further responded to inflammatory cytokines, eliciting increased and protracted effector functions. Our findings identify a role for IL-6 trans-signaling in rapid generation of effector function in CD8+ T cells that may be beneficial for vaccination strategies.

  13. Porphyromonas gingivalis decreases osteoblast proliferation through IL-6-RANKL/OPG and MMP-9/TIMPs pathways

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    Le Xuan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, is closely associated with inflammatory alveolar bone resorption. This bacterium exerts its pathogenic effect indirectly through multiple virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharides, fimbriae, and proteases. Another possible pathogenic path may be through a direct interaction with the host′s soft and hard tissues (e.g., alveolar bone, which could lead to periodontitis. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effect of live and heat-inactivated P gingivalis on bone resorption, using an in vitro osteoblast culture model. Results: Optical microscopy and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assay revealed that live P gingivalis induced osteoblast detachment and reduced their proliferation. This effect was specific to live bacteria and was dependent on their concentration. Live P gingivalis increased IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production and downregulated RANKL and OPG mRNA expression. The effect of live P gingivalis on bone resorption was strengthened by an increase in MMP-9 expression and its activity. This increase was accompanied by an increase in TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA expression and protein production by osteoblasts infected with live P gingivalis. Conclusion: Overall, the results suggest that direct contact of P gingivalis with osteoblasts induces bone resorption through an inflammatory pathway that involves IL-6, RANKL/OPG, and MMP-9/TIMPs.

  14. Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

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    Haafsa Arshad Sahibzada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines.

  15. Baicalin and Baicalein Inhibit Src Tyrosine Kinase and Production of IL-6

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    Dubravko Jelić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids play an important role in the treatment of various diseases, as they are able to inhibit reactive oxygen species, which cause damage to cells and tissues which may lead to increased risk of inflammatory diseases. Baicalin and baicalein, two flavonoids found in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, in the leaves of Thymus vulgaris and Oroxylum indicum, were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity as well as for their cytotoxicity. Thereby the two compounds were investigated on Src tyrosine kinase inhibition and inhibition of production of interleukin (IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated THP-1 cells. Additionally, the THP-1 cell line was used for the determination of the cytotoxicity. Both baicalin and baicalein showed some anti-inflammatory properties, while baicalein turned out to be the more active compound with higher inhibitory activities on both Src tyrosine kinase and production of cytokine IL-6. Baicalin and baicalein showed no signs of cytotoxicity in the MTS cytotoxicity assay in THP-1 cells.

  16. Effects of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) polymorphism on toxic metal and trace element levels in placental tissues

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    Kayaalti, Zeliha, E-mail: kayaalti@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Dikimevi, 06590, Ankara (Turkey); Tekin, Deniz; Aliyev, Vugar [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Dikimevi, 06590, Ankara (Turkey); Yalcin, Serap [Ahi Evran University, Kirsehir (Turkey); Kurtay, Guelay [Ankara University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dikimevi, 06590, Ankara (Turkey); Soeylemezoglu, Tuelin [Ankara University, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Dikimevi, 06590, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-11-01

    The placenta is a crucial organ of fetal origin that functions in providing nutrients to the fetus from the mother. During pregnancy, the need for essential micronutrients, such as Fe and Zn, increases due to the requirements of the growing fetus. Maternal Fe deficiency induces an increase in Cu levels and can also affect cytokine levels in the placenta. On the other hand, Cu deficiency, although not as common, can also have destructive effects on the fetus. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biological activities, including such as immune responses, acute-phase reactions, and inflammation. The placenta produces a significant amount of IL-6 during pregnancy. The effects of the IL-6 -174 G/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on IL-6 gene transcription and on plasma cytokine levels were assessed in the present study. We investigated the association between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and trace element/toxic metal levels in placental tissues. For the purposes of this study, 95 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Presence of the IL-6 polymorphism was determined using the standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique, and metal levels were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Based on our data, there were no significant associations between the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and Pb, Cd, Fe, or Zn levels in the placental tissues (p > 0.05), but a statistically significant association was detected between the polymorphism and Cu levels (p = 0.016). We determined that the mean Cu levels in the placental tissues from individuals with GG, GC and CC genotypes were 5.62 {+-} 1.98, 6.22 {+-} 3.22 and 8.00 {+-} 1.32 ppm, respectively, whereas the overall mean Cu level from the placental tissues was 5.98 {+-} 2.51 ppm. - Highlights: {yields} We studied between the association of IL-6 polymorphism and metal levels in the placenta tissues. {yields} It was the first report evaluating

  17. Polymorphisms in the TNFA and IL6 genes represent risk factors for autoimmune thyroid disease.

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    Cecília Durães

    Full Text Available Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD comprises diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, both characterized by reactivity to autoantigens causing, respectively, inflammatory destruction and autoimmune stimulation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. AITD is the most common thyroid disease and the leading form of autoimmune disease in women. Cytokines are key regulators of the immune and inflammatory responses; therefore, genetic variants at cytokine-encoding genes are potential risk factors for AITD.Polymorphisms in the IL6-174 G/C (rs1800795, TNFA-308 G/A (rs1800629, IL1B-511 C/T (rs16944, and IFNGR1-56 T/C (rs2234711 genes were assessed in a case-control study comprising 420 Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients, 111 Graves' disease patients and 735 unrelated controls from Portugal. Genetic variants were discriminated by real-time PCR using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.A significant association was found between the allele A in TNFA-308 G/A and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, both in the dominant (OR = 1.82, CI = 1.37-2.43, p-value = 4.4×10(-5 and log-additive (OR = 1.64, CI = 1.28-2.10, p-value = 8.2×10(-5 models. The allele C in IL6-174 G/C is also associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, however, only retained significance after multiple testing correction in the log-additive model (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.06-1.54, p-value = 8.9×10(-3. The group with Graves' disease also registered a higher frequency of the allele A in TNFA-308 G/A compared with controls both in the dominant (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.19-2.87, p-value = 7.0×10(-3 and log-additive (OR = 1.69, CI = 1.17-2.44, p-value = 6.6×10(-3 models. The risk for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease increases with the number of risk alleles (OR for two risk alleles is, respectively, 2.27 and 2.59.This study reports significant associations of genetic variants in TNFA and IL6 with the risk for AITD, highlighting the

  18. Expanding Diversity in Molecular Structures and Functions of the IL-6/IL-12 Heterodimeric Cytokine Family

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    Hideaki Hasegawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-6/IL-12 family cytokines have pleiotropic functions and play critical roles in multiple immune responses. This cytokine family has very unique characteristics in that they are composed of two distinct subunits forming a heterodimer and each cytokine and receptor subunit shares with each other. The members of this cytokine family are increasing; currently, there are more than 6 cytokines, including the tentatively named cytokines IL-Y (p28/p40, IL-12 (p35/p40, IL-23 (p19/p40, IL-27 p28/Epstein-Barr virus-induced protein 3 (EBI3, IL-35 (p35/EBI3, and IL-39 (p19/EBI3. This family of cytokines covers a very broad range of immune responses, including pro-inflammatory responses such as helper T (Th1, Th2, and Th17 to anti-inflammatory responses such as regulatory T (Treg cells and IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-12 is the first member of this family, and IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27 are mainly produced by activated antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages. IL-12 plays a critical role in the promotion of Th1 immune responses by inducing interferon-γ production to combat pathogens and malignant tumors. IL-23 induces IL-17 production and is necessary to maintain pathogenic Th17 cells that cause inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. IL-27 was initially reported to play a critical role in promotion of Th1 differentiation; however, subsequent studies revealed that IL-27 has broader stimulatory and inhibitory roles by inducing IL-10-producing Treg cells. IL-35 is produced by forkhead box P3+ Treg cells and activated B cells and has immunosuppressive functions to maintain immune tolerance. The most recently identified cytokine, IL-39, is produced by activated B cells and has pro-inflammatory functions. The cytokine tentatively named IL-Y seems to have anti-inflammatory functions by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 differentiation. In addition, individual cytokine subunits were also shown to have self-standing activities. Thus

  19. Comparison of IL-6, IL-8 Concentrations in H. pylori- and non-H. pylori-associated Gastritis

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    Gontar Alamsyah Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a non-invasive microorganism causing intense gastric mucosal inflammatory and immune reaction. The gastric mucosal levels of the proinflammatory cytokines Interleukin 6 (IL-6 and IL-8 have been reported to be increased in H. pylori infection, but the serum levels in H. pylori infection is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in H. pylori infection. METHODS: A cross sectional study was done on eighty consecutive gastritis patients admitted to endoscopy units at Adam Malik General Hospital and Permata Bunda Hospital, Medan, Indonesia from May-October 2014. Histopathology was performed for the diagnosis of gastritis. Rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Serum samples were obtained to determine circulating IL-6 and IL-8. Univariate and bivariate analysis (independent t test were done. RESULTS: There were 41.25% patients infected with H. pylori. Circulatory IL-6 levels were significantly higher in H. pylori-infected patients compared to H. pylori negative, but there were no differences between serum levels of IL-8 in H. pylori positive and negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The immune response to H. pylori promotes systemic inflammation, which was reflected in an increased level of serum IL-6. Serum levels of IL-8 were not significantly different between H. pylori positive and negative. KEYWORDS: Helicobacter pylori, gastritis, IL-6, IL-8, cytokine.

  20. Altered expression of cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in bovine follicular persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassi, A F; Baravalle, M E; Belotti, E M; Rey, F; Gareis, N C; Díaz, P U; Rodríguez, F M; Leiva, C J; Ortega, H H; Salvetti, N R

    2017-07-15

    In dairy cattle, cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of subfertility, and two of the main signs are ovulation failure and follicular persistence. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α in ovarian follicular structures at different times of persistence in a model of follicular persistence induced by prolonged treatment with progesterone in dairy cows. Protein expression of IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, IL-6 concentration in follicular fluid and serum was determined by ELISA. IL-1α, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α expression was increased in follicles with different persistence times in relation to the control dominant follicles, in granulosa cells. For IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α, this increase was detected early (P0: expected time of ovulation and/or P5: 5 days of follicular persistence). Additionally, theca cells showed an increase in IL-6 in antral (groups P10 and P15) and persistent follicles (group P10) related to dominant follicles from the control group (p cows (p cows is concurrent with altered expression of these cytokines in different ovarian follicular structures and may contribute to the follicular persistence and endocrine changes found in cattle with follicular cysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The nuclear receptor ROR(alpha) exerts a bi-directional regulation of IL-6 in resting and reactive astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journiac, Nathalie; Jolly, Sarah; Jarvis, Christopher; Gautheron, Vanessa; Rogard, Monique; Trembleau, Alain; Blondeau, Jean-Paul; Mariani, Jean; Vernet-der Garabedian, Béatrice

    2009-12-15

    Astrocytes and one of their products, IL-6, not only support neurons but also mediate inflammation in the brain. Retinoid-related orphan receptor-alpha (RORalpha) transcription factor has related roles, being neuro-protective and, in peripheral tissues, anti-inflammatory. We examined the relation of ROR(alpha) to astrocytes and IL-6 using normal and ROR(alpha) loss-of-function mutant mice. We have shown ROR(alpha) expression in astrocytes and its up-regulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have also demonstrated that ROR(alpha) directly trans-activates the Il-6 gene. We suggest that this direct control is necessary to maintain IL-6 basal level in the brain and may be a link between the neuro-supportive roles of ROR(alpha), IL-6, and astrocytes. Furthermore, after inflammatory stimulation, the absence of ROR(alpha) results in excessive IL-6 up-regulation, indicating that ROR(alpha) exerts an indirect repression probably via the inhibition of the NF-kappaB signaling. Thus, our findings indicate that ROR(alpha) is a pluripotent molecular player in constitutive and adaptive astrocyte physiology.

  2. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-infection....... In the experiments described in the present study, calves were infected at 13-21 weeks of age and reinfected 14 weeks later. Blood samples front the entire infection period were analysed for acute phase protein (haptoglobin) by ELISA and for expression (mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...... to the first infection with BRSV The IFNgamma response was biphasic. with an early peak at day 1-3 post infection (p.i.) and a later increase between day 5 and 8 p.i. Reinfection also resulted in an induction of IFNgamma. but without induction of clinical signs, IL-6 and haptoglobin. These results indicate...

  3. Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Thomas; MacLean, D A; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    To study the relationship between exercise-related muscle proteolysis and the cytokine response, a prolonged eccentric exercise model of one leg was used. Subjects performed two trials [a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and a control trial]. The release of amino acids from muscle...... during and after the eccentric exercise was decreased in the BCAA trial, suggesting a suppression of net muscle protein degradation. The plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 increased from 0.75 +/- 0.19 (preexercise) to 5.02 +/- 0.96 pg/ml (2 h postexercise) in the control trial and in the BCAA...... supplementation trial from 1.07 +/- 0.41 to 4.15 +/- 1.21 pg/ml. Eccentric exercise had no effect on the concentrations of neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD16+/CD56+, CD4+, CD8+, CD14+/CD38+, lymphocyte proliferative response, or cytotoxic activities. BCAA supplementation reduced the concentration of CD14+/CD38+ cells...

  4. Relationship of galectin-3 with obesity, IL-6, and CRP in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, J; Nguyen, V T; Rhodes, D H; Sullivan, M E; Braunschweig, C; Fantuzzi, G

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association of galectin-3 (Gal3) with obesity and inflammatory status in a cohort of metabolically healthy, predominantly African-American women with varying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk as determined by CRP levels. We assessed the association between BMI and serum levels of Gal3, IL-6, CRP, and adiponectin in metabolically healthy women (N = 97) to determine the overall association between Gal3, obesity, and inflammation in groups at different CVD risk. Obese women had significantly higher serum Gal3 compared to non-obese participants (P = 0.0016), although Gal3 levels were comparable among different classes of obesity. BMI (R (2) = 0.1406, P = 0.0013), IL-6 (R (2) = 0.0689, P = 0.035), and CRP (R (2) = 0.0468, P = 0.0419), but not adiponectin, positively predicted the variance of Gal3 levels in the total study population. However, the predicting effect of BMI (R (2) = 0.2923, P = 0.0125) and inflammation (R (2) = 0.3138, P = 0.038) on Gal3 was only present in women at low/moderate risk of CVD (CRP ≤ 3 µg/mL). Gal3 is positively correlated with obesity and inflammation in women, while the presence of elevated CVD risk may disturb the strength of Gal3 as a biomarker of inflammation.

  5. Diagnostic and Prognostic Impact of Circulating YKL-40, IL-6, and CA 19.9 in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A Schultz

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that high plasma YKL-40 and IL-6 associate with pancreatic cancer and short overall survival.In all, 559 patients with pancreatic cancer from prospective biomarker studies from Denmark (n = 448 and Germany (n = 111 were studied. Plasma YKL-40 and IL-6 were determined by ELISAs and serum CA 19.9 by chemiluminescent immunometric assay.Odds ratios (ORs for prediction of pancreatic cancer were significant for all biomarkers, with CA 19.9 having the highest AUC (CA 19.9: OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.97 to 2.68, p<0.0001, AUC = 0.94; YKL-40: OR = 4.50, 3.99 to 5.08, p<0.0001, AUC = 0.87; IL-6: OR = 3.68, 3.08 to 4.44, p<0.0001, AUC = 0.87. Multivariate Cox analysis (YKL-40, IL-6, CA 19.9, age, stage, gender in patients operated on showed that high preoperative IL-6 and CA 19.9 (dichotomized according to normal values were independently associated with short overall survival (CA 19.9: HR = 2.51, 1.22-5.15, p = 0.013; IL-6: HR = 2.03, 1.11 to 3.70, p = 0.021. Multivariate Cox analysis of non-operable patients (Stage IIB-IV showed that high pre-treatment levels of each biomarker were independently associated with short overall survival (YKL-40: HR = 1.30, 1.03 to 1.64, p = 0.029; IL-6: HR = 1.71, 1.33 to 2.20, p<0.0001; CA 19.9: HR = 1.54, 1.06 to 2.24, p = 0.022. Patients with preoperative elevation of both IL-6 and CA 19.9 had shorter overall survival (p<0.005 compared to patients with normal levels of both biomarkers (45% vs. 92% alive after 12 months.Plasma YKL-40 and IL-6 had less diagnostic impact than CA 19.9. Combination of pretreatment YKL-40, IL-6, and CA 19.9 may have clinical value to identify pancreatic cancer patients with the poorest prognosis.

