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Sample records for human hookworm necator

  1. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, David

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 9 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus * hookworm * morphology * human infection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  2. Adult hookworms (Necator spp.) collected from researchers working with wild western lowland gorillas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalousová, B.; Hasegawa, H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Sakamaki, T.; Kooriyma, T.; Modrý, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 75 (2016), č. článku 75. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp * Hookworm * Morphology * Human infection * Necator gorillae * Necator americanus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-SAA-2 from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Goud, Gaddam N.; Zhan, Bin; Ordonez, Katherine; Sedlacek, Meghan; Homma, Kohei; Deumic, Vehid; Gupta, Richi; Brelsford, Jill; Price, Merelyn K.; Ngamelue, Michelle N.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a surface-associated antigen from the major human hookworm N. americanus is presented. Human hookworms are among the most pathogenic soil-transmitted helminths. These parasitic nematodes have co-evolved with the host and are able to maintain a high worm burden for decades without killing the human host. However, it is possible to develop vaccines against laboratory-challenge hookworm infections using either irradiated third-state infective larvae (L3) or enzymes from the adult parasites. In an effort to control hookworm infection globally, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative, a product-development partnership with the Sabin Vaccine Institute to develop new control tools including vaccines, has identified a battery of protein antigens, including surface-associated antigens (SAAs) from L3. SAA proteins are characterized by a 13 kDa conserved domain of unknown function. SAA proteins are found on the surface of infective L3 stages (and some adult stages) of different nematode parasites, suggesting that they may play important roles in these organisms. The atomic structures and function of SAA proteins remain undetermined and in an effort to remedy this situation recombinant Na-SAA-2 from the most prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Useful X-ray data have been collected to 2.3 Å resolution from a crystal that belonged to the monoclinic space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 73.88, b = 35.58, c = 42.75 Å, β = 116.1°

  4. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  5. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.

    2011-01-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  6. Expression, purification, and characterization of the Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) antigen, a component of the bivalent human hookworm vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Christopher A; Curti, Elena; Jones, R Mark; Hudspeth, Elissa; Rezende, Wanderson; Pollet, Jeroen; Center, Lori; Versteeg, Leroy; Pritchard, Sonya; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Yusibov, Vidadi; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2015-01-01

    Over 400 million people living in the world's poorest developing nations are infected with hookworms, mostly of the genus Necator americanus. A bivalent human hookworm vaccine composed of the Necator americanus Glutathione S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) and the Necator americanus Aspartic Protease-1 (Na-APR-1 (M74)) is currently under development by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP). Both monovalent vaccines are currently in Phase 1 trials. Both Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1 antigens are expressed as recombinant proteins. While Na-GST-1 was found to express with high yields in Pichia pastoris, the level of expression of Na-APR-1 in this host was too low to be suitable for a manufacturing process. When the tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana was evaluated as an expression system, acceptable levels of solubility, yield, and stability were attained. Observed expression levels of Na-APR-1 (M74) using this system are ∼300 mg/kg. Here we describe the achievements and obstacles encountered during process development as well as characterization and stability of the purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein and formulated vaccine. The expression, purification and analysis of purified Na-APR-1 (M74) protein obtained from representative 5 kg reproducibility runs performed to qualify the Na-APR-1 (M74) production process is also presented. This process has been successfully transferred to a pilot plant and a 50 kg scale manufacturing campaign under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) has been performed. The 50 kg run has provided a sufficient amount of protein to support the ongoing hookworm vaccine development program of the Sabin PDP.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Loukas, Alex; Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Na-ASP-1, a multi-domain pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States); Loukas, Alex [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, QLD 4006 (Australia); Inan, Mehmet; Barent, Rick; Huang, Jicai; Plantz, Brad; Swanson, Amber; Gouthro, Mark; Meagher, Michael M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States); Hotez, Peter J. [Department of Microbiology and Tropical Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Center, Washington DC 20037 (United States); Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, 987696 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-7696 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    In order to clarify the structural basis of the pathogenesis-related-1 domain, Na-ASP-1, the first multi-domain ASP from the human hookworm parasite N. americanus, has been crystallized. 2.2 Å resolution data have been collected from a crystal belonging to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}. Human hookworm infection is a major cause of anemia and malnutrition in the developing world. In an effort to control hookworm infection, the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative has identified candidate vaccine antigens from the infective larval stage (L3) of the parasite, including a family of pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) proteins known as the ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). The functions of the ASPs are unknown. In addition, it is unclear why some ASPs have one while others have multiple PR-1 domains. There are no known structures of a multi-domain ASP and in an effort to remedy this situation, recombinant Na-ASP-1 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Na-ASP-1 is a 406-amino-acid multi-domain ASP from the prevalent human hookworm parasite Necator americanus. Useful X-ray data to 2.2 Å have been collected from a crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 67.7, b = 74.27, c = 84.60 Å, β = 112.12°. An initial molecular-replacement solution has been obtained with one monomer in the asymmetric unit.

  9. Hookworm infections among migrant workers in Malaysia: Molecular identification of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Douadi, Benacer; Mohd Khalid, Mohd Khairul Nizam; Wilson, John-James; Behnke, Jerzy M; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2017-09-01

    Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services. Faecal samples were examined by microscopy and positive samples were subjected to molecular analysis. A total of 51 samples (13.1%) were positive by microscopy for hookworm infections. A two-step PCR based method amplifying a fragment of the 28S rRNA-ITS2 region was used to identify infections by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. PCR products positive for Ancylostoma spp. were sequenced bidirectionally, and sequences analysed through BLAST and phylogenetic analysis. Samples containing Ancylostoma duodenale were further characterized by amplification and sequencing a fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. PCR amplicons were successfully obtained from 42 (82.4%) of 51 samples, with 81.0% (34 of 42) identified as Necator americanus, 16.7% (7 of 42) as Ancylostoma spp. and 2.4% (1 of 42) as mixed infections of both species. All eight Ancylostoma spp. were confirmed to be Ancylostoma duodenale and this is the first time A. duodenale was reported in Malaysia. Samples containing A. duodenale from Nepalese and Indonesian workers shared high-similarity and were distinct compared to sequences from other countries. This study highlights the prevalence of hookworm infections among migrant workers living in Malaysia. Our findings underscore the necessity of screening migrant

  10. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in ...

  11. Rapid Detection and Identification of Human Hookworm Infections through High Resolution Melting (HRM) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Chua, Kek Heng

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM) analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. Methods Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. Conclusion The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species. PMID:22844538

  12. Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution melting (HRM analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm infections are still endemic in low and middle income tropical countries with greater impact on the socioeconomic and public health of the bottom billion of the world's poorest people. In this study, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR coupled with high resolution melting-curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for an accurate, rapid and sensitive tool for species identification focusing on the five human hookworm species. METHODS: Real-time PCR coupled with HRM analysis targeting the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of nuclear ribosomal DNA as the genetic marker was used to identify and distinguish hookworm species in human samples. Unique and distinct characteristics of HRM patterns were produced for each of the five hookworm species. The melting curves were characterized by peaks of 79.24±0.05°C and 83.00±0.04°C for Necator americanus, 79.12±0.10°C for Ancylostoma duodenale, 79.40±0.10°C for Ancylostoma ceylanicum, 79.63±0.05°C for Ancylostoma caninum and 79.70±0.14°C for Ancylostoma braziliense. An evaluation of the method's sensitivity and specificity revealed that this assay was able to detect as low as 0.01 ng/µl hookworm DNA and amplification was only recorded for hookworm positive samples. CONCLUSION: The HRM assay developed in this study is a rapid and straightforward method for the diagnosis, identification and discrimination of five human hookworms. This assay is simple compared to other probe-based genotyping methods as it does not require multiplexing, DNA sequencing or post-PCR processing. Therefore, this method offers a new alternative for rapid detection of human hookworm species.

  13. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh George

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored.As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015, a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100% was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8% and A. duodenale (8.4%. Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4% and A. ceylanicum (27.9% were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%.In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.

  14. Molecular Identification of Hookworm Isolates in Humans, Dogs and Soil in a Tribal Area in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Santosh; Levecke, Bruno; Kattula, Deepthi; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-08-01

    Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) remain a major public health problem worldwide. Infections with hookworms (e.g., A. caninum, A. ceylanicum and A. braziliense) are also prevalent in dogs, but the role of dogs as a reservoir for zoonotic hookworm infections in humans needs to be further explored. As part of an open-label community based cluster-randomized trial in a tribal area in Tamil Nadu (India; 2013-2015), a total of 143 isolates of hookworm eggs from human stool were speciated based on a previously described PCR-RFLP methodology. The presence of hookworm DNA was confirmed in 119 of 143 human samples. N. americanus (100%) was the most prevalent species, followed by A. caninum (16.8%) and A. duodenale (8.4%). Because of the high prevalence of A. caninum in humans, dog samples were also collected to assess the prevalence of A. caninum in dogs. In 68 out of 77 canine stool samples the presence of hookworms was confirmed using PCR-RFLP. In dogs, both A. caninum (76.4%) and A. ceylanicum (27.9%) were identified. Additionally, to determine the contamination of soil with zoonotic hookworm larvae, topsoil was collected from defecating areas. Hookworm DNA was detected in 72 out of 78 soil samples that revealed presence of hookworm-like nematode larvae. In soil, different hookworm species were identified, with animal hookworms being more prevalent (A. ceylanicum: 60.2%, A. caninum: 29.4%, A. duodenale: 16.6%, N. americanus: 1.4%, A. braziliense: 1.4%). In our study we regularly detected the presence of A. caninum DNA in the stool of humans. Whether this is the result of infection is currently unknown but it does warrant a closer look at dogs as a potential reservoir.

  15. Advancing a vaccine to prevent hookworm disease and anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Strych, Ulrich; Hayward, Tara; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-06-03

    A human hookworm vaccine is under development and in clinical trials in Africa and the Americas. The vaccine contains the Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1 antigens. It elicits neutralizing antibodies that interfere with establishment of the adult hookworm in the gut and the ability of the parasite to feed on blood. The vaccine target product profile is focused on the immunization of children to prevent hookworm infection and anemia caused by Necator americanus. It is intended for use in low- and middle-income countries where hookworm is highly endemic and responsible for at least three million disability-adjusted life years. So far, the human hookworm vaccine is being developed in the non-profit sector through the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (PDP), in collaboration with the HOOKVAC consortium of European and African partners. We envision the vaccine to be incorporated into health systems as part of an elimination strategy for hookworm infection and other neglected tropical diseases, and as a means to reduce global poverty and address the Sustainable Development Goals. Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Massively parallel sequencing and analysis of the Necator americanus transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Cantacessi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The blood-feeding hookworm Necator americanus infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In order to elucidate fundamental molecular biological aspects of this hookworm, the transcriptome of the adult stage of Necator americanus was explored using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.A total of 19,997 contigs were assembled from the sequence data; 6,771 of these contigs had known orthologues in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and most of them encoded proteins with WD40 repeats (10.6%, proteinase inhibitors (7.8% or calcium-binding EF-hand proteins (6.7%. Bioinformatic analyses inferred that the C. elegans homologues are involved mainly in biological pathways linked to ribosome biogenesis (70%, oxidative phosphorylation (63% and/or proteases (60%; most of these molecules were predicted to be involved in more than one biological pathway. Comparative analyses of the transcriptomes of N. americanus and the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, revealed qualitative and quantitative differences. For instance, proteinase inhibitors were inferred to be highly represented in the former species, whereas SCP/Tpx-1/Ag5/PR-1/Sc7 proteins ( = SCP/TAPS or Ancylostoma-secreted proteins were predominant in the latter. In N. americanus, essential molecules were predicted using a combination of orthology mapping and functional data available for C. elegans. Further analyses allowed the prioritization of 18 predicted drug targets which did not have homologues in the human host. These candidate targets were inferred to be linked to mitochondrial (e.g., processing proteins or amino acid metabolism (e.g., asparagine t-RNA synthetase.This study has provided detailed insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of N. americanus and examines similarities and differences between this species and A. caninum. Future efforts should focus on comparative transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the other predominant human

  17. hookworm species distribution around asendabo town jimma zone

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DigLab

    acknowledged cause of anemia as a result of intestinal blood loss. The aim of this study was to ... KEY WORDS: Hookworm species, anemia, helminth, Asendabo, Jimma, Ethiopia. ... nematode parasites Necator americanus and Ancylostoma.

  18. The diversity and impact of hookworm infections in wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Seguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the alimentary system of mammals. Despite their high pathogenic potential, little is known about their diversity and impact in wildlife populations. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on hookworm infections of wildlife and analyzed 218 studies qualitative and quantitatively. At least 68 hookworm species have been described in 9 orders, 24 families, and 111 species of wild mammals. Black bears, red foxes, and bobcats harbored the highest diversity of hookworm species and Ancylostoma pluridentatum, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala and Necator americanus were the hookworm species with the highest host diversity index. Hookworm infections cause anemia, retarded growth, tissue damage, inflammation and significant mortality in several wildlife species. Anemia has been documented more commonly in canids, felids and otariids, and retarded growth only in otariids. Population- level mortality has been documented through controlled studies only in canines and eared seals although sporadic mortality has been noticed in felines, bears and elephants. The main driver of hookworm pathogenic effects was the hookworm biomass in a population, measured as prevalence, mean burden and hookworm size (length. Many studies recorded significant differences in prevalence and mean intensity among regions related to contrasts in local humidity, temperature, and host population density. These findings, plus the ability of hookworms to perpetuate in different host species, create a dynamic scenario where changes in climate and the domestic animal-human-wildlife interface will potentially affect the dynamics and consequences of hookworm infections in wildlife. Keywords: Ancylostoma, Hookworm, Uncinaria, Pathology, Epidemiology, Wildlife

  19. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J McSorley

    Full Text Available We present immunological data from two clinical trials where the effect of experimental human hookworm (Necator americanus infection on the pathology of celiac disease was evaluated. We found that basal production of Interferon- (IFN-γ and Interleukin- (IL-17A from duodenal biopsy culture was suppressed in hookworm-infected participants compared to uninfected controls. Increased levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the circulation and mucosa are associated with active celiac disease. We show that this accumulation also occurs during a short-term (1 week oral gluten challenge, and that hookworm infection suppressed the increase of circulating CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells during this challenge period. When duodenal biopsies from hookworm-infected participants were restimulated with the immunodominant gliadin peptide QE65, robust production of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A was detected, even prior to gluten challenge while participants were strictly adhering to a gluten-free diet. Intriguingly, IL-5 was produced only after hookworm infection in response to QE65. Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection.

  20. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and evaluation of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) technique for the detection of hookworm (Necator americanus) infection in fecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugambi, Robert Muriuki; Agola, Eric L; Mwangi, Ibrahim N; Kinyua, Johnson; Shiraho, Esther Andia; Mkoji, Gerald M

    2015-11-06

    Hookworm infection is a major concern in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in children and pregnant women. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale are responsible for this condition. Hookworm disease is one of the Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that are targeted for elimination through global mass chemotherapy. To support this there is a need for reliable diagnostic tools. The conventional diagnostic test, Kato-Katz that is based on microscopic detection of parasite ova in faecal samples, is not effective due to its low sensitivity that is brought about mainly by non-random distribution of eggs in stool and day to day variation in egg output. It is tedious, cumbersome to perform and requires experience for correct diagnosis. LAMP-based tests are simple, relatively cheap, offer greater sensitivity, specificity than existing tests, have high throughput capability, and are ideal for use at the point of care. We have developed a LAMP diagnostic test for detection of hookworm infection in faecal samples. LAMP relies on auto cycling strand displacement DNA synthesis performed at isothermal temperature by Bst polymerase and a set of 4 specific primers. The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS-2) region and designed using Primer Explorer version 4 Software. The ITS-2 region of the ribosomal gene (rDNA) was identified as a suitable target due to its low mutation rates and substantial differences between species. DNA was extracted directly from human faecal samples, followed by LAMP amplification at isothermal temperature of 63 °C for 1 h. Amplicons were visualized using gel electrophoresis and SYBR green dye. Both specificity and sensitivity of the assay were determined. The LAMP based technique developed was able to detect N. americanus DNA in faecal samples. The assay showed 100 % specificity and no cross-reaction was observed with other helminth parasites (S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura). The

  2. Peptide-based subunit vaccine against hookworm infection.

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    Mariusz Skwarczynski

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect more people than HIV and malaria combined, predominantly in third world countries. Treatment of infection with chemotherapy can have limited efficacy and re-infections after treatment are common. Heavy infection often leads to debilitating diseases. All these factors suggest an urgent need for development of vaccine. In an attempt to develop a vaccine targeting the major human hookworm, Necator americanus, a B-cell peptide epitope was chosen from the apical enzyme in the hemoglobin digestion cascade, the aspartic protease Na-APR-1. The A(291Y alpha helical epitope is known to induce neutralizing antibodies that inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1, thus reducing the capacity for hookworms to digest hemoglobin and obtain nutrients. A(291Y was engineered such that it was flanked on both termini by a coil-promoting sequence to maintain native conformation, and subsequently incorporated into a Lipid Core Peptide (LCP self-adjuvanting system. While A(291Y alone or the chimeric epitope with or without Freund's adjuvants induced negligible IgG responses, the LCP construct incorporating the chimeric peptide induced a strong IgG response in mice. Antibodies produced were able to bind to and completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1. The results presented show that the new chimeric LCP construct can induce effective enzyme-neutralising antibodies in mice, without the help of any additional toxic adjuvants. This approach offers promise for the development of vaccines against helminth parasites of humans and their livestock and companion animals.

  3. Hookworm Infection among School Age Children in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Nutritional Risk Factors and Response to Albendazole Treatment

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    Humphries, Debbie; Simms, Benjamin T.; Davey, Dylan; Otchere, Joseph; Quagraine, Josephine; Terryah, Shawn; Newton, Samuel; Berg, Elyssa; Harrison, Lisa M.; Boakye, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Children (n = 812) 6–11 years of age attending 16 schools in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana were screened for participation in a study on hookworm infection, nutrition, and response to albendazole. The prevalence of Necator americanus hookworm infection (n = 286) was 39.1%, and significant predictors of infection included age, malaria parasitemia, lack of health care, school area, levels of antibodies against hookworm, and low consumption of animal foods. The cure rate after a single dose (400 mg) albendazole was 43%, and the mean fecal egg count reduction rate was 87.3%. Data for an in vitro egg hatch assay showed a trend toward reduced albendazole susceptibility in post-treatment hookworm isolates (P = 0.06). In summary, hookworm infection is prevalent among school age children in the Kintampo North Municipality and animal food intake inversely correlates with infection status. Modest cure rates and fecal egg count reduction rates reinforce the need for further investigation of potential benzimidazole resistance in Ghana. PMID:23836564

  4. The human hookworm vaccine: recent updates and prospects for success.

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    Bottazzi, M E

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 440 million people globally are afflicted by hookworm disease, one of the 17 WHO-recognized neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). The iron-deficiency anaemia attributed to this disease contributes to at least 3.2 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The current WHO-recommended control strategies rely primarily on mass drug administration or preventive chemotherapy. However, evidence is starting to accumulate confirming that preventive chemotherapy alone will not be sufficient to reduce the reinfection rates of hookworm, especially in areas of heavy transmission. The global health and research community is currently building a consensus stressing the need for the advancement of research and innovation to bridge the gaps and identify new public health interventions for diseases such as hookworm and other NTDs. This paper presents the strategies used by the Sabin Vaccine Institute Product Development Partnership (Sabin PDP) in their ongoing endeavour for the development of a human hookworm vaccine. Recent updates and the current prospects for success of an effective human hookworm vaccine, as a new technology to be linked to or combined with drug interventions, are presented.

  5. High prevalence of Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm infections in humans, Cambodia, 2012

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    Inpankaew, Tawin; Schär, Fabian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a hookworm of canids and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common hookworm infecting humans. In 2012, we investigated the prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cambodian village. Over 57% of th......; thus, we advocate for a One Health approach to control this zoonosis....

  6. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine.

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    Jill B Brelsford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus, so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2-8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines.

  7. Advances in neglected tropical disease vaccines: Developing relative potency and functional assays for the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel hookworm vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brelsford, Jill B.; Plieskatt, Jordan L.; Yakovleva, Anna; Jariwala, Amar; Keegan, Brian P.; Peng, Jin; Xia, Pengjun; Li, Guangzhao; Campbell, Doreen; Periago, Maria Victoria; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    A new generation of vaccines for the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have now advanced into clinical development, with the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine already being tested in Phase 1 studies in healthy adults. The current manuscript focuses on the often overlooked critical aspects of NTD vaccine product development, more specifically, vaccine stability testing programs. A key measure of vaccine stability testing is "relative potency" or the immunogenicity of the vaccine during storage. As with most NTD vaccines, the Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel Hookworm Vaccine was not developed by attenuation or inactivation of the pathogen (Necator americanus), so conventional methods for measuring relative potency are not relevant for this investigational product. Herein, we describe a novel relative potency testing program and report for the first time on the clinical lot of this NTD vaccine during its first 60 months of storage at 2–8°C. We also describe the development of a complementary functional assay that measures the ability of IgG from animals or humans immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel to neutralize this important hookworm enzyme. While 90% inhibition of the catalytic activity of Na-GST-1 was achieved in animals immunized with Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel, lower levels of inhibition were observed in immunized humans. Moreover, anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers in non-hookworm endemic areas were better able to inhibit catalytic activity than anti-Na-GST-1 antibodies from volunteers resident in hookworm endemic areas. The results described herein provide the critical tools for the product development of NTD vaccines. PMID:28192438

  8. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection.

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    Soraya Gaze

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal cytokine response of healthy humans to parasitic helminths has never been reported. We investigated the systemic and mucosal cytokine responses to hookworm infection in experimentally infected, previously hookworm naive individuals from non-endemic areas. We collected both peripheral blood and duodenal biopsies to assess the systemic immune response, as well as the response at the site of adult worm establishment. Our results show that experimental hookworm infection leads to a strong systemic and mucosal Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 and regulatory (IL-10 and TGF-β response, with some evidence of a Th1 (IFN-γ and IL-2 response. Despite upregulation after patency of both IL-15 and ALDH1A2, a known Th17-inducing combination in inflammatory diseases, we saw no evidence of a Th17 (IL-17 response. Moreover, we observed strong suppression of mucosal IL-23 and upregulation of IL-22 during established hookworm infection, suggesting a potential mechanism by which Th17 responses are suppressed, and highlighting the potential that hookworms and their secreted proteins offer as therapeutics for human inflammatory diseases.

  9. Prevalence of Hookworm infection and Strongyloidiasis in Cats and Potential Risk Factor of Human Diseases

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    Sedionoto, Blego; Anamnart, Witthaya

    2018-02-01

    Hookworm infection and Stronyloidiasis are public health problem in the worldwide which both of them could infective in human by penetrated on skin and they have potential risk from Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of pets, including cats. We investigated the prevalence soil transmitted helminths infection in human and cats used modified Formal-Ether Concentration and agar plate culture. Fecal samples of 23 cats and human from Naitung and Subua Villages (area study 1), and fecal samples of 15 cats and 17 humans from Thasala Beach villages (area study 2) were collected. Result of study in area study 1 showed prevalence of infection in human was not hookworm and strongyloidiasis but 10% humans have infected Ascaris and Tricuris, and in cats have infected by hookworm 75.2% and S. strercoralis 8.5%, toxocara 13%, spirometra 13% and overall prevalence 82.5%. In area study 2 showed in human has infected by Trichuris 100% and S. stercoralis 29.4% and in cats have infected by hookworm 100% and S. strercoralis 40%, toxocora 20%, and spirometra 20%. Helminth infection found in both humans in two areas study are S. strercoralis. Hookworms were the most common helminth in cats but did not connection with infection in human, while S. strercoralis was helminth infection in cats which has potential zoonotic disease to human.

  10. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial.

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    A James Daveson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between hygiene and prevalence of autoimmune disease has been attributed in part to enteric helminth infection. A pilot study of experimental infection with the hookworm Necator americanus was undertaken among a group of otherwise healthy people with celiac disease to test the potential of the helminth to suppress the immunopathology induced by gluten. METHODS: In a 21-week, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we explored the effects of N. americanus infection in 20 healthy, helminth-naïve adults with celiac disease well controlled by diet. Staged cutaneous inoculations with 10 and 5 infective 3(rd stage hookworm larvae or placebo were performed at week-0 and -12 respectively. At week-20, a five day oral wheat challenge equivalent to 16 grams of gluten per day was undertaken. Primary outcomes included duodenal Marsh score and quantification of the immunodominant α-gliadin peptide (QE65-specific systemic interferon-γ-producing cells by ELISpot pre- and post-wheat challenge. RESULTS: Enteric colonisation with hookworm established in all 10 cases, resulting in transiently painful enteritis in 5. Chronic infection was asymptomatic, with no effect on hemoglobin levels. Although some duodenal eosinophilia was apparent, hookworm-infected mucosa retained a healthy appearance. In both groups, wheat challenge caused deterioration in both primary and several secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental N. americanus infection proved to be safe and enabled testing its effect on a range of measures of the human autoimmune response. Infection imposed no obvious benefit on pathology. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00671138.

  11. Activity of oxantel pamoate monotherapy and combination chemotherapy against Trichuris muris and hookworms: revival of an old drug.

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    Jennifer Keiser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely recognized that only a handful of drugs are available against soil-transmitted helminthiasis, all of which are characterized by a low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura, when administered as single doses. The re-evaluation of old, forgotten drugs is a promising strategy to identify alternative anthelminthic drug candidates or drug combinations. METHODOLOGY: We studied the activity of the veterinary drug oxantel pamoate against Trichuris muris, Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the dose-effect of oxantel pamoate combined with albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin was studied against T. muris in vitro and additive or synergistic combinations were followed up in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We calculated an ED50 of 4.7 mg/kg for oxantel pamoate against T. muris in mice. Combinations of oxantel pamoate with pyrantel pamoate behaved antagonistically in vitro (combination index (CI = 2.53. Oxantel pamoate combined with levamisole, albendazole or ivermectin using ratios based on their ED50s revealed antagonistic effects in vivo (CI = 1.27, 1.90 and 1.27, respectively. A highly synergistic effect (CI = 0.15 was observed when oxantel pamoate-mebendazole was administered to T. muris-infected mice. Oxantel pamoate (10 mg/kg lacked activity against Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus in vivo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study confirms the excellent trichuricidal properties of oxantel pamoate. Since the drug lacks activity against hookworms it is necessary to combine oxantel pamoate with a partner drug with anti-hookworm properties. Synergistic effects were observed for oxantel pamoate-mebendazole, hence this combination should be studied in more detail. Since, of the standard drugs, albendazole has the highest efficacy against hookworms, additional investigations on the combination effect of oxantel pamoate-albendazole should be

  12. Safety and immunogenicity of the Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine in Brazilian and American adults.

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    David J Diemert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Necator americanus Glutathione-S-Transferase-1 (Na-GST-1 plays a role in the digestion of host hemoglobin by adult N. americanus hookworms. Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-GST-1 is associated with significant protection from challenge infection. Recombinant Na-GST-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant (Alhydrogel according to current Good Manufacturing Practice. Two Phase 1 trials were conducted in 142 healthy adult volunteers in the United States and Brazil, first in hookworm-naïve individuals and then in residents of a N. americanus endemic area in Brazil. Volunteers received one of three doses of recombinant Na-GST-1 (10, 30, or 100 μg adjuvanted with Alhydrogel, adjuvanted with Alhydrogel and co-administered with an aqueous formulation of Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF, or the hepatitis B vaccine. Vaccinations were administered via intramuscular injection on days 0, 56, and 112. Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel was well tolerated in both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults, with the most common adverse events being mild to moderate injection site pain and tenderness, and mild headache and nausea; no vaccine-related severe or serious adverse events were observed. Antigen-specific IgG antibodies were induced in a dose-dependent fashion, with increasing levels observed after each vaccination in both trials. The addition of GLA-AF to Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel did not result in significant increases in specific IgG responses. In both the US and Brazil studies, the predominant IgG subclass induced against Na-GST-1 was IgG1, with lesser amounts of IgG3. Vaccination of both hookworm-naïve and hookworm-exposed adults with recombinant Na-GST-1 was safe, well tolerated, and resulted in significant antigen-specific IgG responses. Based on these results, this vaccine will be advanced into clinical trials in children and eventual efficacy studies.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01261130 for the Brazil trial

  13. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico Anemia e infección por Necator americanus en mujeres en Chiapas, México

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    Paula E. Brentlinger

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between anemia and hookworm (Necator americanus infection in hospitalized women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the hospital records of 68 anemic women (defined as having a hemoglobin level OBJETIVO: Describir la asociación entre anemia severa e infección con Necator americanus en una población de mujeres hospitalizadas en el estado de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el registro de ingresos del año 1999 de un hospital rural en Altamirano, Chiapas, se identificaron a las pacientes con diagnósticos de egreso de anemia (definida como hemoglobina<10mg/dl y/o parasitosis intestinal. También se revisó el registro de transfusiones para identificar a las mujeres mayores de 14 años de edad que recibieron sangre. La revisión de expedientes y el análisis de datos se llevó a cabo en el año 2000. Las comparaciones de las características de las pacientes se hicieron con la prueba t de Student (para variables continuas y la prueba ji2 (para variables categóricas. La significancia estadística se estableció con un valor de p< 0.01. RESULTADOS: En las mujeres en quienes se realizó examen coproscópico, 50% tuvieron N. americanus. La presencia de N. americanus no excluyó la presencia de otro factor de riesgo para anemia, por ejemplo embarazo o hemorragia. Los niveles de hemoglobina de las mujeres infectadas con N. americanus fueron significativamente más bajos (promedio 4.1 g/dl que los de las demás mujeres anémicas (promedio 7.0 gm/dl, y la prevalencia de N. americanus en mujeres anémicas fue más alta (50.0% que en la población atendida por el hospital (1.9%. CONCLUSIONES: Aunque la prevalencia de infección con N. americanus no se considera alta en la población general mexicana, fue importante en las mujeres anémicas que se sometieron a coproscopía en nuestro estudio. Las mujeres anémicas ameritan coproscopía donde existe N. americanus, y pueden

  14. Identification of Ancylostoma ceylanicum in children from a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP tool.

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    George, Santosh; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar Puthupalayam; Kattula, Deepthi; Roy, Sheela; Geldhof, Peter; Kang, Gagandeep; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    It is generally assumed that hookworm infections in humans are caused by Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. However, previous studies have also reported the presence of the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum in human stools. We determined hookworm infections in children in a tribal community in Tamil Nadu, India, using a semi-nested PCR-RFLP approach. The results indicate that human species account for a majority of the hookworm infections (N. americanus 39/41 [95%]; A. duodenale 6/41 [15%]), whereas the animal hookworm A. ceylanicum only accounts for a minority of the infections (5%; 2/41). The results emphasize the need to consider zoonotic ancylostomiasis while developing strategies to control hookworm infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Model for product development of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases: a vaccine against human hookworm.

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    Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brown, Ami Shah

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the advances in product development and technology transfer of the vaccine against human hookworm, with particular emphasis on the lessons learned and the challenges of developing a vaccine in the nonprofit sector. The comprehensive approach to vaccine development established by the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI) identifies key operational and technical aspects that are essential for a successful partnership with a developing country vaccine manufacturer. This article also highlights the importance of a global access roadmap to guide the vaccine development program. The advancement of new products for the control of neglected tropical diseases portends great challenges for global access, including aspects related to vaccine design, product development and manufacture, vaccine introduction and distribution, financing, knowledge dissemination and intellectual property management. With only three vaccines for neglected tropical diseases in clinical trials - hookworm, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis - we are at the nascent stages of developing vaccines for neglected populations. Product development public-private partnerships, such as the HHVI, continue to show great promise on this front and will eventually provide significant control tools for achieving millennium development goals related to poverty reduction, as well as child and maternal health.

  16. Biochemical Characterization and Vaccine Potential of a Heme-Binding Glutathione Transferase from the Adult Hookworm Ancylostoma caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Bin; Liu, Sen; Perally, Samirah; Xue, Jian; Fujiwara, Ricardo; Brophy, Peter; Xiao, Shuhua; Liu, Yueyuan; Feng, Jianjun; Williamson, Angela; Wang, Yan; Bueno, Lilian L.; Mendez, Susana; Goud, Gaddam; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Hawdon, John M.; Loukas, Alex; Jones, Karen; Hotez, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    We report the cloning and expression of Ac-GST-1, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the adult hookworm Ancylostoma caninum, and its possible role in parasite blood feeding and as a vaccine target. The predicted Ac-GST-1 open reading frame contains 207 amino acids (mass, 24 kDa) and exhibited up to 65% amino acid identity with other nematode GSTs. mRNA encoding Ac-GST-1 was detected in adults, eggs, and larval stages, but the protein was detected only in adult hookworm somatic extracts and excretory/secretory products. Using antiserum to the recombinant protein, Ac-GST-1 was immunolocalized to the parasite hypodermis and muscle tissue and weakly to the intestine. Recombinant Ac-GST-1 was enzymatically active, as determined by conjugation of glutathione to a model substrate, and exhibited a novel high-affinity binding site for hematin. The possible role of Ac-GST-1 in parasite heme detoxification during hemoglobin digestion or heme uptake prompted interest in evaluating it as a potential vaccine antigen. Vaccination of dogs with Ac-GST-1 resulted in a 39.4% reduction in the mean worm burden and 32.3% reduction in egg counts compared to control dogs following larval challenge, although the reductions were not statistically significant. However, hamsters vaccinated with Ac-GST-1 exhibited statistically significant worm reduction (53.7%) following challenge with heterologous Necator americanus larvae. These studies suggest that Ac-GST-1 is a possible drug and vaccine target for hookworm infection. PMID:16177370

  17. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

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    Romano Ngui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. METHODS/FINDINGS: A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7% and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003, walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; p<0.001 and in close contact with pets or livestock (OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.19-7.15; p = 0.009 were more likely to be infected with hookworms. Molecular analysis revealed that while most hookworm-positive individuals were infected with Necator americanus, Ancylostoma ceylanicum constituted 12.8% of single infections and 10.6% mixed infections with N. americanus. As for cats and dogs, 52.0% were positive for A. ceylanicum, 46.0% for Ancylostoma caninum and 2.0% for Ancylostoma braziliense and all were single infections. CONCLUSION: This present study provided evidence based on the combination of epidemiological, conventional diagnostic and molecular tools that A. ceylanicum infection is common and that its transmission dynamic in endemic areas in Malaysia is heightened by the close contact of human and domestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats populations.

  18. Prevalence and zoonotic potential of canine hookworms in Malaysia

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    Mahdy Mohammed AK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine hookworm infection is endemic in Southeast Asian countries with a prevalence ranging from 70% to 100%, with zoonotic transmission representing a potentially significant public health concern. However, there are limited data available on the prevalence of canine hookworms in Malaysia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of hookworm and Ancylostoma species among dogs in Malaysia. Methods Faecal samples were collected from 221 dogs living in urban areas, rural areas and animal shelters in Selangor. Faecal samples were processed using the formal-ether concentration technique followed by wet mount preparation and iodine staining for the detection of hookworm eggs. Samples positive for hookworm eggs were examined using PCR, targeting ITS2 and 28 s rRNA region, and subsequently sequenced in both directions. The sequences were phylogenetically analysed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference. Results The overall prevalence of hookworm among dogs was 48% (95%CI; 41.41–54.95. Rural stray dogs had the highest prevalence 71.4% (95%CI; 61.13–81.49 followed by urban stray dogs, recording 48% (95%CI; 34.15–61.85 and lastly dogs in shelters with 28.7% (95%CI; 19.56–37.84. Logistic regression identified rural stray dogs as a high risk group (OR = 4.55, 95%; 2.50–8.31 and keeping dogs in shelters as a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%; 0.14–0.43. Molecular methods identified both Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum with A. ceylanicum being predominant among urban stray dogs. Rural dogs had a higher prevalence of A. caninum than A. ceylanicum, while both species showed equal distribution among dogs in shelters. Phylogenetic analysis placed A. ceylanicum isolated from dogs in one group with A. ceylanicum human isolates. Conclusion This study indicates that dogs have the potential to act as reservoir hosts of human hookworm infection in Malaysia. This finding necessitates the inclusion of dogs

  19. Connecting lignin-degradation pathway with pretreatment inhibitor sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

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    Wei eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, through pretreatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical, and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB, a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pretreated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the presence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  20. Connecting Lignin-Degradation Pathway with Pre-Treatment Inhibitor Sensitivity of Cupriavidus necator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunsinger, G. B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, P. T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, D. K. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-27

    In order to produce lignocellulosic biofuels economically, the complete release of monomers from the plant cell wall components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, through pre-treatment and hydrolysis (both enzymatic and chemical), and the efficient utilization of these monomers as carbon sources, is crucial. In addition, the identification and development of robust microbial biofuel production strains that can tolerate the toxic compounds generated during pre-treatment and hydrolysis is also essential. In this work, Cupriavidus necator was selected due to its capabilities for utilizing lignin monomers and producing polyhydroxylbutyrate (PHB), a bioplastic as well as an advanced biofuel intermediate. We characterized the growth kinetics of C. necator in pre-treated corn stover slurry as well as individually in the pre-sence of 11 potentially toxic compounds in the saccharified slurry. We found that C. necator was sensitive to the saccharified slurry produced from dilute acid pre-treated corn stover. Five out of 11 compounds within the slurry were characterized as toxic to C. necator, namely ammonium acetate, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid. Aldehydes (e.g., furfural and HMF) were more toxic than the acetate and the lignin degradation products benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid; furfural was identified as the most toxic compound. Although toxic to C. necator at high concentration, ammonium acetate, benzoic acid, and p-coumaric acid could be utilized by C. necator with a stimulating effect on C. necator growth. Consequently, the lignin degradation pathway of C. necator was reconstructed based on genomic information and literature. The efficient conversion of intermediate catechol to downstream products of cis,cis-muconate or 2-hydroxymuconate-6-semialdehyde may help improve the robustness of C. necator to benzoic acid and p-coumaric acid as well as improve PHB productivity.

  1. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely

  2. Identification of hookworm DAF-16/FOXO response elements and direct gene targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The infective stage of the parasitic nematode hookworm is developmentally arrested in the environment and needs to infect a specific host to complete its life cycle. The canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum is an excellent model for investigating human hookworm infections. The transcription factor of A. caninum, Ac-DAF-16, which has a characteristic fork head or "winged helix" DNA binding domain (DBD, has been implicated in the resumption of hookworm development in the host. However, the precise roles of Ac-DAF-16 in hookworm parasitism and its downstream targets are unknown. In the present study, we combined molecular techniques and bioinformatics to identify a group of Ac-DAF-16 binding sites and target genes.The DNA binding domain of Ac-DAF-16 was used to select genomic fragments by in vitro genomic selection. Twenty four bound genomic fragments were analyzed for the presence of the DAF-16 family binding element (DBE and possible alternative Ac-DAF-16 bind motifs. The 22 genes linked to these genomic fragments were identified using bioinformatics tools and defined as candidate direct gene targets of Ac-DAF-16. Their developmental stage-specific expression patterns were examined. Also, a new putative DAF-16 binding element was identified.Our results show that Ac-DAF-16 is involved in diverse biological processes throughout hookworm development. Further investigation of these target genes will provide insights into the molecular basis by which Ac-DAF-16 regulates its downstream gene network in hookworm infection.

  3. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  4. Mechanistic and single-dose in vivo therapeutic studies of Cry5B anthelmintic action against hookworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    Full Text Available Hookworm infections are one of the most important parasitic infections of humans worldwide, considered by some second only to malaria in associated disease burden. Single-dose mass drug administration for soil-transmitted helminths, including hookworms, relies primarily on albendazole, which has variable efficacy. New and better hookworm therapies are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B has potential as a novel anthelmintic and has been extensively studied in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Here, we ask whether single-dose Cry5B can provide therapy against a hookworm infection and whether C. elegans mechanism-of-action studies are relevant to hookworms.To test whether the C. elegans invertebrate-specific glycolipid receptor for Cry5B is relevant in hookworms, we fed Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm adults Cry5B with and without galactose, an inhibitor of Cry5B-C. elegans glycolipid interactions. As with C. elegans, galactose inhibits Cry5B toxicity in A. ceylanicum. Furthermore, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which controls one of the most important Cry5B signal transduction responses in C. elegans, is functionally operational in hookworms. A. ceylanicum hookworms treated with Cry5B up-regulate p38 MAPK and knock down of p38 MAPK activity in hookworms results in hypersensitivity of A. ceylanicum adults to Cry5B attack. Single-dose Cry5B is able to reduce by >90% A. ceylanicum hookworm burdens from infected hamsters, in the process eliminating hookworm egg shedding in feces and protecting infected hamsters from blood loss. Anthelmintic activity is increased about 3-fold, eliminating >97% of the parasites with a single 3 mg dose (∼30 mg/kg, by incorporating a simple formulation to help prevent digestion in the acidic stomach of the host mammal.These studies advance the development of Cry5B protein as a potent, safe single-dose anthelmintic for hookworm therapy and make available the information of how

  5. Modeling the economic and epidemiologic impact of hookworm vaccine and mass drug administration (MDA) in Brazil, a high transmission setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Hotez, Peter J; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Diemert, David J; Zapf, Kristina M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Brown, Shawn T; Lee, Bruce Y

    2016-04-27

    Although mass drug administration (MDA) has helped reduce morbidity attributed to soil-transmitted helminth infections in children, its limitations for hookworm infection have motivated the development of a human hookworm vaccine to both improve morbidity control and ultimately help block hookworm transmission leading to elimination. However, the potential economic and epidemiologic impact of a preventive vaccine has not been fully evaluated. We developed a dynamic compartment model coupled to a clinical and economics outcomes model representing both the human and hookworm populations in a high transmission region of Brazil. Experiments simulated different implementation scenarios of MDA and vaccination under varying circumstances. Considering only intervention costs, both annual MDA and vaccination were highly cost-effective (ICERs ≤ $790/DALY averted) compared to no intervention, with vaccination resulting in lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs ≤ $444/DALY averted). From the societal perspective, vaccination was economically dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) versus annual MDA in all tested scenarios, except when vaccination was less efficacious (20% efficacy, 5 year duration) and MDA coverage was 75%. Increasing the vaccine's duration of protection and efficacy, and including a booster injection in adulthood all increased the benefits of vaccination (i.e., resulted in lower hookworm prevalence, averted more disability-adjusted life years, and saved more costs). Assuming its target product profile, a pediatric hookworm vaccine drastically decreased hookworm prevalence in children to 14.6% after 20 years, compared to 57.2% with no intervention and 54.1% with MDA. The addition of a booster in adulthood further reduced the overall prevalence from 68.0% to 36.0% and nearly eliminated hookworm infection in children. Using a human hookworm vaccine would be cost-effective and in many cases economically dominant, providing both health

  6. Sporulation in Erysiphe necator: signals, differential gene expression and possible implications for disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abundant production of conidia is a driving factor for epidemics of grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator (syn. Uncinula necator). Previous investigations revealed evidence for a signal that coordinates the onset of asexual reproduction. The genetic basis for this signal in powdery mildews had not ...

  7. Hookworm-related anaemia among pregnant women: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brooker

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hookworm infection is among the major causes of anaemia in poor communities, but its importance in causing maternal anaemia is poorly understood, and this has hampered effective lobbying for the inclusion of anthelmintic treatment in maternal health packages. We sought to review existing evidence on the role of hookworm as a risk factor for anaemia among pregnant women. We also estimate the number of hookworm infections in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Structured searches using MEDLINE and EMBASE as well as manual searches of reference lists were conducted, and unpublished data were obtained by contacting authors. Papers were independently reviewed by two authors, and relevant data were extracted. We compared haemoglobin concentration (Hb according to intensity of hookworm infection and calculated standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. To estimate the number of pregnant women, we used population surfaces and a spatial model of hookworm prevalence.One hundred and five reports were screened and 19 were eligible for inclusion: 13 cross-sectional studies, 2 randomised controlled trials, 2 non-randomised treatment trials and 2 observational studies. Comparing uninfected women and women lightly (1-1,999 eggs/gram [epg] infected with hookworm, the standardised mean difference (SMD was -0.24 (95% CI: -0.36 to -0.13. The SMD between women heavily (4000+ epg infected and those lightly infected was -0.57 (95% CI: -0.87 to -0.26. All identified intervention studies showed a benefit of deworming for maternal or child health, but since a variety of outcomes measures were employed, quantitative evaluation was not possible. We estimate that 37.7 million women of reproductive age in SSA are infected with hookworm in 2005 and that approximately 6.9 million pregnant women are infected.Evidence indicates that increasing hookworm infection intensity is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in pregnant women in poor countries

  8. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in central african republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, David; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  9. Zoonotic Hookworm FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... larva migrans. What are the clinical manifestations of animal (zoonotic) hookworm in people? Cutaneous larval migrans (CLM) in a person's foot. ... and larvae may be found in dirt where animals have been. People may become infected while walking barefoot or when ...

  10. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  11. Molecular differentiation of three canine and feline hookworms in South China through HRM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M W; Yan, X X; Hang, J X; Shi, X L; Fu, Y Q; Zhang, P; Yang, F; Pan, W D; Li, G Q

    2018-02-05

    To investigate the prevalence of canine and feline hookworms in South China, and to assess the risk of zoonotic hookworms to humans, one pair of primers (HRM-F/HRM-R) was designed to establish a high-resolution melting (HRM) method based on internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) rDNA for the detection of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, A. caninum and A. tubaeforme infection. The results showed that the HRM for the three hookworms produced different melting-curve profiles, where melting temperature (T m) values were 84.50°C for A. ceylanicum, 82.25°C for A. caninum and 81.73°C for A. tubaeforme, respectively. The reproducibility of intra- and inter-assay melting curves was almost perfect. The lowest concentration detected was about 5.69 ×10-4 g/μl. The HRM detection results from 18 canine and feline hookworm samples were in complete accordance with their sequencing results. The HRM method was more sensitive than the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique in the detection of 98 clinical samples. It is concluded that the HRM method can differentiate between A. ceylanicum, A. caninum, A. tubaeforme and their mixed infections, which may provide important technical support for the zoonotic risk assessment and molecular epidemiological survey of canine and feline hookworms.

  12. Humans and great apes cohabiting the forest ecosystem in Central African Republic harbour the same hookworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Modrý, D.; Kitagawa, M.; Shutt, K. A.; Todd, A.; Kalousová, B.; Profousová, I.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2014), e2715 ISSN 1935-2735 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Necator spp. * mountain gorillas * infection * chimpanzees * Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.446, year: 2014

  13. Increasing polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) yields from Cupriavidus necator by using filtered digestate liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passanha, Pearl; Esteves, Sandra R; Kedia, Gopal; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2013-11-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) using digestate liquor as culture media is a novel application to extend the existing uses of digestates. In this study, two micro-filtered digestates (0.22 μm) were evaluated as a source of complex culture media for the production of PHA by Cupriavidus necator as compared to a conventional media. Culture media using a mixture of micro-filtered liquors from food waste and from wheat feed digesters showed a maximum PHA accumulation of 12.29 g/l PHA, with 90% cell dry weight and a yield of 0.48 g PHA/g VFA consumed, the highest reported to date for C. necator studies. From the analysis of the starting and residual media, it was concluded that ammonia, potassium, magnesium, sulfate and phosphate provided in the digestate liquors were vital for the initial growth of C. necator whereas copper, iron and nickel may have played a significant role in PHA accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Migrant clinics and hookworm science: peripheral origins of International Health, 1840-1920.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a global history of hookworm disease based on the main scientific publications on hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and archival sources from the Rockefeller Foundation's International Health Board. The location of hookworm research is explained by the presence of large concentrations of migrant laborers who suffered from serious hookworm disease in frontier regions during the second industrial revolution. This hookworm disease pandemic was not the result of a linear spread of infection. The extraordinary labor conditions in these regions created ideal ecologies for the reproduction of the parasite, leading to levels of infection that produced ankylostomiasis. The major findings in hookworm science came from research-oriented physicians building new institutions of medical science in peripheral nation-states. In a number of Latin American states their work led to treatment programs conceived in national terms that preceded the interest of Rockefeller philanthropy in the disease. The Rockefeller Foundation incorporated these programs in order to launch its International Health hookworm eradication program in 1914.

  15. [Massive hookworm infection as a cause of intestinal bleeding and severe anemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Gayatri V; Cazorla, Ernesto; Choque, Henry; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2016-01-01

    Overt gastrointestinal bleeding caused by hookworm infection is rarely reported. We present a 34 year old male with lower gastrointestinal bleeding with evidence of massive hookworm infection on colonoscopy and discuss the need to consider hookworm infection as a possible etiology of gastrointestinal bleed in endemic areas.

  16. Vaccination with recombinant aspartic hemoglobinase reduces parasite load and blood loss after hookworm infection in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Loukas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hookworms infect 730 million people in developing countries where they are a leading cause of intestinal blood loss and iron-deficiency anemia. At the site of attachment to the host, adult hookworms ingest blood and lyse the erythrocytes to release hemoglobin. The parasites subsequently digest hemoglobin in their intestines using a cascade of proteolysis that begins with the Ancylostoma caninum aspartic protease 1, APR-1.We show that vaccination of dogs with recombinant Ac-APR-1 induced antibody and cellular responses and resulted in significantly reduced hookworm burdens (p = 0.056 and fecal egg counts (p = 0.018 in vaccinated dogs compared to control dogs after challenge with infective larvae of A. caninum. Most importantly, vaccinated dogs were protected against blood loss (p = 0.049 and most did not develop anemia, the major pathologic sequela of hookworm disease. IgG from vaccinated animals decreased the catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme in vitro and the antibody bound in situ to the intestines of worms recovered from vaccinated dogs, implying that the vaccine interferes with the parasite's ability to digest blood.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant vaccine from a hematophagous parasite that significantly reduces both parasite load and blood loss, and it supports the development of APR-1 as a human hookworm vaccine.

