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Sample records for human high density

  1. Jammed Humans in High-Density Crowd Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David; Silverberg, Jesse

    When people gather in large groups like those found at Black Friday sales events, pilgrimages, heavy metal concerts, and parades, crowd density often becomes exceptionally high. As a consequence, these events can produce tragic outcomes such as stampedes and ''crowd crushes''. While human collective motion has been studied with active particle simulations, the underlying mechanisms for emergent behavior are less well understood. Here, we use techniques developed to study jammed granular materials to analyze an active matter model inspired by large groups of people gathering at a point of common interest. In the model, a single behavioral rule combined with body-contact interactions are sufficient for the emergence of a self-confined steady state, where particles fluctuate around a stable position. Applying mode analysis to this system, we find evidence for Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance, which may be the preferential mechanisms for dangerous emergent collective motions in crowds.

  2. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

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    Rolf Spirig

    Full Text Available An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC. Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40, IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein modulates activation of human leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rolf; Schaub, Alexander; Kropf, Alain; Miescher, Sylvia; Spycher, Martin O; Rieben, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An anti-inflammatory effect of reconstituted High Density Lipoprotein (rHDL) has been demonstrated in atherosclerosis and in sepsis models. An increase of adhesion molecules as well as tissue factor expression on endothelial cells in response to inflammatory or danger signals are attenuated by the treatment with rHDL. Here we show the inhibitory effect of rHDL on the activation of human leukocytes in a whole blood assay as well as on monocyte-derived human dendritic cells (DC). Multiplex analysis of human whole blood showed that phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced secretion of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-2R, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12(p40), IL-15 and IFN-α was inhibited. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect on the production of the chemokines CCL-2, CCL-4, CCL-5, CXCL-9 and CXCL-10 was observed. Activation of granulocytes and CD14+ monocytes by PHA is inhibited dose-dependently by rHDL shown as decreased up-regulation of ICAM-1 surface expression. In addition, we found a strong inhibitory effect of rHDL on toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)- and TLR4-mediated maturation of DC. Treatment of DC with rHDL prevented the up-regulation of cell surface molecules CD80, CD83 and CD86 and it inhibited the TLR-driven activation of inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB. These findings suggest that rHDL prevents activation of crucial cellular players of cellular immunity and could therefore be a useful reagent to impede inflammation as well as the link between innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

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    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  5. A High-Density Map for Navigating the Human Polycomb Complexome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauri, Simon; Comoglio, Federico; Seimiya, Makiko

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are major determinants of gene silencing and epigenetic memory in higher eukaryotes. Here, we systematically mapped the human PcG complexome using a robust affinity purification mass spectrometry approach. Our high-density protein interaction network uncovered...

  6. A High-Density Map for Navigating the Human Polycomb Complexome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Hauri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb group (PcG proteins are major determinants of gene silencing and epigenetic memory in higher eukaryotes. Here, we systematically mapped the human PcG complexome using a robust affinity purification mass spectrometry approach. Our high-density protein interaction network uncovered a diverse range of PcG complexes. Moreover, our analysis identified PcG interactors linking them to the PcG system, thus providing insight into the molecular function of PcG complexes and mechanisms of recruitment to target genes. We identified two human PRC2 complexes and two PR-DUB deubiquitination complexes, which contain the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine transferase OGT1 and several transcription factors. Finally, genome-wide profiling of PR-DUB components indicated that the human PR-DUB and PRC1 complexes bind distinct sets of target genes, suggesting differential impact on cellular processes in mammals.

  7. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shouneng; Tan, Jingze; Hu, Sile; Zhou, Hang; Guo, Jing; Jin, Li; Tang, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  8. Effect of genistein against copper-induced lipid peroxidation of human high density lipoproteins (HDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, G; Bacchetti, T; Menanno, F; Curatola, G

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the isoflavone genistein exerts a protective effect against lipid peroxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL). Aim of our study was to investigate whether genistein protects high density lipoproteins (HDL), isolated from normolipemic subjects, against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation. Our results demonstrated that genistein exerts an inhibitory effect against Cu(++)-induced lipid peroxidation of HDL, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of conjugated dienes in lipoproteins oxidized after preincubation with different concentrations of genistein (0.5-2.5microM). Moreover the analysis of fluorescence emission spectra of tryptophan (Trp) and Laurdan (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethyl-aminonaphthalene) demonstrated that genistein prevents the alterations of apoprotein structure and physico-chemical properties, associated with Cu(++)-triggered lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins. The protective effect exerted by genistein against oxidative damage of lipoproteins was realized at concentrations similar to those observed in plasma of human subjects consuming a traditional soy diet or receiving a soy supplement. Therefore, we suggested that antioxidant activity exerted by genistein against lipid peroxidation of HDL in vitro could be of physiological relevance.

  9. Detecting genetic association of common human facial morphological variation using high density 3D image registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouneng Peng

    Full Text Available Human facial morphology is a combination of many complex traits. Little is known about the genetic basis of common facial morphological variation. Existing association studies have largely used simple landmark-distances as surrogates for the complex morphological phenotypes of the face. However, this can result in decreased statistical power and unclear inference of shape changes. In this study, we applied a new image registration approach that automatically identified the salient landmarks and aligned the sample faces using high density pixel points. Based on this high density registration, three different phenotype data schemes were used to test the association between the common facial morphological variation and 10 candidate SNPs, and their performances were compared. The first scheme used traditional landmark-distances; the second relied on the geometric analysis of 15 landmarks and the third used geometric analysis of a dense registration of ∼30,000 3D points. We found that the two geometric approaches were highly consistent in their detection of morphological changes. The geometric method using dense registration further demonstrated superiority in the fine inference of shape changes and 3D face modeling. Several candidate SNPs showed potential associations with different facial features. In particular, one SNP, a known risk factor of non-syndromic cleft lips/palates, rs642961 in the IRF6 gene, was validated to strongly predict normal lip shape variation in female Han Chinese. This study further demonstrated that dense face registration may substantially improve the detection and characterization of genetic association in common facial variation.

  10. Human plasma phospholipid transfer protein increases the antiatherogenic potential of high density lipoproteins in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van Haperen (Rien); A. van Tol (Arie); P. Vermeulen; M. Jauhiainen; T. van Gent (Teus); P.M. van den Berg (Paul); S. Ehnholm (Sonja); A.W.M. van der Kamp (Arthur); M.P.G. de Crom (Rini); F.G. Grosveld (Frank)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPlasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) transfers phospholipids between lipoprotein particles and alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction patterns in vitro, but its physiological function is poorly understood. Transgenic mice that overexpress

  11. Loss of Function of GALNT2 Lowers High-Density Lipoproteins in Humans, Nonhuman Primates, and Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Schjoldager, Katrine T; Christoffersen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Human genetics studies have implicated GALNT2, encoding GalNAc-T2, as a regulator of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) metabolism, but the mechanisms relating GALNT2 to HDL-C remain unclear. We investigated the impact of homozygous GALNT2 deficiency on HDL-C in humans and mammalian...

  12. High-density polymer microarrays: identifying synthetic polymers that control human embryonic stem cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anne; Mjoseng, Heidi K; Zhang, Rong; Kalloudis, Michail; Koutsos, Vasileios; de Sousa, Paul A; Bradley, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The fabrication of high-density polymer microarray is described, allowing the simultaneous and efficient evaluation of more than 7000 different polymers in a single-cellular-based screen. These high-density polymer arrays are applied in the search for synthetic substrates for hESCs culture. Up-scaling of the identified hit polymers enables long-term cellular cultivation and promoted successful stem-cell maintenance. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A one-step separation of human serum high density lipoproteins 2 and 3 by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation in a swinging bucket rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate

  14. The chronoarchitecture of human sexual desire: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2008-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that human sexual desire (SD) recruits both the limbic system and higher-order cognitive brain areas. Because of the temporal limitation of this technique, the chronoarchitecture of SD remains however unresolved. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of SD by combining a behavioral desire decision task with high-density visual event-related potential (VEP) recordings and brain source estimations. VEPs were recorded from thirteen healthy participants when presented with pictures from two different stimulus categories (i.e., high and low desirability). In agreement with the literature, behavioral results showed that participants were faster to rate non-desired stimuli than desired stimuli (p=0.028). Electrophysiological results extended these behavioral data. Group-averaged VEPs peaked at 90 to 140 ms (P100), at 142 to 220 ms (N200), and at 222 to 360 ms (P300). Desired stimuli (DS) were distinguished from non-desired stimuli (NDS) over the N200 period, notably from 142 to 187 ms. Over this time period, DS processing was characterized by a significant scalp potential field. Although both conditions (DS and NDS) showed the recruitment of the occipito-temporal region (including the extrastriate body area, EBA), LAURA source estimation of the DS scalp potential field revealed a more right-lateralized current source density maximum in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) extending to the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The recruitment of STS and TPJ for desired stimuli indicates that these brain areas, known to be respectively involved in social cognition, attention, integration of body-related information and self-processing, play a crucial role for the coding of desirability of visual sexual human stimuli within the first 200 ms after stimulus onset. These findings support the hypothesis that complex cognitive processing for desire occurs much faster than previously thought and open new perspectives with

  15. Short-term cooling increases serum triglycerides and small high-density lipoprotein levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeke, Geerte; Nahon, Kimberly J; Bakker, Leontine E H; Norkauer, Sabine S C; Dinnes, Donna L M; Kockx, Maaike; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Drettwan, Diana; Reifel-Miller, Anne; Coskun, Tamer; Pagel, Philipp; Romijn, Fred P H T M; Cobbaert, Christa M; Jazet, Ingrid M; Martinez, Laurent O; Kritharides, Leonard; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N

    Cold exposure and β3-adrenergic receptor agonism, which both activate brown adipose tissue, markedly influence lipoprotein metabolism by enhancing lipoprotein lipase-mediated catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and functionality in mice. However, the effect of short-term cooling on human lipid and lipoprotein metabolism remained largely elusive. The objective was to assess the effect of short-term cooling on the serum lipoprotein profile and HDL functionality in men. Body mass index-matched young, lean men were exposed to a personalized cooling protocol for 2 hours. Before and after cooling, serum samples were collected for analysis of lipids and lipoprotein composition by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance. Adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL was measured using [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded ABCA1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Short-term cooling increased serum levels of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Cooling increased the concentration of large very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles accompanied by increased mean size of VLDL particles. In addition, cooling enhanced the concentration of small LDL and small HDL particles as well as the cholesterol levels within these particles. The increase in small HDL was accompanied by increased ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux in vitro. Our data show that short-term cooling increases the concentration of large VLDL particles and increases the generation of small LDL and HDL particles. We interpret that cooling increases VLDL production and turnover, which results in formation of surface remnants that form small HDL particles that attract cellular cholesterol. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long term stability of paraoxonase-1 and high-density lipoprotein in human serum

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    Beekhof Piet K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an enzyme with numerous functions and receives an increasing interest in clinical and epidemiological studies. Sometimes samples are stored for longer periods at a certain temperature. Therefore the stability of PON1 activity must be checked and retained upon storage for longer periods. Results In this study the stability of PON1 activity has been tested in human serum samples during storage up to 12 months at 3 commonly used temperatures, -20°C, -70°C and −196°C. It was found that the stability of the PON1 activity is constant during 12 months of storage at −70°C and −196°C. Storage at −20°C resulted in a small but statistically significant decrease after 6 months to about 94% of its original value. Nonetheless, the rank order between the samples at T = 0 and 12 months remained the same. The same temperature dependence was found for the associated high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions It can be concluded that −70°C is the right temperature for storage to maintain the PON1 activity for at least one year. Storage at a lower temperature in liquid nitrogen (−196°C is not necessary.

  17. Binding of human lipoproteins (low, very low, high density lipoproteins) to recombinant envelope proteins of hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monazahian, M; Kippenberger, S; Müller, A; Seitz, H; Böhme, I; Grethe, S; Thomssen, R

    2000-06-01

    Heterogeneities in the density of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA-carrying material from human sera (1.03-1.20 g/ml) are partially due to the binding of lipoproteins [low density (LDL), very low density (VLDL), high density (HDL) lipoproteins] and immunoglobulins. In this study we demonstrate the binding of recombinant HCV envelope protein (El/E2) to human LDL, VLDL and HDL on a molecular basis. The binding of lipoproteins was restricted to the middle part of the El gene product (amino acids 222-336) and the C-terminal part of the E2 protein (amino acids 523-809). Lipoproteins did not bind to recombinant HCV core protein.

  18. Emergent Structural Mechanisms for High-Density Collective Motion Inspired by Human Crowds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, Arianna; Sumpter, David T. J.; Silverberg, Jesse L.

    2016-11-01

    Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion.

  19. Assessing the performance of different high-density tiling microarray strategies for mapping transcribed regions of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, Olof; Nagalakshmi, Ugrappa; Zheng, Deyou; Rozowsky, Joel S; Urban, Alexander E; Du, Jiang; Lian, Zheng; Stolc, Viktor; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

    2007-06-01

    Genomic tiling microarrays have become a popular tool for interrogating the transcriptional activity of large regions of the genome in an unbiased fashion. There are several key parameters associated with each tiling experiment (e.g., experimental protocols and genomic tiling density). Here, we assess the role of these parameters as they are manifest in different tiling-array platforms used for transcription mapping. First, we analyze how a number of published tiling-array experiments agree with established gene annotation on human chromosome 22. We observe that the transcription detected from high-density arrays correlates substantially better with annotation than that from other array types. Next, we analyze the transcription-mapping performance of the two main high-density oligonucleotide array platforms in the ENCODE regions of the human genome. We hybridize identical biological samples and develop several ways of scoring the arrays and segmenting the genome into transcribed and nontranscribed regions, with the aim of making the platforms most comparable to each other. Finally, we develop a platform comparison approach based on agreement with known annotation. Overall, we find that the performance improves with more data points per locus, coupled with statistical scoring approaches that properly take advantage of this, where this larger number of data points arises from higher genomic tiling density and the use of replicate arrays and mismatches. While we do find significant differences in the performance of the two high-density platforms, we also find that they complement each other to some extent. Finally, our experiments reveal a significant amount of novel transcription outside of known genes, and an appreciable sample of this was validated by independent experiments.

  20. Effects of Tamoxifen and oestrogen on histology and radiographic density in high and low mammographic density human breast tissues maintained in murine tissue engineering chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Blick, T; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Southey, M C; Hopper, J L; Britt, K; Henderson, M A; Haviv, I; Thompson, E W

    2014-11-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. It is altered by exogenous endocrine treatments, including hormone replacement therapy and Tamoxifen. Such agents also modify breast cancer (BC) risk. However, the biomolecular basis of how systemic endocrine therapy modifies MD and MD-associated BC risk is poorly understood. This study aims to determine whether our xenograft biochamber model can be used to study the effectiveness of therapies aimed at modulating MD, by examine the effects of Tamoxifen and oestrogen on histologic and radiographic changes in high and low MD tissues maintained within the biochamber model. High and low MD human tissues were precisely sampled under radiographic guidance from prophylactic mastectomy fresh specimens of high-risk women, then inserted into separate vascularized murine biochambers. The murine hosts were concurrently implanted with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo pellets, and the high and low MD biochamber tissues maintained in the murine host environment for 3 months, before the high and low MD biochamber tissues were harvested for histologic and radiographic analyses. The radiographic density of high MD tissue maintained in murine biochambers was decreased in Tamoxifen-treated mice compared to oestrogen-treated mice (p = 0.02). Tamoxifen treatment of high MD tissue in SCID mice led to a decrease in stromal (p = 0.009), and an increase in adipose (p = 0.023) percent areas, compared to placebo-treated mice. No histologic or radiographic differences were observed in low MD biochamber tissue with any treatment. High MD biochamber tissues maintained in mice implanted with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo pellets had dynamic and measurable histologic compositional and radiographic changes. This further validates the dynamic nature of the MD xenograft model, and suggests the biochamber model may be useful for assessing the underlying molecular pathways of Tamoxifen-reduced MD, and in testing of other

  1. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tag......In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C...... at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction...

  2. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C...... at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction...... and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes....

  3. High-resolution mapping of DNA copy alterations in human chromosome 22 using high-density tiling oligonucleotide arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Alexander Eckehart; Korbel, Jan O; Selzer, Rebecca; Richmond, Todd; Hacker, April; Popescu, George V; Cubells, Joseph F; Green, Roland; Emanuel, Beverly S; Gerstein, Mark B; Weissman, Sherman M; Snyder, Michael

    2006-03-21

    Deletions and amplifications of the human genomic sequence (copy number polymorphisms) are the cause of numerous diseases and a potential cause of phenotypic variation in the normal population. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been developed as a useful tool for detecting alterations in DNA copy number that involve blocks of DNA several kilobases or larger in size. We have developed high-resolution CGH (HR-CGH) to detect accurately and with relatively little bias the presence and extent of chromosomal aberrations in human DNA. Maskless array synthesis was used to construct arrays containing 385,000 oligonucleotides with isothermal probes of 45-85 bp in length; arrays tiling the beta-globin locus and chromosome 22q were prepared. Arrays with a 9-bp tiling path were used to map a 622-bp heterozygous deletion in the beta-globin locus. Arrays with an 85-bp tiling path were used to analyze DNA from patients with copy number changes in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 22q. Heterozygous deletions and duplications as well as partial triploidies and partial tetraploidies of portions of chromosome 22q were mapped with high resolution (typically up to 200 bp) in each patient, and the precise breakpoints of two deletions were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Additional peaks potentially corresponding to known and novel additional CNPs were also observed. Our results demonstrate that HR-CGH allows the detection of copy number changes in the human genome at an unprecedented level of resolution.

  4. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase production by human dental pulp stromal cells is enhanced by high density cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Matthew J; Dennis, Caitriona; Yang, Xuebin B; Kirkham, Jennifer

    2015-08-01

    The cell surface hydrolase tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) (also known as MSCA-1) is used to identify a sub-population of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) with high mineralising potential and is found on subsets of cells within the dental pulp. We aim to determine whether TNAP is co-expressed by human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) alongside a range of BMSC markers, whether this is an active form of the enzyme and the effects of culture duration and cell density on its expression. Cells from primary dental pulp and culture expanded hDPSCs expressed TNAP. Subsequent analyses revealed persistent TNAP expression and co-expression with BMSC markers such as CD73 and CD90. Flow cytometry and biochemical assays showed that increased culture durations and cell densities enhanced TNAP expression by hDPSCs. Arresting the hDPSC cell cycle also increased TNAP expression. These data confirm that TNAP is co-expressed by hDPSCs together with other BMSC markers and show that cell density affects TNAP expression levels. We conclude that TNAP is a potentially useful marker for hDPSC selection especially for uses in mineralised tissue regenerative therapies.

  5. Recombinant Production of Human Aquaporin-1 to an Exceptional High Membrane Density in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholt, Julie; Helix Nielsen, Claus; Scharff-Poulsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of solutes. Aquaporins constitute a family of physiologically very important integral membrane proteins that are found in all three kingdoms, eubacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. As protein channels, they facilitate passive transport of water across cell membranes. In the present study the yeast Saccharomyces...... cerevisiae was exploited as a host for heterologous expression of human aquaporins. Aquaporin cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human aquaporin was C-terminally tagged with yeast-enhanced GFP to quantify functional expression...... transcription factor and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30oC was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15oC almost completely...

  6. Recombinant production of human Aquaporin-1 to an exceptional high membrane density in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bomholt

    Full Text Available In the present paper we explored the capacity of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as host for heterologous expression of human Aquaporin-1. Aquaporin-1 cDNA was expressed from a galactose inducible promoter situated on a plasmid with an adjustable copy number. Human Aquaporin-1 was C-terminally tagged with yeast enhanced GFP for quantification of functional expression, determination of sub-cellular localization, estimation of in vivo folding efficiency and establishment of a purification protocol. Aquaporin-1 was found to constitute 8.5 percent of total membrane protein content after expression at 15°C in a yeast host over-producing the Gal4p transcriptional activator and growth in amino acid supplemented minimal medium. In-gel fluorescence combined with western blotting showed that low accumulation of correctly folded recombinant Aquaporin-1 at 30°C was due to in vivo mal-folding. Reduction of the expression temperature to 15°C almost completely prevented Aquaporin-1 mal-folding. Bioimaging of live yeast cells revealed that recombinant Aquaporin-1 accumulated in the yeast plasma membrane. A detergent screen for solubilization revealed that CYMAL-5 was superior in solubilizing recombinant Aquaporin-1 and generated a monodisperse protein preparation. A single Ni-affinity chromatography step was used to obtain almost pure Aquaporin-1. Recombinant Aquaporin-1 produced in S. cerevisiae was not N-glycosylated in contrast to the protein found in human erythrocytes.

  7. High-density rhesus macaque oligonucleotide microarray design using early-stage rhesus genome sequence information and human genome annotations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magness Charles L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Until recently, few genomic reagents specific for non-human primate research have been available. To address this need, we have constructed a macaque-specific high-density oligonucleotide microarray by using highly fragmented low-pass sequence contigs from the rhesus genome project together with the detailed sequence and exon structure of the human genome. Using this method, we designed oligonucleotide probes to over 17,000 distinct rhesus/human gene orthologs and increased by four-fold the number of available genes relative to our first-generation expressed sequence tag (EST-derived array. Results We constructed a database containing 248,000 exon sequences from 23,000 human RefSeq genes and compared each human exon with its best matching sequence in the January 2005 version of the rhesus genome project list of 486,000 DNA contigs. Best matching rhesus exon sequences for each of the 23,000 human genes were then concatenated in the proper order and orientation to produce a rhesus "virtual transcriptome." Microarray probes were designed, one per gene, to the region closest to the 3' untranslated region (UTR of each rhesus virtual transcript. Each probe was compared to a composite rhesus/human transcript database to test for cross-hybridization potential yielding a final probe set representing 18,296 rhesus/human gene orthologs, including transcript variants, and over 17,000 distinct genes. We hybridized mRNA from rhesus brain and spleen to both the EST- and genome-derived microarrays. Besides four-fold greater gene coverage, the genome-derived array also showed greater mean signal intensities for genes present on both arrays. Genome-derived probes showed 99.4% identity when compared to 4,767 rhesus GenBank sequence tag site (STS sequences indicating that early stage low-pass versions of complex genomes are of sufficient quality to yield valuable functional genomic information when combined with finished genome information from

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to European porcine influenza viruses in humans living in high pig density areas of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumbholz, Andi; Lange, Jeannette; Dürrwald, Ralf; Walther, Mario; Müller, Thomas H; Kühnel, Detlef; Wutzler, Peter; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Zell, Roland

    2014-02-01

    The risk of zoonotic human infection caused by European porcine influenza virus strains was estimated in German regions with a high pig density. Sera from 622 healthy volunteers were collected between April 2009 and November 2011, mainly in Westphalia and western Lower Saxony. These included 362 subjects with occupational contact to pigs and 260 blood donors without any direct exposition to pigs. Samples were analysed by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay against a panel of six swine viruses of subtypes avian-like H1N1 and human-like H3N2 as well as against human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses including the pandemic H1N1 strain of 2009. Reciprocal HI titres ≥20 were quoted as seroreactive. Compared to the control group, a significantly higher proportion of subjects with direct contact to pigs exhibited seroreactivity against porcine antigens of the avian-like H1N1 (37.0 %/7.7 %), the human-like H3N2 (59.7 %/43.1 %), the pandemic H1N1 strain of 2009 (51.7 %/26.5 %) and against a historic seasonal H3N2 strain that is closely related antigenetically to currently circulating human-like H3N2 viruses of European pigs (57.5 %/36.5 %). This trend was also observed when a reciprocal HI titre ≥40 was chosen as cut-off. Particularly, in younger subjects, the differences in seroreactivity against porcine strains between the exposed and non-exposed group were significant. The data indicate a higher risk of infection in the exposed individuals.

  9. Clearance of beta-amyloid is facilitated by apolipoprotein E and circulating high-density lipoproteins in bioengineered human vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Emily B; Yuen, Brian; Gilmour, Megan; Kang, Kevin; Bahrabadi, Arvin; Stukas, Sophie; Zhao, Wenchen; Kulic, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Amyloid plaques, consisting of deposited beta-amyloid (Aβ), are a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Cerebral vessels play a major role in AD, as Aβ is cleared from the brain by pathways involving the cerebrovasculature, most AD patients have cerebrovascular amyloid (cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), and cardiovascular risk factors increase dementia risk. Here we present a notable advance in vascular tissue engineering by generating the first functional 3-dimensioinal model of CAA in bioengineered human vessels. We show that lipoproteins including brain (apoE) and circulating (high-density lipoprotein, HDL) synergize to facilitate Aβ transport across bioengineered human cerebral vessels. These lipoproteins facilitate Aβ42 transport more efficiently than Aβ40, consistent with Aβ40 being the primary species that accumulates in CAA. Moreover, apoE4 is less effective than apoE2 in promoting Aβ transport, also consistent with the well-established role of apoE4 in Aβ deposition in AD. PMID:28994390

  10. A high density of human communication-associated genes in chromosome 7q31-q36: differential expression in human and non-human primate cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, E; Jensen, L R; Farcas, R; Kondova, I; Bontrop, R E; Navarro, B; Fuchs, E; Kuss, A W; Haaf, T

    2012-01-01

    The human brain is distinguished by its remarkable size, high energy consumption, and cognitive abilities compared to all other mammals and non-human primates. However, little is known about what has accelerated brain evolution in the human lineage. One possible explanation is that the appearance of advanced communication skills and language has been a driving force of human brain development. The phenotypic adaptations in brain structure and function which occurred on the way to modern humans may be associated with specific molecular signatures in today's human genome and/or transcriptome. Genes that have been linked to language, reading, and/or autism spectrum disorders are prime candidates when searching for genes for human-specific communication abilities. The database and genome-wide expression analyses we present here revealed a clustering of such communication-associated genes (COAG) on human chromosomes X and 7, in particular chromosome 7q31-q36. Compared to the rest of the genome, we found a high number of COAG to be differentially expressed in the cortices of humans and non-human primates (chimpanzee, baboon, and/or marmoset). The role of X-linked genes for the development of human-specific cognitive abilities is well known. We now propose that chromosome 7q31-q36 also represents a hot spot for the evolution of human-specific communication abilities. Selective pressure on the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7q34, which plays a pivotal role in the immune system, could have led to rapid dissemination of positive gene variants in hitchhiking COAG. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. High-Avidity Monoclonal Antibodies against the Human Scavenger Class B Type I Receptor Efficiently Block Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Presence of High-Density Lipoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Catanese, Maria Teresa; Graziani, Rita; von Hahn, Thomas; Moreau, Martine; Huby, Thierry; Paonessa, Giacomo; Santini, Claudia; Luzzago, Alessandra; Rice, Charles M.; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The human scavenger class B type 1 receptor (SR-B1/Cla1) was identified as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) because it binds to soluble recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 (sE2). High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a natural SR-B1 ligand, was shown to increase the in vitro infectivity of retroviral pseudoparticles bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins and of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), suggesting that SR-B1 promotes viral entry in an HDL-dependent manner. To determine wheth...

  12. Adaptation in human somatosensory cortex as a model of sensory memory construction: a study using high-density EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Claire; Joyce, Niamh; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation in sensory cortices has been seen as a mechanism allowing the creation of transient memory representations. Here we tested the adapting properties of early responses in human somatosensory areas SI and SII by analysing somatosensory-evoked potentials over the very first repetitions of a stimulus. SI and SII generators were identified by well-defined scalp potentials and source localisation from high-density 128-channel EEG. Earliest responses (~20 ms) from area 3b in the depth of the post-central gyrus did not show significant adaptation to stimuli repeated at 300 ms intervals. In contrast, responses around 45 ms from the crown of the gyrus (areas 1 and 2) rapidly lessened to a plateau and abated at the 20th stimulation, and activities from SII in the parietal operculum at ~100 ms displayed strong adaptation with a steady amplitude decrease from the first repetition. Although responses in both SI (1-2) and SII areas showed adapting properties and hence sensory memory capacities, evidence of sensory mismatch detection has been demonstrated only for responses reflecting SII activation. This may index the passage from an early form of sensory storage in SI to more operational memory codes in SII, allowing the prediction of forthcoming input and the triggering of a specific signal when such input differs from the previous sequence. This is consistent with a model whereby the length of temporal receptive windows increases with progression in the cortical hierarchy, in parallel with the complexity and abstraction of neural representations.

  13. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA?s future space science missions cannot be realized without the state of the art energy storage devices which require high energy density, high reliability, and...

  14. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  15. High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Sergey V

    2007-01-01

    During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...

  16. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  17. Human cord blood progenitors with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity improve vascular density in a model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creer Michael H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human stem cells from adult sources have been shown to contribute to the regeneration of muscle, liver, heart, and vasculature. The mechanisms by which this is accomplished are, however, still not well understood. We tested the engraftment and regenerative potential of human umbilical cord blood-derived ALDHhiLin-, and ALDHloLin- cells following transplantation to NOD/SCID or NOD/SCID β2m null mice with experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction. We used combined nanoparticle labeling and whole organ fluorescent imaging to detect human cells in multiple organs 48 hours post transplantation. Engraftment and regenerative effects of cell treatment were assessed four weeks post transplantation. We found that ALDHhiLin- stem cells specifically located to the site of injury 48 hours post transplantation and engrafted the infarcted heart at higher frequencies than ALDHloLin- committed progenitor cells four weeks post transplantation. We found no donor derived cardiomyocytes and few endothelial cells of donor origin. Cell treatment was not associated with any detectable functional improvement at the four week endpoint. There was, however, a significant increase in vascular density in the central infarct zone of ALDHhiLin- cell-treated mice, as compared to PBS and ALDHloLin- cell-treated mice. Conclusions Our data indicate that adult human stem cells do not become a significant part of the regenerating tissue, but rapidly home to and persist only temporarily at the site of hypoxic injury to exert trophic effects on tissue repair thereby enhancing vascular recovery.

  18. High density matter at RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Quark-gluon plasma; relativistic heavy ion physics; relativistic heavy ion collider ... matter and a quark-gluon plasma at high energy density. The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is a new facility dedicated to the experimental study of matter under extreme conditions. Already ...

  19. Bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected men with hypogonadism prior to highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teichmann J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alterations of bone metabolism have been observed in numerous studies of HIV-infected patients. Sex steroids are known to profoundly influence bone mass and bone turnover. Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infection. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of 80 male HIV-infected patients without wasting syndrome, and 20 healthy male controls, in whom we analyzed urine and serum samples for both calciotropic hormones and markers of bone metabolism and of endocrine testicular function. Bone mineral density (BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both in the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle of the left hip. None of the patients received highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART. Compared to eugonadal HIV-infected patients, subjects with hypogonadism (n = 32; 40% showed statistically significant decrease of serum osteocalcin (p

  20. High-avidity monoclonal antibodies against the human scavenger class B type I receptor efficiently block hepatitis C virus infection in the presence of high-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Maria Teresa; Graziani, Rita; von Hahn, Thomas; Moreau, Martine; Huby, Thierry; Paonessa, Giacomo; Santini, Claudia; Luzzago, Alessandra; Rice, Charles M; Cortese, Riccardo; Vitelli, Alessandra; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2007-08-01

    The human scavenger class B type 1 receptor (SR-B1/Cla1) was identified as a putative receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) because it binds to soluble recombinant HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 (sE2). High-density lipoprotein (HDL), a natural SR-B1 ligand, was shown to increase the in vitro infectivity of retroviral pseudoparticles bearing HCV envelope glycoproteins and of cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), suggesting that SR-B1 promotes viral entry in an HDL-dependent manner. To determine whether SR-B1 participates directly in HCV infection or facilitates HCV entry through lipoprotein uptake, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against native human SR-B1. Two of them, 3D5 and C167, bound to conformation-dependent SR-B1 determinants and inhibited the interaction of sE2 with SR-B1. These antibodies efficiently blocked HCVcc infection of Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the role of HDL in SR-B1-mediated HCVcc infection, we set up conditions for HCVcc production and infection in serum-free medium. HCVcc efficiently infected Huh-7.5 cells in the absence of serum lipoproteins, and addition of HDL led to a twofold increase in infectivity. However, the HDL-induced enhancement of infection had no impact on the neutralization potency of MAb C167, despite its ability to inhibit both HDL binding to cells and SR-B1-mediated lipid transfer. Of note, MAb C167 also potently blocked Huh-7.5 infection by an HCV strain recovered from HCVcc-infected chimpanzees. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is essential for infection with HCV produced in vitro and in vivo and suggest the possible use of anti-SR-B1 antibodies as therapeutic agents.

  1. High energy density aluminum battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Dai, Sheng; Dudney, Nancy J.; Manthiram, Arumugan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Hansan

    2016-10-11

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for a high energy density aluminum battery. The battery comprises an anode comprising aluminum metal. The battery further comprises a cathode comprising a material capable of intercalating aluminum or lithium ions during a discharge cycle and deintercalating the aluminum or lithium ions during a charge cycle. The battery further comprises an electrolyte capable of supporting reversible deposition and stripping of aluminum at the anode, and reversible intercalation and deintercalation of aluminum or lithium at the cathode.

  2. Chromosomal mapping of human genes by radioactive hybridization of cDNAs to CEPH-YAC high density gridded filter sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claas, A; Savelyeva, L; Pillmann, A; Schwab, M

    2001-01-10

    Chromosomal assignment of human transcribed sequences has been done mainly by high throughput genome analysis in specialized genome centres and, in a more classical fashion, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Not every laboratory has the ability to map cDNAs by FISH analysis. We here report a rapid mapping approach that is based on the hybridization of cDNA probes to high density gridded CEPH-YAC filters followed by subsequent computational analysis by database searches in the internet. Not only transcribed sequences but also genomic DNA could be subjected to this mapping approach. The presented approach allows to map human transcribed and genomic DNAs within 1-3 days and with a high level of resolution that will constantly increase in line with the incorporation of data deriving from high throughput genome mapping.

  3. Paradoxical coronary artery disease in humans with hyperalphalipoproteinemia is associated with distinct differences in the high-density lipoprotein phosphosphingolipidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock-Cerutti, William; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Lecocq, Sora; Chapman, M John; Rader, Daniel J; Kontush, Anatol; Cuchel, Marina

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely associated with risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in epidemiologic studies. Despite this, the directionality of this relationship and the underlying biology behind it remain to be firmly established, especially at the extremes of HDL-C levels. We investigated differences in the HDL phosphosphingolipidome in a rare population of subjects with premature CAD despite high HDL-C levels to gain insight into the association between the HDL lipidome and CAD disease status in this unusual phenotype. We sought to assess differences in HDL composition that are associated with CAD in subjects with HDL-C >90th percentile. We predicted that quantitative lipidomic analysis of HDL particles would reveal novel differences between CAD patients and healthy subjects with matched HDL-C levels. We collected plasma samples from 25 subjects with HDL-C >90th percentile and clinically manifest CAD and healthy controls with HDL-C >90th percentile and without self-reported CAD. More than 140 individual HDL phospholipid and sphingolipid species were analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Significant reductions in HDL phosphatidylcholine (-2.41%, Q value = 0.025) and phosphatidylinositol (-10.7%, Q value = 0.047) content, as well as elevated sphingomyelin (+10.0%, Q value = 0.025) content, and sphingomyelin/phosphatidylcholine ratio (+12.8%, P value = .005) were associated with CAD status in subjects with high HDL-C. These differences may lay the groundwork for further analysis of the relationship between the HDL lipidome and disease states, as well as for the development of biomarkers of CAD status and HDL function. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Construction, arraying, and high-density screening of large insert libraries of human chromosomes X and 21: Their potential use as reference libraries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizetic, D.; Zehetner, G.; Monaco, A.P.; Gellen, L.; Lehrach, H. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (England)); Young, B.D. (St. Bartholomew' s Hospital, London (England))

    1991-04-15

    The authors have constructed cosmid libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes X and 21, each of which contains {gt}30 genome equivalents, and have developed systems allowing permanent storage of primary clones, easy screening of libraries in high-density filter formats, and the simultaneous generation of fingerprinting and mapping data on the same set of cosmid clones. Clones are picked into microtiter plate wells and stored at {minus}70C. A semiautomatic robot system allows the generation of filter replicas containing up to 10,000 clones per membrane. Sets of membranes containing 15-20 chromosome equivalents of both chromosomes will be used for the construction of ordered clone libraries by hybridization fingerprinting protocols. The authors describe the construction of the libraries and demonstrate the use of high-density screening filters in oligonucleotide probe hybridizations and the isolation of cosmids by hybridization with probes from the X chromosome.

  5. Dynamic changes in high and low mammographic density human breast tissues maintained in murine tissue engineering chambers during various murine peripartum states and over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huang, D; Huo, C W; Blick, T; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Southey, M D; Hopper, J L; Henderson, M A; Haviv, I; Thompson, E W

    2013-07-01

    Mammographic density (MD) is a strong heritable risk factor for breast cancer, and may decrease with increasing parity. However, the biomolecular basis for MD-associated breast cancer remains unclear, and systemic hormonal effects on MD-associated risk is poorly understood. This study assessed the effect of murine peripartum states on high and low MD tissue maintained in a xenograft model of human MD. Method High and low MD human breast tissues were precisely sampled under radiographic guidance from prophylactic mastectomy specimens of women. The high and low MD tissues were maintained in separate vascularised biochambers in nulliparous or pregnant SCID mice for 4 weeks, or mice undergoing postpartum involution or lactation for three additional weeks. High and low MD biochamber material was harvested for histologic and radiographic comparisons during various murine peripartum states. High and low MD biochamber tissues in nulliparous mice were harvested at different timepoints for histologic and radiographic comparisons. Results High MD biochamber tissues had decreased stromal (p = 0.0027), increased adipose (p = 0.0003) and a trend to increased glandular tissue areas (p = 0.076) after murine postpartum involution. Stromal areas decreased (p = 0.042), while glandular (p = 0.001) and adipose areas (p = 0.009) increased in high MD biochamber tissues during lactation. A difference in radiographic density was observed in high (p = 0.0021) or low MD biochamber tissues (p = 0.004) between nulliparous, pregnant and involution groups. No differences in tissue composition were observed in high or low MD biochamber tissues maintained for different durations, although radiographic density increased over time. Conclusion High MD biochamber tissues had measurable histologic changes after postpartum involution or lactation. Alterations in radiographic density occurred in biochamber tissues between different peripartum states and over time. These findings

  6. Individual finger control of a modular prosthetic limb using high-density electrocorticography in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; McMullen, David P.; Fifer, Matthew S.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Para, Matthew P.; Armiger, Robert; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Wester, Brock A.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers. Approach. Using high gamma responses recorded with a high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) array, we rapidly mapped the functional anatomy of cued finger movements. We used these cortical maps to select ECoG electrodes for a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis classification scheme to predict: (1) if any finger was moving, and, if so, (2) which digit was moving. To account for sensory feedback, we also mapped the spatiotemporal activation elicited by vibrotactile stimulation. Finally, we used this prediction framework to provide immediate online control over individual fingers of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory modular prosthetic limb. Main results. The balanced classification accuracy for detection of movements during the online control session was 92% (chance: 50%). At the onset of movement, finger classification was 76% (chance: 20%), and 88% (chance: 25%) if the pinky and ring finger movements were coupled. Balanced accuracy of fully flexing the cued finger was 64%, and 77% had we combined pinky and ring commands. Offline decoding yielded a peak finger decoding accuracy of 96.5% (chance: 20%) when using an optimized selection of electrodes. Offline analysis demonstrated significant finger-specific activations throughout sensorimotor cortex. Activations either prior to movement onset or during sensory feedback led to discriminable finger control. Significance. Our results demonstrate the ability of ECoG-based BMIs to leverage the native functional anatomy of sensorimotor cortical populations to immediately control individual finger movements in real time.

  7. Botulinum hemagglutinin-mediated in situ break-up of human induced pluripotent stem cell aggregates for high-density suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Suman C; Tokura, Tomohiro; Kim, Mee-Hae; Kino-Oka, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    Large numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are required for making stable cell bank. Although suspension culture yields high cell numbers, there remain unresolved challenges for obtaining high-density of hiPSCs because large size aggregates exhibit low growth rates. Here, we established a simple method for hiPSC aggregate break-up using botulinum hemagglutinin (HA), which specifically bound with E-cadherin and disrupted cell-cell connections in hiPSC aggregates. HA showed temporary activity for disrupting the E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell connections to facilitate the break-up of aggregates into small sizes only 9 hr after HA addition. The transportation of HA into the aggregates was mediated by transcellular and paracellular way after HA addition to the culture medium. hiPSC aggregates broken up by HA showed a higher number of live cells, higher cell density, and higher expansion fold compared to those of aggregates dissociated with enzymatic digestion. Moreover, a maximum cell density of 4.5 ± 0.2 × 10 6 cells ml -1 was obtained by aggregate break-up into small ones, which was three times higher than that with the conventional culture without aggregate break-up. Therefore, the temporary activity of HA for disrupting E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell connection was key to establishing a simple in situ method for hiPSC aggregate break-up in bioreactors, leading to high cell density in suspension culture. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Construction, arraying, and high-density screening of large insert libraries of human chromosomes X and 21: their potential use as reference libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizetić, D; Zehetner, G; Monaco, A P; Gellen, L; Young, B D; Lehrach, H

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed cosmid libraries from flow-sorted human chromosomes X and 21, each of which contains greater than 30 genome equivalents, and have developed systems allowing permanent storage of primary clones, easy screening of libraries in high-density filter formats, and the simultaneous generation of fingerprinting and mapping data on the same set of cosmid clones. Clones are picked into microtiter plate wells and stored at -70 degrees C. A semiautomatic robot system allows the generation of filter replicas containing up to 10,000 clones per membrane. Sets of membranes containing 15-20 chromosome equivalents of both chromosomes will be used for the construction of ordered clone libraries by hybridization fingerprinting protocols. In addition, multiple sets of two membranes containing 4 chromosome equivalents of the human X chromosome, and one membrane containing 3 chromosome equivalents of chromosome 21, have been distributed to other interested laboratories as part of a system of reference libraries. This system allows other groups easy access to the clones and offers an efficient protocol to combine results generated in different laboratories using these libraries. Here we describe the construction of the libraries and demonstrate the use of high-density screening filters in oligonucleotide probe hybridizations and the isolation of cosmids by hybridization with probes from the X chromosome. Images PMID:2014245

  9. Constructing an initial map of transmission distortion based on high density HapMap SNPs across the human autosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libin; Zhang, Dake; Richards, Elliott; Tang, Xiaoli; Fang, Jin; Long, Fei; Wang, Yan

    2009-12-01

    Transmission distortion (TD) is a significant departure from Mendelian predictions of genes or chromosomes to offspring. While many biological processes have been implicated, there is still much to be understood about TD in humans. Here we present our findings from a genome-wide scan for evidence of TD using haplotype data of 60 trio families from the International HapMap Project. Fisher's exact test was applied to assess the extent of TD in 629,958 SNPs across the autosomes. Based on the empirical distribution of P(Fisher) and further permutation tests, we identified 1,205 outlier loci and 224 candidate genes with TD. Using the PANTHER gene ontology database, we found 19 categories of biological processes with an enrichment of candidate genes. In particular, the "protein phosphorylation" category contained the largest number of candidates in both HapMap samples. Further analysis uncovered an intriguing non-synonymous change in PPP1R12B, a gene related to protein phosphorylation, which appears to influence the allele transmission from male parents in the YRI (Yoruba from Ibadan, Nigeria) population. Our findings also indicate an ethnicity-related property of TD signatures in HapMap samples and provide new clues for our understanding of TD in humans. 2009 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma levels of 27-hydroxycholesterol in humans and mice with monogenic disturbances of high density lipoprotein metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karuna, Ratna; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Motazacker, Mohammad M

    2011-01-01

    Secretion of 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHC) from macrophages is considered as an alternative to HDL-mediated reverse transport of excess cholesterol. We investigated 27OHC-concentrations in plasma of humans and mice with monogenic disorders of HDL metabolism. As compared to family controls mutations...... in the genes for apolipoprotein A-I, ATP binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and lecithin:cholesterol acylstransferase (LCAT) were associated with reduced concentrations of both HDL-cholesterol and HDL-27OHC whereas mutations in the genes for cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP), scavenger receptor type...... BI and hepatic lipase were associated with elevated HDL concentrations of either sterol. Compared to family controls and relative to the concentrations of total 27OHC and cholesterol, lower 27OHC-ester but normal cholesterylester levels were found in HDL of heterozygous LCAT mutation carriers and nonHDL...

  11. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David A.

    1996-01-01

    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  12. Effect of Exposure of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages to High, versus Normal, Glucose on Subsequent Lipid Accumulation from Glycated and Acetylated Low-Density Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moheimani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During atherosclerosis monocyte-derived macrophages accumulate cholesteryl esters from low-density lipoproteins (LDLs via lectin-like oxidised LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1 and class AI and AII (SR-AI, SR-AII and class B (SR-BI, CD36 scavenger receptors. Here we examined the hypothesis that hyperglycaemia may modulate receptor expression and hence lipid accumulation in macrophages. Human monocytes were matured into macrophages in 30 versus 5 mM glucose and receptor expression and lipid accumulation quantified. High glucose elevated LOX1 mRNA, but decreased SR-AI, SR-BI, LDLR, and CD36 mRNA. SR-BI and CD36 protein levels were decreased. Normo- and hyperglycaemic cells accumulated cholesteryl esters from modified LDL to a greater extent than control LDL, but total and individual cholesteryl ester accumulation was not affected by glucose levels. It is concluded that, whilst macrophage scavenger receptor mRNA and protein levels can be modulated by high glucose, these are not key factors in lipid accumulation by human macrophages under the conditions examined.

  13. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol: How High

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rajagopal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C is considered anti-atherogenic good cholesterol. It is involved in reverse transport of lipids. Epidemiological studies have found inverse relationship of HDL-C and coronary heart disease (CHD risk. When grouped according to HDL-C, subjects having HDL-C more than 60 mg/dL had lesser risk of CHD than those having HDL-C of 40-60 mg/dL, who in turn had lesser risk than those who had HDL-C less than 40 mg/dL. No upper limit for beneficial effect of HDL-C on CHD risk has been identified. The goals of treating patients with low HDL-C have not been firmly established. Though many drugs are known to improve HDL-C concentration, statins are proven to improve CHD risk and mortality. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is involved in metabolism of HDL-C and its inhibitors are actively being screened for clinical utility. However, final answer is still awaited on CETP-inhibitors.

  14. High Density Fuel Development for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Wachs; Dennis Keiser; Mitchell Meyer; Douglas Burkes; Curtis Clark; Glenn Moore; Jan-Fong Jue; Totju Totev; Gerard Hofman; Tom Wiencek; Yeon So Kim; Jim Snelgrove

    2007-09-01

    An international effort to develop, qualify, and license high and very high density fuels has been underway for several years within the framework of multi-national RERTR programs. The current development status is the result of significant contributions from many laboratories, specifically CNEA in Argentina, AECL in Canada, CEA in France, TUM in Germany, KAERI in Korea, VNIIM, RDIPE, IPPE, NCCP and RIARR in Russia, INL, ANL and Y-12 in USA. These programs are mainly engaged with UMo dispersion fuels with densities from 6 to 8 gU/cm3 (high density fuel) and UMo monolithic fuel with density as high as 16 gU/cm3 (very high density fuel). This paper, mainly focused on the French & US programs, gives the status of high density UMo fuel development and perspectives on their qualification.