  6. Variants of ESR1, APOE, LPL and IL-6 loci in young healthy subjects: association with lipid status and obesity

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    Jelakovic Bojan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Findings BMI was increased (>25 in 22% of young healthy subjects. Increased cholesterol values (>5.0 mmol/L were found in 23% of subjects, LDL-C (>3.0 mmol/L in 23%, triglycerides (>1.7 mmol/L in 11% of subjects. We found statistically significant differences in subjects' weight (p = 0.015, BMI (p = 0.023, and waist-hip ratio (WHR (p = 0.015 in regard to their diet type; subjects with Mediterranean diet had the lowest values compared to those on continental and mixed diet. Significant associations were found for: LPL genetic polymorphic variant and abdominal obesity (p = 0.013, APO epsilon4 allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.003, and ESR1-TA long allele and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.011. Background Human obesity is a multifactorial syndrome influenced also by genetic factors. Among gene variants found to be involved in body weight regulation and development of obesity, particular attention has been paid to polymorphisms in genes associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. We explored the association of genetic polymorphisms of: estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1-TA repeats; interleukin-6 (IL-6 G-174C; apolipoprotein E (APO epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4; lipoprotein lipase Pvu II (LPL P+/-, with clinical variables: gender, age, body mass index (BMI, diet type and biological variables: triglycerides, cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, CRP, homocysteine, urate, and glucose in 105 healthy young subjects (20-35 yrs of Croatian origin. Methods Genotyping of IL-6, LPL was performed by PCR-RFLP, of APOE by real-time PCR, and of ESR1 by PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Association analyses were performed of alleles and genotypes with biological variables. Conclusion ESR-1, LPL, and APO E genetic polymorphic variants could represent predictive genetic risk markers for obesity-related metabolic disorders in young healthy subjects. Mediterranean type of diet is also an important protective factor against abdominal obesity.

  7. A monoterpene, unique component of thyme honeys, induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via inhibition of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, Eva; Chinou, Ioanna; Spilioti, Eliana; Tsiapara, Anna; Graikou, Konstantia; Karabournioti, Sofia; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2014-09-25

    We have previously demonstrated that Greek thyme honey inhibits significantly the cell viability of human prostate cancer cells. Herein, 15 thyme honey samples from several regions of Greece were submitted to phytochemical analysis for the isolation, identification and determination (through modern spectral means) of the unique thyme honey monoterpene, the compound trihydroxy ketone E-4-(1,2,4-trihydroxy-2,6,6-trimethylcyclohexyl)-but-3-en-2-one. We investigated the anti-growth and apoptotic effects of the trihydroxy ketone on PC-3 human androgen independent prostate cancer cells using MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC respectively. The molecular pathways involved to such effects were further examined by evaluating its ability to inhibit (a) the NF-κB phosphorylation (S536), (b) JNK and Akt phosphorylation (Thr183/Tyr185 and S473 respectively) and (c) IL-6 production, using ELISA method. The anti-microbial effects of the trihydroxy ketone against a panel of nine pathogenic bacteria and three fungi were also assessed. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 prostate cancer cells at 100 μM, while it inhibited NF-κB phosphorylation and IL-6 secretion at a concentration range 10(-6)-10(-4)M. Akt and JNK signaling were not found to participate in this process. The trihydroxy ketone exerted significant anti-microbial profile against many human pathogenic bacteria and fungi (MIC values ranged from 0.04 to 0.57 mg/ml). Conclusively, the Greek thyme honey-derived monoterpene exerted significant apoptotic activity in PC-3 cells, mediated, at least in part, through reduction of NF-κB activity and IL-6 secretion and may play a key role in the anti-growth effect of thyme honey on prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Extracellular vesicles secreted from cancer cell lines stimulate secretion of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redzic, Jasmina S; Kendrick, Agnieszka A; Bahmed, Karim; Dahl, Kristin D; Pearson, Chad G; Robinson, William A; Robinson, Steven E; Graner, Michael W; Eisenmesser, Elan Z

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key contributors to cancer where they play an integral role in cell-cell communication and transfer pro-oncogenic molecules to recipient cells thereby conferring a cancerous phenotype. Here, we purified EVs using straightforward biochemical approaches from multiple cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized these EVs via multiple biochemical and biophysical methods. In addition, we used fluorescence microscopy to directly show internalization of EVs into the recipient cells within a few minutes upon addition of EVs to recipient cells. We confirmed that the transmembrane protein EMMPRIN, postulated to be a marker of EVs, was indeed secreted from all cell lines studied here. We evaluated the response to EV stimulation in several different types of recipient cells lines and measured the ability of these purified EVs to induce secretion of several factors highly upregulated in human cancers. Our data indicate that purified EVs preferentially stimulate secretion of several proteins implicated in driving cancer in monocytic cells but only harbor limited activity in epithelial cells. Specifically, we show that EVs are potent stimulators of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and induce the secretion of extracellular EMMPRIN, which all play a role in driving immune evasion, invasion and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, by using a comprehensive approach that includes biochemical, biological, and spectroscopic methods, we have begun to elucidate the stimulatory roles.

  9. Extracellular vesicles secreted from cancer cell lines stimulate secretion of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and EMMPRIN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina S Redzic

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are key contributors to cancer where they play an integral role in cell-cell communication and transfer pro-oncogenic molecules to recipient cells thereby conferring a cancerous phenotype. Here, we purified EVs using straightforward biochemical approaches from multiple cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized these EVs via multiple biochemical and biophysical methods. In addition, we used fluorescence microscopy to directly show internalization of EVs into the recipient cells within a few minutes upon addition of EVs to recipient cells. We confirmed that the transmembrane protein EMMPRIN, postulated to be a marker of EVs, was indeed secreted from all cell lines studied here. We evaluated the response to EV stimulation in several different types of recipient cells lines and measured the ability of these purified EVs to induce secretion of several factors highly upregulated in human cancers. Our data indicate that purified EVs preferentially stimulate secretion of several proteins implicated in driving cancer in monocytic cells but only harbor limited activity in epithelial cells. Specifically, we show that EVs are potent stimulators of MMP-9, IL-6, TGF-β1 and induce the secretion of extracellular EMMPRIN, which all play a role in driving immune evasion, invasion and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, by using a comprehensive approach that includes biochemical, biological, and spectroscopic methods, we have begun to elucidate the stimulatory roles.

  10. IL-17F induces IL-6 via TAK1-NFκB pathway in airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Mio; Ota, Kyoko; Fujita, Junichi; Matsukura, Satoshi; Huang, Shau-Ku; Morishima, Yuko; Ishii, Yukio; Satoh, Hiroaki; Sakamoto, Tohru; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17F plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of IL-17F in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) and its regulatory mechanisms remain to be defined. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression of IL-6 by IL-17F and the involvement of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB by in ASMCs. ASMCs were cultured in the presence or absence of IL-17F. The expression of IL-6 gene and protein was analyzed using real-time PCR and ELISA, and the activation of TAK1 and NF-κB was detected by Western blotting. The effect of TAK1 inhibitor 5Z-7-oxozeaenol and NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 on the expression of IL-6 was investigated. Finally, the short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting TAK1 and a subunit of NF-κB, p65 were transfected into ASMCs. The expression of IL-6 gene and protein was significantly induced by IL-17F. IL-17F activated TAK1 and NF-κB in ASMCs. Transfection of siRNAs targeting TAK1 abolished IL-17F-induced phosphorylation of p65. Both 5Z-7-oxozeaenol and BAY 11-7082 significantly inhibited IL-17F-induced IL-6 production in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, transfection of the cells with siRNAs targeting TAK1 and p65 inhibited the expression of IL-6. Collectively, these results provided evidence supporting the potential importance of the Th17-ASMCs crosstalk via the IL-17F-IL-6 axis in airway inflammation and as a candidate pharmacological target for airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma. © 2017 The Authors. Immunity, Inflammation and Disease Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Combination of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 with traditional serum tumor markers in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y W; Zhou, Z G; Wang, M; Dong, J Q; Du, K P; Li, S; Liu, Y L; Lv, P J; Gao, J B

    2016-11-03

    Early detection and treatment is critically important for lung cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 participate in lung cancer regulation. CEA, CA125, and ProGRP are commonly used serum tumor markers for lung cancer. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP when used in combination with IL-6, IL-10, and MCP in lung cancer diagnosis. Serum from three different groups (healthy controls, individuals with high risk for lung cancer, and lung cancer patients) was collected. Electrochemiluminescence was used to detect expressions of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP; ELISA was used to examine serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1. Specificity and sensitivity of single as well as combination markers in lung cancer diagnosis were determined. Results indicated that CEA, CA125, ProGRP, and MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in lung cancer patients as compared to those in controls and high risk individuals. Higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels were observed in both lung cancer patients and high-risk individuals as compared to those in controls. Highest sensitivity (95.2%) in cancer diagnosis was achieved when all six markers were used. This was followed by a combination of IL-6, IL-10, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP (92.6%). The most sensitive (88.6%). Four-marker combination was composed of IL-6, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP. As the combined usage of CEA, CA125, ProGRP, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 significantly improved sensitivity of lung cancer detection; this biomarker arrangement may be beneficial for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer.

  12. IL6 and CRP haplotypes are associated with COPD risk and systemic inflammation: a case-control study

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    Passos Valéria

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin (IL-6 and fibrinogen (FG have been repeatedly associated with many adverse outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To date, it remains unclear whether and to what extent systemic inflammation is primary or secondary in the pathogenesis of COPD. The aim of this study was to examine the association between haplotypes of CRP, IL6 and FGB genes, systemic inflammation, COPD risk and COPD-related phenotypes (respiratory impairment, exercise capacity and body composition. Methods Eighteen SNPs in three genes, representing optimal haplotype-tagging sets, were genotyped in 355 COPD patients and 195 healthy smokers. Plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and FG were measured in the total study group. Differences in haplotype distributions were tested using the global and haplotype-specific statistics. Results Raised plasma levels of CRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen were demonstrated in COPD patients. However, COPD population was very heterogeneous: about 40% of patients had no evidence of systemic inflammation (CRP CRP gene and CRP plasma levels (P = 0.0004 and IL6 gene and COPD (P = 0.003. Subsequent analysis has shown that IL6 haplotype H2, associated with an increased COPD risk (p = 0.004, OR = 4.82; 1.64 to 4.18, was also associated with very low CRP levels (p = 0.0005. None of the genes were associated with COPD-related phenotypes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that common genetic variation in CRP and IL6 genes may contribute to heterogeneity of COPD population associated with systemic inflammation.

  13. Inhibition of HIF-1α decreases expression of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiuhua; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Hongxia; Li, Chuanbao; Ding, Jianguang

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs, i.e. IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) in retinal tissues are likely involved in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this report, we particularly examined contributions of hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α) to the expression of PICs and their receptors in diabetic retina. Streptozotocin (STZ) was systemically injected to induce hyperglycaemia in rats. ELISA and Western blot analysis were employed to determine the levels of HIF-1α and PICs as well as PIC receptors in retinal tissues of control rats and STZ rats. The levels of retinal HIF-1α were significantly increased in STZ rats 4-10 weeks after induction of hyperglycaemia as compared with control animals. With increasing HIF-1α retinal PICs including IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, their respective receptors, namely IL-1R, IL-6R and TNFR1, were also elevated in STZ rats. Moreover, inhibition of HIF-1α by injection of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-MET) significantly decreased the amplified expression IL-6, TNF-α, IL-6R and TNFR1 in diabetic retina, but did not modify IL-1β pathway. In addition, we examined protein expression of Caspase-3 indicating cell apoptosis in the retina of STZ rats after infusing 2-MET, demonstrating that 2-MET attenuated an increase in Caspase-3 evoked by STZ. Hypoxia inducible factor subtype 1α (HIF-1α) activated in diabetic retina is likely to play a role in regulating pathophysiological process via IL-6 and TNF-α mechanism. This has pharmacological implications to target specific HIF-1α, IL-6 and TNF-α signalling pathway for dysfunction and vulnerability related to DR. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genome-wide association study of genetic variants in LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α cytokine response in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Albrechtsen, Anders; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine production....

  15. IL6R haplotype rs4845625*T/rs4537545*C is a risk factor for simultaneously high CRP, LDL and ApoB levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arguinano, A. A.; Naderi, E.; Ndiaye, N. C.; Stathopoulou, M.; Dade, S.; Alizadeh, B.; Visvikis-Siesit, S.

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R), mediating IL-6's biological functions, plays an important role in different diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cardio-vascular diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), within the IL-6R loci, previously

  16. Blocking IL-6 trans-signaling prevents high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage recruitment but does not improve insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraakman, Michael J; Kammoun, Helene L; Allen, Tamara L; Deswaerte, Virginie; Henstridge, Darren C; Estevez, Emma; Matthews, Vance B; Neill, Bronwyn; White, David A; Murphy, Andrew J; Peijs, Lone; Yang, Christine; Risis, Steve; Bruce, Clinton R; Du, Xiao-Jun; Bobik, Alex; Lee-Young, Robert S; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Shi, Wei; Kallies, Axel; Lancaster, Graeme I; Rose-John, Stefan; Febbraio, Mark A

    2015-03-03

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a paradoxical role in inflammation and metabolism. The pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6 are mediated via IL-6 "trans-signaling," a process where the soluble form of the IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) binds IL-6 and activates signaling in inflammatory cells that express the gp130 but not the IL-6 receptor. Here we show that trans-signaling recruits macrophages into adipose tissue (ATM). Moreover, blocking trans-signaling with soluble gp130Fc protein prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ATM accumulation, but does not improve insulin action. Importantly, however, blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling, unlike complete ablation of IL-6 signaling, does not exacerbate obesity-induced weight gain, liver steatosis, or insulin resistance. Our data identify the sIL-6R as a critical chemotactic signal for ATM recruitment and suggest that selectively blocking IL-6 trans-signaling may be a more favorable treatment option for inflammatory diseases, compared with current treatments that completely block the action of IL-6 and negatively impact upon metabolic homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Function of Integrin-Linked Kinase in Modulating the Stemness of IL-6–Abundant Breast Cancer Cells by Regulating γ-Secretase–Mediated Notch1 Activation in Caveolae

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    En-Chi Hsu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Notch signaling are important regulators of breast cancer stem cells (CSCs, which drive the malignant phenotype through self-renewal, differentiation, and development of therapeutic resistance. We investigated the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK in regulating IL-6–driven Notch1 activation and the ability to target breast CSCs through ILK inhibition. Ectopic expression/short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of ILK, pharmacological inhibition of ILK with the small molecule T315, Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, and luciferase reporter assays were used to evaluate the regulation of IL-6–driven Notch1 activation by ILK in IL-6–producing triple-negative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, SUM-159 and in MCF-7 and MCF-7IL-6 cells. The effects of ILK on γ-secretase complex assembly and cellular localization were determined by immunofluorescence, Western blots of membrane fractions, and immunoprecipitation. In vivo effects of T315-induced ILK inhibition on CSCs in SUM-159 xenograft models were assessed by mammosphere assays, flow cytometry, and tumorigenicity assays. Results show that the genetic knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of ILK suppressed Notch1 activation and the abundance of the γ-secretase components presenilin-1, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer 2 at the posttranscriptional level via inhibition of caveolin-1-dependent membrane assembly of the γ-secretase complex. Accordingly, knockdown of ILK inhibited breast CSC-like properties in vitro and the breast CSC subpopulation in vivo in xenograft tumor models. Based on these findings, we propose a novel function of ILK in regulating γ-secretase–mediated Notch1 activation, which suggests the targeting of ILK as a therapeutic approach to suppress IL-6–induced breast CSCs.