  17. The bandit, a new DNA transposon from a hookworm-possible horizontal genetic transfer between host and parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewarach Laha

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced understanding of the hookworm genome and its resident mobile genetic elements should facilitate understanding of the genome evolution, genome organization, possibly host-parasite co-evolution and horizontal gene transfer, and from a practical perspective, development of transposon-based transgenesis for hookworms and other parasitic nematodes.A novel mariner-like element (MLE was characterized from the genome of the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, and termed bandit. The consensus sequence of the bandit transposon was 1,285 base pairs (bp in length. The new transposon was flanked by perfect terminal inverted repeats of 32 nucleotides in length with a common target site duplication TA, and it encoded an open reading frame (ORF of 342 deduced amino acid residues. Phylogenetic comparisons confirmed that the ORF encoded a mariner-like transposase, which included conserved catalytic domains, and that the bandit transposon belonged to the cecropia subfamily of MLEs. The phylogenetic analysis also indicated that the Hsmar1 transposon from humans was the closest known relative of bandit, and that bandit and Hsmar1 constituted a clade discrete from the Tc1 subfamily of MLEs from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Moreover, homology models based on the crystal structure of Mos1 from Drosophila mauritiana revealed closer identity in active site residues of the catalytic domain including Ser281, Lys289 and Asp293 between bandit and Hsmar1 than between Mos1 and either bandit or Hsmar1. The entire bandit ORF was amplified from genomic DNA and a fragment of the bandit ORF was amplified from RNA, indicating that this transposon is actively transcribed in hookworms.A mariner-like transposon termed bandit has colonized the genome of the hookworm A. caninum. Although MLEs exhibit a broad host range, and are identified in other nematodes, the closest phylogenetic relative of bandit is the Hsmar1 element of humans. This surprising finding suggests

  18. The complete multipartite genome sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a versatile pollutant degrader.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Lykidis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is a Gram-negative beta-proteobacterium able to grow on a variety of aromatic and chloroaromatic compounds as its sole carbon and energy source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Its genome consists of four replicons (two chromosomes and two plasmids containing a total of 6631 protein coding genes. Comparative analysis identified 1910 core genes common to the four genomes compared (C. necator JMP134, C. necator H16, C. metallidurans CH34, R. solanacearum GMI1000. Although secondary chromosomes found in the Cupriavidus, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia lineages are all derived from plasmids, analyses of the plasmid partition proteins located on those chromosomes indicate that different plasmids gave rise to the secondary chromosomes in each lineage. The C. necator JMP134 genome contains 300 genes putatively involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds and encodes most of the central ring-cleavage pathways. This strain also shows additional metabolic capabilities towards alicyclic compounds and the potential for catabolism of almost all proteinogenic amino acids. This remarkable catabolic potential seems to be sustained by a high degree of genetic redundancy, most probably enabling this catabolically versatile bacterium with different levels of metabolic responses and alternative regulation necessary to cope with a challenging environment. From the comparison of Cupriavidus genomes, it is possible to state that a broad metabolic capability is a general trait for Cupriavidus genus, however certain specialization towards a nutritional niche (xenobiotics degradation, chemolithoautotrophy or symbiotic nitrogen fixation seems to be shaped mostly by the acquisition of "specialized" plasmids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The availability of the complete genome sequence for C. necator JMP134 provides the groundwork for further elucidation of the mechanisms and regulation of chloroaromatic compound biodegradation.

  19. for presence of hookworms (Uncinaria spp. on San Miguel Island, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons E. T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Necropsy and extensive parasitological examination of dead northern elephant seal (NES pups was done on San Miguel Island, California, in February, 2015. The main interest in the current study was to determine if hookworms were present in NESs on San Miguel Island where two hookworm species of the genus Uncinaria are known to be present - Uncinaria lyonsi in California sea lions and Uncinaria lucasi in northern fur seals. Hookworms were not detected in any of the NESs examined: stomachs or intestines of 16 pups, blubber of 13 pups and blubber of one bull. The results obtained in the present study of NESs on San Miguel Island plus similar finding on Año Nuevo State Reserve and The Marine Mammal Center provide strong indication that NES are not appropriate hosts for Uncinaria spp. Hookworm free-living third stage larvae, developed from eggs of California sea lions and northern fur seals, were recovered from sand. It seems that at this time, further search for hookworms in NESs would be nonproductive.

  20. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-01-01

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in ...

  1. Phylogeography and population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, from diverse Vitis species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewer Marin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator, was introduced into Europe more than 160 years ago and is now distributed everywhere that grapes are grown. To understand the invasion history of this pathogen we investigated the evolutionary relationships between introduced populations of Europe, Australia and the western United States (US and populations in the eastern US, where E. necator is thought to be native. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that populations of E. necator in the eastern US are structured based on geography and Vitis host species. Results We sequenced three nuclear gene regions covering 1803 nucleotides from 146 isolates of E. necator collected from the eastern US, Europe, Australia, and the western US. Phylogeographic analyses show that the two genetic groups in Europe represent two separate introductions and that the genetic groups may be derived from eastern US ancestors. Populations from the western US and Europe share haplotypes, suggesting that the western US population was introduced from Europe. Populations in Australia are derived from European populations. Haplotype richness and nucleotide diversity were significantly greater in the eastern US populations than in the introduced populations. Populations within the eastern US are geographically differentiated; however, no structure was detected with respect to host habitat (i.e., wild or cultivated. Populations from muscadine grapes, V. rotundifolia, are genetically distinct from populations from other Vitis host species, yet no differentiation was detected among populations from other Vitis species. Conclusions Multilocus sequencing analysis of the grape powdery mildew fungus is consistent with the hypothesis that populations in Europe, Australia and the western US are derived from two separate introductions and their ancestors were likely from native populations in the eastern US. The invasion history of E. necator follows a pattern

  2. Epidermal response of rainbow trout to Ichthyobodo necator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Kuhn, Jesper Andreas; Mohammad, Rezkar Jaafar

    2014-01-01

    Infections with the parasitic flagellate Ichthyobodo necator (Henneguy, 1883) cause severe skin and gill disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) juveniles. The epidermal disturbances including hyperplasia and mucous cell exhaustion caused by parasitization are known, but no d...

  3. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New Zealand sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Petetti, Laura; Duignan, Padraig; Castinel, Aurelie

    2009-10-07

    Hookworms are intestinal blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize and cause high levels of mortality in a wide range of mammals, including otariid pinnipeds. Recently, an empirical study showed that inbreeding (assessed by individual measures of multi-locus heterozygosity) is associated with hookworm-related mortality of California sea lions. If inbreeding increases susceptibility to hookworms, effects would expectedly be stronger in small, fragmented populations. We tested this assumption in the New Zealand sea lion, a threatened otariid that has low levels of genetic variability and high hookworm infection rates. Using a panel of 22 microsatellites, we found that average allelic diversity (5.9) and mean heterozygosity (0.72) were higher than expected for a small population with restricted breeding, and we found no evidence of an association between genetic variability and hookworm resistance. However, similar to what was observed for the California sea lion, homozygosity at a single locus explained the occurrence of anaemia and thrombocytopenia in hookworm-infected pups (generalized linear model, F = 11.81, p < 0.001) and the effect was apparently driven by a particular allele (odds ratio = 34.95%; CI: 7.12-162.41; p < 0.00001). Our study offers further evidence that these haematophagus parasites exert selective pressure on otariid blood-clotting processes.

  4. file 7

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chemotherapy using effective drugs and constitute major public health and deworming campaigns targeted at high risk ... They are classified among the therapies in school children have produced neglected tropical ... anthelminthic drug is the main stay of including hookworm (Necator americanus, programmes aimed at the ...

  5. Molecular identification of zoonotic hookworm species in dog faeces from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merino-Tejedor, A.; Nejsum, P.; Mkupasi, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    The presence and distribution of various species of canine hookworms in Africa are poorly known. The main objective of this study, therefore, was to identify the hookworm species present in canine faecal samples from Morogoro, Tanzania, using molecular techniques. Faecal samples from 160 local do...

  6. Ancylostoma ailuropodae sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae), a new hookworm parasite isolated from wild giant pandas in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworms belonging to the genus Ancylostoma cause ancylostomiasis, a disease of considerable concern in humans and domestic and wild animals. Molecular and epidemiological data support evidence for the zoonotic potential among species of Ancylostoma where transmission to humans is facilitated by ra...

  7. New tools for NTD vaccines: A case study of quality control assays for product development of the human hookworm vaccine Na-APR-1M74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark S; Jariwala, Amar R; Abbenante, Giovanni; Plieskatt, Jordan; Wilson, David; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Keegan, Brian; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Na-APR-1(M74) is an aspartic protease that is rendered enzymatically inactive by site-directed mutagenesis and is a candidate antigen component in the Human Hookworm Vaccine. The mutant protease exerts vaccine efficacy by inducing antibodies that neutralize the enzymatic activity of wild type enzyme (Na-APR-1wt) in the gut of the hookworm, thereby depriving the worm of its ability to digest its blood meal. Previously, canines immunized with Na-APR-1(M74) and challenged with Ancylostoma caninum were partially protected against hookworm challenge infection, especially from the loss in hemoglobin observed in control canines and canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G raised against Na-APR-1 was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1 wt in vitro, thereby providing proof of concept of Na-APR-1(M74) as a vaccine antigen. The mutated version, Na-APR-1(M74), was then expressed at the cGMP level using a Nicotiana benthamiana expression system (Fraunhofer, CMB, Delaware, MD), formulated with Alhydrogel®, and used to immunize mice in a dose-ranging study to explore the enzyme-neutralizing capacity of the resulting anti- Na-APR-1(M74) IgG. As little as 0.99 μg of recombinant Na-APR-1(M74) could induce anti Na-APR-1(M74) IgG in mice that were capable of inhibiting Na-APR-1w t-mediated digestion of a peptide substrate by 89%. In the absence of enzymatic activity of Na-APR-1(M74) as a surrogate marker of protein functionality, we developed an assay based on the binding of a quenched fluorescence-labeled inhibitor of aspartic proteases, BODIPY-FL pepstatin A (BDP). Binding of BDP in the active site of Na-APR-1 wt was demonstrated by inhibition of enzymatic activity, and competitive binding with unlabelled pepstatin A. BDP also bound to Na-APR-1(M74) which was assessed by fluorescence polarization, but with an ∼ 50-fold reduction in the dissociation constant. Taken together, these assays comprise a "toolbox" that could be useful for the analyses of Na-APR-1(M74) as it

  8. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandee Tun

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%, in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%, Toxocara (11.1%, Trichuris (8.4%, Spirometra (7.4% and Ascaris (2.4%. The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001. Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%, consisting of hookworms (16.6%, Ascaris (4% and Toxocara (2.4%. The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  9. Interaction of hookworm 14-3-3 with the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 requires intact Akt phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawdon John M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Third-stage infective larvae (L3 of hookworms are in an obligatory state of developmental arrest that ends upon entering the definitive host, where they receive a signal that re-activates development. Recovery from the developmentally arrested dauer stage of Caenorhabditis elegans is analogous to the resumption of development during hookworm infection. Insulin-like signaling (ILS mediates recovery from arrest in C. elegans and activation of hookworm dauer L3. In C. elegans, phosphorylation of the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16 in response to ILS creates binding cites for the 14-3-3 protein Ce-FTT-2, which translocates DAF-16 out of the nucleus, resulting in resumption of reproductive development. Results To determine if hookworm 14-3-3 proteins play a similar role in L3 activation, hookworm FTT-2 was identified and tested for its ability to interact with A. caninum DAF-16 in vitro. The Ac-FTT-2 amino acid sequence was 91% identical to the Ce-FTT-2, and was most closely related to FTT-2 from other nematodes. Ac-FTT-2 was expressed in HEK 293T cells, and was recognized by an antibody against human 14-3-3β isoform. Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitations using anti-epitope tag antibodies indicated that Ac-FTT-2 interacts with Ac-DAF-16 when co-expressed in serum-stimulated HEK 293T cells. This interaction requires intact Akt consensus phosphorylation sites at serine107 and threonine312, but not serine381. Ac-FTT-2 was undetectable by Western blot in excretory/secretory products from serum-stimulated (activated L3 or adult A. caninum. Conclusion The results indicate that Ac-FTT-2 interacts with DAF-16 in a phosphorylation-site dependent manner, and suggests that Ac-FTT-2 mediates activation of L3 by binding Ac-DAF-16 during hookworm infection.

  10. Hookworm-like eggs in children's faecal samples from a rural area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvae of C. elegans in water drop from the coprocultive (vision through electronic loupe). Discussion. A brief review of other studies showed frequent prob- lems in the identification of hookworm eggs by micros- copy. It is often reported as misdiagnosis of hookworm eggs with other nematode species. Some researchers14- ...

  11. Trichuris and hookworm infections associated with anaemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Gilbert, Nicolas L; Larocque, Renée; Casapía, Martín

    2011-04-01

    To assess the following associations between the second and third trimesters of pregnancy: (i) the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection and haemoglobin/anaemia, (ii) the effect of mebendazole treatment on the occurrence of STH infection, and (iii) the effect of mebendazole treatment on haemoglobin/anaemia. Data originated from a trial of 1042 pregnant women recruited in their second trimester and followed to delivery. Baseline assessments included socio-demographic/health information from questionnaires, haemoglobin/anaemia from HemoCue ascertainment of fingerprick blood, and the presence and intensity of STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Trichuris trichiura) infections from Kato-Katz examination. All women were given iron supplements; half were randomly allocated to receive single dose 500 mg mebendazole, and half, placebo. Haemoglobin/anaemia and STH infection status were determined again in the third trimester of pregnancy. Complete information was available from 935 (89.7%) women. Mebendazole significantly reduced the prevalence and intensity of all three STH infections. Higher intensities of hookworm and Trichuris infections in the second trimester were associated with a higher risk of anaemia in the third trimester. Overall, women with moderate/heavy Trichuris infection were found to be at a higher risk of anaemia; the highest risk was observed among those with moderate/heavy hookworm co-infection (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.26, 6.11). Mebendazole treatment did not reduce the risk of anaemia. Higher intensities of both Trichuris and hookworm infections are associated with anaemia in pregnancy. The importance of Trichuris infections during pregnancy requires renewed attention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of Hookworm Infections and Some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    eosinophilia counts. There was an increase in eosinophilia with high rate of hookworm infection in the age group of 10 – ... Ancylostoma deudenale worldwide (Hotez et al.,. 2003). ... Babamale et al., (2015) reported prevalence of 17.8%.

  13. Global changes in the proteome of Cupriavidus necator H16 during poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesis from various biodiesel by-product substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parveen K; Fu, Jilagamazhi; Spicer, Victor; Krokhin, Oleg V; Cicek, Nazim; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2016-12-01

    Synthesis of poly-[3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 in batch cultures was evaluated using three biodiesel-derived by-products as the sole carbon sources: waste glycerol (REG-80, refined to 80 % purity with negligible free fatty acids); glycerol bottom (REG-GB, with up to 65 % glycerol and 35 % free fatty acids), and free fatty acids (REG-FFA, with up to 75 % FFA and no glycerol). All the three substrates supported growth and PHB production by C. necator, with polymer accumulation ranging from 9 to 84 % cell dry weight (cdw), depending on the carbon source. To help understand these differences, proteomic analysis indicated that although C. necator H16 was able to accumulate PHB during growth on all three biodiesel by-products, no changes in the levels of PHB synthesis enzymes were observed. However, significant changes in the levels of expression were observed for two Phasin proteins involved with PHB accumulation, and for a number of gene products in the fatty acid β-oxidation pathway, the Glyoxylate Shunt, and the hydrogen (H2) synthesis pathways in C. necator cells cultured with different substrates. The glycerol transport protein (GlpF) was induced in REG-GB and REG-80 glycerol cultures only. Cupriavidus necator cells cultured with REG-GB and REG-FFA showed up-regulation of β-oxidation and Glyoxylate Shunt pathways proteins at 24 h pi, but H2 synthesis pathways enzymes were significantly down-regulated, compared with cells cultured with waste glycerol. Our data confirmed earlier observations of constitutive expression of PHB synthesis proteins, but further suggested that C. necator H16 cells growing on biodiesel-derived glycerol were under oxidative stress.

  14. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer L; Brooker, Simon

    2010-07-01

    To summarise age- and intensity-stratified associations between human hookworm infection and anaemia and to quantify the impact of treatment with the benzimidazoles, albendazole and mebendazole, on haemoglobin and anaemia in non-pregnant populations. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed) were searched for relevant studies published between 1980 and 2009, regardless of language, and researchers contacted about potential data. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Meta-analysis of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigated the impact of treatment on Hb and anaemia. Twenty-three cross-sectional studies, six pre- and post-intervention studies and 14 trials were included. Among cross-sectional studies, moderate- and heavy-intensity hookworm infections were associated with lower Hb in school-aged children, while all levels of infection intensity were associated with lower Hb in adults. Among RCTs using albendazole, impact of treatment corresponded to a 1.89 g/l increase (95%CI: 0.13-3.63) in mean Hb while mebendazole had no impact. There was a positive impact of 2.37 g/l (95%CI: 1.33-3.50) on mean Hb when albendazole was co-administered with praziquantel, but no apparent additional benefit of treatment with benzimidazoles combined with iron supplementation. The mean impact of treatment with benzimidazoles alone on moderate anaemia was small (relative risk (RR) 0.87) with a larger effect when combined with praziquantel (RR 0.61). Anaemia is most strongly associated with moderate and heavy hookworm infection. The impact of anthelmintic treatment is greatest when albendazole is co-administered with praziquantel.

  15. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapulkin Wadim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms, infecting over one billion people, are the mostly closely related major human parasites to the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum. Results Transcripts originated from libraries representing infective L3 larva, stimulated L3, arrested L3, and adults. Most genes are represented in single stages including abundant transcripts like hsp-20 in infective L3 and vit-3 in adults. Over 80% of the genes have homologs in C. elegans, and nearly 30% of these were with observable RNA interference phenotypes. Homologies were identified to nematode-specific and clade V specific gene families. To study the evolution of hookworm genes, 574 A. caninum / A. ceylanicum orthologs were identified, all of which were found to be under purifying selection with distribution ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous amino acid substitutions similar to that reported for C. elegans / C. briggsae orthologs. The phylogenetic distance between A. caninum and A. ceylanicum is almost identical to that for C. elegans / C. briggsae. Conclusion The genes discovered should substantially accelerate research toward better understanding of the parasites' basic biology as well as new therapies including vaccines and novel anthelmintics.

  16. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia.Quantitative egg counts using the Kato-Katz method were determined for Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Schistosoma japonicum in 507 school-age children from helminth-endemic villages in The Philippines. Infection intensity was defined in three categories: uninfected, low, or moderate/high (M+. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI, and synergy index for pairs of concurrent infections.M+ co-infection of hookworm and S. japonicum (OR = 13.2, 95% CI: 3.82-45.5 and of hookworm and T. trichiura (OR = 5.34, 95% CI: 1.76-16.2 were associated with higher odds of anemia relative to children without respective M+ co-infections. For co-infections of hookworm and S. japonicum and of T. trichiura and hookworm, the estimated indices of synergy were 2.9 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6 and 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.0, respectively.Co-infections of hookworm and either S. japonicum or T. trichiura were associated with higher levels of anemia than would be expected if the effects of these species had only independent effects on anemia. This suggests that integrated anti-helminthic treatment programs with simultaneous deworming for S. japonicum and some geohelminths could yield a greater than additive benefit for reducing anemia in helminth-endemic regions.

  17. Unexpected absence of genetic separation of a highly diverse population of hookworms from geographically isolated hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Benjamin T; Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Gongora, Jaime; Gray, Rachael; Šlapeta, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The high natal site fidelity of endangered Australian sea lions (Neophoca cinerea) along the southern Australian coast suggests that their maternally transmitted parasitic species, such as hookworms, will have restricted potential for dispersal. If this is the case, we would expect to find a hookworm haplotype structure corresponding to that of the host mtDNA haplotype structure; that is, restricted among geographically separated colonies. In this study, we used a fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) gene to investigate the diversity of hookworms (Uncinaria sanguinis) in N. cinerea to assess the importance of host distribution and ecology on the evolutionary history of the parasite. High haplotype (h=0.986) and nucleotide diversity (π=0.013) were seen, with 45 unique hookworm mtDNA haplotypes across N. cinerea colonies; with most of the variation (78%) arising from variability within hookworms from individual colonies. This is supported by the low genetic differentiation co-efficient (GST=0.007) and a high gene flow (Nm=35.25) indicating a high migration rate between the populations of hookworms. The haplotype network demonstrated no clear distribution and delineation of haplotypes according to geographical location. Our data rejects the vicariance hypothesis; that female host natal site fidelity and the transmammary route of infection restrict hookworm gene flow between N. cinerea populations and highlights the value of studies of parasite diversity and dispersal to challenge our understanding of parasite and host ecology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY-HYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB IN CUPRIAVIDUS NECATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Leon De Rooy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purification and characterization of biodegradable plastic namely Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB in Cupriavidus necator have been carried out. C. necator was grown on a Ramsay medium with fixed substrate conditions and optimized for time. Stepwise purification of PHB was carried out, by using hydrogen peroxide and chloroform. The effect of temperature, time, and hydrogen peroxide concentration on the purification were also evaluated. The extracted PHB was studied with XRD, FTIR and 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR to determine its structure and purity. Yield and crystallinity were also studied with HPLC and XRD, respectively. The results of the research showed that higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide gave better yields, whereas higher temperatures and longer lysis times led to different results. Higher crystallinity was observed when purification temperatures were elevated, but higher hydrogen peroxide concentration and longer extraction time gave varying crystallinity. The highest yield ca 66.10 % DCW was reached by purification using H2O2 20 %, at 100 oC for 2 h. The results of   TGA analysis indicated that the purity of the PHB obtained was about 75 % and by using DSC, it was found that the PHB showed good thermal properties.   Keywords:  PHB, recovery, hydrogen peroxide, characterization

  19. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm co-infection: spatial distribution and determinants in Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Vounatsou, Penelope; Chammartin, Frédérique; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2018-01-12

    Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm are two soil-transmitted helminths (STH) that are highly prevalent in Cambodia. Strongyloides stercoralis causes long-lasting infections and significant morbidity but is largely neglected, while hookworm causes the highest public health burden among STH. The two parasites have the same infection route, i.e. skin penetration. The extent of co-distribution, which could result in potential high co-morbidities, is unknown in highly endemic settings like Cambodia. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection risk and to investigate determinants of co-infection in Preah Vihear Province, North Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2010 in 60 villages of Preah Vihear Province. Diagnosis was performed on two stool samples, using combined Baermann technique and Koga agar culture plate for S. stercoralis and Kato-Katz technique for hookworm. Bayesian multinomial geostatistical models were used to assess demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural determinants of S. stercoralis-hookworm co-infection and to predict co-infection risk at non-surveyed locations. Of the 2576 participants included in the study, 48.6% and 49.0% were infected with S. stercoralis and hookworm, respectively; 43.8% of the cases were co-infections. Females, preschool aged children, adults aged 19-49 years, and participants who reported regularly defecating in toilets, systematically boiling drinking water and having been treated with anthelmintic drugs had lower odds of co-infection. While S. stercoralis infection risk did not appear to be spatially structured, hookworm mono-infection and co-infection exhibited spatial correlation at about 20 km. Co-infection risk was positively associated with longer walking distances to a health centre and exhibited a small clustering tendency. The association was only partly explained by climatic variables, suggesting a role for underlying factors, such as

  20. U.S. Army Medical Department Journal (April-June 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    basic laboratory equipment and techniques acquired at the AMS, demonstrated that Puerto Rican anemia was due to the hookworm, Necator americanus.* In...Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; US Army Medical Research Unit-Kenya, Nairobi; Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru ; Naval Medical Research...2006 131 Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Netherland Antilles, Antigua, Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru (air, water

  1. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-18

    Saharan Africa and they increase the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy with resultant poor pregnancy outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on.

  2. The mitochondrial genomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum – two hookworms of animal health and zoonotic importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littlewood D Timothy J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworms are blood-feeding nematodes that parasitize the small intestines of many mammals, including humans and cattle. These nematodes are of major socioeconomic importance and cause disease, mainly as a consequence of anaemia (particularly in children or young animals, resulting in impaired development and sometimes deaths. Studying genetic variability within and among hookworm populations is central to addressing epidemiological and ecological questions, thus assisting in the control of hookworm disease. Mitochondrial (mt genes are known to provide useful population markers for hookworms, but mt genome sequence data are scant. Results The present study characterizes the complete mt genomes of two species of hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum (from dogs and Bunostomum phlebotomum (from cattle, each sequenced (by 454 technology or primer-walking, following long-PCR amplification from genomic DNA (~20–40 ng isolated from individual adult worms. These mt genomes were 13717 bp and 13790 bp in size, respectively, and each contained 12 protein coding, 22 transfer RNA and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, typical for other secernentean nematodes. In addition, phylogenetic analysis (by Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood of concatenated mt protein sequence data sets for 12 nematodes (including Ancylostoma caninum and Bunostomum phlebotomum, representing the Ascaridida, Spirurida and Strongylida, was conducted. The analysis yielded maximum statistical support for the formation of monophyletic clades for each recognized nematode order assessed, except for the Rhabditida. Conclusion The mt genomes characterized herein represent a rich source of population genetic markers for epidemiological and ecological studies. The strong statistical support for the construction of phylogenetic clades and consistency between the two different tree-building methods employed indicate the value of using whole mt genome data sets for systematic studies of

  3. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  4. Construction and use of a Cupriavidus necator H16 soluble hydrogenase promoter (PSH fusion to gfp (green fluorescent protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bat-Erdene Jugder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenases are metalloenzymes that reversibly catalyse the oxidation or production of molecular hydrogen (H2. Amongst a number of promising candidates for application in the oxidation of H2 is a soluble [Ni–Fe] uptake hydrogenase (SH produced by Cupriavidus necator H16. In the present study, molecular characterisation of the SH operon, responsible for functional SH synthesis, was investigated by developing a green fluorescent protein (GFP reporter system to characterise PSH promoter activity using several gene cloning approaches. A PSH promoter-gfp fusion was successfully constructed and inducible GFP expression driven by the PSH promoter under de-repressing conditions in heterotrophic growth media was demonstrated in the recombinant C. necator H16 cells. Here we report the first successful fluorescent reporter system to study PSH promoter activity in C. necator H16. The fusion construct allowed for the design of a simple screening assay to evaluate PSH activity. Furthermore, the constructed reporter system can serve as a model to develop a rapid fluorescent based reporter for subsequent small-scale process optimisation experiments for SH expression.

  5. Quantitative Raman Spectroscopy Analysis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Produced by Cupriavidus necator H16

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samek, Ota; Obruča, S.; Šiler, Martin; Sedláček, P.; Benešová, P.; Kučera, D.; Márová, I.; Ježek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2016), 1808:1-7 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * Cupriavidus necator H16 * polyhydroxyalkanoates Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.677, year: 2016

  6. Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection in Kintampo North Municipality, Ghana: Patterns of Malaria Coinfection, Anemia, and Albendazole Treatment Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Mosites, Emily; Otchere, Joseph; Twum, Welbeck Amoani; Woo, Lauren; Jones-Sanpei, Hinckley; Harrison, Lisa M.; Bungiro, Richard D.; Benham-Pyle, Blair; Bimi, Langbong; Edoh, Dominic; Bosompem, Kwabena; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional pilot study of hookworm infection was carried out among 292 subjects from 62 households in Kintampo North, Ghana. The overall prevalence of hookworm infection was 45%, peaking in those 11–20 years old (58.5%). In children, risk factors for hookworm infection included coinfection with malaria and increased serum immunoglobulin G reactivity to hookworm secretory antigens. Risk factors for infection in adults included poor nutritional status, not using a latrine, not wearing shoes, and occupation (farming). Although albendazole therapy was associated with an overall egg reduction rate of 82%, 37 subjects (39%) remained infected. Among those who failed therapy, treatment was not associated with a significant reduction in egg excretion, and nearly one-third had higher counts on repeat examination. These data confirm a high prevalence of low-intensity hookworm infection in central Ghana and its association with poor nutritional status. The high rate of albendazole failure raises concern about emerging resistance. PMID:21540391

  7. Suppression of basophil histamine release and other IgE-dependent responses in childhood Schistosoma mansoni/hookworm coinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinot de Moira, Angela; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Jones, Frances M

    2014-01-01

    (HR), plus helminth- and HDM-specific IgE and IgG4 responses were measured pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: Nonspecific- and helminth-specific-HR, and associations between helminth-specific IgE and helminth-specific HR increased post-treatment. Hookworm infection appeared to modify the relationship...... between circulating levels of HDM-IgE and HR: a significant positive association was observed among children without detectable hookworm infection, but no association was observed among infected children. In addition, hookworm infection was associated with a significantly reduced risk of wheeze, and IgG4...... in Ugandan schoolchildren coinfected with Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. METHODS: Skin prick test (SPT) sensitivity to house dust mite allergen (HDM) and current wheeze were assessed pre-anthelmintic treatment. Nonspecific (anti-IgE), helminth-specific, and HDM-allergen-specific basophil histamine release...

  8. The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongying; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Andersen, John F

    2015-06-01

    Secreted protein components of hookworm species include a number of representatives of the cysteine-rich/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein family known as Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). Some of these have been considered as candidate antigens for the development of vaccines against hookworms. The functions of most CAP superfamily members are poorly understood, but one form, the hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), has been isolated as a putative antagonist of the platelet integrins αIIbβ3 and α2β1. Here, the crystal structure of HPI is described and its structural features are examined in relation to its possible function. The HPI structure is similar to those of other ASPs and shows incomplete conservation of the sequence motifs CAP1 and CAP2 that are considered to be diagnostic of CAP superfamily members. The asymmetric unit of the HPI crystal contains a dimer with an extensive interaction interface, but chromatographic measurements indicate that it is primarily monomeric in solution. In the dimeric structure, the putative active-site cleft areas from both monomers are united into a single negatively charged depression. A potential Lys-Gly-Asp disintegrin-like motif was identified in the sequence of HPI, but is not positioned at the apex of a tight turn, making it unlikely that it interacts with the integrin. Recombinant HPI produced in Escherichia coli was found not to inhibit the adhesion of human platelets to collagen or fibrinogen, despite having a native structure as shown by X-ray diffraction. This result corroborates previous analyses of recombinant HPI and suggests that it might require post-translational modification or have a different biological function.

  9. Hookworm infestation in children presenting with melena-case series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, A.; Cheema, H.A.; Alvi, A; Suleman, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hookworm infection is common in children and can present with symptoms of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and severe anemia. Ten children below 5 years presenting with me lena and severe pallor were seen from December 2006 to May 2007 in the gastroenterology and hepatology department of children's hospital, Lahore. All patients had history of transfusion. Complete blood picture, eosinophil count with peripheral smear, stool complete examination for ova and cysts were performed in all cases while upper and lower gastrointestinal Endoscopies were performed in three patients to locate the source of bleeding. Stool routine examination in all these cases confirmed hook worm ova. These patients were managed with Antihelmenthic and stool complete examination was done three days after the medicine. There was no mortality. Though upper gastrointestinal bleeding with hookworm infestation is very rare but in the developing Countries it should be considered when other causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding are ruled out. (author)

  10. The effect of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid on Ichthyobodo necator in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled biflagellate that can cause significant mortalities in fish, particularly young, tank-reared fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against Ichthybodosis in juvenile channel catfis...

  11. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: 1.An Experimental Study on Hookworm Infection and Anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul; Lee, Soon Hyung

    1967-01-01

    In view of its prevalence in the Far East area, a more detailed knowledge on the hookworm infection is one of the very important medical problem. The present study was aimed to determine the infectivity of the artificially hatched ancylosotma duodenale larvae in man after its oral administration, evaluate the clinical symptomatology of such infection, determine the date of first appearance of ova in the stool, calculate the blood loss per worm per day, assess the relation-ships between the ova count, infectivity (worm load), blood loss and severity of anemia. An erythrokinetic study was also done to analyse the characteristics of hookworm anemia by means of 59 Fe and 51 Cr.

  12. Hookworm infection and environmental factors in mbeya region, Tanzania: a cross-sectional, population-based study.

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    Helene Riess

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hookworm disease is one of the most common infections and cause of a high disease burden in the tropics and subtropics. Remotely sensed ecological data and model-based geostatistics have been used recently to identify areas in need for hookworm control. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional interview data and stool samples from 6,375 participants from nine different sites in Mbeya region, south-western Tanzania, were collected as part of a cohort study. Hookworm infection was assessed by microscopy of duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample from each participant. A geographic information system was used to obtain remotely sensed environmental data such as land surface temperature (LST, vegetation cover, rainfall, and elevation, and combine them with hookworm infection data and with socio-demographic and behavioral data. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression was performed on sites separately and on the pooled dataset. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Univariable analyses yielded significant associations for all ecological variables. Five ecological variables stayed significant in the final multivariable model: population density (odds ratio (OR = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.63-0.73, mean annual vegetation density (OR = 0.11; 95% CI = 0.06-0.18, mean annual LST during the day (OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.75-0.88, mean annual LST during the night (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.44-1.64, and latrine coverage in household surroundings (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 1.01-1.04. Interaction terms revealed substantial differences in associations of hookworm infection with population density, mean annual enhanced vegetation index, and latrine coverage between the two sites with the highest prevalence of infection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports previous findings that remotely sensed data such as vegetation indices, LST, and elevation are strongly associated with hookworm prevalence. However, the results

  13. Bayesian risk maps for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm mono-infections in a setting where both parasites co-exist

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    Giovanna Raso

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for predicting the spatial distribution of parasitic infections, including hookworm, Schistosoma mansoni and co-infections with both parasites. The aim of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of mono-infections with either hookworm or S. mansoni in a setting where both parasites co-exist. School-based cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire surveys were carried out in 57 rural schools in the Man region, western Côte d’Ivoire. A single stool specimen was obtained from each schoolchild attending grades 3-5. Stool specimens were processed by the Kato-Katz technique and an ether concentration method and examined for the presence of hookworm and S. mansoni eggs. The combined results from the two diagnostic approaches were considered for the infection status of each child. Demographic data (i.e. age and sex were obtained from readily available school registries. Each child’s socio-economic status was estimated, using the questionnaire data following a household-based asset approach. Environmental data were extracted from satellite imagery. The different data sources were incorporated into a geographical information system. Finally, a Bayesian spatial multinomial regression model was constructed and the spatial patterns of S. mansoni and hookworm mono-infections were investigated using Bayesian kriging. Our approach facilitated the production of smooth risk maps for hookworm and S. mansoni mono-infections that can be utilized for targeting control interventions. We argue that in settings where S. mansoni and hookworm co-exist and control efforts are under way, there is a need for both mono- and co-infection risk maps to enhance the cost-effectiveness of control programmes.

  14. Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria Lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, In Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus Ursinus On St. Paul Island, Alaska

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    Lyons E.T.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Hookworms, Uncinaria lucasi (Ancylostomatidae, in Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus on St. Paul Island, Alaska. Lyons, E. T., Kuzmina, T. A., Carie, J. L., Tolliver, S. C., Spraker, T. R. — Review of main studies on biology and ecology of the hookworm Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, is presented. Current data on prevalence of adult hookworms parasitizing northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758, were obtained based on the examination of the intestines of dead NFS pups and subadult 3-4 year-old males in July and August of 2011-2013. In addition, blubber samples collected from subadult NFS males were examined for parasitic third stage hookworm larvae (L3. All current data were compared with previously published studies performed in 1950s-1960s. Current prevalence of U. lucasi in dead pups collected from Reef Rookery was 4.9 % in 2011, 0 % in 2012 and 10.5 % in 2013. This rookery has a rocky substrate. On sandy rookeries prevalence was up to 75 % on Morjovi Rookery and 50 % on Vostochni Rookery. Parasitic L3 were recovered in 2.5 % of subadult males examined in 2013. Decreasing prevalence of hookworm infection of dead pups and subadult males during the last several years follows the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals in the herd on St. Paul Island during last several decades.

  15. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  16. Novel approach for productivity enhancement of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie

    2013-01-25

    In the global context of increased concerns for our environment, the use of bioplastics as a replacement for existing petroleum-based polymers is an important challenge. Indeed, bioplastics hardly meet economical and technical constraints. One, of the most promising among currently studied bioplastics, is the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). To circumvent the economical issue for this particular biopolymer one solution can be the enhancement of the overall productivity by the improvement of the nutritional medium of the microorganism producing the biopolymer. Thus, several nutrition media, supplemented or not with sodium glutamate, were tested for the growth and the PHA production by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 strain. The most efficient for the biomass and the PHA production improvement were found to be the Luria broth (LB) and the Bonnarme's media, both supplemented with 10 g/L sodium glutamate. Hence the overall productivity was 33 times enhanced comparing to traditional cultivation methods. These results open a new route for the PHA production by C. necator which appears to be more suitable on a rich, or enriched, medium with no limiting factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of culture-based, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2017-06-01

    Accurate quantitative measurement of viable hookworm ova from environmental samples is the key to controlling hookworm re-infections in the endemic regions. In this study, the accuracy of three quantitative detection methods [culture-based, vital stain and propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR)] was evaluated by enumerating 1,000 ± 50 Ancylostoma caninum ova in the laboratory. The culture-based method was able to quantify an average of 397 ± 59 viable hookworm ova. Similarly, vital stain and PMA-qPCR methods quantified 644 ± 87 and 587 ± 91 viable ova, respectively. The numbers of viable ova estimated by the culture-based method were significantly (P methods. Therefore, both PMA-qPCR and vital stain methods appear to be suitable for the quantitative detection of viable hookworm ova. However, PMA-qPCR would be preferable over the vital stain method in scenarios where ova speciation is needed.

  18. The associations between water and sanitation and hookworm infection using cross-sectional data from Togo's national deworming program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julia M; Trinies, Victoria; Bronzan, Rachel N; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M; Garn, Joshua V; Sognikin, Sêvi; Freeman, Matthew C

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminths requires a combination of chemotherapy treatment and environmental interventions, including access to safe drinking water, sufficient water for hygiene, use of clean sanitation facilities, and handwashing (WASH). We quantified associations between home-, school-, and community-level WASH characteristics and hookworm infection-both prevalence and eggs per gram of stool (intensity)-among Togolese school children in the context of community-based chemotherapy treatments administered in the country from 2010 through 2014. We analyzed data from two surveys conducted by the Togo Ministry of Health: a school-based survey of students aged 6-9 years across Togo conducted in 2009 and a follow-up survey in 2015, after four to five years of preventive chemotherapy. Data were available for 16,473 students attending 1,129 schools in 2009 and for 16,890 students from 1,126 schools in 2015. Between surveys, children in study schools received 0 to 8 rounds of deworming chemotherapy treatments. Few WASH conditions (only unimproved drinking water) were found to be significantly associated with the presence or absence of hookworms in an individual; however, quantitative eggs per gram of feces was associated with availability of unimproved drinking water, availability of improved drinking water either on or off school grounds, having a handwashing station with water available, and access to a sex-separate non-private or private latrine. The association between school WASH conditions and hookworm infection or burden often depended on the 2009 prevalence of infection, as more WASH characteristics were found to be significant predictors of infection among schools with high underlying endemicity of hookworm. Our findings emphasize the complex and often inconsistent or unpredictable relationship between WASH and hookworm. Specifically, we found that while preventive chemotherapy appeared to dramatically reduce hookworm infection, WASH was

  19. Revisiting the single cell protein application of Cupriavidus necator H16 and recovering bioplastic granules simultaneously.

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    Balakrishnan Kunasundari

    Full Text Available Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly known as Hydrogenomonas eutropha was famous as a potential single cell protein (SCP in the 1970s. The drawback however was the undesirably efficient accumulation of non-nutritive polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB storage compound in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. Eventually, competition from soy-based protein resulted in SCP not receiving much attention. Nevertheless, C. necator H16 remained in the limelight as a producer of PHB, which is a material that resembles commodity plastics such as polypropylene. PHB is a 100% biobased and biodegradable polyester. Although tremendous achievements have been attained in the past 3 decades in the efficient production of PHB, this bioplastic is still costly. One of the main problems has been the recovery of PHB from the cell cytoplasm. In this study, we showed for the first time that kilogram quantities of PHB can be easily recovered in the laboratory without the use of any solvents and chemicals, just by using the cells as SCP. In addition, the present study also demonstrated the safety and tolerability of animal model used, Sprague Dawley given lyophilized cells of C. necator H16. The test animals readily produced fecal pellets that were whitish in color, as would be expected of PHB granules. The pellets were determined to contain about 82-97 wt% PHB and possessed molecular mass of around 930 kg/mol. The PHB granules recovered biologically possessed similar molecular mass compared to chloroform extracted PHB [950 kg/mol]. This method now allows the production and purification of substantial quantities of PHB for various experimental trials. The method reported here is easy, does not require expensive instrumentation, scalable and does not involve extensive use of solvents and strong chemicals.

  20. A comparative analysis of preservation techniques for the optimal molecular detection of hookworm DNA in a human fecal specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotte, Nils; Baumer, Ben; Grant, Jessica; Asbjornsdottir, Kristjana; Schaer, Fabian; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi; Walson, Judd; Williams, Steven A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Proper collection and storage of fecal samples is necessary to guarantee the subsequent reliability of DNA-based soil-transmitted helminth diagnostic procedures. Previous research has examined various methods to preserve fecal samples for subsequent microscopic analysis or for subsequent determination of overall DNA yields obtained following DNA extraction. However, only limited research has focused on the preservation of soil-transmitted helminth DNA in stool samples stored at ambient temperature or maintained in a cold chain for extended periods of time. Methodology Quantitative real-time PCR was used in this study as a measure of the effectiveness of seven commercially available products to preserve hookworm DNA over time and at different temperatures. Results were compared against “no preservative” controls and the “gold standard” of rapidly freezing samples at -20°C. The preservation methods were compared at both 4°C and at simulated tropical ambient temperature (32°C) over a period of 60 days. Evaluation of the effectiveness of each preservative was based on quantitative real-time PCR detection of target hookworm DNA. Conclusions At 4°C there were no significant differences in DNA amplification efficiency (as measured by Cq values) regardless of the preservation method utilized over the 60-day period. At 32°C, preservation with FTA cards, potassium dichromate, and a silica bead two-step desiccation process proved most advantageous for minimizing Cq value increases, while RNA later, 95% ethanol and Paxgene also demonstrate some protective effect. These results suggest that fecal samples spiked with known concentrations of hookworm-derived egg material can remain at 4°C for 60 days in the absence of preservative, without significant degradation of the DNA target. Likewise, a variety of preservation methods can provide a measure of protection in the absence of a cold chain. As a result, other factors, such as preservative toxicity

  1. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  2. Comparative effects of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate on channel catfish concurrently infected with Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    An opportunistic study was conducted to determine the effects of two chemical therapeutants on channel catfish (CCF) Ictalurus punctatus concurrently infected Flavobacterium columnare and Ichthyobodo necator. Copper sulfate (CuSO4) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4) were investigated for their abil...

  3. High cell density strategy for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production by Cupriavidus necator

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    J. L. Ienczak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a carbon and intracellular storage source for different microorganisms and its production can achieve high productivities by means of high cell density cultures. The aim of this study was to propose a high cell density strategy for P(3HB production by Cupriavidus necator. The exponential growth phase demands an accurate control of the oxygen transfer system in the bioreactor, due to maximum specific growth rate (µXr, and, consequently, a maximum specific oxygen uptake rate (QO2, in addition to significant residual biomass (Xr growth in high cell density cultures. In this context, this work investigated the strategy for obtaining high cell density, with the inclusion of a linear growth phase for P(3HB production by C. necator in a fed-batch culture. The linear growth phase was included between the exponential growth phase and the P(3HB production phase as a strategy to reduce the specific growth rate (µXr and specific oxygen uptake rate (QO2, with constant residual biomass growth rate (d(V.Xr/dt = k = constant and linear increase of biomass. Three strategies of culture were performed. The results showed that a high residual biomass concentration (30 gXr.L-1 can be reached by the inclusion of the linear growth strategy and specific growth rates (µXr between 0.08 and 0.05 h-1, at the beginning of the production phase, are necessary to attain a high P(3HB productivity.

  4. Molecular systematics of pinniped hookworms (Nematoda: Uncinaria): species delimitation, host associations and host-induced morphometric variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Steven A; Lyons, Eugene T; Pagan, Christopher; Hyman, Derek; Lewis, Edwin E; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Bell, Cameron M; Castinel, Aurelie; Delong, Robert L; Duignan, Padraig J; Farinpour, Cher; Huntington, Kathy Burek; Kuiken, Thijs; Morgades, Diana; Naem, Soraya; Norman, Richard; Parker, Corwin; Ramos, Paul; Spraker, Terry R; Berón-Vera, Bárbara

    2013-12-01

    Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria have been widely reported from juvenile pinnipeds, however investigations of their systematics has been limited, with only two species described, Uncinaria lucasi from northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and Uncinaria hamiltoni from South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens). Hookworms were sampled from these hosts and seven additional species including Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis), Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus), New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), and the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus). One hundred and thirteen individual hookworms, including an outgroup species, were sequenced for four genes representing two loci (nuclear ribosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA). Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences recovered seven independent evolutionary lineages or species, including the described species and five undescribed species. The molecular evidence shows that U. lucasi parasitises both C. ursinus and E. jubatus, whereas U. hamiltoni parasitises O. flavescens and A. australis. The five undescribed hookworm species were each associated with single host species (Z. californianus, A. pusillus, P. hookeri, M. leonina and M. monachus). For parasites of otarids, patterns of Uncinaria host-sharing and phylogenetic relationships had a strong biogeographic component with separate clades of parasites from northern versus southern hemisphere hosts. Comparison of phylogenies for these hookworms and their hosts suggests that the association of U. lucasi with northern fur seals results from a host-switch from Steller sea lions. Morphometric data for U. lucasi shows marked host-associated size differences for both sexes, with U. lucasi individuals from E. jubatus significantly larger. This result suggests that adult growth of U. lucasi is reduced within the

  5. Analysing risk factors of co-occurrence of schistosomiasis haematobium and hookworm using bivariate regression models: Case study of Chikwawa, Malawi

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    Bruce B.W. Phiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections constitute a major public health problem in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. In areas where prevalence of geo-helminths and schistosomes is high, co-infection with multiple parasite species is common, resulting in disproportionately elevated burden compared with single infections. Determining risk factors of co-infection intensity is important for better design of targeted interventions. In this paper, we examined risk factors of hookworm and S. haematobium co-infection intensity, in Chikwawa district, southern Malawi in 2005, using bivariate count models. Results show that hookworm and S. haematobium infections were much localised with small proportion of individuals harbouring more parasites especially among school-aged children. The risk of co-intensity with both hookworm and S. haematobium was high for all ages, although this diminished with increasing age, increased with fishing (hookworm: coefficient. = 12.29; 95% CI = 11.50–13.09; S. haematobium: 0.040; 95% CI = 0.0037, 3.832. Both infections were abundant in those with primary education (hookworm: coef. = 0.072; 95% CI = 0.056, 0.401 and S. haematobium: coef. = 0.286; 95% CI = 0.034, 0.538. However, much lower risk was observed for those who were farmers (hookworm: coef. = −0.349, 95% CI = −0.547,−0.150; S. haematobium: coef. −0.239, 95% CI = −0.406, −0.072. In conclusion, our findings suggest that efforts to control helminths infection should be co-integrated and health promotion campaigns should be aimed at school-going children and adults who are in constant contact with water.

  6. Involvement of Hookworm Co-Infection in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Podoconiosis: Possible Immunological Mechanism

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    Damilare O. Famakinde

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is an endemic, non-infectious, geochemical and non-filarial inflammatory cause of tropical elephantiasis. The immunology of podoconiosis is not yet expressly understood. In spite of this, co-infection and co-morbidity with the infectious, soil-transmitted hookworm disease that causes iron deficiency anemia has been found to be predominant among affected individuals living in co-endemic settings, thus creating a more complex immunological interplay that still has not been investigated. Although deworming and iron-rich nutrient supplementation have been suggested in podoconiosis patients living under resource-poor conditions, and it is thought that hookworm infection may help to suppress inflammatory responses, the undisputed link that exists between a non-infectious and an infectious disease may create a scenario whereby during a co-infection, treatment of one exacerbates the other disease condition or is dampened by the debilitation caused by the other. In this paper, we elaborate on the immunopathogenesis of podoconiosis and examine the possible immunological dynamics of hookworm co-infection in the immunopathology of podoconiosis, with a view toward improved management of the disease that will facilitate its feasible elimination.

  7. Identification of human intestinal parasites affecting an asymptomatic peri-urban Argentinian population using multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, Rubén O; Jeun, Rebecca; Juarez, Marisa; Cajal, Pamela S; Vargas, Paola; Echazú, Adriana; Bryan, Patricia E; Nasser, Julio; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Mejia, Rojelio

    2015-07-17

    In resource-limited countries, stool microscopy is the diagnostic test of choice for intestinal parasites (soil-transmitted helminths and/or intestinal protozoa). However, sensitivity and specificity is low. Improved diagnosis of intestinal parasites is especially important for accurate measurements of prevalence and intensity of infections in endemic areas. The study was carried out in Orán, Argentina. A total of 99 stool samples from a local surveillance campaign were analyzed by concentration microscopy and McMaster egg counting technique compared to the analysis by multi-parallel quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This study compared the performance of qPCR assay and stool microscopy for 8 common intestinal parasites that infect humans including the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and the protozoa Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, and Entamoeba histolytica, and investigated the prevalence of polyparasitism in an endemic area. qPCR showed higher detection rates for all parasites as compared to stool microscopy except T. trichiura. Species-specific primers and probes were able to distinguish between A. duodenale (19.1%) and N. americanus (36.4%) infections. There were 48.6% of subjects co-infected with both hookworms, and a significant increase in hookworm DNA for A. duodenale versus N. americanus (119.6 fg/μL: 0.63 fg/μL, P parasites in an endemic area that has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to stool microscopy. This first time use of multi-parallel qPCR in Argentina has demonstrated the high prevalence of intestinal parasites in a peri-urban area. These results will contribute to more accurate epidemiological survey, refined treatment strategies on a public scale, and better health outcomes in endemic settings.

  8. Drug Repositioning and Pharmacophore Identification in the Discovery of Hookworm MIF Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Cho; J Vermeire; J Merkel; L Leng; X Du; R Bucala; M Cappello; E Lolis

    2011-12-31

    The screening of bioactive compound libraries can be an effective approach for repositioning FDA-approved drugs or discovering new pharmacophores. Hookworms are blood-feeding, intestinal nematode parasites that infect up to 600 million people worldwide. Vaccination with recombinant Ancylostoma ceylanicum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (rAceMIF) provided partial protection from disease, thus establishing a 'proof-of-concept' for targeting AceMIF to prevent or treat infection. A high-throughput screen (HTS) against rAceMIF identified six AceMIF-specific inhibitors. A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), sodium meclofenamate, could be tested in an animal model to assess the therapeutic efficacy in treating hookworm disease. Furosemide, an FDA-approved diuretic, exhibited submicromolar inhibition of rAceMIF tautomerase activity. Structure-activity relationships of a pharmacophore based on furosemide included one analog that binds similarly to the active site, yet does not inhibit the Na-K-Cl symporter (NKCC1) responsible for diuretic activity.