  15. High-Density Nucleosome Occupancy Map of Human Chromosome 9p21–22 Reveals Chromatin Organization of the Type I Interferon Gene Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freaney, Jonathan E.; Zhang, Quanwei; Yigit, Erbay; Kim, Rebecca; Widom, Jonathan; Wang, Ji-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide investigations have dramatically increased our understanding of nucleosome positioning and the role of chromatin in gene regulation, yet some genomic regions have been poorly represented in human nucleosome maps. One such region is represented by human chromosome 9p21–22, which contains the type I interferon gene cluster that includes 16 interferon alpha genes and the single interferon beta, interferon epsilon, and interferon omega genes. A high-density nucleosome mapping strategy was used to generate locus-wide maps of the nucleosome organization of this biomedically important locus at a steady state and during a time course of infection with Sendai virus, an inducer of interferon gene expression. Detailed statistical and computational analysis illustrates that nucleosomes in this locus exhibit preferences for particular dinucleotide and oligomer DNA sequence motifs in vivo, which are similar to those reported for lower eukaryotic nucleosome–DNA interactions. These data were used to visualize the region's chromatin architecture and reveal features that are common to the organization of all the type I interferon genes, indicating a common nucleosome-mediated gene regulatory paradigm. Additionally, this study clarifies aspects of the dynamic changes that occur with the nucleosome occupying the transcriptional start site of the interferon beta gene after virus infection. PMID:24673249

  16. High density lipoproteins, 1978 -- an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R I

    1978-12-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) have come of age. For years it has been fashionable to study HDL as an approach to understanding lipoprotein structure and lipid binding. Available in abundant amounts from normal human plasma, readily separable into its individual lipid and soluble apolipoprotein components, HDL has provided much information for lipoprotein model building. Suddenly it has been thrust center stage clinically by a host of convincing epidemiologic studies that clearly establishes an inverse relationship between HDL levels and coronary vascular events. Biochemists, clinicians, cardiologists and epidemiologists are simultaneously focusing attention on HDL. Familial High Density Lipoprotein Deficiency (Tangier Disease) has been well described but is poorly understood as a clinical syndrome complex. We have suddenly become aware of how little we understand about HDL's normal ultracentrifugal and apoprotein heterogeneity, about its functional role(s) or the determinant(s) of its concentration in plasma. The relative contributions of the two sites of HDL origin, the liver and intestine, are yet to be determined as are the site(s) of degradation. Awareness of a problem and its importance is the first step toward the solution(s) of the problem.

  17. High Energy Density Capacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  18. Electronic DC transformer with high power density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlovský, M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the possibilities of increasing the power density of high-power dc-dc converters with galvanic isolation. Three cornerstones for reaching high power densities are identified as: size reduction of passive components, reduction of losses particularly in active components

  19. High regression rate, high density hybrid fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR program will investigate high energy density novel nanofuels combined with high density binders for use with an N2O oxidizer. Terves has developed...

  20. Irradiation test of high density Si material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Man Soon; Choo, Kee Nam; Lee, Chul Yong; Yang, Seong Woo; Shim, Kyue Taek; Park, Sang Jun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The feasibility of irradiation test for the high-density Si material entrusted by Guju Inc. was reviewed. The high density Si material is used for a sealing of the penetration holes of piping at the nuclear power plants. The irradiation test was performed and the density changes between before and after irradiation test were measured. The irradiation tests were performed 2 times for 1 day and 20 days at IP 4 hole of HANARO. The 3 Si specimens irradiated were without flaws and the density changes after irradiation were successfully measured. The result satisfies the requirement of the design specification.

  1. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L; Ruff, Christopher B; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-01-13

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations.

  2. Recent origin of low trabecular bone density in modern humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirchir, Habiba; Kivell, Tracy L.; Ruff, Christopher B.; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Carlson, Kristian J.; Zipfel, Bernhard; Richmond, Brian G.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and microtomography to measure trabecular bone of limb epiphyses (long bone articular ends) in modern humans and chimpanzees and in fossil hominins attributed to Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus/early Homo from Swartkrans, Homo neanderthalensis, and early Homo sapiens. Results show that only recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the limb joints. Extinct hominins, including pre-Holocene Homo sapiens, retain the high levels seen in nonhuman primates. Thus, the low trabecular density of the recent modern human skeleton evolved late in our evolutionary history, potentially resulting from increased sedentism and reliance on technological and cultural innovations. PMID:25535354

  3. High energy density lithium batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Aifantis, Katerina E; Kumar, R Vasant

    2010-01-01

    Cell phones, portable computers and other electronic devices crucially depend on reliable, compact yet powerful batteries. Therefore, intensive research is devoted to improving performance and reducing failure rates. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries promise significant advancement and high application potential for hybrid vehicles, biomedical devices, and everyday appliances. This monograph provides special focus on the methods and approaches for enhancing the performance of next-generation batteries through the use of nanotechnology. Deeper understanding of the mechanisms and strategies is

  4. BMP7 promotes adipogenic but not osteo-/chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived stem cells in high-density micro-mass culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katja; Endres, Michaela; Ringe, Jochen; Flath, Bernd; Manz, Rudi; Häupl, Thomas; Sittinger, Michael; Kaps, Christian

    2007-10-15

    The objective of our study was to elucidate the potential of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) to initiate distinct mesenchymal lineage development of human adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in three-dimensional micro-mass culture. Expanded MSC were cultured in high-density micro-masses under serum-free conditions that favor chondrogenic differentiation and were stimulated with 50-200 ng/ml BMP7 or 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGFbeta3) as control. Histological staining of proteoglycan with alcian blue, mineralized matrix according to von Kossa, and lipids with Oil Red O, immunostaining of type II collagen as well as real-time gene expression analysis of typical chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic marker genes showed that BMP7 promoted adipogenic differentiation of MSC. Micro-masses stimulated with BMP7 developed adipocytic cells filled with lipid droplets and showed an enhanced expression of the adipocyte marker genes fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and the adipose most abundant transcript 1 (apM1). Development along the chondrogenic lineage or stimulation of osteogenic differentiation were not evident upon stimulation with BMP7 in different concentrations. In contrast, TGFbeta3 directed MSC to form a cartilaginous matrix that is rich in proteoglycan and type II collagen. Gene expression analysis of typical chondrocyte marker genes like cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), link protein, aggrecan, and types IIalpha1 and IXalpha3 collagen confirmed chondrogenic differentiation of MSC treated with TGFbeta3. These results suggest that BMP7 promotes the adipogenic and not the osteogenic or chondrogenic lineage development of human stem cells when assembled three-dimensionally in micro-masses. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. High density lipoproteins (HDLs) and atherosclerosis; the unanswered questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barter, Philip; Kastelein, John; Nunn, Alistair; Hobbs, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The concentration of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) has been found consistently to be a powerful negative predictor of premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in human prospective population studies. There is also circumstantial evidence from human intervention studies and direct

  6. Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points....... First, rather than unions settling for a semi-automatic response to membership decline, the ‘organising model’ was actively imported as a strategic tool for challenging alternative responses to membership decline. Second, the organising model was actively translated into a Danish context and most unions...... cherry-pick some elements while leaving fundamental aspects out. The study nevertheless indicates that a lack of coherency and model-fit to Danish industrial relations might hamper the positive effects of the organising strategy....

  7. Institute for High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton, Alan [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-01-13

    The project objective was for the Institute of High Energy Density Science (IHEDS) at the University of Texas at Austin to help grow the High Energy Density (HED) science community, by connecting academia with the Z Facility (Z) and associated staff at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). IHEDS was originally motivated by common interests and complementary capabilities at SNL and the University of Texas System (UTX), in 2008.

  8. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran,L.

    2008-09-07

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N{sub c} arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma.

  9. Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Marcel; Purvis, Andy; Sechrest, Wes; Gittleman, John L; Bielby, Jon; Mace, Georgina M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

  10. Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cardillo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

  11. The high density Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    During the past few years techniques have been developed for producing pinches in solid deuterium. The conditions which exist in these plasmas are quiet different from those produced earlier. The pinch is formed from a fiber of solid deuterium rather than from a low density gas, and the current is driven by a low impedance, high voltage pulse generator. Because of the high initial density, it is not necessary to compress the pinch to reach thermonuclear conditions, and the confinement time required for energy production is much shorter than for a gas. The experimental results, which have been verified by experiments performed at higher current were quite surprising and encouraging. The pinch appeared to be stable for a time much longer than the Alfven radial transit time. In this paper, however, I argue that the pinch is not strictly stable, but it does not appear to disassemble in a catastrophic fashion. It appears that there may be a distinction between stability and confinement in the high density pinch. In the discussion below I will present the status of the high density Z-pinch experiments at laboratories around the world, and I will describe some of the calculational and experimental results. I will confine my remarks to recent work on the high density pinch. 17 refs. 10 figs.

  12. Co-isolation of extracellular vesicles and high-density lipoproteins using density gradient ultracentrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana; Levels, Johannes; Grootemaat, Anita; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) facilitate intercellular communication by carrying bioactive molecules such as proteins, messenger RNA, and micro (mi)RNAs. Recently, high-density lipoproteins (HDL) isolated from human plasma were also reported to transport miRNA to other cells. HDL, when isolated from

  13. High Density Methane Storage in Nanoporous Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Tyler; Dohnke, Elmar; Soo, Yuchoong; Maland, Brett; Doynov, Plamen; Lin, Yuyi; Pfeifer, Peter; Mriglobal Collaboration; All-Craft Team

    2014-03-01

    Development of low-pressure, high-capacity adsorbent based storage technology for natural gas (NG) as fuel for advanced transportation (flat-panel tank for NG vehicles) is necessary in order to address the temperature, pressure, weight, and volume constraints present in conventional storage methods (CNG & LNG.) Subcritical nitrogen adsorption experiments show that our nanoporous carbon hosts extended narrow channels which generate a high surface area and strong Van der Waals forces capable of increasing the density of NG into a high-density fluid. This improvement in storage density over compressed natural gas without an adsorbent occurs at ambient temperature and pressures ranging from 0-260 bar (3600 psi.) The temperature, pressure, and storage capacity of a 40 L flat-panel adsorbed NG tank filled with 20 kg of nanoporous carbon will be featured.

  14. Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... of the magnetization is derived by first considering and solving the Dirac equation of a fermion in interaction with a magnetic field and with a chiral sigma-pion pair. The solution provides the energies of single-particle states. The energy of the system is found by summing up contributions from all particles...

  15. Spin polarization in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providênci, Constanca

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the occurrence of a ferromagnetic phase transition in high density hadronic matter (e.g., in the interior of a neutron star). This could be induced by a four-fermion interaction analogous to the one which is responsible for chiral symmetry breaking in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, ...

  16. Supernovae and high density nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahana, S.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the nuclear equation of state (EOS) in producing prompt supernova explosions is examined. Results of calculations of Baron, Cooperstein, and Kahana incorporating general relativity and a new high density EOS are presented, and the relevance of these calculations to laboratory experiments with heavy ions considered. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. High Density GEOSAT/GM Altimeter Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The high density Geosat/GM altimeter data south of 30 S have finally arrived. In addition, ERS-1 has completed more than 6 cycles of its 35-day repeat track. These...

  18. Models for Experimental High Density Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Swoboda, Julia; Nowak, Katarzyna; Dziechciarz, Klaudia

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on models of high density housing. The authors present urban projects for experimental high density housing estates. The design was based on research performed on 38 examples of similar housing in Poland that have been built after 2003. Some of the case studies show extreme density and that inspired the researchers to test individual virtual solutions that would answer the question: How far can we push the limits? The experimental housing projects show strengths and weaknesses of design driven only by such indexes as FAR (floor attenuation ratio - housing density) and DPH (dwellings per hectare). Although such projects are implemented, the authors believe that there are reasons for limits since high index values may be in contradiction to the optimum character of housing environment. Virtual models on virtual plots presented by the authors were oriented toward maximising the DPH index and DAI (dwellings area index) which is very often the main driver for developers. The authors also raise the question of sustainability of such solutions. The research was carried out in the URBAN model research group (Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architecture students. The models reflect architectural and urban regulations that are valid in Poland. Conclusions might be helpful for urban planners, urban designers, developers, architects and architecture students.

  19. Production of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2A by high density culture of Escherichia coli with stationary dissolved oxygen fed-batch condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Chen, C; Pu, Q; Chen, S

    1998-01-01

    The optimization of cultivation condition in 500 ml shake flasks was carried out to produce recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2A (BMP-2A) in recombinant Escherichia coli YK537/pDH-B2m, followed by a 5L fermenter batch and condition-controlled fed-batch culture to obtain BMP-2A. The comparison of these two methods indicated that cultivation by keeping dissolved oxygen at 30%-40% and limiting glucose concentration could obtain BMP-2A 2.78 g/L broth, the final cell density was OD600 53 (dry cell weight 21.2 g/L), and expressed BMP-2A was 25% of the total amount of protein in E.coli. The critical fermentation conditions included: (1) keeping appropriate dissolved oxygen concentration in the process; (2) limiting glucose concentration; (3) taking heat induction at the middle-log phase and maintaining 42 degrees C for 4 hours; (4) controlling specific growth rate around 0.3 h-1 in the duration of growth.

  20. HIGH DENSITY QCD WITH HEAVY-IONS

    CERN Multimedia

    The Addendum 1 to Volume 2 of the CMS Physics TDR has been published The Heavy-Ion analysis group completed the writing of a TDR summarizing the CMS plans in using heavy ion collisions to study high density QCD. The document was submitted to the LHCC in March and presented in the Open Session of the LHCC on May 9th. The study of heavy-ion physics at the LHC is promising to be very exciting. LHC will open a new energy frontier in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The collision energy of heavy nuclei at sNN = 5.5 TeV will be thirty times larger than what is presently available at RHIC. We will certainly probe quark and gluon matter at unprecedented values of energy density. The prime goal of this research programme is to study the fundamental theory of the strong interaction - Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) - in extreme conditions of temperature, density and parton momentum fraction (low-x). Such studies, with impressive experimental and theoretical advances in recent years thanks to the wealth of high-qua...

  1. High density micromass cultures of a human chondrocyte cell line: A reliable assay system to reveal the modulatory functions of pharmacological agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, K.V.; Iqbal, A.J.; Rattazzi, L.; Nalesso, G.; Moradi-Bidhendi, N.; Moore, A.R.; Goldring, M.B.; Dell’Accio, F.; Perretti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a highly prevalent and disabling disease for which we do not have a cure. The identification of suitable molecular targets is hindered by the lack of standardized, reproducible and convenient screening assays. Following extensive comparisons of a number of chondrocytic cell lines, culture conditions, and readouts, we have optimized an assay utilizing C-28/I2, a chondrocytic cell line cultured in high-density micromasses. Utilizing molecules with known effects on cartilage (e.g. IL-1β, TGFβ1, BMP-2), we have exploited this improved protocol to (i) evoke responses characteristic of primary chondrocytes; (ii) assess the pharmacodynamics of gene over-expression using non-viral expression vectors; (iii) establish the response profiles of known pharmacological treatments; and (iv) investigate their mechanisms of action. These data indicate that we have established a medium-throughput methodology for studying chondrocyte-specific cellular and molecular responses (from gene expression to rapid quantitative measurement of sulfated glycosaminoglycans by Alcian blue staining) that may enable the discovery of novel therapeutics for pharmacological modulation of chondrocyte activation in osteoarthritis. PMID:21946086

  2. High density scintillating glass proton imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. J.; Goranson, K.; Turney, A.; Xie, Q.; Tillman, I. J.; Thune, Z. L.; Dong, A.; Pritchett, D.; McInally, W.; Potter, A.; Wang, D.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, proton therapy has achieved remarkable precision in delivering doses to cancerous cells while avoiding healthy tissue. However, in order to utilize this high precision treatment, greater accuracy in patient positioning is needed. An accepted approximate uncertainty of +/-3% exists in the current practice of proton therapy due to conversions between x-ray and proton stopping power. The use of protons in imaging would eliminate this source of error and lessen the radiation exposure of the patient. To this end, this study focuses on developing a novel proton-imaging detector built with high-density glass scintillator. The model described herein contains a compact homogeneous proton calorimeter composed of scintillating, high density glass as the active medium. The unique geometry of this detector allows for the measurement of both the position and residual energy of protons, eliminating the need for a separate set of position trackers in the system. Average position and energy of a pencil beam of 106 protons is used to reconstruct the image rather than by analyzing individual proton data. Simplicity and efficiency were major objectives in this model in order to present an imaging technique that is compact, cost-effective, and precise, as well as practical for a clinical setting with pencil-beam scanning proton therapy equipment. In this work, the development of novel high-density glass scintillator and the unique conceptual design of the imager are discussed; a proof-of-principle Monte Carlo simulation study is performed; preliminary two-dimensional images reconstructed from the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  3. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  4. Analysis of human CD36 gene sequence alterations in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein-binding region using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rać, Monika Ewa; Suchy, Janina; Kurzawski, Grzegorz; Safranow, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Maria; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Rać, Michał; Poncyljusz, Wojciech; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2010-08-01

    Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) has been employed as a prescreening tool to reduce the amount of DNA sequencing. It could be a simple and cost-effective screening method for mutations and polymorphisms in exons 4, 5, and 6 of the CD36 gene, which encode the protein region responsible for the removal of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Genomic DNA was isolated from 306 Caucasian infants of Polish origin. Six single-nucleotide substitutions were detected by DHPLC and confirmed by direct sequencing. The A591T, G550A, and C572T alterations have not been described so far. Each of two nonsynonymous substitutions (Asp184Asn, Pro191Leu) was found in one subject (0.2% minor allele frequency). The results suggest that nonsynonymous alterations in the analyzed CD36 region are rare in Caucasians. DHPLC is a specific and cost-effective technique that may prove to be particularly useful for the identification of polymorphisms and mutations in the CD36 gene.

  5. High Spectral Density Optical Communication Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The latest hot topics of high-spectral density optical communication systems using digital coherent optical fibre communication technologies are covered by this book. History and meaning of a "renaissance" of the technology, requirements to the Peta-bit/s class "new generation network" are also covered in the first part of this book. The main topics treated are electronic and optical devices, digital signal processing including forward error correction, modulation formats as well as transmission and application systems. The book serves as a reference to researchers and engineers.

  6. High density circuit technology, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, T. E.

    The metal (or dielectric) lift-off processes used in the semiconductor industry to fabricate high density very large scale integration (VLSI) systems were reviewed. The lift-off process consists of depositing the light-sensitive material onto the wafer and patterning first in such a manner as to form a stencil for the interconnection material. Then the interconnection layer is deposited and unwanted areas are lifted off by removing the underlying stencil. Several of these lift-off techniques were examined experimentally. The use of an auxiliary layer of polyimide to form a lift-off stencil offers considerable promise.

  7. Beyond the local density approximation : improving density functional theory for high energy density physics applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Ann Elisabet; Modine, Normand Arthur; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Muller, Richard Partain; Sears, Mark P.; Wright, Alan Francis

    2006-11-01

    A finite temperature version of 'exact-exchange' density functional theory (EXX) has been implemented in Sandia's Socorro code. The method uses the optimized effective potential (OEP) formalism and an efficient gradient-based iterative minimization of the energy. The derivation of the gradient is based on the density matrix, simplifying the extension to finite temperatures. A stand-alone all-electron exact-exchange capability has been developed for testing exact exchange and compatible correlation functionals on small systems. Calculations of eigenvalues for the helium atom, beryllium atom, and the hydrogen molecule are reported, showing excellent agreement with highly converged quantumMonte Carlo calculations. Several approaches to the generation of pseudopotentials for use in EXX calculations have been examined and are discussed. The difficult problem of finding a correlation functional compatible with EXX has been studied and some initial findings are reported.

  8. Some novel phenomena at high density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Evan Scott

    Astrophysical environments probe matter in ways impossible on Earth. In particular, matter in compact objects are extraordinarily dense. In this thesis we discuss two phenomena that may occur at high density. First, we study toroidal topological solitons called vortons, which can occur in the kaon-condensed color-flavor-locked phase of high-density quark matter, a candidate phase for the core of some neutron stars. We show that vortons have a large radius compared to their thickness if their electrical charge is on the order of 104 times the fundamental charge. We show that shielding of electric fields by electrons dramatically reduces the size of a vorton. Second, we study an unusual phase of degenerate electrons and nonrelativistic Bose-condensed helium nuclei that may exist in helium white dwarfs. We show that this phase supports a previously-unknown gapless mode, known as the half-sound, that radically alters the material's specific heat, and can annihilate into neutrinos. We provide evidence that this neutrino radiation is negligible compared to the star's surface photoemission.

  9. High energy density redox flow device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, Craig W.; Ho, Bryan Y.; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2017-10-10

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  10. Low-density solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography for determination of warfarin in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambari, Hoda; Hadjmohammadi, Mohammadreza

    2012-06-15

    Extraction and determination of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant drug, in human plasma were performed using a new generation of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extraction procedure is based on extraction solvents lighter than water and performing of extraction in a specially designed extraction cell. Some important parameters, including kind and volume of extraction and disperser solvents, pH of the sample solution, salt concentration in the sample solution and extraction time were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions (150 μL 1-octanol as extraction solvent, 150 μL methanol as disperser solvent, pH(sample)=2.3, extraction time of 2 min, without salt addition), limit of detection (LOD) of 5 ng mL⁻¹ and extraction recovery of 91.0% were obtained. The calibration curve was linear within the range of 15-3000 ng mL⁻¹ with the square of correlation coefficient (R²) of 0.998. Repeatability and reproducibility of method based on five replicate extraction and determination were 2.8% and 6.5%, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of warfarin in plasma sample from a patient under treatment with this drug, and was demonstrated to be sensitive, efficient, and convenient. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymerase-mediated high-density incorporation of amphiphilic functionalities into DNA: enhancement of nuclease resistance and stability in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroto; Nakajima, Kohsuke; Kasahara, Yuuya; Ozaki, Hiroaki; Kuwahara, Masayasu

    2015-01-15

    Modified oligodeoxyribonucleotides (mdODNs) bearing multiple copies of an amphiphilic functional group were enzymatically synthesized by simultaneous incorporation of base-modified 5'-triphosphate analogs of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG(am)TP), 2'-deoxyuridine (dU(am)TP), 2'-deoxyadenosine (dA(am)TP), and 2'-deoxycytosine (dC(am)TP). The amphiphilic functionality, that is, (E)-38,53-dioxo-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,23,26,29,32,35-dodecaoxa-39,52-diazapentapentacont-54-en-55-yl group, consists of the water soluble dodeca(ethylene glycol) chain and the hydrophobic dodecyl chain. An enzymatically synthesized ODN, composed of a 20-mer 5'-terminal segment containing 2'-O,4'-C-methylene-bridged/linked bicyclic ribonucleotide (B/L nucleotide) and a 12-mer 3'-terminal segment containing the nucleobase-modified analogs, exhibits very high resistance against phosphodiesterase I and is stable in human serum for a longer period when compared with ODN, where the 12-mer 3'-terminal segment contains unmodified nucleotides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  13. A High Density ECRH Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Rosenthal, G.; Kidd, P.; Wuerker, R.; Wong, A. Y.; Siciliano, E. R.

    1996-11-01

    An ECRH plasma source has been constructed within a 10 kG solenoid, using a 10 kW (max) of CW 10.6 GHz klystron amplifier. Vacuum base pressures are on the order of 10-7 torr. One kW of CW ECRH microwave power is sufficient to create a high density (10^12 cm-3) fully ionized pure calcium metal plasma, the maximum theoretically possible at 10.6 GHz. The electron temperature is around 10 eV. Neutral Ca is evaporated through the ECRH resonance zone from a thermal oven. Only ions (not neutrals) trapped by the field enter the main chamber, resulting in a fully ionized plasma. The source is useful for generating fully ionized pure plasmas from low melting point materinals. Work Supported by NSF PHY-94-21693

  14. Nanotechnology for Synthetic High Density Lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea J.; Patel, Pinal C.; Ko, Caroline H.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Mirkin, Chad A.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is the disease mechanism responsible for coronary heart disease (CHD), the leading cause of death worldwide. One strategy to combat atherosclerosis is to increase the amount of circulating high density lipoproteins (HDL), which transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The process, known as reverse cholesterol transport, is thought to be one of the main reasons for the significant inverse correlation observed between HDL blood levels and the development of CHD. This article highlights the most common strategies for treating atherosclerosis using HDL. We further detail potential treatment opportunities that utilize nanotechnology to increase the amount of HDL in circulation. The synthesis of biomimetic HDL nanostructures that replicate the chemical and physical properties of natural HDL provides novel materials for investigating the structure-function relationships of HDL and for potential new therapeutics to combat CHD. PMID:21087901

  15. A Novel Anti-Inflammatory Effect for High Density Lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J Cameron

    Full Text Available High density lipoprotein has anti-inflammatory effects in addition to mediating reverse cholesterol transport. While many of the chronic anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL are attributed to changes in cell adhesion molecules, little is known about acute signal transduction events elicited by HDL in endothelial cells. We now show that high density lipoprotein decreases endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. ApoA-I, a major apolipoprotein of HDL, mediates inhibition of endothelial cell exocytosis by interacting with endothelial scavenger receptor-BI which triggers an intracellular protective signaling cascade involving protein kinase C (PKC. Other apolipoproteins within the HDL particle have only modest effects upon endothelial exocytosis. Using a human primary culture of endothelial cells and murine apo-AI knockout mice, we show that apo-AI prevents endothelial cell exocytosis which limits leukocyte recruitment. These data suggest that high density lipoprotein may inhibit diseases associated with vascular inflammation in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.

  16. Dark High Density Dipolar Liquid of Excitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kobi; Shilo, Yehiel; West, Ken; Pfeiffer, Loren; Rapaport, Ronen

    2016-06-08

    The possible phases and the nanoscale particle correlations of two-dimensional interacting dipolar particles is a long-sought problem in many-body physics. Here we observe a spontaneous condensation of trapped two-dimensional dipolar excitons with internal spin degrees of freedom from an interacting gas into a high density, closely packed liquid state made mostly of dark dipoles. Another phase transition, into a bright, highly repulsive plasma, is observed at even higher excitation powers. The dark liquid state is formed below a critical temperature Tc ≈ 4.8 K, and it is manifested by a clear spontaneous spatial condensation to a smaller and denser cloud, suggesting an attractive part to the interaction which goes beyond the purely repulsive dipole-dipole forces. Contributions from quantum mechanical fluctuations are expected to be significant in this strongly correlated, long living dark liquid. This is a new example of a two-dimensional atomic-like interacting dipolar liquid, but where the coupling of light to its internal spin degrees of freedom plays a crucial role in the dynamical formation and the nature of resulting condensed dark ground state.

  17. Nonuniform distribution of collagen density in human knee ligaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Blankevoort, L.; Kooloos, J. G.; Hendriks, J. C.; Kauer, J. M.; Huiskes, R.

    1994-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the mechanical properties of soft connective tissues are affected by their structural components. We documented collagen density distributions in human knee ligaments to quantify differences in density within and between these ligaments. In order to explain the

  18. High-density electroencephalography developmental neurophysiological trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Bernard; Pelc, Karine; Cebolla, Ana M; Cheron, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to document early changes in the developing brain have resulted in the construction of increasingly accurate structural images based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborn infants. Tractography diagrams obtained through diffusion tensor imaging have focused on white matter microstructure, with particular emphasis on neuronal connectivity at the level of fibre tract systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) provides a complementary approach with more direct access to brain electrical activity. Its temporal resolution is excellent, and its spatial resolution can be enhanced to physiologically relevant levels, through the combination of high-density recordings (e.g. by using 64 channels in newborn infants) and mathematical models (e.g. inverse modelling computation), to identify generators of different oscillation bands and synchrony patterns. The integration of functional and structural topography of the neonatal brain provides insights into typical brain organization, and the deviations seen in particular contexts, for example the effect of hypoxic-ischaemic insult in terms of damage, eventual reorganization, and functional changes. Endophenotypes can then be used for pathophysiological reasoning, management planning, and outcome measurements, and allow a longitudinal approach to individual developmental trajectories. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Comparative analysis of human and bovine teeth: radiographic density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luis Oshiro Tanaka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since bovine teeth have been used as substitutes for human teeth in in vitro dental studies, the aim of this study was to compare the radiographic density of bovine teeth with that of human teeth to evaluate their usability for radiographic studies. Thirty bovine and twenty human teeth were cut transversally in 1 millimeter-thick slices. The slices were X-rayed using a digital radiographic system and an intraoral X-ray machine at 65 kVp and 7 mA. The exposure time (0.08 s and the target-sensor distance (40 cm were standardized for all the radiographs. The radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin of each slice were obtained separately using the "histogram" tool of Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. The mean radiographic densities of the enamel, coronal dentin and radicular dentin were calculated by the arithmetic mean of the slices of each tooth. One-way ANOVA demonstrated statistically significant differences for the densities of bovine and human enamel (p 0.05. Based on the results, the authors concluded that: a the radiographic density of bovine enamel is significantly higher than that of human enamel; b the radiodensity of bovine coronal dentin is statistically lower than the radiodensity of human coronal dentin; bovine radicular dentin is also less radiodense than human radicular dentin, although this difference was not statistically significant; c bovine teeth should be used with care in radiographic in vitro studies.

  20. Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles For Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kaylin M.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Tripathy, Sushant; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bobeica, Mariana; Shumaker, Dale K.; Luthi, Andrea J.; Helfand, Brian T.; Ardehali, Hossein; Mirkin, Chad A.; Volpert, Olga; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2014-01-01

    We report a gold nanoparticle-templated high density lipoprotein (HDL AuNP) platform for gene therapy which combines lipid-based nucleic acid transfection strategies with HDL biomimicry. For proof-of-concept, HDL AuNPs are shown to adsorb antisense cholesterylated DNA. The conjugates are internalized by human cells, can be tracked within cells using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and regulate target gene expression. Overall, the ability to directly image the AuNP core within cells, the chemical tailorability of the HDL AuNP platform, and the potential for cell-specific targeting afforded by HDL biomimicry make this platform appealing for nucleic acid delivery. PMID:21319839

  1. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  2. Structure and Dynamics of Low-Density and High-Density Liquid Water at High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanetti, Samuele; Lapini, Andrea; Pagliai, Marco; Citroni, Margherita; Di Donato, Mariangela; Scandolo, Sandro; Righini, Roberto; Bini, Roberto

    2014-01-02

    Liquid water has a primary role in ruling life on Earth in a wide temperature and pressure range as well as a plethora of chemical, physical, geological, and environmental processes. Nevertheless, a full understanding of its dynamical and structural properties is still lacking. Water molecules are associated through hydrogen bonds, with the resulting extended network characterized by a local tetrahedral arrangement. Two different local structures of the liquid, called low-density (LDW) and high-density (HDW) water, have been identified to potentially affect many different chemical, biological, and physical processes. By combining diamond anvil cell technology, ultrafast pump-probe infrared spectroscopy, and classical molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the liquid structure and orientational dynamics are intimately connected, identifying the P-T range of the LDW and HDW regimes. The latter are defined in terms of the speeding up of the orientational dynamics, caused by the increasing probability of breaking and reforming the hydrogen bonds.

  3. Highly Compressed Ion Beams for High Energy Density Science

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Alex; Briggs, Richard J; Callahan, Debra; Caporaso, George; Celata, C M; Davidson, Ronald C; Faltens, Andy; Grant-Logan, B; Grisham, Larry; Grote, D P; Henestroza, Enrique; Kaganovich, Igor D; Lee, Edward; Lee, Richard; Leitner, Matthaeus; Nelson, Scott D; Olson, Craig; Penn, Gregory; Reginato, Lou; Renk, Tim; Rose, David; Sessler, Andrew M; Staples, John W; Tabak, Max; Thoma, Carsten H; Waldron, William; Welch, Dale; Wurtele, Jonathan; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) is developing the intense ion beams needed to drive matter to the High Energy Density (HED) regimes required for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) and other applications. An interim goal is a facility for Warm Dense Matter (WDM) studies, wherein a target is heated volumetrically without being shocked, so that well-defined states of matter at 1 to 10 eV are generated within a diagnosable region. In the approach we are pursuing, low to medium mass ions with energies just above the Bragg peak are directed onto thin target "foils," which may in fact be foams or "steel wool" with mean densities 1% to 100% of solid. This approach complements that being pursued at GSI, wherein high-energy ion beams deposit a small fraction of their energy in a cylindrical target. We present the requirements for warm dense matter experiments, and describe suitable accelerator concepts, including novel broadband traveling wave pulse-line, drift-tube linac, RF, and single-gap approa...

  4. Development of high temperature superconductors having high critical current density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Gye Wong; Kim, C. J.; Lee, H.G.; Kwon, S. C.; Lee, H. J.; Kim, K. B.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, C. H

    2000-08-01

    Fabrication of high T{sub c} superconductors and its applications for electric power device were carried out for developing superconductor application technologies. High quality YBCO superconductors was fabricated by melt texture growth, top-seeded melt growth process and multi-seeded melt growth process and the properties was compared. The critical current density of the melt processed YBCO superconductors was about few 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and the levitation force was 50 N. The processing time needed for the growth of the 123 single grain was greatly reduced by applying multi-seeding without no significant degradation of the levitation force. The multi-seeded melt growth process was confirmed as a time-saving and cost-effective method for the fabrication of bulk superconductors with controlled crystallographic orientation.

  5. Parton Distributions in High Density Nuclear Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsian, Misak

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the modification of parton distributions in the nuclear medium in the density domain defined by short range multi-nucleon correlations(SRC). Special emphasis is given on the implication of the recently found dominance of proton-neutron SRCs on generation of flavor dependence in the modification of nuclear partonic distributions. Such a flavor dependence can have measurable impact on parity violating lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering and can explain the origin of NuTeV anomaly. The research is supported by US Department of Energy.

  6. Injection molding ceramics to high green densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangels, J. A.; Williams, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The injection molding behavior of a concentrated suspension of Si powder in wax was studied. It was found that the injection molding behavior was a function of the processing techniques used to generate the powder. Dry ball-milled powders had the best molding behavior, while air classified and impact-milled powders demonstrated poorer injection moldability. The relative viscosity of these molding batches was studied as a function of powder properties: distribution shape, surface area, packing density, and particle morphology. The experimental behavior, in all cases, followed existing theories. The relative viscosity of an injection molding composition composed of dry ball-milled powders could be expressed using Farris' relation.

  7. Automated Volumetric Mammographic Breast Density Measurements May Underestimate Percent Breast Density for High-density Breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Kareem; Gubern-Merida, Albert; Patrie, James T; Harvey, Jennifer A

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate discrepancy in breast composition measurements obtained from mammograms using two commercially available software methods for systematic trends in overestimation or underestimation compared to magnetic resonance-derived measurements. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant retrospective study was performed to calculate percent breast density (PBD) by quantifying fibroglandular volume and total breast volume derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation and mammograms using two commercially available software programs (Volpara and Quantra). Consecutive screening MRI exams from a 6-month period with negative or benign findings were used. The most recent mammogram within 9 months was used to derive mean density values from "for processing" images at the per breast level. Bland-Altman statistical analyses were performed to determine the mean discrepancy and the limits of agreement. A total of 110 women with 220 breasts met the study criteria. Overall, PBD was not different between MRI (mean 10%, range 1%-41%) and Volpara (mean 10%, range 3%-29%); a small but significant difference was present in the discrepancy between MRI and Quantra (4.0%, 95% CI: 2.9 to 5.0, P breast densities, with Volpara slightly underestimating and Quantra slightly overestimating PBD compared to MRI. The mean discrepancy for both Volpara and Quantra for total breast volume was not significantly different from MRI (p = 0.89, 0.35, respectively). Volpara tended to underestimate, whereas Quantra tended to overestimate fibroglandular volume, with the highest discrepancy at higher breast volumes. Both Volpara and Quantra tend to underestimate PBD, which is most pronounced at higher densities. PBD can be accurately measured using automated volumetric software programs, but values should not be used interchangeably between vendors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Low-density microarray technologies for rapid human norovirus genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjuncti...

  9. Gene expression-based modeling of human cortical synaptic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Manu S; Raichle, Marcus E

    2013-04-16

    Postnatal cortical synaptic development is characterized by stages of exuberant growth, pruning, and stabilization during adulthood. How gene expression orchestrates these stages of synaptic development is poorly understood. Here we report that synaptic growth-related gene expression alone does not determine cortical synaptic density changes across the human lifespan, but instead, the dynamics of cortical synaptic density can be accurately simulated by a first-order kinetic model of synaptic growth and elimination that incorporates two separate gene expression patterns. Surprisingly, modeling of cortical synaptic density is optimized when genes related to oligodendrocytes are used to determine synaptic elimination rates. Expression of synaptic growth and oligodendrocyte genes varies regionally, resulting in different predictions of synaptic density among cortical regions that concur with previous regional data in humans. Our analysis suggests that modest rates of synaptic growth persist in adulthood, but that this is counterbalanced by increasing rates of synaptic elimination, resulting in stable synaptic number and ongoing synaptic turnover in the human adult cortex. Our approach provides a promising avenue for exploring how complex interactions among genes may contribute to neurobiological phenomena across the human lifespan.

  10. Analysis of bone mineral density of human bones for strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    indirect indicator of osteoporosis and fracture risk. This medical bone density is not the true physical “density” of the bone, which would be computed as mass per ... It forms part of the hip joint (at the acetabulum) and part of the knee joint, which is located above. There are four eminences, or protuberances, in the human ...

  11. On the Origin of the High Column Density Turnover in the H I Column Density Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2012-12-01

    We study the high column density regime of the H I column density distribution function and argue that there are two distinct features: a turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2, which is present at both z = 0 and z ≈ 3, and a lack of systems above N H I ≈ 1022 cm-2 at z = 0. Using observations of the column density distribution, we argue that the H I-H2 transition does not cause the turnover at N H I ≈ 1021 cm-2 but can plausibly explain the turnover at N H I >~ 1022 cm-2. We compute the H I column density distribution of individual galaxies in the THINGS sample and show that the turnover column density depends only weakly on metallicity. Furthermore, we show that the column density distribution of galaxies, corrected for inclination, is insensitive to the resolution of the H I map or to averaging in radial shells. Our results indicate that the similarity of H I column density distributions at z = 3 and 0 is due to the similarity of the maximum H I surface densities of high-z and low-z disks, set presumably by universal processes that shape properties of the gaseous disks of galaxies. Using fully cosmological simulations, we explore other candidate physical mechanisms that could produce a turnover in the column density distribution. We show that while turbulence within giant molecular clouds cannot affect the damped Lyα column density distribution, stellar feedback can affect it significantly if the feedback is sufficiently effective in removing gas from the central 2-3 kpc of high-redshift galaxies. Finally, we argue that it is meaningful to compare column densities averaged over ~ kpc scales with those estimated from quasar spectra that probe sub-pc scales due to the steep power spectrum of H I column density fluctuations observed in nearby galaxies.

  12. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc {sup 4}He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  13. High-density carbon ablator ignition path with low-density gas-filled rugby hohlraum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Peter; Ho, Darwin D.; Jones, Ogden S.

    2015-04-01

    A recent low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) cylindrical hohlraum experiment on the National Ignition Facility has shown high laser-coupling efficiency (>96%), reduced phenomenological laser drive corrections, and improved high-density carbon capsule implosion symmetry [Jones et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 59(15), 66 (2014)]. In this Letter, an ignition design using a large rugby-shaped hohlraum [Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 112703 (2014)] for high energetics efficiency and symmetry control with the same low gas-fill density (0.6 mg/cc 4He) is developed as a potentially robust platform for demonstrating thermonuclear burn. The companion high-density carbon capsule for this hohlraum design is driven by an adiabat-shaped [Betti et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2277 (2002)] 4-shock drive profile for robust high gain (>10) 1-D ignition performance and large margin to 2-D perturbation growth.

  14. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Density functional study of the electric double layer formed by a high density electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas; Lamperski, Stanisław; Jin, Zhehui; Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-11-10

    We use a classical density functional theory (DFT) to study the electric double layer formed by charged hard spheres near a planar charged surface. The DFT predictions are found to be in good agreement with recent computer simulation results. We study the capacitance of the charged hard-sphere system at a range of densities and surface charges and find that the capacitance exhibits a local minimum at low ionic densities and small electrode charge. Although this charging behavior is typical for an aqueous electrolyte solution, the local minimum gradually turns into a maximum as the density of the hard spheres increases. Charged hard spheres at high density provide a reasonable first approximation for ionic liquids. In agreement with experiment, the capacitance of this model ionic liquid double layer has a maximum at small electrode charge density.

  16. Imaging synaptic density in the living human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnema, Sjoerd J; Nabulsi, Nabeel B; Eid, Tore; Detyniecki, Kamil; Lin, Shu-Fei; Chen, Ming-Kai; Dhaher, Roni; Matuskey, David; Baum, Evan; Holden, Daniel; Spencer, Dennis D; Mercier, Joël; Hannestad, Jonas; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E

    2016-07-20

    Chemical synapses are the predominant neuron-to-neuron contact in the central nervous system. Presynaptic boutons of neurons contain hundreds of vesicles filled with neurotransmitters, the diffusible signaling chemicals. Changes in the number of synapses are associated with numerous brain disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. However, all current approaches for measuring synaptic density in humans require brain tissue from autopsy or surgical resection. We report the use of the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) radioligand [(11)C]UCB-J combined with positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify synaptic density in the living human brain. Validation studies in a baboon confirmed that SV2A is an alternative synaptic density marker to synaptophysin. First-in-human PET studies demonstrated that [(11)C]UCB-J had excellent imaging properties. Finally, we confirmed that PET imaging of SV2A was sensitive to synaptic loss in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus, [(11)C]UCB-J PET imaging is a promising approach for in vivo quantification of synaptic density with several potential applications in diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Quantum Phenomena in High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, Margaret [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Kapteyn, Henry [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-05-10

    The possibility of implementing efficient (phase matched) HHG upconversion of deep- UV lasers in multiply-ionized plasmas, with potentially unprecedented conversion efficiency is a fascinating prospect. HHG results from the extreme nonlinear response of matter to intense laser light:high harmonics are radiated as a result of a quantum coherent electron recollision process that occurs during laser field ionization of an atom. Under current support from this grant in work published in Science in 2015, we discovered a new regime of bright HHG in highly-ionized plasmas driven by intense UV lasers, that generates bright harmonics to photon energies >280eV

  18. BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca

    2012-01-01

    The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state, in...

  19. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... ... of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effectsof density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due ...

  20. Graphene supercapacitor with both high power and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Kannappan, Santhakumar; Pandian, Amaresh S.; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Yun Sung; Lu, Wu

    2017-11-01

    Supercapacitors, based on fast ion transportation, are specialized to provide high power, long stability, and efficient energy storage using highly porous electrode materials. However, their low energy density excludes them from many potential applications that require both high energy density and high power density performances. Using a scalable nanoporous graphene synthesis method involving an annealing process in hydrogen, here we show supercapacitors with highly porous graphene electrodes capable of achieving not only a high power density of 41 kW kg-1 and a Coulombic efficiency of 97.5%, but also a high energy density of 148.75 Wh kg-1. A high specific gravimetric and volumetric capacitance (306.03 F g-1 and 64.27 F cm-3) are demonstrated. The devices can retain almost 100% capacitance after 7000 charging/discharging cycles at a current density of 8 A g-1. The superior performance of supercapacitors is attributed to their ideal pore size, pore uniformity, and good ion accessibility of the synthesized graphene.

  1. Biochemical characterization of density-separated human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N S; Ekholm, J E; Luthra, M G; Hanahan, D J

    1976-01-21

    A simple, reproducible method for the separation of human erythrocytes, described recently (Murphy, J. R. (1973) J. Lab. Clin. Med. 82, 334-341) has been utilized for the purpose of obtaining a wide range of biochemical data on these cells. Using phthalate ester density centrifugation of the fractions obtained by Murphy's method, we established that the cells were separated exclusively on the basis of their densities. Data on a wide range of biochemical and hematological parameters, when compared with previously reported density separation procedures showed that this simple technique can be used to fractionate the cells according to their densities (age) in their own plasma. Cells of increasing density consistently and reproducibly exhibited an increase in hemoglobin concentration, a moderate elevation in Na+ and a decrease in the following: K+, acetylcholinesterase, sialic acid, membrane protein, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, cholesterol, phospholipid, mean corpuscular volume and critical hemolytic volume, However, no change in mean corpuscular hemoglobin was evident. The observed differences were not artifacts of the centrifugation process. This was determined in recentrifuged top fractions from which new top and bottom cells were obtained. The latter cells resembled the top fraction from which they were obtained, rather than the original bottom fraction. Whereas the parameters mentioned above exhibited consistency and reproducibility, such was not the case with the ATPase values. Depending on the cell density group examined and/or buffer as well as other conditions, significant variability in the activity levels of the ouabain sensitive, as well as the Ca2+ -stimulated ATPase, was observed. Use of these enzyme activities as indicators of cell age must be viewed with caution.

  2. 128x128 Ultra-High Density Optical Interconnect Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA programs like Tertiary Planet Finder (TPF) require high-density deformable mirrors with up to 16,000 actuators to enable direct imaging of planets around...

  3. Wake high-density electroencephalographic spatiospectral signatures of Insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, Michele A.; Ramautar, Jennifer R.; Wei, Yishul; Gomez-Herrero, Germán; Stoffers, Diederick; Wassing, Rick; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Cajochen, Christian; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although daytime complaints are a defining characteristic of insomnia, most EEG studies evaluated sleep only. We used high-density electroencephalography to investigate wake resting state oscillations characteristic of insomnia disorder (ID) at a fine-grained spatiospectral

  4. 128x128 Ultra-High Density Optical Interconnect Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA programs like Tertiary Planet Finder (TPF) require high density deformable mirrors with upto 16,000 actuators to enable direct imaging of planets around...

  5. Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat

    2017-07-05

    The Fifth International Conference on High Energy Density Physics (ICHED 2015) was held in the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego from August 23-27, 2015. This meeting was the fifth in a series which began in 2008 in conjunction with the April meeting of the American Physical Society (APS). The main goal of this conference has been to bring together researchers from all fields of High Energy Density Science (HEDS) into one, unified meeting.

  6. Workshop on extremely high energy density plasmas and their diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Shozo (ed.)

    2001-09-01

    Compiled are the papers presented at the workshop on 'Extremely High Energy Density Plasmas and Their Diagnostics' held at National Institute for Fusion Science. The papers cover physics and applications of extremely high-energy density plasmas such as dense z-pinch, plasma focus, and intense pulsed charged beams. Separate abstracts were presented for 7 of the papers in this report. The remaining 25 were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (author)

  7. High Energy Density Capacitors for Pulsed Power Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    resistor in terms of shock and vibration, mounting requirements, total volume, system reliability, and cost. All of these parameters were improved...protection from shock and vibration on a deployed system. III. STATE OF THE ART FOR HIGH ENERGY DENSITY CAPACITOR AND NEAR TERM PROJECTIONS The...it t tipo ymer m qua y an capac or cons ruc on. Energy Density of 10,000 Shot High Efficiency Pulse Power Capacitors The primary driver was 1 5

  8. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...... magnetization due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks. The implications for the strong magnetic field in compact stars is discussed....

  9. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  10. Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Weiss, William A.; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M.; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists’ breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 (pdensity estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 (pdensity estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 (p=0.0076) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists’ BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy. PMID:28042590

  11. High-density scintillating glasses for a proton imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, I. J.; Dettmann, M. A.; Herrig, V.; Thune, Z. L.; Zieser, A. J.; Michalek, S. F.; Been, M. O.; Martinez-Szewczyk, M. M.; Koster, H. J.; Wilkinson, C. J.; Kielty, M. W.; Jacobsohn, L. G.; Akgun, U.

    2017-06-01

    High-density scintillating glasses are proposed for a novel proton-imaging device that can improve the accuracy of the hadron therapy. High-density scintillating glasses are needed to build a cost effective, compact calorimeter that can be attached to a gantry. This report summarizes the study on Europium, Terbium, and Cerium-doped scintillating glasses that were developed containing heavy elements such as Lanthanum, Gadolinium, and Tungsten. The density of the samples reach up to 5.9 g/cm3, and their 300-600 nm emission overlaps perfectly with the peak cathode sensitivity of the commercial photo detectors. The developed glasses do not require any special quenching and can be poured easily, which makes them a good candidate for production in various geometries. Here, the glass making conditions, preliminary tests on optical and physical properties of these scintillating, high-density, oxide glasses developed for a novel medical imaging application are reported.

  12. Propofol anesthesia and sleep: a high-density EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Riedner, Brady A; Boveroux, Pierre; Noirhomme, Quentin; Landsness, Eric C; Brichant, Jean-Francois; Phillips, Christophe; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie

    2011-03-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of anesthetic sedation remain poorly understood. We used high-density electroencephalography (hd-EEG) and source modeling to investigate the cortical processes underlying propofol anesthesia and compare them to sleep. 256-channel EEG recordings in humans during propofol anesthesia. Hospital operating room. 8 healthy subjects (4 males). N/A. Initially, propofol induced increases in EEG power from 12-25 Hz. Loss of consciousness (LOC) was accompanied by the appearance of EEG slow waves that resembled the slow waves of NREM sleep. We compared slow waves in propofol to slow waves recorded during natural sleep and found that both populations of waves share similar cortical origins and preferentially propagate along the mesial components of the default network. However, propofol slow waves were spatially blurred compared to sleep slow waves and failed to effectively entrain spindle activity. Propofol also caused an increase in gamma (25-40 Hz) power that persisted throughout LOC. Source modeling analysis showed that this increase in gamma power originated from the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. During LOC, we found increased gamma functional connectivity between these regions compared to the wakefulness. Propofol anesthesia is a sleep-like state and slow waves are associated with diminished consciousness even in the presence of high gamma activity.