  18. A study on the effect of IL-6 gene polymorphism on the prognosis of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Jia, Guang-He Fei, Jie-Gui Hu, Xian-Wei Hu Pulmonary Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China Background: Lung cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed clinical diseases. IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related to chemotactic factors and tumor biological regulation. -174G/C polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-6 gene single-nucleotide polymorphism is the -174 position change from G to C. However, the relationship between the IL-6 gene polymorphism and prognosis of lung cancer is elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of -174G/C polymorphism on the prognosis of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC.Methods: DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 434 cases diagnosed with NSCLC by cytologic or histologic examination. Polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (NlaIII was used to detect the genotype of -174G/C. Based on the functional activity of the IL-6 gene polymorphism, genotypes were divided into G vector (CG/GG (high yield and CC genotype (low yield. Prognosis of patients was analyzed and independent risk factors evaluated. A quantitative analysis of the degree of pain after diagnosis was performed to evaluate the correlations between gene polymorphisms and the degree of pain and use of analgesics.Results: Survival analysis showed that survival of the patients carrying the G allele (CG/GG was significantly lower than that of patients with CC genotype (42.31 versus 62.79 months; P=0.032. The IL-6 gene promoter region revealed the presence of polymorphic variants, which may be associated with changes in the gene transcription process that affect the level of serum cytokines. IL-6 -174G/C gene polymorphism is associated with a significant morphine equivalent daily dose (IL-6 GG, 69.61; GC, 73.17; CC, 181.67; P=0.004. Homozygous IL-6 -174C/C genotype carriers required higher doses of

  19. Relationships of Urinary VEGF/CR and IL-6/CR with Glomerular Pathological Injury in Asymptomatic Hematuria Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lu; Gao, Yinghe; Chen, Guanglei; Gong, Junhua; Yang, Dan; Xie, Yongxin; Wang, Mingcui; Chen, Hong; Song, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have important functions in injury and repair processes of glomerular intrinsic cells. A study was conducted to analyze the urinary VEGF/creatinine (CR) and IL-6/CR levels in simple hematuria patients after excluding the interference of creatinine. We aimed to investigate the function and relationships of the above indices in the glomerular pathological injury process, and to elaborate the values of urinary VEGF and IL-6 changes in the diagnosis of asymptomatic hematuria or hematuria with proteinuria. Material/Methods A total of 121 renal hematuria patients diagnosed by clinical and laboratory tests were included as research subjects. The midstream fresh morning urine was collected on the day renal biopsy was performed. Results The IL-6/CR value of the group III was significantly greater than in group I (Z=−2.478, Phematuria patients were positively correlated with glomerular pathological injury scores. VEGF/CR and IL-6/CR might be used as biological diagnostic indicators in determining the extent of simple hematuria glomerular injury. PMID:25634015

  20. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, promotes the ossification of ligament fibroblasts from ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-He; He, Chong-Ru; Liu, Fu-Ping; Li, Jia; Gao, Jin-Wei; Li, Yang; Xu, Wei-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein, is involved in osteogenesis. The objective of the present study was to explore the expression of Annexin A2 in spinal ligament tissues (LT) of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and determine its pathological functions. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured with ALP activity kit on a microplate reader. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 in LT, and IL-6 concentration in serum were significantly increased in AS patients. Moreover, exogenous IL-6 treatment significantly up-regulated Annexin A2 expression and ALP activity. Silencing of Annexin A2 expression significantly ameliorated IL-6-induced ossification of fibroblasts from AS patients, as indicated by ALP activity, expression of proteins associated with osteogenic differentiation, including bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osterix, and the ratio of osteoprotegerin to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand. Further MEK inhibitor experiments suggested that Annexin A2 may exert its function through extracellular signal-related kinase pathway. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, may promote ligament ossification of AS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Reconditioning the stress response with hypnosis CD reduces the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and influences resilience: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Marc; Nowack, Kenneth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of a self-administered hypnosis intervention on resilience and the inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Over a period of 12 weeks, 11 participants listened to a self-administered hypnosis stress reduction program designed to recondition and improve participants' emotional and physical reactions to perceived work and life stressors. Subjects were administered subjective measures of coping, resilience, and stress tolerance, as well as, IL-6, an objective blood measure of inflammatory activity. After 12 weeks, participants were observed to have a significantly lower IL-6 serum level from baseline. Further, participants reported a significant decrease in the use of negative appraisal coping (such as, self-deprecating statements, perfectionism, and catastrophic and pessimistic thinking), and an improvement in eating/nutritional habits following the intervention. Baseline eating/nutritional habits and threat minimization coping significantly predicted a change in serum IL-6 over the course of the intervention in stepwise hierarchical regression analyses. Pilot study provides support that a brief self-administered CD hypnosis stress reduction program can modify a physiological measure of inflammation (IL-6), and improve coping and resilience in the face of work and life stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Intranasal Delivery of Cationic PLGA Nano/Microparticles- Loaded FMDV DNA Vaccine Encoding IL-6 Elicited Protective Immunity against FMDV Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Pan, Li; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Zhongwang; Lü, Jianliang; Zhou, Peng; Fang, Yuzhen; Jiang, Shoutian

    2011-01-01

    Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C) were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C) developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA) present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals). pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals) as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery of cationic

  3. Mineral and/or metal content as critical determinants of particle-induced release of IL-6 and IL-8 from A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, R B; Refsnes, M; Myran, T; Johansen, B V; Uthus, N; Schwarze, P E

    2000-05-12

    Mineral particles in occupational exposure and ambient air particles may cause adverse health effects in humans. In this study the ability of different stone quarry particles to induce release of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) from human epithelial lung cells (A549) was investigated. Size distribution within the PM10 fractions was quite similar for all particle samples, whereas mineral content and metal composition differed. Particles, containing minerals such as quartz, amphibole, chlorite, and epidote, induced a marked increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release. Particles composed mainly of plagioclase were much less effective. The most potent particle samples exhibited a relatively high content of transition metals such as iron. Exposure to identical masses or surface areas resulted in the same order of potency among the different particle samples. Significant cytotoxicity was observed only at higher concentrations of particle exposure. Thus, mineral composition and/or metal contents of particles from different stone quarries were critical determinants for the marked differences in potency to induce cytokine responses in human epithelial lung cells.

  4. Quercetin Down-regulates IL-6/STAT-3 Signals to Induce Mitochondrial-mediated Apoptosis in a Non-small-cell Lung-cancer Cell Line, A549

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinaba Mukherjee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. Methods: In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results: Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-κB expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Conclusion: Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.

  5. In vitro cytokine responses to periodontal pathogens: generalized aggressive periodontitis is associated with increased IL-6 response to Porphyromonas gingivalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, T S; Holmstrup, Palle; Bendtzen, K

    2010-01-01

    the participants' inherent oral flora. The P. gingivalis -induced production of IL-6 was approximately 2.5-fold higher in patients with GAgP than in healthy controls (P alpha production was non-significantly elevated. IL-1beta production induced by P. gingivalis, as all cytokine......Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) is an inflammatory condition resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. We examined the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-12 and IL-10 in cultures of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) from 10 patients...... from two donors free of disease were stimulated with this bacterium in the presence of the various patient and control sera. An elevated IL-6 and TNF-alpha response was observed in the presence of patient sera (P

  6. Vitamin D supplementation up-regulates IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi Gargari, Bahar; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Shirvani Farsani, Zeinab; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Azimi, Amir Reza

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D regulates gene expression and affects target cell functions. IL-6 and IL-17A are pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D effects on the expression level of IL-6 and IL-17A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Also, we performed a correlation analysis between the gene expression and some clinical features such as serum level of vitamin D and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Significant up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression was shown under vitamin D treatment. Also, some gender specific correlations between the gene expression with vitamin D levels were detected in female RR-MS patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reciprocal regulation of IL-6 and IL-10 balance by HGF via recruitment of heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages for attenuation of liver injury in a mouse model of endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimoto, Miyuki; Mizuno, Shinya; Nakamura, Toshikazu

    2009-08-01

    Acute liver injury is a clinical hallmark of endotoxemia regarding the features of septic organ failure. In this process, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 are key contributors for eliciting pro- and anti-inflammatory responses, respectively. In contrast, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) provides a defense mechanism against endotoxemia by controlling the IL-6/IL-10 balance, but how higher levels of HO-1 are sustained under pathological conditions remains unknown. Using a mouse model of endotoxemia, we provide evidence to show that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) enhances HO-1 expression in macrophages, thereby up-regulating IL-10 and down-regulating IL-6 productions. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice manifested acute liver injury similar to that observed in septic patients, while administration of recombinant HGF enhanced expression of HO-1 by hepatic macrophages in vivo. As a result, HGF blocked the onset of hepatic injuries in LPS-treated mice. More importantly, when an HO-1 inhibitor (Sn-PP) was administered with HGF into LPS-treated mice, the protective effects of HGF against hepatic injury were attenuated. Furthermore, Sn-PP partially restored the HGF-mediated decrease in plasma IL-6 levels, while it inhibited the HGF-stimulated increase in plasma IL-10 levels. In the culture of macrophages (Raw264.7), HGF enhanced the LPS-mediated HO-1 induction, and this effect was abolished by cycloheximide, but not by actinomycin-D, thus suggesting that a post-transcriptional pathway is involved in HGF-mediated up-regulation of HO-1. Based on the current data, we conclude that up-regulation of HO-1 plays an important role in HGF-mediated hepatoprotection during endotoxemia, by favoring production of IL-10 over IL-6.

  8. Neurocognitive function, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and IL-6 levels in cancer patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, C F; Becker, B; Flath, B; Nogai, H; Vuong, L; Schmid, P; Lüftner, D

    2015-10-15

    Increased IL-6 and decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective was to assess the influence of BDNF and IL-6 on cognitive function and depression in patients with cancer. Serum BDNF and plasma IL-6 were measured in patients with metastatic cancer. Diagnosis of depression was established according to DSM-IV criteria. Cognitive function was assessed by the Verbal Learning and Memory Test (VLMT). A total of 59 patients were recruited in this study. Only IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in patients with clinical depression (35.7 vs. 6.9 pg/ml; pBDNF levels (p=0.16). Patients with clinical depression showed significant impairment of short-term memory (STM) (24.4 vs. 37.5; p=0.01), but not of long-term memory (LTM) (3.9 vs. 2.8; p=0.3). STM was dependent on the level of BDNF and younger age (b=0.60; p=0.001; b= -0.63; p=0.003, respectively). IL-6 was not only strongly associated with depression, but was an independent predictor of BDNF level as well (b= -0.50; p=0.01). LTM was associated only with a good KPS (b=0.47; p=0.037). Hemoglobin levels and the prior number of chemotherapy lines were not predictive of memory performance. Low BDNF is associated with cognitive impairment, STM, in patients with cancer, however no influence on depression could be found. IL-6 is strongly associated with depression and an independent predictor of BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the IL6 and NOD2 genes are risk factors for inflammatory reactions in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Marques, Carolinne; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Illaramendi, Ximena; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana de Andréa; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme; Moraes, Milton Ozório

    2017-07-01

    The pathways that trigger exacerbated immune reactions in leprosy could be determined by genetic variations. Here, in a prospective approach, both genetic and non-genetic variables influencing the amount of time before the development of reactional episodes were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the genetic effect was estimated by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. In a sample including 447 leprosy patients, we confirmed that gender (male), and high bacillary clinical forms are risk factors for leprosy reactions. From the 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 8 candidate genes genotyped (TNF/LTA, IFNG, IL10, TLR1, NOD2, SOD2, and IL6) we observed statistically different survival curves for rs751271 at the NOD2 and rs2069845 at the IL6 genes (log-rank p-values = 0.002 and 0.023, respectively), suggesting an influence on the amount of time before developing leprosy reactions. Cox models showed associations between the SNPs rs751271 at NOD2 and rs2069845 at IL6 with leprosy reactions (HRGT = 0.45, p = 0.002; HRAG = 1.88, p = 0.0008, respectively). Finally, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were confirmed as high, while IL-10 titers were low in the sera of reactional patients. Rs751271-GT genotype-bearing individuals correlated (p = 0.05) with lower levels of IL-6 in sera samples, corroborating the genetic results. Although the experimental size may be considered a limitation of the study, the findings confirm the association of classical variables such as sex and clinical forms with leprosy, demonstrating the consistency of the results. From the results, we conclude that SNPs at the NOD2 and IL6 genes are associated with leprosy reactions as an outcome. NOD2 also has a clear functional pro-inflammatory link that is coherent with the exacerbated responses observed in these patients.

  10. [Relationship among the expression of GSK3β, PI3K/Akt, and IL-6 in chronic rhinosinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhong-juan; Ye, Jing

    2013-02-01

    To explore the relationship among the expression of GSK3β, PI3K/Akt signaling transduction pathway,and cytokines IL6 in Chronic Rhinosinusitis. We assayed mRNA and protein for GSK3β, PI3K, Akt by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and measured the cytokines IL6 mRNA by using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the nasal tissue from the patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP), Chronic Rhinosinusitis without Nasal Polyps (CRSsNP) and control subjects. The relative expression levels of GSK3β, PI3K, Akt and IL-6 in CRSwNP were 0.6254 ± 0.0584, 0.8239 ± 0.7186, 0.9369 ± 0.0823 and 0.8973 ± 0.0680. But the relative expression levels of GSK3β, PI3K, Akt and IL-6 in control subjects were 0.2684 ± 0.0726, 0.3578 ± 0.0994, 0.6721 ± 0.0590, 0.5898 ± 0.0891. There were significant differences between the groups of CRSwNP and control subjects (t values were 2.358, 3.071, 2.764, and 2.239, respectively, all P 0.05). There was a positive correlation trend among the expression of GSK3β, PI3K and Akt, and IL-6 in CRS (r values were 0.645, 0.617 and 0.583,respectively, all P < 0.01). The abnormal expression of IL-6, PI3K, Akt and GSK3β in the nasal mucosa of CRS may play a pro-inflammatory role in the occurrence and development of CRS.

  11. Visfatin triggers the in vitro migration of osteosarcoma cells via activation of NF-κB/IL-6 signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang-Ji; Shen, Ning-Jiang; Cheng, Liang; Yehan Fang; Huang, Hui; Li, Kang-Hua

    2016-11-15

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major challenge for clinical treatment of osteosarcoma patients. Recent studies indicated that visfatin, a 52kDa adipocytokine, can trigger the cell motility of various cancers, while its role in the progression of osteosarcoma remains not clear. Our present study revealed that visfatin can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of osteosarcoma MG-63 and HOS cells and up regulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and fibronectin (FN). Furthermore, visfatin treatment also increased the expression of IL-6 in both MG-63 and HOS cells via a time dependent manner, while anti-IL-6 antibody can significantly attenuate visfatin induced cell invasion and up regulation of MMP-2 and FN. It suggested that up regulation of IL-6 mediated visfatin induced in vitro motility of osteosarcoma cells. Visfatin treatment can increase the phosphorylation of both p65 and ERK1/2 in MG-63 and HOS cells, while only the inhibitor of NF-κB, BAY 11-7082, can abolish visfatin induced up regulation of IL-6. BAY 11-7082 also attenuated visfatin induced upregulation of MMP-2 and FN in MG-63 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that visfatin treatment can significantly increase the phosphorylation of IκBα and IKKβ in MG-63 cells. ACHP, the inhibitor of IKK-β, blocked visfatin induced expression of IL-6 mRNA in both MG-63 and HOS cells. Collectively, our data suggested that visfatin can increase the motility of osteosarcoma cells via up regulation of NF-κB/IL-6 signals. It indicated that visfatin might be a potential therapeutic target of osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of IL-6, IL-10 and NF-κB Gene Polymorphisms in Aggressive and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, Hülya; Görgün, Emine Pirim; Korkmaz, Ertan Mahir

    2017-06-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), demonstrated to be suppressed by interleukin-10 (IL-10) are known to be regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB). The aim of this study was to ascertain the association between genetic polymorphism of these genes (IL-6(-174), IL-10(-597) and NF-κB1-94ins/del)) and chronic/aggressive periodontitis. Forty-five patients with chronic periodontitis (CP), 58 patients with aggressive periodontitis (AP) and 38 periodontally healthy subjects were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from whole blood samples. The NF-κB, IL-6, and IL-10 polymorphisms were determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Among subjects for the ins/ins genotypes of NF-κB1 gene, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis group than in healthy controls (p=0.023). A statistically significant difference in genotyping frequencies between AP group and healthy controls was observed for the IL-6 gene. The AA genotype of IL-10 was overrepresented in CP and AP groups compared to healthy controls (OR=9.93, 95% CI: 2.11-46.7, OR=5.7, 95% CI: 1.22-26.89, respectively). Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that the IL-10 (-597) AA genotype is associated with susceptibility to chronic/aggressive periodontitis and IL-6 (-174) GG genotypes and G allele seems to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Clinical relevance: The results of the current study indicate that IL-6 and IL-10 genotypes seem to be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Also, the AA genotypes of IL-10 presented a higher frequency in chronic periodontitis subjects with carrying NF-κB1 ins/ins genotypes.