  9. Transgenic C. elegans dauer larvae expressing hookworm phospho null DAF-16/FoxO exit dauer.

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    Verena Gelmedin

    Full Text Available Parasitic hookworms and the free-living model nematode Caenorhabtidis elegans share a developmental arrested stage, called the dauer stage in C. elegans and the infective third-stage larva (L3 in hookworms. One of the key transcription factors that regulate entrance to and exit from developmental arrest is the forkhead transcription factor DAF-16/FoxO. During the dauer stage, DAF-16 is activated and localized in the nucleus. DAF-16 is negatively regulated by phosphorylation by the upstream kinase AKT, which causes DAF-16 to localize out of the nucleus and the worm to exit from dauer. DAF-16 is conserved in hookworms, and hypothesized to control recovery from L3 arrest during infection. Lacking reverse genetic techniques for use in hookworms, we used C. elegans complementation assays to investigate the function of Ancylostoma caninum DAF-16 during entrance and exit from L3 developmental arrest. We performed dauer switching assays and observed the restoration of the dauer phenotype when Ac-DAF-16 was expressed in temperature-sensitive dauer defective C. elegans daf-2(e1370;daf-16(mu86 mutants. AKT phosphorylation site mutants of Ac-DAF-16 were also able to restore the dauer phenotype, but surprisingly allowed dauer exit when temperatures were lowered. We used fluorescence microscopy to localize DAF-16 during dauer and exit from dauer in C. elegans DAF-16 mutant worms expressing Ac-DAF-16, and found that Ac-DAF-16 exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Surprisingly, Ac-DAF-16 with mutated AKT phosphorylation sites also exited the nucleus during dauer exit. Our results suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the regulation DAF-16 nuclear localization during recovery from developmental arrest.

  10. Mapping Historic Hookworm Disease Prevalence in the Southern Us, Comparing Percent Prevalence with Percent Soil Drainage Type Using GIS

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    Alice L. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of Historic US Hookworm prevalence data from the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission (early 1900s using current GIS (Geographic Information System software (county shape files illustrates the extremely high prevalence of hookworm disease (Uncariasis in the Southeastern US at the time. Some counties in 7 states recorded 50% to 100% of the population with positive screens for hookworm in a monumental surveillance and treatment campaign. Narrative descriptions mentioned higher prevalence in “sand districts” vs. “clay districts”. In order to validate this description for historic data, further GIS databases (STATSGO were used to classify and quantify the % acreage in Eastern North Carolina falling into moderately- to well-drained soil types. These were then mapped and compared with the historic prevalence data. Most severely infested counties had at least 50% moderately to well-drained soil. Further analysis on soil data for other states with “coastal plains” could provide more background information on Environmental conditions for hookworm prevalence and distribution in US history. “Since history has no properly scientific value, its only purpose is educative. And if historians neglect to educate the public, if they fail to interest it intelligently in the past, then all their historical learning is valueless except in so far as it educates themselves”. Trevelyan, (1922.

  11. Number of Grooming Partners Is Associated with Hookworm Infection in Wild Vervet Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Brandi T; Remis, Melissa J; Camp, Joseph W; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    There are many known benefits of social grooming among primates, including maintenance of social relationships, removal of ectoparasites, and improved physiological condition. Recently, however, researchers have noted that social grooming and social contact may also present a significant cost by facilitating transmission of some parasites and pathogens. We investigated whether the number of social grooming partners varied based on infection status for gastrointestinal parasites. We used focal animal sampling and continuous recording to collect data on the number of grooming partners for known individual vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops). We collected non-invasive faecal samples and examined them using faecal flotation, faecal sedimentation, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We detected 6 parasites: Trichuris sp. (92%), hookworm (71%), spirurids (68%), Oesophagostomum sp. (84%), Strongyloides sp. (24%), and Entamoeba coli (92%). The number of grooming partners varied significantly based on infection with hookworm and sex. No significant relationships were detected for other parasites. Associations between host behavioural variation and some parasite taxa (specifically Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, and Entamoeba spp.) were impossible to explore due to an extremely high prevalence among hosts. This is the first report that we are aware of that has detected an association between social grooming behaviours and infection with hookworm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. A Survey of Hookworm Infection among Pupils of School Age in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    The result showed that 144 of the pupils had hookworm ova in their stool samples. ... difference between the different age groups (P < 0.05), 3 – 6 yrs having the highest infection rate ... seasonal because of the influence of climate ... that this factor could be of serious economic ..... Organization, Technical Report Series.

  13. Influence of Schistosoma mansoni and Hookworm Infection Intensities on Anaemia in Ugandan Villages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chami, Goylette F.; Fenwick, Alan; Bulte, Erwin; Kontoleon, Andreas A.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Tukahebwa, Edridah M.; Dunne, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association of anaemia with intestinal schistosomiasis and hookworm infections are poorly explored in populations that are not limited to children or pregnant women. Methods: We sampled 1,832 individuals aged 5–90 years from 30 communities in Mayuge District, Uganda. Demographic,

  14. Health education through analogies: preparation of a community for clinical trials of a vaccine against hookworm in an endemic area of Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Flavia Gazzinelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obtaining informed consent for clinical trials is especially challenging when working in rural, resource-limited areas, where there are often high levels of illiteracy and lack of experience with clinical research. Such an area, a remote field site in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is currently being prepared for clinical trials of experimental hookworm vaccines. This study was conducted to assess whether special educational tools can be developed to increase the knowledge and comprehension of potential clinical trial participants and thereby enable them to make truly informed decisions to participate in such research. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An informational video was produced to explain the work of the research team and the first planned hookworm vaccine trial, using a pedagogical method based on analogies. Seventy-two adults living in a rural community of Minas Gerais were administered a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of hookworm, of research and of the planned hookworm vaccine trial, as well as their attitudes and perceptions about the researchers and participation in future vaccine trials. The questionnaire was administered before being shown the educational video and two months after and the results compared. After viewing the video, significant improvements in knowledge related to hookworm infection and its health impact were observed: using a composite score combining related questions for which correct answers were assigned a value of 1 and incorrect answers a value of 0, participants had a mean score of 0.76 post-video compared to 0.68 pre-video (p = 0.0001. Similar improvements were seen in understanding the purpose of vaccination and the possible adverse effects of an experimental vaccine. Although 100% of participants expressed a positive opinion of the researchers even before viewing the film and over 90% said that they would participate in a hookworm vaccine

  15. Health Education through Analogies: Preparation of a Community for Clinical Trials of a Vaccine against Hookworm in an Endemic Area of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flavia; Lobato, Lucas; Matoso, Leonardo; Avila, Renato; de Cassia Marques, Rita; Shah Brown, Ami; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Diemert, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Obtaining informed consent for clinical trials is especially challenging when working in rural, resource-limited areas, where there are often high levels of illiteracy and lack of experience with clinical research. Such an area, a remote field site in the northeastern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is currently being prepared for clinical trials of experimental hookworm vaccines. This study was conducted to assess whether special educational tools can be developed to increase the knowledge and comprehension of potential clinical trial participants and thereby enable them to make truly informed decisions to participate in such research. Methodology/Principal Findings An informational video was produced to explain the work of the research team and the first planned hookworm vaccine trial, using a pedagogical method based on analogies. Seventy-two adults living in a rural community of Minas Gerais were administered a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of hookworm, of research and of the planned hookworm vaccine trial, as well as their attitudes and perceptions about the researchers and participation in future vaccine trials. The questionnaire was administered before being shown the educational video and two months after and the results compared. After viewing the video, significant improvements in knowledge related to hookworm infection and its health impact were observed: using a composite score combining related questions for which correct answers were assigned a value of 1 and incorrect answers a value of 0, participants had a mean score of 0.76 post-video compared to 0.68 pre-video (p = 0.0001). Similar improvements were seen in understanding the purpose of vaccination and the possible adverse effects of an experimental vaccine. Although 100% of participants expressed a positive opinion of the researchers even before viewing the film and over 90% said that they would participate in a hookworm vaccine trial, an

  16. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; Melin, S R; DeLong, R L; Orr, A J; Gulland, F M; Tolliver, S C

    2001-06-28

    A prevalence survey for hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) was done in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, CA, in 2000. Intestines of dead pups were examined for adult hookworms in July. These parasites were found in 95% of 20 fur seal pups and 100% of 31 sea lion pups. The number of hookworms varied from 4 to 2142 (mean = 760) in fur seal pups and from 20 to 2634 (mean = 612) in sea lion pups. A direct relationship was evident between body condition and number of hookworms in the pups; that is, pups in poor condition had fewer hookworms than those in good condition. There was a decline in the number of hookworms in sea lion pups in 2000 compared to collections in 1996. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. were found in rectal feces (collected in late September and early October) of none of 35 (0%) live fur seal pups and 41 of 48 (85%) live sea lion pups. Packed cell volume values, determined for most of the same live pups, were essentially normal for C. ursinus but were much lower than normal for most Z. californianus. Hookworm larvae were not found in blubber of fur seal and sea lion pups or in rookery sand in July. Rookery sand, positive for live hookworm larvae when put in a refrigerator, was negative at removal 2.5 years later. The average number of eggs in utero of female hookworms was 285 for three specimens from a fur seal pup and 281 from three specimens from a sea lion pup. One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA.

  17. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smout, Felicity A; Skerratt, Lee F; Butler, James R A; Johnson, Christopher N; Congdon, Bradley C; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively). The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7%) and soil (55.6%) in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to "closing the gap" in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  18. The hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum: An emerging public health risk in Australian tropical rainforests and Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity A. Smout

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the common hookworm of domestic dogs and cats throughout Asia, and is an emerging but little understood public health risk in tropical northern Australia. We investigated the prevalence of A. ceylanicum in soil and free-ranging domestic dogs at six rainforest locations in Far North Queensland that are Indigenous Australian communities and popular tourist attractions within the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area. By combining PCR-based techniques with traditional methods of hookworm species identification, we found the prevalence of hookworm in Indigenous community dogs was high (96.3% and 91.9% from necropsy and faecal samples, respectively. The majority of these infections were A. caninum. We also observed, for the first time, the presence of A. ceylanicum infection in domestic dogs (21.7% and soil (55.6% in an Indigenous community. A. ceylanicum was present in soil samples from two out of the three popular tourist locations sampled. Our results contribute to the understanding of dogs as a public health risk to Indigenous communities and tourists in the Wet Tropics. Dog health needs to be more fully addressed as part of the Australian Government's commitments to “closing the gap” in chronic disease between Indigenous and other Australians, and encouraging tourism in similar locations.

  19. PENGOBATAN INFEKSI CACING USUS YANG DITULARKAN DENGAN PERANTARAAN TANAH (SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHS, DENGAN PYRANTEL PAMOATE, DI YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noerhajati S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of pyrantel pamoate in controlling soil transmitted helminthic infection has been studied in a sample of population on low socio-economic level, consisting of workers of the Madukismo Suger Estate and their families. Pyrantel pamoate proved to be more effective to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm than to Trichuris trichiura infection. The cure rates found were 90.2%, 57.5% and 3.7% for A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura respectively, while in the hookworm infection the drug was more effective to Ancylostomiasis duodenale than to Necator americanus. The result of the study showed, that 6 months after treatment was still found a reduction of the prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection to 27.2% (from 74.4% to 47.2% and a reduction of the egg count from 6352 to 3348 per gram of stool. After one year the prevalence rate and the intensity of Ascaris infection reached almost the same level as that before treatment. As regards the hookworm infection, it seemed that the treatment was still effective after a period of one year. Prior to the treatment the prevalence rate was 36.3% and the egg count was J37 per gram of stool, while one year after treatment they were still reduced to 23.97c and 39 respectively.

  20. Epidemiological and genetic data supporting the transmission of Ancylostoma ceylanicum among human and domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Traub, Rebecca; Mahmud, Rohela; Mistam, Mohd Sani

    2012-01-01

    Currently, information on species-specific hookworm infection is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to limited application of molecular diagnostic tools. Given the importance of accurate identification of hookworms, this study was conducted as part of an ongoing molecular epidemiological investigation aimed at providing the first documented data on species-specific hookworm infection, associated risk factors and the role of domestic animals as reservoirs for hookworm infections in endemic communities of Malaysia. A total of 634 human and 105 domestic canine and feline fecal samples were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of hookworm in humans and animals determined via microscopy was 9.1% (95% CI = 7.0-11.7%) and 61.9% (95% CI = 51.2-71.2%), respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that participants without the provision of proper latrine systems (OR = 3.5; 95% CI = 1.53-8.00; p = 0.003), walking barefooted (OR = 5.6; 95% CI = 2.91-10.73; pdomestic animal (i.e., dogs and cats) populations.

  1. Investigations of peritoneal and intestinal infections of adult hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California (2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Eugene T; Delong, R L; Nadler, S A; Laake, J L; Orr, A J; Delong, B L; Pagan, C

    2011-09-01

    The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular characterization. Based on this and previous molecular studies, hookworms from fur seals are designated as Uncinaria lucasi and the species from sea lions as Uncinaria species A. Adult hookworms were found in the PNC of 35 of 57 (61.4%) fur seal pups and of 13 of 104 (12.5%) sea lion pups. The number of hookworms located in the PNC ranged from 1 to 33 (median = 3) for the infected fur seal pups and 1 to 16 (median = 2) for the infected sea lion pups. In addition to the PNC, intestines of 43 fur seal and 32 sea lion pups were examined. All of these pups were positive for adult hookworms. The worms were counted from all but one of the sea lion pups. Numbers of these parasites in the intestine varied from 3 to 2,344 (median = 931) for the fur seal pups and 39 to 2,766 (median = 643) for the sea lion pups. Sea lion pups with peritoneal infections had higher intensity infections in the intestines than did pups without peritoneal infections, lending some support for the hypothesis that peritoneal infections result from high-intensity infections of adult worms. There was no difference in intestinal infection intensities between fur seal pups with and without peritoneal infections. Female adult hookworms in the intestines of both host species were significantly larger than males, and sea lion hookworms were larger than those in fur seals. Worms in the intestine also were larger than worms found in the PNC. Gene sequencing and (RFLP) analysis of (PCR) amplified (ITS) ribosomal DNA were used to diagnose the species of 172 hookworms recovered from the PNC and intestine of 18 C. ursinus and seven Z. californianus hosts

  2. Probing the Kinetic Anabolism of Poly-Beta-Hydroxybutyrate in Cupriavidus necator H16 Using Single-Cell Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanhua Tao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB can be formed in large amounts in Cupriavidus necator and is important for the industrial production of biodegradable plastics. In this investigation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS was used to characterize dynamic changes in PHB content—as well as in the contents of other common biomolecule—in C. necator during batch growth at both the population and single-cell levels. PHB accumulation began in the early stages of bacterial growth, and the maximum PHB production rate occurred in the early and middle exponential phases. The active biosynthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins occurred in the lag and early exponential phases, whereas the levels of these molecules decreased continuously during the remaining fermentation process until the minimum values were reached. The PHB content inside single cells was relatively homogenous in the middle stage of fermentation; during the late growth stage, the variation in PHB levels between cells increased. In addition, bacterial cells in various growth phases could be clearly discriminated when principle component analysis was performed on the spectral data. These results suggest that LTRS is a valuable single-cell analysis tool that can provide more comprehensive information about the physiological state of a growing microbial population.

  3. Mineralization of PCBs by the genetically modified strain Cupriavidus necator JMS34 and its application for bioremediation of PCBs in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Juan Matias; Acevedo, Francisca; Gonzalez, Myriam; Seeger, Michael [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). Lab. de Microbiologia Molecular y Biotecnologia

    2010-07-15

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are classified as ''high-priority pollutants''. Diverse microorganisms are able to degrade PCBs. However, bacterial degradation of PCBs is generally incomplete, leading to the accumulation of chlorobenzoates (CBAs) as dead-end metabolites. To obtain a microorganism able to mineralize PCB congeners, the bph locus of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which encodes one of the most effective PCB degradation pathways, was incorporated into the genome of the CBA-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134-X3. The bph genes were transferred into strain JMP134-X3, using the mini-Tn5 transposon system and biparental mating. The genetically modified derivative, C. necator strain JMS34, had only one chromosomal insertion of bph locus, which was stable under nonselective conditions. This modified bacterium was able to grow on biphenyl, 3-CBA and 4-CBA, and degraded 3,5-CBA in the presence of m-toluate. The strain JMS34 mineralized 3-CB, 4-CB, 2,4{sup '}-CB, and 3,5-CB, without accumulation of CBAs. Bioaugmentation of PCB-polluted soils with C. necator strain JMS34 and with the native B. xenovorans LB400 was monitored. It is noteworthy that strain JMS34 degraded, in 1 week, 99% of 3-CB and 4-CB and approximately 80% of 2,4{sup '}-CB in nonsterile soil, as well as in sterile soil. Additionally, the bacterial count of strain JMS34 increased by almost two orders of magnitude in PCB-polluted nonsterile soil. In contrast, the presence of native microflora reduced the degradation of these PCBs by strain LB400 from 73% (sterile soil) to approximately 50% (nonsterile soil). This study contributes to the development of improved biocatalysts for remediation of PCB-contaminated environments. (orig.)

  4. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20.Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR age of 25.0 (±21.75 years, 262 (56.5% were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9% participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%] was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%], E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%] and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]. Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001 and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031 were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections.There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  5. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05-13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08-4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease.

  6. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely assessed due to limitations of currently used diagnostic methods. Using multiplex real-time PCR, we evaluated hookworm species-specific prevalence, infection load and their contribution towards severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi. Methodology and Findings A. duodenale and N. americanus DNA loads were determined in 830 fecal samples of pre-school children participating in a case control study investigating severe anemia. Using multiplex real-time PCR, hookworm infections were found in 34.1% of the severely anemic cases and in 27.0% of the non-severely anemic controls (panemia (adjusted odds ratio: 2.49 (95%CI 1.16–5.33) and 9.04 (95%CI 2.52–32.47) respectively). Iron deficiency (assessed through bone marrow examination) was positively associated with intensity of A. duodenale infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.63 (95%CI 1.18–11.20); 16.98 (95%CI 3.88–74.35) and 44.91 (95%CI 5.23–385.77) for low, moderate and high load respectively). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report assessing the association of hookworm load and species differentiation with severe anemia and bone marrow iron deficiency. By revealing a much higher than expected prevalence of A. duodenale and its significant and load-dependent association with severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi, we demonstrated the need for quantitative and species-specific screening of hookworm infections. Multiplex real-time PCR is a powerful diagnostic tool for public health research to combat (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children living in resource poor settings. PMID:22514750

  7. TIMPs of parasitic helminths - a large-scale analysis of high-throughput sequence datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantacessi, Cinzia; Hofmann, Andreas; Pickering, Darren; Navarro, Severine; Mitreva, Makedonka; Loukas, Alex

    2013-05-30

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate animal hosts. Currently, knowledge of helminth TIMPs is limited to a small number of studies on canine hookworms, whereas no information is available on the occurrence of TIMPs in other parasitic helminths causing neglected diseases. In the present study, we conducted a large-scale investigation of TIMP proteins of a range of neglected human parasites including the hookworm Necator americanus, the roundworm Ascaris suum, the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as the schistosome blood flukes. This entailed mining available transcriptomic and/or genomic sequence datasets for the presence of homologues of known TIMPs, predicting secondary structures of defined protein sequences, systematic phylogenetic analyses and assessment of differential expression of genes encoding putative TIMPs in the developmental stages of A. suum, N. americanus and Schistosoma haematobium which infect the mammalian hosts. A total of 15 protein sequences with high homology to known eukaryotic TIMPs were predicted from the complement of sequence data available for parasitic helminths and subjected to in-depth bioinformatic analyses. Supported by the availability of gene manipulation technologies such as RNA interference and/or transgenesis, this work provides a basis for future functional explorations of helminth TIMPs and, in particular, of their role/s in fundamental biological pathways linked to long-term establishment in the vertebrate hosts, with a view towards the development of novel approaches for the control of neglected helminthiases.

  8. Helminthiasis: Hookworm Infection Remains a Public Health Problem in Dera District, South Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2015-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections are significant cause of morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. In Ethiopia, helminthiasis was the third leading cause of outpatient visits. Despite the health extension program was launched to address this problem, there is limited information on the burden of intestinal parasites after implementation of the program in our setting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the intestinal helminthic infections among clients attending at Anbesame health center, South Gondar, Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted at Anbesame health center from March to June 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 464 study participants selected consecutively. Stool specimen collection, processing through formol-ether concentration technique and microscopic examination for presence of parasites were carried out. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Results Among the total 464 study participants with median (±IQR) age of 25.0 (±21.75) years, 262 (56.5%) were females. Helminthic infection was found in 97 (20.9%) participants. Hookworm (68 [14.7%]) was the predominant parasite followed by S. mansoni (11 [2.4%]), E. vermicularis (9 [1.9%]) and S. stercoralis (5 [1.1%]). Patients with age group ≥15 years (AOR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.05–13.46; P: 0.001) and walking barefoot (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.08–4.48; P: 0.031) were more vulnerable from the hookworm infections. Conclusions There was a high burden of hookworm infections in our setting. Hence, regular shoes wearing, considering all age groups in the albendazole deworming as mass treatment and environmental hygiene are important interventions to reduce the burden of such neglected tropical disease. PMID:26657490

  9. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung

    1967-01-01

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using 59 Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= [ S ubject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100 ] over [ A verage normal turnover/100 ml whole blood ] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ( 59 Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of iron

  10. The Study on the Ferrokinetics and Acquired Immunity in Repeated Hookworm Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Lee, Pyl Ung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    In order to confirm whether acquired immunity or resistance can be developed by the repeated hookworm infections, the 150 mature actively moving filariform ancylostoma duodenale larvae obtained from the severe hookworm anemia patients were orally given to 8 healthy volunteers in three divided doses, 50 in each, at 5 day interval. Also the hematological changes as well as several ferrokinetics using {sup 59}Fe were done and were compared with 10 controls. The clinical symptoms and signs were checked every day for the first 3 weeks and then twice weekly until the end of the experiment. The appearance of the ova in the stool was examined by the formalin ether method and the ova was counted by the Stoll's method. The following laboratory tests were done:1) Red blood cell count, venous blood hematocrit (micromethod), hemoglobin count (cyanomethemoglobin method) were checked every 5 to 7 day interval. 2) Plasma iron concentration (Barkan's modified method) was determined every 2 to 3 week interval. 3) Radioisotope studies:a) Ferrokinetics: Huff et al and Bothwell's method were applied. Erythropoietic Index (% of normal)= ['Subject's turnover/100 ml whole bloodX100'] over ['Average normal turnover/100 ml whole blood'] b) Quantitative measurement of the gastrointestinal absorption of iron:Radioiron ({sup 59}Fe) balance method was applied. c) Determination of the plasma erythropoietin activity: Fried's method was applied. Following were the results: 1) The serum iron level was lower. The red cell volume was decreased, but with relative increase of plasma volume. 2) The plasma iron disappearance time was accelerated and the plasma iron turnover rate was decreased. The red cell iron turnover rate was markedly increased, while all of the red cell iron concentration, circulating red cell iron, plasma iron pool were decreased. The daily iron pool turnover and red cell renewal rate were increased. 3) The erythropoietic index, erythropoietin activity and intestinal absorption of

  11. Profilaxia da anemia ancilostomótica: sindrome de carencia Prophylaxis of Hookworm Anemia-carencial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1945-04-01

    anti-helmíntica, que além de onerosos são pouco práticos, pois interferem em hábitos enraizados nas populações rurais.A review of the recent advances in the mechanism of hookworm anemia is presented, pointing out the importance of a qualitatively defective nutrition in the genesis of this disease. The carencial aspect of hookworm anemia is emphasized. The accepted prophylaxia of hookworm disease limits itself to avoiding human infestation by the ancylostomidae. This method is criticized as a pratical means of eradicating the anemia in rural population. This paper deals with preliminary studies to build up a carencial type of prophylaxis in hookworm anemia (as in prophylaxis of endemic goitre based on the administration of iron salts, in the food usually consumed in Brazil. The mixtures ferrous sulphate and mandioca flour or amoniacal ferric citrate and baked beans, have been able to prevent anemia in patients heavely infested. during long periods of time (6-8 months. the minimus efficient daily doses of iron needed to maintain normal blood levels have not been precisely ascertained, but even 0.1 g of ferrous sulphate (37 mg of metalic iron daily in mandioca flour was satisfatory for that purpose. Different foods and iron salts have been tried with no results, for different reasons. When iron salts were administered in insufficient doses, the progressive evolution of the anemia was observed in detail. In conclusion the use of iron salts in suficient quantities mixed to usual food is advised as a prophylatic method is hookworm anemia. A campaign of this type can be accomplished at extremely low cost, and probably has definite advantages over the classical prophylaxis, whose methods interferes with rooted habits of people of rural areas and therefore give very poor practical results.

  12. Identification and utilization of a new Erysiphe necator isolate NAFU1 to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance in wild Chinese grapevine species using detached leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Rong; Han, Yong-Tao; Zhao, Feng-Li; Li, Ya-Juan; Cheng, Yuan; Ding, Qin; Wang, Yue-Jin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    The most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide is powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe necator. To integrate effective genetic resistance into cultivated grapevines, numerous disease resistance screens of diverse Vitis germplasm, including wild species, have been conducted to identify powdery mildew resistance, but the results have been inconsistent. Here, a new powdery mildew isolate that is infectious on grapevines, designated Erysiphe necator NAFU1 (En. NAFU1), was identified and characterized by phylogeny inferred from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of pathogen ribosomal DNA sequences. Three classical methods were compared for the maintenance of En. NAFU1, and the most convenient method was maintenance on detached leaves and propagation by contact with infected leaves. Furthermore, controlled inoculations of En. NAFU1 were performed using detached leaves from 57 wild Chinese grapevine accessions to quickly evaluate powdery mildew resistance based on trypan blue staining of leaf sections. The results were compared with previous natural epidemics in the field. Among the screened accessions inoculated with En. NAFU1, 22.8% were resistant, 33.3% were moderately resistant, and 43.9% were susceptible. None of the accessions assessed herein were immune from infection. These results support previous findings documenting the presence of race-specific resistance to E. necator in wild Chinese grapevine. The resistance of wild Chinese grapevine to En. NAFU1 could be due to programmed cell death. The present results suggest that En. NAFU1 isolate could be used for future large-scale screens of resistance to powdery mildew in diverse Vitis germplasms and investigations of the interaction between grapevines and pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand (Hooker's) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (New Zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Lyons, E T; Pomroy, W E; Gibbs, N; López-Villalobos, N; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-06-01

    This is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand sea lions (NZSLs; Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands. The examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. Gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly between years and was higher from mid-January to the end of February when the majority of pups were between 3 and 9 weeks old. The average burden of adult parasites per pup was not influenced by the host's sex and body condition or by year. This study also provided evidence for transmission occurring by the transmammary route in NZSLs.

  14. RUN1 and REN1 Pyramiding in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Crimson Seedless) Displays an Improved Defense Response Leading to Enhanced Resistance to Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe necator)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, Mario; Schlechter, Rudolf O.; Armijo, Grace; Solano, Esteban; Serrano, Carolina; Contreras, Rodrigo A.; Zúñiga, Gustavo E.; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogens are the cause of the most common diseases in grapevine and among them powdery mildew represents a major focus for disease management. Different strategies for introgression of resistance in grapevine are currently undertaken in breeding programs. For example, introgression of several resistance genes (R) from different sources for making it more durable and also strengthening the plant defense response. Taking this into account, we cross-pollinated P09-105/34, a grapevine plant carrying both RUN1 and REN1 pyramided loci of resistance to Erysiphe necator inherited from a pseudo-backcrossing scheme with Muscadinia rotundifolia and Vitis vinifera ‘Dzhandzhal Kara,’ respectively, with the susceptible commercial table grape cv. ‘Crimson Seedless.’ We developed RUN1REN1 resistant genotypes through conventional breeding and identified them by marker assisted selection. The characterization of defense response showed a highly effective defense mechanism against powdery mildew in these plants. Our results reveal that RUN1REN1 grapevine plants display a robust defense response against E. necator, leading to unsuccessful fungal establishment with low penetration rate and poor hypha development. This resistance mechanism includes reactive oxygen species production, callose accumulation, programmed cell death induction and mainly VvSTS36 and VvPEN1 gene activation. RUN1REN1 plants have a great potential as new table grape cultivars with durable complete resistance to E. necator, and are valuable germplasm to be included in grape breeding programs to continue pyramiding with other sources of resistance to grapevine diseases. PMID:28553300

  15. Two crystal forms of a helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, Na-FAR-1, from the parasitic nematode Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielsen, Mads; Rey-Burusco, M. Florencia; Griffiths, Kate; Roe, Andrew J.; Cooper, Alan; Smith, Brian O.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Corsico, Betina

    2012-01-01

    Na-FAR-1, a fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein, was expressed in bacteria, purified and crystallized. Crystals grew in two different morphologies under the same conditions. Na-FAR-1 is an unusual α-helix-rich fatty acid- and retinol-binding protein from Necator americanus, a blood-feeding intestinal parasitic nematode of humans. It belongs to the FAR protein family, which is unique to nematodes; no structural information is available to date for FAR proteins from parasites. Crystals were obtained with two different morphologies that corresponded to different space groups. Crystal form 1 exhibited space group P432 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 120.80 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution, whereas crystal form 2 exhibited space group F23 (unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 240.38 Å, α = β = γ = 90°) and diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution. Crystal form 2 showed signs of significant twinning

  16. Identification, isolation, and molecular cloning of a hookworm protease: an approach towards a defined vaccine for ancylostomiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotez, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The hookworm Ancylostoma caninum was shown to release in vitro a 37 kDa protease that catalyzed the hydrolysis of fibrinogen, plasminogen, and elastin. The enzyme was purified from parasite extracts by ion-exchange chromatography, followed by gel filtration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. An amino-terminal sequence was determined. When assayed with radiolabeled fibrin as substrate, the enzyme displayed optimal activity at pH 9-11; it was inactivated by dialysis against ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid. Antiserum raised against the protease in rabbits cross-reacted on western blots with soluble antigen from the infective larval stage of the parasite. A cDNA library from hookworm mRNA was constructed in the expression vector bacteriophage lambdagtll. A positive clone was identified with the rabbit antiserum that was shown to contain an 800-bp insert. The insert was mapped, subcloned into M13, and sequenced, revealing an open reading frame of 789 nucleotides corresponding to 263 amino acids.

  17. Combination of five diagnostic tests to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection among school-aged children from a rural area of colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rafael E; Narváez, Javier; Sepúlveda, Natalia A; Velásquez, Fabián C; Díaz, Sandra C; López, Myriam Consuelo; Reyes, Patricia; Moncada, Ligia I

    2017-09-01

    Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia. We used both, a frequentist approach, and Bayesian latent class models to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of five tests for hookworm detection, and to estimate the prevalence of hookworm infection in absence of a Gold Standard. The Kato-Katz and agar plate methods had an overall agreement of 95% and kappa coefficient of 0.76. Different models estimated a sensitivity between 76% and 92% for the agar plate technique, and 52% to 87% for the Kato-Katz technique. The other tests had lower sensitivity. All tests had specificity between 95% and 98%. The prevalence estimated by the Kato-Katz and Agar plate methods for different subpopulations varied between 10% and 14%, and was consistent with the prevalence estimated from the combination of all tests. The Harada-Mori, Ritchie-Frick and direct examination techniques resulted in lower and disparate prevalence estimates. Bayesian approaches assuming imperfect specificity resulted in lower prevalence estimates than the frequentist approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular evidence of shared hookworm Ancylostoma tubaeforme haplotypes between the critically endangered Iberian lynx and sympatric domestic cats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Millán, J.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3-4 (2012), s. 518-522 ISSN 0304-4017 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ancylostomiasis * Hookworm * Reservoir * Spain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030440171100759X#

  19. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  20. Development of a Sensitive and Specific Antigen-Detection System for Strongyloides Stercoralis and Hookworm Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    difficult to specifically identify, and failure to implement the correct antibiotic therapy in a timely fashion can result in the onset of acute symptoms...compromised patients are particularly at risk. Treatment is similar to hookworms. Treatment of nematode infection is fairly standard with therapies using...caninum eggs harvested by floatation in ZnSO 4 solution were similarly processed for PAGE fractionation except that eggs were not homogenized. Figures 13a

  1. Transcriptional changes in the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, during the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett J D Datu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Third-stage larvae (L3 of the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, undergo arrested development preceding transmission to a host. Many of the mRNAs up-regulated at this stage are likely to encode proteins that facilitate the transition from a free-living to a parasitic larva. The initial phase of mammalian host invasion by A. caninum L3 (herein termed "activation" can be mimicked in vitro by culturing L3 in serum-containing medium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The mRNAs differentially transcribed between activated and non-activated L3 were identified by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. The analysis of these mRNAs on a custom oligonucleotide microarray printed with the SSH expressed sequence tags (ESTs and publicly available A. caninum ESTs (non-subtracted yielded 602 differentially expressed mRNAs, of which the most highly represented sequences encoded members of the pathogenesis-related protein (PRP superfamily and proteases. Comparison of these A. caninum mRNAs with those of Caenorhabditis elegans larvae exiting from developmental (dauer arrest demonstrated unexpectedly large differences in gene ontology profiles. C. elegans dauer exiting L3 up-regulated expression of mostly intracellular molecules involved in growth and development. Such mRNAs are virtually absent from activated hookworm larvae, and instead are over-represented by mRNAs encoding extracellular proteins with putative roles in host-parasite interactions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this should not invalidate C. elegans dauer exit as a model for hookworm activation, it highlights the limitations of this free-living nematode as a model organism for the transition of nematode larvae from a free-living to a parasitic state.

  2. From organic pollutants to bioplastics: insights into the bioremediation of aromatic compounds by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, Nathalie; Yada, Bopha; Lefebvre, Rodrigue

    2015-01-25

    Organic pollution by aromatic compounds is of increasing concern to our environment. Therefore, the transformation of aromatic pollutants into valuable aliphatic and biodegradable bioplastics was studied. Since benzoic acid was found to be the key compound for such bioremediation processes, its transformation, and metabolic pathways of digestion, by Cupriavidus necator were specifically analysed. It was found that the degradation of aromatic compounds follows the 2,3-dioxygenase pathway in this strain and that the batch transformations of benzoic acid with either fresh or adapted cells were limited to an initial concentration of 2.5 g/L of pollutant. The repeated fed-batch with partial withdrawal process, however, showed a 17.5-fold improvement, thus allowing the transformation of a total of 43.7 g/L in 12 weeks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of sodium accumulation on heterotrophic growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Md Salatul Islam; Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of sodium (Na(+)) concentration on the growth and PHB production by Cupriavidus necator. Both biomass growth and PHB production were inhibited by Na(+): biomass growth became zero at 8.9 g/L Na(+) concentration while PHB production was completely stopped at 10.5 g/L Na(+). A mathematical model for pure culture heterotrophic PHB production was set up to describe the Na(+) inhibition effect. The parameters related to Na(+) inhibition were estimated based on shake flask experiments. The accumulated Na(+) showed non-linear inhibition effect on biomass growth but linear inhibition effect on PHB production kinetics. Fed-batch experiments revealed that a high accumulation of Na(+) due to a prolonged growth phase, using NaOH for pH control, decreased the subsequent PHB production. The model was validated based on independent experimental data sets, showing a good agreement between experimental data and simulation results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The prevalence and diversity of intestinal parasitic infections in humans and domestic animals in a rural Cambodian village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Inpankaew, Tawin; Traub, Rebecca J; Khieu, Virak; Dalsgaard, Anders; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Chhoun, Chamnan; Sok, Daream; Marti, Hanspeter; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2014-08-01

    In Cambodia, intestinal parasitic infections are prevalent in humans and particularly in children. Yet, information on potentially zoonotic parasites in animal reservoir hosts is lacking. In May 2012, faecal samples from 218 humans, 94 dogs and 76 pigs were collected from 67 households in Dong village, Preah Vihear province, Cambodia. Faecal samples were examined microscopically using sodium nitrate and zinc sulphate flotation methods, the Baermann method, Koga Agar plate culture, formalin-ether concentration technique and Kato Katz technique. PCR was used to confirm hookworm, Ascaris spp., Giardia spp. and Blastocystis spp. Major gastrointestinal parasitic infections found in humans included hookworms (63.3%), Entamoeba spp. (27.1%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (24.3%). In dogs, hookworm (80.8%), Spirometra spp. (21.3%) and Strongyloides spp. (14.9%) were most commonly detected and in pigs Isospora suis (75.0%), Oesophagostomum spp. (73.7%) and Entamoeba spp. (31.6%) were found. Eleven parasite species were detected in dogs (eight helminths and three protozoa), seven of which have zoonotic potential, including hookworm, Strongyloides spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara canis, Echinostoma spp., Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. Five of the parasite species detected in pigs also have zoonotic potential, including Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Balantidium coli and Entamoeba spp. Further molecular epidemiological studies will aid characterisation of parasite species and genotypes and allow further insight into the potential for zoonotic cross transmission of parasites in this community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phonepasong Ayé Soukhathammavong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg and mebendazole (500 mg for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples were randomly assigned to albendazole (n=100 and mebendazole (n=100. Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment, and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline at 21-23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.8; P=0.01, and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001.

  6. Low Efficacy of Single-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Hookworm and Effect on Concomitant Helminth Infection in Lao PDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhathammavong, Phonepasong Ayé; Sayasone, Somphou; Phongluxa, Khampheng; Xayaseng, Vilavanh; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hatz, Christoph; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Keiser, Jennifer; Odermatt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Albendazole and mebendazole are increasingly deployed for preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. We assessed the efficacy of single oral doses of albendazole (400 mg) and mebendazole (500 mg) for the treatment of hookworm infection in school-aged children in Lao PDR. Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke. Methodology We conducted a randomized, open-label, two-arm trial. In total, 200 children infected with hookworm (determined by quadruplicate Kato-Katz thick smears derived from two stool samples) were randomly assigned to albendazole (n = 100) and mebendazole (n = 100). Cure rate (CR; percentage of children who became egg-negative after treatment), and egg reduction rate (ERR; reduction in the geometric mean fecal egg count at treatment follow-up compared to baseline) at 21–23 days posttreatment were used as primary outcome measures. Adverse events were monitored 3 hours post treatment. Principal Findings Single-dose albendazole and mebendazole resulted in CRs of 36.0% and 17.6% (odds ratio: 0.4; 95% confidence interval: 0.2–0.8; P = 0.01), and ERRs of 86.7% and 76.3%, respectively. In children co-infected with O. viverrini, albendazole and mebendazole showed low CRs (33.3% and 24.2%, respectively) and moderate ERRs (82.1% and 78.2%, respectively). Conclusions/Significance Both albendazole and mebendazole showed disappointing CRs against hookworm, but albendazole cured infection and reduced intensity of infection with a higher efficacy than mebendazole. Single-dose administrations showed an effect against O. viverrini, and hence it will be interesting to monitor potential ancillary benefits of a preventive chemotherapy strategy that targets STHs in areas where opisthorchiasis is co-endemic. Clinical Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29126001 PMID:22235353

  7. Estimating sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in relation to infection intensity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Bärenbold

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Kato-Katz technique is the most widely used diagnostic method in epidemiologic surveys and drug efficacy trials pertaining to intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. However, the sensitivity of the technique is low, particularly for the detection of light-intensity helminth infections. Examination of multiple stool samples reduces the diagnostic error; yet, most studies rely on a single Kato-Katz thick smear, thus underestimating infection prevalence. We present a model which estimates the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz technique in Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm, as a function of infection intensity for repeated stool sampling and provide estimates of the age-dependent 'true' prevalence. We find that the sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis is dominated by missed light infections, which have a low probability to be diagnosed correctly even through repeated sampling. The overall sensitivity strongly depends on the mean infection intensity. In particular at an intensity of 100 eggs per gram of stool (EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 50% and 80% for one and two samples, respectively. At an infection intensity of 300 EPG, we estimate a sensitivity of 62% for one sample and 90% for two samples. The sensitivity for hookworm diagnosis is dominated by day-to-day variation with typical values for one, two, three, and four samples equal to 50%, 75%, 85%, and 95%, respectively, while it is only weakly dependent on the mean infection intensity in the population. We recommend taking at least two samples and estimate the 'true' prevalence of S. mansoni considering the dependence of the sensitivity on the mean infection intensity and the 'true' hookworm prevalence by taking into account the sensitivity given in the current study.

  8. Chicken feather hydrolysate as an inexpensive complex nitrogen source for PHA production by Cupriavidus necator on waste frying oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesova, P; Kucera, D; Marova, I; Obruca, S

    2017-08-01

    The chicken feather hydrolysate (FH) has been tested as a potential complex nitrogen source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by Cupriavidus necator H16 when waste frying oil was used as a carbon source. The addition of FH into the mineral salt media with decreased inorganic nitrogen source concentration improved the yields of biomass and polyhydrohyalkanoates. The highest yields were achieved when 10 vol.% of FH prepared by microwave-assisted alkaline hydrolysis of 60 g l -1 feather was added. In this case, the poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) yields were improved by more than about 50% as compared with control cultivation. A positive impact of FH was also observed for accumulation of copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) when sodium propionate was used as a precursor. The copolymer has superior processing and mechanical properties in comparison with PHB homopolymer. The application of FH eliminated the inhibitory effect of propionate and resulted in altered content of 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) in copolymer. Therefore, the hydrolysed feather can serve as an excellent complex source of nitrogen for the polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Moreover, by the combination of two inexpensive types of waste, such as waste frying oil and feather hydrolysate, it is possible to produce PHA with substantially improved efficiency and sustainability. Millions of tons of feathers, important waste product of poultry-processing industry, are disposed off annually without any further benefits. Thus, there is an inevitable need for new technologies that enable ecologically and economically sensible processing of this waste. Herein, we report that alkali-hydrolysed feathers can be used as a complex nitrogen source considerably improving polyhydroxyalkanoates production on waste frying oil employing Cupriavidus necator. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  10. Assessing the speed of kill of hookworms, Ancylostoma caninum, by Advantage Multi ® for Dogs using endoscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Hostetler, Joseph A; Bowman, Dwight D

    2014-08-29

    Endoscopic capsules and endoscopy were used to assess the speed of kill and the clearance of hookworms in dogs experimentally infected with Ancylostoma caninum. A total of four adult dogs were inoculated in two separate cohorts comprised of two 4-year-old females and two 7-year-old males. Dogs were treated topically with Advantage Multi(®) for Dogs 13 days (Cohort 1) or 16 days (Cohort 2) after infection. Endoscopic imaging of the small intestine was carried out both pre- and post-treatment. Examination of the first cohort revealed that the worms had been cleared and the hookworm-induced lacerations were markedly diminished within 48 h of treatment. In the second cohort, endoscopic capsules were given the day of, the day after, and two days after treatment; within 24h of product administration, the worms had been removed with a concurrent reduction in observed lesions. Topical application of Advantage Multi(®) for Dogs rapidly removed worms from the small intestine of the dogs in this study as early as 24h post-treatment, with a marked reduction in the number of mucosal lesions seen. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The initial metabolic conversion of levulinic acid in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremko, Matt; Yu, Jian

    2011-09-20

    Levulinic acid or 4-ketovaleric acid is a potential renewable substrate for production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. In this work, the initial reactions of LA metabolism by Cupriavidus necator were examined in vitro. The organic acid was converted by membrane-bound crude enzymes obtained from the cells pre-grown on LA, while no LA activity was detected from cells pre-grown on acetic acid. Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA were two major intermediates in the initial reactions of LA conversion. A mass balance on propionyl-CoA accounts for 84 mol% of LA added in vitro. It explains an interesting phenomenon that 3-hydroxbutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate are two major monomers of the biopolyester formed from LA, instead of 4-hydroxvalerate that has the similar chemical structure of LA as the precursor. A Monod model was used to describe the kinetics of LA utilization as a sole carbon source or a co-substrate of glucose and fructose. The μ(max) and K(m) of LA alone were 0.26 h⁻¹ and 0.01 g/L, respectively. The content and composition of PHA are also dependent on the culture conditions such as carbon to nitrogen ratio. The in vitro observation is supported by the high utilization rate of LA and the high molar percentage of 3HB and 3HV in the PHA derived from LA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of limonene on the heterotrophic growth and polyhydroxybutyrate production by Cupriavidus necator H16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Lagunes, F; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    The inhibitory effect of limonene on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in Cupriavidus necator H16 was studied. Firstly, results demonstrate the feasibility of using orange juicing waste (OJW) as a substrate for PHB production. An intracellular PHB content of 81.4% (w/w) was attained for a total dry matter concentration of 9.58gL -1 , when the OJW medium was used. Later, a mineral medium designed to mimic the nutrient levels found in the complex medium derived from OJW was used to study the effect of limonene on the production of PHB. Results showed a drop in specific growth rate (μ) of more than 50% when the initial limonene concentration was 2% (v/v) compared to the limonene free medium. This work highlights the importance of a limonene recovery stage prior to fermentation, to maintain levels below 1% (v/v) in the medium, adding value to the OJW and enhancing the fermentation process productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Food-borne human parasitic pathogens associated with household cockroaches and houseflies in Nigeria

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    Oyetunde T. Oyeyemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches and houseflies pose significant public health threat owning to their ability to mechanically transmit human intestinal parasites and other disease-causing microorganisms. This study aims at assessing the vectoral capacity of cockroaches and houseflies in the transmission of human intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasite external surface contamination of 130 cockroaches and 150 houseflies caught within dwelling places in Ilishan-Remo town, Ogun State, Nigeria was determined. Cockroaches (six parasite species were more contaminated than houseflies (four parasite species. The most prevalent parasites were Trichuris trichiura (74.0% and hookworm (63.0% in houseflies and cockroaches respectively. There were significant differences in the prevalence of hookworm, T. trichiura and Taenia spp. isolated from cockroaches and houseflies (P < 0.05. There is high contamination of human intestinal parasites in cockroaches and houseflies in human dwelling places in the study area, thus they have the ability to transmit these parasites to unkempt food materials.

  14. Minimal Influence of [NiFe] Hydrogenase on Hydrogen Isotope Fractionation in H2-Oxidizing Cupriavidus necator

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    Brian J. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids produced by H2-metabolizing bacteria are sometimes observed to be more D-depleted than those of photoautotrophic organisms, a trait that has been suggested as diagnostic for chemoautotrophic bacteria. The biochemical reasons for such a depletion are not known, but are often assumed to involve the strong D-depletion of H2. Here, we cultivated the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha H16 under aerobic, H2-consuming, chemoautotrophic conditions and measured the isotopic compositions of its fatty acids. In parallel with the wild type, two mutants of this strain, each lacking one of two key hydrogenase enzymes, were also grown and measured. In all three strains, fractionations between fatty acids and water ranged from -173‰ to -235‰, and averaged -217‰, -196‰, and -226‰, respectively, for the wild type, SH- mutant, and MBH- mutant. There was a modest increase in δD as a result of loss of the soluble hydrogenase enzyme. Fractionation curves for all three strains were constructed by growing parallel cultures in waters with δDwater values of approximately -25‰, 520‰, and 1100‰. These curves indicate that at least 90% of the hydrogen in fatty acids is derived from water, not H2. Published details of the biochemistry of the soluble and membrane-bound hydrogenases confirm that these enzymes transfer electrons rather than intact hydride (H- ions, providing no direct mechanism to connect the isotopic composition of H2 to that of lipids. Multiple lines of evidence thus agree that in this organism, and presumably others like it, environmental H2 plays little or no direct role in controlling lipid δD values. The observed fractionations must instead result from isotope effects in the reduction of NAD(PH by reductases with flavin prosthetic groups, which transfer two electrons and acquire H+ (or D+ from solution. Parallels to NADPH reduction in photosynthesis may explain why D/H fractionations in C. necator

  15. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, novel etiological agent for traveler's diarrhea-report of four Japanese patients who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masahide; Ouji, Yukiteru; Hirai, Nobuyasu; Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi; Yamada, Minoru; Arizono, Naoki; Akamatsu, Naoaki; Yoh, Takaharu; Kaya, Daisuke; Nakatani, Toshiya; Kikuchi, Eiryo; Katanami, Yuichi; Satoh, Kimitoshi; Maki, Ryosuke; Miyazato, Yusuke; Oba, Yuichiro; Kasahara, Kei; Mikasa, Keiichi

    2018-01-01

    Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries. We recently encountered four cases of A . ceylanicum infection in Japanese individuals who returned from Southeast Asia and Papua New Guinea. Case 1 was a 25-year-old male who stayed in a rainforest in Malaysia for 4 weeks, where he developed abdominal pain and diarrhea in the third week. Eleven adult worms (five males, six females) were expelled after treatment with pyrantel pamoate and identified as A . ceylanicum based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. Case 2 was a 26-year-old male who spent 2 years as an overseas cooperation volunteer for agriculture in Papua New Guinea. He did not note any symptoms at that time, though eggs were detected in feces samples at a medical check-up examination after returning. Although collection of adult worms was unsuccessful, DNA analysis of the eggs for cox1 and the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 and ITS-2 genes demonstrated that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 3 was a 47-year-old male who spent 1 month in a rural village in Lao People's Democratic Republic and began suffering from watery diarrhea from the third week. A total of nine adult worms (three males, six females) were collected by endoscopic procedures and following treatment with pyrantel pamoate. Morphological examination and molecular analyses of the cox1 gene showed that they were A . ceylanicum. Case 4 was a 27-year-old male who

  16. The potential impact of density dependent fecundity on the use of the faecal egg count reduction test for detecting drug resistance in human hookworms.