  13. Stability of high cell density brewery fermentations during serial repitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J; Dekoninck, Tinne M L; Van Mulders, Sebastiaan E; Saerens, Sofie M G; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2009-11-01

    The volumetric productivity of the beer fermentation process can be increased by using a higher pitching rate (i.e. higher inoculum size). However, the decreased yeast net growth observed in these high cell density brewery fermentations can adversely affect the physiological stability throughout subsequent yeast generations. Therefore, different O(2) conditions (wort aeration and yeast preoxygenation) were applied to high cell density fermentation and eight generations of fermentations were evaluated together with conventional fermentations. Freshly propagated high cell density populations adapted faster to the fermentative conditions than normal cell density populations. Preoxygenating the yeast was essential for the yeast physiological and beer flavor compound stability of high cell density fermentations during serial repitching. In contrast, the use of non-preoxygenated yeast resulted in inadequate growth which caused (1) insufficient yield of biomass to repitch all eight generations, (2) a 10% decrease in viability, (3) a moderate increase of yeast age, (4) and a dramatic increase of the unwanted flavor compounds acetaldehyde and total diacetyl during the sequence of fermentations. Therefore, to achieve sustainable high cell density fermentations throughout the economical valuable process of serial repitching, adequate yeast growth is essential.

  14. Comparison of low density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation in Lenke 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingkui; Jiang, Honghui; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Li, Ning; Wang, Lulu; Xia, Lei

    2017-08-02

    The correlation between implant density and deformity correction has not yet led to a precise conclusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low density (LD) and high density (HD) pedicle screw instrumentation in terms of the clinical, radiological and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 outcomes in Lenke 1 AIS. We retrospectively reviewed 62 consecutive Lenke 1 AIS patients who underwent posterior spinal arthrodesis using all-pedicle screw instrumentation with a minimum follow-up of 24 months. The implant density was defined as the number of screws per spinal level fused. Patients were then divided into two groups according to the average implant density for the entire study. The LD group (n = 28) had fewer than 1.61 screws per level, while the HD group (n = 34) had more than 1.61 screws per level. The radiographs were analysed preoperatively, postoperatively and at final follow-up. The perioperative and SRS-22 outcomes were also assessed. Independent sample t tests were used between the two groups. Comparisons between the two groups showed no significant differences in the correction of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphosis, blood transfusion, hospital stay, and SRS-22 scores. Compared with the HD group, there was a decreased operating time (278.4 vs. 331.0 min, p = 0.004) and decreased blood loss (823.6 vs. 1010.9 ml, p = 0.048), pedicle screws needed (15.1 vs. 19.6, p density and high density pedicle screw instrumentation achieved satisfactory deformity correction in Lenke 1 AIS patients. However, the operating time and blood loss were reduced, and the implant costs were decreased with the use of low screw density constructs.

  15. Beyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...

  16. A model of high-latitude thermospheric density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yosuke; Kosch, Michael J.; Sutton, Eric K.

    2015-09-01

    We present an empirical model of the high-latitude air density at 450 km, derived from accelerometer measurements by the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites during 2002-2006, which we call HANDY (High-Latitude Atmospheric Neutral DensitY). HANDY consists of a quiet model and disturbance model. The quiet model represents the background thermospheric density for "zero geomagnetic activity" conditions. The disturbance model represents the response of the thermospheric density to solar wind forcing at high latitudes. The solar wind inputs used are the following: (1) solar wind electric field ESW, (2) interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle CSW, and (3) solar wind dynamic pressure PSW. Both quiet and disturbance models are constructed on the basis of spherical harmonic function fitting to the data. Magnetic coordinates are used for the disturbance model, while geographical coordinates are used for the quiet model. HANDY reproduces main features of the solar wind influence on the high-latitude thermospheric density, such as the IMF By effect that produces a hemispheric asymmetry in the density distribution.

  17. The hydrogen equation of state at high densities

    CERN Document Server

    Vorberger, J; Kraeft, W -D

    2011-01-01

    We use a two-fluid model combining the quantum Green's function technique for the electrons and a classical HNC description for the ions to calculate the high-density equation of state of hydrogen. This approach allows us to describe fully ionized plasmas of any electron degeneracy and any ionic coupling strength which are important for the modeling of a variety of astrophysical objects and inertial confinement fusion targets. We have also performed density functional molecular dynamics simulations (DFT-MD) and show that the data obtained agree with our approach in the high density limit. Good agreement is also found between DFT-MD and quantum Monte Carlo simulations. The thermodynamic properties of dense hydrogen can thus be obtained for the entire density range using only calculations in the physical picture.

  18. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  19. Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells: Degradation at High Current Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knibbe, Ruth; Traulsen, Marie Lund; Hauch, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The degradation of Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-based solid oxide electrolysis cells operated at high current densities was studied. The degradation was examined at 850°C, at current densities of −1.0, −1.5, and −2.0 A/cm2, with a 50:50 (H2O:H2) gas supplied to the Ni/YSZ hydrogen electrode...

  20. High-Energy-Density Physics at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurricane, O. A.; Herrmann, M. C.

    2017-10-01

    At modern laser facilities, energy densities ranging from 1 Mbar to many hundreds of gigabars can regularly be achieved. These high-energy states of matter last for mere moments, measured in nanoseconds to tens of picoseconds, but during those times numerous high-precision instruments can be employed, revealing remarkable compressed matter physics, radiation-hydrodynamics physics, laser-matter interaction physics, and nuclear physics processes. We review the current progress of high-energy-density physics at the National Ignition Facility and describe the underlying physical principles.

  1. Mendelian Disorders of High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldoni, Federico; Sinke, Richard J.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are a highly heterogeneous and dynamic group of the smallest and densest lipoproteins present in the circulation. This review provides the current molecular insight into HDL metabolism led by articles describing mutations in genes that have a large affect on HDL

  2. Grassland Diversity Related to the Late Iron Age Human Population Density

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meelis Pärtel; Aveliina Helm; Triin Reitalu; Jaan Liira; Martin Zobel

    2007-01-01

    ...) density of human settlements (indicated by Late Iron Age fortresses and villages) due to enhancement of grassland extent and species dispersal, and negatively correlated with current human population density due to habitat loss and deterioration...

  3. Effects of High-Density Impacts on Shielding Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are shielded from micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts to meet requirements for crew safety and/or mission success. In the past, orbital debris particles have been considered to be composed entirely of aluminum (medium-density material) for the purposes of MMOD shielding design and verification. Meteoroids have been considered to be low-density porous materials, with an average density of 1 g/cu cm. Recently, NASA released a new orbital debris environment model, referred to as ORDEM 3.0, that indicates orbital debris contains a substantial fraction of high-density material for which steel is used in MMOD risk assessments [Ref.1]. Similarly, an update to the meteoroid environment model is also under consideration to include a high-density component of that environment. This paper provides results of hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations on typical spacecraft MMOD shields using steel projectiles. It was found that previous ballistic limit equations (BLEs) that define the protection capability of the MMOD shields did not predict the results from the steel impact tests and hydrocode simulations (typically, the predictions from these equations were too optimistic). The ballistic limit equations required updates to more accurately represent shield protection capability from the range of densities in the orbital debris environment. Ballistic limit equations were derived from the results of the work and are provided in the paper.

  4. High density data storage principle, technology, and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Daoben

    2009-01-01

    The explosive increase in information and the miniaturization of electronic devices demand new recording technologies and materials that combine high density, fast response, long retention time and rewriting capability. As predicted, the current silicon-based computer circuits are reaching their physical limits. Further miniaturization of the electronic components and increase in data storage density are vital for the next generation of IT equipment such as ultra high-speed mobile computing, communication devices and sophisticated sensors. This original book presents a comprehensive introduction to the significant research achievements on high-density data storage from the aspects of recording mechanisms, materials and fabrication technologies, which are promising for overcoming the physical limits of current data storage systems. The book serves as an useful guide for the development of optimized materials, technologies and device structures for future information storage, and will lead readers to the fascin...

  5. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health

  6. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Dale

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Results Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. Conclusions A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides

  7. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Joel; Sarter, Barbara; Glaser, Dale; Acocella, Steve

    2010-11-07

    People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrient diet. Participants completed a survey rating various dimensions of hunger (physical symptoms, emotional symptoms, and location) when on their previous usual diet versus the high micronutrient density diet. Statistical analysis was conducted using non-parametric tests. Highly significant differences were found between the two diets in relation to all physical and emotional symptoms as well as the location of hunger. Hunger was not an unpleasant experience while on the high nutrient density diet, was well tolerated and occurred with less frequency even when meals were skipped. Nearly 80% of respondents reported that their experience of hunger had changed since starting the high nutrient density diet, with 51% reporting a dramatic or complete change in their experience of hunger. A high micronutrient density diet mitigates the unpleasant aspects of the experience of hunger even though it is lower in calories. Hunger is one of the major impediments to successful weight loss. Our findings suggest that it is not simply the caloric content, but more importantly, the micronutrient density of a diet that influences the experience of hunger. It appears that a high nutrient density diet, after an initial phase of adjustment during which a person experiences "toxic hunger" due to withdrawal from pro-inflammatory foods, can result in a sustainable eating pattern that leads to weight loss and improved health. A high nutrient density diet provides benefits for long-term health as well as weight loss. Because our

  8. Frontiers for Discovery in High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, R. C.; Katsouleas, T.; Arons, J.; Baring, M.; Deeney, C.; Di Mauro, L.; Ditmire, T.; Falcone, R.; Hammer, D.; Hill, W.; Jacak, B.; Joshi, C.; Lamb, F.; Lee, R.; Logan, B. G.; Melissinos, A.; Meyerhofer, D.; Mori, W.; Murnane, M.; Remington, B.; Rosner, R.; Schneider, D.; Silvera, I.; Stone, J.; Wilde, B.; Zajc. W.

    2004-07-20

    The report is intended to identify the compelling research opportunities of high intellectual value in high energy density physics. The opportunities for discovery include the broad scope of this highly interdisciplinary field that spans a wide range of physics areas including plasma physics, laser and particle beam physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, atomic and molecular physics, materials science and condensed matter physics, intense radiation-matter interaction physics, fluid dynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics

  9. High Density Observation of Tids at White Sands, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, E. V.; Colman, J. J.; McNamara, L. F.; Emmons, D. J., II

    2014-12-01

    In January, 2014, the IARPA High Frequency Geolocation program ran a week long experiment with high frequency (HF) instruments densely deployed over White Sands, New Mexico. The experiment yielded several observations of large-scale and medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) with high spatial and temporal density. We present initial observations of the mid-latitude TIDs to help understand their spatial and temporal properties better.

  10. A safe, high-power-density lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, F.

    1985-03-01

    The Li/SOCl2 battery has received attention because of its high theoretical energy/power density. However, practical Li/SOCl2 cells have not provided the desired power density and have suffered from concerns with cell safety on discharge. In previous work, ECO has shown that the use of a TAA-type catalyst significantly improves the safety of the Li/S0Cl2 cell at high rate. The objective of this Phase 1 program was to determine whether a stacked disk electrode configuration with TAA-catalyzed cathodes would meet a high power-density design goal. Under the program, the effects of cathode thickness, preparation pressure, electrolyte gap and solute concentration on stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity were measured. The results of the Phase 1 program included the demonstration of stacked-electrode cell performance and capacity at levels suitable to meet a design goal of 400 W/kg with high energy density. Further work in a Phase 2 program will be required to demonstrate in laser-sealed fully-packaged cells that the results of Phase 1 can be practically applied to provide a safe high-rate, energy-dense power source for military applications.

  11. Study of Volumetrically Heated Ultra-High Energy Density Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, Jorge J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-10-27

    Heating dense matter to millions of degrees is important for applications, but requires complex and expensive methods. The major goal of the project was to demonstrate using a compact laser the creation of a new ultra-high energy density plasma regime characterized by simultaneous extremely high temperature and high density, and to study it combining experimental measurements and advanced simulations. We have demonstrated that trapping of intense femtosecond laser pulses deep within ordered nanowire arrays can heat near solid density matter into a new ultra hot plasma regime. Extreme electron densities, and temperatures of several tens of million degrees were achieved using laser pulses of only 0.5 J energy from a compact laser. Our x-ray spectra and simulations showed that extremely highly ionized plasma volumes several micrometers in depth are generated by irradiation of gold and Nickel nanowire arrays with femtosecond laser pulses of relativistic intensities. We obtained extraordinarily high degrees of ionization (e.g. we peeled 52 electrons from gold atoms, and up to 26 electrons from nickel atoms). In the process we generated Gigabar pressures only exceeded in the central hot spot of highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas.. The plasma created after the dissolved wires expand, collide, and thermalize, is computed to have a thermal energy density of 0.3 GJ cm-3 and a pressure of 1-2 Gigabar. These are pressures only exceeded in highly compressed thermonuclear fusion plasmas. Scaling these results to higher laser intensities promises to create plasmas with temperatures and pressures exceeding those in the center of the sun.

  12. High-density waveguide superlattices with low crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weiwei; Gatdula, Robert; Abbaslou, Siamak; Lu, Ming; Stein, Aaron; Lai, Warren Y.-C.; Provine, J.; Pease, R. Fabian W.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Silicon photonics holds great promise for low-cost large-scale photonic integration. In its future development, integration density will play an ever-increasing role in a way similar to that witnessed in integrated circuits. Waveguides are perhaps the most ubiquitous component in silicon photonics. As such, the density of waveguide elements is expected to have a crucial influence on the integration density of a silicon photonic chip. A solution to high-density waveguide integration with minimal impact on other performance metrics such as crosstalk remains a vital issue in many applications. Here, we propose a waveguide superlattice and demonstrate advanced superlattice design concepts such as interlacing-recombination that enable high-density waveguide integration at a half-wavelength pitch with low crosstalk. Such waveguide superlattices can potentially lead to significant reduction in on-chip estate for waveguide elements and salient enhancement of performance for important applications, opening up possibilities for half-wavelength-pitch optical-phased arrays and ultra-dense space-division multiplexing.

  13. High-Density Nanosharp Microstructures Enable Efficient CO2 Electroreduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi Safaei, Tina; Mepham, Adam; Zheng, Xueli; Pang, Yuanjie; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Liu, Min; Sinton, David; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-11-09

    Conversion of CO2 to CO powered by renewable electricity not only reduces CO2 pollution but also is a means to store renewable energy via chemical production of fuels from CO. However, the kinetics of this reaction are slow due its large energetic barrier. We have recently reported CO2 reduction that is considerably enhanced via local electric field concentration at the tips of sharp gold nanostructures. The high local electric field enhances CO2 concentration at the catalytic active sites, lowering the activation barrier. Here we engineer the nucleation and growth of next-generation Au nanostructures. The electroplating overpotential was manipulated to generate an appreciably increased density of honed nanoneedles. Using this approach, we report the first application of sequential electrodeposition to increase the density of sharp tips in CO2 electroreduction. Selective regions of the primary nanoneedles are passivated using a thiol SAM (self-assembled monolayer), and then growth is concentrated atop the uncovered high-energy planes, providing new nucleation sites that ultimately lead to an increase in the density of the nanosharp structures. The two-step process leads to a new record in CO2 to CO reduction, with a geometric current density of 38 mA/cm2 at -0.4 V (vs reversible hydrogen electrode), and a 15-fold improvement over the best prior reports of electrochemical surface area (ECSA) normalized current density.

  14. A high energy density relaxor antiferroelectric pulsed capacitor dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul; Lynch, Christopher S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    Pulsed capacitors require high energy density and low loss, properties that can be realized through selection of composition. Ceramic (Pb{sub 0.88}La{sub 0.08})(Zr{sub 0.91}Ti{sub 0.09})O{sub 3} was found to be an ideal candidate. La{sup 3+} doping and excess PbO were used to produce relaxor antiferroelectric behavior with slim and slanted hysteresis loops to reduce the dielectric hysteresis loss, to increase the dielectric strength, and to increase the discharge energy density. The discharge energy density of this composition was found to be 3.04 J/cm{sup 3} with applied electric field of 170 kV/cm, and the energy efficiency, defined as the ratio of the discharge energy density to the charging energy density, was 0.920. This high efficiency reduces the heat generated under cyclic loading and improves the reliability. The properties were observed to degrade some with temperature increase above 80 °C. Repeated electric field cycles up to 10 000 cycles were applied to the specimen with no observed performance degradation.

  15. Interfacial stick–slip transition in hydroxyapatite filled high density ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of filler addition and temperature on the stick–slip transition in high density polyethylene melt was studied. Results showed that shear stresses corresponding to stick–slip transition increases with the addition of filler. Increase in temperature also increases the shear stresses for stick–slip transition. The features of the ...

  16. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haast, M.A.M.

    This thesis describes the results of a research project in the field of high bit-density data-storage media. More specifically, the material aspects of the novel recording technique using patterned media have been studied. The aim of the work was the design, realization and characterization of such

  17. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the usefulness of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. Methods: This is a prospective case-control study involving 109 diabetics, 98 diabetic hypertensives, 102 ...

  18. Design for a High Energy Density Kelvin-Helmholtz Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurricane, O A

    2007-10-29

    While many high energy density physics (HEDP) Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability experiments have been fielded as part of basic HEDP and astrophysics studies, not one HEDP Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) experiment has been successfully performed. Herein, a design for a novel HEDP x-ray driven KH experiment is presented along with supporting radiation-hydrodynamic simulation and theory.

  19. High and low density development in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    William A. Gould; Sebastian Martinuzzi; Olga M. Ramos Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the distribution of high and low density developed lands in Puerto Rico (Martinuzzi et al. 2007). The map was created using a mosaic of Landsat ETM+ images that range from the years 2000 to 2003. The developed land cover was classified using the Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Technique (ISODATA) unsupervised classification (ERDAS 2003)....

  20. Sparse deconvolution of high-density super-resolution images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hugelier (Siewert); J.J. de Rooi (Johan); R. Bernex (Romain); S. Duwé (Sam); O. Devos (Olivier); M. Sliwa (Michel); P. Dedecker (Peter); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); C. Ruckebusch (Cyril)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn wide-field super-resolution microscopy, investigating the nanoscale structure of cellular processes, and resolving fast dynamics and morphological changes in cells requires algorithms capable of working with a high-density of emissive fluorophores. Current deconvolution algorithms

  1. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, Alexandra; Koster, Sander; Hogen-Koster, S.; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; van den Berg, Albert; Lucklum, F.; Verpoorte, E.; de Rooij, Nico F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-µm-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a micromachined

  2. A high current density DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homsy, A; Koster, Sander; Eijkel, JCT; van den Berg, A; Lucklum, F; Verpoorte, E; de Rooij, NF

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the working principle of a DC magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump that can be operated at high DC current densities (J) in 75-mu m-deep microfluidic channels without introducing gas bubbles into the pumping channel. The main design feature for current generation is a

  3. Increased Antioxidant Quality Versus Lower Quantity Of High Density Lipoprotein In Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Ozgur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of every human disease. To understand its possible role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, we measured the overall oxidative status of patients with BPH and the serum activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL-related antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase 1 (PON1 and arylesterase (ARE.

  4. Extreme states of matter high energy density physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2016-01-01

    With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams,electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets, and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures.Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics, and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.

  5. Biomimetic High-Density Lipoproteins from a Gold Nanoparticle Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthi, Andrea Jane

    For hundreds of years the field of chemistry has looked to nature for inspiration and insight to develop novel solutions for the treatment of human diseases. The ability of chemists to identify, mimic, and modifiy small molecules found in nature has led to the discovery and development of many important therapeutics. Chemistry on the nanoscale has made it possible to mimic natural, macromolecular structures that may also be useful for understanding and treating diseases. One example of such a structure is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The goal of this work is to use a gold nanoparticle (Au NP) as a template to synthesize functional mimics of HDL and characterize their structure and function. Chapter 1 details the structure and function of natural HDL and how chemistry on the nanoscale provides new strategies for mimicking HDL. This Chapter also describes the first examples of using nanoparticles to mimic HDL. Chapter 2 reports the synthesis and characterization of biomimetic HDL using different sizes of Au NPs and different surface chemistries and how these variables can be used to tailor the properties of biomimetic HDL. From these studies the optimal strategy for synthesizing biomimetic HDL was determined. In Chapter 3, the optimization of the synthesis of biomimetic HDL is discussed as well as a full characterization of its structure. In addition, the work in this chapter shows that biomimetic HDL can be synthesized on a large scale without alterations to its structure or function. Chapter 4 focuses on understanding the pathways by which biomimetic HDL accepts cholesterol from macrophage cells. The results of these studies demonstrate that biomimetic HDL is able to accept cholesterol by both active and passive pathways of cholesterol efflux. In Chapter 5 the preliminary results of in vivo studies to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biomimetic HDL are presented. These studies suggest that biomimetic HDL traffics through tissues prone to

  6. High density transcriptional mapping of chromosome 21 by hybridization selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassone, F.; Wade, H.; Gardiner, K. [Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, Denver, CO (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A transcriptional map of human chromosome 21 is important for the study of Down syndrome, development processes and genome organization. To construct a high density transcriptional map, the technique of cDNA hybrid selection is being applied to a minimal tiling path of YAC clones that span 21q. The cDNA used for selection represents a complex pool of sequences obtained from a variety of fetal and adult tissues and cell lines. Approximately 70-80 YAC clones are sufficient to span 21q; each is individually processed through the selection procedure to obtain a YAC-specific {open_quotes}selected cDNA library{close_quotes}. Survey analysis of each library includes determination of levels of ribosomal contamination, verification of enrichment of control genes, identification of a preliminary number of novel unique sequences, and verification that novel sequences map to the correct YAC and chromosomal regions. This analysis has been completed for 19 YACs that together comprise approximately 10 Mb of non-overlapping DNA, 25% of the long arm. Ribosomal cDNA contamination is low (<10%) and all known genes of appropriate tissue specificity of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries of expression have been recovered, as well as new genes from each YAC. Libraries from 8 of these YACs are now being subjected to exhaustive analysis to identify all novel genes contained within them and to obtain complete cDNAs and expression analysis for each. Not all regions of the chromosome, however, are equally amenable to these analyses. Selected cDNA libraries from the centromeric YACs are yielding apparently novel genes, but confirmation of map position is problematic. Also of interest is a region of several megabases within the Giemsa dark band, 21q21. Selected cDNA libraries from these YACs so far have yielded no novel genes and support the idea of a genuinely very gene-poor region.

  7. Changing perceptions of hunger on a high nutrient density diet

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser Dale; Sarter Barbara; Fuhrman Joel; Acocella Steve

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background People overeat because their hunger directs them to consume more calories than they require. The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in experience and perception of hunger before and after participants shifted from their previous usual diet to a high nutrient density diet. Methods This was a descriptive study conducted with 768 participants primarily living in the United States who had changed their dietary habits from a low micronutrient to a high micronutrie...

  8. High Points of Human Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Curt

    1975-01-01

    Discusses such high points of human genetics as the study of chromosomes, somatic cell hybrids, the population formula: the Hardy-Weinberg Law, biochemical genetics, the single-active X Theory, behavioral genetics and finally how genetics can serve humanity. (BR)

  9. High-Sensitivity Measurement of Density by Magnetic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemiroski, Alex; Kumar, A A; Soh, Siowling; Harburg, Daniel V; Yu, Hai-Dong; Whitesides, George M

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents methods that use Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) to measure very small differences in density of solid diamagnetic objects suspended in a paramagnetic medium. Previous work in this field has shown that, while it is a convenient method, standard MagLev (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are parallel) cannot resolve differences in density mm) because (i) objects close in density prevent each other from reaching an equilibrium height due to hard contact and excluded volume, and (ii) using weaker magnets or reducing the magnetic susceptibility of the medium destabilizes the magnetic trap. The present work investigates the use of weak magnetic gradients parallel to the faces of the magnets as a means of increasing the sensitivity of MagLev without destabilization. Configuring the MagLev device in a rotated state (i.e., where the direction of magnetization and gravitational force are perpendicular) relative to the standard configuration enables simple measurements along the axes with the highest sensitivity to changes in density. Manipulating the distance of separation between the magnets or the lengths of the magnets (along the axis of measurement) enables the sensitivity to be tuned. These modifications enable an improvement in the resolution up to 100-fold over the standard configuration, and measurements with resolution down to 10(-6) g/cm(3). Three examples of characterizing the small differences in density among samples of materials having ostensibly indistinguishable densities-Nylon spheres, PMMA spheres, and drug spheres-demonstrate the applicability of rotated Maglev to measuring the density of small (0.1-1 mm) objects with high sensitivity. This capability will be useful in materials science, separations, and quality control of manufactured objects.

  10. Rf Gun with High-Current Density Field Emission Cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2005-12-19

    High current-density field emission from an array of carbon nanotubes, with field-emission-transistor control, and with secondary electron channel multiplication in a ceramic facing structure, have been combined in a cold cathode for rf guns and diode guns. Electrodynamic and space-charge flow simulations were conducted to specify the cathode configuration and range of emission current density from the field emission cold cathode. Design of this cathode has been made for installation and testing in an existing S-band 2-1/2 cell rf gun. With emission control and modulation, and with current density in the range of 0.1-1 kA/cm2, this cathode could provide performance and long-life not enjoyed by other currently-available cathodes

  11. High density plasmas formation in Inertial Confinement Fusion and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Val, J. M.; Minguez, E.; Velarde, P.; Perlado, J. M.; Velarde, G.; Bravo, E.; Eliezer, S.; Florido, R.; Garcia Rubiano, J.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Gil de la Fe, J. M.; Leon, P. T.; Martel, P.; Ogando, F.; Piera, M.; Relano, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Garcia, C.; Gonzalez, E.; Lachaise, M.; Oliva, E.

    2005-07-01

    In inertially confined fusion (ICF), high densities are required to obtain high gains. In Fast Ignition, a high density, low temperature plasma can be obtained during the compression. If the final temperature reached is low enough, the electrons of the plasma can be degenerate. In degenerate plasmas. Bremsstrahlung emission is strongly suppressed an ignition temperature becomes lower than in classical plasmas, which offers a new design window for ICF. The main difficulty of degenerate plasmas in the compression energy needed for high densities. Besides that, the low specific heat of degenerate electrons (as compared to classical values) is also a problem because of the rapid heating of the plasma. Fluid dynamic evolution of supernovae remnants is a very interesting problem in order to predict the thermodynamical conditions achieved in their collision regions. Those conditions have a strong influence in the emission of light and therefore the detection of such events. A laboratory scale system has been designed reproducing the fluid dynamic field in high energy experiments. The evolution of the laboratory system has been calculated with ARWEN code, 2D Radiation CFD that works with Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Results are compared with simulations on the original system obtained with a 3D SPH astrophysical code. New phenomena at the collision plane and scaling of the laboratory magnitudes will be described. Atomic physics for high density plasmas has been studied with participation in experiments to obtain laser produced high density plasmas under NLTE conditions, carried out at LULI. A code, ATOM3R, has been developed which solves rate equations for optically thin plasmas as well as for homogeneous optically thick plasmas making use of escape factors. New improvements in ATOM3R are been done to calculate level populations and opacities for non homogeneous thick plasmas in NLTE, with emphasis in He and H lines for high density plasma diagnosis. Analytical expression

  12. Neural network based feed-forward high density associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, T.; Moopenn, A.; Lamb, J. L.; Ramesham, R.; Thakoor, A. P.

    1987-01-01

    A novel thin film approach to neural-network-based high-density associative memory is described. The information is stored locally in a memory matrix of passive, nonvolatile, binary connection elements with a potential to achieve a storage density of 10 to the 9th bits/sq cm. Microswitches based on memory switching in thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon, and alternatively in manganese oxide, have been used as programmable read-only memory elements. Low-energy switching has been ascertained in both these materials. Fabrication and testing of memory matrix is described. High-speed associative recall approaching 10 to the 7th bits/sec and high storage capacity in such a connection matrix memory system is also described.

  13. Characterization of the high density plasma etching process of CCTO thin films for the fabrication of very high density capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamore, C; Tringali, C; Sparta' , N; Marco, S Di; Grasso, A; Ravesi, S [STMicroelectronics, Industial and Multi-segment Sector R and D, Catania (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    In this work the feasibility of CCTO (Calcium Copper Titanate) patterning by etching process is demonstrated and fully characterized in a hard to etch materials etcher. CCTO sintered in powder shows a giant relative dielectric constant (10{sup 5}) measured at 1 MHz at room temperature. This feature is furthermore coupled with stability from 10{sup 1} Hz to 10{sup 6} Hz in a wide temperature range (100K - 600K). In principle, this property can allow to fabricate very high capacitance density condenser. Due to its perovskite multi-component structure, CCTO can be considered a hard to etch material. For high density capacitor fabrication, CCTO anisotropic etching is requested by using high density plasma. The behavior of etched CCTO was studied in a HRe- (High Density Reflected electron) plasma etcher using Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry. The relationship between the etch rate and the Cl{sub 2}/Ar ratio was also studied. The effects of RF MHz, KHz Power and pressure variation, the impact of HBr addiction to the Cl{sub 2}/Ar chemistry on the CCTO etch rate and on its selectivity to Pt and photo resist was investigated.

  14. High-density housing that works for all

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Arif

    2010-03-15

    In an urbanising world, the way people fit into cities is vastly important - socially, economically, environmentally, even psychologically. So density, or the number of people living in a given area, is central to urban design and planning. Both governments and markets tend to get density wrong, leading to overcrowding, urban sprawl or often both. A case in point are the high-rise buildings springing up throughtout urban Asia - perceived as key features of that widely touted concept, the 'world-class city'. While some may offer a viable solution to land pressures and density requirements, many built to house evicted or resettled 'slum' dwellers are a social and economic nightmare - inconveniently sited, overcrowded and costly. New evidence from Karachi, Pakistan, reveals a real alternative. Poor people can create liveable high-density settlements as long as community control, the right technical assistance and flexible designs are in place. A city is surely 'world-class' only when it is cosmopolitan – built to serve all, including the poorest.

  15. High Energy Density Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems for Terrestrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.

    1999-01-01

    Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) technology for energy storage has been a NASA power system concept for many years. Compared to battery-based energy storage systems, RFCS has received relatively little attention or resources for development because the energy density and electrical efficiency were not sufficiently attractive relative to advanced battery systems. Even today, RFCS remains at a very low technology readiness level (TRL of about 2 indicating feasibility has been demonstrated). Commercial development of the Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells for automobiles and other terrestrial applications and improvements in lightweight pressure vessel design to reduce weight and improve performance make possible a high energy density RFCS energy storage system. The results from this study of a lightweight RFCS energy storage system for a remotely piloted, solar-powered, high altitude aircraft indicate an energy density up to 790 w-h/kg with electrical efficiency of 53.4% is attainable. Such an energy storage system would allow a solar-powered aircraft to carry hundreds of kilograms of payload and remain in flight indefinitely for use in atmospheric research, earth observation, resource mapping. and telecommunications. Future developments in the areas of hydrogen and oxygen storage, pressure vessel design, higher temperature and higher- pressure fuel cell operation, unitized regenerative fuel cells, and commercial development of fuel cell technology will improve both the energy density and electrical efficiency of the RFCS.

  16. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an “oxygen depletion design” whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we have developed a novel single-layer fuel cell with good performance (2 μW cm−2) and stability that can be integrated directly as a coating layer on large implantable devices, or stacked to obtain a high volumetric power density (over 16 μW cm−3). This represents the first demonstration of a low volume non-enzymatic fuel cell stack with high power density, greatly increasing the range of applications for non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells. PMID:23390576

  17. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Du

    Full Text Available Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  18. Multiplexed, high density electrophysiology with nanofabricated neural probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiangang; Blanche, Timothy J; Harrison, Reid R; Lester, Henry A; Masmanidis, Sotiris C

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular electrode arrays can reveal the neuronal network correlates of behavior with single-cell, single-spike, and sub-millisecond resolution. However, implantable electrodes are inherently invasive, and efforts to scale up the number and density of recording sites must compromise on device size in order to connect the electrodes. Here, we report on silicon-based neural probes employing nanofabricated, high-density electrical leads. Furthermore, we address the challenge of reading out multichannel data with an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performing signal amplification, band-pass filtering, and multiplexing functions. We demonstrate high spatial resolution extracellular measurements with a fully integrated, low noise 64-channel system weighing just 330 mg. The on-chip multiplexers make possible recordings with substantially fewer external wires than the number of input channels. By combining nanofabricated probes with ASICs we have implemented a system for performing large-scale, high-density electrophysiology in small, freely behaving animals that is both minimally invasive and highly scalable.

  19. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Elshenawy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using cold iso-static pressing technique, which exhibited relatively high density and high burning rate thermite mixture. The produced green product compacted powder mixture was tested against small caliber shaped charge bomblet for neutralization. Theoretical and experimental results showed that the prepared thermite mixture containing 33% of aluminum as a fuel with ferric oxide can be successfully used for shaped charge ordnance disposal.

  20. A Coupled Plasma-Sheath Model for High Density Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2000-01-01

    High density, low pressure plasmas are used for etching and deposition in microelectronics fabrication processes. The process characteristics are strongly determined by the ion energy distribution (IED) and the ion flux arriving at the substrate that are responsible for desorption of etch products and neutral dissociation at the surface. The ion flux and energy are determined by a self- consistent modeling of the bulk plasma, where the ions and the neutral radicals are produced, and the sheath, where the ions are accelerated. Due to their widely different time scales, it is a formidable task to self-consistently resolve non-collisional sheath in a high density bulk plasma model. In this work, we first describe a coupled plasma-sheath model that attempts to resolve the non-collisional sheath in a reactor scale model. Second, we propose a semianalytical radio frequency (RF) sheath model to improve ion dynamics.

  1. Lithium-Based High Energy Density Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention implement a lithium-based high energy density flow battery. In one embodiment, a lithium-based high energy density flow battery includes a first anodic conductive solution that includes a lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex dissolved in a solvent, a second cathodic conductive solution that includes a cathodic complex dissolved in a solvent, a solid lithium ion conductor disposed so as to separate the first solution from the second solution, such that the first conductive solution, the second conductive solution, and the solid lithium ionic conductor define a circuit, where when the circuit is closed, lithium from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex in the first conductive solution dissociates from the lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon complex, migrates through the solid lithium ionic conductor, and associates with the cathodic complex of the second conductive solution, and a current is generated.

  2. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.

    1991-10-01

    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. High-density quantum sensing with dissipative first order transitions

    OpenAIRE

    Raghunandan, Meghana; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Weimer, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The sensing of external fields using quantum systems is a prime example of an emergent quantum technology. Generically, the sensitivity of a quantum sensor consisting of $N$ independent particles is proportional to $\\sqrt{N}$. However, interactions invariably occuring at high densities lead to a breakdown of the assumption of independence between the particles, posing a severe challenge for quantum sensors operating at the nanoscale. Here, we show that interactions in quantum sensors can be t...

  4. Bottomside Ionospheric Electron Density Specification using Passive High Frequency Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, S. R.; Cosgrove, R. B.; Mackay, C.; Varney, R. H.; Kendall, E. A.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical bottomside electron density profile is influenced by a variety of natural sources, most especially traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). These disturbances cause plasma to be moved up or down along the local geomagnetic field and can strongly impact the propagation of high frequency radio waves. While the basic physics of these perturbations has been well studied, practical bottomside models are not well developed. We present initial results from an assimilative bottomside ionosphere model. This model uses empirical orthogonal functions based on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to develop a vertical electron density profile, and features a builtin HF ray tracing function. This parameterized model is then perturbed to model electron density perturbations associated with TIDs or ionospheric gradients. Using the ray tracing feature, the model assimilates angle of arrival measurements from passive HF transmitters. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the model using angle of arrival data. Modeling results of bottomside electron density specification are compared against suitable ancillary observations to quantify accuracy of our model.

  5. High energy density Z-pinch plasmas using flow stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumlak, U., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Golingo, R. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Nelson, B. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Bowers, C. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Doty, S. A., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Forbes, E. G., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Hughes, M. C., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Kim, B., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Knecht, S. D., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lambert, K. K., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Lowrie, W., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Ross, M. P., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu; Weed, J. R., E-mail: shumlak@uw.edu [Aerospace and Energetics Research Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195-2250 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The ZaP Flow Z-Pinch research project[1] at the University of Washington investigates the effect of sheared flows on MHD instabilities. Axially flowing Z-pinch plasmas are produced that are 100 cm long with a 1 cm radius. The plasma remains quiescent for many radial Alfvén times and axial flow times. The quiescent periods are characterized by low magnetic mode activity measured at several locations along the plasma column and by stationary visible plasma emission. Plasma evolution is modeled with high-resolution simulation codes – Mach2, WARPX, NIMROD, and HiFi. Plasma flow profiles are experimentally measured with a multi-chord ion Doppler spectrometer. A sheared flow profile is observed to be coincident with the quiescent period, and is consistent with classical plasma viscosity. Equilibrium is determined by diagnostic measurements: interferometry for density; spectroscopy for ion temperature, plasma flow, and density[2]; Thomson scattering for electron temperature; Zeeman splitting for internal magnetic field measurements[3]; and fast framing photography for global structure. Wall stabilization has been investigated computationally and experimentally by removing 70% of the surrounding conducting wall to demonstrate no change in stability behavior.[4] Experimental evidence suggests that the plasma lifetime is only limited by plasma supply and current waveform. The flow Z-pinch concept provides an approach to achieve high energy density plasmas,[5] which are large, easy to diagnose, and persist for extended durations. A new experiment, ZaP-HD, has been built to investigate this approach by separating the flow Z-pinch formation from the radial compression using a triaxial-electrode configuration. This innovation allows more detailed investigations of the sheared flow stabilizing effect, and it allows compression to much higher densities than previously achieved on ZaP by reducing the linear density and increasing the pinch current. Experimental results and

  6. Extra-metabolic energy use and the rise in human hyper-density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joseph R.; Weinberger, Vanessa P.; Marquet, Pablo A.

    2017-03-01

    Humans, like all organisms, are subject to fundamental biophysical laws. Van Valen predicted that, because of zero-sum dynamics, all populations of all species in a given environment flux the same amount of energy on average. Damuth’s ’energetic equivalence rule’ supported Van Valen´s conjecture by showing a tradeoff between few big animals per area with high individual metabolic rates compared to abundant small species with low energy requirements. We use metabolic scaling theory to compare variation in densities and individual energy use in human societies to other land mammals. We show that hunter-gatherers occurred at densities lower than the average for a mammal of our size. Most modern humans, in contrast, concentrate in large cities at densities up to four orders of magnitude greater than hunter-gatherers, yet consume up to two orders of magnitude more energy per capita. Today, cities across the globe flux greater energy than net primary productivity on a per area basis. This is possible by importing enormous amounts of energy and materials required to sustain hyper-dense, modern humans. The metabolic rift with nature created by modern cities fueled largely by fossil energy poses formidable challenges for establishing a sustainable relationship on a rapidly urbanizing, yet finite planet.

  7. High-density cervical ureaplasma urealyticum colonization in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U

  8. High Density Thermal Energy Storage with Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi, Gani B.; Wirz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to storing thermal energy with supercritical fluids is being investigated, which if successful, promises to transform the way thermal energy is captured and utilized. The use of supercritical fluids allows cost-affordable high-density storage with a combination of latent heat and sensible heat in the two-phase as well as the supercritical state. This technology will enhance penetration of several thermal power generation applications and high temperature water for commercial use if the overall cost of the technology can be demonstrated to be lower than the current state-of-the-art molten salt using sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate eutectic mixtures.

  9. Roles of Spatial Scale and Rarity on the Relationship between Butterfly Species Richness and Human Density in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecenero, Silvia; Altwegg, Res; Colville, Jonathan F; Beale, Colin M

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife and humans tend to prefer the same productive environments, yet high human densities often lead to reduced biodiversity. Species richness is often positively correlated with human population density at broad scales, but this correlation could also be caused by unequal sampling effort leading to higher species tallies in areas of dense human activity. We examined the relationships between butterfly species richness and human population density at five spatial resolutions ranging from 2' to 60' across South Africa. We used atlas-type data and spatial interpolation techniques aimed at reducing the effect of unequal spatial sampling. Our results confirm the general positive correlation between total species richness and human population density. Contrary to our expectations, the strength of this positive correlation did not weaken at finer spatial resolutions. The patterns observed using total species richness were driven mostly by common species. The richness of threatened and restricted range species was not correlated to human population density. None of the correlations we examined were particularly strong, with much unexplained variance remaining, suggesting that the overlap between butterflies and humans is not strong compared to other factors not accounted for in our analyses. Special consideration needs to be made regarding conservation goals and variables used when investigating the overlap between species and humans for biodiversity conservation.

  10. Roles of Spatial Scale and Rarity on the Relationship between Butterfly Species Richness and Human Density in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Mecenero

    Full Text Available Wildlife and humans tend to prefer the same productive environments, yet high human densities often lead to reduced biodiversity. Species richness is often positively correlated with human population density at broad scales, but this correlation could also be caused by unequal sampling effort leading to higher species tallies in areas of dense human activity. We examined the relationships between butterfly species richness and human population density at five spatial resolutions ranging from 2' to 60' across South Africa. We used atlas-type data and spatial interpolation techniques aimed at reducing the effect of unequal spatial sampling. Our results confirm the general positive correlation between total species richness and human population density. Contrary to our expectations, the strength of this positive correlation did not weaken at finer spatial resolutions. The patterns observed using total species richness were driven mostly by common species. The richness of threatened and restricted range species was not correlated to human population density. None of the correlations we examined were particularly strong, with much unexplained variance remaining, suggesting that the overlap between butterflies and humans is not strong compared to other factors not accounted for in our analyses. Special consideration needs to be made regarding conservation goals and variables used when investigating the overlap between species and humans for biodiversity conservation.

  11. Effect of apolipoprotein M on high density lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knock-out mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Jauhiainen, Matti; Moser, Markus

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the role of apoM in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and atherogenesis, we generated human apoM transgenic (apoM-Tg) and apoM-deficient (apoM(-/-)) mice. Plasma apoM was predominantly associated with 10-12-nm alpha-migrating HDL particles. Human apoM overexpression (11-fold...... of alpha- to pre-alpha-migrating HDL was delayed in apoM-Tg mice. Moreover, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase-independent generation of pre-beta-migrating apoA-I-containing particles in plasma was increased in apoM-Tg mice (4.2 +/- 1.1%, p = 0.06) and decreased in apoM(-/-) mice (0.5 +/- 0.3%, p = 0.......03) versus controls (1.8 +/- 0.05%). In the setting of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency, apoM-Tg mice with approximately 2-fold increased plasma apoM concentrations developed smaller atherosclerotic lesions than controls. The effect of apoM on atherosclerosis may be facilitated by enzymatic...

  12. High power density proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Oliver J.; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Manko, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells use a perfluorosulfonic acid solid polymer film as an electrolyte which simplifies water and electrolyte management. Their thin electrolyte layers give efficient systems of low weight, and their materials of construction show extremely long laboratory lifetimes. Their high reliability and their suitability for use in a microgravity environment makes them particularly attractive as a substitute for batteries in satellites utilizing high-power, high energy-density electrochemical energy storage systems. In this investigation, the Dow experimental PEM (XUS-13204.10) and unsupported high platinum loading electrodes yielded very high power densities, of the order of 2.5 W cm(exp -2). A platinum black loading of 5 mg per cm(exp 2) was found to be optimum. On extending the three-dimensional reaction zone of fuel cell electrodes by impregnating solid polymer electrolyte into the electrode structures, Nafion was found to give better performance than the Dow experimental PEM. The depth of penetration of the solid polymer electrolyte into electrode structures was 50-70 percent of the thickness of the platinum-catalyzed active layer. However, the degree of platinum utilization was only 16.6 percent and the roughness factor of a typical electrode was 274.

  13. Anatomical traits related to stress in high density populations of Typha angustifolia L. (Typhaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract Some macrophytes species show a high growth potential, colonizing large areas on aquatic environments. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L. uncontrolled growth causes several problems to human activities and local biodiversity, but this also may lead to competition and further problems for this species itself. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate anatomical modifications on T. angustifolia plants from different population densities, once it can help to understand its biology. Roots and leaves were collected from natural populations growing under high and low densities. These plant materials were fixed and submitted to usual plant microtechnique procedures. Slides were observed and photographed under light microscopy and images were analyzed in the UTHSCSA-Imagetool software. The experimental design was completely randomized with two treatments and ten replicates, data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Scott-Knott test at p<0.05. Leaves from low density populations showed higher stomatal density and index. These modifications on stomatal characteristics were more evident on the leaf abaxial surface. Plants from low density populations showed thicker mesophyll and higher proportion of aerenchymal area. Roots from low density populations showed a higher proportion of the vascular cylinder. Whereas, plants from higher density populations showed greater thickness of the endodermis, exodermis, phloem and root cortex. Higher density populations showed a higher proportion of aerenchymal gaps in the root cortex. Therefore, cattail plants from populations growing under high density population show anatomical traits typical of plants under stress, which promotes the development of less functional anatomical modifications to aquatic environments.

  14. High-density recording storage system by Collinear holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Tan, Xiaodi; Aoki, Yoshio

    2006-04-01

    Collinear TM Holography, proposed and demonstrated by OPTWARE Corporation, can produce a small, practical holographic versatile disc (HVD TM) drive system more easily than conventional 2-axis holography. With Collinear TM technologies' unique configuration the optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media. As servo technology is being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and the reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the holographic material is very effective in increasing the recording density of the system. A high density data recording of Collinear TM Holography by reducing optical noise is also demonstrated.

  15. Toward Low-Cost, High-Energy Density, and High-Power Density Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Ruther, Rose E.; AN, Seong Jin; David, Lamuel Abraham; Hays, Kevin; Wood, Marissa; Phillip, Nathan D.; Sheng, Yangping; Mao, Chengyu; Kalnaus, Sergiy; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Reducing cost and increasing energy density are two barriers for widespread application of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. Although the cost of electric vehicle batteries has been reduced by 70% from 2008 to 2015, the current battery pack cost (268/kWh in 2015) is still >2 times what the USABC targets (125/kWh). Even though many advancements in cell chemistry have been realized since the lithium-ion battery was first commercialized in 1991, few major breakthroughs have occurred in the past decade. Therefore, future cost reduction will rely on cell manufacturing and broader market acceptance. This article discusses three major aspects for cost reduction: (1) quality control to minimize scrap rate in cell manufacturing; (2) novel electrode processing and engineering to reduce processing cost and increase energy density and throughputs; and (3) material development and optimization for lithium-ion batteries with high-energy density. Insights on increasing energy and power densities of lithium-ion batteries are also addressed.

  16. Ultra-Stretchable Interconnects for High-Density Stretchable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Shafqat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The exciting field of stretchable electronics (SE promises numerous novel applications, particularly in-body and medical diagnostics devices. However, future advanced SE miniature devices will require high-density, extremely stretchable interconnects with micron-scale footprints, which calls for proven standardized (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-type process recipes using bulk integrated circuit (IC microfabrication tools and fine-pitch photolithography patterning. Here, we address this combined challenge of microfabrication with extreme stretchability for high-density SE devices by introducing CMOS-enabled, free-standing, miniaturized interconnect structures that fully exploit their 3D kinematic freedom through an interplay of buckling, torsion, and bending to maximize stretchability. Integration with standard CMOS-type batch processing is assured by utilizing the Flex-to-Rigid (F2R post-processing technology to make the back-end-of-line interconnect structures free-standing, thus enabling the routine microfabrication of highly-stretchable interconnects. The performance and reproducibility of these free-standing structures is promising: an elastic stretch beyond 2000% and ultimate (plastic stretch beyond 3000%, with <0.3% resistance change, and >10 million cycles at 1000% stretch with <1% resistance change. This generic technology provides a new route to exciting highly-stretchable miniature devices.