  13. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J induces VEGF expression via NF-κB/PI3K-dependent IL-6 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanni; Zhang, Yao; Yao, Yongxiu; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Qi, Xiaole; Wang, Yongqiang; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Honglei; Nair, Venugopal; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2016-12-06

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an oncogenic virus causing hemangiomas and myeloid tumors in chickens. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory interleukin involved in many types of cancer. We previously demonstrated that IL-6 expression was induced following ALV-J infection in chickens. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanism by which ALV-J induces IL-6 expression, and the role of IL-6 in tumor development. Our results demonstrate that ALV-J infection increases IL-6 expression in chicken splenocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. IL-6 production is induced by the ALV-J envelope protein gp85 and capsid protein p27 via PI3K- and NF-κB-mediated signaling. IL-6 in turn induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor, VEGFR-2, in vascular endothelial cells and embryonic vascular tissues. Suppression of IL-6 using siRNA inhibited the ALV-J induced VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 expression in vascular endothelial cells, indicating that the ALV-J-induced VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 expression is mediated by IL-6. As VEGF-A and VEGFR-2 are important factors in oncogenesis, our findings suggest that ALV-J hijacks IL-6 to promote tumorigenesis, and indicate that IL-6 could potentially serve as a therapeutic target in ALV-J infections.

  14. IL6-mediated inflammatory loop reprograms normal to epithelial-mesenchymal transition+ metastatic cancer stem cells in preneoplastic liver of transforming growth factor beta-deficient β2-spectrin+/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Abhisek; Yan, Jun; Xia, Xueqing; Zhou, Shouhao; Chen, Jian; Mishra, Lopa; Li, Shulin

    2017-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with a poor survival rate. As many as 40% of HCCs are clonal, with alteration of key tumor-suppressor pathways in stem cells as the primary cause of HCC initiation. However, mechanisms that generate metastatic stem cells in preneoplastic liver tissue are not well understood. We hypothesized that chronic inflammation is a major driver of the transformation of genetically defective liver stem cells (LSCs) into highly metastatic liver cancer cells in premalignant liver tissue. We developed models of chronic inflammation in wild-type (WT) and β2-spectrin (β2SP)+/- (SPTBN1) mice. CD133+ LSCs derived from preneoplastic livers of β2SP+/- mice treated with interleukin-6 (pIL6; IL6 β2SP+/- LSCs) were highly tumorigenic and metastatic, whereas those derived from WT mice treated with pIL6 (IL6 WT LSCs) had significantly less proliferation and no tumorigenic properties. IL6 β2SP+/- LSCs not only exhibited nuclear localization of Twist and Slug, markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), but also constitutive activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB; RELA). Knockdown of NFκB decreased the EMT phenotypes and metastatic capacity of these cells. NFκB in IL6 β2SP+/- LSCs was activated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1; MAP3K7), which is associated with poor survival in HCC and interleukin-6 (IL6) expression. The amount of constitutively activated NFκB increased dramatically from normal to cirrhotic to HCC tissues from human patients. IL6-mediated inflammation programs constitutive activation of the TAK1-NFκB signaling cascade in CD133+ LSCs, and this program interacts with deficient TGFβ signaling, thereby accelerating the transformation of normal LSCs to metastatic cancer stem cells (mCSCs). Indeed, this study delineates the development of EMT-positive mCSCs in HCC-free liver tissue upon chronic inflammation. (Hepatology 2017

  15. Autophagy pathway is required for IL-6 induced neuroendocrine differentiation and chemoresistance of prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa cells undergoing neuroendocrine differentiation (NED are clinically relevant to the development of relapsed castration-resistant PCa. Increasing evidences show that autophagy involves in the development of neuroendocrine (NE tumors, including PCa. To clarify the effect of autophagy on NED, androgen-sensitive PCa LNCaP cells were examined. Treatment of LNCaP cells with IL-6 resulted in an induction of autophagy. In the absence of androgen, IL-6 caused an even stronger activation of autophagy. Similar result was identified in NED induction. Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine (CQ markedly decreased NED. This observation was confirmed by beclin1 and Atg5 silencing experiments. Further supporting the role of autophagy in NED, we found that LC3 was up-regulated in PCa tissue that had relapsed after androgen-deprivation therapy when compared with their primary tumor counterpart. LC3 staining in relapsed PCa tissue showed punctate pattern similar to the staining of chromogranin A (CgA, a marker for NED cells. Moreover, autophagy inhibition induced the apoptosis of IL-6 induced NE differentiated PCa cells. Consistently, inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of beclin1 or Atg5 sensitized NE differentiated LNCaP cells to etoposide, a chemotherapy drug. To identify the mechanisms, phosphorylation of IL-6 downstream targets was analyzed. An increase in phospho-AMPK and a decrease in phospho-mTOR were found, which implies that IL-6 regulates autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR pathway. Most important to this study is the discovery of REST, a neuronal gene-specific transcriptional repressor that is involved in autophagy activation. REST was down-regulated in IL-6 treatment. Knockdown experiments suggest that REST is critical to NED and autophagy activation by IL-6. Together, our studies imply that autophagy is involved in PCa progression and plays a cytoprotective role when NED is induced in PCa cells by IL-6 treatment. These results

  16. Influence of age, performance status, cancer activity, and IL-6 on anxiety and depression in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehn, C F; Flath, B; Strux, A; Krebs, M; Possinger, K; Pezzutto, A; Lüftner, D

    2012-12-01

    Depression and anxiety are the core disorders causing emotional distress in patients (pts) with metastatic breast cancer. The aim of our study was to screen metastatic breast cancer outpatients for anxiety and depression, and to investigate the influence of age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), cancer activity, and inflammation as represented by IL-6 levels on these two mood disorders. Pts treated with chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer (n = 70) were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) for symptoms (scores 0-21) and caseness (score ≥11) of clinical depression and anxiety. Blood samples for IL-6 concentrations were collected at 10:00 a.m. A total of 22 (31.4 %) pts were diagnosed with caseness of clinical depression and 23 (32.9 %) pts with clinical anxiety, while 12 pts were diagnosed positive for both mood disorders. Depression and anxiety were positively but moderately correlated (Spearman's r (2) = 0.24, p < 0.001). IL-6 was significantly correlated with symptoms of depression (r (2) = 0.42, p < 0.001) and to a lesser extent to symptoms of anxiety (r (2) = 0.16, p = 0.001). In addition, IL-6 was positively associated with tumor progression (p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that tumor progression (standardized b = 0.226, p = 0.047), symptoms of anxiety (b = 0.292, p = 0.016), and IL-6 (b = 0.314, p = 0.007) were independently associated with clinical depression, whereas anxiety was linked to tumor progression (b = 0.238, p = 0.030), symptoms of depression (b = 0.407, p < 0.001) and age (b = -0.381, p < 0.001), but not to IL-6 (b = 0.168, p = 0.134). Even though a positive correlation between depression and anxiety exists, clinical parameters like age, cancer activity, KPS, and IL-6 do influence depression and anxiety differently. Unlike clinical depression, anxiety is not associated with increased IL-6 levels, however, shows a reciprocal correlation with age.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pistacia lentiscus essential oil: involvement of IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxia, Andrea; Sanna, Cinzia; Frau, Maria Assunta; Piras, Alessandra; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Kasture, Veena

    2011-10-01

    The topical anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. was studied using carrageenan induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma. The effect on serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rats inserted with cotton pellet was also investigated. On topical application, the oil exhibited a significant decrease in paw edema. The oil also inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma, and reduced serum TNF-alpha and IL-6. It can be concluded that the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus reduces leukocyte migration to the damaged tissue and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity.

  18. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2015-09-05

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information.

  19. Inactive Gingipains fromP. gingivalisSelectively Skews T Cells toward a Th17 Phenotype in an IL-6 Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowczyk, Izabela; Wong, Alicia; Potempa, Barbara; Babyak, Olena; Lech, Maciej; Lamont, Richard J; Potempa, Jan; Koziel, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Gingipain cysteine proteases are considered key virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis . They significantly influence antibacterial and homeostatic functions of macrophages, neutrophils, the complement system, and cytokine networks. Recent data indicate the role of P. gingivalis in T cell differentiation; however, the involvement of gingipains in this process remains elusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of danger signals triggered by the gingipains on the generation of Th17 cells, which play a key role in protection against bacterial diseases but may cause chronic inflammation and bone resorption. To this end we compared the effects of the wild-type strain of P. gingivalis (W83) with its isogenic mutant devoid of gingipain activity (ΔKΔRAB), and bacterial cells pretreated with a highly-specific inhibitor of gingipains activity (KYTs). Antigen presenting cells (APCs), both professional (dendritic cells), and non-professional (gingival keratinocytes), exposed to viable bacteria expressed high amounts of cytokines (IL-6, IL-21, IL-23). These cytokines are reported to either stimulate or balance the Th17-dependent immune response. Surprisingly, cells infected with P. gingivalis devoid of gingipain activity showed increased levels of all tested cytokines compared to bacteria with fully active enzymes. The effect was dependent on both the reduction of cytokine proteolysis and the lack of cross-talk with other bacterial virulence factors, including LPS and fimbriae that induce de novo synthesis of cytokines. The profile of lymphocyte T differentiation from naive T cells showed enhanced generation of Th17 in response to bacteria with inactive gingipains. Moreover, we found that gingipain-dependent induction of Th17 cells was highly specific, since other T cell-subsets remained unchanged. Finally, inhibition of IL-6 signaling in dendritic cells led to a significant depletion of the Th17 population. Cumulatively, this study

  20. Sporothrix schenckii yeasts induce ERK pathway activation and secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in rat mast cells, but no degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Lozano, Yolanda; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Salinas, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is a dimorphic fungus that causes sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis found throughout the world in humans and other mammals. After contact with conidia, transition to the yeast stage is required for establishment of infection. Mast cells are one of the first components of the immune system to make contact with invading pathogens. They release potent mediators that are decisive in initiating and directing the course of immune and inflammatory responses in the host. It remains unknown whether or not yeast cells of S. schenckii activate mast cells. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the in vitro response of mast cells to S. schenckii yeasts cells. Mast cells became activated after interaction with the yeasts, although exocytosis of preformed mediators was not stimulated. Sporothrix schenckii yeasts induced the release of early response cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in mast cells. As TNF-α and IL-6 are considered crucial mediators in the defense of the host against fungal disease, the release of both mediators from mast cells may contribute to the overall response of the host immune system during S. schenckii infection. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Free fatty acids and IL-6 induce adipocyte galectin-3 which is increased in white and brown adipose tissues of obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Hader, Yvonne; Buechler, Christa

    2014-10-01

    Galectin-3 regulates immune cell function and clearance of advanced glycation end products. Galectin-3 is increased in serum of obese humans and mice and most studies suggest that this protein protects from inflammation in metabolic diseases. Current data show that galectin-3 is markedly elevated in the liver, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat depots of mice fed a high fat diet and ob/ob mice. Galectin-3 is also increased in brown adipose tissues of these animals and immunohistochemistry confirms higher levels in adipocytes. Raised galectin-3 in obese white adipocytes has been described in the literature and regulation of adipocyte galectin-3 by metabolites with a role in obesity has been analyzed. Galectin-3 is expressed in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and human preadipocytes and is modestly induced in mature adipocytes. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes galectin-3 is localized in the cytoplasm and is also detected in cell supernatants. Glucose does not alter soluble galectin-3. Lipopolysaccharide has no effect while TNF reduces and IL-6 raises this lectin in cell supernatants. Palmitate and oleate modestly elevate soluble galectin-3. Differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of 100 μM and 200 μM linoleate induces soluble galectin-3 and cellular levels are upregulated by the higher concentration. Current data suggest that free fatty acids and IL-6 increase galectin-3 in adipocytes and thereby may contribute to higher levels in obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of IL6ST (gp130) Polymorphism with Functional Outcome Following Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Husseini, Nada; Hoffman, Benjamin M; Bennett, Ellen R; Li, Yen-Wei; Williamson Taylor, Rachel A; Hailey, Claire E; Richardson, Kara; Li, Yi-Ju; Laskowitz, Daniel T; James, Michael L

    2018-01-01

    Genes associated with the inflammatory response and cytostructural integrity may influence recovery following a brain injury. To examine this in the setting of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed for associations with patient outcome. A cohort of 54 patients with supratentorial ICH were enrolled. Based on known involvement with neuroinflammation and cytostructural integrity, 10 preselected SNPs from 6 candidate genes were tested for associations with 6-month functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] ≥ 3), mortality, and in-hospital deterioration (Glasgow Coma Scale decrease by >2 within 7 days of admission) following ICH. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression with adjustment for race and ICH score were performed. SNP rs10940495 (gp130 G/A) within the gp130 gene was the only SNP significantly associated with lower odds of an unfavorable 6-month functional outcome (odds ratio = .16 for mRS ≥ 3; 95% confidence interval, .03-.87, P = .03). Compared with major allele (A) homozygotes, minor allele (G) carriers in the IL6 signal transducer gene (gp130) locus were 84% less likely to have a poor outcome (mRS ≥ 3) at 6 months following spontaneous ICH. The SNP rs10940495 (gp130 G/A) and SNP rs3219119 (PARP-1 A/T) were associated with 6-month mortality (P = .02 and .04, respectively) only on univariate analysis. None of the SNPs examined were associated with in-hospital deterioration. In this exploratory study, SNP rs10940495 in the gp130 locus was associated with functional outcome at 6 months following spontaneous ICH. These findings, which should be validated through a larger study, suggest that inflammation plays an important role in mediating outcomes after ICH. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A role for protein kinase PKR in the mediation of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, San San; Lee, Davy C W; Law, Anna H Y; Fang, Jun Wei; Chua, Daniel T T; Lau, Allan S Y

    2010-05-01

    Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded oncogenic latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) has been substantially associated with tumorigenic transformation in the virus-infected cells. The pathogenic complexity of LMP1 is partly due to the cytokine dysregulation including IL-6 and IL-10 in perturbing the host immune responses. Here we have identified an important signaling event mediated by a dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, PKR, in regulating LMP1-induced IL-6 and IL-10 expression. We first demonstrated that PKR plays a significant role in mediating LMP1-induced cytokine expression by using a PKR inhibitor 2-aminopurine, and the specific role of PKR involved was confirmed by the use of siRNA oligos targeting PKR and/or a dominant-negative PKR mutant. We next revealed that PKR activity mediates LMP1-enhanced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation resulting in cytokine induction. We further demonstrated at the chromatin level that LMP1 can significantly elevate the phosphorylation of histone H3 on serine 10 (Ser 10), and the process was dependent on PKR activity. Our findings thus suggest that PKR plays an important role in mediating the cytokine gene expression induced by LMP1 through NF-kappaB activation and histone H3 Ser 10 phosphorylation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CD38 Ligation in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Myeloma Patients Induces Release of Protumorigenic IL-6 and Impaired Secretion of IFNγ Cytokines and Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fedele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD38, a surface receptor that controls signals in immunocompetent cells, is densely expressed by cells of multiple myeloma (MM. The immune system of MM patients appears as functionally impaired, with qualitative and quantitative defects in T cell immune responses. This work answers the issue whether CD38 plays a role in the impairment of T lymphocyte response. To this aim, we analyzed the signals implemented by monoclonal antibodies (mAb ligation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC obtained from MM patients and compared to benign monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS. PBMC from MM both failed to proliferate and secrete IFNγ induced by CD38 ligation while it retained the ability to respond to TCR/CD3. The impaired CD38-dependent proliferative response likely reflects an arrest in the progression of cell cycle, as indicated by the reduced expression of PCNA. CD38 signaling showed an enhanced ability to induce IL-6 secretion. PBMC from MM patients displays a deregulated response possibly due to defects of CD38 activation pathways and CD38 may be functionally involved in the progression of this pathology via the secretion of high levels of IL-6 that protects neoplastic cells from apoptosis.

  5. Enhancing Learning through Human Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Elspeth, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing Learning Through Human Computer Interaction is an excellent reference source for human computer interaction (HCI) applications and designs. This "Premier Reference Source" provides a complete analysis of online business training programs and e-learning in the higher education sector. It describes a range of positive outcomes for linking…

  6. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  7. miR-98 suppresses melanoma metastasis through a negative feedback loop with its target gene IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Li, Xin-ji; Qiao, Li; Shi, Fei; Liu, Wen; Li, You; Dang, Yu-ping; Gu, Wei-jie; Wang, Xiao-gang; Liu, Wei

    2014-10-03

    Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has a critical role in tumor development and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which miRNAs control melanoma metastasis is unknown. Here, we report reduced miR-98 expression in melanoma tissues with increasing tumor stage as well as metastasis; its expression is also negatively associated with melanoma patient survival. Furthermore, we demonstrate that miR-98 inhibits melanoma cell migration in vitro as well as metastatic tumor size in vivo. We also found that IL-6 is a target gene of miR-98, and IL-6 represses miR-98 levels via the Stat3-NF-κB-lin28B pathway. In an in vivo melanoma model, we demonstrate that miR-98 reduces melanoma metastasis and increases survival in part by reducing IL-6 levels; it also decreases Stat3 and p65 phosphorylation as well as lin28B mRNA levels. These results suggest that miR-98 inhibits melanoma metastasis in part through a novel miR-98-IL-6-negative feedback loop.