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    Andrew C Kotze

    Full Text Available Current efforts to control human soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections involve the periodic mass treatment of people, particularly children, in all endemic areas, using benzimidazole and imidothiazole drugs. Given the fact that high levels of resistance have developed to these same drugs in roundworms of livestock, there is a need to monitor drug efficacy in human STHs. The faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT, in which faecal egg output is measured pre- and post-drug treatment, is presently under examination by WHO as a means of detecting the emergence of resistance. We have examined the potential impact of density dependent fecundity on FECRT data. Recent evidence with the canine hookworm indicates that the density dependent egg production phenomenon shows dynamic properties in response to drug treatment. This will impact on measurements of drug efficacy, and hence drug resistance. It is likely that the female worms that survive a FECRT drug treatment in some human cases will respond to the relaxation of density dependent constraints on egg production by increasing their egg output significantly compared to their pre-treatment levels. These cases will therefore underestimate drug efficacy in the FECRT. The degree of underestimation will depend on the ability of the worms within particular hosts to increase their egg output, which will in turn depend on the extent to which their egg output is constrained prior to the drug treatment. As worms within different human cases will likely be present at quite different densities prior to a proposed FECRT, there is potential for the effects of this phenomenon on drug efficacy measurements to vary considerably within any group of potential FECRT candidates. Measurement of relative drug efficacy may be improved by attempting to ensure a consistent degree of underestimation in groups of people involved in separate FECRTs. This may be partly achieved by omission of cases with the heaviest infections

  17. Eficiência simbiótica de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator tolerantes a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo

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    Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a tolerância de estirpes de Cupriavidus necator a zinco, cádmio, cobre e chumbo, além de determinar a eficiência simbiótica das estirpes mais tolerantes em associação a espécies leguminosas com potencial para revegetação. A tolerância foi testada em meio LB, suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10; 12,5 e 15 mmol L-1 de ZnSO4.7H2O, CdSO4.8H2O, CuSO4.5H2O e PbCl2, respectivamente, em comparação ao controle sem adição de metal. Determinou-se a eficiência simbiótica das quatro estirpes de C. necator mais tolerantes aos metais avaliados (UFLA02-71, UFLA02-73, UFLA01-659 e UFLA01-663, as quais foram inoculadas nas espécies: Leucaena leucocephala, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia mangium, Mimosa caesalpiniifolia, M. pudica, M. pigra e M. acutistipula. Em vasos com solos, avaliaram-se L. leucocephala, M. pudica e M. caesalpiniifolia e as estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, selecionadas na avaliação de eficiência simbiótica. A estirpe UFLA02-71 proporcionou incrementos de matéria seca da parte aérea de 870% em M. caesalpiniifolia, enquanto que UFLA01-659 proporcionou 885% em M. pudica e 924% em L. leucocephala. As estirpes UFLA01-659 e UFLA02-71, além da alta tolerância a metais pesados, apresentaram eficiência em fixar nitrogênio, em simbiose com essas leguminosas, em solos com rizóbios nativos capazes de nodulá-las, e devem ser avaliadas quanto ao seu potencial de utilização em programas de recuperação de áreas degradadas.

  18. Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, ChulHee; Hayes, Robert; Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Webb, Brian N.; Li, Qunrui; Hooper, Travis; Nissen, Mark S.; Xun, Luying

    2012-01-01

    Summary FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn2+ coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn2+ coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD+ dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD+ to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction. PMID:22081946

  19. Production and optimization of polyhydroxyalkanoates from non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, A; Senthamizhan, S G; Ponnusami, V; Sudalai, S

    2018-06-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biodegradable polymers found in the cellular masses of a wide range of bacterial species and the demand for PHA is steadily growing. In this work we have produced PHA from a low-cost substrate, Calophyllum inophyllum oil, using Cupriavidus necator. Effects of various process parameters such as Oil concentration, Nitrogen source and inoculum size on the production of PHA were studied using Response Surface Methodology. A quadratic equation was used in the model to fit the experimental data. It was found that the model could satisfactorily predict the PHA yield (R 2 =99.17%). Linear, quadratic and interaction terms used in the model were found to be statistically significant. Maximum PHA yield of 10.6gL -1 was obtained under the optimized conditions of oil concentration - 17.5%, inoculum concentration - 50mL/L and nitrogen content - 1.125gL -1 , respectively. The product obtained was characterized using FTIR and NMR to confirm that it was PHA. The results demonstrate that C. inophyllum oil, a non-edible oil, can be potentially used as a low-cost substrate for the production of PHA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Low frequency sonic waves assisted cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Sivananth; Iyyaswami, Regupathi

    2017-08-15

    Low frequency sonic waves, less than 10kHz were introduced to assist cloud point extraction of polyhydroxyalkanoate from Cupriavidus necator present within the crude broth. Process parameters including surfactant system variables and sonication parameters were studied for their effect on extraction efficiency. Introduction of low frequency sonic waves assists in the dissolution of microbial cell wall by the surfactant micelles and release of cellular content, polyhydroxyalkanoate granules released were encapsulated by the micelle core which was confirmed by crotonic acid assay. In addition, sonic waves resulted in the separation of homogeneous surfactant and broth mixture into two distinct phases, top aqueous phase and polyhydroxyalkanoate enriched bottom surfactant rich phase. Mixed surfactant systems showed higher extraction efficiency compared to that of individual Triton X-100 concentrations, owing to increase in the hydrophobicity of the micellar core and its interaction with polyhydroxyalkanoate. Addition of salts to the mixed surfactant system induces screening of charged surfactant head groups and reduces inter-micellar repulsion, presence of ammonium ions lead to electrostatic repulsion and weaker cation sodium enhances the formation of micellar network. Addition of polyethylene glycol 8000 resulted in increasing interaction with the surfactant tails of the micelle core there by reducing the purity of polyhydroxyalkanoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm.Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed.STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis. Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001 after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001. After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001 and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009.Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  2. Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a re-emerging but neglected parasitic zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Rebecca J

    2013-11-01

    Although Ancylostoma ceylanicum is known to be an endemic and widely distributed hookworm of dogs and cats in Asia, its contribution to human morbidity as a potentially zoonotic hookworm remains largely unexplored. Since its discovery by Lane (1913) as a 'new parasite' of humans a century ago, the hookworm has been regarded as a 'rare' and 'abnormal' parasite and largely overlooked in surveys of human parasites. Recent molecular-based surveys in Asia, however, have demonstrated that A. ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm species infecting humans, comprising between 6% and 23% of total patent hookworm infections. In experimentally induced infections, A. ceylanicum mimics the clinical picture produced by the anthroponotic hookworms of 'ground itch' and moderate to severe abdominal pain in the acute phase. Natural infections with A. ceylanicum in humans have been reported in almost all geographical areas in which the hookworm is known to be endemic in dogs and cats, however for the majority of reports, no clinical data are available. Much like the anthroponotic hookworm species, patent A. ceylanicum adults can isolate within the jejunum to produce chronic infections that on occasion, may occur in high enough burdens to produce anaemia. In addition, the hookworm can act much like Ancylostoma caninum and be found lower in the gastrointestinal tract leading to abdominal distension and pain, diarrhoea and occult blood in the faeces accompanied by peripheral eosinophilia. Whether A. ceylanicum is capable of producing both classical hookworm disease and evoking morbidity through an uncontrolled allergic response in some individuals remains unascertained. Future investigations combining the use of molecular diagnostic tools with clinical and pathological data will shed further light on its role as a human pathogen. The control of this zoonosis necessitates an integrated and inter-sectorial "One Health" approach be adopted in communities where large numbers of dogs

  3. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-01

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (palbendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  4. Two potential hookworm DAF-16 target genes, SNR-3 and LPP-1: gene structure, expression profile, and implications of a cis-regulatory element in the regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Goggin, Kevin; Dowling, Camille; Qian, Jason; Hawdon, John M

    2015-01-08

    Hookworms infect nearly 700 million people, causing anemia and developmental stunting in heavy infections. Little is known about the genomic structure or gene regulation in hookworms, although recent publication of draft genome assemblies has allowed the first investigations of these topics to be undertaken. The transcription factor DAF-16 mediates multiple developmental pathways in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and is involved in the recovery from the developmentally arrested L3 in hookworms. Identification of downstream targets of DAF-16 will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of hookworm infection. Genomic Fragment 2.23 containing a DAF-16 binding element (DBE) was used to identify overlapping complementary expressed sequence tags (ESTs). These sequences were used to search a draft assembly of the Ancylostoma caninum genome, and identified two neighboring genes, snr-3 and lpp-1, in a tail-to-tail orientation. Expression patterns of both genes during parasitic development were determined by qRT-PCR. DAF-16 dependent cis-regulatory activity of fragment 2.23 was investigated using an in vitro reporter system. The snr-3 gene spans approximately 5.6 kb in the genome and contains 3 exons and 2 introns, and contains the DBE in its 3' untranslated region. Downstream from snr-3 in a tail-to-tail arrangement is the gene lpp-1. The lpp-1 gene spans more than 6 kb and contains 10 exons and 9 introns. The A. caninum genome contains 2 apparent splice variants, but there are 7 splice variants in the A. ceylanicum genome. While the gene order is similar, the gene structures of the hookworm genes differ from their C. elegans orthologs. Both genes show peak expression in the late L4 stage. Using a cell culture based expression system, fragment 2.23 was found to have both DAF-16-dependent promoter and enhancer activity that required an intact DBE. Two putative DAF-16 targets were identified by genome wide screening for DAF-16 binding

  5. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 from jatropha oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcha, Abeed Fatima Mohidin; Prasad, D M Reddy; Khan, Maksudur R; Abdullah, Hamidah

    2014-05-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer that can be synthesized through bacterial fermentation. In this study, Cupriavidus necator H16 is used to synthesize PHB by using Jatropha oil as its sole carbon source. Different variables mainly jatropha oil and urea concentrations, and agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum condition for microbial fermentation in batch culture. Based on the results, the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations of 20.1 and 15.5 g/L, respectively, were obtained when 20 g/L of jatropha oil was used. Ethanol was used as external stress factor and the addition of 1.5 % ethanol at 38 h had a positive effect with a high PHB yield of 0.987 g PHB/g jatropha oil. The kinetic studies for cell growth rate and PHB production were conducted and the data were fitted with Logistic and Leudeking–Piret models. The rate constants were evaluated and the theoretical values were in accordance with the experimental data obtained

  6. [Geohelminths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Pérez, Laura; Pérez-Tanoira, Ramón; Cabello-Úbeda, Alfonso; Petkova-Saiz, Elizabet; Górgolas-Hernández-Mora, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people in in rural areas and deprived tropical and subtropical regions are infected by soil-transmitted helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and Strongyloides stercoralis. Large migratory flows have made their worldwide distribution easier. Besides being debilitating and producing a significant mortality, they cause high morbidity, leading to physical and intellectual impairment in millions of children who live in poverty. Along with the use of benzimidazoles (albendazole and mebendazole), large-scale international campaigns for treatment and prevention have decreased the number of affected individuals. However, re-infestations and benzimidazole-resistance are frequent, so there needs to be awareness about the importance and consequences of these neglected parasites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. EXTRAÇÃO DE POLI(3-HIDROXIBUTIRATO, PRODUZIDO POR Cupriavidus necator, COM CARBONATO DE PROPILENO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci K. M. Quines

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of plastic waste has attracted worldwide attention. Amid the current context of increasing concern for the environment, biodegradable plastics have been widely studied as a replacement for synthetic plastics. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biopolymer stored as an intracellular energy and reserve source in many microorganisms. Because it is an intracellular product, P(3HB must be extracted from the cells at the end of the culture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of extraction time, heating temperature, first standing time (after filtration and extraction, second standing time (after P(3HB precipitation and solvent amount, during the process of extracting P(3HB from Cupriavidus necator DSM 545, using propylene carbonate as solvent. The extraction kinetic of P(3HB with propylene carbonate from thermally treated biomass was evaluated at different temperatures. The physical properties of the P(3HB obtained were also evaluated. In this case, P(3HB obtained at optimal conditions of recovery (98% and purity (99% was used. Results showed that temperature was the most important factor in these responses for the range of values studied (110-150 ºC.

  8. Accumulation of PHA granules in Cupriavidus necator as seen by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mravec, Filip; Obruca, Stanislav; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Hrubanova, Kamila; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Nebesarova, Jana

    2016-05-01

    Many bacteria are capable of accumulating intracellular granules of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). In this work, we developed confocal microscopy analysis of bacterial cells to study changes in the diameters of cells as well as PHA granules during growth and PHA accumulation in the bacterium Cupriavidus necator H16 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha). The cell envelope was stained by DiD(®) fluorescent probe and PHA granules by Nile Red. Signals from both probes were separated based on their spectral and fluorescence life-time properties. During growth and PHA accumulation, bacterial cells increased their length but the width of the cells remained constant. The volume fraction of PHA granules in cells increased during PHA accumulation, nevertheless, its value did not exceed 40 vol. % regardless of the PHA weight content. It seems that bacterial cultures lengthen the cells in order to control the PHA volume portion. However, since similar changes in cell length were also observed in a PHA non-accumulating mutant, it seems that there is no direct control mechanism, which regulates the prolongation of the cells with respect to PHA granules volume. It is more likely that PHA biosynthesis and the length of cells are influenced by the same external stimuli such as nutrient limitation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Helminth infections among people using wastewater and human excreta in peri-urban agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thuy Trang; Mølbak, Kåre; Phung, Dac Cam; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2007-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of helminth infections and their associated risks in a community using both wastewater and human excreta in agriculture and aquaculture. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a peri-urban area in Hanoi, Vietnam. Data on the demography, socioeconomics and sanitation were collected from a survey of 400 agricultural households. Parasitological examination for the eggs of Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was performed on single stool specimens obtained from study household members' 15-70 years and 0-72 months of age. Of 807 stool samples collected from 620 adults and 187 children, 39% were infected with helminths. The prevalence of infections with Ascaris sp., Trichuris sp. and hookworm was 21.6%, 9.8% and 21.8%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that being an adult, female gender, living in a household without a latrine, excreta composted for less than 1 month and use of fresh human excreta were significantly associated with co-infection with all three helminths. Being an adult was an independent determinant for infections with individual helminths. The absence of a latrine and use of stored urine for irrigation were associated with an increased risk of Ascaris infection. Risk factors for Trichuris infection were inadequately composted excreta and year-round wastewater contact; risk factors for hookworm infection were female gender, household without a latrine and use of fresh human excreta. Wastewater exposure did not pose a major risk for helminth infection in this community. Instead, lack of sanitation facilities and use of fresh or inadequately composted human excreta in agriculture were important risk factors.

  10. Epidemiological surveys of, and research on, soil-transmitted helminths in Southeast Asia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Julia C; Turner, Hugo C; Tun, Aung; Anderson, Roy M

    2016-01-27

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections of humans fall within the World Health Organization's (WHO) grouping termed the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). It is estimated that they affect approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide. A significant proportion of these infections are in the population of Southeast Asia. This review analyses published data on STH prevalence and intensity in Southeast Asia over the time period of 1900 to the present to describe age related patterns in these epidemiological measures. This is with a focus on the four major parasite species affecting humans; namely Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms; Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Data were also collected on the diagnostic methods used in the published surveys and how the studies were designed to facilitate comparative analyses of recorded patterns and changes therein over time. PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infections search engines were used to identify studies on STH in Southeast Asia with the search based on the major key words, and variants on, "soil-transmitted helminth" "Ascaris" "Trichuris" "hookworm" and the country name. A total of 280 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria from 11 Southeast Asian countries; Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam. It was concluded that the epidemiological patterns of STH infection by age and species mix in Southeast Asia are similar to those reported in other parts of the world. In the published studies there were a large number of different diagnostic methods used with differing sensitivities and specificities, which makes comparison of the results both within and between countries difficult. There is a clear requirement to standardise the methods of both STH diagnosis in faecal material and how the

  11. Antibody responses in pregnancy-induced transmammary transmission of Ancylostoma caninum hookworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, P; Heller, A

    1999-09-20

    Third stage larvae of the Ancylostoma caninum hookworm nematode have the capacity to infect a dog, abort the normal maturation pathway to become blood-feeding intestinal worms, and instead distribute throughout the body in a developmentally arrested state that is relatively resilient to most chemotherapeutic agents. During pregnancy, a percentage of the arrested larvae reactivate and transmit via the mammary glands to infect the nursing puppies with resulting iron-deficiency anemia and potential mortality. To determine if the suppression of parasite-specific antibody responses during pregnancy facilitates the reactivation and transmammary transfer of hookworm larvae, a murine model of A. caninum infection was used to compare the infected versus uninfected animals that were either bred or not bred. Initial comparisons of genetically divergent BALB/c versus C57BL/6 mice showed that both the strains mounted strong Th2 biased IgG1 and IgE antibody responses to A. caninum infection. Using the BALB/c strain for the breeding analyses, it was confirmed that larval transfer to the mouse pups only occurred during the post-partum lactational period. In the dams, levels of total and antigen-specific IgG1 and total IgE were highly correlated with parasite burden. During most phases of pregnancy and lactation, infected dams had lower total IgG1, IgG2a and IgE levels as compared to unbred mice at comparable times post-infection; this downward modulation of antibody responses supports the established dogma of a generalized immunosuppression associated with pregnancy. However, at parturition and post-partum lactation, antigen-specific IgG1 levels measured at 1:5000 serum dilutions were comparable between bred and unbred mice, and antigen-specific IgG2a levels at 1:100 serum dilutions were also not significantly different except for a marginal reduction in the bred mice at the lactational timepoint. The comparable anti-A. caninum IgG1 levels between bred and unbred mice, and low

  12. Evaluation of an FDA approved library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Jennifer; Panic, Gordana; Adelfio, Roberto; Cowan, Noemi; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Treatment options for infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH) - Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the two hookworm species, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus - are limited despite their considerable global health burden. The aim of the present study was to test the activity of an openly available FDA library against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. All 1,600 drugs were first screened against Ancylostoma ceylanicum third-stage larvae (L3). Active compounds were scrutinized and toxic compounds, drugs indicated solely for topical use, and already well-studied anthelmintics were excluded. The remaining hit compounds were tested in parallel against Trichuris muris first-stage larvae (L1), Heligmosomoides polygyrus third-stage larvae (L3), and adult stages of the three species in vitro. In vivo studies were performed in the H. polygyrus and T. muris mice models. Fifty-four of the 1,600 compounds tested revealed an activity of > 60 % against A. ceylanicum L3 (hit rate of 3.4 %), following incubation at 200 μM for 72 h. Twelve compounds progressed into further screens. Adult A. ceylanicum were the least affected (1/12 compounds active at 50 μM), while eight of the 12 test compounds revealed activity against T. muris L1 (100 μM) and adults (50 μM), and H. polygyrus L3 (200 μM). Trichlorfon was the only compound active against all stages of A. ceylanicum, H. polygyrus and T. muris. In addition, trichlorfon achieved high worm burden reductions of 80.1 and 98.9 %, following a single oral dose of 200 mg/kg in the T. muris and H. polygyrus mouse model, respectively. Drug screening on the larval stages of intestinal parasitic nematodes is feasible using small libraries and important given the empty drug discovery and development pipeline for STH infections. Differences and commonalities in drug activities across the different STH species and stages were confirmed. Hits identified might serve as a

  13. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blind clinical trial to assess the efficacy of single- versus repeated-dose albendazole to treat ascaris lumbricoides, trichuris trichiura, and hookworm infection.

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    Adegnika, Ayola A; Zinsou, Jeannot F; Issifou, Saadou; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; Kassa, Roland F; Feugap, Eliane N; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Dejon Agobe, Jean-Claude; Kenguele, Hilaire M; Massinga-Loembe, Marguerite; Agnandji, Selidji T; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G; Lell, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    In many regions where soil-transmitted helminth infections are endemic, single-dose albendazole is used in mass drug administration programs to control infections. There are little data on the efficacy of the standard single-dose administration compared to that of alternative regimens. We conducted a randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to determine the efficacies of standard and extended albendazole treatment against soil-transmitted helminth infection in Gabon. A total of 175 children were included. Adequate cure rates and egg reduction rates above 85% were found with a single dose of albendazole for Ascaris infection, 85% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73, 96) and 93.8% (CI, 87.6, 100), respectively, while two doses were necessary for hookworm infestation (92% [CI, 78, 100] and 92% [CI, 78, 100], respectively). However, while a 3-day regimen was not sufficient to cure Trichuris (cure rate, 83% [CI, 73, 93]), this regimen reduced the number of eggs up to 90.6% (CI, 83.1, 100). The rate ratios of two- and three-dose regimens compared to a single-dose treatment were 1.7 (CI, 1.1, 2.5) and 2.1 (CI, 1.5, 2.9) for Trichuris and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) and 1.7 (CI, 1.0, 2.9) for hookworm. Albendazole was safe and well tolerated in all regimens. A single-dose albendazole treatment considerably reduces Ascaris infection but has only a moderate effect on hookworm and Trichuris infections. The single-dose option may still be the preferred regimen because it balances efficacy, safety, and compliance during mass drug administration, keeping in mind that asymptomatic low-level helminth carriage may also have beneficial effects. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT01192802.).

  14. Acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Nahid; Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah

    2017-08-01

    The brown seaweed Sargassum sp. was used as a feedstock to produce polyhydroxybutyarte (PHB) using Cupriavidus necator PTCC 1615. In order to release monomeric sugars, dilute acid hydrolysis of Sargassum sp. biomass was followed by enzymatic saccharification. In addition, the effect of different nitrogen sources was evaluated for PHB production. The fermentation of hydrolysate with the ammonium sulfate as selected nitrogen source resulted PHB yield of 0.54±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Then, NaCl was used as external stress factor which was added to the media. Addition of 8g/L NaCl had a positive impact on high PHB yield of 0.74±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Increasing trend of NaCl concentration to 16g/L was found to inhibit the production of PHB. Based on obtained results using 20g/L of reducing sugar, at desired condition the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations were 5.36±0.22 and 3.93±0.24g/L, respectively. The findings of this study reveal that Sargassum sp. is a promising feedstock for biopolymer production. The characteristics of produced PHB were analyzed by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry and 1 H NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effective anthelmintic therapy of residents living in endemic area of high prevalence for Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infections enhances the levels of allergy risk factor anti-Der p1 IgE

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    Sabrina S. Campolina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were investigated the relationship between Hookworm/Schistosoma mansoni infections and allergy related risk factors in two endemic areas with distinct prevalence of infections and co-infection. The intensity of infections, eosinophilia, allergy risk factors, infections status and anti-Der p1 IgE levels before and 2 years (population 1 and 3 years (population 2 after anthelmintic treatment, were evaluated. It was observed that the population with lower prevalence and intensity of infection (population 2 had lower eosinophils counts (>600/mm3 and higher animal contact than the population with higher parasites intensity (population 1. After anthelmintic treatment the intensity of S. mansoni single infection decreased, but no changes were observed in Hookworm and co-infected individuals. The anthelmintic treatment also enhanced anti-Der p1 IgE optical density in ELISA on the subgroups that became negative for helminth infection regardless of their previous infection condition in population 1. Facing that, we evaluated the anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index, and the ratio (after/before treatment was significantly higher in patients co-infected before treatment. On the other hand, no association between anti-Der p1 IgE reactivity index and the intensity of infections were observed. In conclusion, effective anthelmintic therapy of subjects from endemic areas with high prevalence of Hookworm and S. mansoni infections enhances anti-Der p1 IgE levels.

  16. Tolerance to and Accumulation of Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc by Cupriavidus necator

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    Rayssa Pereira Vicentin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preliminary results of in vitro experiments with multicontaminated soils and solid media indicated that nodulating diazotrophic bacteria of the genus Cupriavidus are promising for the remediation of contaminated environments due to their symbiosis with legumes and metal tolerance. Thus, strains of Cupriavidus spp. (LMG 19424T, UFLA 01-659, UFLA 01-663, and UFLA 02-71 were tested for their ability to tolerate and bioaccumulate cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, and zinc (Zn in Luria-Bertani broth. Changes in the growth pattern of Cupriavidus strains in the presence or absence of heavy metals were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and metal allocation by transmission electron microscopy, to clarify the mechanisms of bioremediation. Highest tolerance was detected for strain UFLA 01-659 (minimum inhibitory concentration of 5, 4.95, and 14.66 mmol L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Among the removal rates of the metals tested (9.0, 4.6, and 3.2 mg L−1 of Cd, Cu, and Zn, respectively, the bacterial activity was clearly highest for Cd. The efficiency of strain UFLA 01-659 in removing the heavy metals is associated with its high biomass production and/or higher contents of heavy metals adsorbed and absorbed in the biomass. In response to the presence of heavy metals in the liquid culture medium, the bacteria produced exopolysaccharides and small and aggregated cells. However, these responses varied according to the strains and heavy metals. Regarding allocation, all heavy metals were adsorbed on the cell wall and membrane, whereas complexation was observed intracellularly and only for Cu and Zn. These results indicate the possibility of using C. necator UFLA 01-659 for remediation in areas with very high Cd, Cu, and Zn contents.

  17. Association between anaemia and infections (HIV, malaria and hookworm) among children admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesa, A S; Magesa, P M

    2012-09-01

    Anaemia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in paediatric age with much aetiology. The magnitude of childhood anaemia has been inadequately studied at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The study was aimed at determining the frequency of anaemia and associated infections in patients admitted in general paediatric wards at MNH in Dar es Salaam. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. This was conducted at MNH in general paediatric wards from 20th August, 2009 to 15th December, 2009. Patients, aged 1-84 months, consecutively admitted were recruited in the study. After informed verbal consent from the guardian or parent was obtained, information on demographic and clinical characteristics was collected from the parent or guardian. Physical examination and laboratory tests on blood ; stool samples for hookworm screening; blood slides for malaria parasites; Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) screening; and blood peripheral smears were done on all subjects. Additional information was taken from medical files. Data management: The prevalence of anemia was determined as a percentage of all paediatric patients recruited during the time of data collection. All information was recorded using questionnaires and analysis was done using SPSS version 13.0. A p value of 1.0, p > 0.05). Anaemia in paediatric patients admitted at MNH is a disease of high public health importance in Dar es Salaam and may well carry a high burden in the rest of the country. Other risk factors of anaemia should be investigated with a goal of reducing the burden of anaemia.

  18. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Cimino, Ruben O.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M.; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Methodology Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. Principal findings STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Conclusions Hookworm’ infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis. PMID:28991899

  19. Produção de poli(3-hidroxibutirato por Cupriavidus Necator em meio hidrolisado de amido de arroz com suplementação de óleo de soja em diferentes temperaturas Production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus Necator in hydrolyzed rice starch medium with soybean oil supplementation at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francieli Dalcanton

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is a biopolymer, completely biodegradable, which has similar properties to fuel-based polymers. However to make it economically competitive it is necessary the study of cheap sources of substrate. The influence of hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil at different temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C was studied in the production of P(3HB by C. necator. The percentage of P(3HB produced in the cultures at 30, 35 °C was 30, 39% and 35, 43% without and with supplementation of oil, respectively. The culture at 40 °C showed no production phase due to a possible oxygen limitation. These results demonstrate that hydrolyzed rice starch supplemented with soybean oil increases the yield of P(3HB and temperature of 35 ºC is the most favorable for biopolymer production.

  20. An integrated study of human and animal infectious disease in the Lake Victoria crescent small-holder crop-livestock production system, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fèvre, Eric M; de Glanville, William A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; Kariuki, Samuel; Wamae, Claire N

    2017-06-30

    The neglected zoonotic diseases (NZD) are an understudied group that are a major cause of illness throughout the developing world. In general, little is known about the prevalence and burden of NZDs in affected communities, particularly in relation to other infectious diseases with which they are often co-endemic. We describe the design and descriptive epidemiological outputs from an integrated study of human and animal zoonotic and non-zoonotic disease in a rural farming community in western Kenya. This cross-sectional survey involved 2113 people, their cattle (n = 983) and pigs (n = 91). People and animals were tested for infection or exposure to a wide range of zoonotic and non-zoonotic pathogens. Prevalence estimates, with adjustment for the complex study design, were derived. Evidence for spatial clustering in exposure or infection was identified using the spatial scan statistic. There was a high prevalence of human parasitism in the community, particularly with hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) (36.3% (95% CI 32.8-39.9)), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (30.1% (95% CI 27.5-32.8)), and Plasmodium falciparum (29.4% (95% CI 26.8-32.0)). Human infection with Taenia spp. was also prevalent (19.7% (95% CI 16.7-22.7)), while exposure to other zoonotic pathogens was comparatively rarer (Brucella spp., 0.6% (95% CI 0.2-0.9); Coxiella burnetii, 2.2% (95% CI 1.5-2.9); Rift Valley fever, 0.5% (95% CI 0.2-0.8)). A low prevalence of exposure to Brucella spp. was observed in cattle (0.26% (95% CI 0-0.56). This was higher for Rift Valley fever virus (1.4% (95% CI 0.5-2.22)) and C. burnetii (10.0% (95% CI 7.7-12.2)). The prevalence of Taenia spp. cysticercosis was 53.5% (95% CI 48.7-58.3) in cattle and 17.2% (95% CI 9.1-25.3) in pigs. Mycobacterium bovis infection was found in 2.2% of cattle (95% CI 1.3-3.2), while the prevalence of infection with Mycobacterium spp. was 8.2% (95% CI 6.8-9.6) in people. Zoonotic infections in people and animals occur in

  1. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, Jozef; Behnke, Jerzy M; Albonico, Marco; Ame, Shaali Makame; Angebault, Cécile; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Engels, Dirk; Guillard, Bertrand; Nguyen, Thi Viet Hoa; Kang, Gagandeep; Kattula, Deepthi; Kotze, Andrew C; McCarthy, James S; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Montresor, Antonio; Periago, Maria Victoria; Sumo, Laurentine; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Levecke, Bruno

    2011-03-29

    The three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Necator americanus/Ancylostoma duodenale are among the most widespread parasites worldwide. Despite the global expansion of preventive anthelmintic treatment, standard operating procedures to monitor anthelmintic drug efficacy are lacking. The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol. Seven trials were undertaken among school children in Brazil, Cameroon, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Tanzania and Vietnam. Efficacy was assessed by the Cure Rate (CR) and the Fecal Egg Count Reduction (FECR) using the McMaster egg counting technique to determine fecal egg counts (FEC). Overall, the highest CRs were observed for A. lumbricoides (98.2%) followed by hookworms (87.8%) and T. trichiura (46.6%). There was considerable variation in the CR for the three parasites across trials (country), by age or the pre-intervention FEC (pre-treatment). The latter is probably the most important as it had a considerable effect on the CR of all three STH. Therapeutic efficacies, as reflected by the FECRs, were very high for A. lumbricoides (99.5%) and hookworms (94.8%) but significantly lower for T. trichiura (50.8%), and were affected to different extents among the 3 species by the pre-intervention FEC counts and trial (country), but not by sex or age. Our findings suggest that a FECR (based on arithmetic means) of >95% for A. lumbricoides and >90% for hookworms should be the expected minimum in all future surveys, and that therapeutic efficacy below this level following a single dose of ALB should be viewed with concern in light of potential drug resistance. A standard threshold for efficacy against T. trichiura has yet to be established, as a single-dose of ALB is unlikely to be satisfactory for this parasite. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01087099.

  2. The Complete Multipartite Genome Sequence of Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a Versatile Pollutant Degrader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Perez-Pantoja, Danilo; Ledger, Thomas; Mavromatis, Kostantinos; Anderson, Iain J.; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hooper, Sean D.; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2010-02-01

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 (formerly Ralstonia eutropha JMP134) is a Gram-negative {beta}-proteobacterium able to degrade a variety of chloroaromatic compounds and chemically-related pollutants. It was originally isolated based on its ability to use 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a sole carbon and energy source [1]. In addition to 2,4-D, this strain can also grow on a variety of aromatic substrates, such as 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA), 3-chlorobenzoic acid (3-CB) [2], 2,4,6-trichlorophenol [3], and 4-fluorobenzoate [4]. The genes necessary for 2,4-D utilization have been identified. They are located in two clusters on plasmid pPJ4: tfd{sub I} and tfd{sub II} [5,6,7,8]. The sequence and analysis of plasmid pJP4 was reported and a congruent model for bacterial adaptation to chloroaromatic pollutants was proposed [9]. According to this model, catabolic gene clusters assemble in a modular manner into broad-host-range plasmid backbones by means of repeated chromosomal capture events. Cupriavidus and related Burkholderia genomes are typically multipartite, composed of two large replicons (chromosomes) accompanied by classical plasmids. Previous work with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 revealed a differential gene distribution with core functions preferentially encoded by the larger chromosome and secondary functions by the smaller [10]. It has been proposed that the secondary chromosomes in many bacteria originated from ancestral plasmids which, in turn, had been the recipient of genes transferred earlier from ancestral primary chromosomes [11]. The existence of multiple Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genomes provides the opportunity for comparative studies that will lead to a better understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms for the formation of multipartite genomes and the relation with biodegradation abilities.

  3. Effective recovery of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biopolymer from Cupriavidus necator using a novel and environmentally friendly solvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Tao; Cazeneuve, Stacy; Wen, Zhiyou; Wu, Lei; Wang, Tong

    2016-05-01

    This work demonstrates a significant advance in bioprocessing for a high-melting lipid polymer. A novel and environmental friendly solvent mixture, acetone/ethanol/propylene carbonate (A/E/P, 1:1:1 v/v/v) was identified for extracting poly-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a high-value biopolymer, from Cupriavidus necator. A set of solubility curves of PHB in various solvents was established. PHB recovery of 85% and purity of 92% were obtained from defatted dry biomass (DDB) using A/E/P. This solvent mixture is compatible with water, and from non-defatted wet biomass, PHB recovery of 83% and purity of 90% were achieved. Water and hexane were evaluated as anti-solvents to assist PHB precipitation, and hexane improved recovery of PHB from biomass to 92% and the purity to 93%. A scale-up extraction and separation reactor was designed, built and successfully tested. Properties of PHB recovered were not significantly affected by the extraction solvent and conditions, as shown by average molecular weight (1.4 × 10(6) ) and melting point (175.2°C) not being different from PHB extracted using chloroform. Therefore, this biorenewable solvent system was effective and versatile for extracting PHB biopolymers. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:678-685, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. The distribution of intestinal helminth infections in a rural village in Guatemala

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    Timothy J. C. Anderson

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal egg count scores were used to investigate the distribution and abundance of intestinal helminths in the population of a rural village. Prevalences of the major helminths were 41% with Ascaris lumbricoides 60% with Trichuris trichiura and 50% with Necator americanus. All three parasites showed a highly aggregated distribution among hosts. Age/prevalence and age/intensity profiles were typical for both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura with the highest worm burdens in the 50-10 year old children. For hookworm both prevalence and intensity curves were convex in shape with maximum infection levels in the 30-40 year old age class. Infected females had higher burdens of T. trichiura than infected males in all age classes of the population; there were no other effects of host gender. Analysis of associations between parasites within hosts revealed strong correlations between A. lumbricoides and T. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Individuals with heavy infections of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura showed highly significant aggregation within households. Associations between a variety of household features and heavy infections with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura are described.

  5. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapua, Mwanahamisi I; Pafčo, Barbora; Burgunder, Jade; Profousová-Pšenková, Ilona; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára J

    2017-04-26

    Although a high genetic diversity of Plasmodium spp. circulating in great apes has been revealed recently due to non-invasive methods enabling detection in faecal samples, little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying the presence of Plasmodium DNA in faeces. Great apes are commonly infected by strongylid nematodes, including hookworms, which cause intestinal bleeding. The impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium DNA in faeces was assessed in wild, western, lowland gorillas from Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and eastern chimpanzees from Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. Fifty-one faecal samples from 22 habituated gorillas and 74 samples from 15 habituated chimpanzees were analysed using Cytochrome-b PCR assay and coprological methods. Overall, 26.4% of the analysed samples were positive for both Plasmodium spp. and strongylids. However, the results showed no significant impact of intensity of infections of strongylids on detection of Plasmodium DNA in gorilla and chimpanzee faeces. Bleeding caused by strongylid nematode Necator spp. cannot explain the presence of Plasmodium DNA in ape faeces.

  6. Effectiveness of Albendazole for Hookworm Varies Widely by Community and Correlates with Nutritional Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of School-Age Children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% ( N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Genetic characterization of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (cox 1) gene of the zoonotic parasitic nematode, Ancylostoma ceylanicum from humans, dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Chua, Kek Heng; Traub, Rebecca; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2013-10-01

    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the only zoonotic hookworm species that is able to produce patent infections in humans with the majority of cases reported in South East Asia. Over the past few years, there have been an increasing number of studies investigating the prevalence of this parasitic zoonosis using molecular diagnostic tools and a single genetic locus as marker for species identification. As there can be limitations in using a single genetic locus for epidemiological studies and genetic discrimination, the complementary use of a more variable locus will provide additional evidence to support the zoonotic exchange of hookworm species between humans and animals. In the present study, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) sequence of A. ceylanicum from positive human and animal fecal samples were determined and compared with published reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that isolates of A. ceylanicum were divided into two clusters, one consisting 3 human isolates and the other comprising 19 isolates of human and animal origin from different geographical locations within Malaysia. The two groups of A. ceylanicum could be distinguished from one another through five fixed nucleotide differences at locations 891, 966, 1008, 1077 and 1083. The detection of genetically distinct groups and considerable level of genetic variation within the cox 1 sequence of A. ceylanicum might suggest potential haplotype-linked differences in zoonotic, epidemiological and pathobiological characteristics, a hypothesis that still needs further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biofilm vs. Planktonic Lifestyle: Consequences for Pesticide 2,4-D Metabolism by Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Z. Lerch

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of bacterial biofilms in natural environments may alter important functions, such as pollutant bioremediation by modifying both the degraders' physiology and/or interactions within the matrix. The present study focuses on the influence of biofilm formation on the metabolism of a pesticide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, by Cupriavidus necator JMP134. Pure cultures were established in a liquid medium with 2,4-D as a sole carbon source with or without sand grains for 10 days. Bacterial numbers and 2,4-D concentrations in solution were followed by spectrophotometry, the respiration rate by gas chromatography and the surface colonization by electron microscopy. In addition, isotopic techniques coupled with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME profiling were used to determine possible metabolic changes. After only 3 days, approximately 80% of the cells were attached to the sand grains and microscopy images showed that the porous medium was totally clogged by the development of a biofilm. After 10 days, there was 25% less 2,4-D in the solution in samples with sand than in control samples. This difference was due to (1 a higher (+8% mineralization of 2,4-D by sessile bacteria and (2 a retention (15% of 2,4-D in the biofilm matrix. Besides, the amount of carbohydrates, presumably constituting the biofilm polysaccharides, increased by 63%. Compound-specific isotope analysis revealed that the FAME isotopic signature was less affected by the biofilm lifestyle than was the FAME composition. These results suggest that sessile bacteria differ more in their anabolism than in their catabolism compared to their planktonic counterparts. This study stresses the importance of considering interactions between microorganisms and their habitat when studying pollutant dynamics in porous media.

  9. Patterns of gastro-intestinal parasites and commensals as an index of population and ecosystem health: the case of sympatric western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Michaela E; Pruetz, Jill; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2011-02-01

    The exponential decline of great apes over the past 50 years has resulted in an urgent need for data to inform population viability assessment and conservation strategies. Health monitoring of remaining ape populations is an important component of this process. In support of this effort, we examined endoparasitic and commensal prevalence and richness as proxies of population health for western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sympatric guinea baboons (Papio hamadryas papio) at Fongoli, Senegal, a site dominated by woodland-savanna at the northwestern extent of chimpanzees' geographic range. The small population size and extreme environmental pressures experienced by Fongoli chimpanzees make them particularly sensitive to the potential impact of pathogens. One hundred thirty-two chimpanzee and seventeen baboon fecal samples were processed using sodium nitrate floatation and fecal sedimentation to isolate helminth eggs, larvae, and protozoal cysts. Six nematodes (Physaloptera sp., Ascaris sp., Stronglyloides fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., an unidentified hookworm, and an unidentified larvated nematode), one cestode (Bertiella sp.), and five protozoans (Iodamoeba buetschlii, Entamoeba coli, Troglodytella abrassarti, Troglocorys cava, and an unidentified ciliate) were detected in chimpanzee fecal samples. Four nematodes (Necator sp., S. fuelleborni, Trichuris sp., and an unidentified hookworm sp.), two trematodes (Shistosoma mansoni and an unidentified fluke), and six protozoans (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, E. coli, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli, T. abrassarti, and T. cava) were detected in baboon fecal samples. The low prevalence of pathogenic parasite species and high prevalence of symbiotic protozoa in Fongoli chimpanzees are indicative of good overall population health. However, the high prevalence of pathogenic parasites in baboons, who may serve as transport hosts, highlight the need for ongoing pathogen surveillance of the Fongoli chimpanzee

  10. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Yared; Tefera, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Walelign; Abebe, Dawit; Woldekidan, Samuel; Abebe, Abiy; Belete, Yehualashet; Menberu, Temesgen; Belayneh, Bethelhem; Tesfaye, Berhanu; Nasir, Ibrahim; Yirsaw, Kidist; Basha, Hirut; Dawit, Asrat; Debella, Asfaw

    2015-06-18

    Embelia schimperi has been used for the treatment of intestinal parasites especially tapeworm infestations for centuries in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of scientific based evidences regarding the efficacy, safety and phytochemical analysis of this plant despite its frequent use as an anthelmintic. This study has therefore evaluated the efficacy and acute toxicity of E. schimperi thereby generating relevant preclinical information. The anthelmintic activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the isolated compound, embelin, were conducted using in vivo and in vitro models against the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana, and the hookworm, Necator americanus, respectively. LD50 of the crude hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Swiss albino mice following the OECD guidelines. Chemical characterization of the isolated embelin was conducted using UV-spectroscopy, HPLC and NMR. In the acute toxicity study no prominent signs of toxicity and mortality were recorded among the experimental animals at the highest administered dose. Hence the LD50 of the plant was found to be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In vivo cestocidal activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi showed 100% parasite clearance at 1000 mg/kg, while the diammonium salt of embelin showed 85.3% parasite clearance at 750 mg/kg. The in vitro anthelminthic activity study revealed that the LC50 value of the crude extract and albendazole were 228.7 and 51.33 μg/mL, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the diammonium salt of the isolated compound embelin had anthelmintic activity against hookworm larva in vitro and H. nana in vivo. Hence the findings of this study showed Embelia schimperi appears to possess some anthelmintic activity that may support the usage of these plants by local traditional healers to treat helminthic infestations.

  11. USING TURKISH OF NECATİ BEY NECATÎ BEY’İN TÜRKÇESİ

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    Şerif Ali BOZKAPLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Necatî who have studies with old Anatolian Turkish, is known and gets attention as a man who speaks and uses Turkish very perfectly. It should be mentioned that idioms, proverbs, reduplications, mottos etc. Which are main stones of Turkish are take parts in poetry of Necatî. In addition to these Poet Necatî applies some structures spoken languages into literal language.Therefore, it is possible to see some archaic words aren’t used anymore in actual Turkish in Necatî’s poetry.In conclusion Necatî connects yesterday of Turkish and today of Turkish by using some features of history of Turkish. Eski Anadolu Türkçesi ile eser vermiş olan Necatî, Türkçeyi gayet iyi konuşan ve kullanan biri olarak dikkat çekmektedir. Türkçenin anlatım vasıtalarından olan deyimler, atasözleri, ikilemeler, kalıp sözler, özlü sözler, vb. gibi yapı taşlarının Necatî ‘nin şiirinde hayli yer bulduğunu belirtmek gerekir. Bunlara ilaveten Şair Necatî, konuşma dilinin bazı kalıplarını da şiir diline dahil etmiştir.Öte yandan bugünkü Türkçede kullanımdan düşmüş bazı arkaik sözlere Necatî’nin şiirinde rastlamak mümkündür.Görüldüğü üzere Necatî geçmişin bazı unsurlarını kullanarak Türkçenin geçmişi ile o günü dolayısıyla da bugünün arasında bağ kurmuştur.

  12. Cloud-point extraction of green-polymers from Cupriavidus necator lysate using thermoseparating-based aqueous two-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yoong Kit; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Loh, Hwei-San; Ling, Tau Chuan; Ooi, Chien Wei; Show, Pau Loke

    2017-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), a class of renewable and biodegradable green polymers, have gained attraction as a potential substitute for the conventional plastics due to the increasing concern towards environmental pollution as well as the rapidly depleting petroleum reserve. Nevertheless, the high cost of downstream processing of PHA has been a bottleneck for the wide adoption of PHAs. Among the options of PHAs recovery techniques, aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) outshines the others by having the advantages of providing a mild environment for bioseparation, being green and non-toxic, the capability to handle a large operating volume and easily scaled-up. Utilizing unique properties of thermo-responsive polymer which has decreasing solubility in its aqueous solution as the temperature rises, cloud point extraction (CPE) is an ATPE technique that allows its phase-forming component to be recycled and reused. A thorough literature review has shown that this is the first time isolation and recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator H16 via CPE was reported. The optimum condition for PHAs extraction (recovery yield of 94.8% and purification factor of 1.42 fold) was achieved under the conditions of 20 wt/wt % ethylene oxide-propylene oxide (EOPO) with molecular weight of 3900 g/mol and 10 mM of sodium chloride addition at thermoseparating temperature of 60°C with crude feedstock limit of 37.5 wt/wt %. Recycling and reutilization of EOPO 3900 can be done at least twice with satisfying yield and PF. CPE has been demonstrated as an effective technique for the extraction of PHAs from microbial crude culture. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R McLennan

    Full Text Available Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode. DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella. To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.. Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than

  14. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  15. Efficacy of recommended drugs against soil transmitted helminths: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Wendelin; Schindler, Christian; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-09-25

    Objective  To evaluate efficacies of anthelmintic drugs against soil transmitted helminths in terms of cure rates and egg reduction rates. Design  Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data Sources  PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Embase, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and the World Health Organization library database from 1960 until 31 December 2016. Study selection  Randomised controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of a single dose regimen of albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate against Ascaris lumbricoides , hookworm ( Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale ) and Trichuris trichiura. The primary outcomes included cure rates analysed by network meta-analysis with mixed logistic regression models and egg reduction rates with mixed linear models. Results  55 and 46 randomised controlled trials were included in the analysis of cure rates and egg reduction rates, respectively. All drugs were highly efficacious against A lumbricoides Albendazole showed the highest efficacy against hookworm infections with a cure rate of 79.5% (95% confidence interval 71.5% to 85.6%) and an egg reduction rate of 89.6% (81.9% to 97.3%). All drugs had low efficacy against T trichiura , with mebendazole showing the highest cure rate of 42.1% (25.9% to 60.2%) and egg reduction rate of 66.0% (54.6% to 77.3%). Estimates for the years 1995 and 2015 showed significant reductions in efficacy of albendazole against T trichiura : by 2015 the egg reduction rates fell from 72.6% (53.7% to 91.5%) to 43.4% (23.5% to 63.3%; P=0.049) and the cure rates fell from 38.6% (26.2% to 52.7%) to 16.4 (7.7% to 31.3%; P=0.027). Conclusions  All four currently recommended drugs show limitations in their efficacy profile. While only albendazole showed good efficacy against hookworm infection, all drugs had low efficacy against T trichiura The decrease in efficacy of albendazole against T trichiura over the past two decades is of concern

  16. Valorization of waste glycerol for the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by Cupriavidus necator and extraction in a sustainable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlawat, Geeta; Soni, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Glycerol is a by-product of many industrial processes and huge amounts of it are generated in the form of waste, thereby necessitating a search for the method of its disposal. An interesting solution is the valorization of crude glycerol into value added product such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). The feasibility of producing PHAs by Cupriavidus necator was evaluated using crude glycerol (WG). Various cultivation strategies were designed for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) copolymer by adding different organic acids as precursors at different concentrations levels. Batch cultivation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production showed accumulation of 6.76g/L biomass containing 4.84g/L copolymer on WG with a maximum 3-hydroxyvalerate content of 24.6mol%. PHAs extraction using a non-toxic and recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C temperature and 30min incubation. This is the first report on jatropha based glycerol valorization for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production coupled with extraction using non-toxic solvent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved fed-batch production of high-purity PHB (poly-3 hydroxy butyrate) by Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472) from sucrose-based cheap substrates under response surface-optimized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Pinaki; Rangarajan, Vivek

    2017-10-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out for Cupriavidus necator (MTCC 1472)-based improved production of poly-3 hydroxy butyrate (PHB) through induced nitrogen limiting fed-batch cultivation strategies. Initially Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology were implemented to optimize most influencing process parameters. With optimized process parameter values, continuous feeding strategies ware applied in a 5-l fermenter with table sugar concentration of 100 g/l, nitrogen concentration of 0.12 g/l for fed-batch fermentation with varying dilution rates of 0.02 and 0.046 1/h. To get enriched production of PHB, concentration of the sugar was further increased to 150 and 200 g/l in feeding. Maximum concentrations of PHB achieved were 22.35 and 23.07 g/l at those dilution rates when sugar concentration maintains at 200 g/l in feeding. At maximum concentration of PHB (23.07 g/l), productivity of 0.58 g/l h was achieved with maximum PHB accumulation efficiency up to 64% of the dry weight of biomass. High purity of PHB, close to medical grade was achieved after surfactant hypochlorite extraction method, and it was further confirmed by SEM, EDX, and XRD studies.

  18. Application of a Multiplex Quantitative PCR to Assess Prevalence and Intensity Of Intestinal Parasite Infections in a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Stacey; Inpankaew, Tawin; Nery, Susana Vaz; Gray, Darren J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Gomes, Santina J.; Traub, Rebecca; McCarthy, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate quantitative assessment of infection with soil transmitted helminths and protozoa is key to the interpretation of epidemiologic studies of these parasites, as well as for monitoring large scale treatment efficacy and effectiveness studies. As morbidity and transmission of helminth infections are directly related to both the prevalence and intensity of infection, there is particular need for improved techniques for assessment of infection intensity for both purposes. The current study aimed to evaluate two multiplex PCR assays to determine prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasite infections, and compare them to standard microscopy. Methodology/Principal Findings Faecal samples were collected from a total of 680 people, originating from rural communities in Timor-Leste (467 samples) and Cambodia (213 samples). DNA was extracted from stool samples and subject to two multiplex real-time PCR reactions the first targeting: Necator americanus, Ancylostoma spp., Ascaris spp., and Trichuris trichiura; and the second Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia. duodenalis, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Samples were also subject to sodium nitrate flotation for identification and quantification of STH eggs, and zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation for detection of protozoan parasites. Higher parasite prevalence was detected by multiplex PCR (hookworms 2.9 times higher, Ascaris 1.2, Giardia 1.6, along with superior polyparasitism detection with this effect magnified as the number of parasites present increased (one: 40.2% vs. 38.1%, two: 30.9% vs. 12.9%, three: 7.6% vs. 0.4%, four: 0.4% vs. 0%). Although, all STH positive samples were low intensity infections by microscopy as defined by WHO guidelines the DNA-load detected by multiplex PCR suggested higher intensity infections. Conclusions/Significance Multiplex PCR, in addition to superior sensitivity, enabled more accurate determination of infection intensity for Ascaris, hookworms and

  19. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Excretory-Secretory Protein 2 Adopts a Netrin-Like Fold and Defines a Novel Family of Nematode Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K Kucera; L Harrison; M Cappello; Y Modis

    2011-12-31

    Hookworms are human parasites that have devastating effects on global health, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infects humans and animals, making it a useful model organism to study disease pathogenesis. A. ceylanicum excretory-secretory protein 2 (AceES-2), a highly immunoreactive molecule secreted by adult worms at the site of intestinal attachment, is partially protective when administered as a mucosal vaccine against hookworm anemia. The crystal structure of AceES-2 determined at 1.75 {angstrom} resolution shows that it adopts a netrin-like fold similar to that found in tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteases (TIMPs) and in complement factors C3 and C5. However, recombinant AceES-2 does not significantly inhibit the 10 most abundant human matrix metalloproteases or complement-mediated cell lysis. The presence of a highly acidic surface on AceES-2 suggests that it may function as a cytokine decoy receptor. Several small nematode proteins that have been annotated as TIMPs or netrin-domain-containing proteins display sequence homology in structurally important regions of AceES-2's netrin-likefold. Together, our results suggest that AceES-2 defines a novel family of nematode netrin-like proteins, which may function to modulate the host immune response to hookworm and other parasites.