  17. Thermal Conductivity of Human Bone in Cryoprobe Freezing as Related to Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle E; Baldini, Todd; Lindeque, Bennie G

    2017-03-01

    Cryoprobes create localized cell destruction through freezing. Bone is resistant to temperature flow but is susceptible to freezing necrosis at warmer temperatures than tumor cells. Few studies have determined the thermal conductivity of human bone. No studies have examined conductivity as related to density. The study goal was to examine thermal conductivity in human bone while comparing differences between cancellous and cortical bone. An additional goal was to establish a relationship between bone density and thermal conductivity. Six knee joints from 5 cadavers were obtained. The epiphyseal region was sliced in half coronally prior to inserting an argon-circulating cryoprobe directed away from the joint line. Thermistor thermometers were placed perpendicularly at measured increments, and the freezing cycle was recorded until steady-state conditions were achieved. For 2 cortical samples, the probe was placed intramedullary in metaphyseal samples and measurements were performed radially from the central axis of each sample. Conductivity was calculated using Fournier's Law and then plotted against measured density of each sample. Across samples, density of cancellous bone ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 g/mL and average thermal conductivity ranged between 0.404 and 0.55 W/mK. Comparatively, cortical bone had a density of 1.70 to 1.86 g/mL and thermal conductivity of 0.0742 to 0.109 W/mK. A strong 2-degree polynomial correlation was seen (R2=0.8226, P<.001). Bone is highly resistant to temperature flow. This resistance varies and inversely correlates strongly with density. This information is clinically relevant to maximize tumor ablation while minimizing morbidity through unnecessary bone loss and damage to surrounding structures. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):90-94.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every gene in a complex organism such as a mouse or human. We tested carryover during array printing with dye solution, labeled DNA, and hybridized DNA, and we found it to be indistinguishable from background. Hybridization also showed good sequence specificity to printed oligonucleotides. In addition to improved slide capacity, the microfabrication process offers the possibility of low-cost mass-produced pens and the flexibility to include novel pen features that cannot be machined with conventional techniques. PMID:12975313

  19. Shape-controlled high cell-density microcapsules by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeyang; Takeuchi, Masaru; Nakajima, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Huang, Qiang; Fukuda, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Cell encapsulation within alginate-poly-l-lysine (PLL) microcapsules has been developed to provide a miniaturized three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment with an aqueous core while promoting development of encapsulated cells into high cell-density structures. In this paper, a novel method for fabricating shape-controlled alginate-PLL microcapsules to construct 3D cell structures based on electrodeposition method is provided. Two-dimensional Ca-alginate cell-laden gel membranes were electrodeposited onto a micro-patterned electrode and further detached from the electrode. The PLL was coated onto the gel structures to form alginate-PLL complex as an outer shell and sodium citric solution was utilized to melt the internal alginate to achieve miniaturized 3D microcapsules (sphere, cuboid, and rod shape). By this proposed method, rat liver cells (RLC-18) formed multi-cellular aggregates with high cell-density after cultivation for 2weeks. The use of alginate-poly-l-lysine (PLL) microcapsules has shown great potential in fabricating 3D cell structures with high cell density. Despite their success related to their ability to provide a miniaturized microenvironment with an aqueous core, alginate-PLL microcapsules has drawback such as a limited shape-control ability. Because of the mechanism of Ca-induced alginate gel formation, it is still difficult to precisely control the gelation process to produce alginate-PLL microcapsules with specific shape. The present study provides an electrodeposition-based method to generate shape-controlled microcapsules for 3D cell structures. Sphere, cuboid, and rod shaped microcapsules of RLC-18 cells were produced for long-term culture to obtain desired morphologies of cell aggregates. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The glass transition in high-density amorphous ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerting, Thomas; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Handle, Philip H; Seidl, Markus; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Böhmer, Roland

    2015-01-01

    There has been a long controversy regarding the glass transition in low-density amorphous ice (LDA). The central question is whether or not it transforms to an ultraviscous liquid state above 136 K at ambient pressure prior to crystallization. Currently, the most widespread interpretation of the experimental findings is in terms of a transformation to a superstrong liquid above 136 K. In the last decade some work has also been devoted to the study of the glass transition in high-density amorphous ice (HDA) which is in the focus of the present review. At ambient pressure HDA is metastable against both ice I and LDA, whereas at > 0.2 GPa HDA is no longer metastable against LDA, but merely against high-pressure forms of crystalline ice. The first experimental observation interpreted as the glass transition of HDA was made using in situ methods by Mishima, who reported a glass transition temperature Tg of 160 K at 0.40 GPa. Soon thereafter Andersson and Inaba reported a much lower glass transition temperature of 122 K at 1.0 GPa. Based on the pressure dependence of HDA's Tg measured in Innsbruck, we suggest that they were in fact probing the distinct glass transition of very high-density amorphous ice (VHDA). Very recently the glass transition in HDA was also observed at ambient pressure at 116 K. That is, LDA and HDA show two distinct glass transitions, clearly separated by about 20 K at ambient pressure. In summary, this suggests that three glass transition lines can be defined in the p-T plane for LDA, HDA, and VHDA.

  1. [Residual risk: The roles of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Tanja; Kleber, Marcus; Silbernagel, Günther; Scharnagl, Hubert; März, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    In clinical trials, the reduction of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) with statins reduces the incidence rate of cardiovascular events by approximately one third. This means, that a sizeable "residual risk" remains. Besides high lipoprotein (a), disorders in the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high density liproteins have been implicated as effectors of the residual risk. Both lipoprotein parameters correlate inversely with each other. Therefore, the etiological contributions of triglycerides and / or of HDL for developing cardiovascular disease can hardly be estimated from either observational studies or from intervention studies. The largely disappointing results of intervention studies with inhibitors of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein and in particular the available set of genetically-epidemiological studies suggest that in the last decade, the importance of HDL cholesterol has been overvalued, while the importance of triglycerides has been underestimated. High triglycerides not always atherogenic, but only if they are associated with the accumulation relatively cholesterol-enriched, incompletely catabolized remnants of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins (familial type III hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus). The normalization of the concentration of triglycerides and remnants by inhibiting the expression of apolipoprotein C3 is hence a new, promising therapeutic target. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. On high-order perturbative calculations at finite density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghişoiu, Ioan, E-mail: ioan.ghisoiu@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Gorda, Tyler, E-mail: tyler.gorda@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Kurkela, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.kurkela@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, Stavanger (Norway); Romatschke, Paul, E-mail: paul.romatschke@colorado.edu [Department of Physics, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States); Center for Theory of Quantum Matter, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Säppi, Matias, E-mail: matias.sappi@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland); Vuorinen, Aleksi, E-mail: aleksi.vuorinen@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    We discuss the prospects of performing high-order perturbative calculations in systems characterized by a vanishing temperature but finite density. In particular, we show that the determination of generic Feynman integrals containing fermionic chemical potentials can be reduced to the evaluation of three-dimensional phase space integrals over vacuum on-shell amplitudes — a result reminiscent of a previously proposed “naive real-time formalism” for vacuum diagrams. Applications of these rules are discussed in the context of the thermodynamics of cold and dense QCD, where it is argued that they facilitate an extension of the Equation of State of cold quark matter to higher perturbative orders.

  3. High-Density Optical Cable For Public Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunk, Jonas; Monteiro, Ricardo

    1988-02-01

    Optical fiber networks for public communications are moving toward the subscribers and therefore feeder optical cables with relative great amount of fibers are needed. A 120 fibers cable has been designed with ten UV curable acrilate coated fibers accommodate together inside each plastic loose tube, and twelve these tubes are stranded around a central strength member resulting in a high packaging density construction. A cable prototipe has been manufactured and some tests was made under conditions which simulate the situations found during installation and after due to hostile environments.

  4. Variable kernel density estimation in high-dimensional feature spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available with the KDE is non-parametric, since no parametric distribution is imposed on the estimate; instead the estimated distribution is defined by the sum of the kernel functions centred on the data points. KDEs thus require the selection of two design parameters... has become feasible – understanding and modelling high- dimensional data has thus become a crucial activity, espe- cially in the field of machine learning. Since non-parametric density estimators are data-driven and do not require or impose a pre...

  5. Method for providing a low density high strength polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Jr., Leroy L.; Goods, Steven H.; Skala, Dawn M.; Henderson, Craig C.; Keifer, Patrick N.

    2013-06-18

    Disclosed is a method for making a polyurethane closed-cell foam material exhibiting a bulk density below 4 lbs/ft.sup.3 and high strength. The present embodiment uses the reaction product of a modified MDI and a sucrose/glycerine based polyether polyol resin wherein a small measured quantity of the polyol resin is "pre-reacted" with a larger quantity of the isocyanate in a defined ratio such that when the necessary remaining quantity of the polyol resin is added to the "pre-reacted" resin together with a tertiary amine catalyst and water as a blowing agent, the polymerization proceeds slowly enough to provide a stable foam body.

  6. The physics of ultra-high-density magnetic recording

    CERN Document Server

    Ek, Johannes; Weller, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    In this book, 17 experts in magnetic recording focus on the underlying physical mechanisms that play crucial roles in medium and transducer development for high areal density disk drives. In 11 chapters, an examination is made of the fundamental physical concepts and their impact on recording mechanisms, with special emphasis on thin-film longitudinal, perpendicular, patterned and nanoparticle media. Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented which serve to enhance our basic understanding of thin-film dynamics, medium dynamics and thermal effects. Fundamental aspects of magnetotransport are discussed and an overview is given of recording head designs.

  7. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Fillot L.-A.; Ghiringhelli S.; Prebet C.; Rossi S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6) and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE) is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85%...

  8. The Pulsed High Density Experiment (PHDX) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Andreason, Samuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this paper is to present the conclusions that can be drawn from the Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) formation experiments conducted on the Pulsed High Density experiment (PHD) at the University of Washington. The experiment is ongoing. The experimental goal for this first stage of PHD was to generate a stable, high flux (>10 mWb), high energy (>10 KJ) target FRC. Such results would be adequate as a starting point for several later experiments. This work focuses on experimental implementation and the results of the first four month run. Difficulties were encountered due to the initial on-axis plasma ionization source. Flux trapping with this ionization source acting alone was insufficient to accomplish experimental objectives. Additional ionization methods were utilized to overcome this difficulty. A more ideal plasma source layout is suggested and will be explored during a forthcoming work.

  9. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollila, O. H. S.; Lamberg, A.; Lehtivaara, M.

    2012-01-01

    ) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface...... of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of similar to 5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is......Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively...

  10. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High Density DNA Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Podgornik

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Densely packed DNA arrays exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, as well as a weakly first order transition between them. While we have some understanding of the interactions between DNA molecules in aqueous ionic solutions, the structural details of its ordered phases and the mechanism governing the respective phase transitions between them remains less well understood. Since at high DNA densities, i.e., small interaxial spacings, one can neither neglect the atomic details of the interacting macromolecular surfaces nor the atomic details of the intervening ionic solution, the atomistic resolution is a sine qua non to properly describe and analyze the interactions between DNA molecules. In fact, in order to properly understand the details of the observed osmotic equation of state, one needs to implement multiple levels of organization, spanning the range from the molecular order of DNA itself, the possible ordering of counterions, and then all the way to the induced molecular ordering of the aqueous solvent, all coupled together by electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions. Multiscale simulations therefore appear as singularly suited to connect the microscopic details of this system with its macroscopic thermodynamic behavior. We review the details of the simulation of dense atomistically resolved DNA arrays with different packing symmetries and the ensuing osmotic equation of state obtained by enclosing a DNA array in a monovalent salt and multivalent (spermidine counterions within a solvent permeable membrane, mimicking the behavior of DNA arrays subjected to external osmotic stress. By varying the DNA density, the local packing symmetry, and the counterion type, we are able to analyze the osmotic equation of state together with the full structural characterization of the DNA subphase, the counterion distribution and the solvent structural order in terms of its different order parameters and

  11. Green tea catechins prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation via their accumulation in low-density lipoprotein particles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Sugihara, Norie; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Saita, Emi; Taguchi, Chie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Ichitani, Masaki; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Suzuki, Emiko; Kondo, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is rich in polyphenols, including catechins which have antioxidant activities and are considered to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, we investigated the effects of green tea catechins on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in vitro and in human studies to test the hypothesis that catechins are incorporated into LDL particles and exert antioxidant properties. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 19 healthy men ingested green tea extract (GTE) in the form of capsules at a dose of 1 g total catechin, of which most (>99%) was the gallated type. At 1 hour after ingestion, marked increases of the plasma concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate were observed. Accordingly, the plasma total antioxidant capacity was increased, and the LDL oxidizability was significantly reduced by the ingestion of GTE. We found that gallated catechins were incorporated into LDL particles in nonconjugated forms after the incubation of GTE with plasma in vitro. Moreover, the catechin-incorporated LDL was highly resistant to radical-induced oxidation in vitro. An additional human study with 5 healthy women confirmed that GTE intake sufficiently increased the concentration of gallated catechins, mainly in nonconjugated forms in LDL particles, and reduced the oxidizability of LDL. In conclusion, green tea catechins are rapidly incorporated into LDL particles and play a role in reducing LDL oxidation in humans, which suggests that taking green tea catechins is effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biominetic High Density Lipoproteins for the Delivery of Therapeutic Oligonucleotides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sushant

    Advances in nanotechnology have brought about novel inorganic and hybrid nanoparticles with unique physico-chemical properties that make them suitable for a broad range of applications---from nano-circuitry to drug delivery. A significant part of those advancements have led to ground-breaking discoveries that have changed the approaches to formulation of therapeutics against diseases, such as cancer. Now-a-days the focus does not lie solely on finding a candidate small-molecule therapeutic with minimal adverse effects, but researchers are looking up to nanoparticles to improve biodistribution and biocompatibility profile of clinically proven therapeutics. The plethora of conjugation chemistries offered by currently extant inorganic nanoparticles have, in recent years, led to great leaps in the field of biomimicry---a modality that promises high biocompatibility. Further, in the pursuit of highly specific therapeutic molecules, researchers have turned to silencing oligonucleotides and some have already brought together the strengths of nanoparticles and silencing oligonucleotides in search of an efficacious therapy for cancer with minimal adverse effects. This dissertation work focuses on such a biomimetic platform---a gold nanoparticle based high density lipoprotein biomimetic (HDL NP), for the delivery of therapeutic oligonucleotides. The first chapter of this body of work introduces the molecular target of the silencing oligonucleotides---VEGFR2, and its role in the progression of solid tumor cancers. The background information also covers important aspects of natural high density lipoproteins (HDL), especially their innate capacity to bind and deliver exogenous and endogenous silencing oligonucleotides to tissues that express their high affinity receptor SRB1. We subsequently describe the synthesis of the biomimetic HDL NP and its oligonucleotide conjugates, and establish their biocompatibility. Further on, experimental data demonstrate the efficacy of silencing

  13. Development Status of High-Thrust Density Electrostatic Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Foster, John E.; Young, Jason A.; Crofton, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    Ion thruster technology offers the highest performance and efficiency of any mature electric propulsion thruster. It has by far the highest demonstrated total impulse of any technology option, demonstrated at input power levels appropriate for primary propulsion. It has also been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments, with excellent ground/in-space correlation of both its performance and life. Based on these attributes there is compelling reasoning to continue the development of this technology: it is a leading candidate for high power applications; and it provides risk reduction for as-yet unproven alternatives. As such it is important that the operational limitations of ion thruster technology be critically examined and in particular for its application to primary propulsion its capabilities relative to thrust the density and thrust-to-power ratio be understood. This publication briefly addresses some of the considerations relative to achieving high thrust density and maximizing thrust-to-power ratio with ion thruster technology, and discusses the status of development work in this area being executed under a collaborative effort among NASA Glenn Research Center, the Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  14. High-Density Lipoprotein Processing and Premature Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K.; Gotto, Antonio M.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2015-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) are a well-accepted risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the statin class of hypolipidemic drugs has emerged as an effective means of lowering LDL-C and reducing CVD risk. In contrast, the role of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in protection against atherosclerotic vascular disease is the subject of considerable controversy. Although the inverse correlation between plasma HDL-C and CVD is widely acknowledged, reduction of CVD risk by interventions that increase HDL-C have not been uniformly successful. Several studies of large populations have shown that the first step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), the transfer of cholesterol from the subendothelial space of the arterial wall via the plasma compartment to the liver for disposal, is impaired in patients with CVD. Here we review HDL function, the mechanisms by which HDL supports RCT, and the role of RCT in preventing CVD. PMID:26634027

  15. A Coupled Plasma and Sheath Model for High Density Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Bose; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present a coupled plasma and collisionless; sheath model for the simulation of high density plasma processing reactors. Due to inefficiencies in numerical schemes and the resulting computational burden, a coupled multidimensional plasma and sheath simulation has not been possible model for gas mixtures and high density reactors of practical interest. In this work we demonstrate that with a fully implicit algorithm and a refined computational mesh, a self-consistent plasma and sheath simulation is feasible. We discuss the details of the model equations, the importance of ion inertia, and the resulting sheath profiles for argon and chlorine plasmas. We find that at low operating pressures (10-30 mTorr), the charge separation occurs only within a 0.5 mm layer near the surface in a 300 mm inductively coupled plasma etch reactor. A unified model eliminates the use of off-line or loosely coupled sheath models with simplifying assumptions which generally lead to uncertainties in ion flux and sheath electrical properties.

  16. Simulating deposition of high density tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaoglu, Yagmur; Simms, Paul H.

    2017-08-01

    Tailings are a slurry of silt-sized residual material derived from the milling of rock. High density (HD) tailings are tailings that have been sufficiently dewatered to a point where they exhibit a yield stress upon deposition. They form gently sloped stacks on the surface when deposited; this eliminates or minimizes the need for dams or embankments for containment. Understanding the flow behaviour of high density tailings is essential for estimating the final stack geometry and overall slope angle. This paper focuses on modelling the flow behaviour of HD tailings using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporating a `bi-viscosity' model to simulate the non-Newtonian behaviour. The model is validated by comparing the numerical results with bench scale experiments simulating single or multi-layer deposits in two-dimensions. The results indicate that the model agreed fairly well with the experimental work, excepting some repulsion of particles away from the bottom boundary closer to the toe of the deposits. Novel aspects of the work, compared to other simulation of Bingham fluids by SPH, are the simulation of multilayer deposits and the use of a stopping criteria to characterize the rest state.

  17. State switching in regions of high modal density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopp, Garrett K.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-04-01

    Performance of piezoelectric-based, semi-active vibration reduction approaches has been studied extensively in the past decade. Originally analyzed with single-degree-of-freedom systems, these approaches have been extended to multi-mode vibration reduction. However, the accompanying analysis typically assumes well-separated modes, which is often not the case for plate structures. Because the semi-active approaches induce a shift in the structural resonance frequency (at least temporarily), targeting a specific mode for vibration reduction can actually lead to additional vibration in an adjacent mode. This paper presents an analysis using a simplified model of a two-degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system with lightly-coupled masses to achieve two closely-spaced modes. This investigation is especially applicable to the resonance frequency detuning approach previously proposed to reduce vibrations caused by transient excitation in turbomachinery blades where regions of high modal density exist. More generally, this paper addresses these effects of stiffness state switches in frequency ranges containing regions of high modal density and subject to frequency sweep excitation. Of the approaches analyzed, synchronized switch damping on an inductor offers the greatest vibration reduction performance, whereas resonance frequency detuning and state switching each yield similar performance. Additionally, as the relative distance between resonance peaks decreases, the performance for the vibration reduction methods approaches that of a single-degree-of-freedom system; however, there are distances between these resonant peaks that diminish vibration reduction potential.

  18. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2011-06-05

    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  19. The HDL hypothesis: does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2010-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this “HDL hypothesis”. In vitro studies suggest that HDL has a wide range of anti-atherogenic properties but validation of these functions in humans is absent to date. A significant number of anima...

  20. High Energy Density Science at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R W

    2007-10-19

    High energy density science (HEDS), as a discipline that has developed in the United States from National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA)-sponsored laboratory research programs, is, and will remain, a major component of the NNSA science and technology strategy. Its scientific borders are not restricted to NNSA. 'Frontiers in High Energy Density Physics: The X-Games of Contemporary Science' identified numerous exciting scientific opportunities in this field, while pointing to the need for a overarching interagency plan for its evolution. Meanwhile, construction of the first x-ray free-electron laser, the Office-of-Science-funded Linear Coherent Light Source-LCLS: the world's first free electron x-ray laser, with 100-fsec time resolution, tunable x-ray energies, a high rep rate, and a 10 order-of-magnitude increase in brightness over any other x-ray source--led to the realization that the scientific needs of NNSA and the broader scientific community could be well served by an LCLS HEDS endstation employing both short-pulse and high-energy optical lasers. Development of this concept has been well received in the community. NNSA requested a workshop on the applicability of LCLS to its needs. 'High Energy Density Science at the LCLS: NNSA Defense Programs Mission Need' was held in December 2006. The workshop provided strong support for the relevance of the endstation to NNSA strategic requirements. The range of science that was addressed covered a wide swath of the vast HEDS phase space. The unique possibilities provided by the LCLS in areas of intense interest to NNSA Defense Programs were discussed. The areas of focus included warm dense matter and equations of state, hot dense matter, and behavior of high-pressure materials under conditions of high strain-rate and extreme dynamic loading. Development of new and advanced diagnostic techniques was also addressed. This report lays out the relevant science, as brief summaries (Ch. II), expanded

  1. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

  2. DIAGNOSTICS FOR ION BEAM DRIVEN HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    Intense beams of heavy ions are capable of heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density. Experiments are performed on the resulting warm dense matter (WDM) at the NDCX-I ion beam accelerator. The 0.3 MeV, 30-mA K{sup +} beam from NDCX-I heats foil targets by combined longitudinal and transverse neutralized drift compression of the ion beam. Both the compressed and uncompressed parts of the NDCX-I beam heat targets. The exotic state of matter (WDM) in these experiments requires specialized diagnostic techniques. We have developed a target chamber and fielded target diagnostics including a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, laser Doppler-shift interferometer (VISAR), beam transmission diagnostics, and high-speed gated cameras. We also present plans and opportunities for diagnostic development and a new target chamber for NDCX-II.

  3. A high parasite density environment induces transcriptional changes and cell death in Plasmodium falciparum blood stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Evelyn S; Abidi, Sabia Z; Teye, Marian; Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Rask, Thomas S; Cobbold, Simon A; Tonkin-Hill, Gerry Q; Subramaniam, Krishanthi S; Sexton, Anna E; Creek, Darren J; Daily, Johanna P; Duffy, Michael F; Day, Karen P

    2017-12-27

    Transient regulation of Plasmodium numbers below the density that induces fever has been observed in chronic malaria infections in humans. This species transcending control cannot be explained by immunity alone. Using an in vitro system we have observed density dependent regulation of malaria population size as a mechanism to possibly explain these in vivo observations. Specifically, Plasmodium falciparum blood stages from a high but not low-density environment exhibited unique phenotypic changes during the late trophozoite (LT) and schizont stages of the intraerythrocytic cycle. These included in order of appearance: failure of schizonts to mature and merozoites to replicate, apoptotic-like morphological changes including shrinking, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and blebbing with eventual release of aberrant parasites from infected erythrocytes. This unique death phenotype was triggered in a stage-specific manner by sensing of a high-density culture environment. Conditions of glucose starvation, nutrient depletion, and high lactate could not induce the phenotype. A high-density culture environment induced rapid global changes in the parasite transcriptome including differential expression of genes involved in cell remodeling, clonal antigenic variation, metabolism, and cell death pathways including an apoptosis-associated metacaspase gene. This transcriptional profile was also characterized by concomitant expression of asexual and sexual stage-specific genes. The data show strong evidence to support our hypothesis that density sensing exists in P. falciparum. They indicate that an apoptotic-like mechanism may play a role in P. falciparum density regulation, which, as in yeast, has features quite distinguishable from mammalian apoptosis. Gene expression data are available in the GEO databases under the accession number GSE91188. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. High Stocking Density Controls Phillyrea Angustifolia in Mediterranean Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesléard, François; Yavercovski, Nicole; Lefebvre, Gaétan; Willm, Loic; Bonis, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Extensive grazing applied in the form of low instantaneous pressure over a long period is a widespread management practice in protected areas. However this kind of stocking method does not always achieve the expected results, in particular because it fails to limit colonization by woody plants.This is the case in the relict xero-halophytic grasslands of the northern Mediterranean coastal region, subjected to widespread colonization by the shrub Phillyrea angustifolia despite the presence of extensive grazing. In this study, we investigated, for an equal annual stocking rate, the respective impact of high stocking density applied over a short period (mob grazing) and low stocking density applied over a long period on both P. angustifolia and herbaceous cover, using an in situ experimental design run for 7 years. Only mob grazing was effective both in controlling the establishment and increasing the mortality of P. angustifolia individuals. We did not find any difference after the 7 years of experimentation between the two stocking methods with regard to the herbaceous community parameters tested: species richness, diversity, evenness, contribution of annual characteristic species. By contrast, the exclusion of domestic grazing led to a strong reduction of these values.The use of mob grazing may be well suited for meeting conservation goals such as maintaining open habitats in these grasslands.

  5. High density collinear holographic data storage system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Arai, Ryo; Ikeda, Junichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Ke; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Collinear holography has been good candidate for a volumetric recording technology of holographic data storage system (HDSS), because of there are not only large storage capacities, high transfer rates, but also the unique configuration, in which the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same spatial light modulator, as a new read/write method for HDSS are very promising. The optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media (disc). In the disc structure, the preformatted reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and a dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density. As servo technologies are being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. In this paper, we introduced the principle of the collinear holography and its media structure of disc. Some results of experimental and theoretical studies suggest that it is a very effective method. We also discussed some methods to increase the recording density and data transfer rates of collinear holography using phase modulated page data format.

  6. Construction and analysis of high-density linkage map using high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyuan Liu

    Full Text Available Linkage maps enable the study of important biological questions. The construction of high-density linkage maps appears more feasible since the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS, which eases SNP discovery and high-throughput genotyping of large population. However, the marker number explosion and genotyping errors from NGS data challenge the computational efficiency and linkage map quality of linkage study methods. Here we report the HighMap method for constructing high-density linkage maps from NGS data. HighMap employs an iterative ordering and error correction strategy based on a k-nearest neighbor algorithm and a Monte Carlo multipoint maximum likelihood algorithm. Simulation study shows HighMap can create a linkage map with three times as many markers as ordering-only methods while offering more accurate marker orders and stable genetic distances. Using HighMap, we constructed a common carp linkage map with 10,004 markers. The singleton rate was less than one-ninth of that generated by JoinMap4.1. Its total map distance was 5,908 cM, consistent with reports on low-density maps. HighMap is an efficient method for constructing high-density, high-quality linkage maps from high-throughput population NGS data. It will facilitate genome assembling, comparative genomic analysis, and QTL studies. HighMap is available at http://highmap.biomarker.com.cn/.

  7. Probability density distribution of velocity differences at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskovsky, Alexander A.

    1993-01-01

    Recent understanding of fine-scale turbulence structure in high Reynolds number flows is mostly based on Kolmogorov's original and revised models. The main finding of these models is that intrinsic characteristics of fine-scale fluctuations are universal ones at high Reynolds numbers, i.e., the functional behavior of any small-scale parameter is the same in all flows if the Reynolds number is high enough. The only large-scale quantity that directly affects small-scale fluctuations is the energy flux through a cascade. In dynamical equilibrium between large- and small-scale motions, this flux is equal to the mean rate of energy dissipation epsilon. The pdd of velocity difference is a very important characteristic for both the basic understanding of fully developed turbulence and engineering problems. Hence, it is important to test the findings: (1) the functional behavior of the tails of the probability density distribution (pdd) represented by P(delta(u)) is proportional to exp(-b(r) absolute value of delta(u)/sigma(sub delta(u))) and (2) the logarithmic decrement b(r) scales as b(r) is proportional to r(sup 0.15) when separation r lies in the inertial subrange in high Reynolds number laboratory shear flows.

  8. Modulation of low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of intercellular communication by antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R M; de Haan, L. H. J.; Kuivenhoven, J A; Nusselder, I C

    In order to study the capacity of antioxidants and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to modulate the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) on intercellular communication, arterial smooth muscle cells and a dye transfer method were used. LDL, in contrast to HDL, inhibited the communication between

  9. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi [Littleton, CO

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  10. Scoping study. High density polyethylene (HDPE) in salstone service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-02-18

    An evaluation of the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes in Saltstone service has been conducted due to the potential benefits that could be derived from such usage. HDPE is one of the simplest hydrocarbon polymers and one of the most common polymers utilized in the production of geomembranes, which means that its costs are relatively low. Additionally, HDPE geomembranes have an extremely low permeability and an extremely low water vapor diffusional flux, which means that it is a good barrier to contaminant transport. The primary consideration in association with HDPE geomembranes in Saltstone service is the potential impact of Saltstone on the degradation of the HDPE geomembranes. Therefore, the evaluation documented herein has primarily focused upon the potential HDPE degradation in Saltstone service.

  11. Sodium pentazolate: A nitrogen rich high energy density material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5, new high energy density materials, are discovered during first principles crystal structure search for the compounds of varying amounts of elemental sodium and nitrogen. The pentazole anion (N5-) is stabilized in the condensed phase by sodium Na+ cations at pressures exceeding 20 GPa, and becomes metastable upon release of pressure. The sodium azide (NaN3) precursor is predicted to undergo a chemical transformation above 50 GPa into sodium pentazolates NaN5 and Na2N5. The calculated Raman spectrum of NaN5 is in agreement with the experimental Raman spectrum of a previously unidentified substance appearing upon compression and heating of NaN3.

  12. The alterations in high density polyethylene properties with gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, M. F.; Elshaer, Y. H.; Taha, Doaa. H.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer has been used to study the alterations in its properties under gamma-irradiation. Physico-chemical properties have been investigated with different spectroscopy techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), biocompatibility properties, as well as, mechanical properties change. The FT-IR analysis shows the formation of new band at 1716 cm-1 that is attributed to the oxidation of irradiated polymer chains, which is due to the formation of carbonyl groups (C˭O). XRD patterns show that a decrease in the crystallite size and increase in the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM). This means that the crystallinity of irradiated samples is decreased with increase in gamma dose. The contact angle measurements show an increase in the surface free energy as the gamma irradiation increases. The measurements of mechanical properties of irradiated HDPE samples were discussed.

  13. Single-Readout High-Density Memristor Crossbar

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, M. A.

    2016-01-07

    High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout. Besides, the memristive crossbar consumes an order of magnitude less power than state-of-the-art readout techniques.

  14. Characterization of high density through silicon vias with spectral reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Yi-Sha; Huang, Kuo Cheng; Hsu, Weite

    2011-03-28

    Measurement and control is an important step for production-worthy through silicon vias etch. We demonstrate the use and enhancement of an existing wafer metrology tool, spectral reflectometer by implementing novel theoretical model and measurement algorithm for high density through-silicon via (HDTSV) inspection. It is capable of measuring depth and depth variations of array vias by Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis in one shot measurement. Surface roughness of via bottom can also be extracted by scattering model fitting. Our non-destructive solution can measure TSV profile diameters as small as 5 μm and aspect ratios greater than 13:1. The measurement precision is in the range of 0.02 μm. Metrology results from actual 3D interconnect processing wafers are presented.

  15. High-density percutaneous chronic connector for neural prosthetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Kedar G.; Bennett, William J.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2015-09-22

    A high density percutaneous chronic connector, having first and second connector structures each having an array of magnets surrounding a mounting cavity. A first electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the first connector structure and a second electrical feedthrough array is seated in the mounting cavity of the second connector structure, with a feedthrough interconnect matrix positioned between a top side of the first electrical feedthrough array and a bottom side of the second electrical feedthrough array to electrically connect the first electrical feedthrough array to the second electrical feedthrough array. The two arrays of magnets are arranged to attract in a first angular position which connects the first and second connector structures together and electrically connects the percutaneously connected device to the external electronics, and to repel in a second angular position to facilitate removal of the second connector structure from the first connector structure.

  16. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Davis, Donald W [Albuquerque, NM; Chavez, Bart D [Albuquerque, NM; Gallegos, Phillip L [Albuquerque, NM; Wicker, Ryan B [El Paso, TX; Medina, Francisco R [El Paso, TX

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  17. 5th International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrala, G.A

    2005-01-01

    During the past several years, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Research is underway in many areas, such as compressible hydrodynamic mixing, strong shock phenomena, radiation flow, radiative shocks and jets, complex opacities, equations o fstat, and relativistic plasmas. Beyond this current research and the papers it is producing, plans are being made for the application, to astrophysics-relevant research, of the 2 MJ National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the 600 kj Ligne d'Intergration Laser (LIL) and the 2 MJ Laser Megajoule (LMJ) in Bordeaux, France; petawatt-range lasers now under construction around the world; and current and future Z pinches. The goal of this conference and these proceedings is to continue focusing and attention on this emerging research area. The conference brought together different scientists interested in this emerging new fi...

  18. Environmental determinants, liver function, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuller, L H; Hulley, S B; LaPorte, R E; Neaton, J; Dai, W S

    1983-04-01

    High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol) is negatively associated with coronary heart disease. Environmental heart disease risk factors may partially be related to coronary heart disease through alterations in HDL-chol concentrations. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which environmental factors are related to HDL-chol. The authors investigated a possible mechanism: changes in liver function as a mediating link between risk factors and HDL-chol concentrations in marathon runners, alcoholics, and participants in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Liver function, as measured by liver enzymes, was related to both coronary heart disease risk factors and alcohol consumption, suggesting that the increased levels of HDL-chol associated with alcohol were primarily the result of changes in liver function. The relationship of obesity to HDL-chol could not be explained by the alterations in liver function.

  19. Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still unclear, and the current technique of using radioisotopes has clinical limitation. However, the current study techniques or methods excellently elucidate the functional aspects of ...

  20. Taking Over Control From Highly Automated Vehicles in Complex Traffic Situations: The Role of Traffic Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Körber, Moritz; Lechner, David; Bengler, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of traffic density and verbal tasks on takeover performance in highly automated driving. In highly automated vehicles, the driver has to occasionally take over vehicle control when approaching system limits. To ensure safety, the ability of the driver to regain control of the driving task under various driving situations and different driver states needs to be quantified. Seventy-two participants experienced takeover situations requiring an evasive maneuver on a three-lane highway with varying traffic density (zero, 10, and 20 vehicles per kilometer). In a between-subjects design, half of the participants were engaged in a verbal 20-Questions Task, representing speaking on the phone while driving in a highly automated vehicle. The presence of traffic in takeover situations led to longer takeover times and worse takeover quality in the form of shorter time to collision and more collisions. The 20-Questions Task did not influence takeover time but seemed to have minor effects on the takeover quality. For the design and evaluation of human-machine interaction in takeover situations of highly automated vehicles, the traffic state seems to play a major role, compared to the driver state, manipulated by the 20-Questions Task. The present results can be used by developers of highly automated systems to appropriately design human-machine interfaces and to assess the driver's time budget for regaining control. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. High-Density Infrared Surface Treatments of Refractories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegs, T.N.

    2005-03-31

    Refractory materials play a crucial role in all energy-intensive industries and are truly a crosscutting technology for the Industries of the Future (IOF). One of the major mechanisms for the degradation of refractories and a general decrease in their performance has been the penetration and corrosion by molten metals or glass. Methods and materials that would reduce the penetration, wetting, and corrosive chemistry would significantly improve refractory performance and also maintain the quality of the processed liquid, be it metal or glass. This report presents the results of an R&D project aimed at investigating the use of high-density infrared (HDI) heating to surface treat refractories to improve their performance. The project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR). HDI is capable of heating the near-surface region of materials to very high temperatures where sintering, diffusion, and melting can occur. The intended benefits of HDI processing of refractories were to (1) reduce surface porosity (by essentially sealing the surface to prevent liquid penetration), (2) allow surface chemistry changes to be performed by bonding an adherent coating onto the underlying refractory (in order to inhibit wetting and/or improve corrosion resistance), and (3) produce noncontact refractories with high-emissivity surface coatings.

  2. Biodegradation of high density polyethylene using Streptomyces species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the biodegradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE by Streptomyces species isolated from the soil of East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: Powders of HDPE samples were prepared by grinding in different particle sizes of 212, 300, 420, and 500 microns. Each time 50 mg of a sample was poured to a liquid medium containing species. Samples were incubated for 18 days at 28 °C in a shaker-incubator and their degradation percentage was measured by weighting method. Produced metabolite at 18th day was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Also a film of HDPE was subjected to biodegradation and after one month was analyzed by scanning electron microscope which showed degradation on the surface of the film. Results: The results showed that Streptomyces species degraded 50 mg of HDPE sample with the size of 212 μm about 18.26%, 300 and 420 μm about 14.4%, and 500 μm about 13%. Kinetic modeling of biodegradation process showed that the reaction rate was first order with respect to concentration of HDPE. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results, no high toxic material was produced during biodegradation of HDPE. Conclusions: The research showed that isolated Streptomyces sp. are capable of degradation of HDPE polymer with high degradation efficiency.

  3. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  4. High-Density Droplet Microarray of Individually Addressable Electrochemical Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Oellers, Tobias; Feng, Wenqian; Abdulazim, Tarik; Saw, En Ning; Ludwig, Alfred; Levkin, Pavel A; Plumeré, Nicolas

    2017-06-06

    Microarray technology has shown great potential for various types of high-throughput screening applications. The main read-out methods of most microarray platforms, however, are based on optical techniques, limiting the scope of potential applications of such powerful screening technology. Electrochemical methods possess numerous complementary advantages over optical detection methods, including its label-free nature, capability of quantitative monitoring of various reporter molecules, and the ability to not only detect but also address compositions of individual compartments. However, application of electrochemical methods for the purpose of high-throughput screening remains very limited. In this work, we develop a high-density individually addressable electrochemical droplet microarray (eDMA). The eDMA allows for the detection of redox-active reporter molecules irrespective of their electrochemical reversibility in individual nanoliter-sized droplets. Orthogonal band microelectrodes are arranged to form at their intersections an array of three-electrode systems for precise control of the applied potential, which enables direct read-out of the current related to analyte detection. The band microelectrode array is covered with a layer of permeable porous polymethacrylate functionalized with a highly hydrophobic-hydrophilic pattern, forming spatially separated nanoliter-sized droplets on top of each electrochemical cell. Electrochemical characterization of single droplets demonstrates that the underlying electrode system is accessible to redox-active molecules through the hydrophilic polymeric pattern and that the nonwettable hydrophobic boundaries can spatially separate neighboring cells effectively. The eDMA technology opens the possibility to combine the high-throughput biochemical or living cell screenings using the droplet microarray platform with the sequential electrochemical read-out of individual droplets.

  5. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats exposed to premium motor spirit fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberare, Ogbevire L; Okuonghae, Patrick; Mukoro, Nathaniel; Dirisu, John O; Osazuwa, Favour; Odigie, Elvis; Omoregie, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Deliberate and regular exposure to premium motor spirit fumes is common and could be a risk factor for liver disease in those who are occupationally exposed. A possible association between premium motor spirit fumes and plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol using a rodent model could provide new insights in the pathology of diseases where cellular dysfunction is an established risk factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of premium motor spirit fumes on lipids and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to premium motor spirit fumes using rodent model. Twenty-five Wister albino rats (of both sexes) were used for this study between the 4(th) of August and 7(th) of September, 2010. The rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. Group 1 rats were not exposed to premium motor spirit fumes (control group), group 2 rats were exposed for 1 hour daily, group 3 for 3 hours daily, group 4 for 5 hours daily and group 5 for 7 hours daily. The experiment lasted for a period of 4 weeks. Blood samples obtained from all the groups after 4 weeks of exposure were used for the estimation of plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein- cholesterol and low density lipoprotein- cholesterol. Results showed significant increase in means of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels (Plevel of high density lipoprotein, the ratio of low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein and the ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein did not differ significantly in exposed subjects when compared with the control group. These results showed that frequent exposure to petrol fumes may be highly deleterious to the liver cells.

  6. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a

  7. Tree crown delineation from high resolution airborne LiDAR based on densities of high points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, M.Z.A.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Tree detection and tree crown delineation from Airborne LiDAR has been focusing mostly on utilizing the canopy height model (CHM). This paper presents a method for individual tree crown delineation based on densities of high points (DHP) from the high resolution Airborne LiDAR. The DHP method relies

  8. What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.

    2017-07-01

    The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.

  9. High cell density cultivation of probiotics and lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiraldi, Chiara; Adduci, Vincenzo; Valli, Vivien; Maresca, Carmelina; Giuliano, Mariateresa; Lamberti, Monica; Cartenì, Maria; De Rosa, Mario

    2003-04-20

    The commercial interest in functional foods that contain live microorganisms, also named probiotics, is paralleled by the increasing scientific attention to their functionality in the digestive tract. This is especially true of yogurts that contain strains of lactic-acid bacteria of intestinal origin, among these, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus is extensively used in the dairy industry and it has been demonstrated to be a probiotic strain. In this work we describe high cell density cultivations of this microorganism also focusing on the stereospecific production of lactic acid. Key parameters such as medium composition (bactocasitone concentration) and diverse aeration conditions were explored. The results showed that the final concentration of biomass in anaerobic fermentation was lower than the one obtained in microaerophilic conditions, while it gave a very high productivity of lactic acid which was present as a racemic mixture in the permeate. Fermentation experiments carried out with air sparging, even at very low flow-rate, led to the production of the sole L(+) lactic acid giving sevenfold increase in biomass yield in respect to the batch cultivation. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to describe the microfiltration bioprocess applied in this research considering an inhibition kinetic and enucleating a suitable mathematical description for the decrease of the transmembrane flux. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. High-Density Carbon (HDC) Ablator for NIC Ignition Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, D.; Haan, S.; Salmonson, J.; Milovich, J.; Callahan, D.

    2012-10-01

    HDC ablators show high performance based on simulations, despite the fact that the shorter pulses for HDC capsules result in higher M-band radiation compared to that for plastic capsules. HDC capsules have good 1-D performance because HDC has relatively high density (3.5 g/cc), which results in a thinner ablator that absorbs more radiation. HDC ablators have good 2-D performance because the ablator surface is more than an order-of-magnitude smoother than Be or plastic ablators. Refreeze of the ablator near the fuel region can be avoided by appropriate dopant placement. Here we present two HDC ignition designs doped with W and Si. For the design with maximum W concentration of 1.0 at% (and respectively with maximum Si concentration of 2.0 at%): peak velocity = 0.395 (0.397) mm/ns, mass weighted fuel entropy = 0.463 (0.469) kJ/mg/eV, peak core hydrodynamic stagnation pressure = 690 (780) Gbar, and yield = 17.3 (20.2) MJ. 2-D simulations show that yield is close to 80% YoC even with 2.5x of nominal surface roughness on all surfaces. The clean fuel fraction is about 75% at peak velocity. Doping HDC with the required concentration of W and Si is in progress. A first undoped HDC Symcap is scheduled to be fielded later this year.

  11. Altered activation of endothelial anti- and proapoptotic pathways by high-density lipoprotein from patients with coronary artery disease: role of high-density lipoprotein-proteome remodeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riwanto, Meliana; Rohrer, Lucia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Besler, Christian; Mocharla, Pavani; Mueller, Maja; Perisa, Damir; Heinrich, Kathrin; Altwegg, Lukas; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ...). High-density lipoprotein from healthy subjects (HDL(Healthy)) has been proposed to exert endothelial antiapoptotic effects that may represent an important antiatherogenic property of the lipoprotein...

  12. Fundamental properties of high-quality carbon nanofoam: from low to high density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Frese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly uniform samples of carbon nanofoam from hydrothermal sucrose carbonization were studied by helium ion microscopy (HIM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. Foams with different densities were produced by changing the process temperature in the autoclave reactor. This work illustrates how the geometrical structure, electron core levels, and the vibrational signatures change when the density of the foams is varied. We find that the low-density foams have very uniform structure consisting of micropearls with ≈2–3 μm average diameter. Higher density foams contain larger-sized micropearls (≈6–9 μm diameter which often coalesced to form nonspherical μm-sized units. Both, low- and high-density foams are comprised of predominantly sp2-type carbon. The higher density foams, however, show an advanced graphitization degree and a stronger sp3-type electronic contribution, related to the inclusion of sp3 connections in their surface network.

  13. High density plasmas and new diagnostics: An overview (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.

    2016-02-01

    One of the limiting factors for the full understanding of Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) fundamental mechanisms consists of few types of diagnostic tools so far available for such compact machines. Microwave-to-plasma coupling optimisation, new methods of density overboost provided by plasma wave generation, and magnetostatic field tailoring for generating a proper electron energy distribution function, suitable for optimal ion beams formation, require diagnostic tools spanning across the entire electromagnetic spectrum from microwave interferometry to X-ray spectroscopy; these methods are going to be implemented including high resolution and spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy made by quasi-optical methods (pin-hole cameras). The ion confinement optimisation also requires a complete control of cold electrons displacement, which can be performed by optical emission spectroscopy. Several diagnostic tools have been recently developed at INFN-LNS, including "volume-integrated" X-ray spectroscopy in low energy domain (2-30 keV, by using silicon drift detectors) or high energy regime (>30 keV, by using high purity germanium detectors). For the direct detection of the spatially resolved spectral distribution of X-rays produced by the electronic motion, a "pin-hole camera" has been developed also taking profit from previous experiences in the ECRIS field. The paper will give an overview of INFN-LNS strategy in terms of new microwave-to-plasma coupling schemes and advanced diagnostics supporting the design of new ion sources and for optimizing the performances of the existing ones, with the goal of a microwave-absorption oriented design of future machines.

  14. Oscillating Thermionic Conversion For High-Density Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Dean L.; Morris, James F.

    1988-04-01

    Space nuclear reactors adapt admirably to compact maneuverable multimegawatt power generation. The compactness, maneuverability and productive weight utilization benefit from the use of thermionic converters at high temperatures. These modular static generators reduce waste-heat-radiator weights which loom large in high-power space systems. But greater space-power levels test even thermionic conversion because of its high current densities at low voltages: Relatively low-temperature power conditioning also contributes to large waste-heat-radiator weights. Therefore electromagnetic-wave outputs from thermionic conversion offer important advantages over its traditional direct-current power. In this advantageous operating mode thermionic-conversion lasing yet occupies a theoretic niche. Pulsing and switching with triode thermionic converters appear ready for development guided by continuing applied research. And power-producing thermionic-diode oscillators are excellent prospects for United States research exploitation. This direct thermal power oscillator continues to receive intense experimental and theoretical attention in the USSR--under the aegis of the State Committee for Utilization of Atomic Energy. Now the SDIO through AFWAL has funded a three-year program at Arizona State University to investigate high-temperature oscillatory thermionic conversion. Ascending toward its thermal limits enables thermionic conversion to produce more power at higher voltages and lower currents with greater efficiencies. These gains accrue with minimal collisional damping afforded by surface ionization and Knudsen-arc-mode operation. Here at high neutralization ratios p actual ionization JEXP greatly outstrips the equilibrium ion currents JISL predicted by Saha and Langmuir. In fact for large values of p the value of EXP can exceed JSL by 100-150 times" (Babanin, Ender et alii). And here high neutralization ratios with low collisional damping at reduced cesium pressures favor

  15. Postsynaptic density protein 95 in the striosome and matrix compartments of the human neostriatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoma eMorigaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human neostriatum consists of two functional subdivisions referred to as the striosome (patch and matrix compartments. The striosome-matrix dopamine systems play a central role in cortico-thalamo-basal ganglia circuits, and their involvement is thought to underlie the genesis of multiple movement and behavioral disorders, and of drug addiction. Human neuropathology also has shown that striosomes and matrix have differential vulnerability patterns in several striatal neurodegenerative diseases. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, also known as DLG4, is a major scaffolding protein in the postsynaptic densities of dendritic spines. PSD-95 is now known to negatively regulate not only N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate signaling, but also dopamine D1 signals at sites of postsynaptic transmission. Accordingly, a neuroprotective role for PSD-95 against dopamine D1 receptor (D1R-mediated neurotoxicity in striatal neurodegeneration also has been suggested. Here, we used a highly sensitive immunohistochemistry technique to show that in the human neostriatum, PSD-95 is differentially concentrated in the striosome and matrix compartments, with a higher density of PSD-95 labeling in the matrix compartment than in the striosomes. This compartment-specific distribution of PSD-95 was strikingly complementary to that of D1R. In addition to the possible involvement of PSD-95-mediated synaptic function in compartment-specific dopamine signals, we suggest that the striosomes might be more susceptible to D1R-mediated neurotoxicity than the matrix compartment. This notion may provide new insight into the compartment-specific vulnerability of MSNs in striatal neurodegeneration.

  16. Matter composition at high density by effective scaled lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Chang Ho; Min, Dong Pil [Dept. of Physics, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We investigate the matter composition at around the neutron star densities with a model lagrangian satisfying Brown-Rho scaling law. We calculate the neutron star properties such as maximum mass, radius, hyperon compositions and central density. We compare our results with those of Walecka model. (orig.)