  8. Protein and antioxidants in an isocaloric carbohydrate drink: effect on plasma oxidative-stress markers and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Alan H; Cho, Changmo; Cho, Hojune; Romano-Ely, Brett; Kent Todd, M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an isocaloric beverage with added protein and vitamins (CHOPA) would influence oxidative stress and inflammation after cycling to exhaustion as indicated by plasma protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Twelve trained men (18-33 yr) volunteered and performed this randomized crossover study. Participants cycled at 70% VO2peak until fatigue and at 80% VO2peak 22-24 hr later to fatigue with either carbohydrate or CHOPA. Blood collected before the cycling at rest and 24, 48, and 72 hr after the exercise was analyzed for PC and LOOH spectrophotometrically and for IL-6 via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed with SPSS using repeated-measures ANOVA. PC demonstrated significant treatment (p = .037) and time (p = .004) effects with no Treatment x Time interaction. PC was higher in the CHOPA treatment than with CHO independent of time and increased at 24 (48%), 48 (59%), and 72 (67%) hr after exercise compared with preexercise values. Resting LOOH and IL-6 did not have any significant changes with time or treatment. These data indicate that an isocaloric CHOPA drink after 2 cycling bouts to exhaustion will exacerbate the resting PC level compared with an isocaloric drink, with no influence on plasma LOOH or IL-6. In addition, a modest significant increase in PC over time independent of treatment occurred, which suggests a mild oxidative stress in the days after exhaustive exercise.

  9. IL-34 Upregulated Th17 Production through Increased IL-6 Expression by Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic autoimmune disease which is characterized by synovial inflammation and cartilage damage for which causes articular dysfunction. Activation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS is a critical step that promotes disease progression. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of interleukin-34 (IL-34 on RA FLS as a proinflammatory factor and IL-34-stimulated FLS on the production of Th17. We found that serum IL-34 levels were increased compared to those of the healthy controls and had positive correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP antibody accordingly. CSF-1R was also highly expressed on RA FLS. The interaction of IL-34 and CSF-1R promoted a dramatic production of IL-6 by FLS through JNK/P38/NF-κB signaling pathway. Further, the IL-34-stimulated IL-6 secretion by RA FLS was found to upregulate the number of Th17. The treatment of IL-6R antagonist could attenuate the production of Th17 mediated by IL-34-stimulated RA FLS. Our results suggest that the increased IL-34 levels were closely related to the disease activity of RA. Additionally, the overexpression of IL-6 in the IL-34-stimulated FLS promoted the generation of Th17. Therefore, IL-34 was supposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The inhibition of IL-34 might provide a novel target for therapies of RA.

  10. Elevated IP-10 and IL-6 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells are biomarkers of non-cavitary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, A; Condos, R; Huie, M L; Dawson, R; Dheda, K; Bateman, E; Rom, W N; Weiden, M D

    2013-07-01

    Active TB disease can destroy lung parenchyma leading to cavities. Immune responses that predispose or protect individuals from lung damage during TB are poorly defined. To sample lung immune cells and assay bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell cytokine production. Enrolled subjects (n = 73) had bilateral infiltrates and underwent BAL. All had sputum culture demonstrating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 22/73 (30%) had cavities on their chest radiograph. Those with cavities at presentation had a higher percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in BAL as well as lower inducible protein (IP) 10 (P IP-10 was negatively associated with BAL PMN. IP-10 and IL-6 expression above median reduces the odds of cavities by 79% and 78% in logistic regression models. IP-10 and IL-6 clustered with interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in a principal component analysis, while IL-4 clustered with PMN. Increasing IP-10 and IL-6 production by BAL cells is associated with non-cavitary TB in patients who present with radiographically advanced TB. IP-10 and IL-6 may reflect an effective T-helper 1 immune control pathway for TB, attenuating tuberculous lung destruction.

  11. In vivo evaluation of the inflammatory response and IL-6 immunoexpression promoted by Biodentine and MTA Angelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, T S; da Silva, G F; Tanomaru-Filho, M; Sasso-Cerri, E; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, J M; Cerri, P S

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory process induced by Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in rat subcutaneous tissues. A polyethylene tube filled with Biodentine (n = 20) or MTA (n = 20) was placed into the dorsal subcutaneous of forty male rats; in the control group (CG; n = 20), empty tubes were implanted. After 7, 15, 30 and 60 days, the polyethylene tubes surrounded by connective tissue were fixed and embedded in paraffin. The number of inflammatory cells was estimated in HE-stained sections; numerical density of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-immunolabelled cells was also performed. The differences amongst the groups were analysed statistically by Tukey's test (P ≤ 0.05). A high number of inflammatory cells and IL-6-positive cells were observed at 7 days, in all groups; however, in the Biodentine group, the number of inflammatory cells and IL-6-immunolabelled cells was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in comparison with the other groups at 7 and 15 days. In the capsules of animals from all groups, a gradual and significant reduction (P ≤ 0.05) of these parameters was seen over time. At 60 days, the capsules exhibited numerous fibroblasts and bundles of collagen fibres; in addition, the number of IL-6-positive cells was not significantly different amongst Biodentine, MTA and control groups. There was a significant regression in the inflammatory reaction in the capsules indicating, therefore, that Biodentine is a biocompatible material. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Expression of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines in the choroid and sclera of hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogil José de Almeida Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a expressão das citocinas inflamatórias TNF-α e IL-6 na esclera e coroide de coelhos hipercolesterolêmicos. Método: Coelhos New Zealand foram organizados em dois grupos: GN recebeu ração padrão para coelhos; GH recebeu dieta rica em colesterol a 1%. Foi realizada a dosagem sérica de colesterol total, triglicerídeos, HDL colesterol, glicemia de jejum no início do experimento e no momento da eutanásia. Ao final da 4ª semana para o GN e 8ª semana para o GH foi realizada a eutanásia dos animais. Os olhos foram submetidos à análise imuno-histoquímica com os anticorpos TNF-α e IL-6. Resultados: O GH manifestou significativo aumento do colesterol total e triglicerídeos em relação ao GN (p<0,001. Houve significativo aumento da expressão da TNF-α (p<0,001 e da IL-6 (p=0,002 na coroide e esclera dos animais do GH em relação ao GN. Conclusão: Este estudo demonstra que a dieta hipercolesterolêmica induz ao aumento da expressão das citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 na coroide e esclera de coelhos.

  13. Human fine body hair enhances ectoparasite detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabelle; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2012-06-23

    Although we are relatively naked in comparison with other primates, the human body is covered in a layer of fine hair (vellus and terminal hair) at a relatively high follicular density. There are relatively few explanations for the evolutionary maintenance of this type of human hair. Here, we experimentally test the hypothesis that human fine body hair plays a defensive function against ectoparasites (bed bugs). Our results show that fine body hair enhances the detection of ectoparasites through the combined effects of (i) increasing the parasite's search time and (ii) enhancing its detection.

  14. E1A expression dysregulates IL-8 production and suppresses IL-6 production by lung epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoek Mieke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenoviral protein E1A has been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of COPD, in particular by increasing IL-8 gene transcription of lung epithelial cells in response to cigarette smoke-constituents such as LPS. As IL-8 production is also under tight post-transcriptional control, we planned to study whether E1A affected IL-8 production post-transcriptionally. The production of IL-6 by E1A-positive cells had not been addressed and was studied in parallel. Based on our previous work into the regulation of IL-8 and IL-6 production in airway epithelial cells, we used the lung epithelial-like cell line NCI-H292 to generate stable transfectants expressing either E1A and/or E1B, which is known to frequently co-integrate with E1A. We analyzed IL-8 and IL-6 production and the underlying regulatory processes in response to LPS and TNF-α. Methods Stable transfectants were generated and characterized with immunohistochemistry, western blot and flow cytometry. IL-8 and IL-6 protein production was measured by ELISA. Levels of IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA were measured using specific radiolabeled probes. EMSA was used to assess transcriptional activation of relevant transcription factors. Post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA half-life was measured by Actinomycin D chase experiments. Results Most of the sixteen E1A-expressing transfectants showed suppression of IL-6 production, indicative of biologically active E1A. Significant but no uniform effects on IL-8 production, nor on transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of IL-8 production, were observed in the panel of E1A-expressing transfectants. E1B expression exerted similar effects as E1A on IL-8 production. Conclusion Our results indicate that integration of adenoviral DNA and expression of E1A and E1B can either increase or decrease IL-8 production. Furthermore, we conclude that expression of E1A suppresses IL-6 production. These findings question the unique role of E1

  15. Acanthamoeba Activates Macrophages Predominantly through Toll-Like Receptor 4- and MyD88-Dependent Mechanisms To Induce Interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Antonella; Mattana, Antonella; Woods, Stuart; Henriquez, Fiona L; Alexander, James; Roberts, Craig W

    2017-06-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a ubiquitous free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution that can occasionally infect humans, causing particularly severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. Dissecting the immunology of Acanthamoeba infections has been considered problematic due to the very low incidence of disease, despite the high exposure rates. While macrophages are acknowledged as playing a significant role in Acanthamoeba infections, little is known about how this facultative parasite influences macrophage activity. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of Acanthamoeba on the activation of resting macrophages. Consequently, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages were cocultured with trophozoites of either the laboratory Neff strain or a clinical isolate of A. castellaniiIn vitro real-time imaging demonstrated that trophozoites of both strains often established evanescent contact with macrophages. Both Acanthamoeba strains induced a proinflammatory macrophage phenotype characterized by the significant production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-6. However, macrophages cocultured with the clinical isolate of Acanthamoeba produced significantly less IL-12 and IL-6 than the Neff strain. The utilization of macrophages derived from MyD88-, TRIF-, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-, TLR4-, and TLR2/4-deficient mice indicated that Acanthamoeba-induced proinflammatory cytokine production was through MyD88-dependent, TRIF-independent, TLR4-induced events. This study shows for the first time the involvement of TLRs expressed on macrophages in the recognition of and response to Acanthamoeba trophozoites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. The effect of a novel extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption device on IL-6 elimination in septic patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schädler

    Full Text Available We report on the effect of hemoadsorption therapy to reduce cytokines in septic patients with respiratory failure.This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial. Mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were eligible for study inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned to either therapy with CytoSorb hemoperfusion for 6 hours per day for up to 7 consecutive days (treatment, or no hemoperfusion (control. Primary outcome was change in normalized IL-6-serum concentrations during study day 1 and 7.97 of the 100 randomized patients were analyzed. We were not able to detect differences in systemic plasma IL-6 levels between the two groups (n = 75; p = 0.15. Significant IL-6 elimination, averaging between 5 and 18% per blood pass throughout the entire treatment period was recorded. In the unadjusted analysis, 60-day-mortality was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.7% compared to the control group (26.0%; p = 0.039. The proportion of patients receiving renal replacement therapy at the time of enrollment was higher in the treatment group (31.9% when compared to the control group (16.3%. After adjustment for patient morbidity and baseline imbalances, no association of hemoperfusion with mortality was found (p = 0.19.In this patient population with predominantly septic shock and multiple organ failure, hemoadsorption removed IL-6 but this did not lead to lower plasma IL-6-levels. We did not detect statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes multiple organ dysfunction score, ventilation time and time course of oxygenation.

  17. The effect of a novel extracorporeal cytokine hemoadsorption device on IL-6 elimination in septic patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Dirk; Pausch, Christine; Heise, Daniel; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas; Brederlau, Jörg; Weiler, Norbert; Marx, Gernot; Putensen, Christian; Spies, Claudia; Jörres, Achim; Quintel, Michael; Engel, Christoph; Kellum, John A; Kuhlmann, Martin K

    2017-01-01

    We report on the effect of hemoadsorption therapy to reduce cytokines in septic patients with respiratory failure. This was a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial. Mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis or septic shock and acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome were eligible for study inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned to either therapy with CytoSorb hemoperfusion for 6 hours per day for up to 7 consecutive days (treatment), or no hemoperfusion (control). Primary outcome was change in normalized IL-6-serum concentrations during study day 1 and 7. 97 of the 100 randomized patients were analyzed. We were not able to detect differences in systemic plasma IL-6 levels between the two groups (n = 75; p = 0.15). Significant IL-6 elimination, averaging between 5 and 18% per blood pass throughout the entire treatment period was recorded. In the unadjusted analysis, 60-day-mortality was significantly higher in the treatment group (44.7%) compared to the control group (26.0%; p = 0.039). The proportion of patients receiving renal replacement therapy at the time of enrollment was higher in the treatment group (31.9%) when compared to the control group (16.3%). After adjustment for patient morbidity and baseline imbalances, no association of hemoperfusion with mortality was found (p = 0.19). In this patient population with predominantly septic shock and multiple organ failure, hemoadsorption removed IL-6 but this did not lead to lower plasma IL-6-levels. We did not detect statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes multiple organ dysfunction score, ventilation time and time course of oxygenation.

  18. Seven days of high carbohydrate ingestion does not attenuate post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Claire E; Dawson, Brian; Cox, Gregory R; Sim, Marc; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Peeling, Peter

    2016-09-01

    This investigation examined if a high carbohydrate (CHO) diet, maintained across a seven-day training period, could attenuate post-exercise interleukin-6 (IL-6) and serum hepcidin levels. Twelve endurance-trained male athletes completed two seven-day running training blocks whilst consuming either a high (8 g kg(-1)) versus a low (3 g kg(-1)) CHO isoenergetic diet. Each training block consisted of five running sessions performed on days 1, 2, 4, 5, and 7, with the intensity and duration of each session matched between training weeks. Serum levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and hepcidin were measured pre- and either immediately (IL-6) or 3-h (hepcidin) post-exercise on days 1 and 7 of each training week. During each training week, the immediate post-exercise IL-6 and 3-h post-exercise serum hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (both p = 0.001) from pre-exercise on days 1 and 7. These increases were not different between trials. These results suggest that the ingestion of a high (compared to low) CHO diet over a seven-day training period is ineffective in attenuating post-exercise IL-6 and hepcidin responses. Such results may be due to the modest training load, the increased protein intake in the low-CHO trial, and a 48 h recovery period prior to sample collection on day 7, allowing a full recovery of muscle glycogen status between exercise sessions.

  19. Maternal obesity and IL-6 lead to aberrant developmental gene expression and deregulated neurite growth in the fetal arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Tessa R; Kim, Dong Won; Glendining, Kelly A; Jasoni, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Maternal obesity during pregnancy increases the risk of obesity in the offspring. Several observations have pointed to a causative role for the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, but whether it is present in the fetal circulation and how it acts on the developing fetus are unclear. We first observed that postnatal day 0 offspring from obese mothers had significantly reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervation of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) compared with that for offspring of normal-weight controls. Thus, the growth of NPY neurites from the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was impaired in the fetal brain by maternal obesity. The neurite growth regulator, Netrin-1, was expressed in the ARC and PVN and along the pathway between the two at gestational day (GD) 17.5 in normal animals, making it likely to be involved in the development of NPY ARC-PVN projections. In addition, the expression of Dcc and Unc5d, receptors for Netrin-1, were altered in the GD17.5 ARC in obese but not normal weight pregnancies. Thus, this important developmental pathway is perturbed by maternal obesity and may explain the defect in NPY innervation of the PVN that occurs in fetuses developing in obese mothers. To investigate whether IL-6 may play a role in these developmental changes, we found first that IL-6 was significantly elevated in the fetal and maternal circulation in pregnancies of obese mice compared with those of normal-weight mice. In addition, treatment of GD17.5 ARC tissue with IL-6 in vitro significantly reduced ARC neurite outgrowth and altered developmental gene expression similar to maternal obesity in vivo. These findings demonstrate that maternal obesity may alter the way in which fetal ARC NPY neurons respond to key developmental signals that regulate normal prenatal neural connectivity and suggest a causative role for elevated IL-6 in these changes.