  20. Genetic modification of European winegrapes with genes from an American wild relative confers resistance to the major diseases powdery and downy mildew

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete, downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). These pathogens, endemic to North America, were introduced into Europe in t...

  1. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

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    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  2. Efficacy and safety of tribendimidine, tribendimidine plus ivermectin, tribendimidine plus oxantel pamoate, and albendazole plus oxantel pamoate against hookworm and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infections in Tanzania and Côte d'Ivoire: a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Wendelin; Coulibaly, Jean T; Ali, Said M; Ame, Shaali M; Amour, Amour K; Yapi, Richard B; Albonico, Marco; Puchkov, Maxim; Huwyler, Jörg; Hattendorf, Jan; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Preventive chemotherapy is the current strategy to control soil-transmitted helminth infections (caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura). But, to improve efficacy and avoid emerging resistance, new drugs are warranted. Tribendimidine has shown good anthelmintic efficacy and is therefore a frontrunner for monotherapy and combination chemotherapy. We did a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and in Côte d'Ivoire. We recruited adolescents aged 15-18 years from four primary schools on Pemba, and school attendees and non-schoolers from two districts in Côte d'Ivoire. Only hookworm-positive participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to single, oral doses of tribendimidine 400 mg plus placebo (tribendimidine monotherapy), tribendimidine 400 mg plus ivermectin 200 μg/kg, tribendimidine 400 mg plus oxantel pamoate 25 mg/kg, or albendazole 400 mg plus oxantel pamoate 25 mg/kg. Randomisation was done via a computer-generated list in block sizes of four or eight. Participants were asked to provide two stool samples on 2 consecutive days at baseline and again 14-21 days at follow-up. The primary outcome was the difference in egg-reduction rates (ERRs; ie, the geometric mean reduction) in hookworm egg counts between treatment groups, measured by the Kato-Katz technique. Differences in coadministrated treatment groups were assessed for non-inferiority with a margin of -3% to albendazole plus oxantel pamoate based on the available-case population, analysed by intention to treat. Safety was assessed 3 h and 24 h after treatment. This study is registered with ISRCTN (number 14373201). Between July 26, and Dec 23, 2016, we treated 636 hookworm-positive participants, and outcome data were available for 601 participants (151 assigned to tribendimidine monotherapy, 154 to tribendimidine plus ivermectin, 148 to tribendimidine plus oxantel pamoate, and 148 to albendazole plus oxantel pamoate

  3. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.

  4. Soil transmitted helminths in animals – how is it possible for human transmission?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Jia-Chi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the current prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH infections among cats and dogs in an animal shelter. Methods: A total of 442 animal's faecal samples were collected from the selected animal shelter located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The samples were screened by direct smear and further confirmed by formalin-ether sedimentation methods. Results: The overall prevalence of STH in animals was 48.4%. Among these, 51.5% and 45.8% were found in dogs and cats respectively. Among feline, hookworm was found to be the most predominant (41.7%, followed by Toxocara cati (4.6%. Whereas, hookworm was found to be the most predominant in canine (47%, followed by Toxocara canis (15.8% and Trichuris vulpis (5.9%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of STH infections was found among animals living in this local shelter. Hence, appropriate preventive measures should be taken to eradicate these infections.

  5. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Schistosomiasis mansoni ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Hookworm infection is a public health problem of great ... medical aid in Ethiopia. Although .... respectively, are reported for the first time from this .... Helminths also impair the mental and physical ... Gebre Manual T. Human Wastes. Disposal.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumidonming, Wilawan; Salman, Doaa; Gronsang, Dulyatad; Abdelbaset, Abdelbaset E; Sangkaeo, Khamphon; Kawazu, Shin-Ichiro; Igarashi, Makoto

    2017-01-10

    Gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths of dogs and cats have a public health concern worldwide. We investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of zoonotic significance in dogs and cats in lower Northern Thailand and utilized molecular tools for species identification of hookworms and Opisthorchis viverrini. Fecal samples of 197 dogs and 180 cats were collected. Overall prevalence of infection using microscopy was 40.1% in dogs and 33.9% in cats. Helminth infection found in both dogs and cats included hookworms, Spirometra spp., Taenia spp., Toxocara spp., O. viverrini, Strongyloides spp. and Trichuris spp. Hookworms were the most common helminth in dogs, while Spirometra spp. were the most prevalent in cats. Among hookworm infection in dogs and cats, Ancylostoma ceylanicum was the most prevalent hookworm, being 82.1% in hookworm infected dogs and 95.8% in hookworm infected cats. Mixed-infection due to hookworms and Spirometra spp. was the most dominant in both dogs and cats. Our finding showed that zoonotic helminth infection is highly prevalent in dogs and cats in the lower Northern area of Thailand.

  7. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Children in a Remote Aboriginal Community in the Northern Territory: Hookworm is Rare but Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura Persist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah C. Holt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: soil-transmitted helminths are a problem worldwide, largely affecting disadvantaged populations. The little data available indicates high rates of infection in some remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. Studies of helminths were carried out in the same remote community in the Northern Territory in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011; (2 Methods: fecal samples were collected from children aged <10 years and examined for helminths by direct smear microscopy. In the 2010–2011 study, some fecal samples were also analyzed by agar plate culture and PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis DNA. Serological analysis of fingerprick dried blood spots using a S. stercoralis NIE antigen was also conducted; (3 Results and Conclusions: a reduction in fecal samples positive for S. stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura was seen between the studies in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011, likely reflecting public health measures undertaken in the region to reduce intestinal helminths. Comparison of methods to detect S. stercoralis showed that PCR of fecal samples and serological testing of dried blood spots was at least as sensitive as direct smear microscopy and agar plate culture. These methods have advantages for use in remote field studies.

  8. Heligmosomoides polygyrus Venom Allergen-like Protein-4 (HpVAL-4) is a sterol binding protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Darwiche, Rabih; Gebremedhin, Selam; Smant, Geert; Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Drurey, Claire; Pollet, Jeroen; Maizels, Rick M.; Schneiter, Roger; Wilbers, Ruud H.P.

    2018-01-01

    Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri is a model parasitic hookworm used to study animal and human helminth diseases. During infection, the parasite releases excretory/secretory products that modulate the immune system of the host. The most abundant protein family in excretory/secretory products

  9. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  10. [A national survey on current status of the important parasitic diseases in human population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-30

    In order to understand the current status and trends of the important parasitic diseases in human population, to evaluate the effect of control activities in the past decade and provide scientific base for further developing control strategies, a national survey was carried out in the country (Taiwan, Hongkong and Macau not included) from June, 2001 to 2004 under the sponsorship of the Ministry of Health. The sample sizes of the nationwide survey and of the survey in each province (autonomous region and municipality, P/A/M) were determined following a calculating formula based on an estimation of the sample size of random sampling to the rate of population. A procedure of stratified cluster random sampling was conducted in each province based on geographical location and economical condition with three strata: county/city, township/town, and spot, each spot covered a sample of 500 people. Parasitological examinations were conducted for the infections of soil-transmitted nematodes, Taenia spp, and Clonorchis sinensis, including Kato-Katz thick smear method, scotch cellulose adhesive tape technique and test tube-filter paper culture (for larvae). At the same time, another sampled investigation for Clonorchis sinensis infection was carried out in the known endemic areas in 27 provinces. Serological tests combined with questionnaire and/or clinical diagnosis were applied for hydatid disease, cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, trichinosis, and toxoplasmosis. A total sampled population of 356 629 from the 31 P/A/M was examined by parasitological methods and 26 species of helminth were recorded. Among these helminth, human infections of Metorchis orientalis and Echinostoma aegypti were detected in Fujian Province which seemed to be the first report in the world, and Haplorchis taichui infection in Guangxi Region was the first human infection record in the country. The overall prevalence of helminth infections was 21.74%. The prevalence of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19

  11. Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawdon John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hookworm infection is one of the most important neglected diseases in developing countries, with approximately 1 billion people infected worldwide. To better understand hookworm biology and nematode parasitism, the present study generated a near complete transcriptome of the canine hookworm Ancylostoma caninum to a very high coverage using high throughput technology, and compared it to those of the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the parasite Brugia malayi. Results The generated transcripts from four developmental stages, infective L3, serum stimulated L3, adult male and adult female, covered 93% of the A. caninum transcriptome. The broad diversity among nematode transcriptomes was confirmed, and an impact of parasitic adaptation on transcriptome diversity was inferred. Intra-population analysis showed that A. caninum has higher coding sequence diversity than humans. Examining the developmental expression profiles of A. caninum revealed major transitions in gene expression from larval stages to adult. Adult males expressed the highest number of selectively expressed genes, but adult female expressed the highest number of selective parasitism-related genes. Genes related to parasitism adaptation and A. caninum specific genes exhibited more expression selectivity while those conserved in nematodes tend to be consistently expressed. Parasitism related genes were expressed more selectively in adult male and female worms. The comprehensive analysis of digital expression profiles along with transcriptome comparisons enabled identification of a set of parasitism genes encoding secretory proteins in animal parasitic nematode. Conclusions This study validated the usage of deep sequencing for gene expression profiling. Parasitic adaptation of the canine hookworm is related to its diversity and developmental dynamics. This comprehensive comparative genomic and expression study substantially improves our understanding of

  12. First report and characterization of adult Uncinaria spp. in New Zealand Sea Lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups from the Auckland Islands, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Pomroy, W E; Lyons, E T; Nadler, S A; Dailey, M D; Wilkinson, I S; Chilvers, B L

    2006-03-01

    Two species of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi and Uncinaria hamiltoni) have been formally described from pinnipeds, but dissimilar types are noted from these hosts. This report is the first description of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) from the New Zealand sea lion, Phocarctos hookeri. The nematodes were collected from dead pups on Enderby Island (Auckland Islands, 50 degrees 30', 166 degrees 17') during January and February, 2004. Standard measurements of male and female hookworms were obtained, providing a general morphometric characterization of the hookworm species in P. hookeri. Considerable variations in the body length of adult hookworms were noted within the same host. The arrangement of some of the bursal rays differs from that described for U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni.

  13. intestinal nematodes of medical importance in Colombia: a solved problem? Nemátodos intestinales de importancia médica en Colombia: ¿un problema resuelto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora A. Zuluaga Espinosa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites, in general, constitute a great worldwide, public health problem. Of them, nematodes are among the most outstanding in Colombia. Because these parasites can enter into the organism either by ingestion or through the skin, faulty hygienic-sanitary habits facilitate their transmission and conservation. Among nematodosis the more frequent in Colombia are those caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm, hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis. When the burden of these parasites is considerably high and/or is accompanied by alterations in host defenses, complications can take place that seriously affect health. Presently it is known that pharmacological control of these nematodosis is effective and safe. Nevertheless, without selfcare, and maintenance of good hygienic-sanitary conditions, their eradication will not be feasible. This review of outstanding aspects of nematodosis, with emphasis on their biology, physiopathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and some epidemiologic data, intends to update physicians as a basis for adequate management of this problem. Las enteroparasitosis, en general, constituyen un gran problema de salud pública en el mundo. De éstas, las nematodosis figuran entre las más destacadas en Colombia. Debido a que estos parásitos pueden ingresar al organismo por vía oral o por la piel, los hábitos higiénico-sanitarios deficientes, entre ellos el fecalismo, facilitan su transmisión y conservación. Entre las nematodosis más prevalentes en nuestro país tenemos aquéllas causadas por Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura (tricocéfalo, uncinarias (Necator americanus y Ancylostoma duodenale y Strongyloides stercoralis. Cuando la carga de dichos parásitos es considerablemente alta o se acompaña de alteraciones en las defensas del hospedero, se pueden producir complicaciones que comprometen seriamente

  14. Intestinal helminth infections in feral cats and a raccoon dog on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, with a special note on Gymnophalloides seoi infection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Park, Jae-Hwan; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Jae-Lip; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2009-06-01

    Four feral cats and a raccoon dog purchased from a local collector on Aphaedo Island, Shinan-gun, where human Gymnophalloides seoi infections are known to be prevalent, were examined for their intestinal helminth parasites. From 2 of 4 cats, a total of 310 adult G. seoi specimens were recovered. Other helminths detected in cats included Heterophyes nocens (1,527 specimens), Pygidiopsis summa (131), Stictodora fuscata (4), Acanthotrema felis (2), Spirometra erinacei (15), toxocarids (4), and a hookworm (1). A raccoon dog was found to be infected with a species of echinostome (55), hookworms (7), toxocarids (3), P. summa (3), and S. erinacei (1). No G. seoi was found in the raccoon dog. The results indicate that feral cats and raccoon dogs on Aphaedo are natural definitive hosts for intestinal trematodes and cestodes, including G. seoi, H. nocens, and S. erinacei. It has been first confirmed that cats, a mammalian species other than humans, play the role of a natural definitive host for G. seoi on Aphaedo Island.

  15. 21 CFR 520.2362 - Thenium closylate tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....2362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...) Conditions of use. (1) The tablets are administered orally to dogs as a single day treatment of canine... Uncinaria stenocephala (hookworms). Dogs weighing 10 pounds and over are administered 1 tablet as a single...

  16. Influence of bacteria on degradation of bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinková, M.; Boturová, K.

    2017-10-01

    The degradation rate of bioplastic in soil is closely related to the diversity of soil microbiota. To investigate the effect of soil bacterial on biodegradation, 4 bacterial strains of soil - Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Kocuria rosea, Cupriavidus necator and Bacillus cereus, were used to accelerate the decomposition of bioplastics manufactured from Polylactid acid (PLA) by direct action during 250 days. The best results were obtained with bacterial strains Cupriavidus necator and Pseudomonas chlororaphis that were isolated of lagoons with anthropogenic sediments.

  17. Rationale for the Coadministration of Albendazole and Ivermectin to Humans for Malaria Parasite Transmission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Exp Parasitol 88: 154–156. 86. Dow GS, O’Hara AJ, Newton SC, Reynoldson JA, Thompson RCA, 2000. Plasmodium berghei: the antimalarial activity of...Trichuris trichiura but not hookworm.18 Ivermectin exerts strongactivity againstAscaris,moderate activity againstTrichuris, andminimal tono effect against...programs and supported by global public health funding agencies. Albendazole belongs to the class of benzimidazole anthel- mintics that are active against

  18. Molecular and morphometric evidence for separate species of Uncinaria (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in California sea lions and northern fur seals: hypothesis testing supplants verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, S A; Adams, B J; Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R

    2000-10-01

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) are each believed to host distinct hookworm species (Uncinaria spp.). However, a recent morphometric analysis suggested that a single species parasitizes multiple pinniped hosts, and that the observed differences are host-induced. To explore the systematics of these hookworms and test these competing hypotheses, we obtained nucleotide sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (D2/D3 28S, D18/D19 28S, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS] regions) from 20 individual hookworms parasitizing California sea lion and northern fur seal pups where their breeding grounds are sympatric. Five individuals from an allopatric population of California sea lions were also sampled for ITS-1 and D18/D19 28S sequences. The 28S D2/D3 sequences showed no diagnostic differences among hookworms sampled from individual sea lions and fur seals, whereas the 28S D18/D19 sequences had one derived (apomorphic) character demarcating hookworms from northern fur seals. ITS sequences were variable for 7 characters, with 4 derived (apomorphic) states in ITS-1 demarcating hookworms from California sea lions. Multivariate analysis of morphometric data also revealed significant differences between nematodes representing these 2 host-associated lineages. These results indicate that these hookworms represent 2 species that are not distributed indiscriminately between these host species, but instead exhibit host fidelity, evolving independently with each respective host species. This evolutionary approach to analyzing sequence data for species delimitation is contrasted with similarity-based methods that have been applied to numerous diagnostic studies of nematode parasites.

  19. Jenis dan Perbandingan Tingkat Infeksi Cacing Parasit pada Feses Sapi di Rumah Potong Hewan (RPH) Siantar dengan Feses Sapi di Rumah Potong Hewan Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Mei Susanti

    2016-01-01

    Research about spesies and level comparison were examined of hookworm infection in cow feces between Slaughter house in Siantar and Medan is explained using Glass beads method. Twenty five samples of cow feces from 25 cows in three time recycling of each, the result shows that there were three kinds of hookworm for Slaughter house in Medan, Ascaris sp., Fasciola sp. and Paramphistomum sp. whereas fo Slaughter house in Siantar the result show that there were five kinds of hookworm, Bunostomum ...

  20. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American Sea Lions, Otaria flavescens, From Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Berón-Vera, B.; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Raga Esteve, Juan Antonio; Pedraza, S. N.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were...

  1. In vivo and in vitro studies of Cry5B and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist anthelmintics reveal a powerful and unique combination therapy against intestinal nematode parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soil-transmitted nematodes (STNs or helminths (hookworms, whipworms, large roundworms infect the intestines of ~1.5 billion of the poorest peoples and are leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only one class of anthelmintic or anti-nematode drugs, the benzimidazoles, is currently used in mass drug administrations, which is a dangerous situation. New anti-nematode drugs are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein Cry5B is a powerful, promising new candidate. Drug combinations, when properly made, are ideal for treating infectious diseases. Although there are some clinical trials using drug combinations against STNs, little quantitative and systemic work has been performed to define the characteristics of these combinations in vivo.Working with the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum-hamster infection system, we establish a laboratory paradigm for studying anti-nematode combinations in vivo using Cry5B and the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR agonists tribendimidine and pyrantel pamoate. We demonstrate that Cry5B strongly synergizes in vivo with both tribendimidine and pyrantel at specific dose ratios against hookworm infections. For example, whereas 1 mg/kg Cry5B and 1 mg/kg tribendimidine individually resulted in only a 0%-6% reduction in hookworm burdens, the combination of the two resulted in a 41% reduction (P = 0.020. Furthermore, when mixed at synergistic ratios, these combinations eradicate hookworm infections at doses where the individual doses do not. Using cyathostomin nematode parasites of horses, we find based on inhibitory concentration 50% values that a strongylid parasite population doubly resistant to nAChR agonists and benzimidazoles is more susceptible or "hypersusceptible" to Cry5B than a cyathostomin population not resistant to nAChR agonists, consistent with previous Caenhorhabditis elegans results.Our study provides a powerful means by which anthelmintic combination therapies can be examined in vivo

  2. Update on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of infection for soil-transmitted helminth infections in Latin America and the Caribbean: a call for action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Idalí Saboyá

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC at least 13.9 million preschool age and 35.4 million school age children are at risk of infections by soil-transmitted helminths (STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale. Although infections caused by this group of parasites are associated with chronic deleterious effects on nutrition and growth, iron and vitamin A status and cognitive development in children, few countries in the LAC Region have implemented nationwide surveys on prevalence and intensity of infection. The aim of this study was to identify gaps on the mapping of prevalence and intensity of STH infections based on data published between 2000 and 2010 in LAC, and to call for including mapping as part of action plans against these infections. A total of 335 published data points for STH prevalence were found for 18 countries (11.9% data points for preschool age children, 56.7% for school age children and 31.3% for children from 1 to 14 years of age. We found that 62.7% of data points showed prevalence levels above 20%. Data on the intensity of infection were found for seven countries. The analysis also highlights that there is still an important lack of data on prevalence and intensity of infection to determine the burden of disease based on epidemiological surveys, particularly among preschool age children. This situation is a challenge for LAC given that adequate planning of interventions such as deworming requires information on prevalence to determine the frequency of needed anthelmintic drug administration and to conduct monitoring and evaluation of progress in drug coverage.

  3. High latrine coverage is not reducing the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Aya; Jouquet, Pascal; Do, Trung Dung; Dang, Thi Cam Thach; Tran, Cong Dai; Orange, Didier; Montresor, Antonio

    2009-03-01

    A baseline epidemiological survey for parasite infections was conducted between December 2007 and January 2008 in 155 villagers in a rural commune in Hoa Binh province, Vietnam. The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infection was 13.5%, 45.2% and 58.1%, respectively. At least one of the parasites was detected in 72.3% of the samples. We found no association between infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura and engagement in agriculture, while hookworm infection was more prevalent in populations having frequent contact with soil. Agricultural use of human faeces was not correlated with any of the infections. We suggest that the consumption of vegetables that are commonly fertilized with human faeces in the community has led to the high infection rates with A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, rather than the manipulation of faeces in farming activity. This also explains the high infection prevalence, despite high latrine coverage (98.1%) in the study population. The presence of latrines alone is not sufficient to reduce the prevalence of helminthiasis in a rural agricultural community if fresh faeces are used as fertilizer.

  4. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between S. mansoni, hookworm and S. mansoni + hookworm with P. falciparum were investigated by fitting logistic regression model taking P. falciparum as response variable. Furthermore, co-infections analysis was investigated by fitting multinomial logistic regression model where all combination of ...

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths and management practices for dogs in the Greater Accra region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Ama Mawuko Johnson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariosis and ancylostomosis remain the most important parasitic infections affecting companion animals worldwide and pose a risk to animal and human health. Information on these infections in dogs in Ghana is inadequate. A cross sectional study was undertaken to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths infections and management practices of dogs in the Greater Accra Region (GAR of Ghana. Faecal samples were obtained from 380 dogs from communities in 11 out of 16 districts in the GAR. Coprological examination of the samples was performed using the modified McMaster technique. Management practices for control of helminths in dogs were assessed through questionnaire interviews of the dog owners. Most dogs (70.7% were kept for security reasons and were not housed (61.8%. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 62.6%. Hookworm eggs were found in 178 (46.8% dogs, Toxocara canis eggs in 22 (5.8% and mixed infections of hookworms and T. canis in 38 (10.0%. Dipylidium caninum was found in 51 (13.4% dogs, while Isospora species was in 33 (8.5% dogs. Most households (68%; 133/194 of the sampled dogs had at least a child below the age of 5 years. Hookworm, T. canis and D. caninum were the zoonotic gastrointestinal helminths prevalent in dogs in the study area. Lack of housing for dogs creates ideal conditions for infection and spread of the zoonotic parasites.

  7. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Julia B; Benton, Joanne; Julé, Amélie M; Guérin, Phillipe J; Olliaro, Piero L; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Walker, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT) by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO)'s policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs) caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale) which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD) permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance. We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data. We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV. We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for the

  8. Systematic review of studies generating individual participant data on the efficacy of drugs for treating soil-transmitted helminthiases and the case for data-sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia B Halder

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preventive chemotherapy and transmission control (PCT by mass drug administration is the cornerstone of the World Health Organization (WHO's policy to control soil-transmitted helminthiases (STHs caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm, Trichuris trichiura (whipworm and hookworm species (Necator americanus and Ancylostama duodenale which affect over 1 billion people globally. Despite consensus that drug efficacies should be monitored for signs of decline that could jeopardise the effectiveness of PCT, systematic monitoring and evaluation is seldom implemented. Drug trials mostly report aggregate efficacies in groups of participants, but heterogeneities in design complicate classical meta-analyses of these data. Individual participant data (IPD permit more detailed analysis of drug efficacies, offering increased sensitivity to identify atypical responses potentially caused by emerging drug resistance.We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies concluding after 2000 that collected IPD suitable for estimating drug efficacy against STH. We included studies that administered a variety of anthelmintics with follow ups less than 60 days after treatment. We estimated the number of IPD and extracted cohort- and study-level meta-data.We estimate that there exist individual data on approximately 35,000 participants from 129 studies conducted in 39 countries, including 34 out of 103 countries where PCT is recommended. We find significant heterogeneity in diagnostic methods, times of outcome assessment, and the reported measure of efficacy. We also quantify cohorts comprising pre-school age children, pregnant women, and co-infected participants, including with HIV.We argue that establishing a global IPD repository would improve the capacity to monitor and evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs, respond to changes and safeguard the ongoing effectiveness of PCT. Establishing a fair, transparent data governance policy will be key for

  9. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in rural south-west China: prevalence, intensity and risk factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofid, Layla S; Bickle, Quentin; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Du, Zun-Wei; Patrick, Edward

    2011-05-01

    Only few studies in rural China have explored the epidemiology of intestinal helminth infections and identified risk factors for transmission. The study was carried out in Simao and Mengla counties, where single fecal samples were collected from 317 school-aged children and from 94 inhabitants of a single village. Fecal specimens were examined with the Kato-Katz thick smear method and examined for helminth eggs. Data regarding socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors were collected using questionnaires. In Simao County the overall soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) prevalence was 40.2% (2.7, 5.4 and 35.7% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). The STH infection rates were significantly higher in Mengla County, with an overall prevalence of 68.3% (19.0, 34.6 and 47.3% for ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infection, respectively). Females were less likely to be infected with Trichuris trichiura (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.15-0.56) and with hookworms (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.33-0.93) than males. Hookworm infections were more prevalent among those 12 years of age or older (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.2-7.1). Children of mothers with educational attainment of secondary school or higher had a protective effect against T. trichiura (OR 0.18; 95% CI 0.06-0.54) and hookworm (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51) infections. In the village survey, hookworm was the most prevalent species (62.8%) with infection seen in those 50 years of age and older. Based on recommended intervention strategies by the World Health Organization, Simao County should opt for school-based deworming once each year, while Mengla County should implement a similar strategy biannually, but should include the elderly population.

  10. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary A Silver

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia.We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis.Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23% followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19% and hookworm (12%, 9-15%. Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh. When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24% and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%. Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63% and Ascaris (32%, 23-43% than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively. Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90% was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31% and Trichuris (22%, 14-34% were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16% was comparable.Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  11. Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Zachary A; Kaliappan, Saravanakumar P; Samuel, Prasanna; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Kang, Gagandeep; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ajjampur, Sitara S R

    2018-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases (NTD) worldwide. Since the publication of the WHO road map to combat NTD in 2012, there has been a renewed commitment to control STH. In this study, we analysed the geographical distribution and effect of community type on prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris and Ascaris in south Asia and south east Asia. We conducted a systematic review of open-access literature published in PubMed Central and the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection. A total of 4182 articles were available and after applying selection criteria, 174 studies from the region were retained for analysis. Ascaris was the commonest STH identified with an overall prevalence of 18% (95% CI, 14-23%) followed by Trichuris (14%, 9-19%) and hookworm (12%, 9-15%). Hookworm prevalence was highest in Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia. We found a geographical overlap in countries with high prevalence rates for Trichuris and Ascaris (Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar, Vietnam and Bangladesh). When the effect of community type was examined, prevalence rates of hookworm was comparable in rural (19%, 14-24%) and tribal communities (14%, 10-19%). Tribal communities, however, showed higher prevalence of Trichuris (38%, 18-63%) and Ascaris (32%, 23-43%) than rural communities (13%, 9-20% and 14%, 9-20% respectively). Considerable between and within country heterogeneity in the distribution of STH (I2 >90%) was also noted. When available data from school aged children (SAC) were analysed, prevalence of Ascaris (25% 16-31%) and Trichuris (22%, 14-34%) were higher than among the general population while that of hookworm (10%, 7-16%) was comparable. Our analysis showed significant variation in prevalence rates between and within countries in the region. Highlighting the importance of community type in prevalence and species mix, we showed that tribal and rural communities had higher hookworm infections than urban communities and for

  12. Molecular identification of Ancylostoma species from dogs and an assessment of zoonotic risk in low-income households, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Arbex, A P; David, E B; Oliveira-Sequeira, T C G; Katagiri, S; Coradi, S T; Guimarães, S

    2017-01-01

    Hookworm infection stands out for its worldwide distribution and for its veterinary and public health relevance. Based on copromicroscopic examinations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region, we assessed, respectively, the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the identification of canine hookworm species in faeces recovered from 278 dogs living in households of an inland municipality of São Paulo State, Brazil. Intestinal parasites were found in 67.3% of dogs and hookworm infection was found at the highest prevalence rate (56.6%), followed by Toxocara canis (11.9%), Isospora spp. (11.9%), Giardia spp. (5.8%), Sarcocystis spp. (4.0%), 'Hammondia-like' (1.4%), Dipylidium caninum (1.1%) and Trichuris vulpis (0.7%). Of 158 samples positive for hookworm eggs, 106 (67.1%) were amplified by PCR and, of those, 88 (55.7%) were successfully sequenced for species identification. Single infections with Ancylostoma caninum and Ancylostoma braziliense were recorded in 61.4% and 12.5%, respectively, and mixed infections were found in 26.1%. The nucleotide sequences of both species showed high identity rates (98-100%) when compared with reference sequences. Although A. caninum was the most prevalent hookworm in the dogs assessed, the occurrence of both A. caninum and A. braziliense in single and/or mixed infections poses a potential risk for the local population in a low-income area, especially children, to acquire cutaneous larva migrans (CLM).

  13. haplotypes of hookworms (Ancylostoma)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melanie

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... resulting tree, as well as their genetic distance from other samples .... E6. RTAYR1. 545. A. brasiliense. JQ083592. 18, 19. E7. RTAYR1. 545 ..... Traub RJ, Inpankaew T, Sutthikornchai C, Sukthana Y, Thompson RCA. (2008).

  14. Controlling Taenia solium and soil transmitted helminths in a northern Lao PDR village: Impact of a triple dose albendazole regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Amanda; Okello, Anna; Khamlome, Boualam; Inthavong, Phouth; Allen, John; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis-cysticercosis and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are parasitic Neglected Tropical Diseases endemic throughout Southeast Asia. Within Lao PDR, a remote northern hill tribe village had previously been identified as a hyper endemic focus for T. solium. To reduce this observed prevalence, a One Health intervention covering both pigs and humans was implemented, which included two Mass drug administrations (MDA1 and MDA2) for village residents using a triple dose albendazole 400mg treatment regime. In addition to the effect on T. solium levels, the dual impact of this anthelmintic regime on STHs within the community was also monitored. Faecal samples were collected pre and post MDA1 and MDA2 and analysed for the presence of Taenia species and the STHs Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm species. The McMaster technique was used to measure the changes in both prevalence and intensity of infection. Molecular characterisation of Taenia and hookworm species was conducted to detect zoonotic species. The level of taeniasis within the sampled population decreased by 79.4% after MDA1, remained steady during the five month inter-treatment interval and decreased again by 100% after MDA2. The prevalence of STHs decreased by 65.5% and 62.8% after MDA1 and MDA2 respectively; however an increase to 62.1% of pre MDA1 levels was detected during the inter-treatment interval. Individually, hookworm prevalence decreased by 83.4% (MDA1) and 84.5% (MDA2), A. lumbricoides by 95.6% and 93.5% and T. trichiura by 69.2% and 61%. The intensity of infection within the sampled population also decreased, with egg reduction rates of 94.4% and 97.8% for hookworm, 99.4% and 99.3% for A. lumbricoides and 77.2% and 88.5% for T. trichiura. Molecular characterisation identified a T. solium tapeworm carrier from 21.6% (13/60) of households in the village. T. saginata was identified in 5% (3/60) of households. The zoonotic hookworm A. ceylanicum was detected in the

  15. Waste cooking oil as substrate for biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate: Turning waste into a value-added product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Improper disposal of domestic wastes, such as waste cooking oil (WCO, contributes to the deterioration of the environment and may lead to health problems. In this study, we evaluated the potential of plant-based WCO as a carbon source for the commercial biosynthesis of the bio-plastics, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate. The consumption of WCO for this purpose would mitigate their pollution of the environment at the same time.Methodology and Results: WCO collected from several cafeterias in USM was tested as the carbon source for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA production. A selection of suitable nitrogen source was first conducted in order to obtain an acceptable number of dry cell weight (DCW and PHA content. Urea was found to be a suitable nitrogen source for the two bacterial strains used in our study, Cupriavidus necator H16 and its transformed mutant, C. necator PHB¯4 harboring the PHA synthase gene of Aeromonas caviae (PHB¯4/pBBREE32d13. With WCO as the sole carbon source, C. necator H16 yielded a relatively good dry cell weight (DCW=25.4 g/L, with 71 wt% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate P(3HBcontent. In comparison, the DCW obtained with fresh cooking oil (FCO was 24.8 g/L. The production of poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-3- hydroxyhexanoate [P(3HB-co-3HHx] from WCO by the transformant C. necator PHB¯4 was comparable, yielding a DCW of 22.3 g/L and P(3HB-co-3HHx content of 85 wt%. Lipase activities for both bacterial strains reached a maximum after 72 h of cultivation when time profile was conducted. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of WCO as a carbon source in the biosynthesis of the bioplastic, PHA, turns a polluting domestic waste into a value-added biodegradable product. This renewable source material can thus be exploited for the low cost production of PHA.

  16. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    23.9%), Ascaris lumbricoides. (23.2%) and Necator americanus (23.2%) were the most prevalent parasites in the population. Concomitant infections involving 1-4 parasite species were recorded. Most of the observed parasites were potentially.

  17. Efficacy of Single-Dose and Triple-Dose Albendazole and Mebendazole against Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Taenia spp.: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Du, Zun-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Jia-Xu; Hattendorf, Jan; Zhou, Hui; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections currently relies on the large-scale administration of single-dose oral albendazole or mebendazole. However, these treatment regimens have limited efficacy against hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in terms of cure rates (CR), whereas fecal egg reduction rates (ERR) are generally high for all common STH species. We compared the efficacy of single-dose versus triple-dose treatment against hookworm and other STHs in a community-based randomized controlled trial in the People's Republic of China. Methodology/Principal findings The hookworm CR and fecal ERR were assessed in 314 individuals aged ≥5 years who submitted two stool samples before and 3–4 weeks after administration of single-dose oral albendazole (400 mg) or mebendazole (500 mg) or triple-dose albendazole (3×400 mg over 3 consecutive days) or mebendazole (3×500 mg over 3 consecutive days). Efficacy against T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Taenia spp. was also assessed. Albendazole cured significantly more hookworm infections than mebendazole in both treatment regimens (single dose: respective CRs 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55–81%) and 29% (95% CI: 20–45%); triple dose: respective CRs 92% (95% CI: 81–98%) and 54% (95% CI: 46–71%)). ERRs followed the same pattern (single dose: 97% versus 84%; triple dose: 99.7% versus 96%). Triple-dose regimens outperformed single doses against T. trichiura; three doses of mebendazole – the most efficacious treatment tested – cured 71% (95% CI: 57–82%). Both single and triple doses of either drug were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (CR: 93–97%; ERR: all >99.9%). Triple dose regimens cured all Taenia spp. infections, whereas single dose applications cured only half of them. Conclusions/Significance Single-dose oral albendazole is more efficacious against hookworm than mebendazole. To achieve high CRs against both hookworm and T. trichiura, triple-dose regimens are

  18. Compost, fertilizer, and biogas production from human and farm wastes in the People's Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarry, M G; Stainforth, J [eds.

    1978-01-01

    This translation is divided into six parts: (1) The Practices and Management of Excreta and Farm Waste Composting, (2) Treatment of Livestock Manure and Human Waste for Reuse, (3) The Two-Partition Three-Tank Hygienic Toilet, (4) Construction of the Fixed Top Fully Enclosed Biogas Plant, (5) Research Results on the Effectiveness of Excreta Treatment in Biogas Plants, and (6) Biogas Production and Reuse from Farm and Human Wastes. A detailed description of the design and construction of fixed top, enclosed, three-stage biogas plants as well as the preparation of the building materials and accessories such as safety valves and gauges, biogas stores and lamps is presented. Safety precautions, examination procedures for water and gas leaks, the procedure of filling the plant, and proper treatment of the sludge and sediment are discussed. The results obtained on the effectiveness of these plants in settling out parasite eggs, in destroying hookworms and ascarid eggs and in totally eliminating schistosome flukes from the fecal liquid are described. It was also determined that the environment in the biogas plant greatly reduced the E. coli index, totally eliminated the Shigella bacillus and spirochetes in 30 hours and the typhoid B bacillus in 44 days. The use of a three-stage septic tank, which includes a biogas plant, in connection with pigpens and toilets is discussed. Particular attention is given to the location, size, structure and construction of the biogas tank. Descriptions of a safety pressure gauge and earthen-ware stoves and lamps operating on biogas are given.

  19. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grö tzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Eppinger, Jö rg

    2018-01-01

    extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall

  20. Spatial co-distribution of neglected tropical diseases in the East African Great Lakes region: revisiting the justification for integrated control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Archie C. A.; Deville, Marie-Alice; Ndayishimiye, Onésime; Brooker, Simon; Fenwick, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE To determine spatial patterns of co-endemicity of schistosomiasis mansoni and the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm in the Great Lakes region of East Africa, to help plan integrated neglected tropical disease programmes in this region. METHOD Parasitological surveys were conducted in Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya and Burundi in 28 213 children in 404 schools. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to interpolate prevalence of these infections across the study area. Interpolated prevalence maps were overlaid to determine areas of co-endemicity. RESULTS In the Great Lakes region, prevalence was 18.1% for Schistosoma mansoni, 50.0% for hookworm, 6.8% for A. lumbricoides and 6.8% for T. trichiura. Hookworm infection was ubiquitous, whereas S. mansoni, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura were highly focal. Most areas were endemic (prevalence ≥10%) or hyperendemic (prevalence ≥50%) for one or more STHs, whereas endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni were restricted to foci adjacent large perennial water bodies. CONCLUSION Because of the ubiquity of hookworm, treatment programmes are required for STH throughout the region but efficient schistosomiasis control should only be targeted at limited high-risk areas. Therefore, integration of schistosomiasis with STH control is only indicated in limited foci in East Africa. PMID:20409287

  1. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Tran D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners

  2. Relationship between intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Renee; Casapia, Martin; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Gyorkos, Theresa W

    2005-10-01

    A direct relationship exists between the intensity of hookworm infection and blood loss. Other parasites may also contribute to blood loss. Our objective was to assess the relationship between the intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections and anemia in pregnant women in a highly endemic area of Peru. Recruitment occurred between April and November 2003. Overall, 47.31% of 1,042 women had anemia (hemoglobin anemia. However, those infected with moderate and heavy intensities of hookworm infection (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.06, 3.17) and those with moderate and heavy intensities of both hookworm and Trichuris infections (OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.10, 4.13) were more likely to suffer from anemia than women having no or light intensities. These results support routine anthelminthic treatment within prenatal care programs in highly endemic areas.

  3. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  5. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eNesler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB, against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  6. A complex protein derivative acts as biogenic elicitor of grapevine resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; Perazzolli, Michele; Puopolo, Gerardo; Giovannini, Oscar; Elad, Yigal; Pertot, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe necator is one of the most important grapevine diseases in several viticulture areas, and high fungicide input is required to control it. However, numerous synthetic chemical pesticides are under scrutiny due to concerns about their impact on human health and the environment. Biopesticides, such as biogenic elicitors, are a promising alternative to chemical fungicides. Although several studies have reported on effective elicitors against grapevine diseases, their efficacy under field conditions has not been investigated extensively or has occurred at rather limited levels. Our goal was to examine the efficacy of a protein-based composition, namely nutrient broth (NB), against powdery mildew under field conditions and to characterize its mechanism of action. Weekly treatments with NB was highly effective in controlling powdery mildew on grapevine across seasons with different disease pressures. The level of disease control achieved with NB was comparable to standard fungicide treatments both on leaves and bunches across three different years. NB has no direct toxic effect on the germination of E. necator conidia, and it activates plant resistance with both systemic and translaminar effect in experiments with artificial inoculation under controlled conditions. NB induced the expression of defense-related genes in grapevine, demonstrating stimulation of plant defense mechanisms, prior to and in the early stages of pathogen infection. NB is a natural derivative from meat and yeast, substances that tend not to raise concerns about toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. NB represents a valid control tool for integrated plant protection programs against powdery mildew, to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides on grapevine.

  7. Strategies for RUN1 Deployment Using RUN2 and REN2 to Manage Grapevine Powdery Mildew Informed by Studies of Race Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Kocsis, Marianna; Riaz, Summaira; Zhang, Wei; Gadoury, David M; Walker, M Andrew; Dry, Ian B; Reisch, Bruce; Cadle-Davidson, Lance

    2015-08-01

    The Toll/interleukin-1 receptor nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat gene, "resistance to Uncinula necator 1" (RUN1), from Vitis rotundifolia was recently identified and confirmed to confer resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus Erysiphe necator (syn. U. necator) in transgenic V. vinifera cultivars. However, sporulating powdery mildew colonies and cleistothecia of the heterothallic pathogen have been found on introgression lines containing the RUN1 locus growing in New York (NY). Two E. necator isolates collected from RUN1 vines were designated NY1-131 and NY1-137 and were used in this study to inform a strategy for durable RUN1 deployment. In order to achieve this, fitness parameters of NY1-131 and NY1-137 were quantified relative to powdery mildew isolates collected from V. rotundifolia and V. vinifera on vines containing alleles of the powdery mildew resistance genes RUN1, RUN2, or REN2. The results clearly demonstrate the race specificity of RUN1, RUN2, and REN2 resistance alleles, all of which exhibit programmed cell death (PCD)-mediated resistance. The NY1 isolates investigated were found to have an intermediate virulence on RUN1 vines, although this may be allele specific, while the Musc4 isolate collected from V. rotundifolia was virulent on all RUN1 vines. Another powdery mildew resistance locus, RUN2, was previously mapped in different V. rotundifolia genotypes, and two alleles (RUN2.1 and RUN2.2) were identified. The RUN2.1 allele was found to provide PCD-mediated resistance to both an NY1 isolate and Musc4. Importantly, REN2 vines were resistant to the NY1 isolates and RUN1REN2 vines combining both genes displayed additional resistance. Based on these results, RUN1-mediated resistance in grapevine may be enhanced by pyramiding with RUN2.1 or REN2; however, naturally occurring isolates in North America display some virulence on vines with these resistance genes. The characterization of additional resistance sources is needed to identify

  8. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  9. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  10. Complex Interactions between soil-transmitted helminths and malaria in pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld Boel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Deworming is recommended by the WHO in girls and pregnant and lactating women to reduce anaemia in areas where hookworm and anaemia are common. There is conflicting evidence on the harm and the benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and consequently on the risks and benefits of deworming in malaria affected populations. We examined the association between geohelminths and malaria in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border.Routine antenatal care (ANC included active detection of malaria (weekly blood smear and anaemia (second weekly haematocrit and systematic reporting of birth outcomes. In 1996 stool samples were collected in cross sectional surveys from women attending the ANCs. This was repeated in 2007 when malaria incidence had reduced considerably. The relationship between geohelminth infection and the progress and outcome of pregnancy was assessed.Stool sample examination (339 in 1996, 490 in 2007 detected a high prevalence of geohelminths 70% (578/829, including hookworm (42.8% (355, A. lumbricoides (34.4% (285 and T.trichuria (31.4% (250 alone or in combination. A lower proportion of women (829 had mild (21.8% (181 or severe (0.2% (2 anaemia, or malaria 22.4% (186 (P.vivax monoinfection 53.3% (101/186. A. lumbricoides infection was associated with a significantly decreased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.23-0.84 and P.vivax malaria (AOR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79 whereas hookworm infection was associated with an increased risk of malaria (any species (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.06-2.60 and anaemia (AOR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.18-4.93. Hookworm was also associated with low birth weight (AOR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02-3.23.A. lumbricoides and hookworm appear to have contrary associations with malaria in pregnancy.

  11. Various Stages of Pink Fungus (Upasia salmonicolor in Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarwati Harsojo Tjokrosoedarmo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Pink fungus in Java is classified as Upasia salmonicolor (Basidiomycetes: Corticiaceae and its anamorph is Necator decretus. This fungus is a serious pathogen which attacks many woody plants. The pink fungus in Java exhibits five developmental stages on the surface of the host bark: I. An initial cobweb stage as thin, white, cobweb-like hyphal layer, which creeps over the surface of the bark, during which penetration of the host occurs; II. Pseudonodular stage, as conical white pustules occurring only on lenticels or cracks, and only on shady side of branches; III. Teleomorph, occurs as pink incrustation and pink pustules on shady side of branches; IV. Nodular stages, as globose white pustules occurring chiefly on intact bark, but also on the lenticels or cracks, on exposed side of branches; V. Anamorph, as small orange-red sporodochium, on exposed side of branches. Key words: pink fungus, Corticiaceae, Basidiomycetes, Necator

  12. A randomised controlled trial of the effects of albendazole in pregnancy on maternal responses to mycobacterial antigens and infant responses to bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation [ISRCTN32849447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nampijja Margaret

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal schistosomiasis and filariasis have been shown to influence infant responses to neonatal bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunisation but the effects of maternal hookworm, and of de-worming in pregnancy, are unknown. Methods In Entebbe, Uganda, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 400 mg of albendazole in the second trimester of pregnancy. Neonates received BCG. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-5 responses to a mycobacterial antigen (crude culture filtrate proteins (CFP of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were measured in a whole blood assay. We analysed results for binary variables using χ2 tests and logistic regression. We analysed continuous variables using Wilcoxon's tests. Results Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to CFP (adjusted odds ratio for IFN-γ > median response: 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.02–0.83, p = 0.021. Conversely, maternal hookworm was associated with subsequent increased IFN-γ responses in their one-year-old infants (adjusted OR 17.65 (1.20–258.66; p = 0.013. Maternal albendazole tended to reduce these effects. Conclusion Untreated hookworm infection in pregnancy was associated with reduced maternal IFN-γ responses to mycobacterial antigens, but increased responses in their infants one year after BCG immunisation. The mechanisms of these effects, and their implications for protective immunity remain, to be determined.

  13. Effectiveness of copper sulfate, potassium permanganate, and peracetic acid to reduce mortality and infestation of Ichthyobodo nector in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque 1818)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichthyobodo necator is a single celled bi-flagellate parasite, and in high density can causes significant mortality in young fish. Copper sulfate (CuSO4), potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and peracetic acid (PAA) were evaluated for effectiveness against ichthyobodosis. Treatments were: untreated con...

  14. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: II.Clinical Symptomatology, Effects of Drugs, especially of Iron Compounds, with Relation to the Severity of Artificial Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul

    1967-01-01

    This study was aimed; firstly to observe various clinical symptomatology with relation to the number of Ancylostoma duodenale larvae orally given to the human beings, secondly to evaluate the effects of some drugs like steroid hormones, antihistaminics and antitussives, and, thirdly to study the influences of some iron compounds in prevention and treatment of anemia of such origin. Ten healthy volunteers free from the previous history of hookworm infection were divided into 4 groups, to whom various numbers of actively moving filariform Ancylostoma duodenale larvae were orally given; 500 to 4 cases, 250 to 3 cases and 100 to 3 cases. Following were the results: 1. Clinical symptomatology. 1) The most frequently encountered symptoms and signs were general malaise, cough and hoarseness. The tracheal itching and pain, low back pain, arthralgia, sputum and salivation, acid belching, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and vomiting were also noted. 2) If the larger number of the larvae was given, the clinical symptomatology was more severe. 3) Prednisolone medication caused some improvement of such symptomatology, while the antihistaminics and antitussives like codeine or ephedrine were ineffective. 4) In volunteers whose nutritional conditions were rather poor appeared to show more severe symptomatology. 2. Effects of iron compounds. 1) The oral administration of ferrous fumarate induced a slight increase of serum iron levels in the initial stage of the infection, then a decrease from 15-20 days later and a recovery after 2 months. 2) The intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide induced a steady upkeep of the serum iron levels. 3) The hemoglobin contents also showed the upkeeps after either the oral or intravenous administration of the iron compounds. 4) The iron compounds, therefore, are considered to have the preventive as well as the therapeutic effects on hookworm anemia, which may strongly suggest that hookworm anemia is essentially the iron deficiency

  15. Studies on Ancylostomiasis: II.Clinical Symptomatology, Effects of Drugs, especially of Iron Compounds, with Relation to the Severity of Artificial Infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Dong Jip; Lee, Jang Kyu; Seo, Byong Sul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1967-09-15

    This study was aimed; firstly to observe various clinical symptomatology with relation to the number of Ancylostoma duodenale larvae orally given to the human beings, secondly to evaluate the effects of some drugs like steroid hormones, antihistaminics and antitussives, and, thirdly to study the influences of some iron compounds in prevention and treatment of anemia of such origin. Ten healthy volunteers free from the previous history of hookworm infection were divided into 4 groups, to whom various numbers of actively moving filariform Ancylostoma duodenale larvae were orally given; 500 to 4 cases, 250 to 3 cases and 100 to 3 cases. Following were the results: 1. Clinical symptomatology. 1) The most frequently encountered symptoms and signs were general malaise, cough and hoarseness. The tracheal itching and pain, low back pain, arthralgia, sputum and salivation, acid belching, loss of appetite, abdominal pain and vomiting were also noted. 2) If the larger number of the larvae was given, the clinical symptomatology was more severe. 3) Prednisolone medication caused some improvement of such symptomatology, while the antihistaminics and antitussives like codeine or ephedrine were ineffective. 4) In volunteers whose nutritional conditions were rather poor appeared to show more severe symptomatology. 2. Effects of iron compounds. 1) The oral administration of ferrous fumarate induced a slight increase of serum iron levels in the initial stage of the infection, then a decrease from 15-20 days later and a recovery after 2 months. 2) The intravenous administration of saccharated ferric oxide induced a steady upkeep of the serum iron levels. 3) The hemoglobin contents also showed the upkeeps after either the oral or intravenous administration of the iron compounds. 4) The iron compounds, therefore, are considered to have the preventive as well as the therapeutic effects on hookworm anemia, which may strongly suggest that hookworm anemia is essentially the iron deficiency

  16. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Meurs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared.A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303 was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC, Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96% harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49% harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%, the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected.We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence

  17. Diagnosing Polyparasitism in a High-Prevalence Setting in Beira, Mozambique: Detection of Intestinal Parasites in Fecal Samples by Microscopy and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurs, Lynn; Polderman, Anton M; Vinkeles Melchers, Natalie V S; Brienen, Eric A T; Verweij, Jaco J; Groosjohan, Bernhard; Mendes, Felisberto; Mechendura, Manito; Hepp, Dagmar H; Langenberg, Marijke C C; Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Many different intestinal parasite species can co-occur in the same population. However, classic diagnostic tools can only frame a particular group of intestinal parasite species. Hence, one or two tests do not suffice to provide a complete picture of infecting parasite species in a given population. The present study investigated intestinal parasitic infections in Beira, Mozambique, i.e. in the informal settlement of Inhamudima. Diagnostic accuracy of five classical microscopy techniques and real-time PCR for the detection of a broad spectrum of parasites was compared. A cross-sectional population-based survey was performed. One stool sample per participant (n = 303) was examined by direct smear, formal-ether concentration (FEC), Kato smear, Baermann method, coproculture and real-time PCR. We found that virtually all people (96%) harbored at least one helminth, and that almost half (49%) harbored three helminths or more. Remarkably, Strongyloides stercoralis infections were widespread with a prevalence of 48%, and Ancylostoma spp. prevalence was higher than that of Necator americanus (25% versus 15%), the hookworm species that is often assumed to prevail in East-Africa. Among the microscopic techniques, FEC was able to detect the broadest spectrum of parasite species. However, FEC also missed a considerable number of infections, notably S. stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and G. intestinalis. PCR outperformed microscopy in terms of sensitivity and range of parasite species detected. We showed intestinal parasites-especially helminths-to be omnipresent in Inhamudima, Beira. However, it is a challenge to achieve high diagnostic sensitivity for all species. Classical techniques such as FEC are useful for the detection of some intestinal helminth species, but they lack sensitivity for other parasite species. PCR can detect intestinal parasites more accurately but is generally not feasible in resource-poor settings, at least not in peripheral labs. Hence, there is a

  18. [The prevalence of intestinal parasitism in native villages of the Tembé tribe, the Brazilian eastern Amazon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R dos A; Xavier, F B; Nascimento, J R; de Menezes, R C

    1999-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in the Tembé settlements, parasitological examination was performed in December 1996 in the entire population (93 Indians). Hookworms were found in 29.0%, A. lumbricoides in 34.4%, E. histolytica in 12.9%, and G. lamblia in 4.3% of the individuals. The Turé-Mariquita settlement had the highest prevalence of hookworms and A. lumbricoides, while Acará-Mirim had the highest prevalence of E. histolytica and G. lamblia. No differences in mean age were found between Indians with parasites and Indians without parasites. The association between intestinal parasites and sex was nonsignificant, except for the prevalence of hookworms, which was very high in males (38.6%) compared to females (20.4%). The study showed a high prevalence of some intestinal parasites in the Tembé settlements, indicating that primary and secondary health measures should taken immediately for the prevention of intestinal parasitoses.