  17. Relationships between human population density and burned area at continental and global scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistinas, Ioannis; Oom, Duarte; Sá, Ana C L; Harrison, Sandy P; Prentice, I Colin; Pereira, José M C

    2013-01-01

    We explore the large spatial variation in the relationship between population density and burned area, using continental-scale Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) based on 13 years of satellite-derived burned area maps from the global fire emissions database (GFED) and the human population density from the gridded population of the world (GPW 2005). Significant relationships are observed over 51.5% of the global land area, and the area affected varies from continent to continent: population density has a significant impact on fire over most of Asia and Africa but is important in explaining fire over area in croplands. Overall, the relationship between population density and burned area is non-monotonic: burned area initially increases with population density and then decreases when population density exceeds a threshold. These thresholds vary regionally. Our study contributes to improved understanding of how human activities relate to burned area, and should contribute to a better estimate of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning.

  18. Experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental study of high density foods for the Space Operations Center is described. A sensory evaluation of the high density foods was conducted first to test the acceptability of the products. A shelf-life study of the high density foods was also conducted for three different time lengths at three different temperatures. The nutritional analysis of the high density foods is at present incomplete.

  19. Properties of recycled high density polyethylene and coffee dregs composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Piedade Cestari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites of recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE-R and coffee dregs (COFD were elaborated. The blends were made at the proportions of 100-0, 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, 60-40, 50-50 and 40-60% polymer-filler ratio. The materials were evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TGA, and compressive resistance test. The compounding was done using a two-stage co-kneader system extruder, and then cylindrical specimens were injection molded. All composites had a fine dispersion of the COFD into the polymeric matrix. The composites degraded in two steps. The first one was in a temperature lower than the neat HDPE, but higher than the average processing temperature of the polymer. The melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of the composites resulted similar to the neat HDPE ones. The compressive moduli of the composites resulted similar to the neat polymer one. The results show that these composites have interesting properties as a building material.

  20. High density scalp EEG in frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyissa, Anteneh M; Britton, Jeffrey W; Van Gompel, Jamie; Lagerlund, Terrance L; So, Elson; Wong-Kisiel, Lilly C; Cascino, Gregory C; Brinkman, Benjamin H; Nelson, Cindy L; Watson, Robert; Worrell, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Localization of seizures in frontal lobe epilepsy using the 10-20 system scalp EEG is often challenging because neocortical seizure can spread rapidly, significant muscle artifact, and the suboptimal spatial resolution for seizure generators involving mesial frontal lobe cortex. Our aim in this study was to determine the value of visual interpretation of 76 channel high density EEG (hdEEG) monitoring (10-10 system) in patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy, and to evaluate concordance with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional EEG, and intracranial EEG (iEEG). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 14 consecutive patients who underwent hdEEG monitoring for suspected frontal lobe seizures. The gold standard for localization was considered to be iEEG. Concordance of hdEEG findings with MRI, subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), conventional 10-20 EEG, and iEEG as well as correlation of hdEEG localization with surgical outcome were examined. hdEEG localization was concordant with iEEG in 12/14 and was superior to conventional EEG 3/14 (pfrontal epilepsy requiring localization of epileptogenic brain. hdEEG may assist in developing a hypothesis for iEEG monitoring and could potentially augment EEG source localization. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. High-density matter: current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many fascinating processes in the Universe which we observe in more and more in detail thanks to increasingly sophisticated technology. One of the most interesting phenomena is the life cycle of stars, their birth, evolution and death. If the stars are massive enough, they end their lives in the core-collapse supernova explosion, the one of the most violent events in the Universe. As the result, the densest objects in the Universe, neutron stars and/or black holes are created. Naturally, the physical basis of these events should be understood in line with observation. The current status of our knowledge of processes in the life of stars is far from adequate for their true understanding. We show that although many models have been constructed their detailed ability to describe observations is limited or non-existent. Furthermore the general failure of all models means that we cannot tell which are heading in the right direction. A possible way forward in modeling of high-density matter is outlined, exemplified by the quark-meson-coupling model (QMC. This model has a natural explanation for the saturation of nuclear forces and depends on very few adjustable parameters, strongly constrained by the underlying physics. Latest QMC results for compact objects and finite nuclei are presented.

  2. High cell density production of Deinococcus radiodurans under optimized conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi

    2009-04-01

    Deinococcus radiodurans is a bacterium being investigated for mechanisms of extreme radiation resistance and for bioremediation of environmental radioactive waste sites. In both fundamental and applied research settings, methods for large-scale production of D. radiodurans are needed. In this study, a systematic investigation was carried out to optimize D. radiodurans production at the 20-L fermentor scale. In defined medium, the phosphate buffer typically used was found to be inhibitory to D. radiodurans growth, and caused cell aggregation. Substitution of HEPES and MOPS buffers for phosphate buffer improved D. radiodurans growth characteristics. Several antifoaming agents were investigated to support large-scale production with submerged aeration, and the defoamer KFO 673 was chosen based on its ability to prevent foaming without affecting D. radiodurans growth. The conventional undefined rich medium tryptone/glucose/yeast extract (TGY) maximally supported D. radiodurans growth to an OD(600) of 10. Using a 'design of experiments' approach, we found glucose, Mg and Mn to be critical in supporting high-density growth of D. radiodurans. The optimal pH and temperature for D. radiodurans growth in large-scale preparations were 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. Growth was carried out in a 20-L fermentor using the newly developed media under the optimal conditions. With addition of 10 g/L glucose, 0.5 g/L MgSO(4) . 7H(2)O, 5 microM MnCl(2) into TGY media, an OD(600) of 40 was achieved.

  3. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol in thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdeppa, D; Macaron, C; Mallik, T; Schnuda, N D

    1979-11-01

    The plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were reduced in 16 hyperthyroid female patients compared to 37 euthyroid women (33.5 +/- 8 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl (mean +/- SD); P less than 0.001). When 5 patients were restudied after restoration of the euthyroid state, plasma HDL-C increased from 29 +/- 5 to 43 +/- 11.5 mg/dl (P less than 0.05). In addition, in 22 hypothyroid women, HDL-C levels were also diminished compared to the euthyroid group (43.4 +/- 15.5 vs. 51.5 +/- 13 mg/dl; P less than 0.05). Nine patients were restudied after L-T4 replacement therapy; their levels of HDL-C increased but not to a statistically significant degree. The daily administration of 0.3 mg L-T4 to eight normal male volunteers for 1 month did not significantly affect HDL-C levels.

  4. The Atlas High-Energy Density Physics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Harold A.

    1998-11-01

    Atlas is a pulsed-power facility under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory to drive high-energy density experiments. It is optimized for materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. The system is designed to implode heavy liner loads ( ~ 50 g) with a peak current of 30 MA delivered in 4 μs. Atlas will be operational near the end of 2000 and is designed to provide 100 shots per year. The Atlas capacitor bank consists of an array of 240-kV Marx modules storing a total of 23 MJ. The bank is resistively damped to limit fault currents and capacitor voltage reversal and will have 16 nH total initial inductance. The current is propagated radially from the Marx generators to the one-meter radius by 24 vertical, triplate, oil-insulated transmission lines. A combination of flat and conical, radially converging transmission lines will deliver the current to the load from the one-meter radius. A prototype Marx generator has been successfully tested at full charge voltage. For many applications the Atlas liner will be a nominal 50-gram-aluminum cylinder with ~ 5-cm radius and 4-cm length. Implosion velocities exceeding 1.4 cm/μs are predicted. Using composite inner layers and a variety of interior target designs, a wide array of experiments in cm^3 volumes may be performed.---Sponsored by US DOE under contract W-7405-ENG-36

  5. Low fasting low high-density lipoprotein and postprandial lipemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorodila Konstandina

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and disturbed postprandial lipemia are associated with coronary heart disease. In the present study, we evaluated the variation of triglyceride (TG postprandially in respect to serum HDL cholesterol levels. Results Fifty two Greek men were divided into 2 main groups: a the low HDL group (HDL p = 0.002. The low HDL group had significantly higher TG at 4, 6 and 8 h postprandially compared to the controls (p = 0.006, p = 0.002, and p p = 0.017 compared to the matched-control group. ROC analysis showed that fasting TG ≥ 121 mg/dl have 100% sensitivity and 81% specificity for an abnormal TG response (auc = 0.962, p Conclusions The delayed TG clearance postprandially seems to result in low HDL cholesterol even in subjects with low fasting TG. The fasting TG > 121 mg/dl are predictable for abnormal response to fatty meal.

  6. Crystallographic alignment of high-density gallium nitride nanowire arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuykendall, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter J; Zhang, Yanfeng; Goldberger, Joshua; Sirbuly, Donald; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yang, Peidong

    2004-08-01

    Single-crystalline, one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are considered to be one of the critical building blocks for nanoscale optoelectronics. Elucidation of the vapour-liquid-solid growth mechanism has already enabled precise control over nanowire position and size, yet to date, no reports have demonstrated the ability to choose from different crystallographic growth directions of a nanowire array. Control over the nanowire growth direction is extremely desirable, in that anisotropic parameters such as thermal and electrical conductivity, index of refraction, piezoelectric polarization, and bandgap may be used to tune the physical properties of nanowires made from a given material. Here we demonstrate the use of metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) and appropriate substrate selection to control the crystallographic growth directions of high-density arrays of gallium nitride nanowires with distinct geometric and physical properties. Epitaxial growth of wurtzite gallium nitride on (100) gamma-LiAlO(2) and (111) MgO single-crystal substrates resulted in the selective growth of nanowires in the orthogonal [1\\[Evec]0] and [001] directions, exhibiting triangular and hexagonal cross-sections and drastically different optical emission. The MOCVD process is entirely compatible with the current GaN thin-film technology, which would lead to easy scale-up and device integration.

  7. High-Density Superconducting Cables for Advanced ACTPol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, C. G.; Austermann, J.; Beall, J. A.; Duff, S. M.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Henderson, S. W.; Ho, S. P.; Koopman, B. J.; Li, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upcoming Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) receiver upgrade, scheduled to deploy in 2016, that will allow measure- ment of the cosmic microwave background polarization and temperature to the highest precision yet with ACT. The AdvACT increase in sensitivity is partly provided by an increase in the number of transition-edge sensors (TESes) per array by up to a factor of two over the current ACTPol receiver detector arrays. The high-density AdvACT TES arrays require 70 µ m pitch superconducting flexible cables (flex) to connect the detec- tor wafer to the first-stage readout electronics. Here, we present the flex fabrication process and test results. For the flex wiring layer, we use a 400-nm-thick sputtered alu- minum film. In the center of the cable, the wiring is supported by a polyimide substrate, which smoothly transitions to a bare (uncoated with polyimide) silicon substrate at the ends of the cable for a robust wedge wire-bonding interface. Tests on the first batch of flex made for the first AdvACT array show that the flex will meet the requirements for AdvACT, with a superconducting critical current above 1 mA at 500 mK, resilience to mechanical and cryogenic stress, and a room temperature yield of 97%.

  8. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  9. High Density Lipoprotein: A Therapeutic Target in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Barter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available High density lipoproteins (HDLs have a number of properties that have the potential to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis and thus reduce the risk of having a cardiovascular event. These protective effects of HDLs may be reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, a condition in which the concentration of HDL cholesterol is frequently low. In addition to their potential cardioprotective properties, HDLs also increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and stimulate the synthesis and secretion of insulin from pancreatic β cells and may thus have a beneficial effect on glycemic control. This raises the possibility that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for targeting HDLs in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and also to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL levels include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. There is an ongoing search for HDL-raising drugs as agents to use in patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the HDL level remains low despite lifestyle interventions.

  10. High Density Nano-Electrode Array for Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mano Misra

    2010-05-07

    Bulk single crystals of Cd1-xZnxTe (x=0.04 to x=0.2) compound semiconductor is used for room temperature radiation detection. The production of large volume of Cd1-xZnxTe with low defect density is expensive. As a result there is a growing research interest in the production of nanostructured compound semiconductors such as Cd1-xZnxTe in an electrochemical route. In this investigation, Cd1-xZnxTe ternary compound semiconductor, referred as CZT, was electrodeposited in the form of nanowires onto a TiO2 nanotubular template from propylene carbonate as the non-aqueous electrolyte, using a pulse-reverse electrodeposition process at 130 ºC. The template acted as a support in growing ordered nanowire of CZT which acts as a one dimensional conductor. Cyclic Voltammogram (CV) studies were conducted in determining the potentials for the growth of nanowires of uniform stoichiometry. The morphologies and composition of CZT were characterized by using SEM, TEM and XRD. The STEM mapping carried out on the nanowires showed the uniform distribution of Cd, Zn and Te elements. TEM image showed that the nanowires were polycrystalline in nature. The Mott-Schottky analysis carried on the nanowires showed that the nanowires were a p-type semiconductor. The carrier density, band gap and resistivity of the Cd0.9Zn0.1Te nanowires were 4.29x1013 cm-3, 1.56 eV and 2.76x1011Ω-cm respectively. The high resistivity was attributed to the presence of deep defect states such as cadmium vacancies or Te antisites which were created by the anodic cycle of the pulse-reverse electrodeposition process. Stacks of series connected CZT nanowire arrays were tested with different bias potentials. The background current was in the order of tens of picoamperes. When exposed to radiation source Amerecium-241 (60 KeV, 4 μCi), the stacked CZT nanowires arrays showed sensing behavior. The sensitivity of the nanowire arrays increased as the number of stacks increased. The preliminary results indicate that the

  11. Age-related decrease in rod bipolar cell density of the human retina ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During normal ageing, the rods (and other neurones) undergo a significant decrease in density in the human retina from the fourth decade of life onward. Since the rods synapse with the rod bipolar cells in the outer plexiform layer, a decline in rod density (mainly due to death) may ultimately cause an associated decline of ...

  12. Chemically and Thermally Stable High Energy Density Silicone Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermal energy storage systems with 300 ? 1000 kJ/kg energy density through either phase changes or chemical heat absorption are sought by NASA. This proposed effort...

  13. High volumetric power density, non-enzymatic, glucose fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oncescu, Vlad; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    The development of new implantable medical devices has been limited in the past by slow advances in lithium battery technology. Non-enzymatic glucose fuel cells are promising replacement candidates for lithium batteries because of good long-term stability and adequate power density. The devices developed to date however use an ?oxygen depletion design? whereby the electrodes are stacked on top of each other leading to low volumetric power density and complicated fabrication protocols. Here we...

  14. Stability Of Rubble Mound Breakwaters Using High Density Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Beck, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses the effect of mass density on stability of rubble mound breakwaters. A short literature review of existing knowledge is give to establish a background for the ongoing research. Furthermore, several model tests are described in which the stability of rubble mound...... breakwaters with armour stones of different densities are investigated. The results from the model test are discussed with respect to application and further research....

  15. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2010-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) and multi-level cell (MLC) NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  16. Radiation Tests of Highly scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories--Update 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Nguyen, Duc N.

    2011-01-01

    High-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories with NAND architecture are now available from several manufacturers. This report examines SEE effects and TID response in single-level cell (SLC) 32Gb and multi-level cell (MLC) 64Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology.

  17. Compensated readout for high-density MOS-gated memristor crossbar array

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2015-01-01

    Leakage current is one of the main challenges facing high-density MOS-gated memristor arrays. In this study, we show that leakage current ruins the memory readout process for high-density arrays, and analyze the tradeoff between the array density and its power consumption. We propose a novel readout technique and its underlying circuitry, which is able to compensate for the transistor leakage-current effect in the high-density gated memristor array.

  18. High energy density physics issues related to Future Circular Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Burkart, F.; Schmidt, R.; Shutov, A.; Wollmann, D.; Piriz, A. R.

    2017-07-01

    A design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider accelerator named, Future Circular Collider (FCC), is being carried out by the International Scientific Community. A complete design report is expected to be ready by spring 2018. The FCC will accelerate two counter rotating beams of 50 TeV protons in a tunnel having a length (circumference) of 100 km. Each beam will be comprised of 10 600 proton bunches, with each bunch having an intensity of 1011 protons. The bunch length is of 0.5 ns, and two neighboring bunches are separated by 25 ns. Although there is an option for 5 ns bunch separation as well, in the present studies, we consider the former case only. The total energy stored in each FCC beam is about 8.5 GJ, which is equivalent to the kinetic energy of Airbus 380 (560 t) flying at a speed of 850 km/h. Machine protection is a very important issue while operating with such powerful beams. It is important to have an estimate of the damage caused to the equipment and accelerator components due to the accidental release of a partial or total beam at a given point. For this purpose, we carried out numerical simulations of full impact of one FCC beam on an extended solid copper target. These simulations have been done employing an energy deposition code, FLUKA, and a two-dimensional hydrodynamic code, BIG2, iteratively. This study shows that although the static range of a single FCC proton and its shower is about 1.5 m in solid copper, the entire beam will penetrate around 350 m into the target. This substantial increase in the range is due to the hydrodynamic tunneling of the beam. Our calculations also show that a large part of the target will be converted into high energy density matter including warm dense matter and strongly coupled plasmas.

  19. Differential analysis for high density tiling microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapranov Philipp

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High density oligonucleotide tiling arrays are an effective and powerful platform for conducting unbiased genome-wide studies. The ab initio probe selection method employed in tiling arrays is unbiased, and thus ensures consistent sampling across coding and non-coding regions of the genome. These arrays are being increasingly used to study the associated processes of transcription, transcription factor binding, chromatin structure and their association. Studies of differential expression and/or regulation provide critical insight into the mechanics of transcription and regulation that occurs during the developmental program of a cell. The time-course experiment, which comprises an in-vivo system and the proposed analyses, is used to determine if annotated and un-annotated portions of genome manifest coordinated differential response to the induced developmental program. Results We have proposed a novel approach, based on a piece-wise function – to analyze genome-wide differential response. This enables segmentation of the response based on protein-coding and non-coding regions; for genes the methodology also partitions differential response with a 5' versus 3' versus intra-genic bias. Conclusion The algorithm built upon the framework of Significance Analysis of Microarrays, uses a generalized logic to define regions/patterns of coordinated differential change. By not adhering to the gene-centric paradigm, discordant differential expression patterns between exons and introns have been identified at a FDR of less than 12 percent. A co-localization of differential binding between RNA Polymerase II and tetra-acetylated histone has been quantified at a p-value -13. The prototype R code has been made available as supplementary material [see Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 gsam_prototypercode.zip. File archive comprising of prototype R code for gSAM implementation including readme and examples. Click here for file

  20. Surface interactions involved in flashover with high density electronegative gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Keith Conquest; Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Wallace, Zachariah Red; Lehr, Jane Marie

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the interactions involved with flashover along a surface in high density electronegative gases. The focus is on fast ionization processes rather than the later time ionic drift or thermalization of the discharge. A kinetic simulation of the gas and surface is used to examine electron multiplication and includes gas collision, excitation and ionization, and attachment processes, gas photoionization and surface photoemission processes, as well as surface attachment. These rates are then used in a 1.5D fluid ionization wave (streamer) model to study streamer propagation with and without the surface in air and in SF6. The 1.5D model therefore includes rates for all these processes. To get a better estimate for the behavior of the radius we have studied radial expansion of the streamer in air and in SF6. The focus of the modeling is on voltage and field level changes (with and without a surface) rather than secondary effects, such as, velocities or changes in discharge path. An experiment has been set up to carry out measurements of threshold voltages, streamer velocities, and other discharge characteristics. This setup includes both electrical and photographic diagnostics (streak and framing cameras). We have observed little change in critical field levels (where avalanche multiplication sets in) in the gas alone versus with the surface. Comparisons between model calculations and experimental measurements are in agreement with this. We have examined streamer sustaining fields (field which maintains ionization wave propagation) in the gas and on the surface. Agreement of the gas levels with available literature is good and agreement between experiment and calculation is good also. Model calculations do not indicate much difference between the gas alone versus the surface levels. Experiments have identified differences in velocity between streamers on the surface and in the gas alone (the surface values being larger).

  1. Progress of cardioprotective effects of high density lipoprotein: function and mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ge SUN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma is a heterogeneous lipoprotein consisting of roughly equal contents of lipid and protein in roughly equal content, and it consists of several subtypes. HDL possesses several well-documented functions, including anti-atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, inhibiting vascular inflammation, preventing thrombosis and apoptosis, and promoting endothelial repair. Recently, more cardiovascular protective functions of HDL have been found, mainly including the ability of suppressing immune inflammatory reaction, inhibiting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, and regulating the plasma glucose level. It is of great importance to understand how different HDL subtypes contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.13

  2. Effects of acute exercise on high density lipoprotein cholesterol and high density lipoprotein subfractions in moderately trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P M; Fowler, S; Warty, V; Danduran, M; Visich, P; Keteyian, S

    1998-03-01

    Increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have previously been reported after moderate exercise bouts lasting less than two hours in men. Little information exists, however, on HDL-C responses after moderate duration exercise in women. Post-exercise HDL-C modifications may appear differently in women because of higher baseline HDL-C concentrations and differences in lipolytic activity. To determine the influence of exercise on acute HDL-C responses in women, 12 trained premenopausal women (22 (4) years old; mean (SD)) who ran 24-48 km a week exercised on a motor driven treadmill at 75% VO2MAX until 3.34 MJ (800 kcal) were expended (72 (9) min). Subjects were all tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Fasting blood samples were obtained before exercise (baseline), immediately after (IPE), one hour after (1 h PE), 24 hours after (24 h PE), and 48 hours after (48 h PE) exercise. Plasma was analysed for HDL-C, HDL2-C, and HDL3-C. A significant increase in HDL-C was observed 48 h PE (p<0.05). HDL3-C increased IPE (p<0.01) but returned to baseline at 1 h PE. In contrast, HDL2-C was not significantly different from baseline at any time point. The rise in HDL-C, however, was attributed to an increase in both HDL2 and HDL3. Moreover, at 48 h PE, the increase in HDL-C correlated highly with changes in HDL2-C (r = 0.92). Thus it appears that exercise of moderate duration can elicit similar post-exercise increases in HDL-C in women to those previously reported in men. However, the changes in HDL subfractions leading to the rise in HDL-C may be different in women.

  3. High Power Density and High Temperature Converter Design for Transportation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruxi

    2012-01-01

    The continual development of high-power-density power electronic converters is driven particularly by modern transportation applications like electrical vehicles and more electric aircraft where the space and carrier capability is limited. However, there are several challenges related to transportation applications such as fault tolerance for safety concern, high temperature operation in extreme environments and more strict electromagnetic compatibility requirement. These challenges will incr...

  4. Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A

    2013-09-01

    Humans are unusual among mammals in appearing hairless. Several hypotheses propose explanations for this phenotype, but few data are available to test these hypotheses. To elucidate the evolutionary history of human "hairlessness," a comparative approach is needed. One previous study on primate hair density concluded that great apes have systematically less dense hair than smaller primates. While there is a negative correlation between body size and hair density, it remains unclear whether great apes have less dense hair than is expected for their body size. To revisit the scaling relationship between hair density and body size in mammals, I compiled data from the literature on 23 primates and 29 nonprimate mammals and conducted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares regressions. Among anthropoids, there is a significant negative correlation between hair density and body mass. Chimpanzees display the largest residuals, exhibiting less dense hair than is expected for their body size. There is a negative correlation between hair density and body mass among the broader mammalian sample, although the functional significance of this scaling relationship remains to be tested. Results indicate that all primates, and chimpanzees in particular, are relatively hairless compared to other mammals. This suggests that there may have been selective pressures acting on the ancestor of humans and chimpanzees that led to an initial reduction in hair density. To further understand the evolution of human hairlessness, a systematic study of hair density and physiology in a wide range of species is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves suppressed oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro and in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Miu; Tani, Mariko; Kishimoto, Yoshimi; Iizuka, Maki; Saita, Emi; Toyozaki, Miku; Kamiya, Tomoyasu; Ikeguchi, Motoya; Kondo, Kazuo

    2011-05-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves are consumed as vegetables around the world, especially in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of sweet potato leaves on low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro and in human subjects. We compared the antioxidant activity of 8 kinds of sweet potato leaves. Every sweet potato leaf had high radical scavenging activity and prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro. We found that sweet potato leaves contained abundant polyphenol compounds and the radical scavenging activity and prolongation rate of lag time were highly correlated with total polyphenol content. We also confirmed that thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production was increased in endothelial cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, which was decreased by treatment with sweet potato leaves. We further measured the low-density lipoprotein oxidizability in 13 healthy volunteers after their intake of 18 g of "Suioh", raw sweet potato leaves. "Suioh" prolonged a lag time for starting low-density lipoprotein oxidation and decreased low-density lipoprotein mobility. These results suggest that sweet potato leaves have antioxidant activity leading to the suppression of low-density lipoprotein oxidation.

  6. Plasticity in mitochondrial cristae density allows metabolic capacity modulation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Joachim; Gejl, Kasper D; Hey-Mogensen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    , in human skeletal muscle, contrary to the current view, the mitochondrial cristae density is not constant, but exhibits plasticity with long-term endurance training. Furthermore, we show that frequently recruited mitochondria-enriched fibres have significantly increased cristae density and that, at whole......Mitochondrial energy production involves the movement of protons down a large electrochemical gradient through ATP synthase located on the folded inner membrane, known as cristae. In mammalian skeletal muscle, the density of cristae in mitochondria is thought to be constant. However, recent......-body level, muscle mitochondrial cristae density is a better predictor of maximal oxygen uptake rate than muscle mitochondrial volume. Our findings establish elevating mitochondrial cristae density as a regulatory mechanism for increasing metabolic power in human skeletal muscle. We propose...

  7. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  8. Plasma lipases and lipid transfer proteins increase phospholipid but not free cholesterol transfer from lipid emulsion to high density lipoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Faria Eliana C

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma lipases and lipid transfer proteins are involved in the generation and speciation of high density lipoproteins. In this study we have examined the influence of plasma lipases and lipid transfer protein activities on the transfer of free cholesterol (FC and phospholipids (PL from lipid emulsion to human, rat and mouse lipoproteins. The effect of the lipases was verified by incubation of labeled (3H-FC,14C-PL triglyceride rich emulsion with human plasma (control, post-heparin and post-heparin plus lipase inhibitor, rat plasma (control and post-heparin and by the injection of the labeled lipid emulsion into control and heparinized functionally hepatectomized rats. Results In vitro, the lipase enriched plasma stimulated significantly the transfer of 14C-PL from emulsion to high density lipoprotein (p3H-FC. In hepatectomized rats, heparin stimulation of intravascular lipolysis increased the plasma removal of 14C-PL and the amount of 14C-PL found in the low density lipoprotein density fraction but not in the high density lipoprotein density fraction. The in vitro and in vivo experiments showed that free cholesterol and phospholipids were transferred from lipid emulsion to plasma lipoproteins independently from each other. The incubation of human plasma, control and control plus monoclonal antibody anti-cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, with 14C-PL emulsion showed that CETP increases 14C-PL transfer to human HDL, since its partial inhibition by the anti-CETP antibody reduced significantly the 14C-PL transfer (p14C-PL distribution in mice lipoproteins was observed. Conclusions It is concluded that: 1-intravascular lipases stimulate phospholipid transfer protein mediated phospholipid transfer, but not free cholesterol, from triglyceride rich particles to human high density lipoproteins and rat low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins; 2-free cholesterol and phospholipids are transferred from triglyceride

  9. Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) coexisting at high density with people in Wukro district, northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; Ersino, Wondimu; De Iongh, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    hyenas per 100 km2 or a total population of 535 hyenas in the district. We quantified the economic impact of spotted hyena predation on livestock using semi structured interviews with randomly selected households. Respondents indicated a total loss of 203 domestic animals to hyena depredation over......We surveyed density and abundance of spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in the highly degraded and prey depleted Wukro district, northern Ethiopia, with a human population density of 98 persons per square kilometer. A total of 117 spotted hyenas responded to callups, giving a hyena density of 52...

  10. Current-voltage curve of a bipolar membrane at high current density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aritomi, T.; van den Boomgaard, Anthonie; Strathmann, H.

    1996-01-01

    The potential drop across a bipolar membrane was measured as a function of the applied current density. As a result, an inflection point was observed in the obtained current-voltage curve at high current density. This inflection point indicates that at high current densities water supply from

  11. Trypanosome lytic factor, an antimicrobial high-density lipoprotein, ameliorates Leishmania infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Samanovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF is a minor sub-fraction of human high-density lipoprotein that provides innate immunity by completely protecting humans from infection by most species of African trypanosomes, which belong to the Kinetoplastida order. Herein, we demonstrate the broader protective effects of human TLF, which inhibits intracellular infection by Leishmania, a kinetoplastid that replicates in phagolysosomes of macrophages. We show that TLF accumulates within the parasitophorous vacuole of macrophages in vitro and reduces the number of Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes, but not amastigotes. We do not detect any activation of the macrophages by TLF in the presence or absence of Leishmania, and therefore propose that TLF directly damages the parasite in the acidic parasitophorous vacuole. To investigate the physiological relevance of this observation, we have reconstituted lytic activity in vivo by generating mice that express the two main protein components of TLFs: human apolipoprotein L-I and haptoglobin-related protein. Both proteins are expressed in mice at levels equivalent to those found in humans and circulate within high-density lipoproteins. We find that TLF mice can ameliorate an infection with Leishmania by significantly reducing the pathogen burden. In contrast, TLF mice were not protected against infection by the kinetoplastid Trypanosoma cruzi, which infects many cell types and transiently passes through a phagolysosome. We conclude that TLF not only determines species specificity for African trypanosomes, but can also ameliorate an infection with Leishmania, while having no effect on T. cruzi. We propose that TLFs are a component of the innate immune system that can limit infections by their ability to selectively damage pathogens in phagolysosomes within the reticuloendothelial system.

  12. Human Plasma Very Low Density Lipoprotein Carries Indian Hedgehog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Tio, Rene A.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Zijlstra, Felix; Badlou, Bahram; de Vries, Marcel; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Spek, C. Arnold; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog is one of the major morphogens and fulfils critical functions in both the development and maintenance of the vasculature. Hedgehog is highly hydrophobic and its diffusion toward target tissues remains only partly understood. In Drosophila, hedgehog transport via lipophorins is relevant for

  13. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  14. Higher-Density Culture in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Results in DNA Damage and Genome Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Kurt; Zambelli, Filippo; Mertzanidou, Afroditi; Smolders, Ilse; Geens, Mieke; Nguyen, Ha Thi; Barbé, Lise; Sermon, Karen; Spits, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Summary Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) show great promise for clinical and research applications, but their well-known proneness to genomic instability hampers the development to their full potential. Here, we demonstrate that medium acidification linked to culture density is the main cause of DNA damage and genomic alterations in hESC grown on feeder layers, and this even in the short time span of a single passage. In line with this, we show that increasing the frequency of the medium refreshments minimizes the levels of DNA damage and genetic instability. Also, we show that cells cultured on laminin-521 do not present this increase in DNA damage when grown at high density, although the (long-term) impact on their genomic stability remains to be elucidated. Our results explain the high levels of genome instability observed over the years by many laboratories worldwide, and show that the development of optimal culture conditions is key to solving this problem. PMID:26923824

  15. Ultra-high cell-density silicon photomultipliers with high detection efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, Fabio; Gola, Alberto; Regazzoni, Veronica; Paternoster, Giovanni; Borghi, Giacomo; Piemonte, Claudio; Zorzi, Nicola

    2017-05-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are arrays of many single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), all connected in parallel. Each SPAD is sensitive to single photons and the SiPM gives an output proportional to the number of detected photons. These sensors are becoming more and more popular in different applications, from high-energy physics to spectroscopy, and they have been significantly improved over last years, decreasing the noise, increasing the cell fill-factor (FF) and thus achieving very high photon-detection efficiency (PDE). In FBK (Trento, Italy), we developed new SiPM technologies with high-density (HD) and, more recently, ultra-high-density (UHD) of cells (i.e. density of SPADs). These technologies employ deep-trenches between cells, for electrical and optical isolation. As an extreme case the smallest-cell, SiPM, i.e. with 5μm cell pitch, has about 40000 SPADs per squared millimeter. Such small SPAD dimensions gives a significantly high dynamic range to the SiPM. These small-cells SiPM have a lower correlated noise (including lower afterpulsing probability) and a faster recharge time (in the order of few nanoseconds), and they also preserve a very good detection efficiency (despite the small SPAD dimension).

  16. Test of high density UC targets development at Gatchina for neutron rich radioactive beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Lhersonneau, G; Lanchais, A; Rizzi, V; Tecchio, L.B; Bajeat, O; Essabaa, S; Lau, C; Cheikh Mhamed, M; Roussière, B; Barzakh, A.E; Fedorov, D.V; lonan, A.M; lvanov, V.S; Mezilev, K.A; Moroz, F.V; Orlov, S.YU; Panteleevc, V.N; Volkovc, YU.M; Dubois, M; Eléon, C; Gaubert, G; Jardin, P; Leroy, R; Saint Laurent, M.G; Villari, A.C.C; Stroe, L; 10.1016/j.nimb.2008.05.033

    2008-01-01

    Production of on-line mass separator neutron rich isotopes using fission induced by 1 GeV protons on high density uranium carbide has been investigate and results compared with the low density targets yields.

  17. Estimates of high absolute densities and emergence rates of demersal zooplankton from the Agatti Atoll, laccadives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.

    Direct sampling of the sandy substratus of the Agatti Lagoon with a corer showed the presence of vary high densities of epibenthic forms. On average, densities were about 25 times higher than previously estimated with emergence traps. About 80...

  18. Biofuels Barrier Properties of Polyamide 6 and High Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillot L.-A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison of the biofuels barrier properties of PolyAmide 6 (PA6 and High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE is presented. Model fuels were prepared as mixtures of toluene, isooctane and ethanol, the ethanol volume fraction varying between 0% and 100%. Barrier properties were determined at 40°C by gravimetric techniques or gas chromatography measurements, and it was shown that polyamide 6 permeability is lower than that of polyethylene on a wide range of ethanol contents up to 85% of ethanol (E85 in the biofuel, permeability of PA6 being 100 times lower than that of HDPE for low ethanol content fuels (E5, E0. The time-lags were also compared, and on the whole range of ethanol contents, HDPE permeation kinetics appears to be much faster than that of PA6, the time lag for a 1 mm thick specimens in presence of E10 being 50 days for PA6 and 0.5 days for HDPE. The compositions of the solvent fluxes were analyzed by FID gas chromatography, and it turned out that the solvent flux was mainly made up of ethanol (minimum 95% in the case of PA6, whereas in the case of HDPE, solvent flux was mainly made up of hydrocarbons. The implication of this difference in the solvent flux composition is discussed in the present article, and a side effect called the “fuel exhaustion process” is presented. The influence of the sample thickness was then studied, and for the different biofuels compositions, the pervaporation kinetics of polyamide 6 appeared to evolve with the square of the thickness, a long transitory regime being highlighted in the case of PA6. This result implies that the time needed to characterize the steady state permeability of thick PA6 parts such as fuel tanks can be very long (one year or more, this duration being far superior to the Euros 5 or Euro 6 standard emission measurements time scale. The influence of temperature on the permeability was finally assessed, and the activation energy that is the signature of the temperature

  19. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion of a high density fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabbs, Theodore A.; Merritt, Sylvia A.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel-rich catalytic combustion (ER is greater than 4) of the high density fuel exo-tetrahydrocyclopentadiene (JP-10) was studied over the equivalence ratio range 5.0 to 7.6, which yielded combustion temperatures of 1220 to 1120 K. The process produced soot-free gaseous products similar to those obtained with iso-octane and jet-A in previous studies. The measured combustion temperature agreed well with that calculated assuming soot was not a combustion product. The process raised the effective hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio from 1.6 to over 2.0, thus significantly improving the combustion properties of the fuel. At an equivalence ratio near 5.0, about 80 percent of the initial fuel carbon was in light gaseous products and about 20 percent in larger condensable molecules. Fuel-rich catalytic combustion has now been studied for three fuels with H/C ratios of 2.25 (iso-octane), 1.92 (jet-A), and 1.6 (JP-10). A comparison of the product distribution of these fuels shows that, in general, the measured concentrations of the combustion products were monotonic functions of the H/C ratio with the exception of hydrogen and ethylene. In these cases, data for JP-10 fell between iso-octane and jet-A rather than beyond jet-A. It is suggested that the ring cross-linking structure of JP-10 may be responsible for this behavior. All the fuels studied showed that the largest amounts of small hydrocarbon molecules and the smallest amounts of large condensable molecules occurred at the lower equivalence ratios. This corresponds to the highest combustion temperatures used in these studies. Although higher temperatures may improve this mix, the temperature is limited. First, the life of the present catalyst would be greatly shortened when operated at temperatures of 1300 K or greater. Second, fuel-rich catalytic combustion does not produce soot because the combustion temperatures used in the experiments were well below the threshold temperature (1350 K) for the formation of soot. Increasing

  20. Patterned magnetic thin films for ultra high density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.; Haast, M.A.M.; Abelmann, Leon; Hadjipanayis, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    The areal bit density of magnetic disk recording has increased since 1990 60% per year and even in the last years 100%. Extrapolation of these rates leads to recording parameters not likely to be achieved without changes in the present way of storing hard disk data. One of the possible solutions is

  1. Methods for preparing patterned media for high-density recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The areal bit density of magnetic disk recording has made a colossal increase over the last decades. Extrapolation leads to recording parameters not likely to be achieved without changes in the present way of storing magnetic data. One of the potential solutions is the use of patterned media, which

  2. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    assessments of these specific VSCs so that their power densities and reliabilities are quantitatively determined, which requires extensive utilization of the electro-thermal models of the VSCs under investigation. In this thesis, the three-level neutral-point-clamped VSCs (3L-NPC-VSCs), which are classified...

  3. High-energy-density electron beam from interaction of two successive laser pulses with subcritical-density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is shown by particle-in-cell simulations that a narrow electron beam with high energy and charge density can be generated in a subcritical-density plasma by two consecutive laser pulses. Although the first laser pulse dissipates rapidly, the second pulse can propagate for a long distance in the thin wake channel created by the first pulse and can further accelerate the preaccelerated electrons therein. Given that the second pulse also self-focuses, the resulting electron beam has a narrow waist and high charge and energy densities. Such beams are useful for enhancing the target-back space-charge field in target normal sheath acceleration of ions and bremsstrahlung sources, among others.

  4. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  5. High density event-related potential data acquisition in cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-04-16

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the standard method of evaluating brain function in the field of Cognitive Neuroscience, in part because fMRI data acquisition and analysis techniques are readily available. Because fMRI has excellent spatial resolution but poor temporal resolution, this method can only be used to identify the spatial location of brain activity associated with a given cognitive process (and reveals virtually nothing about the time course of brain activity). By contrast, event-related potential (ERP) recording, a method that is used much less frequently than fMRI, has excellent temporal resolution and thus can track rapid temporal modulations in neural activity. Unfortunately, ERPs are under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and low density ERP recording has poor spatial resolution. In an effort to foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition. Critically, high density ERPs offer the promise of excellent temporal resolution and good spatial resolution (or excellent spatial resolution if coupled with fMRI), which is necessary to capture the spatial-temporal dynamics of human brain function.

  6. The HDL hypothesis: does high-density lipoprotein protect from atherosclerosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Menno; Holleboom, Adriaan G; Kastelein, John J P; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert

    2010-08-01

    There is unequivocal evidence of an inverse association between plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease, a finding that has led to the hypothesis that HDL protects from atherosclerosis. This review details the experimental evidence for this "HDL hypothesis". In vitro studies suggest that HDL has a wide range of anti-atherogenic properties but validation of these functions in humans is absent to date. A significant number of animal studies and clinical trials support an atheroprotective role for HDL; however, most of these findings were obtained in the context of marked changes in other plasma lipids. Finally, genetic studies in humans have not provided convincing evidence that HDL genes modulate cardiovascular risk. Thus, despite a wealth of information on this intriguing lipoprotein, future research remains essential to prove the HDL hypothesis correct.

  7. High Volumetric Energy Density Hybrid Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide Scrolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Janardhanan R; Thangavel, Ranjith; Oh, Se-I; Woo, Jeong Min; Chandra Das, Nayan; Kim, So-Yeon; Lee, Yun-Sung; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2017-07-12

    The low volumetric energy density of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based electrodes limits its application in commercial electrochemical energy storage devices that require high-performance energy storage capacities in small volumes. The volumetric energy density of rGO-based electrode materials is very low due to their low packing density. A supercapacitor with enhanced packing density and high volumetric energy density is fabricated using doped rGO scrolls (GFNSs) as the electrode material. The restacking of rGO sheets is successfully controlled through synthesizing the doped scroll structures while increasing the packing density. The fabricated cell exhibits an ultrahigh volumetric energy density of 49.66 Wh/L with excellent cycling stability (>10 000 cycles). This unique design strategy for the electrode material has significant potential for the future supercapacitors with high volumetric energy densities.

  8. Low total, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with complex congenital heart disease after Fontan palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Wendy; Tan, Meng; Yu, Sunkyung; Rocchini, Albert

    2013-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that patients with complex congenital heart disease who have undergone Fontan palliation have low total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. We retrospectively reviewed the random serum lipid profiles obtained at cardiology clinic visits between May 2010 and November 2011 in patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure. We compared these serum lipid levels against age- and sex-matched established normal data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone the Fontan procedure also had laboratory test data obtained during their visits. Median total cholesterol level in the Fontan group was 127 mg/dL (IQR, 116-144 mg/dL), median HDL-C was 40 mg/dL (IQR, 33-45 mg/dL), median non-HDL-C was 86 mg/dL (IQR, 76-109 mg/dL), and median LDL-C was 66 mg/dL (IQR, 57-83 mg/dL). Total cholesterol, LDL-C, non-HDL-C, and HDL-C levels were significantly lower in patients who had undergone a Fontan procedure compared with age- and sex-matched normal individuals (mean z-score, -1.4, -1.2, -1.0, and -1.0 respectively; all P<.0001). Cholesterol levels were below the 25th percentile for age and sex for total cholesterol in 82% of patients, for LDL-C in 76%, for non-HDL-C in 67%, and for HDL-C in 57%. Patients who have undergone the Fontan procedure have significantly lower serum total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C levels than age- and sex-matched normal individuals. Although the implications of this finding are unknown, it raises the possibility of abnormalities in cholesterol absorption, synthesis, or catabolism in this patient population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High density thermite mixture for shaped charge ordnance disposal

    OpenAIRE

    Elshenawy, Tamer; Soliman, Salah; Hawass, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The effect of thermite mixture based on aluminum and ferric oxides for ammunition neutralization has been studied and tested. Thermochemical calculations have been carried out for different percentage of Al using Chemical Equilibrium Code to expect the highest performance thermite mixture used for shaped charge ordnance disposal. Densities and enthalpy of different formulations have been calculated and demonstrated. The optimized thermite formulation has been prepared experimentally using col...

  10. Microfabricated Fountain Pens for High-Density DNA Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Matthew O.; van Dam, R. Michae; Scherer, Axel; Quake, Stephen R.

    2003-01-01

    We used photolithographic microfabrication techniques to create very small stainless steel fountain pens that were installed in place of conventional pens on a microarray spotter. Because of the small feature size produced by the microfabricated pens, we were able to print arrays with up to 25,000 spots/cm2, significantly higher than can be achieved by other deposition methods. This feature density is sufficiently large that a standard microscope slide can contain multiple replicates of every...

  11. The 3D Stacking Bipolar RRAM for High Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    schemes for STT- MRAM in 0.13µm CMOS,” in IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference Digest of Technical Papers (ISSCC), 2010, pp. 256– 257. [5] I...Conventionally, multiple bipolar RRAM layers are piled up vertically separated with isolation material to prevent signal interference between the...array density. Conventionally, multiple bipolar RRAM layers are piled up vertically separated with isolation material to prevent signal interference

  12. Capped bit patterned media for high density magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Livshitz, Boris; Bertram, H. Neal; Inomata, Akihiro; Fullerton, Eric E.; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2009-04-01

    A capped composite patterned medium design is described which comprises an array of hard elements exchange coupled to a continuous cap layer. The role of the cap layer is to lower the write field of the individual hard element and introduce ferromagnetic exchange interactions between hard elements to compensate the magnetostatic interactions. Modeling results show significant reduction in the reversal field distributions caused by the magnetization states in the array which is important to prevent bit errors and increase achievable recording densities.

  13. Microstructure Evolution of Cu-Cored Sn Solder Joints Under High Temperature and High Current Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Xianzhang; Wu, Ping

    2013-08-01

    This work investigated the microstructure evolution of Cu-cored Sn solder joints under high temperature and high current density. The Cu6Sn5 phase formed at both the Cu core/Sn interface and Cu wire/Sn interface right after reflow and grew with increasing annealing time, while the Cu3Sn phase formed and grew at the Cu/Cu6Sn5 interfaces. Intermetallic compound (IMC) growth followed a linear relationship with the square root of annealing time due to a diffusion-controlled mechanism. Under high current density, the thickness of the interfacial IMCs of the Cu core/Sn interface at the cathode side increased and the Cu core/Sn interface at the anode side exhibited an irregular and serrated morphology with prolonged current stressing time. Finite-element simulation was carried out to obtain the distribution of current density in the solder joint. Since Cu has lower resistivity, the electrical current primarily selected the Cu core as its electrical path, resulting in current crowding at the Cu core and the region between the Cu core and Cu wire. Compared with the conventional solder joint, the electromigration (EM) lifetime of the Cu-cored solder joint was much longer.

  14. Extract of mangosteen increases high density lipoprotein levels in rats fed high lipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Laksono Adiputro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cardiovascular medicine, Garcinia mangostana has been used as an antioxidant to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoproteins and as an antiobesity agent. The effect of Garcinia mangostana on hyperlipidemia is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp on lipid profile in rats fed a high lipid diet. METHODS A total of 40 rats were divided into five groups control, high lipid diet, and high lipid diet + ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp at dosages of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg body weight. The control group received a standard diet for 60 days. The high lipid diet group received standard diet plus egg yolk, goat fat, cholic acid, and pig fat for 60 days with or without ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp by the oral route. After 60 days, rats were anesthesized with ether for collection of blood by cardiac puncture. Analysis of blood lipid profile comprised colorimetric determination of cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high density lipoprotein (HDL. RESULTS From the results of one-way ANOVA it was concluded that there were significant between-group differences in cholesterol, trygliceride, LDL, and HDL levels (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly decreased cholesterol, trygliceride, and LDL levels, starting at 400 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp significantly increased HDL level starting at 200 mg/kg body weight (p=0.000. CONCLUSION Ethanolic extract of Garcinia mangostana pericarp has a beneficial effect on lipid profile in rats on a high lipid diet.

  15. Micro-computed tomography assessment of human alveolar bone: bone density and three-dimensional micro-architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jeong; Henkin, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a valuable means to evaluate and secure information related to bone density and quality in human necropsy samples and small live animals. The aim of this study was to assess the bone density of the alveolar jaw bones in human cadaver, using micro-CT. The correlation between bone density and three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was evaluated. Thirty-four human cadaver jaw bone specimens were harvested. Each specimen was scanned with micro-CT at resolution of 10.5 μm. The bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and the bone mineral density (BMD) value within a volume of interest were measured. The three-dimensional micro architecture of trabecular bone was assessed. All the parameters in the maxilla and the mandible were subject to comparison. The variables for the bone density and the three-dimensional micro architecture were analyzed for nonparametric correlation using Spearman's rho at the significance level of p architecture parameters were consistently higher in the mandible, up to 3.3 times greater than those in the maxilla. The most linear correlation was observed between BV/TV and BMD, with Spearman's rho = 0.99 (p = .01). Both BV/TV and BMD were highly correlated with all micro architecture parameters with Spearman's rho above 0.74 (p = .01). Two aspects of bone density using micro-CT, the BV/TV and BMD, are highly correlated with three-dimensional micro architecture parameters, which represent the quality of trabecular bone. This noninvasive method may adequately enhance evaluation of the alveolar bone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reliability of High I/O High Density CCGA Interconnect Electronic Packages under Extreme Thermal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non-destructive inspection tools were used to assess the reliability of high density CCGA packages for deep space extreme temperature missions. Ceramic column grid array (CCGA) packages have been increasing in use based on their advantages such as high interconnect density, very good thermal and electrical performances, compatibility with standard surface-mount packaging assembly processes, and so on. CCGA packages are used in space applications such as in logic and microprocessor functions, telecommunications, payload electronics, and flight avionics. As these packages tend to have less solder joint strain relief than leaded packages or more strain relief over lead-less chip carrier packages, the reliability of CCGA packages is very important for short-term and long-term deep space missions. We have employed high density CCGA 1152 and 1272 daisy chained electronic packages in this preliminary reliability study. Each package is divided into several daisy-chained sections. The physical dimensions of CCGA1152 package is 35 mm x 35 mm with a 34 x 34 array of columns with a 1 mm pitch. The dimension of the CCGA1272 package is 37.5 mm x 37.5 mm with a 36 x 36 array with a 1 mm pitch. The columns are made up of 80% Pb/20%Sn material. CCGA interconnect electronic package printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging techniques. The assembled CCGA boards were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space missions. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling. This paper provides the experimental test results of advanced CCGA packages tested in extreme temperature thermal environments. Standard optical inspection and x-ray non

  17. The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on the human corneal endothelial cell density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isager, P.; Hjortdal, J.Oe.; Ehlers, N. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Ophthalmology, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of 193 nm excimer laser radiation on human corneal endothelial cell density was examined. Fifty-five eyes from 35 patients underwent photorefractive keratectomy for myopia. Photomicrographs of the endothelium were taken a short time before the operation and on an average of 7 months postoperatively with a specular microscope. The average endothelial cell densities were preoperatively 3375 {+-} 266 cells/mm{sup 2} (means {+-} SD) and postoperatively 3348 {+-} 287 cells/mm{sup 2}, corresponding to a fall of 27 cells/mm{sup 2} (N = 55). This fall in endothelial cell density was not statistically significant. A significant correlation between the change in cell density and age of the patient was found, with older patients losing more cells (N = 35, 2p < 0.05). The magnification of the specular microscope was found to change with corneal thickness. The importance of correcting the endothelial cell densities for corneal thickness is discussed. (au) 14 refs.

  18. Cultivar and Tree Density As Key Factors in the Long-Term Performance of Super High-Density Olive Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Concepción M; Moral, Juan; Cabello, Diego; Morello, Pablo; Rallo, Luis; Barranco, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Super high-density (SHD) olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems ("Arbequina," Arbequina IRTA-i·18, "Arbosana," "Fs-17," and "Koroneiki") and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha(-1) for the cultivar "Arbequina." Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha(-1). Only "Fs-17" did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha(-1)) of the other cultivars. In the density trial for "Arbequina," both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha(-1) for the lowest density (780 trees ha(-1)) to 29.9 t ha(-1) for the highest (2254 trees ha(-1)). In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production 7 or 8 years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  19. Cultivar and tree density as key factors in the long-term performance of super high-density olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion M. Diez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Super high-density (SHD olive orchards are rapidly expanding since the first plantation was set up in Spain in the 1990s. Because there are no long-term studies characterizing these systems, it is unknown if densities above a certain threshold could trigger competition among fully-grown trees, compromising their development. Over 14 years we have evaluated the performance of the major olive cultivars currently planted in SHD systems (‘Arbequina’, Arbequina IRTA-i·18R, ‘Arbosana’, ‘Fs-17’, and ‘Koroneiki’ and nine SHD designs ranging from 780 to 2254 trees ha-1 for the cultivar ‘Arbequina’. Remarkably, the accumulated fruit and oil production of the five cultivars increased linearly over time. Our data indicated the favorable long-term performance of the evaluated cultivars with an average annual oil production of 2.3 t ha-1. Only ‘Fs-17’ did not perform well to the SHD system in our conditions and it yielded about half (1.2 t ha-1 of the other cultivars. In the density trial for ‘Arbequina’, both fruit and oil accumulated production increased over time as a function of tree density. Thus, the accumulated oil yield ranged from 16.1 t ha-1 for the lowest density (780 trees ha-1 to 29.9 t ha-1 for the highest (2254 trees ha-1. In addition, we note that the accumulated production per surface unit showed a better correlation with the hedgerow length than the tree density. Thus, the current planting designs of SHD olive orchards can be further improved taking this parameter into account. Despite observations that some irregular patterns of crop distribution have arisen, our olive hedgerows are still fully productive after 14 years of planting. This result contradicts previous experiences that showed declines in production seven or eight years after planting due to high vigor, shading, and limited ventilation.

  20. High-density digital data recording/reproducing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighou, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Problems associated with reliably recording and reproducing digital data at densities of 10 to 30 kilobits per inch and the solutions to these problems are discussed. The three problems are skew, dc offset, and tape imperfections. The solutions are to use a 14-track, wideband II tape recorder; record NRZ-L; use a 24-bit sync word, 504-bit frame length, and odd parity in every 8-bit byte; and to employ circuit design techniques that minimize the effects of the remaining dc offset and tape imperfections.

  1. The density of CD10 corresponds to commitment and progression in the human B lymphoid lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Ichii

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for human B lymphopoiesis are still poorly understood, and that has hampered investigation of differentiation events. For example, there are few cell surface antigens that can be used as milestones of lineage progression. The CD10 ectoenzyme is one such marker and has been used to define CLP, but we found substantial tissue specific variations in CD10 levels, and there was no information about how that corresponded to differentiation options.The aim of the present study was to use recently developed culture methods to assess the nature and differentiation potential of progenitors sorted according to CD10 density from umbilical cord blood (CB, adult bone marrow (BM or G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood (PB. Many CD34(+ cells in BM express high levels of CD10, while low or low/negative CD10 densities were found on CD34(+ cells in CB or G-CSF mobilized PB, respectively. The relative abundance of CD10(Lo versus CD10(Hi cells only accounts for some CB versus BM differences. Almost all of the CD34(+ CD10(Hi cells expressed CD19 and lymphocyte transcription factors and corresponded to loss of myeloid potential. A high degree of immunoglobulin D(H-J(H gene rearrangements was characteristic only of the CD10(Hi subset. In contrast, the CD34(+ CD10(Lo progenitors efficiently produced plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells as well as myeloid cells. These findings suggest a positive correlation between CD10 density and degree of differentiation. Although freshly isolated CD34(+ CD10(Hi cells were in cycle, those from CB or BM expanded poorly in culture, suggesting regulators of populations remain to be discovered.Steps in human B lymphopoiesis have not been sufficiently studied, and we now show that increased CD10 expression corresponds to differentiation potential and stage. CD34(+ CD10(Hi progenitors are obviously in the B lineage but may have progressed beyond the point where they can be expanded in culture.

  2. High density, optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, v-groove monolithic laser diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    An optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser diode array achieves stacking pitches to 33 bars/cm by mounting laser diodes into V-shaped grooves. This design will deliver>4kW/cm2 of directional pulsed laser power. This optically corrected, micro-channel cooled, high density laser is usable in all solid state laser systems which require efficient, directional, narrow bandwidth, high optical power density pump sources.

  3. High-Throughput Phase-Field Design of High-Energy-Density Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhong-Hui; Wang, Jian-Jun; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Chen, Long-Qing; Shen, Yang

    2017-11-22

    Understanding the dielectric breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites is crucial to the design of high-energy-density dielectric materials with reliable performances. It is however challenging to predict the breakdown behavior due to the complicated factors involved in this highly nonequilibrium process. In this work, a comprehensive phase-field model is developed to investigate the breakdown behavior of polymer nanocomposites under electrostatic stimuli. It is found that the breakdown strength and path significantly depend on the microstructure of the nanocomposite. The predicted breakdown strengths for polymer nanocomposites with specific microstructures agree with existing experimental measurements. Using this phase-field model, a high throughput calculation is performed to seek the optimal microstructure. Based on the high-throughput calculation, a sandwich microstructure for PVDF-BaTiO3 nanocomposite is designed, where the upper and lower layers are filled with parallel nanosheets and the middle layer is filled with vertical nanofibers. It has an enhanced energy density of 2.44 times that of the pure PVDF polymer. The present work provides a computational approach for understanding the electrostatic breakdown, and it is expected to stimulate future experimental efforts on synthesizing polymer nanocomposites with novel microstructures to achieve high performances. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Improvement in chromatin maturity of human spermatozoa selected through density gradient centrifugation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo, S. de; Ramos, L.; Vlag, J. van der; Boer, P. de; Oliva, R.

    2011-01-01

    A two-step gradient density centrifugation system has been set up to isolate two contrasting sperm populations of normozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. High- and low-density fractions were characterized by total and free thiol fluorescence as determined by monobromobimane-flow

  5. High energy density supercapacitors using macroporous kitchen sponges

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Macroporous, low-cost and recyclable kitchen sponges are explored as effective electrode platforms for supercapacitor devices. A simple and scalable process has been developed to fabricate MnO 2-carbon nanotube (CNT)-sponge supercapacitor electrodes using ordinary kitchen sponges. Two organic electrolytes (1 M of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et 4NBF 4) in propylene carbonate (PC), 1 M of LiClO 4 in PC) are utilized with the sponge-based electrodes to improve the energy density of the symmetrical supercapacitors. Compared to aqueous electrolyte (1 M of Na 2SO 4 in H 2O), the energy density of supercapacitors tripled in Et 4NBF 4 electrolyte, and further increased by six times in LiClO 4 electrolyte. The long-term cycling performance in different electrolytes was examined and the morphology changes of the electrode materials were also studied. The good electrochemical performance in both aqueous and organic electrolytes indicates that the MnO 2-CNT-sponge is a promising low-cost electrode for energy storage systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Increased COX-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells of high mammographic density tissues and in a xenograft model of mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Hopper, J L; Haviv, I; Henderson, M A; Britt, K; Thompson, E W

    2015-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. Given the high attributable risk of MD for breast cancer, chemoprevention with a safe and available agent that reduces MD and breast cancer risk would be beneficial. Cox-2 has been implicated in MD-related breast cancer risk, and was increased in stromal cells in high MD tissues in one study. Our study assessed differential Cox-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells in paired samples of high and low MD human breast tissue, and in a validated xenograft biochamber model of MD. We also examined the effects of endocrine treatment upon Cox-2 expression in high and low MD tissues in the MD xenograft model. Paired high and low MD human breast tissue samples were immunostained for Cox-2, then assessed for differential expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells. High and low MD human breast tissues were separately maintained in biochambers in mice treated with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo implants, then assessed for percentage Cox-2 staining in epithelial and stromal cells. Percentage Cox-2 staining was greater for both epithelial (p = 0.01) and stromal cells (p tissues. In high MD biochamber tissues, percentage Cox-2 staining was greater in stromal cells of oestrogen-treated versus placebo-treated tissues (p = 0.05).

  7. Relationship between mechanical properties and bone mineral density of human femoral bone retrieved from patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Yvonne; Lindner, Tobias; Fritsche, Andreas; Schiebenhöfer, Ann-Kristin; Souffrant, Robert; Kluess, Daniel; Skripitz, Ralf; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse retrieved human femoral bone samples using three different test methods, to elucidate the relationship between bone mineral density and mechanical properties. Human femoral heads were retrieved from 22 donors undergoing primary total hip replacement due to hip osteoarthritis and stored for a maximum of 24 hours postoperatively at + 6 °C to 8 °C.Analysis revealed an average structural modulus of 232±130 N/mm(2) and ultimate compression strength of 6.1±3.3 N/mm(2) with high standard deviations. Bone mineral densities of 385±133 mg/cm(2) and 353±172 mg/cm(3) were measured using thedual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography (QCT), respectively. Ashing resulted in a bone mineral density of 323±97 mg/cm(3). In particular, significant linear correlations were found between DXA and ashing with r = 0.89 (p < 0.01, n = 22) and between structural modulus and ashing with r = 0.76 (p < 0.01, n = 22).Thus, we demonstrated a significant relationship between mechanical properties and bone density. The correlations found can help to determine the mechanical load capacity of individual patients undergoing surgical treatments by means of noninvasive bone density measurements.

  8. Advanced Cathode Material For High Energy Density Lithium-Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced cathode materials having high red-ox potential and high specific capacity offer great promise to the development of high energy density lithium-based...

  9. High density lipoproteins, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2010-01-01

    ... with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). These familial disorders include lipoprotein(a) excess, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides and low HDL), combined hyperlipidemia (high cholesterol and high triglycerides often with low HDL), hypoalphalipoproteinemia (low HDL), and hypercholesterolemia. We discuss the management of these disorders. W...

  10. High Energy Density and High Temperature Multilayer Capacitor Films for Electric Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treufeld, Imre; Song, Michelle; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric; Snyder, Joe; Langhe, Deepak

    2015-03-01

    Multilayer films (MLFs) with high energy density and high temperature capability (>120 °C) have been developed at Case Western Reserve University. Such films offer a potential solution for electric car DC-link capacitors, where high ripple currents and high temperature tolerance are required. The current state-of-the-art capacitors used in electric cars for converting DC to AC use biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which can only operate at temperatures up to 85 °C requiring an external cooling system. The polycarbonate (PC)/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) MLFs have a higher permittivity compared to that of BOPP (2.3), leading to higher energy density. They have good mechanical stability and reasonably low dielectric losses at 120 °C. Nonetheless, our preliminary dielectric measurements show that the MLFs exhibit appreciable dielectric losses (20%) at 120 °C, which would, despite all the other advantages, make them not suitable for practical applications. Our preliminary data showed that dielectric losses of the MLFs at 120 °C up to 400 MV/m and 1000 Hz originate mostly from impurity ionic conduction. This work is supported by the NSF PFI/BIC Program (IIP-1237708).

  11. Experimental evidence that ecological effects of an invasive fish are reduced at high densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornis, Matthew S; Carlson, Jedchada; Lehrer-Brey, Gabrielle; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the relationship between invasive species density and ecological impact is a pressing topic in ecology, with implications for environmental management and policy. Although it is widely assumed that invasive species impact will increase with density, theory suggests interspecific competition may diminish at high densities due to increased intraspecific interactions. To test this theory, we experimentally examined intra- and interspecific interactions between a globally invasive fish, round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), and three native species at different round goby densities in a tributary of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Eighteen 2.25 m(2) enclosures were stocked with native fish species at natural abundances, while round gobies were stocked at three different densities: 0 m(-2), 2.7 m(-2), and 10.7 m(-2). After 52 days, native fish growth rate was significantly reduced in the low density goby treatment, while growth in the high density goby treatment mirrored the goby-free treatment for two of three native species. Invertebrate density and gut content weight of native fishes did not differ among treatments. Conversely, gut content weight and growth of round gobies were lower in the high goby density treatment, suggesting interactions between round gobies and native fishes are mediated by interference competition amongst gobies. Our experiment provides evidence that invasive species effects may diminish at high densities, possibly due to increased intraspecific interactions. This is consistent with some ecological theory, and cautions against the assumption that invasive species at moderate densities have low impact.

  12. Shift-Peristrophic Multiplexing for High Density Holographic Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenta Ushiyama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Holographic data storage is a promising technology that provides very large data storage capacity, and the multiplexing method plays a significant role in increasing this capacity. Various multiplexing methods have been previously researched. In the present study, we propose a shift-peristrophic multiplexing technique that uses spherical reference waves, and experimentally verify that this method efficiently increases the data capacity. In the proposed method, a series of holograms is recorded with shift multiplexing, in which the recording material is rotated with its axis perpendicular to the material’s surface. By iterating this procedure, multiplicity is shown to improve. This method achieves more than 1 Tbits/inch2 data density recording. Furthermore, a capacity increase of several TB per disk is expected by maximizing the recording medium performance.

  13. Proteome of human plasma very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein exhibits a link with coagulation and lipid metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dashty Rahmatabady, Monireh; Motazacker, Mohammad M.; Levels, Johannes; de Vries, Marcel; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Peppelenbosch, Maikel; Rezaee, Farhad

    Apart from transporting lipids through the body, the human plasma lipoproteins very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are also thought to serve as a modality for intra-organismal protein transfer, shipping proteins with important roles in inflammation and thrombosis

  14. Holographic memory for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Claire

    2002-09-01

    As computers and the internet become faster and faster, more and more information is transmitted, received, and stored everyday. The demand for high density and fast access time data storage is pushing scientists and engineers to explore all possible approaches including magnetic, mechanical, optical, etc. Optical data storage has already demonstrated its potential in the competition against other storage technologies. CD and DVD are showing their advantages in the computer and entertainment market. What motivated the use of optical waves to store and access information is the same as the motivation for optical communication. Light or an optical wave has an enormous capacity (or bandwidth) to carry information because of its short wavelength and parallel nature. In optical storage, there are two types of mechanism, namely localized and holographic memories. What gives the holographic data storage an advantage over localized bit storage is the natural ability to read the stored information in parallel, therefore, meeting the demand for fast access. Another unique feature that makes the holographic data storage attractive is that it is capable of performing associative recall at an incomparable speed. Therefore, volume holographic memory is particularly suitable for high-density data storage and high-speed pattern recognition. In this paper, we review previous works on volume holographic memories and discuss the challenges for this technology to become a reality.

  15. High-quality stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in high density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality, stable electron beams are produced from self-injected laser wakefield acceleration using the interaction of moderate 3 TW, 45 fs duration Ti:sapphire laser pulses with high density (>5×10^{19}   cm^{−3} helium gas jet plasma. The electron beam has virtually background-free quasimonoenergetic distribution with energy 35.6_{−2.5}^{+3.9}  MeV, charge 3.8_{−1.2}^{+2.8}  pC, divergence and pointing variation ∼10  mrad. The stable and high quality of the electron beam opens an easy way for applications of the laser wakefield accelerator in the future, particularly due to the widespread availability of sub-10 TW class lasers with a number of laser plasma laboratories around the world.

  16. High-density lipoprotein particles, coronary heart disease, and niacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    In clinical trials, the use of statins in patients with high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has resulted in a 25% to 40% decrease in major clinical events. However, despite a marked reduction (up to 60%) in LDL-C, approximately 50% (or more) of patients continue to have CVD events. This high ...

  17. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Butler, Hannah; Trantham, Matt; Mussack, Katie; Colgan, James; Fontes, Chris; Guzik, Joyce; Kilcrease, David; Perry, Ted; Orban, Chris; Ducret, Jean-Eric; La Pennec, Maelle; Turck-Chieze, Sylvaine; Mancini, Roberto; Heeter, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al., 2015]. Repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for low-Z elements [Colgan, 2013, Armstrong 2014], however no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions. This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDLP, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719, and through the LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under No. DE-NA0001944.

  18. Resistance of human brain microvascular endothelial cells in culture to methylmercury: cell-density-dependent defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yasuyuki; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Chika; Yasutake, Akira; Satoh, Masahiko; Eto, Komyo; Kaji, Toshiyuki

    2010-06-01

    Vascular toxicity is important for understanding the neurotoxicity of methylmercury, because microvessels strongly influence the construction of microenvironment around neurons. Previously, we found that low density-human brain microvascular pericytes are markedly susceptible to methylmercury cytotoxicity due to high expression levels of the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT-1) that transports methylmercury into the cells. Although LAT-1 can be, in general, highly expressed in sparse cells that require amino acids for growth, we found that human brain microvascular endothelial cells, regardless of cell density, were resistant to methylmercury cytotoxicity. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this resistance, we exposed the endothelial cells at low and high cell densities to methylmercury and determined the extent of nonspecific cell damage, intracellular accumulation of methylmercury, expression of LAT-1 and LAT-2 mRNAs, and intracellular expression of reduced glutathione and metallothionein. These experiments indicate that sparse endothelial cells intracellularly accumulate more methylmercury via the highly expressed LAT-1, but are resistant to methylmercury cytotoxicity by higher expression of the protective sulfhydryl peptides, namely, reduced glutathione and metallothionein. It is suggested that both nonspecific and functional damage is caused in pericytes, whereas functional abnormalities rather than nonspecific damage may occur to a greater extent in the endothelial cells in the brain microvessels exposed to methylmercury. The previous and present data also suggest that methylmercury exhibits toxicity in endothelial cells in a manner different from that in pericytes in the brain microvessels.

  19. Time dependent human hip joint lubrication for periodic motion with stochastic asymmetric density function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzcholski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with the calculation of the human hip joint parameters for periodic, stochastic unsteady, motion with asymmetric probability density function for gap height. The asymmetric density function indicates that the stochastic probabilities of gap height decreasing are different in comparison with the probabilities of the gap height increasing. The models of asymmetric density functions are considered on the grounds of experimental observations. Some methods are proposed for calculation of pressure distributions and load carrying capacities for unsteady stochastic conditions in a super thin layer of biological synovial fluid inside the slide biobearing gap limited by a spherical bone acetabulum. Numerical calculations are performed in Mathcad 12 Professional Program, by using the method of finite differences. This method assures stability of numerical solutions of partial differential equations and gives proper values of pressure and load carrying capacity forces occurring in human hip joints.

  20. On The Use Of High-Density Rock In Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, H. F.

    2005-01-01

    Natural rock with high density is widely used in the Scandinavian countries. However, the use of natural rock with density higher than 2:9t=m3 is ordinarily associated with some kind of problem solving, e.g. where normal density stones have to be replaced with heavier stones without increasing...... the construction volume or layer thickness. Most common design formulae do not give a clear conclusion on the in°uence of the rock density on the stability. The present paper presents results of small and large scale model tests in which is used rock with different densities. It is shown that the positive effect...

  1. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Kidney

    Full Text Available Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers' estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will

  2. High Energy Density Lithium Air Batteries for Oxygen Concentrators Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For NASA's Exploration Medical Capabilities mission, extremely high specific energy power sources, with specific energy over 2000 Wh/kg, are urgently sought after....

  3. Three-dimensional functional human neuronal networks in uncompressed low-density electrospun fiber scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Albin; Ottosson, Maximilian; Zalis, Marina Castro; O'Carroll, David; Johansson, Ulrica Englund; Johansson, Fredrik

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate an artificial three-dimensional (3D) electrical active human neuronal network system, by the growth of brain neural progenitors in highly porous low density electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) fiber scaffolds. In neuroscience research cell-based assays are important experimental instruments for studying neuronal function in health and disease. Traditional cell culture at 2D-surfaces induces abnormal cell-cell contacts and network formation. Hence, there is a tremendous need to explore in vivo-resembling 3D neural cell culture approaches. We present an improved electrospinning method for fabrication of scaffolds that promote neuronal differentiation into highly 3D integrated networks, formation of inhibitory and excitatory synapses and extensive neurite growth. Notably, in 3D scaffolds in vivo-resembling intermixed neuronal and glial cell network were formed, whereas in parallel 2D cultures a neuronal cell layer grew separated from an underlying glial cell layer. Hence, the use of the 3D cell assay presented will most likely provide more physiological relevant results. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experiment to measure oxygen opacity at high density and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, Paul; Mussack, Katie; Orban, Chris; Colgan, James; Ducret, Jean-Eric; Fontes, Christopher J.; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Heeter, Robert F.; Kilcrease, Dave; Le Pennec, Maelle; Mancini, Roberto; Perry, Ted; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Trantham, Matt

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, there has been a debate over the abundances of heavy elements (Z >2) in the solar interior. Recent solar atmosphere models [Asplund 2009] find a significantly lower abundance for C, N, and O compared to models used roughly a decade ago. This discrepancy has led to an investigation of opacities through laboratory experiments and improved opacity models for many of the larger contributors to the sun’s opacity, including iron and oxygen. Recent opacity measurements of iron disagree with opacity model predictions [Bailey et al, 2015]. Although these results are still controversial, repeated scrutiny of the experiment and data has not produced a conclusive reason for the discrepancy. New models have been implemented in the ATOMIC opacity code for C, O and Fe to address the solar abundance issue [Colgan, 2013]. Armstrong et al [2014] have also implemented changes in the ATOMIC code for low-Z elements. However, no data currently exists to test the low-Z material models in the regime relevant to the solar convection zone. We present an experimental design using the opacity platform developed at the National Ignition Facility to study the oxygen opacity at densities and temperatures near the solar convection zone conditions.This work is funded by the U.S. DOE, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in HEDPLP, grant No. DE-NA0001840, and the NLUF Program, grant No. DE-NA0000850, and through LLE, University of Rochester by the NNSA/OICF under Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  5. High population density enhances recruitment and survival of a harvested coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Clare L; Steele, Mark A; Forrester, Graham E

    2013-03-01

    A negative relationship between population growth and population density (direct density dependence) is necessary for population regulation and is assumed in most models of harvested populations. Experimental tests for density dependence are lacking for large-bodied, harvested fish because of the difficulty of manipulating population density over large areas. We studied a harvested coral reef fish, Lutjanus apodus (schoolmaster snapper), using eight large, isolated natural reefs (0.4-1.6 ha) in the Bahamas as replicates. An initial observational test for density dependence was followed by a manipulation of population density. The manipulation weakened an association between density and shelter-providing habitat features and revealed a positive effect of population density on recruitment and survival (inverse density dependence), but no effect of density on somatic growth. The snappers on an individual reef were organized into a few shoals, and we hypothesize that large shoals on high-density reefs were less vulnerable to large piscivores (groupers and barracudas) than the small shoals on low-density reefs. Reductions in predation risk for individuals in large social groups are well documented, but because snapper shoals occupied reefs the size of small marine reserves, these ecological interactions may influence the outcome of management actions.

  6. High-density SNP arrays improve detection of HER2 amplification and polyploidy in breast tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Vikesaa, Jonas; Buhl, Sine S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) overexpression and gene amplification are currently established by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), respectively. This study investigates whether high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP......) arrays can provide additional diagnostic power to assess HER2 gene status. METHODS: DNA from 65 breast tumor samples previously diagnosed by HER2 IHC and FISH analysis were blinded and examined for HER2 copy number variation employing SNP array analysis. RESULTS: SNP array analysis identified 24 (37......%) samples with selective amplification or imbalance of the HER2 region in the q-arm of chromosome 17. In contrast, only 15 (23%) tumors were found to have HER2 amplification by IHC and FISH analysis. In total, there was a discrepancy in 19 (29%) samples between SNP array and IHC/FISH analysis. In 12...

  7. Density-based retrieval from high-similarity image databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2004-01-01

    Many image classification problems can fruitfully be thought of as image retrieval in a "high similarity image database" (HSID) characterized by being tuned towards a specific application and having a high degree of visual similarity between entries that should be distinguished. We introduce...... a method for HSID retrieval using a similarity measure based on a linear combination of Jeffreys-Matusita distances between distributions of local (pixelwise) features estimated from a set of automatically and consistently defined image regions. The weight coefficients are estimated based on optimal...... retrieval performance. Experimental results on the difficult task of visually identifying clones of fungal colonies grown in a petri dish and categorization of pelts show a high retrieval accuracy of the method when combined with standardized sample preparation and image acquisition....

  8. Drift waves in a high-density cylindrical helicon discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2005-01-01

    of the background plasma parameters. All experimentally observed features of the instability are found to be consistent with drift waves. A linear nonlocal numerical model for drift modes, based on the two-fluid description of a plasma, is used for comparison between the experimental observations and theory....... Comparing numerical and experimental frequencies, it is found that the experimentally observed frequencies are consistent with drift waves. The numerical results show that the high electron collision frequencies provide the strongest destabilization mechanism in the helicon plasma. (c) 2005 American......A low-frequency instability. is investigated in a helicon plasma, which is characterized by comparably high plasma-beta and high collision frequencies. Single movable Langmuir probes and a poloidal probe. array are used for studies of spatiotemporal dynamics and for characterization...

  9. Method For Enhanced Gas Monitoring In High Density Flow Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Drasek, William A.; Mulderink, Kenneth A.; Marin, Ovidiu

    2005-09-13

    A method for conducting laser absorption measurements in high temperature process streams having high levels of particulate matter is disclosed. An impinger is positioned substantially parallel to a laser beam propagation path and at upstream position relative to the laser beam. Beam shielding pipes shield the beam from the surrounding environment. Measurement is conducted only in the gap between the two shielding pipes where the beam propagates through the process gas. The impinger facilitates reduced particle presence in the measurement beam, resulting in improved SNR (signal-to-noise) and improved sensitivity and dynamic range of the measurement.

  10. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  11. Nanomaterials Enabled High Energy and Power Density Li-ion Batteries Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a need for high energy (~ 200 Wh/kg) and high power (> 500 W/kg) density rechargeable Li-ion batteries that are safe and reliable for several space and...

  12. High precision (14 bit), high density (octal) analog to digital converter for spectroscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, E T; Jain, Mamta; Bhowmik, R K; Tripon, Michel

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear and particle physics experiments with large number of detectors require signal processing and data collection strategies that call for the ability to collect large amount of data while not sacrificing the precision and accuracy of the data being collected. This paper deals with the development of a high precision pulse peak detection, analog to digital converter (ADC) module with eight independent channels in plug-in daughter card motherboard model, best suited for spectroscopy experiments. This module provides multiple channels without cross-talk and of 14 bit resolution, while maintaining high density (each daughter card has an area of just 4.2(")x0.51(")) and exhibiting excellent integral nonlinearity (< or = +/-2 mV or +/-0.02% full scale reading) and differential nonlinearity (< or = +/-1%). It was designed, developed and tested, in house, and gives added advantages of cost effectiveness and ease of maintenance.

  13. Processor for high-density digital tape-recorded signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashlock, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Linear filter and detection theory can bear on problem of reconstructing recorded bit stream. Problem can be taken from realm of nonlinear problems even though basic record process is still recognized as highly nonlinear. Digital tape recorder can be modeled as particular type of linear communication channel with intersymbol interference.

  14. Ultra High Energy Density Cathodes with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    mL of ethanol by heating to 50 °C, and evaporating to dryness. The resulting powder is then ground in an agate mortar and pestle for 30 min. In...Batteries," The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, pp. 15862-15867, 2010/09/23 2010. [3] J. Alvarenga, et al., "High conductivity carbon nanotube

  15. Beyond Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Respective Contributions of Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, Triglycerides, and the Total Cholesterol/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio to Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Apparently Healthy Men and Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsenault, Benoit J.; Rana, Jamal S.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Shah, Prediman K.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that at any low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level, other lipid parameters such as non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, and the total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C are still associated with

  16. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  17. Expansion of adipose mesenchymal stromal cells is affected by human platelet lysate and plating density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewa, Dominik; Stiehl, Thomas; Schellenberg, Anne; Bokermann, Gudrun; Joussen, Sylvia; Koch, Carmen; Walenda, Thomas; Pallua, Norbert; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna; Suschek, Christoph V; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The composition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) changes in the course of in vitro culture expansion. Little is known how these cell preparations are influenced by culture media, plating density, or passaging. In this study, we have isolated MSCs from human adipose tissue in culture medium supplemented with either fetal calf serum (FCS) or human platelet lysate (HPL). In addition, culture expansion was simultaneously performed at plating densities of 10 or 10,000 cells/cm(2). The use of FCS resulted in larger cells, whereas HPL significantly enhanced proliferation. Notably, HPL also facilitated expansion for more population doublings than FCS (43 ± 3 vs. 22 ± 4 population doubling; p < 0.001), while plating density did not have a significant effect on long-term growth curves. To gain further insight into population dynamics, we conceived a cellular automaton model to simulate expansion of MSCS. It is based on the assumptions that the number of cell divisions is limited and that due to contact inhibition proliferation occurs only at the rim of colonies. The model predicts that low plating densities result in more heterogeneity with regard to cell division history, and favor subpopulations of higher migratory activity. In summary, HPL is a suitable serum supplement for isolation of MSC from adipose tissue and facilitates more population doublings than FCS. Cellular automaton computer simulations provided additional insights into how complex population dynamics during long-term expansion are affected by plating density and migration.

  18. Expansion of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in High Density Dot Culture of Rat Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Kretlow, James D.; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    In vitro expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) remains a challenge in stem cell research and its application. We hypothesize that high density culture is able to expand EPCs from bone marrow by mimicking cell-cell interactions of the bone marrow niche. To test the hypothesis, rat bone marrow cells were either cultured in high density (2×105 cells/cm2) by seeding total 9×105 cells into six high density dots or cultured in regular density (1.6×104 cells/cm2) with the same total number of cells. Flow cytometric analyses of the cells cultured for 15 days showed that high density cells exhibited smaller cell size and higher levels of marker expression related to EPCs when compared to regular density cultured cells. Functionally, these cells exhibited strong angiogenic potentials with better tubal formation in vitro and potent rescue of mouse ischemic limbs in vivo with their integration into neo-capillary structure. Global gene chip and ELISA analyses revealed up-regulated gene expression of adhesion molecules and enhanced protein release of pro-angiogenic growth factors in high density cultured cells. In summary, high density cell culture promotes expansion of bone marrow contained EPCs that are able to enhance tissue angiogenesis via paracrine growth factors and direct differentiation into endothelial cells. PMID:25254487

  19. A carbon nanotube field emission cathode with high current density and long-term stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Zhou, Otto [Curriculum in Applied Science and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Geng Huaizhi; Gao Bo [Xintek, Incorporated, 7020 Kit Creek Road, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); An Lei; Cao Guohua [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2009-08-12

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) field emitters are now being evaluated for a wide range of vacuum electronic applications. However, problems including short lifetime at high current density, instability under high voltage, poor emission uniformity, and pixel-to-pixel inconsistency are still major obstacles for device applications. We developed an electrophoretic process to fabricate composite CNT films with controlled nanotube orientation and surface density, and enhanced adhesion. The cathodes have significantly enhanced macroscopic field emission current density and long-term stability under high operating voltages. The application of this CNT electron source for high-resolution x-ray imaging is demonstrated.

  20. Non-Boussinesq turbulent buoyant jet of a low-density gas leaks into high-density ambient

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    In this article, we study the problem of low-density gas jet injected into high-density ambient numerically which is important in applications such as fuel injection and leaks. It is assumed that the local rate of entrainment is consisted of two components; one is the component of entrainment due to jet momentum while the other is the component of entrainment due to buoyancy. The integral models of the mass, momentum and concentration fluxes are obtained and transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using some similarity transformations. The resulting system is solved to determine the centerline quantities which are used to get the mean axial velocity, mean concentration and mean density of the jet. Therefore, the centerline and mean quantities are used together with the governing equation to determine some important turbulent quantities such as, cross-stream velocity, Reynolds stress, velocity- concentration correlation, turbulent eddy viscosity and turbulent eddy diffusivity. Throughout this paper the developed model is verified by comparing the present results with experimental results and jet/plume theory from the literature. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Global effects of local human population density and distance to markets on the condition of coral reef fisheries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinner, Joshua E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Huchery, Cindy; Macneil, M Aaron

    2013-06-01

    Coral reef fisheries support the livelihoods of millions of people but have been severely and negatively affected by anthropogenic activities. We conducted a systematic review of published data on the biomass of coral reef fishes to explore how the condition of reef fisheries is related to the density of local human populations, proximity of the reef to markets, and key environmental variables (including broad geomorphologic reef type, reef area, and net productivity). When only population density and environmental covariates were considered, high variability in fisheries conditions at low human population densities resulted in relatively weak explanatory models. The presence or absence of human settlements, habitat type, and distance to fish markets provided a much stronger explanatory model for the condition of reef fisheries. Fish biomass remained relatively low within 14 km of markets, then biomass increased exponentially as distance from reefs to markets increased. Our results suggest the need for an increased science and policy focus on markets as both a key driver of the condition of reef fisheries and a potential source of solutions. © 2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. High-density polyethylene dosimetry by transvinylene FTIR analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of transvinylene unsaturation, -CH=CH-, due to free-radical or cationic-initiated dehydrogenation by irradiation, is a basic reaction in polyethylene and is useful for dosimetry at high absorbed doses. The radiation-enhanced infrared absorption having a maximum at nu = 965 cm......(-l) (lambda = 10.36 mu m) is stable in air and can be measured by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry. The quantitative analysis is a useful means of product end-point dosimetry for radiation processing with gamma rays and electrons, where polyethylene is a component of the processed product....... The transvinylene response in air to gamma radiation is linear with dose and has relatively low yield compared with the response to electrons, whereas the response in deaerated polyethylene samples is also linear, but is more sensitive, and has negligible dose-rate dependence in its response to gamma rays...

  3. Effects of High Charge Densities in Multi-GEM Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Muller, H.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive study, supported by systematic measurements and numerical computations, of the intrinsic limits of multi-GEM detectors when exposed to very high particle fluxes or operated at very large gains is presented. The observed variations of the gain, of the ion back-flow, and of the pulse height spectra are explained in terms of the effects of the spatial distribution of positive ions and their movement throughout the amplification structure. The intrinsic dynamic character of the processes involved imposes the use of a non-standard simulation tool for the interpretation of the measurements. Computations done with a Finite Element Analysis software reproduce the observed behaviour of the detector. The impact of this detailed description of the detector in extreme conditions is multiple: it clarifies some detector behaviours already observed, it helps in defining intrinsic limits of the GEM technology, and it suggests ways to extend them.

  4. A High Density Electrophysiological Data Analysis System for a Peripheral Nerve Interface Communicating with Individual Neurons in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    generate neural system animal models that accurately address the human nervous system. With the high density data acquisition system, we will have the...Single neuron stimulation from one end of the peripheral nervous system initiates a neural signal pathway, whereupon the spinal cord µCuff is activated ...SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 BCI, Neural

  5. The Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Highly Filled Rice Husk Biochar/High-Density Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfa Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, rice husk biochar/high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites were prepared via melt mixing followed by extrusion. Effects of biochar content and testing temperature on the dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA of the composites were studied. Morphological analysis of the rice husk biochar and composites were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results showed that biochar had a positive effect on dynamic viscoelasticity, creep resistance and stress relaxation properties of the composites, but the creep resistance and stress relaxation of the composites decreased with the increase of temperature. SEM analysis showed that HDPE components were embedded in the holes of the rice husk biochar, and it is believed that strong interaction was achieved.

  6. Radiation Tests of Highly Scaled, High-Density, Commercial, Nonvolatile NAND Flash Memories - Update 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The space radiation environment poses a certain risk to all electronic components on Earth-orbiting and planetary mission spacecraft. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of high-density, commercial, nonvolatile flash memories in space because of ever-increasing data volumes and strict power requirements. They are used in a wide variety of spacecraft subsystems. At one end of the spectrum, flash memories are used to store small amounts of mission-critical data such as boot code or configuration files and, at the other end, they are used to construct multi-gigabyte data recorders that record mission science data. This report examines single-event effect (SEE) and total ionizing dose (TID) response in single-level cell (SLC) 32-Gb, multi-level cell (MLC) 64-Gb, and Triple-level (TLC) 64-Gb NAND flash memories manufactured by Micron Technology with feature size of 25 nm.

  7. A Comparative Density Functional Theory and Density Functional Tight Binding Study of Phases of Nitrogen Including a High Energy Density Material N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Capel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparative dispersion-corrected Density Functional Theory (DFT and Density Functional Tight Binding (DFTB-D study of several phases of nitrogen, including the well-known alpha, beta, and gamma phases as well as recently discovered highly energetic phases: covalently bound cubic gauche (cg nitrogen and molecular (vdW-bound N8 crystals. Among several tested parametrizations of N–N interactions for DFTB, we identify only one that is suitable for modeling of all these phases. This work therefore establishes the applicability of DFTB-D to studies of phases, including highly metastable phases, of nitrogen, which will be of great use for modelling of dynamics of reactions involving these phases, which may not be practical with DFT due to large required space and time scales. We also derive a dispersion-corrected DFT (DFT-D setup (atom-centered basis parameters and Grimme dispersion parameters tuned for accurate description simultaneously of several nitrogen allotropes including covalently and vdW-bound crystals and including high-energy phases.

  8. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: A replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, H.; Marazita, M.L.; Hill, S.Y. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-02-16

    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly Mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents. 25 refs., 4 tabs.

  9. Segregation analysis of alcoholism in high density families: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, H; Marazita, M L; Hill, S Y

    1996-02-16

    We have previously reported segregation analysis of alcoholism in 35 multigenerational families, each ascertained through a pair of male alcoholics by using the mixed model implemented by POINTER. This analysis suggested that liability to alcoholism was, in part, controlled by a major effect with or without additional multifactorial effects. The hypothesis that the major effect was explained by a single genetic locus with strictly mendelian transmission was rejected. The purpose of the present analysis was to use the regressive model implemented by the REGD program from the Statistical Analysis for Genetic Epidemiology computer package (S.A.G.E.) to confirm by replication that a major effect was present in these 35 families. Evidence for the major effect found in Pointer was replicated in the present analysis by using S.A.G.E. Also, we found strong evidence for parental effects that were independent of the major locus transmission from ancestral relatives to children. Mendelian transmission of this major effect was rejected when models incorporated parental effects. When the major effect was calculated adjusting for parental phenotypes, the relative risk of affection for children was about twice as high with affected parents vs. unaffected parents.

  10. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  11. Fundamental Study of Interactions Between Pulsed High-Density Plasmas and Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    interaction phenomena. The high density thermal plasma source was also used to produce surface tracking high density non-thermal plasma discharges...state. A set of high speed image sequences were used to determine the dielectric tracking path and propagation velocity of the non- thermal streamer...represented by a slab of atoms supported by a frozen layer held in the position of the bulk. A thermostat above this frozen layer is used to remove

  12. High-density QCD phase transitions inside neutron stars: Glitches and gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, A. M.; Bagchi, P.; Das, A.; Layek, B.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss physics of exotic high baryon density QCD phases which are believed to exist in the core of a neutron star. This can provide a laboratory for exploring exotic physics such as axion emission, KK graviton production etc. Much of the physics of these high-density phases is model-dependent and not very well understood, especially the densities expected to occur inside neutron stars. We follow a different approach and use primarily universal aspects of the physics of different high-density phases and associated phase transitions. We study effects of density fluctuations during transitions with and without topological defect production and study the effect on pulsar timings due to changing moment of inertia of the star. We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing quadrupole moment of the star due to these fluctuations.

  13. High energy density plasma science with an ultrarelativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, C.; Blue, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Dodd, E.; Huang, C.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Wang, S.; Hogan, M. J.; O'Connell, C.; Siemann, R.; Watz, D.; Muggli, P.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.

    2002-05-01

    An intense, high-energy electron or positron beam can have focused intensities rivaling those of today's most powerful laser beams. For example, the 5 ps (full-width, half-maximum), 50 GeV beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) at 1 kA and focused to a 3 micron rms spot size gives intensities of >1020 W/cm-2 at a repetition rate of >10 Hz. Unlike a ps or fs laser pulse which interacts with the surface of a solid target, the particle beam can readily tunnel through tens of cm of steel. However, the same particle beam can be manipulated quite effectively by a plasma that is a million times less dense than air! This is because of the incredibly strong collective fields induced in the plasma by the Coulomb force of the beam. The collective fields in turn react back onto the beam leading to many clearly observable phenomena. The beam paraticles can be: (1) Deflected leading to focusing, defocusing, or even steering of the beam; (2) undulated causing the emission of spontaneous betatron x-ray radiation and; (3) accelerated or decelerated by the plasma fields. Using the 28.5 GeV electron beam from the SLAC linac a series of experiments have been carried out that demonstrate clearly many of the above mentioned effects. The results can be compared with theoretical predictions and with two-dimensional and three-dimensional, one-to-one, particle-in-cell code simulations. These phenomena may have practical applications in future technologies including optical elements in particle beam lines, synchrotron light sources, and ultrahigh gradient accelerators.

  14. Impaired platelet activation in familial high density lipoprotein deficiency (Tangier disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofer, Jerzy-Roch; Herminghaus, Grazyna; Brodde, Martin; Morgenstern, Eberhard; Rust, Stephan; Engel, Thomas; Seedorf, Udo; Assmann, Gerd; Bluethmann, Horst; Kehrel, Beate E

    2004-08-06

    ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is involved in regulation of intracellular lipid trafficking and export of cholesterol from cells to high density lipoproteins. ABCA1 defects cause Tangier disease, a disorder characterized by absence of high density lipoprotein and thrombocytopenia. In the present study we have demonstrated that ABCA1 is expressed in human platelets and that fibrinogen binding and CD62 surface expression in response to collagen and low concentrations of thrombin, but not to ADP, are defective in platelets from Tangier patients and ABCA1-deficient animals. The expression of platelet membrane receptors such as GPVI, alpha2beta1 integrin, and GPIIb/IIIa, the collagen-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and cholesterol distribution, and the collagen-induced signal transduction examined by phosphorylation of LAT and p72syk and by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization were unaltered in Tangier platelets. The electron microscopy of Tangier platelets revealed reduced numbers of dense bodies and the presence of giant granules typically encountered in platelets from Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Further studies demonstrated impaired release of dense body content in platelets from Tangier patients and ABCA1-deficient animals. In addition, Tangier platelets were characterized by defective surface exposure of dense body and lysosomal markers (CD63, LAMP-1, LAMP-2, CD68) during collagen- and thrombin-induced stimulation and by abnormally high lysosomal pH. We conclude that intact ABCA1 function is necessary for proper maturation of dense bodies in platelets. The impaired release of the content of dense bodies may explain the defective activation of Tangier platelets by collagen and low concentrations of thrombin, but not by ADP.

  15. Interaction of pyroclastic density currents with human settlements: Evidence from ancient Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Lucia; Pareschi, M. Teresa; Zanella, Elena; Lanza, Roberto; Deluca, Enrico; Bisson, Marina

    2005-06-01

    Integrating field observations and rock-magnetic measurements, we report how a turbulent pyroclastic density current interacted with and moved through an urban area. The data are from the most energetic, turbulent pyroclastic density current of the A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy, which partially destroyed the Roman city of Pompeii. Our results show that the urban fabric was able to divide the lower portion of the current into several streams that followed the city walls and the intracity roads. Vortices, revealed by upstream particle orientations and decreases in deposit temperature, formed downflow of obstacles or inside cavities. Although these perturbations affected only the lower part of the current and were localized, they could represent, in certain cases, cooler zones within which chances of human survival are increased. Our integrated field data for pyroclastic density current temperature and flow direction, collected for the first time across an urban environment, enable verification of coupled thermodynamic numerical models and their hazard simulation abilities.

  16. PRODUCTION OF HIGH DENSITY PARTICLEBOARD USING MELAMINE-UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuo Iwakiri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This research was developed aiming to evaluate the effects of board density and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resin onthe properties of particleboard for semi-structural applications. The boards were manufactured with nominal density of 0.65 g/cm³and 0.90 g/cm³ using urea-formaldehyde resin as control and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. The results showed a better dimensionallystability and mechanical properties of the boards manufactured with higher density and MUF resin content. The fine furnish usedfor external layer of particleboard in the industrial process, could be used for high density homogeneous board to semi-strucuturaluses, such as flooring applications.

  17. Variations in bone density across the body of the immature human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Farella, Mauro; Hoffman, Jakobus; Kramer, Beverley

    2017-05-01

    During growth the mandible accommodates increases in biomechanical loading resulting from changes in the function of structures of the oral cavity. Biomechanical loads are thought to play an intricate and vital role in the modelling and remodelling of bone, with site-specific effects on bone mineral density. It is anticipated that the effects of this loading on bone mineral density are intensified during the functional transition from prenatal to postnatal stages. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate changes in bone mineral density across the body of the immature human mandible during the early stages of dental development. The study sample included 45 human mandibles, subdivided into three age groups: prenatal (30 gestational weeks to birth; n = 15); early postnatal (birth to 12 months; n = 18); and late postnatal (1-5 years; n = 12). Mandibles were scanned using X-ray micro-computed tomography. Eight landmarks were selected along the buccal/labial and lingual surfaces of each dental crypt for evaluation of the bone mineral density. Bone mineral density values were calculated using a reference standard and analysed using multivariate statistics. The bone mineral density of the lingual surface was found to be significantly higher (P ≤ 0.000) than that of the buccal/labial surface. Furthermore, bone mineral density in the alveolar region of the buccal/labial surface of the deciduous central incisor (P ≤ 0.001), the deciduous first molar (P ≤ 0.013) and lingual alveolar area of the deciduous second molar (P ≤ 0.032) were significantly greater in the early postnatal period than in the prenatal period. While changes in bone mineral density across the lingual surface were consistent with the progression of development and the biomechanical demand of the tongue as previously demonstrated, changes observed across the buccal/labial surface of the mandible appeared to accompany the advancing dental development. Thus, changes in bone mineral density across the

  18. High-density marker imputation accuracy in sixteen French cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozé, Chris; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Venot, Eric; Guillaume, François; Dassonneville, Romain; Fritz, Sébastien; Ducrocq, Vincent; Phocas, Florence; Boichard, Didier; Croiseau, Pascal

    2013-09-03

    Genotyping with the medium-density Bovine SNP50 BeadChip® (50K) is now standard in cattle. The high-density BovineHD BeadChip®, which contains 777,609 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), was developed in 2010. Increasing marker density increases the level of linkage disequilibrium between quantitative trait loci (QTL) and SNPs and the accuracy of QTL localization and genomic selection. However, re-genotyping all animals with the high-density chip is not economically feasible. An alternative strategy is to genotype part of the animals with the high-density chip and to impute high-density genotypes for animals already genotyped with the 50K chip. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the error rate when imputing from the 50K to the high-density chip. Five thousand one hundred and fifty three animals from 16 breeds (89 to 788 per breed) were genotyped with the high-density chip. Imputation error rates from the 50K to the high-density chip were computed for each breed with a validation set that included the 20% youngest animals. Marker genotypes were masked for animals in the validation population in order to mimic 50K genotypes. Imputation was carried out using the Beagle 3.3.0 software. Mean allele imputation error rates ranged from 0.31% to 2.41% depending on the breed. In total, 1980 SNPs had high imputation error rates in several breeds, which is probably due to genome assembly errors, and we recommend to discard these in future studies. Differences in imputation accuracy between breeds were related to the high-density-genotyped sample size and to the genetic relationship between reference and validation populations, whereas differences in effective population size and level of linkage disequilibrium showed limited effects. Accordingly, imputation accuracy was higher in breeds with large populations and in dairy breeds than in beef breeds. More than 99% of the alleles were correctly imputed if more than 300 animals were genotyped at high-density. No

  19. Density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles motion in human gastric emptying studied using computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shilei; Wang, Bochu; Wang, Yazhou

    2015-04-05

    Density-dependent gastroretentive drug delivery systems have been used to prolong the gastric retention time of drugs since the 1960s. The design of density-dependent gastroretentive dosage forms, however, usually focuses on specific parameters rather than combines with the fluid dynamics of dosage form in the gastric emptying. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to develop a 2-D model of multiple-phase flows for the simulation of gastric emptying and gastroretentive microparticles motion, and the influence of microparticle density, microparticle viscosity, and gastric juice viscosity on the gastric retention were studied. The recirculating flows, formed in the gastric emptying, could mix the conventional-density microparticles and transport them to the pylorus. However, the low-density microparticles remained floating on the surface of gastric juice, while the high-density microparticles could sink and deposit in the bottom of the stomach. The remaining integral area of microparticles was higher than 90% after 18.33min of simulation when the density of microparticles was lower than 550kg/m(3) or higher than 2500kg/m(3), which was higher compared to conventional-density microparticles (67.05%). These results are in good agreement with experimental data previously reported. In addition, the viscosity of microparticle and gastric juice also influenced the remaining integral area of gastroretentive microparticles. This study shows that the multiple-phase computational fluid dynamics models could provide detailed insights into the fluid dynamics of density-dependent gastroretentive microparticles in gastric emptying, which offers a powerful tool to further understand the mechanism of gastric retention for gastroretentive dosage forms and study the influence of different parameters on their ability for gastric retention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring response saturation in human MT and MST as a function of motion density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Szonya; Furlan, Michele

    2014-07-24

    The human brain areas MT and MST have been studied in great detail using fMRI with regards to their motion processing properties; however, to what extent this corresponds with single cell recordings remains to be fully described. Average response over human MT+ has been shown to increase linearly with motion coherence, similar to single cell responses. In response to motion density some single cell data however suggest a rapid saturation. We ask how the combination of these responses is reflected in the population response. We measured the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response function of MT and MST using a motion density signal, comparing with area V1. We used spatially fixed apertures containing motion stimuli to manipulate the area covered by motion. We found that MT and MST responded above baseline to a very minimal amount of motion and showed a rather flat response to motion density, indicative of saturation. We discuss how this may be related to the size of the receptive fields and inhibitory interactions, although necessarily residual attention effects also need to be considered. We then compared different types of motion and found no difference between coherent and random motion at any motion density, suggesting that when combining response over several motion stimuli covering the visual field, a linear relationship of MT and MST population response as a function of motion coherence might not hold. © 2014 ARVO.

  1. Variation in osteocyte lacunar morphology and density in the human femur - a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Yasmin; Thomas, C David L.; Clement, John G; Peele, Andrew G; Hannah, Kevin; Cooper, David M.L. [Aust. Synch.; (La Trobe); (Saskatchewan); (Melbourne)

    2013-04-09

    In recent years there has been growing interest in the spatial properties of osteocytes (including density and morphology) and how these potentially relate to adaptation, disease and aging. This interest has, in part, arisen from the availability of increasingly high-resolution 3D imaging modalities such as synchrotron radiation (SR) micro-CT. As resolution increases, field of view generally decreases. Thus, while increasingly detailed spatial information is obtained, it is unclear how representative this information is of the skeleton or even the isolated bone. The purpose of this research was to describe the variation in osteocyte lacunar density, morphology and orientation within the femur from a healthy young male human. Multiple anterior, posterior, medial and lateral blocks (2 mm × 2 mm) were prepared from the proximal femoral shaft and SR micro-CT imaged at the Advanced Photon Source. Average lacunar densities (± standard deviation) from the anterior, posterior, medial and lateral regions were 27,169 ± 1935, 26,3643 ± 1262, 37,521 ± 6416 and 33,972 ± 2513 lacunae per mm3 of bone tissue, respectively. These values were significantly different between the medial and both the anterior and posterior regions (p < 0.05). The density of the combined anterior and posterior regions was also significantly lower (p = 0.001) than the density of the combined medial and lateral regions. Although no difference was found in predominant orientation, shape differences were found; with the combined anterior and posterior regions having more elongated (p = 0.004) and flattened (p = 0.045) lacunae, than those of the medial and lateral regions. This study reveals variation in osteocyte lacunar density and morphology within the cross-section of a single bone and that this variation can be considerable (up to 30% difference in density between regions). The underlying functional significance of the observed variation in lacunar density likely relates to localized

  2. In-situ Production of High Density Polyethylene and Other Useful Materials on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a revolutionary materials structure and power storage concept based on the in-situ production of abiotic carbon 4 compounds. One of the largest single mass penalties required to support the human exploration of Mars is the surface habitat. This proposal will use physical chemical technologies to produce high density polyethylene (HDPE) inflatable structures and construction materials from Mars atmospheric CO2. The formation of polyethylene from Mars CO2 is based on the use of the Sabatier and modified Fischer Tropsch reactions. The proposed system will fully integrate with existing in-situ propellant production concepts. The technology will also be capable of supplementing human caloric requirements, providing solid and liquid fuels for energy storage, and providing significant reduction in mission risk. The NASA Mars Reference Mission Definition Team estimated that a conventional Mars surface habitat structure would weigh 10 tonnes. It is estimated that this technology could reduce this mass by 80%. This reduction in mass will significantly contribute to the reduction in total mission cost need to make a Mars mission a reality. In addition the potential reduction of risk provided by the ability to produce C4 and potentially higher carbon based materials in-situ on Mars is significant. Food, fuel, and shelter are only three of many requirements that would be impacted by this research.

  3. Catalyst design by cyclic deposition: Nanoparticle formation and growth of high-density nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esconjauregui, Santiago; Fouquet, Martin; Xie, Rongsie; Cartwright, Richard; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ Cambridge (United Kingdom); Newcomb, Simon B. [Glebe Scientific Ltd., Newport, County Tipperary (Ireland)

    2012-12-15

    The areal density of carbon nanotube forests can be increased up to the order of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} using cycles of deposition and annealing of ultra-thin metal films, followed by nanoparticle immobilization. Herein, we show how the density of the catalyst nanoparticles increases after each cycle by using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. The layers of metal catalyst - subsequently deposited after previous annealing - sit on the uncovered areas of the support and, after annealing, restructure into nanoparticles cumulatively increasing the catalyst density. These nanoparticles lead to close-packed, high-density nanotube forests with nanotube areal densities of {proportional_to}10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}. The height of these high-density forests shortens as the density of the catalyst nanoparticle increases, which is observed using several synthesis conditions. This high nanotube density is required for using carbon nanotubes as interconnects in integrated circuits and in thermal interface materials. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. High hydrostatic pressure specifically affects molecular dynamics and shape of low-density lipoprotein particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, M.; Lehofer, B.; Martinez, N.; Ollivier, J.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Prassl, R.; Peters, J.

    2017-04-01

    Lipid composition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and its physicochemical characteristics are relevant for proper functioning of lipid transport in the blood circulation. To explore dynamical and structural features of LDL particles with either a normal or a triglyceride-rich lipid composition we combined coherent and incoherent neutron scattering methods. The investigations were carried out under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), which is a versatile tool to study the physicochemical behavior of biomolecules in solution at a molecular level. Within both neutron techniques we applied HHP to probe the shape and degree of freedom of the possible motions (within the time windows of 15 and 100 ps) and consequently the flexibility of LDL particles. We found that HHP does not change the types of motion in LDL, but influences the portion of motions participating. Contrary to our assumption that lipoprotein particles, like membranes, are highly sensitive to pressure we determined that LDL copes surprisingly well with high pressure conditions, although the lipid composition, particularly the triglyceride content of the particles, impacts the molecular dynamics and shape arrangement of LDL under pressure.

  5. Isolation of human salivary extracellular vesicles by iodixanol density gradient ultracentrifugation and their characterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Iwai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic methods that focus on the extracellular vesicles (EVs present in saliva have been attracting great attention because of their non-invasiveness. EVs contain biomolecules such as proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA and microRNA (miRNA, which originate from cells that release EVs, making them an ideal source for liquid biopsy. Although there have been many reports on density-based fractionation of EVs from blood and urine, the number of reports on EVs from saliva has been limited, most probably because of the difficulties in separating EVs from viscous saliva using density gradient centrifugation. This article establishes a protocol for the isolation of EVs from human saliva using density gradient centrifugation. The fractionated salivary EVs were characterized by atomic force microscopy, western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results indicate that salivary EVs have a smaller diameter (47.8±12.3 nm and higher density (1.11 g/ml than EVs isolated from conditioned cell media (74.0±23.5 nm and 1.06 g/ml, respectively. Additionally, to improve the throughput of density-based fractionation of EVs, the original protocol was further modified by using a fixed angle rotor instead of a swinging rotor. It was also confirmed that several miRNAs were expressed strongly in the EV-marker-expressing fractions.

  6. Probability density based gradient projection method for inverse kinematics of a robotic human body model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lura, Derek; Wernke, Matthew; Alqasemi, Redwan; Carey, Stephanie; Dubey, Rajiv

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the probability density based gradient projection (GP) of the null space of the Jacobian for a 25 degree of freedom bilateral robotic human body model (RHBM). This method was used to predict the inverse kinematics of the RHBM and maximize the similarity between predicted inverse kinematic poses and recorded data of 10 subjects performing activities of daily living. The density function was created for discrete increments of the workspace. The number of increments in each direction (x, y, and z) was varied from 1 to 20. Performance of the method was evaluated by finding the root mean squared (RMS) of the difference between the predicted joint angles relative to the joint angles recorded from motion capture. The amount of data included in the creation of the probability density function was varied from 1 to 10 subjects, creating sets of for subjects included and excluded from the density function. The performance of the GP method for subjects included and excluded from the density function was evaluated to test the robustness of the method. Accuracy of the GP method varied with amount of incremental division of the workspace, increasing the number of increments decreased the RMS error of the method, with the error of average RMS error of included subjects ranging from 7.7° to 3.7°. However increasing the number of increments also decreased the robustness of the method.

  7. Regional differences in alveolar density in the human lung are related to lung height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, John E; Knudsen, Lars; Wright, Alexander C; Elliott, W Mark; Ochs, Matthias; Hogg, James C

    2015-06-01

    The gravity-dependent pleural pressure gradient within the thorax produces regional differences in lung inflation that have a profound effect on the distribution of ventilation within the lung. This study examines the hypothesis that gravitationally induced differences in stress within the thorax also influence alveolar density in terms of the number of alveoli contained per unit volume of lung. To test this hypothesis, we measured the number of alveoli within known volumes of lung located at regular intervals between the apex and base of four normal adult human lungs that were rapidly frozen at a constant transpulmonary pressure, and used microcomputed tomographic imaging to measure alveolar density (number alveoli/mm3) at regular intervals between the lung apex and base. These results show that at total lung capacity, alveolar density in the lung apex is 31.6 ± 3.4 alveoli/mm3, with 15 ± 6% of parenchymal tissue consisting of alveolar duct. The base of the lung had an alveolar density of 21.2 ± 1.6 alveoli/mm3 and alveolar duct volume fraction of 29 ± 6%. The difference in alveolar density can be negated by factoring in the effects of alveolar compression due to the pleural pressure gradient at the base of the lung in vivo and at functional residual capacity.

  8. Effect of density gradient centrifugation on reactive oxygen species in human semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Yumura, Yasushi; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Kawahara, Takashi; Uemura, Hiroji; Iwasaki, Akira

    2017-06-01

    Density gradient centrifugation can separate motile sperm from immotile sperm and other cells for assisted reproduction, but may also remove antioxidants from seminal plasma, resulting in oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations and distribution in semen before and after density gradient centrifugation. We assessed semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility, and ROS levels before and after density gradient centrifugation (300 x g for 20 minutes) in 143 semen samples from 118 patients. The ROS removal rate was evaluated in ROS-positive samples and ROS formation rate in ROS-negative samples. Thirty-eight of 143 untreated samples (26.6%) were ROS-positive; sperm motility was significantly lower in these samples than in ROS-negative samples (p density gradient centrifugation, only seven of the 38 ROS-positive samples (18.42%) exhibited a ROS-positive lower layer (containing motile sperm) with a ROS removal rate of 81.58%, whereas the upper layer was ROS-positive in 24 samples (63.16%). In the ROS-negative group (n = 105), ROS was detected in 19 samples after centrifugation (18.10%, ROS generation rate), of which 18 were ROS-positive only in the upper layer or interface and the other was ROS-positive in both layers. Density gradient centrifugation can separate motile sperm from immotile sperm as well as remove ROS (including newly generated ROS). This data supports the view that density gradient centrifugation can select motile spermatozoa without enhancing oxidative stress. ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: superoxide dismutase; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid; DGC: density gradient centrifugation; IUI: intrauterine insemination; IVF: in vitro fertilization; HEPES: 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; HTF: HEPES-buffered human tubal fluid; IMSI: intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection; SMAS: sperm motility analyzing

  9. ANALYSIS OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sike; Sobansky, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Columns containing immobilized lipoproteins were prepared for the analysis of drug interactions with these particles by high-performance affinity chromatography. This approach was evaluated by using it to examine the binding of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to the drugs propranolol or verapamil. HDL was immobilized by the Schiff base method onto silica and gave HPLC columns with reproducible binding to propranolol over four to five days of continuous operation at pH 7.4. Frontal analysis experiments indicated that two types of interactions were occurring between R/S-propranolol and HDL at 37°C: saturable binding with an association equilibrium constant (Ka) of 1.1–1.9 × 105 M−1, and non-saturable binding with an overall affinity constant (n Ka) of 3.7–4.1 × 104 M−1. Similar results were found at 4 and 27°C. Verapamil also gave similar behavior, with a Ka of 6.0 × 104 M−1 at 37°C for the saturable sites and a n Ka value for the non-saturable sites of 2.5 × 104 M−1. These measured affinities gave good agreement with solution-phase values. The results indicated HPAC can be used to study drug interactions with HDL, providing information that should be valuable in obtaining a better description of how drugs are transported within the body. PMID:19833090

  10. High Density Lipoproteins and Arteriosclerosis: Role of Cholesterol Efflux and Reverse Cholesterol Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Eckardstein, Arnold; Nofer, Jerzy Roch; Assmann, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—High density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease, and HDL exerts various potentially antiatherogenic properties, including the mediation of reverse transport of cholesterol...

  11. A Decentralized Control Strategy for High Density Material Flow Systems with Automated Guided Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a universal decentralized control strategy for grid-based high-density material flow systems with automated guided vehicles and gives insights into the system behavior as well as the solution quality.

  12. Single Crystal Piezoelectric Deformable Mirrors with High Actuator Density and Large Stroke Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Single crystal piezoelectric deformable mirrors with high actuator density, fine pitch, large stroke and no floating wires will be developed for future NASA science...

  13. High Energy Density Li-ion Batteries Designed for Low Temperature Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NEI Corporation proposes to develop a mixed metal oxide nanocomposite cathode that is designed for delivering high energy density with good rate performance at low...

  14. Moderate doses of alcoholic beverages with dinner and postprandial high density lipoprotein composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Veenstra, J.; Tol, A. van; Groener, J.E.M.; Schaafsma, G.

    1998-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. In this study, postprandial changes in plasma lipids, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) composition and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity levels

  15. The Influence of Opacity on Hydrogen Line Emission and Ionisation Balance in High Density Divertor Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Behringer, K.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of opacity on hydrogen line emission and ionisation balance in high density divertor plasmas. - Garching bei München : Max-Planck-Inst. für Plasmaphysik, 1997. - 21 S. - (IPP-Report ; 10/5)

  16. High-density lipoproteins and adrenal steroidogenesis : A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Links, Thera P.; Kema, Ido P.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    BACKGROUND: Cholesterol trafficked within plasma lipoproteins, in particular high-density lipoproteins (HDL), may represent an important source of cholesterol that is required for adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on a urinary gas chromatography method, compromised adrenal function has been suggested

  17. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  18. High-energy-density physics foundation of inertial fusion and experimental astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, R Paul

    2018-01-01

    The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This title surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course, an introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-energy-density systems. This second edition includes pedagogic improvements to the presentation ...

  19. The National Ignition Facility: A New Era in High Energy Density Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2009-06-10

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's most energetic laser system, is now operational. This talk will describe NIF, the ignition campaign, and new opportunities in fusion energy and high energy density science enabled by NIF.

  20. Traffic Signal Synchronization in the Saturated High-Density Grid Road Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Xiaojian; Lu, Jian; Wang, Wei; Zhirui, Ye

    2015-01-01

    ... has inspired several urban road network development trends, including increased use of the high-density grid road network (HGRN). The structure of the HGRN is the orthogonal checkerboard pattern,...

  1. Development and characterization of a high density SNP genotyping assay for cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi K Matukumalli

    Full Text Available The success of genome-wide association (GWA studies for the detection of sequence variation affecting complex traits in human has spurred interest in the use of large-scale high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL and for marker-assisted selection in model and agricultural species. A cost-effective and efficient approach for the development of a custom genotyping assay interrogating 54,001 SNP loci to support GWA applications in cattle is described. A novel algorithm for achieving a compressed inter-marker interval distribution proved remarkably successful, with median interval of 37 kb and maximum predicted gap of <350 kb. The assay was tested on a panel of 576 animals from 21 cattle breeds and six outgroup species and revealed that from 39,765 to 46,492 SNP are polymorphic within individual breeds (average minor allele frequency (MAF ranging from 0.24 to 0.27. The assay also identified 79 putative copy number variants in cattle. Utility for GWA was demonstrated by localizing known variation for coat color and the presence/absence of horns to their correct genomic locations. The combination of SNP selection and the novel spacing algorithm allows an efficient approach for the development of high-density genotyping platforms in species having full or even moderate quality draft sequence. Aspects of the approach can be exploited in species which lack an available genome sequence. The BovineSNP50 assay described here is commercially available from Illumina and provides a robust platform for mapping disease genes and QTL in cattle.

  2. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL Presentation to: IEEE Pulsed Power and Plasma Science...Conference C. J. Keane Director, NIF User Office June 21, 2013 1491978-1-4673-5168-3/13/$31.00 ©2013 IEEE Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Ignition Facility ( NIF ) and High Energy Density Science Research at LLNL 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  3. Report of the Interagency Task Force on High Energy Density Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-08-01

    Identifies the needs for improving Federal stewardship of specific aspects of high energy density physics, particularly the study of high energy density plasmas in the laboratory, and strengthening university activities in this latter discipline. The report articulates how HEDP fits into the portfolio of federally funded missions and includes agency actions to be taken that are necessary to further this area of study consistent with Federal priorities and plans, while being responsive to the needs of the scientific community.

  4. Participation in High-Impact Sports Predicts Bone Mineral Density in Senior Olympic Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Leigey, Daniel; Irrgang, James; FRANCIS, KIMBERLY; Cohen, Peter; Wright, Vonda

    2009-01-01

    Background: Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and resultant fractures increase with age in both sexes. Participation in resistance or high-impact sports is a known contributor to bone health in young athletes; however, little is known about the effect of participation in impact sports on bone density as people age. Hypothesis: To test the hypothesis that high-impact sport participation will predict BMD in senior athletes, this study evaluated 560 athletes during the 2005 National Senior Game...

  5. Effects of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol on Coronary Artery Calcification Progression According to High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies reported that many patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) despite achieving recommended low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Therefore, we investigated whether the association between LDL-C and the risk for incident CVD differed according to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels using coronary artery calcium score (CACS) progression as a surrogate marker for predicting CVD. We investigated 2132 Korean men in a health screening program, in which CACS was measured at baseline and after 4 years. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression was defined as a change in CACS ≥0 over 4 years. We divided the subjects into nine groups according to baseline HDL-C and LDL-C levels and compared their risks for CAC progression. After 4 years, 475 subjects (22.3%) exhibited CAC progression. We identified a positive relationship between baseline LDL-C levels and the risk for incident CAC. However, this association was attenuated by high baseline HDL-C levels. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, smoking, and exercise status revealed that the odds ratios for incident CAC in the lowest HDL-C tertile were 3.08 for LDL-C tertile 3 and 2.02 for LDL-C tertile 2 compared to LDL-C tertile 1. However, these differences disappeared in the highest HDL-C tertile (HDL-C ≥54.0 mg/dL). In this longitudinal study, we found that the positive relationship between LDL-C and the relative risk for incident CAC was attenuated by higher HDL-C levels. Therefore, HDL-C levels should be considered when estimating CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental studies and modelling of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX upgrade tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casali, Livia

    2015-11-24

    Fusion plasmas contain impurities, either intrinsic originating from the wall, or injected willfully with the aim of reducing power loads on machine components by converting heat flux into radiation. The understanding and the prediction of the effects of these impurities and their radiation on plasma performances is crucial in order to retain good confinement. In addition, it is important to understand the impact of pellet injection on plasma performance since this technique allows higher core densities which are required to maximise the fusion power. This thesis contributes to these efforts through both experimental investigations and modelling. Experiments were conducted at ASDEX Upgrade which has a full-W wall. Impurity seeding was applied to H-modes by injecting nitrogen and also medium-Z impurities such as Kr and Ar to assess the impact of both edge and central radiation on confinement. A database of about 25 discharges has been collected and analysed. A wide range of plasma parameters was achieved up to ITER relevant values such as high Greenwald and high radiation fractions. Transport analyses taking into account the radiation distribution reveal that edge localised radiation losses do not significantly impact confinement as long as the H-mode pedestal is sustained. N seeding induces higher pedestal pressure which is propagated to the core via profile stiffness. Central radiation must be limited and controlled to avoid confinement degradation. This requires reliable control of the impurity concentration but also possibilities to act on the ELM frequency which must be kept high enough to avoid an irreversible impurity accumulation in the centre and the consequent radiation collapse. The key role of the f{sub ELM} is confirmed also by the analysis of N+He discharges. Non-coronal effects affect the radiation of low-Z impurities at the plasma edge. Due to the radial transport, the steep temperature gradients and the ELM flush out, a local equilibrium cannot be

  7. Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Valerie S; Russomanno, Alexander; Gillespie, R Brent; OModhrain, Sile

    2017-10-13

    Refreshable displays for tactile graphics are typically composed of pins that have smaller diameters and spacing than standard braille dots. We investigated configurations of high-density pins to form braille text on such displays using non-refreshable stimuli produced with a 3D printer. Normal dot braille (diameter 1.5 mm) was compared to high-density dot braille (diameter 0.75 mm) wherein each normal dot was rendered by high-density simulated pins alone or in a cluster of pins configured in a diamond, X, or square; and to "blobs" that could result from covering normal braille and high-density multi-pin configurations with a thin membrane. Twelve blind participants read MNREAD sentences displayed in these conditions. For high-density simulated pins, single pins were as quickly and easily read as normal braille, but diamond, X, and square multi-pin configurations were slower and/or harder to read than normal braille. We therefore conclude that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.

  8. Elastic Behavior and Platelet Retraction in Low- and High-Density Fibrin Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufsus, Adam R.; Rana, Kuldeepsinh; Brown, Andrea; Dorgan, John R.; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Neeves, Keith B.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrin is a biopolymer that gives thrombi the mechanical strength to withstand the forces imparted on them by blood flow. Importantly, fibrin is highly extensible, but strain hardens at low deformation rates. The density of fibrin in clots, especially arterial clots, is higher than that in gels made at plasma concentrations of fibrinogen (3–10 mg/mL), where most rheology studies have been conducted. Our objective in this study was to measure and characterize the elastic regimes of low (3–10 mg/mL) and high (30–100 mg/mL) density fibrin gels using shear and extensional rheology. Confocal microscopy of the gels shows that fiber density increases with fibrinogen concentration. At low strains, fibrin gels act as thermal networks independent of fibrinogen concentration. Within the low-strain regime, one can predict the mesh size of fibrin gels by the elastic modulus using semiflexible polymer theory. Significantly, this provides a link between gel mechanics and interstitial fluid flow. At moderate strains, we find that low-density fibrin gels act as nonaffine mechanical networks and transition to affine mechanical networks with increasing strains within the moderate regime, whereas high-density fibrin gels only act as affine mechanical networks. At high strains, the backbone of individual fibrin fibers stretches for all fibrin gels. Platelets can retract low-density gels by >80% of their initial volumes, but retraction is attenuated in high-density fibrin gels and with decreasing platelet density. Taken together, these results show that the nature of fibrin deformation is a strong function of fibrin fiber density, which has ramifications for the growth, embolization, and lysis of thrombi. PMID:25564864

  9. Density and Frequency Caudo-Rostral Gradients of Sleep Spindles Recorded in the Human Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter-Derex, Laure; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Mauguière, François; Salin, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: This study aims at providing a quantitative description of intrinsic spindle frequency and density (number of spindles/min) in cortical areas using deep intracerebral recordings in humans. Patients or Participants: Thirteen patients suffering from pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsy and investigated through deep intracortical EEG in frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insular, and limbic cortices including the hippocampus were included. Methods: Spindle waves were detected from the ongoing EEG during slow wave sleep (SWS) by performing a time-frequency analysis on filtered signals (band-pass filter: 10-16 Hz). Then, spindle intrinsic frequency was determined using a fast Fourier transform, and spindle density (number of spindles per minute) was computed. Results: Firstly, we showed that sleep spindles were recorded in all explored cortical areas, except temporal neocortex. In particular, we observed the presence of spindles during SWS in areas such as the insular cortex, medial parietal cortex, occipital cortex, and cingulate gyrus. Secondly, we demonstrated that both spindle frequency and density smoothly change along the caudo-rostral axis, from fast frequent posterior spindles to slower and less frequent anterior spindles. Thirdly, we identified the presence of spindle frequency oscillations in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. Conclusions: Spindling activity is widespread among cortical areas, which argues for the fundamental role of spindles in cortical functions. Mechanisms of caudo-rostral gradient modulation in spindle frequency and density may result from a complex interplay of intrinsic properties and extrinsic modulation of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons. Citation: Peter-Derex L; Comte JC; Mauguière F; Salin PA. Density and frequency caudo-rostral gradients of sleep spindles recorded in the human cortex. SLEEP 2012;35(1):69-79. PMID:22215920

  10. Initial cell seeding density influences pancreatic endocrine development during in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Blair K; Webber, Travis D; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to form cells derived from all three germ layers, and as such have received significant attention as a possible source for insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells for diabetes treatment. While considerable advances have been made in generating hESC-derived insulin-producing cells, to date in vitro-derived glucose-responsive beta-cells have remained an elusive goal. With the objective of increasing the in vitro formation of pancreatic endocrine cells, we examined the effect of varying initial cell seeding density from 1.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) to 5.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) followed by a 21-day pancreatic endocrine differentiation protocol. Low density-seeded cells were found to be biased toward the G2/M phases of the cell cycle and failed to efficiently differentiate into SOX17-CXCR4 co-positive definitive endoderm cells leaving increased numbers of OCT4 positive cells in day 4 cultures. Moderate density cultures effectively formed definitive endoderm and progressed to express PDX1 in approximately 20% of the culture. High density cultures contained approximately double the numbers of PDX1 positive pancreatic progenitor cells and also showed increased expression of MNX1, PTF1a, NGN3, ARX, and PAX4 compared to cultures seeded at moderate density. The cultures seeded at high density displayed increased formation of polyhormonal pancreatic endocrine cell populations co-expressing insulin, glucagon and somatostatin. The maturation process giving rise to these endocrine cell populations followed the expected cascade of pancreatic progenitor marker (PDX1 and MNX1) expression, followed by pancreatic endocrine specification marker expression (BRN4, PAX4, ARX, NEUROD1, NKX6.1 and NKX2.2) and then pancreatic hormone expression (insulin, glucagon and somatostatin). Taken together these data suggest that initial cell seeding density plays an important role in both germ layer specification and pancreatic progenitor commitment, which

  11. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  12. Determination of helium number densities in high-frequency electrodeless plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavare, Zanda

    2010-11-01

    The number densities of He first excited states 2 3S 1, 2 1S 0, 2 3P 0,1,2, and 2 1P 0 were measured by absorption and self-absorption methods. The emission lines in the range 290-730 nm were used to determine the number densities of He metastable and resonant states of inductively coupled high-frequency electrodeless lamps filled with helium at pressure 0.1 Torr. The obtained number densities of helium metastable levels 2 3S 1 and 2 1S 0 are 2×10 12 and 3×10 11 cm -3, respectively. For the 2 3P 0,1,2 and 2 1P 0 levels the determined number densities are ten times smaller than that of the metastable levels. Values of number densities from measurements using both methods are in good agreement.

  13. Numerical estimation of bone density and elastic constants distribution in a human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, J M; García-Aznar, J M; Domínguez, J; Doblaré, M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we try to predict the distribution of bone density and elastic constants in a human mandible, based on the stress level produced by mastication loads using a mathematical model of bone remodelling. These magnitudes are needed to build finite element models for the simulation of the mandible mechanical behavior. Such a model is intended for use in future studies of the stability of implant-supported dental prostheses. Various models of internal bone remodelling, both phenomenological and more recently mechanobiological, have been developed to determine the relation between bone density and the stress level that bone supports. Among the phenomenological models, there are only a few that are also able to reproduce the level of anisotropy. These latter have been successfully applied to long bones, primarily the femur. One of these models is here applied to the human mandible, whose corpus behaves as a long bone. The results of bone density distribution and level of anisotropy in different parts of the mandible have been compared with various clinical studies, with a reasonable level of agreement.

  14. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  15. High power density dc/dc converter: Component selection and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.

    Further work pertaining to design considerations for the new high power, high frequency dc/dc converters is discussed. The goal of the project is the development of high power, high power density dc/dc converters at power levels in the multi-kilowatt to megawatt range for aerospace applications. The prototype converter is rated for 50 kW at a switching frequency of 50 kHz, with an input voltage of 200 Vdc and an output of 2000 Vdc. The overall power density must be in the vicinity of 0.2 to 0.3 kg/kW.

  16. An Ultraflexible Silicon-Oxygen Battery Fiber with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Jiao, Yiding; Lu, Lijun; Wang, Lie; Chen, Taiqiang; Peng, Huisheng

    2017-10-23

    To satisfy the rapid development of portable and wearable electronics, it is highly desired to make batteries with both high energy densities and flexibility. Although some progress has been made in recent decades, the available batteries share critical problems of poor energy storage capacity and low flexibility. Herein, we have developed a silicon-oxygen battery fiber with high energy density and ultra-high flexibility by designing a coaxial architecture with a lithiated silicon/carbon nanotube hybrid fiber as inner anode, a polymer gel as middle electrolyte and a bare carbon nanotube sheet as outer cathode. The fiber showed a high energy density of 512 Wh kg(-1) and could effectively work after bending for 20 000 cycles. These battery fibers have been further woven into flexible textiles for a large-scale application. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Mahdi; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Ghaedi, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    The main aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chronic high stocking density on liver proteome of rainbow trout. Rainbow trout juveniles (42.6 ± 2.3 g average body weight) were randomly distributed into six tanks at two stocking densities (low stocking density (LD) = 20 kg m -3 and high stocking density (HD) = 80 kg m -3 ). Both treatments were performed in triplicate tanks for a period of 60 days. High stocking density caused a reduction in the growth performance compared with LD fish. Lysozyme activity increased with stocking density, while serum complement activity presented the opposite pattern. Serum cortisol and total protein levels did not show significant differences (P > 0.05) between experimental groups. The fish reared at high stocking density showed significantly lower osmolality and globulin values but higher albumin level. The HD group had significantly higher activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde content in the liver when compared to the LD group. Comparative proteomics was used to determine the proteomic responses in livers of rainbow trout reared at high stocking density for 60 days. Out of nine protein spots showing altered abundance (>1.5-folds, P < 0.05), eight spots were successfully identified. Two proteins including apolipoprotein A-I-2 precursor and mitochondrial stress-70 protein were found to increase in HD group. The spots found to decrease in the HD group were identified as follows: 2-peptidylprolyl isomerase A, two isoforms of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an unnamed protein product similar to fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, and serum albumin 1 protein.

  18. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy at high densities with nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifels, Y.

    2017-11-01

    The nuclear equation of state is a topic of highest current interest in nuclear structure and reactions as well as in astrophysics. The symmetry energy is the part of the equation of state which is connected to the asymmetry in the neutron/proton content. During recent years a multitude of experimental and theoretical efforts on different fields have been undertaken to constraint its density dependence at low densities but also above saturation density (ρ_0=0.16 fm ^{-3} . Conventionally the symmetry energy is described by its magnitude S_v and the slope parameter L , both at saturation density. Values of L = 44 -66MeV and S_v=31 -33MeV have been deduced in recent compilations of nuclear structure, heavy-ion reaction and astrophysics data. Apart from astrophysical data on mass and radii of neutron stars, heavy-ion reactions at incident energies of several 100MeV are the only means do access the high density behaviour of the symmetry energy. In particular, meson production and collective flows upto about 1 AGeV are predicted to be sensitive to the slope of the symmetry energy as a function of density. From the measurement of elliptic flow of neutrons with respect to charged particles at GSI, a more stringent constraint for the slope of the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities has been deduced. Future options to reach even higher densities will be discussed.

  19. High-resolution transcriptome of human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Beyer

    Full Text Available Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like and alternative (M2-like polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7 as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226 cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease.

  20. High-Resolution Transcriptome of Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jia; Staratschek-Jox, Andrea; Vorholt, Daniela; Krebs, Wolfgang; Sommer, Daniel; Sander, Jil; Mertens, Christina; Nino-Castro, Andrea; Schmidt, Susanne V.; Schultze, Joachim L.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages are dynamic cells integrating signals from their microenvironment to develop specific functional responses. Although, microarray-based transcriptional profiling has established transcriptional reprogramming as an important mechanism for signal integration and cell function of macrophages, current knowledge on transcriptional regulation of human macrophages is far from complete. To discover novel marker genes, an area of great need particularly in human macrophage biology but also to generate a much more thorough transcriptome of human M1- and M1-like macrophages, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of human macrophages. Using this approach we can now provide a high-resolution transcriptome profile of human macrophages under classical (M1-like) and alternative (M2-like) polarization conditions and demonstrate a dynamic range exceeding observations obtained by previous technologies, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptome of human macrophages. Using this approach, we identify important gene clusters so far not appreciated by standard microarray techniques. In addition, we were able to detect differential promoter usage, alternative transcription start sites, and different coding sequences for 57 gene loci in human macrophages. Moreover, this approach led to the identification of novel M1-associated (CD120b, TLR2, SLAMF7) as well as M2-associated (CD1a, CD1b, CD93, CD226) cell surface markers. Taken together, these data support that high-resolution transcriptome profiling of human macrophages by RNA-seq leads to a better understanding of macrophage function and will form the basis for a better characterization of macrophages in human health and disease. PMID:23029029

  1. Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Human Motions in Physical Therapy Using Mixture Density Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Ferguson, JM; Lee, S

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient’s exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient’s physician with recommendations for improvement. Methods The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. Results The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject’s performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. Conclusion The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach

  2. Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Human Motions in Physical Therapy Using Mixture Density Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Ferguson, J M; Lee, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient's exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient's physician with recommendations for improvement. The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject's performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach employs the recent progress in the field of

  3. The next generation vanadium flow batteries with high power density - a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjing; Li, Xianfeng; Zhang, Huamin

    2017-12-20

    Vanadium flow batteries (VFBs) have received increasing attention due to their attractive features for large-scale energy storage applications. However, the relatively high cost and severe polarization of VFB energy storage systems at high current densities restrict their utilization in practical industrial applications. Optimization of the performance of key VFB materials, including electrodes, electrolytes and membranes, can realize simultaneous minimization of polarization and capacity decay. The power density and energy density of VFBs are thus simultaneously enhanced. Moreover, relevant theoretical mechanisms and foundations based on virtual investigations of VFB models and simulations can guide these optimizations. The improved power density and energy density can reduce the cost of VFB energy storage systems, accelerating their successful industrialization. In this perspective, modification methods to optimize the performance of key VFB materials and investigations of models and simulations of VFBs will be discussed. Therefore, the available ideas and approaches will be provided to direct further improvements in the power density and energy density of VFB systems.

  4. High-density ferroelectric recording using a hard disk drive-type data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomonori; Hiranaga, Yoshiomi; Cho, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric probe data storage has been proposed as a novel data storage method in which bits are recorded based on the polarization directions of individual domains. These bits are subsequently read by scanning nonlinear dielectric microscopy. The domain walls of typical ferroelectric materials are quite thin: often only several times the lattice constant, which is advantageous for high-density data storage. In this work, high-density read/write (R/W) demonstrations were conducted using a hard disk drive-type test system, and the writing of bit arrays with a recording density of 3.4 Tbit/in.2 was achieved. Additionally, a series of writing and reading operations was successfully demonstrated at a density of 1 Tbit/in.2. Favorable characteristics of ferroelectric recording media for use with the proposed method are discussed in the latter part of this paper.

  5. Relationship between Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Harada, Sei; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kurihara, Ayako; Kubota, Yoshimi; Higashiyama, Aya; Hirata, Takumi; Nishida, Yoko; Kawasaki, Midori; Takebayashi, Toru; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Atherosclerosis Society (JAS) Guidelines for Diagnosis and Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases for Japanese 2012 version have set a non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C)-management target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) +30 mg/dL. However, the actual difference between non-HDL-C and LDL-C is not clear. Therefore, we evaluated its joint distribution and assessed the validity of this criterion in the general Japanese population. We used baseline cross-sectional data of 4,110 participants from two studies; the KOBE Study (n=1,108) and the Tsuruoka Metabolomic Cohort Study (n=3,002). To evaluate whether the difference between LDL-C and non-HDL-C in the general population match that of the current guidelines, we classified LDL-C levels into four groups according to the JAS Guideline and evaluated its agreement with the corresponding non-HDL-C group. Analysis was also done using six groups (the previous four groups plus the upper and lower cut-off values). The mean difference (mg/dL) between the non-HDL-C and LDL-C (for the KOBE Study and Tsuruoka Metabolomic Cohort Study, respectively) was 19.6 and 24.1 (ppopulation, the difference between non-HDL-C and LDL-C was lower than the expected difference of 30 mg/dL. Changes to the criteria for non-HDL-C target levels may be considered in the future.

  6. Fishery-independent data reveal negative effect of human population density on Caribbean predatory fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Stallings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable.

  7. Fishery-Independent Data Reveal Negative Effect of Human Population Density on Caribbean Predatory Fish Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. Conclusions/Significance Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable. PMID:19421312

  8. High torque density permanent magnet brushless machines with similar slot and pole numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, D.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Howe, D.

    2004-05-01

    The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation into the electromagnetic performance of permanent magnet brushless machines having similar slot and pole numbers. Finite element analysis is employed to predict the airgap flux density distribution, the cogging torque and emf waveforms, and the winding inductances. It is shown that such machines exhibit a high torque density and is conducive to fault tolerance. The results are validated on two experimental motors.

  9. Ag incorporated Mn3O4/AC nanocomposite based supercapacitor devices with high energy density and power density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamuthu, S; Vijayakumar, S; Muralidharan, G

    2014-12-14

    Silver incorporated Mn3O4/amorphous carbon (AC) nanocomposites are synthesized by a green chemistry method. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the structural changes in Mn3O4/AC nanocomposites attributable to the addition of silver. Cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and ac-impedance studies indicated that the Ag-Mn3O4/AC-5 electrode was the most suitable candidate for supercapacitor applications. From the galvanostatic charge-discharge studies, a higher specific capacitance of 981 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) was obtained. An Ag-Mn3O4/AC-symmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as an anode as well as a cathode, and an asymmetric supercapacitor consisting of an Ag-incorporated Mn3O4/AC composite as a cathode and an activated carbon as an anode have been fabricated. The symmetric device exhibits a specific cell capacitance of 72 F g(-1) at a specific current of 1 A g(-1) whereas the asymmetric device delivers a specific cell capacitance of 180 F g(-1) at a high current rate of 10 A g(-1). The asymmetric supercapacitor device yields a high energy density of 81 W h kg(-1). This is higher than that of lead acid batteries and comparable with that of nickel hydride batteries.

  10. Calculation of induced current densities for humans by magnetic fields from electronic article surveillance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Kang, Gang

    2001-11-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the impedance method to calculate the electric fields and current densities induced in millimetre resolution anatomic models of the human body, namely an adult and 10- and 5-year-old children, for exposure to nonuniform magnetic fields typical of two assumed but representative electronic article surveillance (EAS) devices at 1 and 30 kHz, respectively. The devices assumed for the calculations are a solenoid type magnetic deactivator used at store checkouts and a pass-by panel-type EAS system consisting of two overlapping rectangular current-carrying coils used at entry and exit from a store. The impedance method code is modified to obtain induced current densities averaged over a cross section of 1 cm2 perpendicular to the direction of induced currents. This is done to compare the peak current densities with the limits or the basic restrictions given in the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Because of the stronger magnetic fields at lower heights for both the assumed devices, the peak 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the CNS tissues such as the brain and the spinal cord are increasingly larger for smaller models and are the highest for the model of the 5-year-old child. For both the EAS devices, the maximum 1 cm2 area-averaged current densities for the brain of the model of the adult are lower than the ICNIRP safety guideline, but may approach or exceed the ICNIRP basic restrictions for models of 10- and 5-year-old children if sufficiently strong magnetic fields are used.

  11. FALCON: fast and unbiased reconstruction of high-density super-resolution microscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Junhong; Vonesch, Cédric; Kirshner, Hagai; Carlini, Lina; Olivier, Nicolas; Holden, Seamus; Manley, Suliana; Ye, Jong Chul; Unser, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Super resolution microscopy such as STORM and (F)PALM is now a well known method for biological studies at the nanometer scale. However, conventional imaging schemes based on sparse activation of photo-switchable fluorescent probes have inherently slow temporal resolution which is a serious limitation when investigating live-cell dynamics. Here, we present an algorithm for high-density super-resolution microscopy which combines a sparsity-promoting formulation with a Taylor series approximation of the PSF. Our algorithm is designed to provide unbiased localization on continuous space and high recall rates for high-density imaging, and to have orders-of-magnitude shorter run times compared to previous high-density algorithms. We validated our algorithm on both simulated and experimental data, and demonstrated live-cell imaging with temporal resolution of 2.5 seconds by recovering fast ER dynamics.

  12. Exploration of Plasma Jets Approach to High Energy Density Physics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chiping [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-08-26

    High-energy-density laboratory plasma (HEDLP) physics is an emerging, important area of research in plasma physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics, and particle acceleration. While the HEDLP regime occurs at extreme conditions which are often found naturally in space but not on the earth, it may be accessible by colliding high intensity plasmas such as high-energy-density plasma jets, plasmoids or compact toroids from plasma guns. The physics of plasma jets is investigated in the context of high energy density laboratory plasma research. This report summarizes results of theoretical and computational investigation of a plasma jet undergoing adiabatic compression and adiabatic expansion. A root-mean-squared (rms) envelope theory of plasma jets is developed. Comparison between theory and experiment is made. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  13. Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with insulinemia in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez-López Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between lipids and insulin concentration in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 350 adolescents aged 14-19 years old from a public high school in Guadalajara, in the state of Jalisco, Mexico, was conducted. Fasting insulin concentration was determined using microparticle enzyme immunoassay; total cholesterol and triglycerides were detected by standard enzymatic procedures; and low- and high-density lipoproteins were found using standard precipitation methods. Statistical analysis included linear multivariate regression. RESULTS: Serum triglycerides were associated positively with insulin fasting (beta= 0.003, p= 0.0001 and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was negatively associated with insulin fasting in male adolescents 18-19 years old (beta= -0.03, p= 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: The relationships between triglycerides and insulin and between high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin are already present in adolescence.

  14. Research on and Application to BH-HTC High Density Cementing Slurry System on Tarim Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhong, Song; Fei, Gao; Jianyong, He; Qixiang, Yang; Jiang, Yang; Xia, Liu

    2017-08-01

    A large section of salt bed is contented in Tarim region Piedmont which constructs complex geological conditions. For high-pressure gas well cementing difficulties from the region, high density cement slurry system has been researched through reasonable level of particle size distribution and second weighting up. The results of laboratory tests and field applications show that the high density cementing slurry system is available to Tarim region cementing because this system has a well performance in slurry stability, gas breakthrough control, fluidity, water loss, and strength.

  15. The effect of water stress on super-high- density 'Koroneiki' olive oil quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Arnon; Naor, Amos; Ben-Gal, Alon; Harlev, Guy; Zipori, Isaac; Schneider, Doron; Birger, Reuven; Peres, Moti; Gal, Yoni; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-08-15

    Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. HUMANITIES IN A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNIGHT, BONNIE M.

    A HUMANITIES COURSE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR ACADEMICALLY ABLE SEVENTH-GRADE STUDENTS IN BRANCIFORTE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN SANTA CRUZ, CALIFORNIA. IN A TWO-PERIOD DAILY TIME BLOCK, STUDENTS LEARN ENGLISH, LITERATURE, AND LATIN, AND INVESTIGATE TOPICS IN ARCHEOLOGY, CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, LINGUISTICS, PSYCHOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, GREEK LITERATURE AND…

  17. Protein aggregation under high concentration/density state during chromatographic and ultrafiltration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Ejima, Daisuke; Akuta, Teruo

    2017-02-01

    Local transient high protein concentration or high density condition can occur during processing of protein solutions. Typical examples are saturated binding of proteins during column chromatography and high protein concentration on the semi-permeable membrane during ultrafiltration. Both column chromatography and ultrafiltration are fundamental technologies, specially for production of pharmaceutical proteins. We summarize here our experiences related to such high concentration conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides for high density integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipp, Hugh T.; Andersen, Karin Nordström; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2004-01-01

    Amorphous silicon rich silicon nitride optical waveguides clad in silica are presented as a high-index contrast platform for high density integrated optics. Performance of different cross-sectional geometries have been measured and are presented with regards to bending loss and insertion loss...

  19. Rendering high charge density of states in ionic liquid-gated MoS 2 transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Y.; Lee, J.; Kim, S.; Park, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated high charge density of states (DOS) in the bandgap of MoS2 nanosheets with variable temperature measurements on ionic liquid-gated MoS2 transistors. The thermally activated charge transport indicates that the electrical current in the two-dimensional MoS 2 nanosheets under high

  20. Deep anisotropic dry etching of silicon microstructures by high-density plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blauw, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the dry etching of deep anisotropic microstructures in monocrystalline silicon by high-density plasmas. High aspect ratio trenches are necessary in the fabrication of sensitive inertial devices such as accellerometers and gyroscopes. The etching of silicon in fluorine-based

  1. The Pain in Storage: Work Safety in a High-Density Shelving Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Stephanie A.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of academic and research libraries have built high-density shelving facilities to address overcrowding conditions in their regular stacks. However, the work performed in these facilities is physically strenuous and highly repetitive in nature and may require the use of potentially dangerous equipment. This article will examine…

  2. High-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhai; Jin, Shuanggen

    2017-03-01

    GPS radio occultation can estimate ionospheric electron density and total electron content (TEC) with high spatial resolution, e.g., China's recent Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation. However, high-order ionospheric delays are normally ignored. In this paper, the high-order ionospheric effects on electron density estimation from the Fengyun-3C GPS radio occultation data are estimated and investigated using the NeQuick2 ionosphere model and the IGRF12 (International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 12th generation) geomagnetic model. Results show that the high-order ionospheric delays have large effects on electron density estimation with up to 800 el cm-3, which should be corrected in high-precision ionospheric density estimation and applications. The second-order ionospheric effects are more significant, particularly at 250-300 km, while third-order ionospheric effects are much smaller. Furthermore, the high-order ionospheric effects are related to the location, the local time, the radio occultation azimuth and the solar activity. The large high-order ionospheric effects are found in the low-latitude area and in the daytime as well as during strong solar activities. The second-order ionospheric effects have a maximum positive value when the radio occultation azimuth is around 0-20°, and a maximum negative value when the radio occultation azimuth is around -180 to -160°. Moreover, the geomagnetic storm also affects the high-order ionospheric delay, which should be carefully corrected.