  20. Interleukin-6 infusion during human endotoxaemia inhibits in vitro release of the urokinase receptor from peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Plomgaard, P; Fischer, C P

    2005-01-01

    in humans. Healthy subjects received intravenous endotoxin injection [high-dose, 2 ng/kg (n=8) and low-dose, 0.06 ng/kg (n=7)], coadministration of 0.06 ng/kg endotoxin and 3 h recombinant human (rh)IL-6 infusion (n=7) or 3 h infusion of rhIL-6 (n=6), rhTNF-alpha (n=6) or NaCl (n=5). Soluble uPAR (su...... that a systemic effect on the plasma suPAR level was detectable. Even subclinical doses of endotoxin in vivo enhance the capacity of PBMC to release uPAR after incubation in vitro. The inhibitory effect of IL-6 on endotoxin-mediated uPAR-release in vitro suggests that IL-6 has anti-inflammatory effects...

  1. Characterization of a human prothrombin gene enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The 5[prime] flanking sequence of the human prothrombin gene was isolated by screening a human liver phage library with a human prothrombin cDNA as a hybridization probe. A phage was identified that contained 3 kilobasepairs of DNA upstream of the initiator methionine codon. Primer extension studies showed that the major transcription initiation sites were located 23 and 36 basepairs upstream of the initiator codon. DNA sequences in the 5[prime] flanking region of the human prothrombin gene were then analyzed for cis-activating transcriptional activity by a transient expression system using the human growth hormone gene as the reporter gene. The chimeric expression vector was introduced into HepG2 cells, and secreted human growth hormone was monitored by using a radioimmunoassay. These studies showed that the 3 kbp fragment contained sequences that were sufficient for the initiation of transcription in HepG2 cells. Subsequent deletion studies showed that the 3 kbp fragment contained two elements: a weak promoter in the region immediately upstream of the mRNA coding sequence, and an enhancer located between nucleotides [minus]860 and [minus]940. The enhancer element was active at a distance and in either orientation. In addition, the enhancer was liver cell specific, and acted on heterologous promoters including the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter and the mouse metallothionein I promoter. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the enhancer with a DNA sequence data base showed the enhancer sequence to be unique. The enhancer sequence is flanked by an inverted repeat, 5[prime] CCTCCC 3[prime], and contains a putative binding site for hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1). Deoxyribonuclease I footprint analysis and linker scanning mutagenesis showed that the enhancer contains multiple protein binding motifs. A Y-box binding protein sequence was also found, which may be a transcription factor for a number of genes.

  2. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. © 2013 The Authors. Bioethics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Priming of mouse macrophages with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) induces a variety of pathways that regulate expression of the interleukin 6 (Il6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Csfgm) genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, S J; Fuller, J A; Nishikawa, S I; Evans, R

    1997-08-25

    Recent data have indicated that resident mouse peritoneal macrophages (PMo) transcribed the interleukin 6 (Il6) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (Csfgm) genes in response to stimulation with the monocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) but only Il6 mRNA was translated into secreted protein. In this paper, we extend these observations. It is shown that resident PMo incubated with protein kinase (PK)C inhibitors, staurosporine (SP) and its derivative GF109203-X, showed a several fold increase in the levels of Il6 mRNA in control and CSF-1-primed PMo and a parallel release of large amounts of protein. In contrast, SP was shown to have no effect on the release of GM-CSF from control or CSF-1-primed PMo, although it increased by approximately twofold the amount of Csfgm mRNA in CSF-1-primed Mo. When SP was added 4 h after CSF-1 priming to block CSF-1-induced protein kinase pathways, an increased amount of IL-6 release was again seen but without any increase in Il6 mRNA levels. Under these conditions, Csfgm gene expression was relatively unaffected. Activation of PKC by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) also resulted in increased Il6 gene expression by control and CSF-1-primed PMo. PMA had no apparent effect on Csfgm transcription but appeared to influence translation at a low level, as measured by the release of small amounts of GM-CSF protein. The addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to CSF-1-primed PMo resulted in a synergistic increase in the expression of both genes at the levels of transcription and protein release. The addition of SP to CSF-1-primed Mo before LPS, however, further enhanced IL-6 release but not GM-CSF release from the cells. The data indicate that CSF-1-priming drives a number of pathways involved in the regulation of expression of both genes and renders PMo highly susceptible to appropriate secondary stimulatory agents that transform the PMo into secretory inflammatory cells.

  4. Interleukin 6 enhances glycolysis through expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase 2 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masaru; Uehara, Ikuno; Kogure, Kayo; Asano, Yumi; Nakajima, Wataru; Abe, Yoshinori; Kawauchi, Keiko; Tanaka, Nobuyuki

    2010-04-01

    Enhanced glycolysis is important for oncogenesis and for the survival and proliferation of cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment. Recent studies have also shown that proinflammatory cytokine signaling, such as that mediated by nuclear factor kappaB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is important for the generation of inflammation-associated tumors. However, the link between inflammation and enhanced glycolysis has not been identified. In the present study, we found that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 enhanced glycolysis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human cell lines. Moreover, STAT3 activated by IL-6 enhanced the expression of the glycolytic enzymes hexokinase 2 and 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 (PFKFB3). Ectopic expression of PFKFB3 enhanced glycolysis, suggesting that the IL-6-STAT3 pathway enhances glycolysis through the induction of these enzymes. Our findings may provide a novel mechanism for inflammation-associated oncogenesis.

  5. The reduction of circulating levels of IL-6 in pregnant women with preeclampsia by magnesium sulphate and nifedipine: In vitro evidence for potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q; Zhao, M; Guo, F; Yin, Y X; Xiao, J P; Stone, P R; Chamley, L W

    2015-06-01

    Women with preeclampsia have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6. IL-6, which is known to activate endothelial cells and induce the production of necrotic trophoblastic debris from the placenta, may be important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. MgSO4 is a major therapy for the prevention of seizures in preeclampsia but it has been suggested to also have anti-inflammatory and vasodilatory properties. 22 pregnant women with preeclampsia and 68 normotensive controls were recruited and circulating IL-6 levels in these women were measured before MgSO4 and nifedipine treatment and after delivery. In addition, endothelial cells were treated with IL-6 or necrotic trophoblastic debris, generated from first trimester placental explants in the presence or absence of MgSO4in vitro, and cell-surface ICAM-1 was measured by ELISA. The levels of IL-6 in the culture medium were also measured. Furthermore nitric oxide synthetase activity in endothelial cells that had been treated with IL-6 was measured using l-NAME. Circulating levels of IL-6 in preeclampsia were reduced significantly following administration of MgSO4. In vitro, MgSO4 reversed the activation of endothelial cells induced by IL-6 but not by necrotic trophoblastic debris. The effect of MgSO4 in reversing the IL-6 induced activation of endothelial cells was not dependent upon nitric oxide synthetase. Treating placental explants with MgSO4 prevented the production of necrotic trophoblastic debris induced by IL-6. we demonstrated that IL-6 levels drop following treatment with MgSO4 and nifedipine in vivo, and have identified several mechanisms by which this positive effect on IL-6 may occur in vitro. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequential signaling cascade of IL-6 and PGC-1α is involved in high glucose-induced podocyte loss and growth arrest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Il; Park, Soo Hyun, E-mail: parksh@chonnam.ac.kr

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •The pathophysiological role of IL-6 in high glucose-induced podocyte loss. •The novel role of PGC-1α in the development of diabetic nephropathy. •Signaling of IL-6 and PGC-1α in high glucose-induced dysfunction of podocyte. -- Abstract: Podocyte loss, which is mediated by podocyte apoptosis, is implicated in the onset of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the involvement of interleukin (IL)-6 in high glucose-induced apoptosis of rat podocytes. We also examined the pathophysiological role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) in this system. High glucose treatment induced not only podocyte apoptosis but also podocyte growth arrest. High glucose treatment also increased IL-6 secretion and activated IL-6 signaling. The high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis was blocked by IL-6 neutralizing antibody. IL-6 treatment or overexpression induced podocyte apoptosis and growth arrest, and IL-6 siRNA transfection blocked high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis and growth arrest. Furthermore, high glucose or IL-6 treatment increased PGC-1α expression, and PGC-1α overexpression also induced podocyte apoptosis and growth arrest. PGC-1α siRNA transfection blocked high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis and growth arrest. Collectively, these findings showed that high glucose promoted apoptosis and cell growth arrest in podocytes via IL-6 signaling. In addition, PGC-1α is involved in podocyte apoptosis and cell growth arrest. Therefore, blocking IL-6 and its downstream mediators such as IL6Rα, gp130 and PGC-1α may attenuate the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Gradient Boosted Decision Tree Classification of Endophthalmitis Versus Uveitis and Lymphoma from Aqueous and Vitreous IL-6 and IL-10 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, David E; Wei, Maggie M; Armbrust, Karen R; Knickelbein, Jared E; Yeung, Ian Y L; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Chan, Chi-Chao; Sen, Hatice Nida

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of gradient boosting to classify endophthalmitis versus uveitis and lymphoma by intraocular cytokine levels. Patient diagnoses and aqueous and vitreous levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were retrospectively extracted from a National Eye Institute Histopathology Core database and compared by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn tests. A gradient-boosted decision tree classifier was trained to differentiate endophthalmitis versus uveitis and lymphoma from vitreous IL-6 and IL-10, vitreous IL-6 only, and aqueous IL-6 only data sets; and was tested with 80-20 train-test split and 3-fold cross-validation of the training set. Seven endophthalmitis, 29 lymphoma, and 49 uveitis patients were included. IL-6 was higher in endophthalmitis than uveitis (P = 0.0713 aqueous, 0.0014 vitreous) and lymphoma (P = 0.0032 aqueous, 0.0001 vitreous). IL-10 was significantly higher in lymphoma than uveitis (P = 0.0017 aqueous, 0.0014 vitreous). Three-fold cross validation demonstrated 95% ± 5%, 95% ± 4%, and 97% ± 5% predictive accuracy for vitreous IL-6 and IL-10, vitreous IL-6 only, and aqueous IL-6 only data sets. Upon validation with the testing set, vitreous IL-6 and IL-10 and aqueous IL-6 only data sets achieved 100% predictive accuracy and vitreous IL-6 only data achieved 93% predictive accuracy with 100% sensitivity, 92% specificity, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC/AUC) of 96%. With limited sample size, gradient boosting can differentiate endophthalmitis from uveitis and lymphoma by IL-6 and IL-10 with high sensitivity and specificity; however, a larger cohort is needed for further validation.

  8. Effects of Chronic Interpersonal Stress Exposure on Depressive Symptoms are Moderated by Genetic Variation at IL6 and IL1β in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Cole, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Aims Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Methods Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age = 20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6 months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. Results In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Conclusion Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to

  9. Effects of chronic interpersonal stress exposure on depressive symptoms are moderated by genetic variation at IL6 and IL1β in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartter, Margaret; Hammen, Constance; Bower, Julienne E; Brennan, Patricia A; Cole, Steven

    2015-05-01

    Close to one third of patients with major depression show increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are in turn associated with risk for inflammatory disease. Genetic variants that enhance immune reactivity may thus enhance inflammatory and depressive reactions to stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate a trio of functional SNPs in the promoter regions of IL6 (-174G>C, rs1800795), IL1β (-511C>T, rs16944), and TNF (-308G>A, rs1800629) as moderators of the relationship between chronic stress exposure and elevations in depressive symptoms. Participants were 444 Australian youth (mean age=20.12) whose exposure to chronic stress in the past 6months was assessed using the semi-structured UCLA Life Stress Interview, and who completed the Beck Depression Inventory II at ages 15 and 20. Between ages 22 and 25, all participants in the selected sample provided blood samples for genotyping. In line with a hypothesized moderation effect, -174G allele carriers at IL6 had fewer depressive symptoms following interpersonal stress, relative to C/C homozygotes with equal interpersonal stress exposure. However, IL6 genotype did not moderate the effects of non-interpersonal stress exposure (i.e., financial, work and health-related difficulties) on depression. Also in line with hypotheses, the -511C allele in IL1β, previously associated with higher IL-1β expression, was associated with more severe depression following chronic interpersonal stress exposure, relative to T/T homozygotes. Again, the moderating effect was specific to interpersonal stressors and did not generalize to non-interpersonal stress. TNF was not a moderator of the effects of either interpersonal or non-interpersonal stress on later depression outcomes. Findings were consistent with the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory genetic variation increases the risk of stress-induced depression. The present results provide evidence of a genetic mechanism contributing to individual differences in

  10. Is there a morning-to-evening difference in the acute IL-6 and cortisol responses to resistance exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledge, David; Grosset, Jean-Francois; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys L

    2011-08-01

    Exercise training is known to induce a molecular adaptation process involving inflammatory responses. However any time-of-day effect of exercise on inflammatory responses remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute bouts of intense exercise performed at different times of the day would affect the release Interleukin-6 (IL-6), one of the most abundant cytokines in mammalian endocrine response to exercise. Cortisol levels were measured as a confirmation of correct timing of exercise and to determine any impact it may have on the cytokine release. Twelve healthy male participants carried out 30 min of intense exercise (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for 4 resistance exercises at 70% of 1RM) in morning (08:15-09:00 h), and evening (18:15-19:00 h) sessions. An 8h fasting period was required before each exercise session. Blood samples were taken immediately pre and post each exercise sessions to determine IL-6 and cortisol levels. Our data show that whilst the training group showed no post-exercise changes in serum_IL-6 levels (P>0.05), the control group on the other hand showed significant time-of-day modifications in serum_IL-6 levels (P=0.008). Moreover, a significant interaction between intervention phase (pre-post training, AM vs. PM) and group (Exercise vs. Control) is evidenced in terms of serum_IL-6 levels (P=0.014). This interaction however was nullified when the between group differences at baseline were partialled out in a covariate analysis (P>0.05). We also found that the main effect of experimental phase on Cortisol was present in both the trained (P=0.004) and control groups (p0.05). Based on the current data, we would propose that exercise and/or time-of-day would not interfere with clinical endocrine profiling of IL-6 in a population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association study of functional polymorphisms in interleukins and interleukin receptors genes: IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL6R, IL10, IL10RA and TGFB1 in schizophrenia in Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelski, Pawel; Skibinska, Maria; Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Wilkosc, Monika; Frydecka, Dorota; Groszewska, Agata; Narozna, Beata; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Czerski, Piotr; Pawlak, Joanna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Leszczynska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Slopien, Agnieszka; Zaremba, Dorota; Twarowska-Hauser, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a large range of autoimmune diseases, with a history of any autoimmune disease being associated with a 45% increase in risk for the illness. The inflammatory system may trigger or modulate the course of schizophrenia through complex mechanisms influencing neurodevelopment, neuroplasticity and neurotransmission. In particular, increases or imbalance in cytokine before birth or during the early stages of life may affect neurodevelopment and produce vulnerability to the disease. A total of 27 polymorphisms of IL1N gene: rs1800587, rs17561; IL1B gene: rs1143634, rs1143643, rs16944, rs4848306, rs1143623, rs1143633, rs1143627; IL1RN gene: rs419598, rs315952, rs9005, rs4251961; IL6 gene: rs1800795, rs1800797; IL6R gene: rs4537545, rs4845617, rs2228145, IL10 gene: rs1800896, rs1800871, rs1800872, rs1800890, rs6676671; IL10RA gene: rs2229113, rs3135932; TGF1B gene: rs1800469, rs1800470; each selected on the basis of molecular evidence for functionality, were investigated in this study. Analysis was performed on a group of 621 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia and 531 healthy controls in Polish population. An association of rs4848306 in IL1B gene, rs4251961 in IL1RN gene, rs2228145 and rs4537545 in IL6R with schizophrenia have been observed. rs6676671 in IL10 was associated with early age of onset. Strong linkage disequilibrium was observed between analyzed polymorphisms in each gene, except of IL10RA. We observed that haplotypes composed of rs4537545 and rs2228145 in IL6R gene were associated with schizophrenia. Analyses with family history of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders and alcohol abuse/dependence did not show any positive findings. Further studies on larger groups along with correlation with circulating protein levels are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of genetic variants of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 genes on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Pedraza, Javier; Casas, María José; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Vilchis, Felipe; Canto, Patricia

    2013-10-10

    Since obesity and osteoporosis present a high genetic predisposition and polymorphisms of IL-6, IL6R, LRP5, ESR1 and SP7 may influence the risk of both diseases, the aim of this study was to analyze the possible association of polymorphisms in these genes, as well as their haplotypes, with BMD variations in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with grade 2 or grade 3 obesity. One hundred eighty unrelated postmenopausal women with grade 2 or grade 3 obesity were included. BMD was measured in total hip and lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was obtained from blood leukocytes. Rs1800795 of IL-6, rs2228145 of IL6R, rs3736228 of LRP5, rs9340799 (XbaI) and rs2234693 (PvuII), of ESR1, rs10876432 and rs2016266, of SP7 (and their haplotypes), were studied by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated by direct correlation r(2), and haplotype analysis was conducted. Using WHO criteria, 54.5% had grade 2 obesity, and 45.5% had grade 3 obesity. Regarding DXA results, 11.1% women had osteoporosis, 41.7% had osteopenia, and 47.2% had normal BMD. Genotype and haplotype analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations at the lumbar spine, total hip or femoral neck. We did not find a significant association between the polymorphisms analyzed or their haplotypes and BMD variations in postmenopausal women with obesity. The higher BMD observed in women with obesity could be the result of an adaptive response to the higher loading of the skeleton. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Immune-induced fever is mediated by IL-6 receptors on brain endothelial cells coupled to STAT3-dependent induction of brain endothelial prostaglandin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskilsson, Anna; Mirrasekhian, Elahe; Dufour, Sylvie; Schwaninger, Markus; Engblom, David; Blomqvist, Anders

    2014-11-26

    The cytokine IL-6, which is released upon peripheral immune challenge, is critical for the febrile response, but the mechanism by which IL-6 is pyrogenic has remained obscure. Here we generated mice with deletion of the membrane bound IL-6 receptor α (IL-6Rα) on neural cells, on peripheral nerves, on fine sensory afferent fibers, and on brain endothelial cells, respectively, and examined its role for the febrile response to peripherally injected lipopolysaccharide. We show that IL-6Rα on neural cells, peripheral nerves, and fine sensory afferents are dispensable for the lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, whereas IL-6Rα in the brain endothelium plays an important role. Hence deletion of IL-6Rα on brain endothelial cells strongly attenuated the febrile response, and also led to reduced induction of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzyme Cox-2 in the hypothalamus, the temperature-regulating center in the brain, as well as reduced expression of SOCS3, suggesting involvement of the STAT signaling pathway. Furthermore, deletion of STAT3 in the brain endothelium also resulted in attenuated fever. These data show that IL-6, when endogenously released during systemic inflammation, is pyrogenic by binding to IL-6Rα on brain endothelial cells to induce prostaglandin synthesis in these cells, probably in concerted action with other peripherally released cytokines. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415957-05$15.00/0.