  19. [Survey and analysis of epidemic status of principal human parasitosis in ecological region of Huaiyang hills of Henan Province in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-Lan, Zhang; Yan-Kun, Zhu; Wei-Qi, Chen; Yan, Deng; Xi-Meng, Lin; Peng, Li; Hong-Wei, Zhang

    2017-07-24

    To understand the epidemic status of principal human parasitosis in the ecological region of Huaiyang hills of Henan Province. According to the scheme of The 3rd National Survey of Principal Human Parasites made by National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, the survey was performed based on the ecological regions. The stratified cluster sampling was made combined with the economic and geographical conditions. The infections of intestinal helminths and protozoans in permanent residents were respectively detected by Kato-Kats technique and iodine solution. Trichuris trichiura infection was detected by the cellophane swab method in children aged 3 to 6 years. Totally 6 710 residents in 26 survey spots from 9 counties were detected, in which 528 children aged 3 to 6 years were detected for T. trichiura infection. Eleven kinds of parasites were found in this survey, including 5 species of helminthes and 6 species of protozoans. The infection rates of overall parasites, helminthes and protozoans were respectively 1.65%, 1.07% and 0.61%. The infection rate of T. trichiura in the children aged 3 to 6 years was 3.79%. Only 0.10 percent of the infections were co-infection, and all were infected by 2 kinds of parasites. The principal parasites in this district were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.31%), Blastocystis hominis (0.28%) and hookworm (0.27%). The T. trichiura infection rate among children was 3.79% by the cellophane swab method. The infections of protozoans were found in all age groups. In the group aged 9 years and below, the maximum kinds of parasites were found. The infection rates of principal human parasites in Huaiyang hilly ecological region of Henan have decreased sharply, but more efforts still should be paid on the prevention and control of parasitosis in children.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites in stray and shelter cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats. Centrifugal sedimentation and flotation techniques were used. The frequency of parasites among the stray cats was 77.3%, and this was significantly higher than the frequency observed in captive cats (49.5%. Helminths were detected more frequently, and hookworms were the parasites most detected. Toxocara cati, Cystoisospora sp. and Dipylidium caninum were also detected. No statistical difference in the frequency of parasites was observed between the sexes among the captive cats. However, among the stray cats, males (85.5% presented higher positivity than females (71.8%. The high frequency of hookworms, which are the agent for “cutaneous larva migrans” in humans, shows the need to control parasitic infections among the cats studied.

  1. Organisational Problems in Planning Educational Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Directorate for Scientific Affairs.

    Papers submitted to a meeting of economists, educators, and government officials discuss the organizational implications of the link between education and economic growth. Following an introduction by Henning Friis, the authors and titles of the papers are (1) Necat Erder, "Some Administrative Problems in Educational Planning," (2) Raymond…

  2. Current status of soil-transmitted helminths in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; De, Nguyen Van; Konradsen, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    is more evenly distributed throughout the country, but is concentrated in peri-urban and rural agricultural areas. Vegetable cultivation in which nightsoil is used as fertilizer is a risk factor for hookworm infection, especially among adult women. Helminth control programs should be targeted at school......-age children in the northern provinces. Specific interventions are needed throughout the country for women of agricultural communities that are at risk for hookworm infection. There is clearly a need for more detailed analysis of risk factors to quantify the relative contribution of climatic, environmental...

  3. Rapid Re-Infection with Soil-Transmitted Helminths after Triple-Dose Albendazole Treatment of School-Aged Children in Yunnan, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Peiling; Du, Zun-Wei; Wu, Fang-Wei; Jiang, Jin-Yong; Chen, Ran; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Post-treatment soil-transmitted helminth re-infection patterns were studied as part of a randomized controlled trial among school-aged children from an ethnic minority group in Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Children with a soil-transmitted helminth infection (N = 194) were randomly assigned to triple-dose albendazole or placebo and their infection status monitored over a 6-month period using the Kato-Katz and Baermann techniques. Baseline prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Strongyloides stercoralis were 94.5%, 93.3%, 61.3%, and 3.1%, respectively, with more than half of the participants harboring triple-species infections. For the intervention group (N = 99), the 1-month post-treatment cure rates were 96.7%, 91.5%, and 19.6% for hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura, respectively. Egg reduction rates were above 88% for all three species. Rapid re-infection with A. lumbricoides was observed: the prevalence 4 and 6 months post-treatment was 75.8% and 83.8%, respectively. Re-infection with hookworm and T. trichiura was considerably slower. PMID:23690551

  4. Comparative biology of Uncinaria spp. in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Gulland, F M; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C; Spraker, T R

    2000-12-01

    Studies on several aspects of the life cycle of hookworms (Uncinaria spp.) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) were conducted on material collected on San Miguel Island (SMI), California and at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California in 1997, 1998, and 1999. Examination of Z. californianus intestines for adult hookworms and feces for eggs revealed that longevity of these parasites in pups is about 6-8 mo, and infections are probably not present in older sea lions. Parasitic third-stage larvae (L3) were recovered from the ventral abdominal tissue of Z. californianus, suggesting transmammary transmission. Callorhinus ursinus pups had no hookworm eggs in their feces or adult worms (except for 1 probable contaminant) in their intestines in the fall and early winter, revealing that adult Uncinaria spp. are spontaneously lost at <3 mo of age of the pups. Sand samples from rookeries, used by both Z. californianus and C. ursinus, on SMI were negative for free-living, L3 in summer months but positive in fall and winter months, indicating seasonality occurred.

  5. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  6. Modelling the geographical distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Malone, John B; Bavia, Mara E; Nieto, Prixia; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-25

    The prevalence of infection with the three common soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) in Bolivia is among the highest in Latin America. However, the spatial distribution and burden of soil-transmitted helminthiasis are poorly documented. We analysed historical survey data using Bayesian geostatistical models to identify determinants of the distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, predict the geographical distribution of infection risk, and assess treatment needs and costs in the frame of preventive chemotherapy. Rigorous geostatistical variable selection identified the most important predictors of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm transmission. Results show that precipitation during the wettest quarter above 400 mm favours the distribution of A. lumbricoides. Altitude has a negative effect on T. trichiura. Hookworm is sensitive to temperature during the coldest month. We estimate that 38.0%, 19.3%, and 11.4% of the Bolivian population is infected with A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and hookworm, respectively. Assuming independence of the three infections, 48.4% of the population is infected with any soil-transmitted helminth. Empirical-based estimates, according to treatment recommendations by the World Health Organization, suggest a total of 2.9 million annualised treatments for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Bolivia. We provide estimates of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Bolivia based on high-resolution spatial prediction and an innovative variable selection approach. However, the scarcity of the data suggests that a national survey is required for more accurate mapping that will govern spatial targeting of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control.

  7. Diversity of human intestinal helminthiasis in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayasone, Somphou; Vonghajack, Youthanavane; Vanmany, Monely; Rasphone, Oroth; Tesana, Smarn; Utzinger, Jürg; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Food-borne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, including in Lao PDR. We investigated the diversity of intestinal helminthes and polyparasitism in patients with hepatobiliary or intestinal symptoms in hospital and community-based surveys. Stool samples from 232 individuals aged >or=15 years were examined by the Kato-Katz method (three samples) and a formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique (one sample). Opisthorchis viverrini and minute intestinal flukes (MIF) were common, with prevalences of 86.2% and 62.9%, respectively. Hookworm was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth (65.9%). The prevalences of Taenia spp., Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were 22.8%, 10.3% and 8.6%, respectively. Additionally, 97 individuals were purged; O. viverrini and Haplorchis taichui were found in 95 and 76 participants, respectively. Other trematodes included Phaneropsolus bonnei (22.7%), Prosthodendrium molenkampi (14.4%), Haplorchis pumilio (5.2%), Haplorchis yokogawai (3.1%) and Echinochasmus japonicus (3.1%). Co-infection with O. viverrini and MIFs was rampant (81.4%). Polytrematode infection is highly prevalent in Lao PDR and hence requires urgent attention.

  8. Photomicrographic images of some features of Uncinaria spp (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from otariid pinnipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L

    2005-03-01

    Photomicrographs of several morphologic features of hookworms (Uncinaria spp) from northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups are presented. The main purpose is to show and describe some physical characteristics of hookworms from the two hosts; it is not to decide from these attributes whether the Uncinaria spp are the same species. The number of species of Uncinaria in pinnipeds is uncertain and specimens need to be examined from the various infected seals and sea lions before the taxonomy of these parasites can be clarified. Information in the present paper should aid in this determination.

  9. A new biological recovery approach for PHA using mealworm, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Paramasivam; Han, Lizhu; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Maurer, Frans H J; Sudesh, Kumar

    2016-12-10

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are expensive partly due to the recovery and purification processes. Thus, many studies have been carried out in order to minimize the cost. Here we report on the use of mealworm, which is the larva of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) to recover PHA granules from Cupriavidus necator. Mealworms were shown to readily consume the freeze-dried C. necator cells and excrete the PHA granules in the form of whitish feces. Further purification using water, detergent and heat resulted in almost 100% pure PHA granules. Comparison with chloroform extraction showed no signs of reduction in the molecular weight and dispersion of the PHA molecules. Scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the biologically recovered PHA granules retained their native spherical morphology. The PHA granules were subjected to a battery of tests to determine their purity and properties in comparison to the chloroform extracted PHA. This study has demonstrated the possibility of using mealworms as a biological agent to partially purify the PHA granules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Salem Al Rowaihi

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  11. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem; Paillier, Alexis; Rasul, Shahid; Karan, Ram; Grötzinger, Stefan Wolfgang; Eppinger, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:29698424

  12. Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. (Ichthyobodonidae, Kinetoplastida), an euryhaline ectoparasite infecting Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISAKSEN, TROND E.; KARLSBAKK, EGIL; WATANABE, KUNINORI; NYLUND, ARE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences have previously revealed the existence of 2 Ichthyobodo species able to infect Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Ichthyobodo necator sensu stricto (s.s.) is assumed to be a freshwater parasite, while a genetically distinct but undescribed species, Ichthyobodo sp. II sensu Todal et al. (2004) have been detected on Atlantic salmon in both fresh- and seawater. In the present study a morphological description of Ichthyobodo sp. II from the gills of salmon reared in fresh-, brackish- and seawater is presented, using both light- and electron microscopy. Comparative morphometry show that Ichthyobodo sp. II from both freshwater and seawater displays a different cell shape, and is significantly smaller than I. necator s.s. Also, ultrastructural characteristics distinguish these two species, notably differences in the attachment region and the presence of spine-like surface projections in Ichthyobodo sp. II. Based on both unique SSU rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we conclude that Ichthyobodo sp. II. represents a novel species for which we propose the name Ichthyobodo salmonis sp. n. PMID:21756424

  13. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production in an integrated electromicrobial setup: Investigation under stress-inducing conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Al Rowaihi, Israa Salem

    2018-04-26

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable polymer, can be produced by different microorganisms. The PHB belongs to the family of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) that mostly accumulates as a granule in the cytoplasm of microorganisms to store carbon and energy. In this study, we established an integrated one-pot electromicrobial setup in which carbon dioxide is reduced to formate electrochemically, followed by sequential microbial conversion into PHB, using the two model strains, Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 and Cupriavidus necator H16. This setup allows to investigate the influence of different stress conditions, such as coexisting electrolysis, relatively high salinity, nutrient limitation, and starvation, on the production of PHB. The overall PHB production efficiency was analyzed in reasonably short reaction cycles typically as short as 8 h. As a result, the PHB formation was detected with C. necator H16 as a biocatalyst only when the electrolysis was operated in the same solution. The specificity of the source of PHB production is discussed, such as salinity, electricity, concurrent hydrogen production, and the possible involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

  14. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  15. Pathogenia da anemia na Ancylostomose: III - modificações hematicas e organicas, provocadas pelas simples eliminação do Ancylostomo e do Necator, em individuos fortemente anemiados Pathogenesis of Anaemia in Hookworm Disease: III - hematic and organic modifications, induced by mere elimination of Anchylostoma and Necator, in individuals presenting intense anaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Cruz

    1934-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudamos sob um ponto de vista hematologico, 10 casos puros de Ancylostomose, durante um largo tempo. Um dos doentes foi observado por mais de 2 annos, justificando esta larga observação a segurança que almejavamos alcançar de que a simples eliminação dos helminthos não trouxesse nenhuma modificação hematica, mesmo longiqua. O estudo hematologico constou de 200 exames rotineiros (determinação do numero de globulos, da taxa de Hb., do hematocrito, e, em muitos casos, da taxa dos reticulocytos e exame de esfregaços, praticados em todos os doentes, e de determinações da resistencia globular e outras pesquizas hematologicas praticadas em alguns delles. A grande parte do estudo constou de uma minuciosa (observação sanguinea e clinica dos casos, antes e após administração de vermifugos, até uma completa eliminação dos parasitos intestinaes. Procurou-se averiguar tambem, por meio da administração de diversas dietas, a influencia sobre o quadro hematico da dita eliminação combinada ao effeito de differentes factores nutritivos contidos nestas dietas. Procuramos verificar os phenomenos regenerativos com a administração de ferro, e tambem tivemos opportunidade de observar a marcha da anemia, e assim confirmar resultados que já publicamos. Os resultados mostraram a importancia da absorpção dos medicamentos vermicidas empregados, e por isso focalizamos varios factos similares, procurando relacional-os com aquelle aqui verificado. Discutimos a seguir o methodo therapeutico á luz dos resultados apresentados, e nos referimos á importancia destes na elucidação correcta de pathogenia da doença.We studied, from the hematological viewpoint, 10 straightforward cases of anchylostomiasis for a long time. One of tha patients was under observation for more than 2 years, this ample observation being justified by the reliability at which we aimed that the mere elimination of helminthes conveys no hematic modification, not even a remote one. The hematological study consisted of 200 routine examinations (determination of the number of red cells, of Hb. rate, hematokrit, and in many a case of the rate of reticulocytosis and examination of slides, practised on all our patients, and of determinations of globular resistance and other hematological investigations practised in some of our cases. The greater part of our study consisted in a careful observation of the blood and of the clinical symptoms of our cases, prior to and after the administration of vermifuges until complete elimination of the intestinal parasites. By means of various diets we also sought to verify the influence on the hematic aspect of the said elimination combined with the effect of different nutritive factors contained in these diets. We endeavoured to verify the regenerative phenomena after iron adminisration and we also had the opportunity of observing the course of the anemia and of confirming thus the results already published. The results showed the importance of the absorption of the vermicidal medicaments employed and therefore we focalized several similar facts endeavouring to connect them with the fact here verified. We then discussed the therapeutical method in the light of the results presented, and we referred to the importance of same for the correct elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease.

  16. Gene clusters involved in isethionate degradation by terrestrial and marine bacteria.

    KAUST Repository

    Weinitschke, Sonja; Sharma, Pia I; Stingl, Ulrich; Cook, Alasdair M; Smits, Theo H M

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitous isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate) is dissimilated by diverse bacteria. Growth of Cupriavidus necator H16 with isethionate was observed, as was inducible membrane-bound isethionate dehydrogenase (IseJ) and inducible transcription of the genes predicted to encode IseJ and a transporter (IseU). Biodiversity in isethionate transport genes was observed and investigated by transcription experiments.

  17. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Petry

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0 and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0, respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age, and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  18. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F.; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia. PMID:27827838

  19. The Proportion of Anemia Associated with Iron Deficiency in Low, Medium, and High Human Development Index Countries: A Systematic Analysis of National Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nicolai; Olofin, Ibironke; Hurrell, Richard F; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P; Moursi, Mourad; Donahue Angel, Moira; Rohner, Fabian

    2016-11-02

    Iron deficiency is commonly assumed to cause half of all cases of anemias, with hereditary blood disorders and infections such as hookworm and malaria being the other major causes. In countries ranked as low, medium, and high by the Human Development Index, we conducted a systematic review of nationally representative surveys that reported the prevalence of iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, and anemia among pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age. Using random effects meta-analyses techniques, data from 23 countries for pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age was pooled, and the proportion of anemia attributable to iron deficiency was estimated by region, inflammation exposure, anemia prevalence, and urban/rural setting. For pre-school children and non-pregnant women of reproductive age, the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was 25.0% (95% CI: 18.0, 32.0) and 37.0% (95% CI: 28.0, 46.0), respectively. The proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency was lower in countries where anemia prevalence was >40%, especially in rural populations (14% for pre-school children; 16% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age), and in countries with very high inflammation exposure (20% for pre-school children; 25% for non-pregnant women of reproductive age). Despite large heterogeneity, our analyses suggest that the proportion of anemia associated with iron deficiency is lower than the previously assumed 50% in countries with low, medium, or high Human Development Index ranking. Anemia-reduction strategies and programs should be based on an analysis of country-specific data, as iron deficiency may not always be the key determinant of anemia.

  20. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in remote villages in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humpress Harrington

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH in residents of remote communities in Solomon Islands. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience-sampled survey of residents of four adjacent villages in Malaita, Solomon Islands was performed in Atoifi and Na’au in April 2011 and in Abitona and Sifilo in April 2012. All residents older than one year were invited to participate, which involved providing a single sample of faeces examined using a modified Kato-Katz technique and completing a questionnaire that asked demographic and STH-related behaviour questions. Results: The overall participation rate was 52.8%, with 402 participants comprising 49.8% males. Hookworm was the predominant STH with only a single case of trichuriasis found in Atoifi. The total prevalence of hookworm was 22.6% (95% confidence interval: 18.6–27.1; the prevalence of hookworm in Abitona, Na’au and Sifilo was 20.0%, 29.9% and 27.4%, respectively, whereas in Atoifi it was 2.3% (P < 0.001. Intensity was low in all villages. Although health behaviours differed significantly between Atoifi and the other three villages, the type of toilet used was the only significant association with hookworm. Discussion: Residents of Atoifi have a relative freedom from STH compared to the other three villages. Rather than a region-wide morbidity control approach, a “one village at a time” approach aiming to eliminate STH and dealing with each village as a separate autonomous unit empowered to manage its own challenges may be a preferred option.

  1. Associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia in pregnancy and helminth, malaria and HIV infection in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhangi, Lawrence; Woodburn, Patrick; Omara, Mildred; Omoding, Nicholas; Kizito, Dennison; Mpairwe, Harriet; Nabulime, Juliet; Ameke, Christine; Morison, Linda A; Elliott, Alison M

    2007-09-01

    It is suggested that helminths, particularly hookworm and schistosomiasis, may be important causes of anaemia in pregnancy. We assessed the associations between mild-to-moderate anaemia (haemoglobin >8.0 g/dl and pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda. The prevalence of anaemia was 39.7%. The prevalence of hookworm was 44.5%, Mansonella perstans 21.3%, Schistosoma mansoni 18.3%, Strongyloides 12.3%, Trichuris 9.1%, Ascaris 2.3%, asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia 10.9% and HIV 11.9%. Anaemia showed little association with the presence of any helminth, but showed a strong association with malaria (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.22, 95% CI 2.43-4.26) and HIV (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.90-3.19). There was a weak association between anaemia and increasing hookworm infection intensity. Thus, although highly prevalent, helminths showed little association with mild-to-moderate anaemia in this population, but HIV and malaria both showed a strong association. This result may relate to relatively good nutrition and low helminth infection intensity. These findings are pertinent to estimating the disease burden of helminths and other infections in pregnancy. [Clinical Trial No. ISRCTN32849447].

  2. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566 against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucienne Tritten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few effective drugs are available for soil-transmitted helminthiases and drug resistance is of concern. In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases. METHODOLOGY: A motility assay was used to assess the efficacy of monepantel, albendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate in vitro on third-stage larvae (L3 and adult worms of Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Necator americanus and Trichuris muris. Ancylostoma ceylanicum- or N. americanus-infected hamsters, T. muris- or Ascaris suum-infected mice, and Strongyloides ratti-infected rats were treated with single oral doses of monepantel or with one of the reference drugs. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Monepantel showed excellent activity on A. ceylanicum adults (IC(50 = 1.7 µg/ml, a moderate effect on T. muris L3 (IC(50 = 78.7 µg/ml, whereas no effect was observed on A. ceylanicum L3, T. muris adults, and both stages of N. americanus. Of the standard drugs, levamisole showed the highest potency in vitro (IC(50 = 1.6 and 33.1 µg/ml on A. ceylanicum and T. muris L3, respectively. Complete elimination of worms was observed with monepantel (10 mg/kg and albendazole (2.5 mg/kg in A. ceylanicum-infected hamsters. In the N. americanus hamster model single 10 mg/kg oral doses of monepantel and albendazole resulted in worm burden reductions of 58.3% and 100%, respectively. Trichuris muris, S. ratti and A. suum were not affected by treatment with monepantel in vivo (following doses of 600 mg/kg, 32 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, worm burden reductions of 95.9% and 76.6% were observed following treatment of T. muris- and A. suum infected mice with levamisole (200 mg/kg and albendazole (600 mg/kg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Monepantel reveals low or no activities against N. americanus

  3. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová‑Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, D.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Co-infection * Faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * Malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Infectious Diseases Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  4. 21 CFR 520.1872 - Praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus granulosus); hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum... for the removal and control of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs. (iii) Limitations. Do not...

  5. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belew, Sileshi; Getachew, Mestawet; Suleman, Sultan; Mohammed, Tesfaye; Deti, Habetewold; D'Hondt, Matthias; Wynendaele, Evelien; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Vercruysse, Jozef; Duchateau, Luc; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA) programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs): Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis) available on the local market in Ethiopia. A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR), of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%), but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%). For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p Ovis. The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ) tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the chemical and physicochemical quality of drugs before conducting efficacy assessment in any clinical trials to ensure appropriate therapeutic efficacy and to exclude poor drug quality as a factor of reduced drug efficacy other than anthelminthic resistance. Overall, this paper demonstrates

  6. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvalsvig Jane D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geohelminth infection is a major health problem of children from rural areas of developing countries. In an attempt to reduce this burden, the Department of Health of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN established in 1998 a programme for helminth control that aimed at regularly treating primary school children for schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths. This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province. Methods Grade 3 schoolchildren from Maputaland in northern KZN were examined for infections with hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura, treated twice with 400 mg albendazole and re-examined several times over one year after the first treatment in order to assess the impact of treatment and patterns of infection and re-infection. Results The hookworm prevalence in the study population (83.2% was considerably higher than in other parts of the province whereas T. trichiura and especially A. lumbricoides prevalences (57.2 and 19.4%, respectively were much lower than elsewhere on the KZN coastal plain. Single dose treatment with albendazole was very effective against hookworm and A. lumbricoides with cure rates (CR of 78.8 and 96.4% and egg reduction rates (ERR of 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. It was exceptionally ineffective against T. trichiura (CR = 12.7%, ERR = 24.8%. Re-infection with hookworm and A. lumbricoides over 29 weeks after treatment was considerable but still well below pre-treatment levels. Conclusion High geohelminth prevalences and re-infection rates in the study population confirm the need for regular treatment of primary school children in the area. The low effectiveness of single course albendazole treatment against T. trichiura infection however demands consideration of alternative treatment approaches.

  7. 21 CFR 520.1199 - Ivermectin, pyrantel, and praziquantel tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Ancylostoma braziliense) and tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis) infections. (3) Limitations. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on...

  8. Parasite infection is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV in Ugandan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndibazza Juliet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune modulation by parasites may influence susceptibility to bacteria and viruses. We examined the association between current parasite infections, HIV and syphilis (measured in blood or stool samples using standard methods and antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV, measured by ELISA, in 1915 stored plasma samples from pregnant women in Entebbe, Uganda. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV was higher in women with malaria parasitaemia (73% vs 60% p = 0.01, hookworm (67% vs 56% p = 0.001 and Mansonella perstans (69% vs 59% p = 0.05; seroprevalence increased with increasing intensity of hookworm infection (p Conclusions Specific parasite infections are associated with presence of antibodies against KSHV, perhaps mediated via their effect on immune function.

  9. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs represent some of the most common infections of the poorest people living in the Latin American and Caribbean region (LAC. Because they primarily afflict the disenfranchised poor as well as selected indigenous populations and people of African descent, the NTDs in LAC are largely forgotten diseases even though their collective disease burden may exceed better known conditions such as of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, or malaria. Based on their prevalence and healthy life years lost from disability, hookworm infection, other soil-transmitted helminth infections, and Chagas disease are the most important NTDs in LAC, followed by dengue, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, trachoma, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis. On the other hand, for some important NTDs, such as leptospirosis and cysticercosis, complete disease burden estimates are not available. The NTDs in LAC geographically concentrate in 11 different sub-regions, each with a distinctive human and environmental ecology. In the coming years, schistosomiasis could be eliminated in the Caribbean and transmission of lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis could be eliminated in Latin America. However, the highest disease burden NTDs, such as Chagas disease, soil-transmitted helminth infections, and hookworm and schistosomiasis co-infections, may first require scale-up of existing resources or the development of new control tools in order to achieve control or elimination. Ultimately, the roadmap for the control and elimination of the more widespread NTDs will require an inter-sectoral approach that bridges public health, social services, and environmental interventions.

  10. 21 CFR 520.903d - Febantel-praziquantel paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... caninum and Taenia pisiformis). (ii) Cats and kittens: For removal of hookworms (Ancylostoma tubaeforme), ascarids (Toxocara cati) and tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis). (3) Limitations. Do...

  11. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  12. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  13. Malnutrition-related early childhood exposures and enamel defects in the permanent dentition: A longitudinal study from the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Erin E; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Mancl, Lloyd A; Conde, Esther; Hujoel, Philippe P

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between early childhood malnutrition-related measures and subsequent enamel defects in the permanent dentition. This cohort study included 349 Amerindian adolescents (10-17 years, 52% male) from the Bolivian Amazon. Exposures included: stunted growth (height-for-age z-scores), underweight (weight-for-age z-scores), anemia (hemoglobin), acute inflammation (C-reactive protein) and parasitic infection (hookworm). We measured the occurrence (no/yes) and extent (2/3) of enamel defects. We estimated associations between childhood exposures and enamel defect measures using log-binomial and multinomial logistic regression. The prevalence of an enamel defect characterized by an orange peel texture on a large central depression on the labial surface of the central maxillary incisors was 92.3%. During childhood (1-4 years), participants had a high prevalence of stunted growth (75.2%), anemia (56.9%), acute inflammation (39.1%), and hookworm infection (49.6%). We observed associations between childhood height-for-age (OR = 0.65; P = 0.028 for >2/3 extent vs. no EH) and gastrointestinal hookworm infection (OR = 3.43; P = 0.035 for >2/3 extent vs. no defects or malnutrition-related measures in early childhood, including stunted growth and parasitic helminth infection, with the observed enamel defects. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Top Soils Used for Horticultural Purposes in Cape Coast, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oscar Yawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the concentrations of eggs of three helminths (roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm in the so-called black soils used for domestic and urban landscaping, home gardening and as growth medium for potted plants and pot experiments. The black soils are largely collected from active or abandoned waste dumpsites and fallowed or vegetated idle sites in the urban fringe or rural areas. Users buy black soils from dealers. Samples of black soils used for various purposes and at different places were collected for analysis of helminth eggs. The Modified EPA Method, which combines flotation and sedimentation, was used to isolate the eggs. The results show that these black soils have substantial loads of helminth eggs, with roundworm being dominant, followed by hookworm. Mean concentrations of helminth eggs were 2.45 (roundworm, 1.38 (hookworm, and 0.25 (whipworm g−1 soil, respectively. The helminth egg loads also declined with duration of use of the black soils. It is concluded that black soils used for horticultural purposes in Ghana can be a potential source of helminth infestation. Therefore, treatment of black soils, regulation of black soil market and use, and development of growth media industry should be important components of helminth control strategy.

  15. 21 CFR 520.580 - Dichlorophene and toluene capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the removal of ascarids (Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina) and hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala) and as an aid in removing tapeworms (Taenia pisiformis, Dipylidium caninum, and...

  16. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepek Gillian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock.

  17. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm Ascaris suum larvae: a new tool for anthelmenthic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is a key component of discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’) that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiologic...

  18. Species-specific associations between soil-transmitted helminths and micronutrients in Vietnamese schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2016-01-01

    6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation. Iodine excretion was measured in urine. Associations of single...... and multiple infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm with micronutrient status (hemoglobin, plasma ferritin, retinol, zinc, and urinary iodine) were estimated by multiple regression analysis. Ascaris infections showed a specific and intensity-dependent negative association...... with vitamin A. Trichuris and hookworm infections were associated with lower hemoglobin concentration, but not with plasma ferritin. Trichuris-infected children had zinc deficiency less often than uninfected children. In conclusion, our study shows species-specific associations between STH infections...

  19. coinfection with malaria, hookworm and schistosomiasis among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    Schistosomiasis among School Children in Zambezi: A School-based ... positive at least to one parasitic infection. Estimated .... coinfections did not differ significantly by age and sex with the ..... Efficacy of integrated school based deworming ...

  20. Turning poop into profit: Cost-effectiveness and soil transmitted helminth infection risk associated with human excreta reuse in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan Tran-Thi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1 a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2 a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001 times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26. Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr; however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.

  1. Turning poop into profit: Cost-effectiveness and soil transmitted helminth infection risk associated with human excreta reuse in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran-Thi, Ngan; Lowe, Rachel J; Schurer, Janna M; Vu-Van, Tu; MacDonald, Lauren E; Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2017-11-01

    Human excreta is a low cost source of nutrients vital to plant growth, but also a source of pathogens transmissible to people and animals. We investigated the cost-savings and infection risk of soil transmitted helminths (STHs) in four scenarios where farmers used either inorganic fertilizer or fresh/composted human excreta supplemented by inorganic fertilizer to meet the nutrient requirements of rice paddies in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Our study included two main components: 1) a risk estimate of STH infection for farmers who handle fresh excreta, determined by systematic review and meta-analysis; and 2) a cost estimate of fertilizing rice paddies, determined by nutrient assessment of excreta, a retailer survey of inorganic fertilizer costs, and a literature review to identify region-specific inputs. Our findings suggest that farmers who reuse fresh excreta are 1.24 (95% CI: 1.13-1.37, p-value<0.001) times more likely to be infected with any STH than those who do not handle excreta or who compost appropriately, and that risk varies by STH type (Ascaris lumbricoides RR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.87-1.58, p-value = 0.29; Hookworm RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.50-2.06, p-value = 0.96; Trichuris trichiura RR = 1.38, 95% CI = 0.79-2.42, p-value = 0.26). Average cost-savings were highest for farmers using fresh excreta (847,000 VND) followed by those who composted for 6 months as recommended by the WHO (312,000 VND) and those who composted for a shorter time (5 months) with lime supplementation (37,000 VND/yr); however, this study did not assess healthcare costs of treating acute or chronic STH infections in the target group. Our study provides evidence that farmers in the Red River Delta are able to use a renewable and locally available resource to their economic advantage, while minimizing the risk of STH infection.

  2. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Obruča, S.; Sedláček, P.; Mravec, F.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Nebesářová, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kučera, D.; Benešová, P.; Hrubanová, Kamila; Milerová, M.; Márová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 39, OCT (2017), s. 68-80 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20645S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) * PHB * cupriavidus necator * hyperosmotic conditions * plasmolysis * stress conditions Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; CE - Biochemistry (BC-A) OBOR OECD: Electrical and electronic engineering; Electrical and electronic engineering (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  3. Metabarcoding analysis of strongylid nematode diversity in two sympatric primate species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pafčo, B.; Čížková, Dagmar; Kreisinger, Jakub; Hasegawa, H.; Vallo, Peter; Shutt, K.; Todd, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 5933. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : western lowland gorillas * oesophagostomum-bifurcum nematoda * internal transcribed spacer * necator-americanus * gut microbiome * gastrointestinal parasites * epidemiologic implications * ancylostoma-duodenale * nonhuman-primates * small ruminants Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  4. 21 CFR 520.1871 - Praziquantel and pyrantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for use. For removal of tapeworms (Dipylidium caninum and Taenia taeniaeformis), hookworms... and Taenia pisiformis) in dogs and puppies. [58 FR 58652, Nov. 3, 1993, as amended at 72 FR 16270, Apr...

  5. Feleke et al., Afr., J. Infect. Dis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-11-15

    Nov 15, 2017 ... Background: Anemia is an indicator of both poor nutrition and health. ... Intestinal parasitosis infections and hemoglobin level were determined by formula ether concentration ... education, family size and hookworm infection.

  6. Burden and determinant factors of anemia among elementary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anemia is an indicator of both poor nutrition and health. ... Intestinal parasitosis infections and hemoglobin level were determined by formula ... water, availability of latrine, maternal education, family size and hookworm infection.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Meseret; Enawgaw, Bamlaku

    2014-01-01

    Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64%) and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76%) anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%). Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33]), large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52]), hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25]), and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69]) were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size. PMID:24669317

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Melku

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaemia is a global public health problem which has an eminence impact on pregnant mother. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and predictors of maternal anemia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 1 to April 30, 2012, on 302 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Gondar University Hospital. Interview-based questionnaire, clinical history, and laboratory tests were used to obtain data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors. Result. The prevalence of anemia was 16.6%. Majority were mild type (64% and morphologically normocytic normochromic (76% anemia. Anemia was high at third trimester (18.9%. Low family income (AOR [95% CI] = 3.1 [1.19, 8.33], large family size (AOR [95% CI] = 4.14 [4.13, 10.52], hookworm infection (AOR [95% CI] = 2.72 [1.04, 7.25], and HIV infection (AOR [95% CI] = 5.75 [2.40, 13.69] were independent predictors of anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia was high; mild type and normocytic normochromic anemia was dominant. Low income, large family size, hookworm infection, and HIV infection were associated with anemia. Hence, efforts should be made for early diagnosis and management of HIV and hookworm infection with special emphasis on those having low income and large family size.

  9. Epidemiology of human fascioliasis and intestinal parasitosis among schoolchildren in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Erqou, Sebhat; Gedefaw, Molla; Desta, Almaw

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are the second most frequent cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lake Tana Basin, northwest Ethiopia, from November 2007 to February 2008, to assess the magnitude and associated risk factors for parasitic diseases, including human fascioliasis. We examined 520 stool samples from randomly selected schoolchildren in six schools by microscopy. Rapid sedimentation and Kato-Katz techniques were used to detect and count Fasciola and Schistosoma eggs. The formol-ether concentration method was used for the identification of other helminth eggs, larvae and cysts of protozoan parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 71.3% (95% CI 67.3-75.1%). Hookworm was the predominant intestinal parasite (23.5%, 95% CI 19.8-27.1%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (18.5%, 95% CI 15.2-21.9%) and Schistosoma mansoni (16.7%, 95% CI 13.5-19.9%). One hundred and sixty-three (31.4%) children had multiple parasitic infections. The most relevant finding was a prevalence of Fasciola spp. of 3.3% in an area where only sporadic cases have been reported previously. The risk of Fasciola spp. infection was significantly associated with raw vegetable consumption, use of unsafe drinking water sources, irrigation practices and sheep and/or cattle ownership. Irrigation practices, male gender, raw vegetable consumption and use of unsafe drinking water sources were risk factors for S. mansoni infection. A high prevalence of parasitic infections among children in the region was found, including a relatively high prevalence of Fasciola spp. infection. Epidemiological studies on the magnitude of parasitic infections in different regions will enable high-risk communities to be identified and allow for planning of appropriate interventions.

  10. Assessment of Efficacy and Quality of Two Albendazole Brands Commonly Used against Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in School Children in Jimma Town, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Belew

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a worldwide upscale in mass drug administration (MDA programs to control the morbidity caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Although anthelminthic drugs which are used for MDA are supplied by two pharmaceutical companies through donation, there is a wide range of brands available on local markets for which the efficacy against STHs and quality remain poorly explored. In the present study, we evaluated the drug efficacy and quality of two albendazole brands (Bendex and Ovis available on the local market in Ethiopia.A randomized clinical trial was conducted according to the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines to assess drug efficacy, by means of egg reduction rate (ERR, of Bendex and Ovis against STH infections in school children in Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition, the chemical and physicochemical quality of the drugs was assessed according to the United States and European Pharmacopoeia, encompassing mass uniformity of the tablets, amount of active compound and dissolution profile. Both drugs were highly efficacious against A. lumbricoides (>97%, but showed poor efficacy against T. trichiura (~20%. For hookworms, Ovis was significantly (p < 0.05 more efficacious compared to Bendex (98.1% vs. 88.7%. Assessment of the physicochemical quality of the drugs revealed a significant difference in dissolution profile, with Bendex having a slower dissolution than Ovis.The study revealed that differences in efficacy between the two brands of albendazole (ABZ tablets against hookworm are linked to the differences in the in-vitro drug release profile. Differences in uptake and metabolism of this benzimidazole drug among different helminth species may explain that this efficacy difference was only observed in hookworms and not in the two other species. The results of the present study underscore the importance of assessing the chemical and physicochemical quality of drugs before

  11. Comparison of individual and pooled stool samples for the assessment of intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminth infections using the Kato-Katz technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kure, Ashenafi; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Dana, Daniel; Bajiro, Mitiku; Ayana, Mio; Vercruysse, Jozef; Levecke, Bruno

    2015-09-24

    Our group has recently provided a proof-of-principle for the examination of pooled stool samples using McMaster technique as a strategy for the rapid assessment of intensity of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). In the present study we evaluated this pooling strategy for the assessment of intensity of both STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections using the Kato-Katz technique. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 360 children aged 5-18 years from six schools in Jimma Zone (southwest Ethiopia). We performed faecal egg counts (FECs) in both individual and pooled samples (pools sizes of 5, 10 and 20) to estimate the number of eggs per gram of stool (EPG) using the Kato-Katz technique. We also assessed the time to screen both individual and pooled samples. Except for hookworms, there was a significant correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.53-0.95) between the mean of individual FECs and the FECs of pooled samples for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni, regardless of the pool size. Mean FEC were 2,596 EPG, 125 EPG, 47 EPG, and 41 EPG for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, S. mansoni and hookworm, respectively. There was no significant difference in FECs between the examination of individual and pooled stool samples, except for hookworms. For this STH, pools of 10 resulted in a significant underestimation of infection intensity. The total time to obtain individual FECs was 65 h 5 min. For pooled FECs, this was 19 h 12 min for pools of 5, 14 h 39 min for pools of 10 and 12 h 42 min for pools of 20. The results indicate that pooling of stool sample holds also promise as a rapid assessment of infections intensity for STH and S. mansoni using the Kato-Katz technique. In this setting, the time in the laboratory was reduced by 70 % when pools of 5 instead of individual stool samples were screened.

  12. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mebendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whipworm infections. Mebendazole (Emverm) is used to treat pinworm, whipworm, roundworm, and hookworm infections. Mebendazole is in ... days. When mebendazole (Emverm) is used to treat pinworm, it is usually taken as a single (one- ...

  14. Control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Myanmar: results of 7 years of deworming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Aung; Myat, Su Mon; Gabrielli, Albis Francesco; Montresor, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    After a baseline survey in 2003 which showed an overall parasitological prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths of 69.7% in school children (prevalence of ascariasis 48.5%, prevalence of trichuriasis 57.5% and prevalence of hookworm infection 6.5), a national deworming programme was established. After 7 years of implementation, it had resulted in a significant reduction of STH prevalence (prevalence of any STH 21%, prevalence of ascariasis 5.8%, prevalence of trichuriasis 18.6% and prevalence of hookworm infection 0.3%) as well as a reduction of the infections of moderate-heavy intensity from 18.5% at baseline to less than 7%. The results are encouraging and a reduction of the frequency of deworming can be envisaged in two of four ecological areas of Myanmar. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genome sequencing reveals metabolic and cellular interdependence in an amoeba-kinetoplastid symbiosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tanifuji, G.; Cenci, U.; Moog, D.; Dean, S.; Nakayama, T.; David, Vojtěch; Fiala, Ivan; Curtis, B.A.; Sibbald, S. J.; Onodera, N. T.; Colp, M.; Flegontov, Pavel; Johnson-MacKinnon, J.; McPhee, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Hashimoto, T.; Kelly, S.; Gull, K.; Lukeš, Julius; Archibald, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, SEP 15 (2017), č. článku 11688. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S; GA MŠk LL1601 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : trypanosoma-brucei reveals * hidden markov model * neoparamoeba-pemaquidensis * gill disease * phylogenetic analyses * ichthyobodo-necator * gene prediction * host control * evolution * proteomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Efficacy of albendazole against the whipworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    terms of management and cost, with albendazole 400 mg tablets being one ..... has an excellent global safety record and is highly effective against hookworm ... Anglo American. Chairman's Fund, AngloGold Fund, De Beers Fund and AusAID.

  17. Spatial analysis and risk mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil, using Bayesian geostatistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Schur, Nadine; Bavia, Maria E; Carvalho, Edgar M; Chammartin, Frédérique; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm) negatively impact the health and wellbeing of hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries, including Brazil. Reliable maps of the spatial distribution and estimates of the number of infected people are required for the control and eventual elimination of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. We used advanced Bayesian geostatistical modelling, coupled with geographical information systems and remote sensing to visualize the distribution of the three soil-transmitted helminth species in Brazil. Remotely sensed climatic and environmental data, along with socioeconomic variables from readily available databases were employed as predictors. Our models provided mean prevalence estimates for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm of 15.6%, 10.1% and 2.5%, respectively. By considering infection risk and population numbers at the unit of the municipality, we estimate that 29.7 million Brazilians are infected with A. lumbricoides, 19.2 million with T. trichiura and 4.7 million with hookworm. Our model-based maps identified important risk factors related to the transmission of soiltransmitted helminths and confirm that environmental variables are closely associated with indices of poverty. Our smoothed risk maps, including uncertainty, highlight areas where soil-transmitted helminthiasis control interventions are most urgently required, namely in the North and along most of the coastal areas of Brazil. We believe that our predictive risk maps are useful for disease control managers for prioritising control interventions and for providing a tool for more efficient surveillance-response mechanisms.

  18. Environmental and socio-demographic individual, family and neighborhood factors associated with children intestinal parasitoses at Iguazú, in the subtropical northern border of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Maria Romina; De Angelo, Carlos; Nuñez, Pablo; Salas, Martín; Motta, Carlos E; Chiaretta, Alicia; Salomón, Oscar D; Liang, Song

    2017-11-01

    Intestinal parasitoses are a major concern for public health, especially in children from middle and low-income populations of tropical and subtropical areas. We examined the presence and co-infection of parasites in humans as well as parasitic environmental contamination in Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. We explored the environmental and socio-demographic characteristics of the persistence of parasites in children and their environment. This cross-section survey was conducted among children population comprised into the area of the public health care centers of Iguazú during June 2013 to May 2016. Copro-parasitological status of 483 asymptomatic children was assessed. Simultaneously, a design-based sampling of 744 soil samples and 530 dog feces was used for characterize the environmental contamination. The 71.5% of these sites were contaminated. Sixteen genera were detected in the environment being hookworms (62.0%) the main pathogens group detected followed by Toxocara spp (16.3%), Trichuris spp (15.2%) and Giardia (6.5%). Total children prevalence raised 58.8%, detecting twelve genera of parasite with Giardia intestinalis as the most prevalent pathogen (29.0%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (23.0%), Hymenolepis nana (12.4%) and hookworms (4.4%). Through questionnaires and census data, we characterized the socio-demographics conditions at an individual, family and neighborhood levels. A multi-level analysis including environmental contamination data showed that the ´presence of parasites´ was mostly determined by individual (e.g. age, playing habits, previous treatment) and household level (e.g. UBN, WASH, mother's literacy) determinants. Remarkably, to define the level of 'parasite co-infection', besides individual and household characteristics, environmental factors at a neighborhood level were important. Our work represents the major survey of intestinal parasites in human and environmental samples developed in the region. High prevalence was detected in

  19. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annette; Nawiri, J; Friis, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    immune function or to unfavourable host gut conditions caused by an increased oxidative stress. In each case, the lack of effect in children remains to be explained. In contrast, iron supplementation apparently was short-lived in favour of hookworm infection, an effect that needs further clarification......A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 1994-96 among 231 children and 181 adults in order to determine the effects of iron on reinfection rates and intensities of hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Schistosoma mansoni. Adults given 60 mg...... reinfection rates or intensities in children. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for baseline infection status confirmed the effect in adults of iron on A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and S. mansoni reinfection rates. The effect is suggested to be due to reduced risk behaviour, to improved...

  20. Associations between maternal helminth and malaria infections in pregnancy, and clinical malaria in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Lule, Swaib

    2013-01-01

    Background. Helminth and malaria coinfections are common in the tropics. We investigated the hypothesis that prenatal exposure to these parasites might influence susceptibility to infections such as malaria in childhood.Methods. In a birth cohort of 2,345 mother-child pairs in Uganda, maternal...... helminth and malaria infection status was determined during pregnancy, and childhood malaria episodes recorded from birth to age five years. We examined associations between maternal infections and malaria in the offspring.Results. Common maternal infections were hookworm (45%), Mansonella perstans (21......%), Schistosoma mansoni (18%), and Plasmodium falciparum (11%). At age 5 years, 69% of the children were still under follow-up. The incidence of malaria was 34 episodes per 100 child-years, and the mean prevalence of asymptomatic malaria at annual visits was 5.4%. Maternal hookworm and M. perstans infections were...

  1. Pyrantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese's® Pinworm Medicine ... antiworm medication, is used to treat roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, and other worm infections.This medication is sometimes ... usually is taken as a single dose for pinworm and roundworm infections. The dose usually is repeated ...

  2. Impacts of globalization on foodborne parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 an estimated 3% of the world’s population lived outside their country of origin. Among immigrants, tourists, and business travellers worldwide several foodborne parasites are frequently found including Ascaris, Trichiuris, hookworms, Enterobius, Fasciola, Hymenolepis, and several protozoa. T...

  3. Human infections and co-infections with helminths in a rural population in Guichi, Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are believed to be common in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two villages located in Guichi District in Anhui Province, the People’s Republic of China, where multiparasitism was investigated using parasitological tests. The data collected were fitted to Bayesian multi-level models to profile risk factors for helminth infections. The prevalence of Schistosoma (S. japonicum, Ascaris (A. lumbricoides and Trichuris (T. trichiura were 0.43% (range: 0-0.87% at the village level, 2.28% (range: 1.69-2.88%, and 0.21% (range: 0-0.42%, respectively. No hookworm infection was found. With regard to multiparasitism, only a 33-year-old female was found to be co-infected with S. japonicum and A. lumbricoides. Multiparasitism was unexpectedly rare in the study area, which contrasts with results from other studies carried out elsewhere in the country. The long-term usage of albendazole for individuals serologically positive for schistosomiasis may be the main reason, but this needs to be confirmed by future studies.