  3. VEGF expression and microvascular density in relation to high-risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VEGF expression and microvascular density in relation to high-risk-HPV infection in cervical carcinoma – An immunohistochemical study. ... Eleven cases were low grade and 19 were high-grade cases. VEGF expression was detected in 100% of cases. The relation between carcinoma grade and VEGF expression and ...

  4. Exploring charge density analysis in crystals at high pressure: data collection, data analysis and advanced modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Genoni, Alessandro; Meyer, Benjamin; Krawczuk, Anna; Macchi, Piero

    2017-08-01

    The possibility to determine electron-density distribution in crystals has been an enormous breakthrough, stimulated by a favourable combination of equipment for X-ray and neutron diffraction at low temperature, by the development of simplified, though accurate, electron-density models refined from the experimental data and by the progress in charge density analysis often in combination with theoretical work. Many years after the first successful charge density determination and analysis, scientists face new challenges, for example: (i) determination of the finer details of the electron-density distribution in the atomic cores, (ii) simultaneous refinement of electron charge and spin density or (iii) measuring crystals under perturbation. In this context, the possibility of obtaining experimental charge density at high pressure has recently been demonstrated [Casati et al. (2016). Nat. Commun. 7, 10901]. This paper reports on the necessities and pitfalls of this new challenge, focusing on the species syn-1,6:8,13-biscarbonyl[14]annulene. The experimental requirements, the expected data quality and data corrections are discussed in detail, including warnings about possible shortcomings. At the same time, new modelling techniques are proposed, which could enable specific information to be extracted, from the limited and less accurate observations, like the degree of localization of double bonds, which is fundamental to the scientific case under examination.

  5. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  6. Noninvasive assessment of diabetic foot ulcers with diffuse photon density wave methodology: pilot human study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Neidrauer, Michael; Zubkov, Leonid; Weingarten, Michael S.; Pourrezaei, Kambiz

    2009-11-01

    A pilot human study is conducted to evaluate the potential of using diffuse photon density wave (DPDW) methodology at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths (685 to 830 nm) to monitor changes in tissue hemoglobin concentration in diabetic foot ulcers. Hemoglobin concentration is measured by DPDW in 12 human wounds for a period ranging from 10 to 61 weeks. In all wounds that healed completely, gradual decreases in optical absorption coefficient, oxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and total hemoglobin concentration are observed between the first and last measurements. In nonhealing wounds, the rates of change of these properties are nearly zero or slightly positive, and a statistically significant difference (pdiabetic foot ulcers, and indicate that it may have clinical utility in the evaluation of wound healing potential.

  7. Coral reef degradation is not correlated with local human population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, John F.; Valdivia, Abel

    2016-07-01

    The global decline of reef-building corals is understood to be due to a combination of local and global stressors. However, many reef scientists assume that local factors predominate and that isolated reefs, far from human activities, are generally healthier and more resilient. Here we show that coral reef degradation is not correlated with human population density. This suggests that local factors such as fishing and pollution are having minimal effects or that their impacts are masked by global drivers such as ocean warming. Our results also suggest that the effects of local and global stressors are antagonistic, rather than synergistic as widely assumed. These findings indicate that local management alone cannot restore coral populations or increase the resilience of reefs to large-scale impacts. They also highlight the truly global reach of anthropogenic warming and the immediate need for drastic and sustained cuts in carbon emissions.

  8. High-Beta, Improved Confinement Reversed-Field Pinch Plasmas at High Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyman, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Chapman, B. E. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ahn, J. W. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Almagri, A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Anderson, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Bonomo, F. [Consorzio RFX, Italy; Brower, D. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Craig, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Hartog, D. J. Den [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Deng, B. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ding, W. X. [University of California, Los Angeles; Ebrahimi, F. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Ennis, D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Fiksel, G. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Foust, Charles R [ORNL; Franz, P. [EURATOM / ENEA, Italy; Gangadhara, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Goetz, J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; O' Connell, R, [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Oliva, S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Prager, S. C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Reusch, J. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Sarff, J. S. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Stephens, H. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Yates, T. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2008-01-01

    In Madison Symmetric Torus Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 1991 discharges where improved confinement is brought about by modification of the current profile, pellet injection has quadrupled the density, reaching ne=41019 m 3. Without pellet injection, the achievable density in improved confinement discharges had been limited by edge-resonant tearing instability. With pellet injection, the total beta has been increased to 26%, and the energy confinement time is comparable to that at low density. Pressure-driven local interchange and global tearing are predicted to be linearly unstable. Interchange has not yet been observed experimentally, but there is possible evidence of pressure-driven tearing, an instability usually driven by the current gradient in the reversed-field pinch.

  9. StreamMap: Smooth Dynamic Visualization of High-Density Streaming Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenhui; Baciu, George; Yu, Han

    2017-02-13

    Interactive visualization of streaming points for real-time scatterplots and linear blending of correlation patterns is increasingly becoming the dominant mode of visual analytics for both big data and streaming data from active sensors and broadcasting media. To better visualize and interact with inter-stream patterns, it is generally necessary to smooth out gaps or distortions in the streaming data. Previous approaches either animate the points directly or present a sampled static heatmap. We propose a new approach, called StreamMap, to smoothly blend high-density streaming points and create a visual flow that emphasizes the density pattern distributions. In essence, we present three new contributions for the visualization of high-density streaming points. The first contribution is a density-based method called super kernel density estimation that aggregates streaming points using an adaptive kernel to solve the overlapping problem. The second contribution is a robust density morphing algorithm that generates several smooth intermediate frames for a given pair of frames. The third contribution is a trend representation design that can help convey the flow directions of the streaming points. The experimental results on three datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of StreamMap when dynamic visualization and visual analysis of trend patterns on streaming points are required.

  10. Activated platelets contribute to oxidized low-density lipoproteins and dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins through a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blache, Denis; Gautier, Thomas; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Lagrost, Laurent

    Plasma activity of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) increases in patients with cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated whether platelet-released sPLA2 induces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) modifications that translate into changes in lipoprotein

  11. Design of Ultra-High-Power-Density Machine Optimized for Future Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more-electric" aircraft with specific power in the projected range of 50 hp/lb, whereas conventional electric machines generate usually 0.2 hp/lb. The use of such electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers depends on the successful development of ultra-high-power-density machines. One possible candidate for such ultra-high-power-density machines, a round-rotor synchronous machine with an engineering current density as high as 20,000 A/sq cm, was selected to investigate how much torque and power can be produced.

  12. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  13. The final stage of gravitational collapse for high density fluid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, R. G. [Physics Department , Roraima Federal University, 69304-000 Boa Vista, RR (Brazil); De Campos, M. [Physics Department, Roraima Federal University, 69304-000 Boa Vista, RR (Brazil) and Astronomy Department, Sao Paulo University, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-03-25

    The High density high density fluids can be represented by a stiff matter state equation P={rho} and also by the Hagedorn state equation. The first is constructed using a lagrangian that allows bare nucleons to interact attractively via scalar meson exchange, and repulsively by a more massive vector meson exchange; the second consider that for large mass the spectrum of hadrons grows exponentially, namely {rho}(m) {approx}exp(m/T{sub H}), where T{sub H} is the Hagedorn temperature, resulting the state equation P = P{sub 0}+{rho}{sub 0}ln({rho}/{rho}{sub 0}). We study the gravitational collapse for a high density fluid, considering a Hagedorn state equation in a presence of a vacuum component.

  14. High density-high purity graphite prepared by hot isostatic pressing in refractory metal containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, C.L.

    1994-08-09

    Porous graphite in solid form is hot isostatically pressed in a refractory metal container to produce a solid graphite monolith with a bulk density greater than or equal to 2.10 g/cc. The refractory metal container is formed of tantalum, niobium, tungsten, molybdenum or alloys thereof in the form of a canister or alternatively plasma sprayed, chemically vapor deposited, or coated by some other suitable means onto graphite. Hot isostatic pressing at 2,200 C and 30 KSI (206.8 MPa) argon pressure for two hours produces a bulk density of 2.10 g/cc. Complex shapes can be made. 1 fig.

  15. Cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of human adipose tissue stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Seong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Ko, Young Jong; Chun, Yong Hoon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of cell density on the proliferation activity of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) over time in culture. Passage #4 (P4) and #12 (P12) AT-MSCs from two donors were plated at a density of 200 (culture condition 1, CC1) or 5000 (culture condition 2, CC2) cells cm(-2) . After 7 days of incubation, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs cultured in CC1 were thin and spindle-shaped, whereas those cultured in CC2 had extensive cell-to-cell contacts and an expanded cell volume. In addition, P4 and P12 AT-MSCs in CC1 divided more than three times, while those in CC2 divided less than once on average. Flow cytometric analysis using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate N-succinimidyl ester dye showed that the fluorescence intensity of AT-MSCs was lower in CC1 than in CC2. Furthermore, expression of proliferation-associated genes, such as CDC45L, CDC20A and KIF20A, in P4 AT-MSCs was higher in CC1 than in CC2, and this difference was also observed in P12 AT-MSCs. These data demonstrated that cell culture density affects the proliferation activity of MSCs, suggesting that it is feasible to design a strategy to prepare suitable MSCs using specific culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Formation of high-density Si nanodots by agglomeration of ultra-thin amorphous Si films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hiroki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)], E-mail: hkondo@alice.xtal.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Ueyama, Tomonori [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ikenaga, Eiji; Kobayashi, Keisuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Sakai, Akira [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Ogawa, Masaki [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2008-11-03

    High-density and similarly-sized Si nanodots were formed by annealing ultra-thin amorphous Si (a-Si) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates in vacuum. Dependences of density and diameter of the Si nanodots on the a-Si film thickness and, annealing temperature and time were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that drastic increase (decrease) in the density (diameter) occurred at an a-Si thickness of 1 nm. By agglomeration of sub-nanometer thick a-Si films, a density larger than 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, an average diameter smaller than 5 nm, and a dispersion of diameter less than 15% were achieved.

  17. Anodic Oxidation of Carbon Steel at High Current Densities and Investigation of Its Corrosion Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash; Khan, Hamid Yazdani

    2017-06-01

    This work aims at studying the influence of high current densities on the anodization of carbon steel. Anodic protective coatings were prepared on carbon steel at current densities of 100, 125, and 150 A/dm2 followed by a final heat treatment. Coatings microstructures and morphologies were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance of the uncoated carbon steel substrate and the anodic coatings were evaluated in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization measurements. The results showed that the anodic oxide coatings which were prepared at higher current densities had thicker coatings as a result of a higher anodic forming voltage. Therefore, the anodized coatings showed better anti-corrosion properties compared to those obtained at lower current densities and the base metal.

  18. Interfacial Tension and Surface Pressure of High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein, and Related Lipid Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollila, O. H. Samuli; Lamberg, Antti; Lehtivaara, Maria; Koivuniemi, Artturi; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets play a central role in energy storage and metabolism on a cellular scale. Their core is comprised of hydrophobic lipids covered by a surface region consisting of amphiphilic lipids and proteins. For example, high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL, respectively) are essentially lipid droplets surrounded by specific proteins, their main function being to transport cholesterol. Interfacial tension and surface pressure of these particles are of great interest because they are related to the shape and the stability of the droplets and to protein adsorption at the interface. Here we use coarse-grained molecular-dynamics simulations to consider a number of related issues by calculating the interfacial tension in protein-free lipid droplets, and in HDL and LDL particles mimicking physiological conditions. First, our results suggest that the curvature dependence of interfacial tension becomes significant for particles with a radius of ∼5 nm, when the area per molecule in the surface region is tensions in the used HDL and LDL models are essentially unaffected by single apo-proteins at the surface. Finally, interfacial tensions of lipoproteins are higher than in thermodynamically stable droplets, suggesting that HDL and LDL are kinetically trapped into a metastable state. PMID:22995496

  19. The continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, T; Leopold, H; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H

    1977-07-29

    The "mechanical oscillator" technique for the measurement of the density of fluids is based on the influence of mass on the natural frequency of a mechanical oscillator. The practical application of this principle was worked out by Kratky et al. (1969) and Leopold (1970). It is demonstrated in this study that the method permits the continuous high-precision measurement of the density of flowing blood in anesthetized animals. The accuracy is 10(5) g/ml, the maximum sampling rate 20/min. As found in rabbits and cats during the control state, physiological blood density changes related to spontaneous blood pressure variations are up to 2-10(4) g/ml. The method can be combined with i.v. injections of isotonic and iso-oncotic solutions to determine cardiac output and blood volume on the basis of a "density dilution" principle. Since the density of the interstitial fluid is lower than that of blood, fluid shifts through the capillary walls can be detected. The effects of hypertonic glucose and of hyperoncotic dextran have been examined. Changes in the density of the arterial blood appear within 10 s after i.v. injection of these fluids. Similarly, density changes result from hemorrhage and reinfusion. During and after i.v. administration of vasoactive drugs (noradrenaline, angiotensin II, acetylcholine), marked transient changes in blood density are seen which obviously reflect the effects of fluid shifts through the capillary walls. During hemorrhagic hypotension we found periodic variations in the blood density synchronous with spontaneously occurring Mayer waves. The new method seems to be a promising tool for investigations physiological and pathological capillary fluid dynamics.

  20. Long-term observations of D-region electron densities at high and middle northern latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Werner; Keuer, Dieter; Friedrich, Martin; Strelnikova, Irina; Latteck, Ralph

    D-region electron densities are estimated using Doppler radars at frequencies around 3 MHz in Andenes, Norway (69.3°N, 16.0°E) since summer 2003 and in Juliusruh, Germany (54.6°N, 13.4°E) since summer 2006. Both experiments utilize partial reflections of ordinary and extraordinary component waves from scatterers in the altitude range 50-90 km to estimate electron number densities from differential absorption (DAE) and differential phase (DPE) measurements. Height profiles of electron density are obtained between about 55 km and 90 km with sampling times of 2-3 minutes and height resolution of 1.5 km at Andenes and 3 km at Juliusruh. The electron density profiles independently derived from DAE and DPE measurements agree remarkably well. The radar results are compared with co-located simultaneously measured electron densities by rocket-borne radio wave propagation experiments (differential absorption, Faraday rotation, and impedance probe) in Andenes with good agreement between insitu and ground-based measurements. The diurnal and seasonal variability of electron densities as observed at high and mid-latitudes under quiet ionospheric conditions is presented and compared to the corresponding electron density profiles of the International Reference Ionosphere. The response of D-region ionization to regular solar activity variation as well as to solar activity storms and geomagnetic disturbances has been studied at polar latitudes. Characteristic electron density variations are found during downwelling events of nitric oxide due to strong vertical coupling during stratospheric warming events. In addition, we discuss the inter-relation between D-region electron densities from radar observations, riometer absorption, and the empirical model IMAZ at different levels of solar activity and during particle precipitation events.

  1. Brewster angle reflection measurements of Hg density and laser deflection (Schlieren) measurements of Hg density gradients in an ultra-high pressure arc lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J; Kato, M; Lawler, J E

    2009-05-01

    A Brewster angle reflection measurement is used to determine the Hg vapor density at the arc tube wall of an ultra-high pressure lamp. The density measurement in combination with the wall temperature yields a pressure of 201 ± 11 bar. This lamp pressure in combination with an arc core temperature measurement yields an arc core Hg vapor density of 1.78 × 1020 cm-3, which agrees with the density from resonance collisional line broadening measurements of the 1014 nm Hg line. These density results are combined with Abel inverted laser deflection or schlieren measurements to determine a density/temperature map of the Hg vapor in the lamp. The laser deflection technique is sensitive in the arc core and mantle, unlike emission techniques which are sensitive only in the arc core.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Biomimetic High Density Lipoprotein Nanoparticles To Treat Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Marina Giacoma

    High density lipoproteins (HDLs), natural nanoparticles that function as vehicles for cholesterol transport, have enhanced uptake by several human cancers. This uptake is mediated, in part, by the high affinity HDL receptor, scavenger receptor B-1 (SR-B1). More specifically, studies show that the rate of cellular proliferation of lymphoma, a cancer of the lymphocytes, is directly proportional to the amount of HDL-cholesterol available. Thus, targeting of HDL-cholesterol uptake by these cells could be an effective therapeutic approach that may have lower toxicity to healthy cells compared to conventional therapies. Biomimetic HDL can be synthesized using a gold nanoparticle template (HDL-AuNPs), which provides control over size, shape, and surface chemistry. Like their natural counterparts, HDL-AuNPs sequester cholesterol. However, since the gold nanoparticle replaces the cholesterol core of natural HDL, HDL-AuNPs inherently deliver less cholesterol. We show that HDL-AuNPs are able to induce dose dependent apoptosis in B cell lymphoma cell lines and reduce tumor volume following systemic administration to mice bearing B cell lymphoma tumors. Furthermore, HDL-AuNPs are neither toxic to healthy human lymphocytes (SR-B1-), nor to hepatocytes and macrophages (SR-B1+), which are cells naturally encountered by HDLs. Manipulation of cholesterol flux and targeting of SR-B1 are responsible for the efficacy of HDL-AuNPs against B cell lymphoma. HDL-AuNPs could be used to treat B cell lymphomas and other diseases that involve pathologic accumulation of cholesterol. Titanium dioxide nanoparticle (TiO2 NP) core HDLs (HDL-TiO 2 NPs) have been synthesized for high resolution cellular localization studies and for future use as a therapeutic and imaging agent. In initial studies, HDL-TiO(2 NPs display maximum uptake in B cell lymphoma cell lines. X-ray fluorescence microscopy studies show interaction between HDL-TiO2 NPs and cells 10 minutes after treatment and internalization after

  3. Development of Advanced High Uranium Density Fuels for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Butt, Darryl [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Meyer, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Xu, Peng [Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    This work conducts basic materials research (fabrication, radiation resistance, thermal conductivity, and corrosion response) on U3Si2 and UN, two high uranium density fuel forms that have a high potential for success as advanced light water reactor (LWR) fuels. The outcome of this proposed work will serve as the basis for the development of advance LWR fuels, and utilization of such fuel forms can lead to the optimization of the fuel performance related plant operating limits such as power density, power ramp rate and cycle length.

  4. Physics and applications of high energy density plasmas. Extreme state driven by pulsed electromagnetic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horioka, Kazuhiko (ed.)

    2002-06-01

    The papers presented at the symposium on ''Physics and application of high energy density plasmas, held December 20-21, 2001 at NIFS'' are collected in this proceedings. The topics covered in the meeting include dense z-pinches, plasma focus, intense charged particle beams, intense radiation sources, discharge pumped X-ray lasers, their diagnostics, and applications of them. The papers reflect the present status and trends in the research field of high energy density plasmas. (author)

  5. High-Density Chemical Intercalation of Zero-Valent Copper into Bi 2 Se 3 Nanoribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Koski, Kristie J.

    2012-05-09

    A major goal of intercalation chemistry is to intercalate high densities of guest species without disrupting the host lattice. Many intercalant concentrations, however, are limited by the charge of the guest species. Here we have developed a general solution-based chemical method for intercalating extraordinarily high densities of zero-valent copper metal into layered Bi 2Se 3 nanoribbons. Up to 60 atom % copper (Cu 7.5Bi 2Se 3) can be intercalated with no disruption to the host lattice using a solution disproportionation redox reaction. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. LTE Micro-cell Deployment for High-Density Railway Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Kassab, Mohamed; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a serious candidate for the future releases of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). LTE offers more capacity and supports new communication-based applications and services for railways. Nevertheless, even with this technology, the classical macro......-cell radio deployments reach overload, especially in high-density areas, such as major train stations. In this paper, an LTE micro-cell deployment is investigated in high-density railway areas. Copenhagen Main Station is considered as a realistic deployment study case, with a set of relevant railway...

  7. Interplay between spin polarization and color superconductivity in high density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constança

    2013-01-01

    Here, it is suggested that a four-point interaction of the tensor type may lead to spin polarization in quark matter at high density. It is found that the two-flavor superconducting phase and the spin polarized phase correspond to distinct local minima of a certain generalized thermodynamical...... potential. It follows that a transition from one to the other phase occurs, passing through true minima with both a spin polarization and a color superconducting gap. It is shown that the quark spin polarized phase is realized at rather high density, while the two-flavor color superconducting phase...

  8. Strongly Interacting Matter Matter at Very High Energy Density: 3 Lectures in Zakopane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-06-09

    These lectures concern the properties of strongly interacting matter at very high energy density. I begin with the Color Glass Condensate and the Glasma, matter that controls the earliest times in hadronic collisions. I then describe the Quark Gluon Plasma, matter produced from the thermalized remnants of the Glasma. Finally, I describe high density baryonic matter, in particular Quarkyonic matter. The discussion will be intuitive and based on simple structural aspects of QCD. There will be some discussion of experimental tests of these ideas.

  9. Improving the circular economy via hydrothermal processing of high-density waste plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Helmer; Conti, Federica

    2017-01-01

    Rising environmental concerns on climate changes are causing an increasing attention on circular economies. The plastic economy, in particular, is in focus due to the accelerating consumption of plastics, mainly derived from virgin feedstock, combined with the lack of plastic recycling strategies....... This work presents a novel outlook on the potential of using supercritical hydrothermal processing of waste plastic fractions for tertiary recycling. The study investigates hydrothermal processing of nine different, high-density types of plastics into original resin monomers and other value-added chemical...... processing of high-density plastics is a prospective technology for increasing the circularity of the plastic economy....

  10. Rapid inactivation of Penicillium digitatum spores using high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Sachiko; Ohta, Takayuki; Aomatsu, Akiyoshi; Ito, Masafumi; Kano, Hiroyuki; Higashijima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Masaru

    2010-04-01

    A promising, environmentally safe method for inactivating fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum, a difficult-to-inactivate food spoilage microorganism, was developed using a high-density nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). The NEAPP employing Ar gas had a high electron density on the order of 1015 cm-3. The spores were successfully and rapidly inactivated using the NEAPP, with a decimal reduction time in spores (D value) of 1.7 min. The contributions of ozone and UV radiation on the inactivation of the spores were evaluated and concluded to be not dominant, which was fundamentally different from the conventional sterilizations.

  11. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater underlying areas of high-density row-crop production in Alabama, 2009-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries, sampled a network of 15 wells for up to 167 pesticides and pesticide degradates from 2009 through 2013 in three areas of high-density row-crop agriculture in Alabama. Eighteen herbicides, 2 fungicides, and 9 degradates were detected in water from the sampled wells. The highest concentration of a detected pesticide was 4.49 micrograms per liter of bentazon in Baldwin County, Alabama, which was well below the lifetime health advisory level of 200 micrograms per liter. None of the measured pesticide concentrations exceeded a human-health benchmark. Insecticides were not detected.

  12. Ambipolar zinc-polyiodide electrolyte for a high-energy density aqueous redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Nie, Zimin; Vijayakumar, M.; Li, Guosheng; Liu, Jun; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Redox flow batteries are receiving wide attention for electrochemical energy storage due to their unique architecture and advantages, but progress has so far been limited by their low energy density (~25 Wh l-1). Here we report a high-energy density aqueous zinc-polyiodide flow battery. Using the highly soluble iodide/triiodide redox couple, a discharge energy density of 167 Wh l-1 is demonstrated with a near-neutral 5.0 M ZnI2 electrolyte. Nuclear magnetic resonance study and density functional theory-based simulation along with flow test data indicate that the addition of an alcohol (ethanol) induces ligand formation between oxygen on the hydroxyl group and the zinc ions, which expands the stable electrolyte temperature window to from -20 to 50 °C, while ameliorating the zinc dendrite. With the high-energy density and its benign nature free from strong acids and corrosive components, zinc-polyiodide flow battery is a promising candidate for various energy storage applications.

  13. Reduce pests, enhance production: benefits of intercropping at high densities for okra farmers in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Hanna, Rachid; Houmgny, Raissa; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Intercropping can help reduce insect pest populations. However, the results of intercropping can be pest- and crop-species specific, with varying effects on crop yield, and pest suppression success. In Cameroon, okra vegetable is often grown in intercropped fields and sown with large distances between planting rows (∼ 2 m). Dominant okra pests include cotton aphids, leaf beetles and whiteflies. In a field experiment, we intercropped okra with maize and bean in different combinations (okra monoculture, okra-bean, okra-maize and okra-bean-maize) and altered plant densities (high and low) to test for the effects of diversity, crop identity and planting distances on okra pests, their predators and yield. We found crop identity and plant density, but not crop diversity to influence okra pests, their predators and okra yield. Only leaf beetles decreased okra yield and their abundance reduced at high plant density. Overall, okra grown with bean at high density was the most economically profitable combination. We suggest that when okra is grown at higher densities, legumes (e.g. beans) should be included as an additional crop. Intercropping with a leguminous crop can enhance nitrogen in the soil, benefiting other crops, while also being harvested and sold at market for additional profit. Manipulating planting distances and selecting plants based on their beneficial traits may thus help to eliminate yield gaps in sustainable agriculture. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  15. Action potential generation requires a high sodium channel density in the axon initial segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kole, Maarten H P; Ilschner, Susanne U; Kampa, Björn M; Williams, Stephen R; Ruben, Peter C; Stuart, Greg J

    2008-02-01

    The axon initial segment (AIS) is a specialized region in neurons where action potentials are initiated. It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium (Na(+)) channels. Paradoxically, the results of patch-clamp studies suggest that the Na(+) channel density at the AIS is similar to that at the soma and proximal dendrites. Here we provide data obtained by antibody staining, whole-cell voltage-clamp and Na(+) imaging, together with modeling, which indicate that the Na(+) channel density at the AIS of cortical pyramidal neurons is approximately 50 times that in the proximal dendrites. Anchoring of Na(+) channels to the cytoskeleton can explain this discrepancy, as disruption of the actin cytoskeleton increased the Na(+) current measured in patches from the AIS. Computational models required a high Na(+) channel density (approximately 2,500 pS microm(-2)) at the AIS to account for observations on action potential generation and backpropagation. In conclusion, action potential generation requires a high Na(+) channel density at the AIS, which is maintained by tight anchoring to the actin cytoskeleton.

  16. Contribution of high plasma triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to residual risk of coronary heart disease after establishment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Vincent J; Bishop, Louise; Laranjo, Nancy; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Kwiat, Carolyn; Sacks, Frank M

    2010-09-15

    To determine the relative contributions of triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in the residual risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) after the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to guideline-recommended levels, we conducted a hospital-based, case-control study with optimal matching in the strata of LDL cholesterol, gender, ethnicity, and age. The 170 cases and 175 controls were patients at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) from 2005 to 2008 who had an LDL cholesterol level cholesterol level of 73 and 87 mg/dl, respectively. The association between TG and HDL cholesterol levels and CHD risk was assessed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression analysis. The models investigated accommodated the possibility of an interaction between lipid factors. The odds of CHD increased by approximately 20% per 23-mg/dl increase in TGs and decreased by approximately 40% per 7.5-mg/dl decrease in HDL cholesterol. High TGs and low HDL cholesterol interacted synergistically to increase the odds ratio to 10 for the combined greatest TG (> or =190 mg/dl) and lowest HDL cholesterol quintiles (cholesterol was low than average or high; and low HDL cholesterol levels were more strongly associated with CHD when the TGs were high. TGs and HDL cholesterol were associated with CHD in patients with a LDL cholesterol level of risk similar to, or greater than, those in the total group. In conclusion, high TG and low HDL cholesterol levels contribute strongly and synergistically to CHD when LDL cholesterol is well controlled. Thus, high TGs might have greater importance in patients with optimal rather than greater LDL cholesterol concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wide Variability in Caloric Density of Expressed Human Milk Can Lead to Major Underestimation or Overestimation of Nutrient Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Boutin, Mallory A; Kim, Jae H

    2017-05-01

    Very-low-birth-weight infants continue to face significant difficulties with postnatal growth. Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants but may exhibit variation in nutrient content. This study aimed to perform macronutrient analysis on expressed human milk from mothers whose babies are hospitalized in the neonatal intensive care unit. Up to five human milk samples per participant were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate, and fat content using reference chemical analyses (Kjeldahl for protein, high pressure liquid chromatography for carbohydrates, and Mojonnier for fat). Calorie content was calculated. A total of 64 samples from 24 participants was analyzed. Wide variability was found in calorie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat composition. The authors found an average of 17.9 kcal/ounce, with only 34% of samples falling within 10% of the expected caloric density. The assumption that human milk contains 20 kcal/ounce is no longer supported based on this study. This supports promoting an individualized nutrition strategy as a crucial aspect to optimal nutrition.

  18. The post-synaptic density of human postmortem brain tissues: an experimental study paradigm for neuropsychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Gyu Hahn

    Full Text Available Recent molecular genetics studies have suggested various trans-synaptic processes for pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Examination of pre- and post-synaptic scaffolds in the brains of patients would greatly aid further investigation, yet such an approach in human postmortem tissue has yet to be tested. We have examined three methods using density gradient based purification of synaptosomes followed by detergent extraction (Method 1 and the pH based differential extraction of synaptic membranes (Methods 2 and 3. All three methods separated fractions from human postmortem brains that were highly enriched in typical PSD proteins, almost to the exclusion of pre-synaptic proteins. We examined these fractions using electron microscopy (EM and verified the integrity of the synaptic membrane and PSD fractions derived from human postmortem brain tissues. We analyzed protein composition of the PSD fractions using two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS and observed known PSD proteins by mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies revealed that expected protein-protein interactions and certain posttranscriptional modulations were maintained in PSD fractions. Our results demonstrate that PSD fractions can be isolated from human postmortem brain tissues with a reasonable degree of integrity. This approach may foster novel postmortem brain research paradigms in which the stoichiometry and protein composition of specific microdomains are examined.

  19. Evolution of a hypervariable region of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene in humans and other hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Knight, Alec; Deininger, Prescott L

    2004-06-01

    Alu repeats in primates have been shown to evolve at a neutral mutation rate, as anticipated for non-coding autosomal loci. However, we have identified Alu elements within the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene that exhibited highly accelerated rates of evolution. In humans, a 100- and 25-fold increase in average divergence, for an upstream Alu (Alu U) and a downstream Alu (Alu D) respectively, was estimated based on sequence analysis among eight individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds. None of these individuals demonstrated identical sequences within a 950 base region consisting of these two Alu elements. The hypervariability of this genetic region in the nuclear genome yields a potentially powerful tool for human population studies, forensics and paternity. Additionally, the mutation rate of Alu U among non-human hominoids was also accelerated, although to a lesser extent of roughly 3-fold that of other Alu elements. Sequence analysis of various Hominoidea species demonstrated its utility as a phylogenetic tool. The mechanism for the hypervariability in mutation rates is unclear, but may be accelerated as a result of Alu-mediated gene conversion in the human lineage.

  20. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

  1. High endemism and stem density distinguish New Caledonian from other high-diversity rainforests in the Southwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Thomas; Blanchard, E; Hequet, V; Keppel, G; Laidlaw, M; Pouteau, R; Vandrot, H; Birnbaum, P

    2017-10-25

    The biodiversity hotspot of New Caledonia is globally renowned for the diversity and endemism of its flora. New Caledonia's tropical rainforests have been reported to have higher stem densities, higher concentrations of relictual lineages and higher endemism than other rainforests. This study investigates whether these aspects differ in New Caledonian rainforests compared to other high-diversity rainforests in the Southwest Pacific. Plants (with a diameter at breast height ≥10 cm) were surveyed in nine 1-ha rainforest plots across the main island of New Caledonia and compared with 14 1-ha plots in high-diversity rainforests of the Southwest Pacific (in Australia, Fiji, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands). This facilitated a comparison of stem densities, taxonomic composition and diversity, and species turnover among plots and countries. The study inventoried 11 280 stems belonging to 335 species (93 species ha-1 on average) in New Caledonia. In comparison with other rainforests in the Southwest Pacific, New Caledonian rainforests exhibited higher stem density (1253 stems ha-1 on average) including abundant palms and tree ferns, with the high abundance of the latter being unparalleled outside New Caledonia. In all plots, the density of relictual species was ≥10 % for both stems and species, with no discernible differences among countries. Species endemism, reaching 89 % on average, was significantly higher in New Caledonia. Overall, species turnover increased with geographical distance, but not among New Caledonian plots. High stem density, high endemism and a high abundance of tree ferns with stem diameters ≥10 cm are therefore unique characteristics of New Caledonian rainforests. High endemism and high spatial species turnover imply that the current system consisting of a few protected areas is inadequate, and that the spatial distribution of plant species needs to be considered to adequately protect the exceptional flora of New Caledonian rainforests.

  2. High capacity and high density functional conductive polymer and SiO anode for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Yuca, Neslihan; Zheng, Ziyan; Fu, Yanbao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Abdelbast, Guerfi; Zaghib, Karim; Liu, Gao

    2015-01-14

    High capacity and high density functional conductive polymer binder/SiO electrodes are fabricated and calendered to various porosities. The effect of calendering is investigated in the reduction of thickness and porosity, as well as the increase of density. SiO particle size remains unchanged after calendering. When compressed to an appropriate density, an improved cycling performance and increased energy density are shown compared to the uncalendered electrode and overcalendered electrode. The calendered electrode has a high-density of ∼1.2 g/cm(3). A high loading electrode with an areal capacity of ∼3.5 mAh/cm(2) at a C/10 rate is achieved using functional conductive polymer binder and simple and effective calendering method.

  3. High-Energy-Density Physics Fundamentals, Inertial Fusion, and Experimental Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Drake, R. Paul; Horie, Yasuyuki

    2006-01-01

    The raw numbers of high-energy-density physics are amazing: shock waves at hundreds of km/s (approaching a million km per hour), temperatures of millions of degrees, and pressures that exceed 100 million atmospheres. This book introduces the reader to the fundamental tools and discoveries of high-energy-density physics. It surveys the production of high-energy-density conditions, the fundamental plasma and hydrodynamic models that can describe them and the problem of scaling from the laboratory to the cosmos. Connections to astrophysics are discussed throughout. The book is intended to support coursework in high-energy-density physics, to meet the needs of new researchers in this field, and also to serve as a useful reference on the fundamentals. Specifically the book has been designed to enable academics in physics, astrophysics, applied physics and engineering departments to provide in a single-course introduction to fluid mechanics and radiative transfer, with dramatic applications in the field of high-ene...

  4. High Tap Density Li4Ti5O12 Microspheres: Synthetic Conditions and Advanced Electrochemical Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ming, Jun

    2017-03-17

    Preparation of uniform spherical Li4Ti5O12 with high tap density is significant to achieve a high volumetric energy density in lithium-ion batteries. Herein, Li4Ti5O12 micro-spheres with variable tap-density and tunable size distribution were synthesized by a newly designed industrial spray drying approach. The slurry concentration, sintering time and sintering conditions after spray, the effect of Li/Ti molar ratio on the lithium ion (Li+) storage capability were investigated. A narrow particle size distribution around 10 μm and high tap-density close to 1.4 g cm-3 of the Li4Ti5O12 spheres can be obtained under the optimized conditions. The Li4Ti5O12 spheres can deliver much higher capacity of 168 mAh g-1 at 1 C-rate and show high capacity retention of 97.7% over 400 cycles. The synthetic conditions are confirmed to be critical for improving the electron conductivity and Li+ diffusivity by adjusting the crystal and spatial structures. As-prepared high performance Li4Ti5O12 is an ideal electrode for Li-ion batteries or capacitors; meanwhile the presented approach is also applicable for preparing other kind of spherical materials.

  5. Evidence of low-density and high-density liquid phases and isochore end point for water confined to carbon nanotube

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nomura, Kentaro; Kaneko, Toshihiro; Bai, Jaeil; Francisco, Joseph S; Yasuoka, Kenji; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Possible transition between two phases of supercooled liquid water, namely the low- and high-density liquid water, has been only predicted to occur below 230 K from molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...

  6. Forming high-efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2015-07-07

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  7. Forming high efficiency silicon solar cells using density-graded anti-reflection surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M.; Page, Matthew R.

    2014-09-09

    A method (50) is provided for processing a graded-density AR silicon surface (14) to provide effective surface passivation. The method (50) includes positioning a substrate or wafer (12) with a silicon surface (14) in a reaction or processing chamber (42). The silicon surface (14) has been processed (52) to be an AR surface with a density gradient or region of black silicon. The method (50) continues with heating (54) the chamber (42) to a high temperature for both doping and surface passivation. The method (50) includes forming (58), with a dopant-containing precursor in contact with the silicon surface (14) of the substrate (12), an emitter junction (16) proximate to the silicon surface (14) by doping the substrate (12). The method (50) further includes, while the chamber is maintained at the high or raised temperature, forming (62) a passivation layer (19) on the graded-density silicon anti-reflection surface (14).

  8. Turbulence at the transition to the high density H-mode in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, N.P.; Zoletnik, S.; Baumel, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a new improved confinement regime was found in the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator (Renner H. et al 1989 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 31 1579). The discovery of this high density high confinement mode (HDH-mode) was facilitated by the installation of divertor modules. In this paper......, measurements of short wavelength density fluctuations in the HDH-mode using collective scattering of infrared light are presented. These measurements will be contrasted to fluctuations during normal confinement operation (NC-mode). The autopower spectra of the measurements show a consistent increase...... of the fluctuation level associated with the transition from NC- to HDH-mode. Correlation calculations on a 20 mus timescale between magnetic and density fluctuations lead to the result that the fluctuations are correlated in NC- but not in HDH-mode. Finally, a comparative analysis between the enhanced D-alpha H...

  9. Computer simulation of the creation of a transient, high-density plasma by convergent neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggens (Hartman), C.J.

    1976-06-01

    A computer simulation of the creation of a transient, high-density plasma by convergent neutral beams establishes a formalism through which accurate predictions of the geometrical convergence and the temporal bunching of neutral beams can be made as they proceed. Numerical studies of convergent neutral beams can be made as they proceed. Numerical studies of convergent neutral beams include calculation of number densities and the degree of ionization of the neutral distribution as the beams approach convergence. The calculations encompass both spherical and cylindrical geometries. The distribution functions obtained from a mathematical model are integrated numerically to obtain particle densities. Values of the ionization rate parameter anti sigma v/sub NN/ are similarly obtained using numerical fits to the neutral-neutral ionization cross-section data. Integration of the resulting ionization rate provides a first-order estimate of the ion density n/sub I/ as a function of space and time. A better calculation of n/sub I/ is then obtained by adding the second-order effects of neutral-ion collisions. It is thereby possible to determine whether the distribution will be significantly ionized before it has completely converged. Theory had suggested that temporal and spatial convergence of neutral beams would create a maximum density at the target center that would correspond to an enhancement of the initial beam densities by many orders of magnitude. Results of calculations confirm that the suggested technique could have important application in fusion power research.

  10. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  11. High density LHRF experiments in Alcator C-Mod and implications for reactor scale devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. G.; Parker, R. R.; Bonoli, P. T.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; LaBombard, B.; Faust, I. C.; Porkolab, M.; Whyte, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Parametric decay instabilities (PDI) appear to be an ubiquitous feature of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments at high density. In density ramp experiments in Alcator C-Mod and other machines the onset of PDI activity has been well correlated with a decrease in current drive efficiency and production of fast electron bremsstrahlung. However whether PDI is the primary cause of the ‘density limit’, and if so by exactly what mechanism (beyond the obvious one of pump depletion) has not been clearly established. In order to further understand the connection, the frequency spectrum of PDI activity occurring during Alcator C-Mod LHCD experiments has been explored in detail by means of a number of RF probes distributed around the periphery of the C-Mod tokamak including a probe imbedded in the inner wall. The results show that (i) the excited spectra consists mainly of a few discrete ion cyclotron (IC) quasi-modes, which have higher growth than the ion sound branch; (ii) PDI activity can begin either at the inner or outer wall, depending on magnetic configuration; (iii) the frequencies of the IC quasi-modes correspond to the magnetic field strength close to the low-field side (LFS) or high-field side separatrix; and (iv) although PDI activity may initiate near the inner separatrix, the loss in fast electron bremsstrahlung is best correlated with the appearance of IC quasi-modes characteristic of the magnetic field strength near the LFS separatrix. These data, supported by growth rate calculations, point to the importance of the LFS scrape-off layer (SOL) density in determining PDI onset and degradation in current drive efficiency. By minimizing the SOL density it is possible to extend the core density regime over which PDI can be avoided, thus potentially maximizing the effectiveness of LHCD at high density. Increased current drive efficiency at high density has been achieved in FTU and EAST through lithium coating and special fuelling methods, and in recent

  12. [A study of bone density and lifestyles of high school girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisaka, M; Zakouji, H; Ariizumi, M

    1997-07-01

    To obtain basic data on the bone density of high school girls, the bone density of the right heel was measured in principle and their lifestyles were surveyed. The subjects were 142 girls (15-18 years, mean +/- SD = 16.5 +/- 0.8 years old) of a high school in Nagano Prefecture, who accepted our visiting bone health check. Bone density was measured with an 'Achilles' ultrasound bone-densitometer (Lunar Co.) and a self-registered questionnaire on their lifestyles was also employed in this study. The main results were as follows: 1. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and, age, grade, bone fracture, family history, and regularity of menstruation. However, Stiffness significantly correlated to the age of menophania (r = -0.191, p = 0.002) 2. High school girls who belonged to a sports club had significantly higher bone density than other girls. Those who did-exercises which consist mainly of jumping, had significantly higher bone density than others who participated in running sports or did no exercise. There were also significant differences in the frequency of exercise and the duration of exercise. Moreover, those who had a regular exercise history had higher bone density than those who had no regular exercise history, and the mean Stiffness of the group that did exercises daily was higher than for those who did not. 3. There were no significant correlations between Stiffness and food intakes. There also were no significant difference for Stiffness concerning intake of calcium-containing food groups. Regarding the cause of weight loss of more than 2 kg/month, the mean Stiffness of the group with intense exercise was significantly higher than those in the no-weigh loss group and the group that had reduced dietary intake. 4. Regarding the relationships between bone density and the lifestyles of high school girls, a delayed age of menophania had a significantly decreasing effect on Stiffness, whereas three variables of regular exercise habits at

  13. High nymphal host density and mortality negatively impact parasitoid complex during an insect herbivore outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aidan A G; Johnson, Scott N; Cook, James M; Riegler, Markus

    2017-08-26

    Insect herbivore outbreaks frequently occur and this may be due to factors that restrict top-down control by parasitoids, for example, host-parasitoid asynchrony, hyperparasitization, resource limitation and climate. Few studies have examined host-parasitoid density relationships during an insect herbivore outbreak in a natural ecosystem with diverse parasitoids. We studied parasitization patterns of Cardiaspina psyllids during an outbreak in a Eucalyptus woodland. First, we established the trophic roles of the parasitoids through a species-specific multiplex PCR approach on mummies from which parasitoids emerged. Then, we assessed host-parasitoid density relationships across three spatial scales (leaf, tree and site) over one year. We detected four endoparasitoid species of the family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera); two primary parasitoid and one heteronomous hyperparasitoid Psyllaephagus species (the latter with female development as a primary parasitoid and male development as a hyperparasitoid), and the hyperparasitoid Coccidoctonus psyllae. Parasitoid development was host-synchronized, although synchrony between sites appeared constrained during winter (due to temperature differences). Parasitization was predominantly driven by one primary parasitoid species and was mostly inversely host-density dependent across the spatial scales. Hyperparasitization by C. psyllae was psyllid-density dependent at the site scale, however, this only impacted the rarer primary parasitoid. High larval parasitoid mortality due to density-dependent nymphal psyllid mortality (a consequence of resource limitation) compounded by a summer heat wave was incorporated in the assessment and resulted in density independence of host-parasitoid relationships. As such, high larval parasitoid mortality during insect herbivore outbreaks may contribute to the absence of host density-dependent parasitization during outbreak events. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Effect of electrolysis parameters on the morphologies of copper powder obtained at high current densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Gökhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of copper ion concentrations and electrolyte temperature on the morphologies and on the apparent densities of electrolytic copper powders at high current densities under galvanostatic regime were examined. These parameters were evaluated by the current efficiency of hydrogen evolution. In addition, scanning electron microscopy was used for analyzing the morphology of the copper powders. It was found that the morphology was dependent over the copper ion concentration and electrolyte temperature under same current density (CD conditions. At 150 mA cm-2 and the potential of 1000±20 mV (vs. SCE, porous and disperse copper powders were obtained at low concentrations of Cu ions (0.120 M Cu2+ in 0.50 M H2SO4. Under this condition, high rate of hydrogen evolution reaction took place parallel to copper electrodeposition. The morphology was changed from porous, disperse and cauliflower-like to coral-like, shrub-like and stalk-stock like morphology with the increasing of Cu ion concentrations towards 0.120 M, 0.155 M, 0.315 M, 0.475 M and 0.630 M Cu2+ in 0.5 M H2SO4 respectively at the same CD. Similarly, as the temperature was increased, powder morphology and apparent density were observed to be changed. The apparent density values of copper powders were found to be suitable for many of the powder metallurgy applications.

  15. Analysis of the weld strength of the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis was carried out to determine the strength of welded joints in High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) dam liners. Samples were collected of welded joints and subjected to tensile tests and creep test. It was observed that the welded joints from field welded samples were much weaker and had a very low straining ...

  16. Revealing structural and dynamical properties of high density lipoproteins through molecular simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivuniemi, A.; Vattulainen, I.

    2012-01-01

    The structure and function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles have intrigued the scientific community for decades because of their crucial preventive role in coronary heart disease. However, it has been a taunting task to reveal the precise molecular structure and dynamics of HDL. Further...

  17. Assessing the feasibility of high-density subsurface heat extraction in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abesser, Corinna; Busby, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    The subsurface is increasingly utilized as a heat source (sink) for use in heating (and cooling) applications. This is driven by the need to increase the amount of heat generated from renewable sources to meet the EU renewable energy target of 12% by 2020. This study explores the feasibility, performance and long-term sustainability of high density, closed-loop GSHP installations in urban areas. Specifically, it employs a 2D, finite element, heat transport model to assess the impact of high density heat extraction in a residential area in Reading. A block of semi-detached houses is modelled, assuming that separate GSHP systems are installed in every property. The model considers conductive and advective heat transport. Uncertainties are explored through varying thermal properties and groundwater gradients across the site. Different heat demand scenarios are evaluated and the impact on the subsurface temperature distribution and on heat pump efficiency is assessed. The scenarios are selected to represent variations in inter-annual weather pattern, heating pattern and building insulation standards. Results indicate that high density heat extraction for domestic heating can be sustainable over the lifespan expected for GSHP systems (of around 20 years), in particular where heat demand is reduced by home improvement measures. Based on the results, recommendations are being presented for the sustainable deployment of high density GSHP installation in urban areas.

  18. High-density surface electromyography improves the identification of oscillatory synaptic inputs to motor neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Steeg, C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Stegeman, D.F.; Boonstra, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have addressed corticomuscular coherence (CMC), but broad applications are limited by low coherence values and the variability across subjects and recordings. Here, we investigated how the use of high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) can improve the detection of CMC. Sixteen

  19. High-density surface electromyography improves the identification of oscillatory synaptic inputs to motoneurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, C.V.; Daffertshofer, A.; Stegeman, D.F.; Boonstra, T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have addressed corticomuscular coherence (CMC), but broad applications are limited by low coherence values and the variability across subjects and recordings. Here, we investigated how the use of high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) can improve the detection of CMC. Sixteen

  20. Fluidisation and dispersion behaviour of small high density pellicular expanded bed adsorbents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Elsner, H.D.; Thomas, Owen R. T.

    2002-01-01

    The fluidisation and dispersion properties of various agarose-based expanded bed matrices-small high density stainless steel cored prototypes and standard commercial types-were studied in I-cm diameter expanded bed contactors in which fluid entering the column base is locally stirred. In all cases...