  14. Association of a functional 17beta-estradiol sensitive IL6-174G/C promoter polymorphism with early-onset type 1 diabetes in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ole P; Nolsøe, Runa L; Larsen, Lykke

    2003-01-01

    .002). The impact of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on the IL6-174G/C variants was investigated by reporter studies. The PMA stimulated activity of the T1DM risk IL6-174C variant exceeded that of the T1DM protective IL6-174G variant by approximately 70% in the absence of E(2) (P(c)=0.004), but not with E(2) present (P......, higher IL6 promoter activity may confer risk to T1DM in very young females. This excess risk is negated with increasing age, possibly by the increasing E(2) levels in puberty....

  15. A Single Bout of Exercise Increases the Expression of Glucose but not Fatty Acid Transporters in Skeletal Muscle of IL-6 KO Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Łukaszuk, B.; Bialuk, I.; Górski, J.; Zajączkiewicz, M.; Winnicka, M. M.; Chabowski, A

    2012-01-01

    IL-6 is a biologically active cytokine released during exercise by contracting skeletal muscles. It appears to be highly involved in the regulation of muscles energy substrate utilization. Whether an ablation of IL-6 (IL-6 KO) in mice subjected to a single bout of exercise affects lipid and/or glucose metabolism is currently unknown. In the present study we examined fatty acid (FAT/CD36, FABPpm, FATP-1, FATP-4) as well as glucose (GLUT-1, GLUT-4) transporters expression in IL-6 KO mice. In ad...

  16. Attachment anxiety predicts IL-6 and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Tara; Poole, Lydia; Leigh, Elizabeth; Ronaldson, Amy; Jahangiri, Marjan; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the association between adult attachment and health are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the relationship between attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, inflammation, and length of hospital stay in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. 167 CABG patients completed an attachment questionnaire prior to surgery, and blood samples were taken before and after surgery to assess inflammatory activity. We found that attachment anxiety predicted higher plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration, and this association was mediated by self-reported sleep quality. Anxious attachment also predicted longer hospital stays following CABG surgery, even after controlling for demographic and clinical factors. These data suggest that increased levels of IL-6 may be a process linking adult attachment anxiety with health outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation treated with electrical cardioversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Therkelsen, Susette Krohn; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2009-01-01

    -reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 56 patients with persistent AF (lasting mean 128 days (range 14-960), mean age 65 years (34-84)), 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with permanent AF. Patients with persistent AF underwent CV. Blood samples were taken prior to CV and after 1......, 30 and 180 days. RESULTS: The immediate success rate of CV was 88%, while the total recurrence rate after 180 days was 68%. Patients with permanent AF had significantly higher levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 than patients with persistent AF (p = 0.0011, p... days had significantly lower baseline hs-CRP (1.25 mg/L (0.5-2.4) versus 2.0 mg/L (0.9-3.3), p

  18. Altered promoter methylation of PDK4, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF after Roux-en Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Henriette; Nylen, Carolina; Laber, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    -α (TNF) is altered in blood after a very low calorie diet (VLCD) or RYGB. Methods Obese nondiabetic patients (n = 18, body mass index [BMI] 42.3± 4.9 kg/m2) underwent a 14-day VLCD followed by RYGB. Nonobese patients (n = 6, BMI 25.7± 2.1 kg/m2) undergoing elective cholecystectomy served as controls. DNA...... decreased promoter methylation of PPARGC1 A. Methylation of PPARGC1 A, TFAM, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF promoters was changed two days after RYGB. Similar changes were also seen on day one after cholecystectomy. Moreover, methylation increased in PDK4, IL1 B, IL6, and TNF promoters 12 months after RYGB. Conclusion...

  19. DENdb: database of integrated human enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Haitham; Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are cis-acting DNA regulatory regions that play a key role in distal control of transcriptional activities. Identification of enhancers, coupled with a comprehensive functional analysis of their properties, could improve our understanding of complex gene transcription mechanisms and gene regulation processes in general. We developed DENdb, a centralized on-line repository of predicted enhancers derived from multiple human cell-lines. DENdb integrates enhancers predicted by five different methods generating an enriched catalogue of putative enhancers for each of the analysed cell-lines. DENdb provides information about the overlap of enhancers with DNase I hypersensitive regions, ChIP-seq regions of a number of transcription factors and transcription factor binding motifs, means to explore enhancer interactions with DNA using several chromatin interaction assays and enhancer neighbouring genes. DENdb is designed as a relational database that facilitates fast and efficient searching, browsing and visualization of information. Database URL: http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/dendb/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. TNF-a and IL-6 inhibitory effects of cyclic dipeptides isolated from marine bacteria Streptomyces sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nalli, Y.; Gupta, S.; Khajuria, V.; Singh, V.P.; Sajgotra, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Thakur, N.L.; Ali, A.

    damage to the host. Over- expression of TNF-α is correlated with many pathological conditions like Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (Papa Gobbi et al. 2016), diabetes (Hotamisligil et al. 1995), multiple sclerosis (Selmaj et al. 1991), stroke (Lovering... in clinics are proteins having undesirable side effects. IL-6 inhibitors have proved to be potentially useful for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, diabetes, and depression (Rosler et al. 2001); (Jahromi et al. 2000) converting...

  1. Serum matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-3 levels in dialysis patients vary independently of CRP and IL-6 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Gloria A; Barrett, Cheri V; Alcorta, David A; Hogan, Susan L; Dinwiddie, Lesley; Jennette, J Charles; Falk, Ronald J

    2002-12-01

    Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis often develop an inflammatory state that causes morbidity and mortality. Cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients have determined that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a predictor of morbidity. Little is known as to whether CRP, cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-1beta that stimulate the synthesis of CRP, or matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are markers of inflammation in patients on dialysis. We assayed by ELISA serum levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, IL-6 and CRP in healthy individuals and in patients with pre-end-stage renal disease (pESRD, n = 10), peritoneal dialysis (PD, n = 11), hemodialysis (HD, n = 17) and renal transplant (TX, n = 10). MMP-2 was significantly elevated before dialysis, perhaps indicative of progressive chronic renal sclerosis. MMP-3 was markedly elevated in hemodialysis patients but not in pESRD or PD patients, and may be related to the hemodialysis process and/or accelerated atherogenesis in these patients. IL-6 was significantly elevated in all patient groups, including pESRD patients. There were no statistically significant differences in CRP levels among the study groups. CRP correlated with IL-6, but not with MMP-2 or MMP-3. The data indicate that there are measurable differences in the expression of MMPs within the dialysis patient population. Because dialysis can be associated with local and systemic inflammation, increased levels of MMP-3 in the hemodialysis group may be a reflection of gene stimulation induced by inflammatory cytokines and should be considered as a marker of chronic, local inflammation. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Effect of Proinflammatory Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β on Clinical Manifestations in Indian SLE Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Umare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an inflammatory rheumatic disease characterized by production of autoantibodies and organ damage. Elevated levels of cytokines have been reported in SLE patients. In this study we have investigated the effect of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β on clinical manifestations in 145 Indian SLE patients. One hundred and forty-five healthy controls of the same ethnicity served as a control group. Clinical disease activity was scored according to SLEDAI score. Accordingly, 110 patients had active disease and 35 patients had inactive disease. Mean levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β were found to be significantly higher in SLE patients than healthy controls (P<0.001. Mean level of IL-6 for patients with active disease (70.45±68.32 pg/mL was significantly higher (P=0.0430 than those of inactive disease patients (43.85±63.36 pg/mL. Mean level of TNF-α was 44.76±68.32 pg/mL for patients with active disease while it was 25.97±22.03 pg/mL for those with inactive disease and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.0161. Similar results were obtained for IL-1β (P=0.0002. Correlation between IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β serum levels and SLEDAI score was observed (r=0.20, r=0.27, and r=0.38, resp.. This study supports the role of these proinflammatory cytokines as inflammatory mediators in active stage of disease.

  3. Analysis of sFas IL-6 levels in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy: Pre- or poststeroid pulse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihito Maeda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Kimihito Maeda, Yuichiro Ohara, Masato Hashimoto, Hiroshi OhguroDepartment of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Medical University, School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanPurpose: To investigate whether serum levels of soluble Fas (sFas and interleukin-6 (IL-6 could function as an index of the efficacy of steroid pulse treatment, we examined the serum level of these proteins before and after steroid pulse treatment in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients.Methods: We gathered the blood of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients before or after steroid pulse treatment, obtained serum with a centrifuge, and measured the serum levels of sFas and IL-6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results: There was no difference in serum IL-6 value between pre- and poststeroid pulse treatment. Serum sFas value was significantly decreased in both pre- and poststeroid pulse treatment. Furthermore, there was a recognizable improvement in the degree of the extraocular muscle thickening after treatment in cases in whom the serum sFas value was lower than 3 ng/ml prior to the beginning of the therapy. In patients who had a serum sFas value of more than 3 ng/ml, there was no improvement in the degree of thickening of the extraocular muscle.Conclusions: Serum level of sFas is an accurate index of the outcome of steroid pulse treatment in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and may become a useful index to gauge the status of convalescence.Keywords: sFas, IL-6, ELISA, thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, steroid pulse treatment

  4. Alterations in acetylcholine, PGE2 and IL6 release from urothelial cells following treatment with pyocyanin and lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, C; Chess-Williams, R; Mills, K A; Kang, S H; Farr, S E; Grant, G D; Perkins, A V; Davey, A K; Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pseudomonal virulence factor pyocyanin, and LPS from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli on urothelial mediator release and cytokine production were examined. RT4 urothelial cells were treated with pyocyanin (1-100 μM) or LPS (1-100 ng/mL) for 24-h. Effects were measured in terms of changes in cell viability, basal and stretch-induced acetylcholine (Ach) and PGE2 release, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12) production. Twenty-four hour pyocyanin (100 μM) treatment significantly decreased urothelial cell viability, while stretch-induced Ach release response was inhibited. E. coli LPS (100 ng/mL) produced a similar response with an additional significant increase in basal Ach release. All three virulence factors significantly increased urothelial PGE2 release; under basal release for pyocyanin (100 μM), stretch-induced release for pseudomonal LPS (≥ 10 ng/mL) and both basal and stimulated release for E. coli LPS (≥ 10 ng/mL). IL-6 and IL-12 were not detected in control samples, however 24h treatment with pyocyanin (100 μM) or LPS (100 ng/mL) resulted in IL-6 release from urothelial cells. The changes in urothelial Ach and PGE2, and release of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 induced by exposure to the bacterial virulence factors may play a role in the symptoms of pain and urinary urgency experienced with urinary tract infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels are associated with early death in community-acquired pneumonia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Bacci

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. As inflammatory markers, cytokines can predict outcomes, if interpreted together with clinical data and scoring systems such as CURB-65, CRB, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of inflammatory biomarkers on the early mortality of hospitalized CAP patients. Twenty-seven CAP patients needing hospitalization were enrolled for the study and samples of interleukin-1 (IL-1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP, and homocystein were collected at the time of admission (day 1 as well as on the seventh day of the treatment. There was a significant reduction in the levels of IL-6 between the first and the second collections. Median IL-6 values decreased from 24 pg/mL (day 1 to 8 pg/mL (day 7 (P=0.016. The median levels of TNF-α were higher in patients: i with acute kidney injury (AKI (P=0.045, ii requiring mechanical ventilation (P=0.040, iii with short hospital stays (P=0.009, iv admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU (P=0.040, v who died early (P=0.003, and vi with worse CRB scores (P=0.013. In summary, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were associated with early mortality of CAP patients. Longer admission levels demonstrated greater likelihood of early death and overall mortality, necessity of mechanical ventilation, and AKI.

  6. IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels are associated with early death in community-acquired pneumonia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacci, M.R.; Leme, R.C.P.; Zing, N.P.C. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Murad, N. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Adami, F.; Hinnig, P.F. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Feder, D. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Chagas, A.C.P. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, F.L.A. [Departamento de Cliníca Médica, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-24

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. As inflammatory markers, cytokines can predict outcomes, if interpreted together with clinical data and scoring systems such as CURB-65, CRB, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of inflammatory biomarkers on the early mortality of hospitalized CAP patients. Twenty-seven CAP patients needing hospitalization were enrolled for the study and samples of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocystein were collected at the time of admission (day 1) as well as on the seventh day of the treatment. There was a significant reduction in the levels of IL-6 between the first and the second collections. Median IL-6 values decreased from 24 pg/mL (day 1) to 8 pg/mL (day 7) (P=0.016). The median levels of TNF-α were higher in patients: i) with acute kidney injury (AKI) (P=0.045), ii) requiring mechanical ventilation (P=0.040), iii) with short hospital stays (P=0.009), iv) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (P=0.040), v) who died early (P=0.003), and vi) with worse CRB scores (P=0.013). In summary, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were associated with early mortality of CAP patients. Longer admission levels demonstrated greater likelihood of early death and overall mortality, necessity of mechanical ventilation, and AKI.

  7. Prognostic impact of hs-CRP and IL-6 in patients undergoing radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Kristoffer Mads Aaris; Nilsson, Brian; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of inflammatory markers in patients with paroxysmal/ persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation. Methods. Forty-six consecutive patients, mean age 55 years (range 31 - 81 yrs), with paroxysmal...... of paroxysmal or persistent AF treated with RF catheter ablation, elevated levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP before ablation are independent predictors of recurrence of AF Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/31...

  8. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  9. Learning, remembering, believing: enhancing human performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Druckman, Daniel; Bjork, Robert A

    1994-01-01

    ... for the Enhancement of Human Performance Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XM...

  10. The balance between the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 cytokines discriminates mild and severe acute pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Rita de Cássia Coelho Moraes; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Torres, Leuridan Cavalcante; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Correia, Jaílson de Barros; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2016-12-01

    To identify markers for earlier diagnosis of severe pneumonia, we assess the correlation between serum cytokine profile of children with different pneumonia severity. In 25 hospitalized children, 7 with mild pneumonia and 18 with severe pneumonia, the serum concentration of 11 cytokines in three sampling times were dosed. Statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests, Pearson correlation and ROC curve for cut-off definition of cytokines. At admission, IL-6 serum levels were high in mild or severe pneumonia, and was associated to vomiting (P = 0.019) in both groups; and also to dyspnea (P = 0.012) and white blood cell count (P = 0.045) in patients with severe pneumonia. IL-10 levels were also high in patients with pneumonia and were associated to lymphocytosis (P = 0.025). The ROC curve of the IL-6:IL-10 serum levels ratio discriminated severe pneumonia cases at admission, and persistence of infection in the third day of antibiotic therapy, with positive predictive values of 93% and 89%, respectively. The balance between IL-6 and IL-10 serum levels showed to be a more discriminative marker for severity definition and evaluation of recovery in patients with pneumonia.

  11. Oroxylin A inhibits ATRA-induced IL-6 expression involved in retinoic acid syndrome by down-regulating CHOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hui; Yang, Hao; Dai, Qinsheng; Wang, Qian; Yao, Jing; Zhao, Kai; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2014-11-10

    Production of IL-6 constituted the major cause of death in the ATRA trial called retinoic acid syndrome (RAS). LAP and LIP are active and inactive isoforms of C/EBPβ, respectively. Inactive LIP dimerized with LAP to eliminate its activity. Following treatment with ATRA, CHOP expression was increased and dimerized with LIP more preferentially than LAP to rescue function of LAP. Oroxylin A has been reported to activate CHOP, a key mediator of unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, and resulted in apoptosis. Interestingly, we found that low concentration of oroxylin A (≦ 40 μM) showed no apoptosis effect on NB4 and HL-60 cells and decreased the CHOP protein level via promoting its degradation. MG132 was utilized to conform the effect of oroxylin A on degrading CHOP. Our results showed that oroxylin A decreased the level of IL-6 secretion of NB4 cells with or without ATRA treatment while the effect was eliminated by C/EBPβ siRNA. We conclude that oroxylin A possessed abilities of inhibiting the ATRA-induced IL-6 production via modulation of LAP/LIP/CHOP in leukemia cell lines, which could providing a therapeutic strategy for RAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of radiotherapy on IL-2 and IL-6 secretions of mucous membrane epithelial cells of wistar small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaoling; Ai, Fulu; Wang, Tianlu; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy on IL-2 and IL-6 secretions of mucous epithelial cells of small intestine and the inhibition effect of deproteinized calf blood extractive (DCBE, also known as Actovegin in trade name) on apoptosis of mucous epithelial cells of small intestine. 50 wistars were randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 in each including normal group (NG), radiation group (RG), low-dose Actovegin group (L-AG), middle-dose Actovegin group (M-AG), and high-dose Actovegin (H-AG). High-energy X-ray linear accelerator was used for abdominal irradiation of RG, L-AG, M-AG, and H-AG at the exposure dose of 9.0 Gy to establish the wistar radiation damage model. Modeling wistars were injected with medicine for successive 4 days, and their small intestinal mucosas were extracted as pathological sections; then fully automated analyzer was employed to detect their IL-2 and IL-6 levels. Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out to explore the effect of Actovegin on apoptosis of mucous membrane epithelial cells of small intestine. The IL-2 and IL-6 levels of RG are significantly higher than other groups and differences are statistically significant (P 0.05). Compared with RG, the villus height, membrane thickness, crypt depth, and whole layer thickness significantly improved (P membrane epithelial cells of radioactive enteritis.

  13. The impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on IL-6 and TNF-alpha immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mark, Anke; Weiler, Stephan W; Schröder, Marcel; Otto, Andreas; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Groneberg, David A; Spallek, Michael; Kessel, Richard; Kalsdorf, Barbara

    2010-07-05

    Sleep disturbances induce proinflammatory immune responses, which might increase cardiovascular disease risk. So far the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep illnesses on the immune system have been investigated. The particular impact of shift work induced chronic circadian disruption on specific immune responses has not been addressed so far. Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index (PSQI) questionnaire and blood sampling was performed by 225 shift workers and 137 daytime workers. As possible markers the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and lymphocyte cell count were investigated. A medical examination was performed and biometrical data including age, gender, height, weight, waist and hip circumference and smoking habits were collected by a structured interview. Shift workers had a significantly higher mean PSQI score than day workers (6.73 vs. 4.66; p shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6 (2.30 vs. 2.67 resp.; p = 0.276), TNF-alpha (5.58 vs. 5.68, resp.; p = 0.841) or lymphocytes count (33.68 vs. 32.99, resp.; p = 0.404). Furthermore there were no differences in cytokine levels (IL-6 p = 0.761; TNF-alpha p = 0.759) or lymphocyte count (p = 0.593) comparing the sleep quality within the cohorts. When this calculation of sleep quality was stratified by shift and day workers irrespective of their sleep quality day workers and shift workers had similar serum levels of IL-6, TNF-alpha or lymphocytes count. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant correlation of lymphocytes count and smoking habits. Shift work induces chronic sleep debt. Our data reveals that chronic sleep debt might not always lead to an activation of the immune system, as we did not observe differences in lymphocyte count or level of IL-6 or TNF-alpha serum concentration between shift workers and day workers. Therefore chronic sleep restriction might be eased by a long-term compensating immune regulation which (in healthy) protects against an overstimulation

  14. Neutrophil and monocyte responses to downhill running: Intracellular contents of MPO, IL-6, IL-10, pstat3, and SOCS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vyver, M; Engelbrecht, L; Smith, C; Myburgh, K H

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity exercise results in immune activation. This study determined whether (a) there is concordance between serum MPO and neutrophil and/or monocyte intracellular MPO content; (b) peripheral blood mononuclear cells respond to inflammatory interleukins (ILs) by increasing intracellular signaling. Healthy male (n = 12) volunteers participated in high-intensity running (12 × 5 min, 10% decline, 15 km/h). Blood sample (pre, post, 4 h) analyses included serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9) and creatine kinase (CK). Intracellular IL-6, IL-10, MPO and STAT3/SOCS3 signaling were assessed in mononuclear cells. CK (1573 ± 756 u/L), MMP-9 (101 ± 27 ng/mL), neutrophil (9.89 ± 0.76 × 10(9) cells/L) and monocyte counts (1 ± 0.08 × 10(9) cells/L) increased at 4 h. At 4 h serum (7.1 ± 1.3 ng/mL) and monocyte MPO (1.7-fold) increased, whereas neutrophil MPO decreased (0.8-fold). Intracellular monocyte IL-10 and IL-6 decreased by 15% and 20-30%, respectively, coinciding with elevations in serum IL-10 of 14.5 ± 4.7 pg/mL and IL-6 of 5.4 ± 2.9 pg/mL, suggesting immune cell cytokine release in response to exercise. Intracellular PBMC p-STAT3 to total STAT3 ratio increased from pre to 4 h. Circulating monocytes are responsive to increased serum IL-6 suggesting a negative feedback loop via STAT3 signaling. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Adenosine deaminase enhances the immunogenicity of human dendritic cells from healthy and HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Casanova

    Full Text Available ADA is an enzyme implicated in purine metabolism, and is critical to ensure normal immune function. Its congenital deficit leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. ADA binding to adenosine receptors on dendritic cell surface enables T-cell costimulation through CD26 crosslinking, which enhances T-cell activation and proliferation. Despite a large body of work on the actions of the ecto-enzyme ADA on T-cell activation, questions arise on whether ADA can also modulate dendritic cell maturation. To this end we investigated the effects of ADA on human monocyte derived dendritic cell biology. Our results show that both the enzymatic and non-enzymatic activities of ADA are implicated in the enhancement of CD80, CD83, CD86, CD40 and CCR7 expression on immature dendritic cells from healthy and HIV-infected individuals. These ADA-mediated increases in CD83 and costimulatory molecule expression is concomitant to an enhanced IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, CXCL8(IL-8, CCL3(MIP1-α, CCL4(MIP-1β and CCL5(RANTES cytokine/chemokine secretion both in healthy and HIV-infected individuals and to an altered apoptotic death in cells from HIV-infected individuals. Consistently, ADA-mediated actions on iDCs are able to enhance allogeneic CD4 and CD8-T-cell proliferation, globally yielding increased iDC immunogenicity. Taken together, these findings suggest that ADA would promote enhanced and correctly polarized T-cell responses in strategies targeting asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    leaves extract acts as anti-inflammation for Wistar rats with atherosclerosis through decrease of TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Further research is required to determine whether the application of red piper crocatum leaves extract on human will result in similar effects of anti-inflammation. 

  17. Levels of leptin and IL-6 in lungs and blood are associated with the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients and rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rui; Zhang, Wei; Song, Ya-Mei

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare leptin and interleukin (IL)-6 expression in patients and rat models with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Leptin and IL-6 levels were determined in patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), stable COPD and in healthy controls. Rat models of COPD were developed, histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed and leptin and IL-6 levels were determined. Leptin and IL-6 levels in the serum and sputum were higher in patients with AECOPD compared with stable COPD and control patients. In rats, leptin and IL-6 were expressed in bronchial epithelial and inflammatory cells, while leptin expression was observed in alveolar cells and IL-6 expression in blood vessel cells only. Serum levels of leptin and IL-6 were significantly higher in COPD1 and COPD2 rats compared with the control rats, and were even higher in COPD1 rats than COPD2 rats. In conclusion, leptin and IL-6 levels were demonstrated to be associated with the severity of COPD.

  18. DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF PLASMA-LEVELS OF TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA (TNF-ALPHA) AND INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) IN NEWBORNS WITH SEPSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBONT, ESJM; MARTENS, A; VANRAAN, J; SAMSON, G; FETTER, WPF; OKKEN, A; DELEIJ, LHFM; KIMPEN, J

    The aim of this study was to examine if TNF alpha and IL-6 plasma levels could be of value in diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels were determined in 15 newborn infants with confirmed sepsis (group I), 18 with suspected sepsis

  19. Elevation of IL-6 in the allergic asthmatic airway is independent of inflammation but associates with loss of central airway function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunn Janice Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that is characterized by a Th2-type of immune response with increasing evidence for involvement of Th17 cells. The role of IL-6 in promoting effector T cell subsets suggest that IL-6 may play a functional role in asthma. Classically IL-6 has been viewed as an inflammatory marker, along with TNFα and IL-1β, rather than as regulatory cytokine. Objective To investigate the potential relationship between IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, Th2/Th17 cytokines and lung function in allergic asthma, and thus evaluate the potential role of IL-6 in this disease. Methods Cytokine levels in induced sputum and lung function were measured in 16 healthy control and 18 mild-moderate allergic asthmatic subjects. Results The levels of the proinflammatory biomarkers TNFα and IL-1β were not different between the control and asthmatic group. In contrast, IL-6 levels were specifically elevated in asthmatic subjects compared with healthy controls (p S = 0.53, p Conclusions In mild-moderate asthma, IL-6 dissociates from other proinflammatory biomarkers, but correlates with IL-13 levels. Furthermore, IL-6 may contribute to impaired lung function in allergic asthma.

  20. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Chaman; Siddiqui, Anisuddin; Ramesh, Venkatesh; Nath, Indira

    2016-04-01

    50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR) and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL) reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions. Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR), flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients. Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation.

  1. Leprosy Reactions Show Increased Th17 Cell Activity and Reduced FOXP3+ Tregs with Concomitant Decrease in TGF-β and Increase in IL-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaman Saini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 50% of leprosy patients suffer from episodes of Type 1/ reversal reactions (RR and Type 2/ Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL reactions which lead to morbidity and nerve damage. CD4+ subsets of Th17 cells and CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs have been shown to play a major role in disease associated immunopathology and in stable leprosy as reported by us and others. The aim of our study was to analyze their role in leprosy reactions.Quantitative reverse transcribed PCR (qPCR, flowcytometry and ELISA were used to respectively investigate gene expression, cell phenotypes and supernatant levels of cytokines in antigen stimulated PBMC cultures in patients with stable disease and those undergoing leprosy reactions. Both types of reactions are associated with significant increase of Th17 cells and associated cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-23 and chemokines CCL20, CCL22 as compared to matching stable forms of leprosy. Concurrently patients in reactions show reduction in FOXP3+ Treg cells as well as reduction in TGF-β and increase in IL-6. Moreover, expression of many T cell markers, cytokines, chemokines and signaling factors were observed to be increased in RR as compared to ENL reaction patients.Patients with leprosy reactions show an imbalance in Th17 and Treg populations. The reduction in Treg suppressor activity is associated withhigherTh17cell activity. The combined effect of reduced TGF-β and enhanced IL-6, IL-21 cytokines influence the balance between Th17 or Treg cells in leprosy reactions as reported in the murine models and autoimmune diseases. The increase in Th17 cell associated cytokines may contribute to lesional inflammation.

  2. Identification of BCAP-{sub L} as a negative regulator of the TLR signaling-induced production of IL-6 and IL-10 in macrophages by tyrosine phosphoproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Takayuki [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Ishikawa, Kosuke; Inoue, Takafumi [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Muta, Tatsushi [Laboratory of Cell Recognition and Response, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro, E-mail: ksemba@waseda.jp [Consolidated Research Institute for Advanced Science and Medical Care, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, Waseda University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480 (Japan); Inoue, Jun-ichiro, E-mail: jun-i@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Medical Proteomics Laboratory, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Division of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Twenty five tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in LPS-stimulated macrophages were determined. {yields} BCAP is a novel tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in LPS-stimulated macrophages. {yields} BCAP-{sub L} inhibits IL-6 and IL-10 production in LPS-stimulated macrophages. -- Abstract: Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling in macrophages is essential for anti-pathogen responses such as cytokine production and antigen presentation. Although numerous reports suggest that protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are involved in cytokine induction in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS; TLR4 ligand) in macrophages, the PTK-mediated signal transduction pathway has yet to be analyzed in detail. Here, we carried out a comprehensive and quantitative dynamic tyrosine phosphoproteomic analysis on the TLR4-mediated host defense system in RAW264.7 macrophages using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). We determined the temporal profiles of 25 proteins based on SILAC-encoded peptide(s). Of these, we focused on the tyrosine phosphorylation of B-cell adaptor for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (BCAP) because the function of BCAP remains unknown in TLR signaling in macrophages. Furthermore, Bcap has two distinct transcripts, a full-length (Bcap-{sub L}) and an alternatively initiated or spliced (Bcap-{sub S}) mRNA, and little is known about the differential functions of the BCAP-{sub L} and BCAP-{sub S} proteins. Our study showed, for the first time, that RNAi-mediated selective depletion of BCAP-{sub L} enhanced IL-6 and IL-10 production but not TNF-{alpha} production in TLR ligand-stimulated macrophages. We propose that BCAP-{sub L} (but not BCAP-{sub S}) is a negative regulator of the TLR-mediated host defense system in macrophages.

  3. Human Herpesvirus 8 Interleukin-6 Interacts with Calnexin Cycle Components and Promotes Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daming; Xiang, Qiwang; Nicholas, John

    2017-11-15

    Viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is believed to contribute via mitogenic, survival, and angiogenic activities to HHV-8-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease through autocrine or paracrine mechanisms during latency or productive replication. There is direct evidence that vIL-6 promotes latently infected PEL cell viability and proliferation and also viral productive replication in PEL and endothelial cells. These activities are mediated largely through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized vIL-6, which can induce signal transduction via the gp130 signaling receptor, activating mitogen-activated protein kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling, and interactions of vIL-6 with the ER membrane protein vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 variant 2 (VKORC1v2). The latter functional axis involves suppression of proapoptotic lysosomal protein cathepsin D by promotion of the ER-associated degradation of ER-transiting, preproteolytically processed procathepsin D. Other interactions of VKORC1v2 and activities of vIL-6 via the receptor have not been reported. We show here that both vIL-6 and VKORC1v2 interact with calnexin cycle proteins UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 (UGGT1), which catalyzes monoglucosylation of N-glycans, and oppositely acting glucosidase II (GlucII), and that vIL-6 can promote protein folding. This activity was found to require VKORC1v2 and UGGT1, to involve vIL-6 associations with VKORC1v2, UGGT1, and GlucII, and to operate in the context of productively infected cells. These findings document new VKORC1v2-associated interactions and activities of vIL-6, revealing novel mechanisms of vIL-6 function within the ER compartment. IMPORTANCE HHV-8 vIL-6 prosurvival (latent) and proreplication functions are mediated from the ER compartment through both gp130 receptor-mediated signal transduction and interaction of vIL

  4. Asociación entre periodontitis crónica, interleuquina -6 (<