  4. Metabolic engineering to expand the substrate spectrum of Pseudomonas putida toward sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Hannes; Schmauder, Lukas; Hobmeier, Karina; Kremling, Andreas; Pflüger-Grau, Katharina

    2017-08-01

    Sucrose is an important disaccharide used as a substrate in many industrial applications. It is a major component of molasses, a cheap by-product of the sugar industry. Unfortunately, not all industrially relevant organisms, among them Pseudomonas putida, are capable of metabolizing sucrose. We chose a metabolic engineering approach to circumvent this blockage and equip P. putida with the activities necessary to consume sucrose. Therefore, we constructed a pair of broad-host range mini-transposons (pSST - sucrose splitting transposon), carrying either cscA, encoding an invertase able to split sucrose into glucose and fructose, or additionally cscB, encoding a sucrose permease. Introduction of cscA was sufficient to convey sucrose consumption and the additional presence of cscB had no further effect, though the sucrose permease was built and localized to the membrane. Sucrose was split extracellularly by the activity of the invertase CscA leaking out of the cell. The transposons were also used to confer sucrose consumption to Cupriavidus necator. Interestingly, in this strain, CscB acted as a glucose transporter, such that C. necator also gained the ability to grow on glucose. Thus, the pSST transposons are functional tools to extend the substrate spectrum of Gram-negative bacterial strains toward sucrose. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Production of green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from renewable resources of agricultural residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahman, Yaser; Ugwu, Charles U

    2014-08-01

    This work describes potential opportunities for utilization of agro-industrial residues to produce green biodegradable plastics of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). Wheat straws were examined with good efficacy of carbon substrates using Cupriavidus necator. Production was examined in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) in the presence and absence of WS hydrolysis enzymes, and in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with enzymes. Results showed that production of PHB in SSF was more efficient in terms of viable cell count, cell dry weight, and PHB production and yield compared to those of SHF and glucose-control cultures. While glucose control experiment produced 4.6 g/L PHB; SSF produced 10.0 g/L compared to 7.1 g/L in SHF when utilizing enzymes during WS hydrolysis. Results showed that most of sugars produced during the hydrolysis were consumed in SHF (~98 %) compared to 89.2 % in SSF. Results also demonstrated that a combination of glucose and xylose can compensate for the excess carbon required for enhancing PHB production by C. necator. However, higher concentration of sugars at the beginning of fermentation in SHF can lead to cell inhibition and consequently catabolite repressions. Accordingly, results demonstrated that the gradual release of sugars in SSF enhanced PHB production. Moreover, the presence of sugars other than glucose and xylose can eliminate PHB degradation in medium of low carbon substrate concentrations in SSF.

  6. The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Benjamin-Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of deworming and improved sanitation or hygiene may result in greater reductions in soil-transmitted helminth (STH infection than any single intervention on its own. We measured STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh and assessed potential interactions among deworming, hygienic latrines, and household finished floors.We conducted a cross-sectional survey (n = 1,630 in 100 villages in rural Bangladesh to measure three exposures: self-reported deworming consumption in the past 6 months, access to a hygienic latrine, and household flooring material. We collected stool samples from children 1-4 years, 5-12 years, and women 15-49 years. We performed mini-FLOTAC on preserved stool samples to detect Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura ova. Approximately one-third (32% of all individuals and 40% of school-aged children had an STH infection. Less than 2% of the sample had moderate/heavy intensity infections. Deworming was associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR = 0.53; 95% CI 0.40, 0.71, but there was no significant association with hookworm (PR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.60, 1.44 or Trichuris (PR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08. PRs for hygienic latrine access were 0.91 (95% CI 0.67,1.24, 0.73 (95% CI 0.43,1.24, and 1.03 (95% CI 0.84,1.27 for Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris, respectively. Finished floors were associated with lower Ascaris prevalence (PR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 0.97 but not associated with hookworm (PR = 0.48 95% CI 0.16,1.45 or Trichuris (PR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.72,1.33. Across helminths and combinations of exposures, adjusted prevalence ratios for joint exposures were consistently more protective than those for individual exposures.We found moderate STH prevalence in rural Bangladesh among children and women of childbearing age. This study is one of the first to examine independent and combined associations with deworming, sanitation, and hygiene. Our results suggest

  7. Oxantel pamoate-albendazole for Trichuris trichiura infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speich, Benjamin; Ame, Shaali M; Ali, Said M; Alles, Rainer; Huwyler, Jörg; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Albonico, Marco; Keiser, Jennifer

    2014-02-13

    Infections with soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, and Trichuris trichiura) are widespread and often occur concomitantly. These parasitic-worm infections are typically treated with albendazole or mebendazole, but both drugs show low efficacy against T. trichiura. Albendazole is the drug of choice against hookworm. In this double-blind trial conducted on Pemba Island, Tanzania, we randomly assigned children, 6 to 14 years of age, to receive one of four treatments: oxantel pamoate at a dose of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight, plus 400 mg of albendazole, administered on consecutive days; oxantel pamoate at a single dose of 20 mg per kilogram; albendazole at a single dose of 400 mg; or mebendazole at a single dose of 500 mg. We assessed the efficacy and safety profile of oxantel pamoate-albendazole when used in the treatment of T. trichiura infection (primary outcome) and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infection (secondary outcome). Efficacy was determined by means of assessment of the cure rate and egg-reduction rate. Adverse events were assessed four times after treatment. Complete data were available for 458 children, of whom 450 were infected with T. trichiura, 443 with hookworm, and 293 with A. lumbricoides. The cure rate of T. trichiura infection was significantly higher with oxantel pamoate-albendazole than with mebendazole (31.2% vs. 11.8%, P=0.001), as was the egg-reduction rate (96.0% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 93.5 to 97.6] vs. 75.0% [95% CI, 64.2 to 82.0]). The cure rate with albendazole (2.6%) and the egg-reduction rate with albendazole (45.0%; 95% CI, 32.0 to 56.4) were significantly lower than the rates with mebendazole (P=0.02 for the comparison of cure rates). Oxantel pamoate had low efficacy against hookworm and A. lumbricoides. Adverse events (mainly mild) were reported by 30.9% of all children. Treatment with oxantel pamoate-albendazole resulted in higher cure and egg-reduction rates for T. trichiura infection

  8. Prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    klaus

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... Study design and sampling. This was a cross sectional study conducted among pre-school attending village nursery schools and school aged children from local primary schools. Children were included in the study if (i) they were aged between 4-14 years; (ii) parents/guardians gave written informed ...

  9. Prevalence of Hookworm Infection Among Patients Attending Aminu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The above prevalence rate of infection could become higher in years to come ... majority of the infected individuals live in poverty- ... pregnant women in developing countries are suffering .... Darjeeling, India with 42.8% (Pal et al., 2007),.

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 401 - 450 of 775 ... Vol 4, No 2 (2011), Incidence of Anaemia Due To Hookworm Infestation in Patients Attending ... Vol 2, No 2 (2009), Inheritanceof seed coat colour pattern in ... Vol 4, No 2 (2011), Inhibition of Sheep Liver Cholinesterase ...

  11. Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted Helminths in Tana Delta District of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njaanake, Kariuki H.; Vennervald, Birgitte J.; Simonsen, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    the primary school children were high and the parasites were responsible for significant morbidity. A clear synergistic interaction was observed between hookworm and T. trichiura infections. Increased coverage in administration of praziquantel and albendazole in the area is recommended to control morbidity...

  12. Uncinariasis in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, E T; DeLong, R L; Melin, S R; Tolliver, S C

    1997-10-01

    Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) (n = 25) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) (n = 53) pups, found dead on rookeries on San Miguel Island (California, USA), were examined for adult Uncinaria spp. Prevalence of these nematodes was 96% in fur seal pups and 100% in sea lion pups. Mean intensity of Uncinaria spp. per infected pup was 643 in fur seals and 1,284 in sea lions. Eggs of Uncinaria spp. from dead sea lion pups underwent embryonation in an incubator; development to the free-living third stage larva occurred within the egg. This study provided some specific information on hookworm infections in northern fur seal and California sea lion pups on San Miguel Island. High prevalence rate of Uncinaria spp. in both species of pinnipeds was documented and much higher numbers (2X) of hookworms were present in sea lion than fur seal pups.

  13. Helminth infections and practice of prevention and control measures among pregnant women attending antenatal care at Anbesame health center, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn

    2017-07-12

    Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.

  14. Prevalence and effect of schistosome and soil-transmitted helminth infection on labour input in rice-growing communities of Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Olufemi Sam-Wobo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH are public health problems in communities which lack basic social amenities with poor hygienic conditions. Studies were carried out to determine the prevalence and effect of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths infection on labour input on rice production in 9 rice-growing communities of Ogun State. Parasitological examinations of urine and faecal samples, and structured questionnaires were conducted on 243 consented individuals from May 2009 to March 2010. The results showed an overall prevalence of 17% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 12% for hookworms, 2% for Trichuris trichiura, 1% for Schistosoma haematobium and 1% for Schistosoma mansoni. A. lumbricoides and hookworms were more prevalent in Agbajege (25%, and varied in the other 8 communities. T. trichiura was prevalent in three communities, Agbajege (5%, Akodu (4.2%, and Moloko-Asipa (4.8 %; S. haematobium was prevalent only in Ayedere (2.6% and Lufoko (8%, while S. mansoni was prevalent only in Moloko-Asipa (9.5%. Infections among the gender were varied as 26.3 % of males and 33.8 % of females had an overall prevalence of: A. lumbricoides (16.8%, hookworms (11.8%, T. trichiura (1.6%, S. haematobium (1.1% and S. mansoni (1.1%. On frequency of infection to incapacitation per year, 45% of respondents were incapacitated 1-2 times, 27% 3-4 times and 19% were incapacitated more than 4 times. Understanding the effect of these two diseases will not only improve the health status of residents but also increase their productivity and ensure food security.

  15. Onchocerciasis control in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    helminths (i.e. ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm disease) and trachoma – is Mass Drug Administration. (MDA) of Preventive Chemotherapy (PCT) through an ... outweigh the advantages of treatment (7). In implementation units where the intervention threshold for a particular disease or combination of diseases has ...

  16. Cleansing the world of the germ of laziness; Hygiene, sanitation, and the Javanese population in Suriname, South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofte, R.M.A.L.

    2014-01-01

    In 1915 the Rockefeller Foundation took its hookworm eradication campaign to Suriname, but was soon disappointed because of opposition from its main target group: the Javanese. Moreover, authorities and planters objected to the construction of latrines because of the costs and their belief that the

  17. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  18. A synoptic overview of golden jackal parasites reveals high diversity of species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-09-15

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a species under significant and fast geographic expansion. Various parasites are known from golden jackals across their geographic range, and certain groups can be spread during their expansion, increasing the risk of cross-infection with other carnivores or even humans. The current list of the golden jackal parasites includes 194 species and was compiled on the basis of an extensive literature search published from historical times until April 2017, and is shown herein in synoptic tables followed by critical comments of the various findings. This large variety of parasites is related to the extensive geographic range, territorial mobility and a very unselective diet. The vast majority of these parasites are shared with domestic dogs or cats. The zoonotic potential is the most important aspect of species reported in the golden jackal, some of them, such as Echinococcus spp., hookworms, Toxocara spp., or Trichinella spp., having a great public health impact. Our review brings overwhelming evidence on the importance of Canis aureus as a wild reservoir of human and animal parasites.

  19. A coproantigen diagnostic test for Strongyloides infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Sykes

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of infection with the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis is hampered by the low concentration of larvae in stool, rendering parasitological diagnosis insensitive. Even if the more sensitive agar plate culture method is used repeated stool sampling is necessary to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. In this manuscript we describe the development of a coproantigen ELISA for diagnosis of infection. Polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against Strongyloides ratti excretory/secretory (E/S antigen and utilized to develop an antigen capture ELISA. The assay enabled detection of subpatent rodent S. ratti and human S. stercoralis infection. No cross-reactivity was observed with purified E/S from Schistosoma japonicum, the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. ceylanicum, nor with fecal samples collected from rodents harboring Trichuris muris or S. mansoni infection. Strongyloides coproantigens that appear stable when frozen as formalin-extracted fecal supernatants stored at -20 °C remained positive up to 270 days of storage, whereas supernatants stored at 4 °C tested negative. These results indicate that diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by detection of coproantigen is an approach worthy of further development.

  20. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  1. EFECTO DEL ALBENDAZOL Y LA VITAMINA A PERIÓDICOS SOBRE HELMINTOS INTESTINALES Y ANEMIA EN NIÑOS DEL URABÁ ANTIOQUEÑO (COLOMBIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Correa-Botero, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Problema: En Colombia no hay informes sobre efectos en humanos del tratamiento periódico antihelmíntico-vitamina A. Objetivo: Evaluar efectos de albendazol/pamoato de pirantel-vitamina A trimestrales sobre Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus y sobre niveles séricos de retinol y hemoglobina, en niños del Urabá antioqueño. Metodología: Estudio clínico, aleatorio, con grupos paralelos, cerrado, intervenidos y evaluados cada 3-4 meses por 4 veces, seguidos 12 meses. Inte...

  2. Aspects of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in World Bank ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a seven months (February to August, 2002) prevalence study of intestinal helminth parasites of dogs in the New Owerri area of Imo State, Nigeria, using both direct and concentration methods six helminth parasites were recorded. These included Hookworm, Strongyloides sp, Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Diphylidium ...

  3. 21 CFR 524.2098 - Selamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... dogs and cats. Treatment and control of sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) and control of tick (Dermacentor variabilis) infestations in dogs. Treatment and control of intestinal hookworm (Ancylostoma tubaeforme) and roundworm (Toxocara cati) infections in cats. For dogs 6 weeks of age and older, and cats 8...

  4. An unusual recurrence of pruritic creeping eruption after treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-13

    Aug 13, 2015 ... However, an unusual recurrence of the disease in a Ghanaian male after standard treatment was observed ... dog or cat hookworm is not an unusual disease. However ... mistaken for fungal infections or inflammatory skin disorders. Indeed .... drug include dizziness, nausea, vomiting and intestinal cramps.

  5. Complex Interactions between Soil-Transmitted Helminths and Malaria in Pregnant Women on the Thai-Burmese Border

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boel, M.; Carrara, V.I.; Rijken, M.; Proux, S.; Nacher, M.; Pimanpanarak, M.; Paw, M.K.; Moo, O.; Gay, H.; Bailey, W.; Singhasivanon, P.; White, N.J.; Nosten, F.; McGready, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Deworming is recommended by the WHO in girls and pregnant and lactating women to reduce anaemia in areas where hookworm and anaemia are common. There is conflicting evidence on the harm and the benefits of intestinal geohelminth infections on the incidence and severity of malaria, and

  6. Epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminthiases-related mortality in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins-Melo, Francisco R; Ramos, Alberto N; Alencar, Carlos H; Lima, Mauricélia S; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2017-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, including Brazil. We performed a nationwide population-based study including all deaths in Brazil from 2000 to 2011, in which STHs (ascariasis, trichuriasis and/or hookworm infection) were mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated causes of death. Epidemiological characteristics, time trends and spatial analysis of STH-related mortality were analysed. STHs was identified on 853/12 491 280 death certificates: 827 (97·0%) deaths related to ascariasis, 25 (2·9%) to hookworm infections, and 1 (0·1%) to trichuriasis. The average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0·34/1 000 000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 0·27-0·44). Females, children Brazil, a considerable number of deaths is caused by STHs, with ascariasis responsible for the vast majority. There were marked regional differences, affecting mainly children and vulnerable populations.

  7. Agreement of the Kato-Katz test established by the WHO with samples fixed with sodium acetate analyzed at 6 months to diagnose intestinal geohelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Julián; David Ramírez, Juan; Consuelo López, Myriam; Inés Moncada, Ligia; Reyes, Patricia; Darío Heredia, Rubén

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Kato-Katz test (WHO version) with stool samples from a rural area, fixed with sodium acetate (SAF). The Kato-Katz test was used to compare unfixed samples (conventional test) with the same samples containing SAF fixative at time 0 and at 6 months. The study included stools from 154 subjects. A marginally statistically significant decrease in prevalence was estimated only for hookworm, when comparing unfixed samples versus the SAF fixed samples read at 6 months (p=0.06). A significant reduction in parasite load was found for hookworm (p<0.01) and Trichuris trichiura (p<0.01) between the unfixed and the fixed sample read at 6 months, but not for Ascaris lumbricoides (p=0.10). This research suggests that the SAF fixative solution is a good option for transporting samples for diagnosis, especially in rural areas in developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis in the United States: a systematic review--1940-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Michelle C; Montgomery, Susan P

    2011-10-01

    The epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminth infections (hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis) in the United States is poorly understood. To gain understanding of the status of disease, a systematic review was performed to assess the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections in the United States. Of all studies reviewed, 14 were designated as high-quality. High-quality studies were published from 1942 to 1982 and showed that infection was prevalent throughout the southern United States and Appalachia as recently as 1982, finding that hookworm (19.6%), T. trichiura (55.2%), A. lumbricoides (49.4%), and S. stercoralis (3.8%) affected significant percentages of the population. However, because the most recent high-quality studies were published over 25 years ago, the literature does not provide sufficient data to assess current endemic transmission. Because the status of disease remains unclear, there is a need for additional studies to determine if soil-transmitted helminths remain endemic in the United States.

  9. Eficácia do fenbendazole (Hoe 881 em doses múltiplas na ascaridiose, ancilostomose e tricocefalose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleudson Castro

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores trataram 98 indivíduos, sendo 73 com fenbendazoie e 25 com mebendazoie. O controle de cura foi de quatro exames de fezes em um mês. A tolerância foi ótima para ambas as drogas. O fenbendazoie negativou 17 (100% com A. lumbricoides, 32 (68% com ancilostomideos e 50 (79,3% com T. trichiurus. Comparativamente o mebendazoie negativou 10 (91%, parasitados pelo A. lumbricoides, 13 (92,8% parasitados pelos ancilostomideos e 20 (100% parasitados pelo T.trichiurus. O mebendazoie é preferível ao fenbendazoie.The authors treated 98 individuals, 73 with fenbendazoie and 25 with mebendazoie. The control of cure was by four stool examinations in a month. The tolerance of both drugs was excellent. Fenbendazoie cured 17 (100% with A. lumbricoides, 32 (68% with hookworm and 50 (79.3% with T.trichuris. Comparatively mebendazoie cured 10 (91% patients with A. lumbricoides, 13 (92.8% with hookworm and 20 (100% with T.trichuris. Mebendazoie is preferable to fenbendazoie.

  10. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  11. Assessment of intestinal helminths in community school children of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also 286 helminth worms were recovered as follows; 127 (44.4%), 114 (40%), 21 (7.3%), 20 (7%), 3 (1%) and 1 (0.3%) for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichuira, Hookworms, Fasciola hepatica, Strongyloides stercolaris and Enterobius vermicularis respectively. There was no significant difference in pattern of infection ...

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in Tanzania Abstract · Vol 9, No 3 (2012) - Articles Association between anaemia and infections (HIV, malaria and hookworm) among Children admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital Abstract · Vol 11, No 4 (2014) - Articles Association of anaemia with ...

  13. Characterization and Expression Analysis of a Retinoblastoma-Related Gene from Chinese Wild Vitis pseudoreticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhifeng; Gao, Min; Jiao, Chen; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hui; Walter, Monika; Xu, Weirong; Bassett, Carole; Wang, Xiping

    2012-01-01

    Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) genes, a conserved gene family in higher eukaryotes, play important roles in cell differentiation, development, and mammalian cell death; however, little is known of their function in plants. In this study, a RBR gene was isolated from the Chinese wild grape, Vitis pseudoreticulata W. T. Wang clone "Baihe-35-1", and designated as VpRBR . The cDNA sequence of VpRBR was 3,030 bp and contained an open reading frame of 3,024 bp. Conceptual translation of this gene indicated a composition of 1,007 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 117.3 kDa. The predicted protein showed a retinoblastoma-associated protein domain A from amino acid residues 416 to 579, and domain B from residues 726 to 855. The result of expression analysis indicated that VpRBR was expressed in tissues, leaves, stem, tendrils, flower, and grape skin at different expression levels. Further quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) data indicated that VpRBR levels were higher in Erysiphe necator-treated "Baihe-35-1" and "Baihe-13-1", two resistant clones of Chinese wild V. pseudoreticulata , than in E. necator-treated "Hunan-1", a susceptible clone of V. pseudoreticulata . Furthermore, the expression of VpRBR in response to salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and ethylene (Eth) in grape leaves was also investigated. Taken together, these data indicate that VpRBR may contribute to some aspect of powdery mildew resistance in grape.

  14. A dose-effect analysis of children's exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, David C; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Daniel, David; Zhang, Annie; Tavares, Mary A; McKinlay, Sonja

    2007-09-01

    The New England Children's Amalgam Trial (NECAT) was a five-year randomized trial of 534 6- to 10-year-old children that compared the neuropsychological outcomes of those whose caries were restored using dental amalgam with the outcomes of those those whose caries were restored using mercury-free resin-based composite. The primary intention-to-treat analyses did not reveal significant differences between the treatment groups on the primary or secondary outcomes of the administered psychological tests: Full-Scale IQ score on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition, General Memory Index of the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and Visual-Motor Composite of the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities. To determine whether treatment group assignment, a dichotomous measure of exposure, was sufficiently sensitive to detect associations between mercury exposure and these outcomes, the authors conducted analyses to evaluate the associations between the primary and secondary outcomes and two continuously distributed indexes of potential exposure, surface-years of amalgam and urinary mercury excretion. Neither index of mercury exposure was significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The authors found no evidence that exposure to mercury from dental amalgam was associated with any adverse neuropsychological effects over the five-year period after placement of amalgam restorations. Analyses of the outcomes of the NECAT study indicate that use of dental amalgam was not associated with an increase in children's risk of experiencing neuropsychological dysfunction.

  15. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Kamath, Aruna

    2009-08-25

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases), accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases) and onchocerciasis (37 million cases) are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases). However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  16. Prevalence Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe dam Area, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are co-endemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and STHs co-infection and to determine the association risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data, single stool sample and blood sample were collected from each participant. Results The prevalence of STH and malaria was 159 (41%) and 45 (11.6%), respectively and the prevalence of STHs/malaria co-infection was 30 (7.7%). Hookworm was the most prevalent 114 (29.4%) soil transmitted helminthiasis infection followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 58 (15%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 13 (3.4%). Habit of eating soil (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.50-14.36, P=0.008), presence of stagnant water near study participants’ house (AOR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-6.99, P=0.012) and habit of using human feces as a fertilizer (AOR= 5.34, 95% CI: 1.99-14.28, P<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with malaria and STH co-infection among the pregnant women. Hookworm parasitic load was positively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = 0.299, P<0.001) while A. lumbricoides parasitic load was negatively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = −0.095, P<0.001). Conclusion Intestinal parasite and/or malaria co-infection is a health problem among pregnant women living around Gilgel Gibe dam area. Therefore, intervention including improving sanitation, removing stagnant water, and health education to the pregnant women should be given. PMID:23837685

  17. Severe anemia in Malawian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calis, Job Cj; Phiri, Kamija S; Faragher, E Brian; Brabin, Bernard J; Bates, Imelda; Cuevas, Luis E; de Haan, Rob J; Phiri, Ajib I; Malange, Pelani; Khoka, Mirriam; Hulshof, Paul Jm; van Lieshout, Lisette; Beld, Marcel Ghm; Teo, Yik Y; Rockett, Kirk A; Richardson, Anna; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Molyneux, Malcolm E; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele

    2016-09-01

    Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied. We conducted a case-control study of 381 preschool children with severe anemia (hemoglobin concentration, <5.0 g per deciliter) and 757 preschool children without severe anemia in urban and rural settings in Malawi. Causal factors previously associated with severe anemia were studied. The data were examined by multivariate analysis and structural equation modeling. Bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6 to 10.9), malaria (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 3.3), hookworm (adjusted odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 2.0 to 11.8), human immunodeficiency virus infection (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8), the G6PD -202/-376 genetic disorder (adjusted odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3 to 4.4), vitamin A deficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.8), and vitamin B 12 deficiency (adjusted odds ratio, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.6) were associated with severe anemia. Folate deficiency, sickle cell disease, and laboratory signs of an abnormal inflammatory response were uncommon. Iron deficiency was not prevalent in case patients (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.60) and was negatively associated with bacteremia. Malaria was associated with severe anemia in the urban site (with seasonal transmission) but not in the rural site (where malaria was holoendemic). Seventy-six percent of hookworm infections were found in children under 2 years of age. There are multiple causes of severe anemia in Malawian preschool children, but folate and iron deficiencies are not prominent among them. Even in the presence of malaria parasites, additional or alternative causes of severe anemia should be considered.

  18. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    Full Text Available The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are the most common conditions affecting the poorest 500 million people living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and together produce a burden of disease that may be equivalent to up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden and more than double that caused by tuberculosis. Approximately 85% of the NTD disease burden results from helminth infections. Hookworm infection occurs in almost half of SSA's poorest people, including 40-50 million school-aged children and 7 million pregnant women in whom it is a leading cause of anemia. Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent NTD after hookworm (192 million cases, accounting for 93% of the world's number of cases and possibly associated with increased horizontal transmission of HIV/AIDS. Lymphatic filariasis (46-51 million cases and onchocerciasis (37 million cases are also widespread in SSA, each disease representing a significant cause of disability and reduction in the region's agricultural productivity. There is a dearth of information on Africa's non-helminth NTDs. The protozoan infections, human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis, affect almost 100,000 people, primarily in areas of conflict in SSA where they cause high mortality, and where trachoma is the most prevalent bacterial NTD (30 million cases. However, there are little or no data on some very important protozoan infections, e.g., amebiasis and toxoplasmosis; bacterial infections, e.g., typhoid fever and non-typhoidal salmonellosis, the tick-borne bacterial zoonoses, and non-tuberculosis mycobaterial infections; and arboviral infections. Thus, the overall burden of Africa's NTDs may be severely underestimated. A full assessment is an important step for disease control priorities, particularly in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the greatest number of NTDs may occur.

  19. Prevalence soil transmitted helminthiasis and malaria co-infection among pregnant women and risk factors in Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Million; Tafess, Ketema; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Yewhalaw, Delenesaw

    2013-07-09

    Malaria and Soil Transmitted Helminthiasis (STH) are co-endemic and major public health problems in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and STHs co-infection and to determine the association risk factors. A cross-sectional community based study was conducted on 388 pregnant women living in three districts around Gilgel Gibe Dam area, southwestern Ethiopia. Socio-demographic and socio-economic data, single stool sample and blood sample were collected from each participant. The prevalence of STH and malaria was 159 (41%) and 45 (11.6%), respectively and the prevalence of STHs/malaria co-infection was 30 (7.7%). Hookworm was the most prevalent 114 (29.4%) soil transmitted helminthiasis infection followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) 58 (15%) and Trichuris trichiura (T. trichiura) 13 (3.4%). Habit of eating soil (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.50-14.36, P=0.008), presence of stagnant water near study participants' house (AOR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.28-6.99, P=0.012) and habit of using human feces as a fertilizer (AOR= 5.34, 95% CI: 1.99-14.28, P<0.001) were found to be significantly associated with malaria and STH co-infection among the pregnant women. Hookworm parasitic load was positively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = 0.299, P<0.001) while A. lumbricoides parasitic load was negatively correlated with malaria parasitic load (r = -0.095, P<0.001). Intestinal parasite and/or malaria co-infection is a health problem among pregnant women living around Gilgel Gibe dam area. Therefore, intervention including improving sanitation, removing stagnant water, and health education to the pregnant women should be given.

  20. Utility of capsule endoscopy for evaluating anthelmintic efficacy in fully conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Simpson, Kenneth W; Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    The current accepted standard for evaluating the efficacy of gastrointestinal anthelmintic drugs is necropsy of infected animals followed by a comparison of worm counts between treated and non-treated groups. In this study capsule endoscopy, a minimally invasive method of imaging the small intestine of humans, is evaluated as a possible alternative to necropsy for the purposes of worm quantification in dogs. Eighteen Beagle dogs were included in this study. These dogs were part of a separate trial intended to determine the efficacy of various candidate parasiticides against Ancylostoma caninum via the necropsy standard. Dogs were inoculated with A. caninum L3s 4 weeks prior to treatment with one of the candidate compounds; a control group (n=8) received no treatment. Capsule endoscopy was performed 6-14 days post-treatment, followed by necropsy the following day. Seventeen dogs had complete examinations, i.e. the capsule traversed the small intestine and reached the colon within the battery life of the capsule. A strong correlation (r(s)=0.87, Pcapsule endoscopy and necropsy. There was no clear relationship between the ability of the capsule endoscope to detect hookworms and either visibility of the intestinal lumen or small intestinal transit time. Generation of a virtual spatial record of hookworm location from the capsule endoscopy data revealed a temporal trend, with the majority of worms present in the proximal small intestine in the morning versus the central to distal small intestine in the afternoon. Worm distribution as determined by capsule endoscopy closely resembled post-mortem findings. In conclusion, capsule endoscopy shows promise as an alternative to necropsy for the enumeration of A. caninum in the canine small intestine, although further work is required to improve completion rates and optimise intestinal examination. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Helminth infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar in the decade from 2005 to 2014: temporal trends and varying prevalence among subjects from different regional origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Boughattas, Sonia; Al-Thani, Asma; Doiphode, Sanjay H; Deshmukh, Anand

    2016-03-16

    Travel and migration from developing regions, where tropical diseases are common, to more developed industrialised nations can contribute to the introduction and subsequent spread of infections. With its rapidly expanding economy, Qatar has attracted vast numbers of immigrant workers in the last two decades, often from countries with poor socio-economic levels. Many used to arrive with patent intestinal parasitic infections. We analysed the prevalence of helminth infections in a dataset of 29,286 records of subjects referred for stool examination at the Hamad Medical Corporation over the course of a decade (2005 to 2014, inclusive). Overall prevalence of combined helminth infections was low (1.86 %) but there were significant temporal trends, age and sex effects and those arising from the region of origin of the subjects. The most common helminths were hookworms (overall prevalence 1.22 %), which accounted for 70.1 % of cases, and therefore patterns for combined helminth infections were largely driven by hookworms. In both cases, and also in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides, prevalence peaked in 2008, since when prevalence has been steadily falling. Helminth infections were largely concentrated among subjects from five Asian countries (Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan), and there was a highly biased prevalence in favour of male subjects in all cases. Prevalence of all three nematodes peaked in age class 7 (mean age 25.5 years, range = 20-29) and there were significant interactions between region of origin, sex of subjects and prevalence of hookworms. These results offer optimism that prevalence will continue to decline in the years ahead, especially if control is targeted at those most at risk of carrying infections.

  2. Co-endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and Intestinal Helminths Infection in School Age Children in Rural Communities of Kwara State Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoja, Ayodele; Tijani, Bukola Deborah; Akanbi, Ajibola A.; Ojurongbe, Taiwo A.; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A.; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Background Malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection are major public health problems particularly among school age children in Nigeria. However the magnitude and possible interactions of these infections remain poorly understood. This study determined the prevalence, impact and possible interaction of Plasmodium falciparum and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in rural communities of Kwara State, Nigeria. Methods Blood, urine and stool samples were collected from 1017 primary school pupils of ages 4–15 years. Stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal helminths infection. Urine samples were analyzed using sedimentation method for Schistosoma haematobium. Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by microscopy using thick and thin blood films methods and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined using hematocrit reader. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. Results Overall, 61.2% of all school children had at least an infection of either P. falciparum, S. haematobium, or intestinal helminth. S. haematobium accounted for the largest proportion (44.4%) of a single infection followed by P. falciparum (20.6%). The prevalence of malaria and helminth co-infection in the study was 14.4%. Four species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were hookworm (22.5%), Hymenolepis species (9.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.6%). The mean densities of P. falciparum in children co-infected with S. haematobium and hookworm were higher compared to those infected with P. falciparum only though not statistically significant (p = 0.062). The age distribution of both S. haematobium (p = 0.049) and hookworm (p = 0.034) infected children were statistically significant with the older age group (10–15 years) recording the highest prevalence of 47.2% and 25% respectively

  3. Cutaneous larva migrans: a bad souvenir from the vacation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Belda, Walter; Vasconcellos, Cidia; Silva, Cristiana Silveira

    2012-06-15

    Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a common endemic disease in tropical and subtropical countries. This condition is caused by skin-penetrating larvae of nematodes, mainly of the hookworm Ancylostoma braziliense and other nematodes of the family Ancylostomidae. We report three cases of CLM acquired during vacations in different regions of Brazil.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okolie, NJC. Vol 16, No 2 (2007) - Articles Evaluation of Levamisole Activity on Ascaris lumbricoides and Hookworm Infections - A Therapeutic Trial Abstract. ISSN: 1116-1043. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  5. Spatial patterns of soil-transmitted helminths in soil environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping protocol was used for predictive risk prevalence of parasites. A total of 483 (67.1%) out of the soil samples examined had parasites. Ova of Ascaris and Trichuris species, adults and larva of Strongyloides and larva of hookworm species were encountered. The variation in distribution is statistically significant ...

  6. Pattern of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-two per cent (22%) of these had mixed parasitosis of cryptosporidium and hookworm. There was no significant association of CD4 cells count with intestinal parasitosis. x2 = 5.286 and p=0.259. However marital status was significantly associated with gastrointestinal opportunistic parasitosis with x2 of 12.693, ...

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  8. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  9. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  10. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  11. Comparison of intestinal parasitic infection in newly arrived and resident workers in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Madi Marawan A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid growth of Qatar in the last two decades has been associated with an enormous expansion of building programs in its cities and in the provision of new service industries. This in turn has attracted a large influx of immigrant workers seeking employment in jobs associated with food handling, domestic service and the building industry. Many of these immigrants come from countries in the tropics and subtropics where intestinal parasitic infections are common. Methods We analyzed intestinal parasitic infections recorded in 2008 among immigrant and long-term resident workers in Doha city, Qatar (n = 1538. Stool examinations were carried out at the Hamad Medical Corporation and at the Medical Commission in Doha using standard procedures. Results Overall, 21.5% of subjects were infected with at least one of the species recorded (8 helminth and 4 protozoan species; the highest prevalence was for hookworms = 8.3% and there were strong regional effects on prevalence of helminths, with subjects from North East Africa and Nepal showing particularly high prevalence. Most helminths declined in prevalence in subjects that acquired residency status in Qatar, especially among female subjects, but there was a marked exception among male Nepalese workers, who continued to harbour helminth infections (notably hookworms after they became residents. Contrary to all other regional groups the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis was higher among Nepalese residents compared with new arrivals, while Blastocystis hominis infections were more common among residents of all regions, and especially among North East Africans. Conclusions Our analysis has identified male Nepalese workers as a particular risk group continuing to harbour hookworm infection and G. duodenalis as residents, and subjects from North East Africa are as particularly likely to acquire B. hominis infection after settling in the country. These conclusions have important

  12. Risk factors for helminth, malaria, and HIV infection in pregnancy in Entebbe, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick William Woodburn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Infections during pregnancy may have serious consequences for both mother and baby. Assessment of risk factors for infections informs planning of interventions and analysis of the impact of infections on health outcomes.To describe risk factors for helminths, malaria and HIV in pregnant Ugandan women before intervention in a trial of de-worming in pregnancy.The trial recruited 2,507 pregnant women between April 2003 and November 2005. Participants were interviewed and blood and stool samples obtained; location of residence at enrolment was mapped. Demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral and other risk factors were modelled using logistic regression.There was a high prevalence of helminth, malaria and HIV infection, as previously reported. All helminths and malaria parasitemia were more common in younger women, and education was protective against every infection. Place of birth and/or tribe affected all helminths in a pattern consistent with the geographical distribution of helminth infections in Uganda. Four different geohelminths (hookworm, Trichuris, Ascaris and Trichostrongylus showed a downwards trend in prevalence during the enrolment period. There was a negative association between hookworm and HIV, and between hookworm and low CD4 count among HIV-positive women. Locally, high prevalence of schistosomiasis and HIV occurred in lakeshore communities.Interventions for helminths, malaria and HIV need to target young women both in and out of school. Antenatal interventions for malaria and HIV infection must continue to be promoted. Women originating from a high risk area for a helminth infection remain at high risk after migration to a lower-risk area, and vice versa, but overall, geohelminths seem to be becoming less common in this population. High risk populations, such as fishing communities, require directed effort against schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

  13. Taiwo et al (8)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Ife Journal of Science. (2016) vol. 18, no. 4. SPATIAL ... Ogun State. On the contrary, published work in some parts of Nigeria had ..... Prevalence among. Age Group (%). Cause of Infection. (%). Adeoye et al.,. 2007. Lagos. Kato-Katz. A. lumbricoides =29.7. Hookworm = 0.7. T. Trichiura = 18.4. S. stercoralis =0.3. Total =49.1.

  14. Intestinal helminthiasis among malnourished school age children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit value and worm density in subjects were determined to rate level of infectivity in the individual. The study shows that there are three common intestinal worms in the area Ascaris lumbricoides has the highest prevalence rate of 40.7% followed by Tribchuris trichiura (4.8%) and hookworm (4.4%). Age and sex ...

  15. Potential novel bZIP-like gene for resistance to Erysiphe necator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... In this study, a novel bZIP-like gene was isolated from Chinese wild Vitis ... Results reveal that it was in lower lever in flower than in leaf, stem, tendril and fruit. .... First-strand cDNA was synthesized from 1 µg of DNase treated.

  16. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, Kenneth Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch

    2015-01-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Ca....... Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.......There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province......, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most...

  17. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  18. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  19. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  20. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  1. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  2. Interactions among urogenital, intestinal, skin, and oral infections in pregnant and lactating Panamanian Ngäbe women: a neglected public health challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Doris; Koski, Kristine G; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; Del Carmen Pons, Emérita; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-06-01

    Interrelationships among bacteria, protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites were explored in a cross-sectional survey of 213 pregnant and 99 lactating indigenous women. Prevalences in pregnancy and lactation, respectively, were: vaginitis (89.2%; 46.8%), vaginal trichomoniasis (75.3%; 91.1%), bacterial vaginosis (BV; 60.6%; 63.3%), hookworm (56.6%; 47.8%), asymptomatic bacteriuria/urinary tract infection (AB/UTI; 56.2%; 36.2%), cervicitis (33.3%; 6.3%), vaginal yeast (24.9%; 11.4%), Ascaris (32.5%; 17.4%), vaginal diplococci (20.4%; 31.6%), caries (19.7%; 18.2%), scabies (17.4%; 8.1%), and Trichuris (12.5%; 8.7%). Multiple regressions revealed positive associations during pregnancy (trichomoniasis and AB/UTI; diplococci and Ascaris) and lactation (yeast and scabies). Negative associations were detected in pregnancy (BV and trichomoniasis; hookworm and diplococci) and lactation (BV and yeast). Vaginal Lactobacillus reduced odds of diplococci in pregnancy and lactation, but increased Ascaris eggs per gram (epg) and odds of trichomoniasis in pregnancy and yeast in lactation. These associations raised a concern that treatment of one condition may increase the risk of another. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Nutrient Status and Contamination Risks from Digested Pig Slurry Applied on a Vegetable Crops Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of applied digested pig slurry on a vegetable crops field were studied. The study included a 3-year investigation on nutrient characteristics, heavy metals contamination and hygienic risks of a vegetable crops field in Wuhan, China. The results showed that, after anaerobic digestion, abundant N, P and K remained in the digested pig slurry while fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs and hookworm eggs were highly reduced. High Cr, Zn and Cu contents in the digested pig slurry were found in spring. Digested pig slurry application to the vegetable crops field led to improved soil fertility. Plant-available P in the fertilized soils increased due to considerable increase in total P content and decrease in low-availability P fraction. The As content in the fertilized soils increased slightly but significantly (p = 0.003 compared with control. The Hg, Zn, Cr, Cd, Pb, and Cu contents in the fertilized soils did not exceed the maximum permissible contents for vegetable crops soils in China. However, high Zn accumulation should be of concern due to repeated applications of digested pig slurry. No fecal coliforms, ascaris eggs, schistosoma eggs or hookworm eggs were detected in the fertilized soils.

  4. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, S; Leonard, W R; McDade, T W; Reyes-Garcia, V; Godoy, R; Huanca, T

    2009-01-01

    Infectious disease, such as diarrheal disease, respiratory infections, and parasitic infections, are an important source of nutritional and energetic stress in many populations. Inspired by the research and methodological innovations of A. Roberto Frisancho, this work considers the impact of childhood environment and local disease ecology on child health and nutritional patterns among an indigenous group in lowland Bolivia. Specifically, we examine the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection, especially hookworm species, and anthropometric markers of short- and long-term nutritional status. Fecal samples, anthropometric dimensions, and health interviews were collected for 92 children ranging in age from 2.0 to 10.9 years. Microscopic examination revealed high levels of parasitic infection, with 76% of children positive for hookworm species infections (77% of girls and 74% of boys). Less common infections included Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichurius trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis with only 15% of children positive for multiple-species infections. After adjusting for sex and age, no statistically significant associations were observed between helminth infections and the frequency of reported illness or anthropometric measures of nutritional status. These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections.

  5. The interrelation between intestinal parasites and latent TB infections among newly resettled refugees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Amy R; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented that parasite infection may increase vulnerability to TB among certain at risk populations. The purpose of this study was to identify whether an association exists between latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and intestinal parasite infection among newly resettled refugees in Texas while controlling for additional effects of region of origin, age and sex. Data for all refugees screened for both TB and intestinal parasites between January 2010 and mid-October 2013 were obtained from the Texas Refugee Health Screening Program and were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 9860 refugees were included. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasite infections yielded statistically significant reduced odds of LTBI. However, when individual parasite species were analyzed, hookworm infection indicated statistically significant increased odds of LTBI (OR 1.674, CI: 1.126-2.488). A positive association exists between hookworm infection and LTBI in newly arrived refugees to Texas. More research is needed to assess the nature and extent of these associations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Omitola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05 between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed.

  7. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  8. Anemia, malaria and hookworm infections in a Vietnamese ethnic minority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Hung, Q.; de Vries, Peter J.; Giao, Phan T.; Binh, Tran Q.; Nam, Nguyen V.; Kager, Piet A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and evaluate the relationship of malaria and helminth infections on anemia status in Phan Tien village, a mountainous ethnic minority community in southern Vietnam. This longitudinal study was performed from April 1997 to 2000 by

  9. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  10. Protection of dogs against canine heartworm infection 28?days after four monthly treatments with Advantage Multi? for Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, Dwight D.; Grazette, Alyssa R.; Basel, Chris; Wang, Yingying; Hostetler, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Monthly heartworm preventives are designed to protect dogs by killing heartworms acquired the month prior to their administration, and after treatment with most products, the drug levels rapidly dissipate to very low levels. Work with Advantage Multi? for Dogs (imidacloprid?+?moxidectin) topical solution showed protection against hookworm infection throughout the month after administration of several monthly doses suggesting that similar protection might occur with heartworms. This...

  11. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  12. Spatio-temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Guimarães, Luiz H; Scholte, Ronaldo Gc; Bavia, Mara E; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-09-18

    In Brazil, preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis is being scaled-up. Hence, spatially explicit estimates of infection risks providing information about the current situation are needed to guide interventions. Available high-resolution national model-based estimates either rely on analyses of data restricted to a given period of time, or on historical data collected over a longer period. While efforts have been made to take into account the spatial structure of the data in the modelling approach, little emphasis has been placed on the temporal dimension. We extracted georeferenced survey data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura) in Brazil from the Global Neglected Tropical Diseases (GNTD) database. Selection of the most important predictors of infection risk was carried out using a Bayesian geostatistical approach and temporal models that address non-linearity and correlation of the explanatory variables. The spatial process was estimated through a predictive process approximation. Spatio-temporal models were built on the selected predictors with integrated nested Laplace approximation using stochastic partial differential equations. Our models revealed that, over the past 20 years, the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection has decreased in Brazil, mainly because of the reduction of A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections. From 2010 onwards, we estimate that the infection prevalences with A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura are 3.6%, 1.7% and 1.4%, respectively. We also provide a map highlighting municipalities in need of preventive chemotherapy, based on a predicted soil-transmitted helminth infection risk in excess of 20%. The need for treatments in the school-aged population at the municipality level was estimated at 1.8 million doses of anthelminthic tablets per year. The analysis of the spatio-temporal aspect of the risk of infection

  13. School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Schistosomes: National Mapping in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack E T Grimes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that improving water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH might reduce the transmission of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths, owing to their life cycles. However, few large-scale studies have yet assessed the real extent of associations between WASH and these parasites.In the 2013-2014 Ethiopian national mapping of infections with these parasites, school WASH was assessed alongside infection intensity in children, mostly between 10 and 15 years of age. Scores were constructed reflecting exposure to schistosomes arising from water collection for schools, from freshwater sources, and the adequacy of school sanitation and hygiene facilities. Kendall's τb was used to test the WASH scores against the school-level arithmetic mean intensity of infection with each parasite, in schools with at least one child positive for the parasite in question. WASH and parasitology data were available for 1,645 schools. More frequent collection of water for schools, from open freshwater sources was associated with statistically significantly higher Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity (Kendall's τb = 0.097, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.011 to 0.18, better sanitation was associated with significantly lower Ascaris lumbricoides intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.067, 95% CI: -0.11 to -0.023 and borderline significant lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.039, 95% CI: -0.090 to 0.012, P = 0.067, and better hygiene was associated with significantly lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.076, 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.020. However, no significant differences were observed when comparing sanitation and infection with S. mansoni or Trichuris trichiura, or hygiene and infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura.Improving school WASH may reduce transmission of these parasites. However, different forms of WASH appear to have different effects on infection with the various parasites, with our analysis finding the strongest associations between

  14. Spatial and temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Biedermann, Patricia; Ekpo, Uwem F; Garba, Amadou; Langer, Erika; Mathieu, Els; Midzi, Nicholas; Mwinzi, Pauline; Polderman, Anton M; Raso, Giovanna; Sacko, Moussa; Talla, Idrissa; Tchuenté, Louis-Albert Tchuem; Touré, Seydou; Winkler, Mirko S; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Interest is growing in predictive risk mapping for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), particularly to scale up preventive chemotherapy, surveillance, and elimination efforts. Soil-transmitted helminths (hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura) are the most widespread NTDs, but broad geographical analyses are scarce. We aimed to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of soil-transmitted helminth infections, including the number of infected people and treatment needs, across sub-Saharan Africa. We systematically searched PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and African Journal Online from inception to Dec 31, 2013, without language restrictions, to identify georeferenced surveys. We extracted data from household surveys on sources of drinking water, sanitation, and women's level of education. Bayesian geostatistical models were used to align the data in space and estimate risk of with hookworm, A lumbricoides, and T trichiura over a grid of roughly 1 million pixels at a spatial resolution of 5 × 5 km. We calculated anthelmintic treatment needs on the basis of WHO guidelines (treatment of all school-aged children once per year where prevalence in this population is 20-50% or twice per year if prevalence is greater than 50%). We identified 459 relevant survey reports that referenced 6040 unique locations. We estimate that the prevalence of hookworm, A lumbricoides, and T trichiura among school-aged children from 2000 onwards was 16·5%, 6·6%, and 4·4%. These estimates are between 52% and 74% lower than those in surveys done before 2000, and have become similar to values for the entire communities. We estimated that 126 million doses of anthelmintic treatments are required per year. Patterns of soil-transmitted helminth infection in sub-Saharan Africa have changed and the prevalence of infection has declined substantially in this millennium, probably due to socioeconomic development and large-scale deworming programmes. The global control strategy

  15. Childhood malnutrition and parasitic helminth interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, Keren; Williams, Gail M; Luceres-Catubig, Ruby; Ahmed, Faruk; Olveda, Remigio M; McManus, Donald P; Chy, Delia; Chau, Thao N P; Gray, Darren J; Ross, Allen G P

    2014-07-15

    There is evidence to support that nutritional deficiency can reduce the body's immune function, thereby decreasing resistance to disease and increasing susceptibility to intestinal parasites. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on 693 school-aged children from 5 schistosomiasis-endemic villages in Northern Samar, the Philippines. Data on dietary intake, nutritional status, and intestinal parasitic infection were collected. The prevalence of stunting, thinness, and wasting was 49.2%, 27.8%, and 59.7% of all children. The proportion of children infected with Schistosoma japonicum (15.6%, P = .03) and hookworm (22.0%, P = .05) were significantly lower among children who met the recommended energy and nutrient intake (RENI) for total calories. The percentage of children infected with Trichuris trichiura was highest among children who did not meet the RENI for energy (74.1%, P = .04), iron (73.4%, P = .01), thiamine (74.0%, P = .00), and riboflavin (73.3%, P = .01). Susceptibility to having 1 or more parasitic infections was significantly associated with poor intake of energy (P = .04), thiamine (P = .02), and riboflavin (P = .01).The proportion of stunted children was significantly higher among children who did not meet the RENI for energy (68.9%, P = .002), protein (54.0%, P = .004), or niacin (30.8%, P = .02) and for those infected with hookworm (31.8%, P = .0002). After adjusting for potential confounders, protein intake less than the RENI (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.14), and hookworm infection (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55) were the major predictors of stunting. The results support the hypothesis that poor nutrient intake may increase susceptibility to parasitic diseases and together they negatively affect childhood nutritional status. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. School Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Soil-Transmitted Helminths, and Schistosomes: National Mapping in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Mekete, Kalkidan; Wuletaw, Yonas; Gebretsadik, Abeba; French, Michael D; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Templeton, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    It is thought that improving water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) might reduce the transmission of schistosomes and soil-transmitted helminths, owing to their life cycles. However, few large-scale studies have yet assessed the real extent of associations between WASH and these parasites. In the 2013-2014 Ethiopian national mapping of infections with these parasites, school WASH was assessed alongside infection intensity in children, mostly between 10 and 15 years of age. Scores were constructed reflecting exposure to schistosomes arising from water collection for schools, from freshwater sources, and the adequacy of school sanitation and hygiene facilities. Kendall's τb was used to test the WASH scores against the school-level arithmetic mean intensity of infection with each parasite, in schools with at least one child positive for the parasite in question. WASH and parasitology data were available for 1,645 schools. More frequent collection of water for schools, from open freshwater sources was associated with statistically significantly higher Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity (Kendall's τb = 0.097, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.011 to 0.18), better sanitation was associated with significantly lower Ascaris lumbricoides intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.067, 95% CI: -0.11 to -0.023) and borderline significant lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.039, 95% CI: -0.090 to 0.012, P = 0.067), and better hygiene was associated with significantly lower hookworm intensity (Kendall's τb = -0.076, 95% CI: -0.13 to -0.020). However, no significant differences were observed when comparing sanitation and infection with S. mansoni or Trichuris trichiura, or hygiene and infection with A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura. Improving school WASH may reduce transmission of these parasites. However, different forms of WASH appear to have different effects on infection with the various parasites, with our analysis finding the strongest associations between water and S

  17. [Current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis monitoring in China and working keys in future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-dan; Zang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Soil-transmitted nematodiasis is widely epidemic in rural areas in China. It was showed that the infection rate of soil-transmitted nematodes was 19.56% while the overall number of persons infected was 129,000,000, which was supported by the results of the National Survey of Current Situation of Major Human Parasitic Diseases in China in 2005 published by former Ministry of Health. Therefore, soil-transmitted nematodiasis was included in the national infectious diseases and pathogenic media monitoring system by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2006, and subsequently 22 monitoring spots were established nationwide. From 2006 to 2013, the human infection rate of intestinal nematodes in national monitoring spots decreased from 20.88% to 3.12%, which showed a declining trend year by year. Meanwhile, the infection rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis decreased from 10.10%, 5.88%, 8.88%, 10.00% in 2006 to 0.76%, 0.42%, 2.04%, 6.78% in 2013 respectively. In this paper, the current situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis is overviewed based on a summary of the 8 years' monitoring work, as well as the experiences, challenges and key of monitoring work in the future.

  18. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  19. POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) PRODUCTION BY Cupriavidus necator SUPPLEMENTED WITH MINIEMULSIFIED SOYBEAN OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, M.; Ienczak, J. L.; Quines, L. K.; Zanfonato, K.; Schmidell, W.; Aragão, G. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that the supplementation of vegetable oils, in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) production, provides an increase in the process productivity, besides inducing lipase activity in the medium. The supplementation with miniemulsified oils could potentialize these results. In this work, the influence of supplementation of the medium with soybean oil, without treatment and miniemulsified, on polymerr production was evaluated. The best moment to supplement the medium and its influ...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among two indigenous sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng

    2016-07-18

    Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah

  1. Managing the Human in Human Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical and social realities, mental biases and limitations of being human differentiate human brands from others. It is their very humanness that introduces risk while generating the ability for enhanced returns. Four particular human characteristics can create imbalance or inconsistency between the person and the brand: mortality, hubris, unpredictability and social embeddedness. None of these qualities manifest in traditional non-human brands, and all of them present risks requiring active managerial attention. Rather than treating humans as brands and making humans into brands for sale in the commercial marketplace, our framework forces a focus on keeping a balance between the person and the personified object.

  2. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  3. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  5. Economic inequality caused by feedbacks between poverty and the dynamics of a rare tropical disease: the case of Buruli ulcer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N; Guegan, Jean-Francois; Texier, Gaëtan; Bellanger, Martine; Bonds, Matthew; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-11-07

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have received increasing attention in recent years by the global heath community, as they cumulatively constitute substantial burdens of disease as well as barriers for economic development. A number of common tropical diseases such as malaria, hookworm or schistosomiasis have well-documented economic impacts. However, much less is known about the population-level impacts of diseases that are rare but associated with high disability burden, which represent a great number of tropical diseases. Using an individual-based model of Buruli ulcer (BU), we demonstrate that, through feedbacks between health and economic status, such NTDs can have a significant impact on the economic structure of human populations even at low incidence levels. While average wealth is only marginally affected by BU, the economic conditions of certain subpopulations are impacted sufficiently to create changes in measurable population-level inequality. A reduction of the disability burden caused by BU can thus maximize the economic growth of the poorest subpopulations and reduce significantly the economic inequalities introduced by the disease in endemic regions. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  7. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  8. Predicting frequency distribution and influence of sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors of Schistosoma mansoni infection and analysis of co-infection with intestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla V.V. Rollemberg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial analysis was used to study the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, intestinal parasites and co-infections in an area (Ilha das Flores in Sergipe, Brazil. We collected individually georeferenced sociodemographic, behavioral and parasitological data from 500 subjects, analyzed them by conventional statistics, and produced risk maps by Kernel estimation. The prevalence rates found were: S. mansoni (24.0%, Trichuris trichiura (54.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides (49.2%, Hookworm (17.6% and Entamoeba histolytica (7.0%. Only 59/500 (11.8% individuals did not present any of these infections, whereas 279/500 (55.8% were simultaneously infected by three or more parasites. We observed associations between S. mansoni infection and various variables such as male gender, being rice farmer or fisherman, low educational level, low income, water contact and drinking untreated water. The Kernel estimator indicated that high-risk areas coincide with the poorest regions of the villages as well as with the part of the villages without an adequate sewage system. We also noted associations between both A. lumbricoides and hookworm infections with low education and low income. A. lumbricoides infection and T. trichiura infection were both associated with drinking untreated water and residential open-air sewage. These findings call for an integrated approach to effectively control multiple parasitic infections.

  9. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Azezo Health Center Gondar Town, Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meseret Alem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Anemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries; approximately 1.3 billion individuals suffer from it. Pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups to anemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in pregnant women attending antenatal care in Azezo Health Center, Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Azezo Health Center from February to May 2011. Red blood cell morphology, Hgb level determination and intestinal parasites were assessed following the standard procedures. Socio-demographic data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. The data entered and analyzed by using the SPSS version 16.0 statistical software. P34, rural residence, history of malaria attack, hookworm infection and absence of iron supplements are significantly associated with increased risk of anemia. The most prevalent intestinal parasite among pregnant women was hookworm 18 (4.7%. Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of anemia was low when compared with the previous studies carried out in different countries including Ethiopia. More should be done in respect to the importance of regular visit to maternal care centres and health education promotion programs to succeed more. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(3.000: 137-144

  10. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  11. A Study of the U.S. Capacity to Address Tropical Disease Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    associated with a range of symptoms, can lead to jaundice, renal insufficiency, and anemia . Case fatality rates can be as high as 20 percent in high...an important federal center for research on tropical disease pathogens. Army studies of anemia in Puerto Rico led to the discovery of hookworm as the...vaccine development and testing. The university has research links with groups in Chile and Peru . The University of Washington has a similar program, on

  12. Hubungan Higiene Perorangan Dengan Infeksi Telur Soil Transmitte Helminths (Sth) Pada Siswa-siswi Sdn Rowosari 01 Kecamatan Tembalang Kota Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Widiyanto, Didik; Setyowatiningsih, Lilik

    2016-01-01

    Research objective was to determine the relation of individual hygiene with STH eggs infections among students at SDN 01 Rowosari District Tembalang Semarang. Method:. Types of research including an explanatory descriptive research with Cross sectional approach. Analysts data using Chi-Square on α=0.05 Result: 59.80% personal hygiene criteria are poorly, students infected with STHworm eggs 4.9% consists of Ascaris Lumbricoides and hookworm. There is no significant relation between individual ...

  13. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  14. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  15. Successful Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in School Age Children in Burkina Faso and an Example of Community-Based Assessment via Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission Assessment Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Drabo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Burkina Faso is endemic with soil-transmitted helminth infections. Over a decade of preventive chemotherapy has been implemented through annual lymphatic filariasis (LF mass drug administration (MDA for population aged five years and over, biennial treatment of school age children with albendazole together with schistosomiasis MDA and biannual treatment of pre-school age children through Child Health Days. Assessments were conducted to evaluate the current situation and to determine the treatment strategy for the future.A cross-sectional assessment was conducted in 22 sentinel sites across the country in 2013. In total, 3,514 school age children (1,748 boys and 1,766 girls were examined by the Kato-Katz method. Overall, soil-transmitted helminth prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.8% in children examined. Hookworm was the main species detected, with prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9-1.6% and mean egg counts of 2.1 epg (95% CI: 0-4.2 epg. Among regions, the Centre Ouest region had the highest hookworm prevalence of 3.4% (95% CI: 1.9-6.1% and mean egg counts of 14.9 epg (95% CI: 3.3-26.6 epg. A separate assessment was conducted in the Centre Nord region in 2014 using community-based cluster survey design during an LF transmission assessment survey (TAS. In this assessment, 351 children aged 6-7 years and 345 children aged 10-14 years were examined, with two cases (0.6% (95% CI: 0.2-2.1% and seven cases (2.0% (95% CI: 1.0-4.1% of hookworm infection was identified respectively. The results using both age groups categorized the region to be 2% to <10% in STH prevalence according to the pre-defined cut-off values.Through large-scale preventive chemotherapy, Burkina Faso has effectively controlled STH in school age children in the country. Research should be conducted on future strategies to consolidate the gain and to interrupt STH transmission in Burkina Faso. It is also demonstrated that LF TAS provides one feasible and efficient platform to assess the

  16. Developing and evaluating health education learning package (HELP) to control soil-transmitted helminth infections among Orang Asli children in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Lim, Yvonne A L; Nasr, Nabil A; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-09-02

    This study was carried out to develop a health education learning package (HELP) about soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, and to evaluate what impact such a package could have in terms of reducing the incidence and intensity of STH infections among Orang Asli schoolchildren in Pahang, Malaysia. To identify the key risk factors of STH in Orang Asli communities, we applied an extensive mixed methods approach which involved an intensive literature review, as well as community-based discussions with children, their parents, teachers and health personnel, whilst also placing the children under direct observation. To evaluate the package, 317 children from two schools in Lipis, Pahang were screened for STH infections, treated by a 3-day course of albendazole and then followed up over the next 6 months. The knowledge of teachers, parents and children towards STH infections were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The developed package consists of a half day workshop for teachers, a teacher's guide book to STH infections, posters, a comic book, a music video, a puppet show, drawing activities and an aid kit. The package was well-received with effective contributions being made by teachers, children and their parents. The incidence rates of hookworm infection at different assessment points were significantly lower among children in the intervention school compared to those in the control school. Similarly, the intensity of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were found to be significantly lower among children in the HELP group compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the package significantly improved the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of Orang Asli people and the knowledge of teachers towards STH infections. A school-based health education learning package (HELP) was developed which displayed a significant impact in terms of reducing the intensity of all three main STH infections, as well as in reducing the

  17. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  18. Prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people in a rural Ugandan population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Mugisha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies conducted in high income countries have shown that anaemia is a common medical condition among older people, but such data are scarce in Africa. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence, types, risk factors and clinical correlates of anaemia in older people. METHODS: Participants were aged (≥ 50 years recruited from a general population cohort from January 2012 to January 2013. Blood samples were collected for assessing hemoglobin, serum ferritin, serum vitamin B12, serum folate, C-reactive protein, malaria infection and stool samples for assessment of hookworm infection. HIV status was assessed using an algorithm for HIV rapid testing. Questionnaires were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors for anaemia. RESULTS: In total, 1449 people participated (response rate 72.3%. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 20.3 % (95% CI 18.2-22.3%, and this was higher for males (24.1%, 95% CI=20.7-27.7% than females (17.5%, 95% CI=15.0-20.1%. In males, the prevalence of anaemia increased rapidly with age almost doubling between 50 and 65 years (p-trend<0.001. Unexplained anaemia was responsible for more than half of all cases (59.7%. Anaemia was independently associated with infections including malaria (OR 3.49, 95% CI 1.78-6.82, HIV (OR 2.17, 1.32-3.57 heavy hookworm infection (OR 3.45, 1.73-6.91, low fruit consumption (OR 1.55, 1.05-2.29 and being unmarried (OR 1.37 , 95% CI 1.01-1.89. However, the odds of anaemia were lower among older people with elevated blood pressure (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.29-0.77. CONCLUSION: Anaemia control programmes in Uganda should target older people and should include interventions to treat and control hookworms and educational programs on diets that enhance iron absorption. Clinicians should consider screening older people with HIV or malaria for anaemia. Further studies should be done on unexplained anaemia and serum ferritin levels that predict

  19. School hygiene and deworming are key protective factors for reduced transmission of soil-transmitted helminths among schoolchildren in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Sanchez, Ana Lourdes

    2014-08-04

    Among many neglected tropical diseases endemic in Honduras, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are of particular importance. However, knowledge gaps remain in terms of risk factors involved in infection transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with STH infections in schoolchildren living in rural Honduras. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Honduran rural schoolchildren in 2011. Demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire and STH infections were determined by the Kato-Katz method. Logistic regression models accounting for school clustering were used to assess putative risk factors for infection. A total of 320 children completed the study. Prevalences for any STH and for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were: 72.5%, 30.3%, 66.9% and 15.9%, respectively. A number of risk factors were identified at the individual, household, and school level. Boys were at increased odds of infection with hookworms (OR 2.33, 95% CI = 1.23-4.42). Higher socio-economic status in the family had a protective effect against infections by A. lumbricoides (OR 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99) and T. trichiura (OR 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63-0.94).Low school hygiene conditions significantly increased the odds for ascariasis (OR 14.85, 95% CI = 7.29-30.24), trichuriasis (OR 7.32, 95% CI = 3.71-14.45), mixed infections (OR 9.02, 95% CI = 4.66-17.46), and ascariasis intensity of infection (OR 3.32, 95% CI = 1.05 -10.52).Children attending schools not providing deworming treatment or that had provided it only once a year were at increased odds of ascariasis (OR 10.40, 95% CI = 4.39-24.65), hookworm (OR 2.92, 95% CI = 1.09-7.85) and mixed infections (OR 10.57, 95% CI = 4.53-24.66). Poverty-reduction strategies will ultimately lead to sustainable control of STH infections in Honduras, but as shorter-term measures, uninterrupted bi

  20. Global numbers of infection and disease burden of soil transmitted helminth infections in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, Rachel L; Smith, Jennifer L; Jasrasaria, Rashmi; Brooker, Simon J

    2014-01-21

    Quantifying the burden of parasitic diseases in relation to other diseases and injuries requires reliable estimates of prevalence for each disease and an analytic framework within which to estimate attributable morbidity and mortality. Here we use data included in the Global Atlas of Helminth Infection to derive new global estimates of numbers infected with intestinal nematodes (soil-transmitted helminths, STH: Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and the hookworms) and use disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate disease burden. Prevalence data for 6,091 locations in 118 countries were sourced and used to estimate age-stratified mean prevalence for sub-national administrative units via a combination of model-based geostatistics (for sub-Saharan Africa) and empirical approaches (for all other regions). Geographical variation in infection prevalence within these units was approximated using modelled logit-normal distributions, and numbers of individuals with infection intensities above given thresholds estimated for each species using negative binomial distributions and age-specific worm/egg burden thresholds. Finally, age-stratified prevalence estimates for each level of infection intensity were incorporated into the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 analytic framework to estimate the global burden of morbidity and mortality associated with each STH infection. Globally, an estimated 438.9 million people (95% Credible Interval (CI), 406.3 - 480.2 million) were infected with hookworm in 2010, 819.0 million (95% CI, 771.7 - 891.6 million) with A. lumbricoides and 464.6 million (95% CI, 429.6 - 508.0 million) with T. trichiura. Of the 4.98 million years lived with disability (YLDs) attributable to STH, 65% were attributable to hookworm, 22% to A. lumbricoides and the remaining 13% to T. trichiura. The vast majority of STH infections (67%) and YLDs (68%) occurred in Asia. When considering YLDs relative to total populations at risk however, the burden

  1. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  2. The effect of irrigated urban agriculture on malaria, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in different settings of Côte d'Ivoire

    OpenAIRE

    Matthys, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is responsible for more than one million deaths every year, mainly children under the age of five years living in sub-Saharan Africa. At least one billion people harbor one or several of the three main soil-transmitted helminths, namely Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Trichuris trichiura, and about 207 million people are infected with schistosomes. An estimated 70,000 people die each year from amoebiasis, caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Giardiasis, caused by Giardia duodenalis, i...

  3. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2007-01-01

    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  4. Human-centered Computing: Toward a Human Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimes, Alejandro; Gatica-Perez, Daniel; Sebe, Nicu; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-01-01

    Human-centered computing studies the design, development, and deployment of mixed-initiative human-computer systems. HCC is emerging from the convergence of multiple disciplines that are concerned both with understanding human beings and with the design of computational artifacts.

  5. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  6. Simulating human behavior for national security human interactions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Hart, Dereck H.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.; Wolfenbarger, Paul R.; Xavier, Patrick Gordon

    2007-01-01

    This 3-year research and development effort focused on what we believe is a significant technical gap in existing modeling and simulation capabilities: the representation of plausible human cognition and behaviors within a dynamic, simulated environment. Specifically, the intent of the ''Simulating Human Behavior for National Security Human Interactions'' project was to demonstrate initial simulated human modeling capability that realistically represents intra- and inter-group interaction behaviors between simulated humans and human-controlled avatars as they respond to their environment. Significant process was made towards simulating human behaviors through the development of a framework that produces realistic characteristics and movement. The simulated humans were created from models designed to be psychologically plausible by being based on robust psychological research and theory. Progress was also made towards enhancing Sandia National Laboratories existing cognitive models to support culturally plausible behaviors that are important in representing group interactions. These models were implemented in the modular, interoperable, and commercially supported Umbra{reg_sign} simulation framework.

  7. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  8. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  9. Human dignity according to international instruments on human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pablo Alzina de Aguilar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to international instruments on human rights, the dignity of the human person is the foundation of human rights, and both human dignity and human rights are inherent to the human being, universal and inviolable. This understanding of human dignity is not a fruitless truism, but the solid foundation on which to build a world community under the rule of the new ius gentium: the International Law for Humankind. Moreover, it is the clue to answer many questions raised by the new world of globalization and of the exponential growth of international rules.Consequently, there is a need to a common doctrine on a notion of human dignity which will allow the implementation and adjudication of the aforementioned instruments, at the service of the human person and in conformity with the juridical conscience which they reflect. Philosophy of Law concepts which can be traced back to Aristotle provide that notion. According to these concepts, the demanding nature of “human dignity” sustains the notion of “legal personhood”, and both notions pertain to the realm of Law and Right, not of Morale and Values. Thus, human dignity and human rights are and must be, respectively, a basic principle and a necessary part of any Law system, including international law

  10. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  11. SBRC-Nottingham: sustainable routes to platform chemicals from C1 waste gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, Alan; Minton, Nigel P

    2016-06-15

    Synthetic Biology Research Centre (SBRC)-Nottingham (www.sbrc-nottingham.ac.uk) was one of the first three U.K. university-based SBRCs to be funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) as part of the recommendations made in the U.K.'s Synthetic Biology Roadmap. It was established in 2014 and builds on the pioneering work of the Clostridia Research Group (CRG) who have previously developed a range of gene tools for the modification of clostridial genomes. The SBRC is primarily focussed on the conversion of single carbon waste gases into platform chemicals with a particular emphasis on the use of the aerobic chassis Cupriavidus necator. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

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    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  13. From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Robot Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Toumi, Tarek; Zidani, Abdelmadjid

    2014-01-01

    Human-Robot Social Interaction became one of active research fields in which researchers from different areas propose solutions and directives leading robots to improve their interactions with humans. In this paper we propose to introduce works in both human robot interaction and human computer interaction and to make a bridge between them, i.e. to integrate emotions and capabilities concepts of the robot in human computer model to become adequate for human robot interaction and discuss chall...

  14. Comparability of Conflict Opportunities in Human-to-Human and Human-to-Agent Online Collaborative Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Yigal

    2014-01-01

    Students' performance in human-to-human and human-to-agent collaborative problem solving assessment task is investigated in this paper. A secondary data analysis of the research reported by Rosen and Tager (2013) was conducted in order to investigate the comparability of the opportunities for conflict situations in human-to-human and…

  15. Prevalence of Intestinal Helminths among Inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia. PMID:25548418

  16. Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in Zarima town, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Abebe; Atnafu, Asmamaw; Addis, Zelalem; Shiferaw, Yitayal; Teklu, Takele; Mathewos, Biniam; Birhan, Wubet; Gebretsadik, Simon; Gelaw, Baye

    2011-07-09

    In Ethiopia, because of low quality drinking water supply and latrine coverage, helminths infections are the second most predominant causes of outpatient morbidity. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminths and Schistosomiasis in Ethiopia, special in study area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of soil transmitted helminths and intestinal Schistosomiasis. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 319 school children of Zarima town from April 1 to May 25, 2009. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic data and possible risk factors exposure. Early morning stool samples were collected and a Kato Katz semi concentration technique was used to examine and count parasitic load by compound light microscope. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS-15 version and p-value transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides was the predominant isolate (22%) followed by Hookworms (19%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.5%). Schistosoma mansoni was also isolated in 37.9% of the study participants. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections showed statistically significant associations with shoe wearing and swimming habit of school children, respectively. Prevalence of soil transmitted helminths (STH) and S.mansoni was high and the diseases were still major health problem in the study area which alerts public health intervention as soon as possible.

  17. Paradoxical associations between soil-transmitted helminths and Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián A; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Cucunubá, Zulma M; Reyes-Harker, Patricia; Guerra, Ángela P; Moncada, Ligia I; López, Myriam C; Barrera, Sandra M; Cortés, Liliana J; Olivera, Mario; Nicholls, Rubén S

    2012-11-01

    Evidence on the comorbidity between soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria is scarce and divergent. This study explored the interactions between soil-transmitted helminth infections and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an endemic area of Colombia. A paired case-control study matched by sex, age and location in Tierralta, Cordoba, was done between January and September 2010. The incident cases were 68 patients with falciparum malaria and 178 asymptomatic controls. A questionnaire was used to gather information on sociodemographic variables. Additionally physical examinations were carried out, stool samples were analysed for intestinal parasites and blood samples for Ig E concentrations. We found associations between infection with hookworm (OR: 4.21; 95% CI: 1.68-11.31) and Ascaris lumbricoides (OR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.18-1.04) and the occurrence of falciparum malaria. The effects of soil-transmitted helminths on the occurrence of malaria were found to be paradoxical. While hookworm is a risk factor, A. lumbricoides has a protective effect. The findings suggest that, in addition to the comorbidity, the presence of common determinants of soil-transmitted helminth infections and malaria could also exist. While the biological mechanisms involved are not clear, public health policies aimed at the control of their common social and environmental determinants are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The burden of polyparasitism among primary schoolchildren in rural and farming areas in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, N; Sangweme, D; Zinyowera, S; Mapingure, M P; Brouwer, K C; Munatsi, A; Mutapi, F; Mudzori, J; Kumar, N; Woelk, G; Mduluza, T

    2008-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zimbabwe among 1303 primary schoolchildren from a rural (53.3%) and a commercial farming area (46.7%) to determine the prevalence of co-infection by helminths and Plasmodium falciparum. Urine was examined on three successive days using the filtration method. Two stool specimens were processed using the Kato-Katz method and a third specimen was processed using the sedimentation method. Plasmodium falciparum was diagnosed from thick blood films. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium in the rural and farming areas was 66.8% and 52.3%, respectively, and for S. mansoni the prevalence was 12.4% and 22.7%, respectively. Plasmodium falciparum, hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura occurred only in the farming area, with a prevalence of 27.9%, 23.7%, 2.1%, 2.3%, respectively. Co-infection and triple infection with schistosomes, P. falciparum and soil-transmitted helminths occurred in the commercial farming area only. Hookworm and S. mansoni infections were associated with P. falciparum malaria (P<0.001, OR=2.48, 95% CI 1.56-3.93 and P=0.005, OR=1.85, 95% CI 1.20-2.87, respectively). Overlap of helminths with malaria is a concern among primary schoolchildren and incorporating helminth control in programmes aiming to control malaria will improve funding and increase the efficiency of control for neglected tropical diseases in identified co-endemic settings.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  20. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme and the Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme on soil-transmitted helminthiasis in schoolchildren in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Magnussen, Pascal; Sheshe, Amir; Ntakamulenga, Robert; Ndawi, Benedict; Olsen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    The combined effect of the Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programme (LFEP) and the National Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmitted Helminthiasis Control Programme (NSSCP) on soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) was evaluated. In September 2004, before mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP in October, the prevalence and intensity of STH were recorded in 228 pupils in one primary school. After 8 months, all available pupils were re-examined, and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm had decreased from 0.9 to 0.7% (P=0.84), from 4.8 to 0.7% (P=0.004) and from 45.6 to 11.9% (P<0.001), respectively. Overall, 81.2% of the schoolchildren stated that they were treated by the LFEP in October 2004. After the 8 months follow-up, pupils were treated with praziquantel and albendazole by the present project (substitute for the NSSCP). After another 4 months (at 12 months follow-up), the prevalence of hookworm infection was reduced to 4.8% (P=0.003), while the prevalence of T. trichiura was reduced to 0.3% (P=0.54) and the prevalence of A. lumbricoides remained unchanged. Mass co-administration of ivermectin and albendazole by the LFEP had a significant effect on STH, which was further amplified by treatment with praziquantel and albendazole 4 months later.

  2. Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from the endangered Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Carnivora: Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alan D; Higgins, Damien P; Slapeta, Jan; Gray, Rachael

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the identity of hookworms parasitising the Australian sea lion, Neophoca cinerea (Péron), from three colonies in South Australia, Australia. The Australian sea lion is at risk of extinction because its population is small and genetically fragmented. Using morphological and molecular techniques, we describe a single novel species, Uncinaria sanguinis sp. n. (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae). The new species is most similar to hookworms also parasitic in otariid hosts, Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901 and Uncinaria hamiltoni Baylis, 1933. Comparative morphometrics offered limited utility for distinguishing between species within this genus whilst morphological features and differences in nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences delineated U. sanguinis sp. n. from named congeners. Male specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. differ from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni by relatively shorter anterolateral and externodorsal rays, respectively, and from other congeners by the relative lengths and angulations of bursal rays, and in the shape of the spicules. Female specimens of U. sanguinis sp. n. are differentiated from Uncinaria spp. parasitic in terrestrial mammals by differences in vulval anatomy and the larger size of their eggs, although are morphologically indistinguishable from U. lucasi and U. hamiltoni. Molecular techniques clearly delimited U. sanguinis sp. n. as a distinct novel species. Obtaining baseline data on the parasites of wildlife hosts is important for the investigation of disease and the effective implementation and monitoring of conservation management.

  3. Therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among students of Mendera Elementary School, Jimma, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Ephrem; Belay, Tariku; Mekonnen, Seleshi Kebede; Zeynudin, Ahmed; Belachew, Tefera

    2015-01-01

    Different brands Albendazole are commercially available and the efficacious brand/s is/are required for effective control of STHs infection. Thus, this study is aimed at determining the therapeutic efficacy of different brands of albendazole against soil transmitted helminths among school children of Jimma town. A cross sectional survey for prevalence of geohelminths and a randomized trial for efficacy study of different brands of albendazole was conducted among students Mendera Elementary School from March 29 to April 29, 2010. Positive subjects were randomized into three treatment arms using lottery method. The collected stool samples were examined by the McMaster method. CRs were calculated using SPSS windows version 16 and ERRs were calculated using appropriate formula. Of the 715 school children who had their stools examined, 326 were positive for STHs with a prevalence rate of 45.6%. The cure rates (CR) for A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Hookworm were 99.4, 59.9 and 93.7%, respectively. Similarly, the egg reduction rates (ERR) were 97, 99.9 and 99.9% respectively. A statistical significant mean STH egg count difference were observed between pre and post-intervention study (p 0.05). All the three brands of Albendazole tested regardless of the brand type were therapeutically efficacious for Ascariasis, Trichuriasis and Hookworm infections irrespective of the infection status whether it was single or multiple.

  4. Human-Robot Interaction and Human Self-Realization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Marco

    2014-01-01

    is to test the basis for this type of discrimination when it comes to human-robot interaction. Furthermore, the paper will take Heidegger's warning concerning technology as a vantage point and explore the possibility of human-robot interaction forming a praxis that might help humans to be with robots beyond...

  5. Human nature, human culture: the case of cultural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2017-10-06

    In recent years, far from arguing that evolutionary approaches to our own species permit us to describe the fundamental character of human nature, a prominent group of cultural evolutionary theorists has instead argued that the very idea of 'human nature' is one we should reject. It makes no sense, they argue, to speak of human nature in opposition to human culture. The very same sceptical arguments have also led some thinkers-usually from social anthropology-to dismiss the intimately related idea that we can talk of human culture in opposition to human nature. How, then, are we supposed to understand the cultural evolutionary project itself, whose proponents seem to deny the distinction between human nature and human culture, while simultaneously relying on a closely allied distinction between 'genetic' (or sometimes 'organic') evolution and 'cultural' evolution? This paper defends the cultural evolutionary project against the charge that, in refusing to endorse the concept of human nature, it has inadvertently sabotaged itself.

  6. Ancient humans and the origin of modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  8. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  9. Souvenir from the Hamptons - a case of cutaneous larva migrans of six months' duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A C; Kantor, I; Sapadin, A N

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous larva migrans is a distinctive serpiginous eruption caused by a reaction to burrowing hookworms. The infection is usually self-limited, normally lasting 2-8 weeks, but may persist for more than a year if misdiagnosed. Biopsies of the creeping eruption rarely reveal an organism. Thus, it is important for the infection to be recognized clinically, so that effective treatment may begin. We found topical thiabendazole to be fast and effective in treating this case of cutaneous larva migrans of six months' duration.

  10. The occurrence of Echinococcus granulosus in dogs and cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep in Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    Sherifi, Kurtesh

    2010-01-01

    Surveys were carried out during the period March 2003 – February 2004 to assess the occurrence of echinococcosis in dogs and cystic echinococcosis in cattle and sheep. Additionally, the incidence of surgically treated-hydatidosis patients was investigated. Shedding of taeniid eggs was found in 23 (7.5%) out of a total of 305 dogs, using the flotation-ovassay technique. Eggs from other helminths were detected as well: hookworms 139 (45.5%), Trichuris vulpis 87 (28.5%), Toxocara canis 42 (13...

  11. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  12. Issues on combining human and non-human intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connors, Mary M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose here is to call attention to some of the issues confronting the designer of a system that combines human and non-human intelligence. We do not know how to design a non-human intelligence in such a way that it will fit naturally into a human organization. The author's concern is that, without adequate understanding and consideration of the behavioral and psychological limitations and requirements of the human member(s) of the system, the introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) subsystems can exacerbate operational problems. We have seen that, when these technologies are not properly applied, an overall degradation of performance at the system level can occur. Only by understanding how human and automated systems work together can we be sure that the problems introduced by automation are not more serious than the problems solved.

  13. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  14. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  15. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  16. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  17. "Taking the human out of human rights" human rights or group rights?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available What interest me are the reasons why “human” or “human rights” could be important or possibly most important in constituting a group (hence the introduction of the complicated word “group” and “group right(s” in the subtitle. If I had to justify the existence of the latest debates on nature, justification and universality of human rights, on their distinction from other normative standards, on the philosophy and (legal foundation of human rights, on “Human Rights without (or with Foundations” (Raz, Tasioulas, Besson, then I would immediately conclude that this “process of grandiose concretization” of a complete fabrication is far from over. Despite the innumerable pacts and international conventions established after World War II, the slew of obligations to which states have agreed in the last few decades, the establishment of rights to secession or humanitarian intervention it is as if the constitution of classification of basic human rights and their universality is far from over. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007

  18. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and α-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin

  19. Parasites of dogs from Indian settlements in northwestern Canada: a survey with public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, D H; King, J E; Eaton, R D; Allen, J R

    1973-01-01

    A total of 959 faecal samples were obtained from dogs in 12 native communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Central and Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories. All samples were examined using a flotation technique. Samples from an area of endemic human amoebic infections were also examined by a formol-ether sedimentation method. Eighteen necropsies were performed. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were recovered from dog faeces at Loon Lake, Saskatchewan. Toxocara canis had low incidence in Saskatchewan and Central Alberta, and appeared to be almost non-existent further North. Toxascaris leonina was found in all areas surveyed. Canine hookworm infections were plentiful in all areas, the highest incidence being recorded from Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories. Many Taenia (or Echinococcus) infections were found consistently in all areas. Only one infection with Dipylidium caninum was discovered.Metorchis conjunctus infections were found to be common in the Saskatchewan reserves. Infections with Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in all communities with access to good fishing. One specimen of Dioctophyma renale was recovered at necropsy. Infections with parasites of no known zoonotic importance such as Trichuris, Alaria and Isospora species were also recorded.

  20. New vaccines for neglected parasitic diseases and dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumier, Coreen M; Gillespie, Portia M; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a significant source of morbidity and socioeconomic burden among the world's poor. Virtually all of the 2.4 billion people who live on less than $2 per d, more than a third of the world's population, are at risk for these debilitating NTDs. Although chemotherapeutic measures exist for many of these pathogens, they are not sustainable countermeasures on their own because of rates of reinfection, risk of drug resistance, and inconsistent maintenance of drug treatment programs. Preventative and therapeutic NTD vaccines are needed as long-term solutions. Because there is no market in the for-profit sector of vaccine development for these pathogens, much of the effort to develop vaccines is driven by nonprofit entities, mostly through product development partnerships. This review describes the progress of vaccines under development for many of the NTDs, with a specific focus on those about to enter or that are currently in human clinical trials. Specifically, we report on the progress on dengue, hookworm, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, Chagas disease, and onchocerciasis vaccines. These products will be some of the first with specific objectives to aid the world's poorest populations. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  2. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  3. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  4. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, B.E.; Barzon, L.; Pijlman, G.P.; Fuente, J. de la; Rizzoli, A.; Wammes, L.J.; Takken, W.; Rij, R.P. van; Papa, A.

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  5. Improved Human Erythropoiesis and Platelet Formation in Humanized NSGW41 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Rahmig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human erythro-megakaryopoiesis does not occur in humanized mouse models, preventing the in vivo analysis of human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC differentiation into these lineages in a surrogate host. Here we show that stably engrafted KIT-deficient NOD/SCID Il2rg−/− KitW41/W41 (NSGW41 mice support much improved human erythropoiesis and platelet formation compared with irradiated NSG recipients. Considerable numbers of human erythroblasts and mature thrombocytes are present in the bone marrow and blood, respectively. Morphology, composition, and enucleation capacity of de novo generated human erythroblasts in NSGW41 mice are comparable with those in human bone marrow. Overexpression of human erythropoietin showed no further improvement in human erythrocyte output, but depletion of macrophages led to the appearance of human erythrocytes in the blood. Human erythropoiesis up to normoblasts and platelet formation is fully supported in NSGW41 mice, allowing the analysis of human HSC differentiation into these lineages, the exploration of certain pathophysiologies, and the evaluation of gene therapeutic approaches.

  6. Human to human transmission of arthropod-borne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, Byron E.; Barzon, Luisa; Pijlman, Gorben P.; Fuente, de la José; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Wammes, Linda J.; Takken, Willem; Rij, van Ronald P.; Papa, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Human-to-human (H2H) transmitted arthropod-borne pathogens are a growing burden worldwide, with malaria and dengue being the most common mosquito-borne H2H transmitted diseases. The ability of vectors to get infected by humans during a blood meal to further propel an epidemic depends on complex

  7. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  8. The Ubiquity of Humanity and Textuality in Human Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daihyun Chung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The so-called “crisis of the humanities” can be understood in terms of an asymmetry between the natural and social sciences on the one hand and the humanities on the other. While the sciences approach topics related to human experience in quantificational or experimental terms, the humanities turn to ancient, canonical, and other texts in the search for truths about human experience. As each approach has its own unique limitations, it is desirable to overcome or remove the asymmetry between them. The present article seeks to do just that by advancing and defending the following two claims: (a that humanity is ubiquitous wherever language is used; and (b that anything that can be experienced by humans is in need of an interpretation. Two arguments are presented in support of these claims. The first argument concerns the nature of questions, which are one of the fundamental marks or manifestations of human language. All questions are ultimately attempts to find meanings or interpretations of what is presented. As such, in questioning phenomena, one seeks to transcend the negative space or oppression of imposed structures; in doing so, one reveals one’s humanity. Second, all phenomena are textual in nature: that which astrophysicists find in distant galaxies or which cognitive neuroscientists find in the structures of the human brain are no less in need of interpretation than the dialogues of Plato or the poems of Homer. Texts are ubiquitous. The implications of these two arguments are identified and discussed in this article. In particular, it is argued that the ubiquity of humanity and textuality points to a view of human nature that is neither individualistic nor collectivist but rather integrational in suggesting that the realization of oneself is inseparable from the realization of others.

  9. Occurrence and identification of Ancylostomatidae in Maned-wolf ( Chrysocyon brachyurus, Illiger, 1811 from the Triângulo Mineiro area, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Santos Mundim

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving nine Maned-wolf(Chrysocyon brachyurus, from the Triangulo Mineiro area,Minas Gerais, Brazil, was carried out to check the occurrence of hookworm eggs and their adult forms. Eggs of the referred helminths were identified in 77.77% of the studied animals. Among the adult forms founded in the small intestine, two species were identified: Uncinaria stenocephala (Railliet, 1884 and Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859. The authors report of the first occurrence in the U. stenocephala and C.brachyurus Brazil.

  10. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  11. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  12. The effects of human resource flexibility on human resources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeidMehdi Veise

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resources are the primary factor for development of competitiveness and innovation and reaching competitive advantage and they try to improve corporate capabilities through various characteristics such as value creation, scarcity and difficulty of imitation. This paper investigates the effect of human resource flexibility and its dimensions on human resource development and its dimensions. The survey was conducted using descriptive-correlation method that intended to describe how human resource flexibility was effective on human resource development. Questionnaire was tool of data collection. The statistical population included one hundred employees of the Electric Company in Ilam province, thus census method was used. Reliability of the questionnaire was measured via Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.96. The findings revealed that flexibility and its dimensions were effective on human resource development and dimensions of it. As a result, human resource flexibility should be considered for development of human resources and employees with the highest flexibility should be selected.

  13. Human Adaptive Mechatronics and Human-System Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics in projects for mechatronics studies, which are 'Human Adaptive Mechatronics (HAM' and 'Human-System Modelling (HSM', are presented in this paper. The main research theme of the HAM project is a design strategy for a new intelligent mechatronics system, which enhances operators' skills during machine operation. Skill analyses and control system design have been addressed. In the HSM project, human modelling based on hierarchical classification of skills was studied, including the following five types of skills: social, planning, cognitive, motion and sensory-motor skills. This paper includes digests of these research topics and the outcomes concerning each type of skill. Relationships with other research activities, knowledge and information that will be helpful for readers who are trying to study assistive human-mechatronics systems are also mentioned.

  14. Human-specific HERV-K insertion causes genomic variations in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonseok Shin

    Full Text Available Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV sequences account for about 8% of the human genome. Through comparative genomics and literature mining, we identified a total of 29 human-specific HERV-K insertions. We characterized them focusing on their structure and flanking sequence. The results showed that four of the human-specific HERV-K insertions deleted human genomic sequences via non-classical insertion mechanisms. Interestingly, two of the human-specific HERV-K insertion loci contained two HERV-K internals and three LTR elements, a pattern which could be explained by LTR-LTR ectopic recombination or template switching. In addition, we conducted a polymorphic test and observed that twelve out of the 29 elements are polymorphic in the human population. In conclusion, human-specific HERV-K elements have inserted into human genome since the divergence of human and chimpanzee, causing human genomic changes. Thus, we believe that human-specific HERV-K activity has contributed to the genomic divergence between humans and chimpanzees, as well as within the human population.

  15. Evaluation of a decision support strategy for the control of powdery mildew, Erysiphe necator (Schw.) Burr., in grapevine in the central region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Gómez, Héctor; Araya-Alman, Miguel; Pañitrur-De la Fuente, Carolina; Verdugo-Vásquez, Nicolás; Lolas, Mauricio; Acevedo-Opazo, César; Gary, Christian; Calonnec, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    The primary strategy to control powdery mildew in Chilean vineyards involves periodic fungicide spraying, which may lead to many environmental and human health risks. This study aimed to implement and evaluate the effectiveness and economic feasibility of a novel decision support strategy (DSS) to limit the number of treatments against this pathogen. An experiment was conducted between the 2010 and 2013 seasons in two irrigated vine fields, one containing a cultivar of Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) and the other a cultivar of Chardonnay (CH). The results showed that the DSS effectively controlled powdery mildew in CS and CH vine fields, as evidenced by a disease severity lower than 3%, which was lower than that observed in untreated vines (approximately 10 and 40% for CS and CH respectively). The DS strategy required the application of only 2-3 fungicide treatments per season in key vine phenological stages, and the cost fluctuated between $US 322 and 415 ha -1 , which was 40-60% cheaper than the traditional strategy employed by vine growers. The decision support strategy evaluated in this trial allows a good control of powdery mildew for various types of epidemic with an early and late initiation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Human-specific protein isoforms produced by novel splice sites in the human genome after the human-chimpanzee divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Dong Seon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of splice sites is a well-known phenomenon that results in transcript diversity during human evolution. Many novel splice sites are derived from repetitive elements and may not contribute to protein products. Here, we analyzed annotated human protein-coding exons and identified human-specific splice sites that arose after the human-chimpanzee divergence. Results We analyzed multiple alignments of the annotated human protein-coding exons and their respective orthologous mammalian genome sequences to identify 85 novel splice sites (50 splice acceptors and 35 donors in the human genome. The novel protein-coding exons, which are expressed either constitutively or alternatively, produce novel protein isoforms by insertion, deletion, or frameshift. We found three cases in which the human-specific isoform conferred novel molecular function in the human cells: the human-specific IMUP protein isoform induces apoptosis of the trophoblast and is implicated in pre-eclampsia; the intronization of a part of SMOX gene exon produces inactive spermine oxidase; the human-specific NUB1 isoform shows reduced interaction with ubiquitin-like proteins, possibly affecting ubiquitin pathways. Conclusions Although the generation of novel protein isoforms does not equate to adaptive evolution, we propose that these cases are useful candidates for a molecular functional study to identify proteomic changes that might bring about novel phenotypes during human evolution.

  17. Securing Humanity - Situating 'Human Security' as Concept and Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The label ‘human security’ (HS) has attracted much attention since the 1994 Human Development Report, but there are numerous conflicting definitions and agendas and widespread scepticism. The Ogata-Sen Commission report Human Security Now has proposed a unified yet

  18. HUMANISM OF ANTROPOCENTRISM AND ANTROPOCENTRISM WITHOUT HUMANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shilovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the distinction of humanism and anthropocentrism which is based on the parity of the person and being. Genetic communication of humanism and anthropocentrism and their historical break comes to light.

  19. Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory; Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Laboratory; Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-08-01

    Part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Light Water Reac- tor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Charac- terization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the founda- tional information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human in- teractions in RISMC simulations.

  20. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  1. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC

  2. Human-to-human transmission of Brucella - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe F; Gondolfo, Regina B; Cerchiari, Natacha

    2017-05-01

    The most common form of transmitting human brucellosis is through contaminated food or direct contact with infected animals. Human-to-human transmission (HHT) has been described as isolated case reports. The aim of this systematic review was to describe all cases of HHT of human brucellosis reported in the medical literature. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus and Scielo databases using specific search terms published until March 2016. Two investigators independently determined study eligibility. All clinical data were evaluated to construct a table comprising the most important clinical aspects, age, gender, confirmed infection and detection method, transmission method and HHT confirmation and potential source of infection for human transmission. No statistical method was employed in this study. The initial search resulted in 615 publications, but only 35 were included. 45 brucellosis HHT cases were identified. 61% of patients who acquired brucellosis from another human were <1 year old (newborn and breastfeeding). Other cases include sexual transmission, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplantation and aerosol from an infected patient. Most patients (40/45) presented symptoms upon diagnosis. Diagnostic tests included culture, molecular methods and serum testing. Human brucellosis is a disease liable to transmission between humans by placental barrier, lactation, sexual and tissues such as blood and bone marrow. The indication for screening in tissue banks, transplants, blood and pregnancy is not yet established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Human Rights Texts: Converting Human Rights Primary Source Documents into Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariss, Christopher J; Linder, Fridolin J; Jones, Zachary M; Crabtree, Charles D; Biek, Megan A; Ross, Ana-Sophia M; Kaur, Taranamol; Tsai, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and make publicly available a large corpus of digitized primary source human rights documents which are published annually by monitoring agencies that include Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and the United States Department of State. In addition to the digitized text, we also make available and describe document-term matrices, which are datasets that systematically organize the word counts from each unique document by each unique term within the corpus of human rights documents. To contextualize the importance of this corpus, we describe the development of coding procedures in the human rights community and several existing categorical indicators that have been created by human coding of the human rights documents contained in the corpus. We then discuss how the new human rights corpus and the existing human rights datasets can be used with a variety of statistical analyses and machine learning algorithms to help scholars understand how human rights practices and reporting have evolved over time. We close with a discussion of our plans for dataset maintenance, updating, and availability.

  4. Intestinal parasitism in the United States: update on a continuing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, K D; Lundgren, R G; Juranek, D D; Roberts, J M; Spencer, H C

    1994-06-01

    To document patterns of intestinal parasitism in the United States, we analyzed results of 216,275 stool specimens examined by the state diagnostic laboratories in 1987; parasites were found in 20.0%. Percentages were highest for protozoans: Giardia lamblia (7.2%), Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (4.2% each), Blastocystis hominis (2.6%), and Entamoeba histolytica (0.9%). The most commonly identified helminths were nematodes: hookworm (1.5%), Trichuris trichiura (1.2%), and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%). Identifications of G. lamblia increased broadly from the 4.0% average found in 1979, with 40 states reporting increases and seven reporting decreases. Seasonally, Giardia identifications increased in the summer and fall, especially in the Midwest. Nine states reported hookworms in more than 2% of specimens; none were states with indigenous transmission. We analyzed similar, but abbreviated, data for 1991; parasites were found in 19.7% of the 178,786 specimens and Giardia was found in 5.6%. States reporting percentages of Giardia identification in the highest quartile for both 1987 and 1991 were located in the Midwest or in the Northwest. Cryptosporidium was identified in both the 1987 and 1991 surveys; it had not been identified in a previous survey. For each year, Cryptosporidium was reported from 25 states across the country (for both years in 17 states). We conclude that intestinal parasitism should not be overlooked as a cause of gastrointestinal illness in the United States and that the prevalence of Giardia may be increasing.

  5. Locating irregularly shaped clusters of infection intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Yiannakoulias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Patterns of disease may take on irregular geographic shapes, especially when features of the physical environment influence risk. Identifying these patterns can be important for planning, and also identifying new environmental or social factors associated with high or low risk of illness. Until recently, cluster detection methods were limited in their ability to detect irregular spatial patterns, and limited to finding clusters that were roughly circular in shape. This approach has less power to detect irregularly-shaped, yet important spatial anomalies, particularly at high spatial resolutions. We employ a new method of finding irregularly-shaped spatial clusters at micro-geographical scales using both simulated and real data on Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infection intensities. This method, which we refer to as the “greedy growth scan”, is a modification of the spatial scan method for cluster detection. Real data are based on samples of hookworm and S. mansoni from Kitengei, Makueni district, Kenya. Our analysis of simulated data shows how methods able to find irregular shapes are more likely to identify clusters along rivers than methods constrained to fixed geometries. Our analysis of infection intensity identifies two small areas within the study region in which infection intensity is elevated, possibly due to local features of the physical or social environment. Collectively, our results show that the “greedy growth scan” is a suitable method for exploratory geographical analysis of infection intensity data when irregular shapes are suspected, especially at micro-geographical scales.

  6. [Evaluation (assessment) of three tests for diagnosis of geohelmints in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Myriam Consuelo; Moncada, Ligia Inés; Ariza-Araújo, Yoseth; Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Reyes, Patricia; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are considered a public health problem in developing countries. The diagnostic tests, both for individual parient diagnosis as for population studies should be evaluated in terms of validity and reliability. To compare the direct examination, the modified Ritchie-Frick method, a Kato-Katz designed by a Brazilian group and one designed by the WHO, for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthes. A diagnostic test reliability study was performed. The same stool sample was analyzed by the same observer using four diagnostic tests. 204 samples were obtained, 194 of those fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. The observers did not know the participants' identity neither the other tests results. For the analysis the Kato-Katz (WHO) was considered as the gold standard. For the reliability assessment percent agreement, positive percent agreement, Kappa statistic, and intraclass correlation were performed. The Brazilian Kato-Katz showed a good performance with high sensitivity and specificity for T. trichiura and Hookworm with values of 0.97 and 0.96 respectively, and a high specificity with mild sensitivity for A. lumbricoides (0.95 and 0.79) meanwhile the direct examination and the Ritche-Frick method showed a performance between mild and poor. The differences were higher for hookworm and Trichiuris trichiura than for Ascaris lumbricoides. The Brazilian Kato Katz test could be implemented, but further studies are needed to correlate its operative capacity with its feasibility, availability and cost.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and cats in a refuge in Nakhon Nayok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Mahittikorn, Aongart; Pubampen, Somchit; Sa-Nguankiat, Surapon; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Udonsom, Ruenruetai; Mori, Hirotake

    2014-01-01

    We collected fecal samples from 500 dogs and 300 cats from an animal refuge in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand to test for gastrointestinal protozoa and helminths using a formalin-ether concentration technique. The overall prevalence of parasites in stool from dogs was 36.2% (181/500), 35.7% (177/500) had helminths and 2.8% (14/500) had protozoa. The helminths were: hookworm (30.6%), Trichuris vulpis (16.0%), Toxocara canis (6.6%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.2%), Spirometra mansoni (0.6%), and Dipylidium caninum (0.2%). Giardia duodenalis (2.8%) was found in the stool of dogs. The overall prevalence of parasites in stool from cats was 44.3% (133/300), 43.3% (130/300) were helminths and 6.0% (18/300) were protozoa. The helminths were hookworm (34.7%), T. cati (9.7%), S. mansoni (4.0%), Platynosomum fastosum (2.7%), Strongyloides sp (0.7%), and Echinostoma sp (0.3%). Two species of protozoa, Isospora sp (5.7%) and G. duodenalis (0.3%) were found in the stool of cats. Two percent of dogs and 5.0% of cats had mixed protozoan and helminthic infections. Dogs with double, triple, and quadruple helminthic infections were found at rates of 22.0%, 2.8%, and 0.2%, respectively. Cats with double and triple helminthic infections were found at rates of 9.7% and 1.0%, respectively. Quadruple helminthic infections were not found in cats, and double protozoan infections were not found in either dogs or cats.

  8. [Soil transmitted helminthiasis in Argentina. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M Eugenia; Fernández, Anabel; Gil, José F; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of surveys performed between 1980 and 2011 (published in MEDLINE/Pubmed and/or LILACS indexed journals, available in the baseline data from a Mass Deworming National Program (MDNP, 2005) was used to identify the prevalence, distribution and detection of risk areas for soil transmitted helminth infections (STH) in Argentina. We found 310 publications in the database using the pre-defined key-words (medical subject headings) for research purposes. Only 24 articles with 26 surveillance sites in 8 provinces and a total of 5495 surveyed individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Frequency rates for STH had a wide range: Ascaris lumbricoides: 0-67%, hookworms: 0-90%, Trichuris trichiura: 0-24.6 and Strongyloides stercoralis: 0-83%. The estimated combined incidence varied from 0.8% to 88.6%. Baseline surveys from the MDNP reporting on 1943 children from 12 provinces confirmed the heterogeneity, with combined STH frequency rates ranging from 0 to 42.7%. Surveys included in this review showed that the distribution of STH in Argentina is not homogeneous, with areas of high incidence (> 20%) in the northeastern and northwestern provinces where mass deworming activities would be highly beneficial. In several surveys, the high overall incidence was mostly due to hookworms and S. stercoralis, a situation to be considered when selecting diagnostic and therapeutic control strategies. The scarcity or absence of data from various provinces and the availability of less than 8000 surveyed individuals should be considered.

  9. Neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands from 1998 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Pomroy, W E; López-Villalobos, N; Gibbs, N J; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson,