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Sample records for human hepatic cytosols

  1. Prediction of human drug clearance by multiple metabolic pathways: integration of hepatic and intestinal microsomal and cytosolic data.

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    Cubitt, Helen E; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    The current study assesses hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, sulfation, and cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism of raloxifene, quercetin, salbutamol, and troglitazone using different in vitro systems. The fraction metabolized by conjugation and P450 metabolism was estimated in liver and intestine, and the importance of multiple metabolic pathways on accuracy of clearance prediction was assessed. In vitro intrinsic sulfation clearance (CL(int, SULT)) was determined in human intestinal and hepatic cytosol and compared with hepatic and intestinal microsomal glucuronidation (CL(int, UGT)) and P450 clearance (CL(int, CYP)) expressed per gram of tissue. Hepatic and intestinal cytosolic scaling factors of 80.7 mg/g liver and 18 mg/g intestine were estimated from published data. Scaled CL(int, SULT) ranged between 0.7 and 11.4 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) liver and 0.1 and 3.3 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) intestine (salbutamol and quercetin were the extremes). Salbutamol was the only compound with a high extent of sulfation (51 and 28% of total CL(int) for liver and intestine, respectively) and also significant renal clearance (26-57% of observed plasma clearance). In contrast, the clearance of quercetin was largely accounted for by glucuronidation. Drugs metabolized by multiple pathways (raloxifene and troglitazone) demonstrated improved prediction of intravenous clearance using data from all hepatic pathways (44-86% of observed clearance) compared with predictions based only on the primary pathway (22-36%). The assumption of no intestinal first pass resulted in underprediction of oral clearance for raloxifene, troglitazone, and quercetin (3-22% of observed, respectively). Accounting for the intestinal contribution to oral clearance via estimated intestinal availability improved prediction accuracy for raloxifene and troglitazone (within 2.5-fold of observed). Current findings emphasize the importance of both hepatic and intestinal conjugation for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation

  2. Subcellular location and molecular mobility of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 1C1 in living human embryonic kidney 293 cells.

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    Sheng, Jonathan J; Acquaah-Mensah, George K

    2011-08-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases were first isolated from the hepatic cytosol, and they have been localized in the cytoplasm of formaldehyde-fixed human cell samples. The current work was carried out to determine the subcellular localization and molecular mobility of cytosolic sulfotransferases in living human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. In this work, the subcellular location of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 1C1 (SULT1C1) was studied in cultured HEK293 cells using confocal laser-scanning microscopy. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged SULT1C1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm of living HEK293 cells. This is consistent with results from previous studies on several other cytosolic sulfotransferase isoforms. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching microscopy was performed to assess the molecular mobility of the expressed GFP-SULT1C1 molecules. The results suggested that the expressed recombinant GFP-SULT1C1 molecules in living HEK293 cells may include both mobile and immobile populations. To obtain additional insights into the subcellular location of SULT1C1, two machine learning algorithms, Sequential Minimal Optimization and Multilayer Perceptron, were used to compute the probability distribution for the localization of SULT1C1 in nine selected cellular compartments. The resulting probability distribution suggested that the most likely subcellular location of SULT1C1 is the cytosol.

  3. Hepatic Diacylglycerol-Associated Protein Kinase Cε Translocation Links Hepatic Steatosis to Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Humans

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    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic lipid accumulation has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, but translational evidence in humans is limited. We investigated the relationship between liver fat and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity in 133 obese subjects. Although the presence of hepatic steatosis in obese subjects was associated with hepatic, adipose tissue, and peripheral insulin resistance, we found that intrahepatic triglycerides were not strictly sufficient or essential for hepatic insulin resistance. Thus, to examine the molecular mechanisms that link hepatic steatosis to hepatic insulin resistance, we comprehensively analyzed liver biopsies from a subset of 29 subjects. Here, hepatic cytosolic diacylglycerol content, but not hepatic ceramide content, was increased in subjects with hepatic insulin resistance. Moreover, cytosolic diacylglycerols were strongly associated with hepatic PKCε activation, as reflected by PKCε translocation to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate the relevance of hepatic diacylglycerol-induced PKCε activation in the pathogenesis of NAFLD-associated hepatic insulin resistance in humans.

  4. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase regulates senescence in human fibroblasts.

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    Lee, Seung-Min; Dho, So Hee; Ju, Sung-Kyu; Maeng, Jin-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-10-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism changes during cellular senescence. Cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) catalyzes the reversible reduction of oxaloacetate to malate at the expense of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Here, we show that MDH1 plays a critical role in the cellular senescence of human fibroblasts. We observed that the activity of MDH1 was reduced in old human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) [population doublings (PD) 56], suggesting a link between decreased MDH1 protein levels and aging. Knockdown of MDH1 in young HDFs (PD 20) and the IMR90 human fibroblast cell line resulted in the appearance of significant cellular senescence features, including senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining, flattened and enlarged morphology, increased population doubling time, and elevated p16(INK4A) and p21(CIP1) protein levels. Cytosolic NAD/NADH ratios were decreased in old HDFs to the same extent as in MDH1 knockdown HDFs, suggesting that cytosolic NAD depletion is related to cellular senescence. We found that AMP-activated protein kinase, a sensor of cellular energy, was activated in MDH1 knockdown cells. We also found that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) deacetylase, a controller of cellular senescence, was decreased in MDH1 knockdown cells. These results indicate that the decrease in MDH1 and subsequent reduction in NAD/NADH ratio, which causes SIRT1 inhibition, is a likely carbohydrate metabolism-controlled cellular senescence mechanism.

  5. Sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases.

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    Ko, Kyounga; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Davidson, Garrett; Liu, Ming-Yih; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2012-09-01

    Feed additives such as ractopamine and salbutamol are pharmacologically active compounds, acting primarily as β-adrenergic agonists. This study was designed to investigate whether the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol may occur under the metabolic conditions and to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of sulfating two major feed additive compounds, ractopamine and salbutamol. A metabolic labelling study showed the generation and release of [(35)S]sulfated ractopamine and salbutamol by HepG2 human hepatoma cells labelled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of these two compounds. A systematic analysis using 11 purified human SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the major SULT responsible for the sulfation of ractopamine and salbutamol. The pH dependence and kinetic parameters were analyzed. Moreover, the inhibitory effects of ractopamine and salbutamol on SULT1A3-mediated dopamine sulfation were investigated. Cytosol or S9 fractions of human lung, liver, kidney and small intestine were examined to verify the presence of ractopamine-/salbutamol-sulfating activity in vivo. Of the four human organs, the small intestine displayed the highest activity towards both compounds. Collectively, these results imply that the sulfation mediated by SULT1A3 may play an important role in the metabolism and detoxification of ractopamine and salbutamol.

  6. Human hereditary hepatic porphyrias.

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    Nordmann, Yves; Puy, Hervé

    2002-11-01

    The human hereditary hepatic porphyrias are diseases due to marked deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias can be classified as either hepatic or erythroid, depending on the major production site of porphyrins or their precursors. The pathogenesis of inherited hepatic porphyrias has now been defined at the molecular level. Some gene carriers are vulnerable to a range of exogenous and endogenous factors, which may trigger neuropsychiatric and/or cutaneous symptoms. Early diagnosis is of prime importance since it makes way for counselling. In this article we present an overview of recent advances on hepatic porphyrias: 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase deficiency porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT), hereditary coproporphyria (HC), and variegate porphyria (VP).

  7. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  8. Human cytosolic glutathione transferases: structure, function, and drug discovery.

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    Wu, Baojian; Dong, Dong

    2012-12-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are important detoxifying enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of electrophilic substrates to glutathione. In recent years, GSTs have been of great interest in pharmacology and drug development because of their involvement in many important biological processes such as steroid and prostaglandin biosynthesis, tyrosine catabolism, and cell apoptosis. This review describes crystal structures for cytosolic GSTs and correlates active-site features with enzyme functions (e.g., steroid synthesis, tyrosine degradation, and dehydroascorbate reduction) and substrate selectivity. Use of these crystal structures for the design of specific inhibitors for several GST enzymes is also discussed.

  9. Human Cytosolic Extracts Stabilize the HIV-1 Core

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    Fricke, Thomas; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects on HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. The assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core. Interestingly, stabilization of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes is not due solely to macromolecular crowding, suggesting the presence of specific cellular factors that stabilize the HIV-1 core. By using our novel assay, we measured the abilities of different drugs, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine, Bi2 (also known as BI-2), and the peptide CAI, to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Interestingly, we found that PF74 and Bi2 strongly stabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. On the other hand, the peptide CAI destabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. We also found that purified cyclophilin A destabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes in the presence of cellular extracts in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner. In agreement with previous observations using the fate-of-the-capsid assay, we also demonstrated the ability of recombinant CPSF6 to stabilize HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Overall, our findings suggested that cellular extracts specifically stabilize the HIV-1 core. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 core stability in vitro. PMID:23885082

  10. Sulfation of afimoxifene, endoxifen, raloxifene, and fulvestrant by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs): A systematic analysis.

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    Hui, Ying; Luo, Lijun; Zhang, Lingtian; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Zhou, Chunyang; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that sulfate conjugation is involved in the metabolism of three commonly used breast cancer drugs, tamoxifen, raloxifene and fulvestrant. The current study was designed to systematically identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are capable of sulfating raloxifene, fulvestrant, and two active metabolites of tamoxifen, afimoxifene and endoxifen. A systematic analysis using 13 known human SULTs revealed SULT1A1 and SULT1C4 as the major SULTs responsible for the sulfation of afimoxifene, endoxifen, raloxifene and fulvestrant. Kinetic parameters of these two human SULTs in catalyzing the sulfation of these drug compounds were determined. Sulfation of afimoxifene, endoxifen, raloxifene and fulvestrant under metabolic conditions was examined using HepG2 human hepatoma cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Moreover, human intestine, kidney, liver, and lung cytosols were examined to verify the presence of afimoxifene/endoxifen/raloxifene/fulvestrant-sulfating activity.

  11. Sulfation of 6-Gingerol by the Human Cytosolic Sulfotransferases: A Systematic Analysis.

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    Luo, Lijun; Mei, Xue; Xi, Yuecheng; Zhou, Chunyang; Hui, Ying; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of the sulfated form of 6-gingerol, a major pharmacologically active component of ginger, in plasma samples of normal human subjects who were administered 6-gingerol. The current study was designed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase enzyme(s) capable of mediating the sulfation of 6-gingerol. Of the 13 known human cytosolic sulfotransferases examined, six (SULT1A1, SULT1A2, SULT1A3, SULT1B1, SULT1C4, SULT1E1) displayed significant sulfating activity toward 6-gingerol. Kinetic parameters of SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1C4, and SULT1E1 that showed stronger 6-gingerol-sulfating activity were determined. Of the four human organ samples tested, small intestine and liver cytosols displayed considerably higher 6-gingerol-sulfating activity than those of the lung and kidney. Moreover, sulfation of 6-gingerol was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon adenocarcinoma cells under the metabolic setting. Collectively, these results provided useful information relevant to the metabolism of 6-gingerol through sulfation both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

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    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  13. S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and it (R/S)-S-oxides in beagle dog plasma and hepatic cytosol.

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    Panagopoulos, Panayotis; Mitchell, Stephen C; Steventon, Glyn B

    2015-01-01

    1. Incubation of beagle hepatic cytosol, under conditions promoting phenylalanine hydroxylase activity, led to the formation of the sulfoxide derivatives of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-methyl-L-cysteine. Thiodiglycolic acid was not a substrate. Enzyme kinetic parameters (Km, Vmax) were derived indicating S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine had the greatest clearance; no enantioselective preference was observed for this S-oxygenation reaction. 2. Following oral administration of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine to beagle dogs, the parent substance and its sulfoxide were the only compounds identified in the plasma. Pharmacokinetic data have been obtained indicating that the small amount of sulfoxide formed persisted within the body for longer than the parent material, but that the majority of the ingested dose remained in the administered sulfide form. 3. The sulfide moiety within the muco-regulatory drug, S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine, is thought to be vital as it acts as a free radical scavenger, resulting in the inactive sulfoxide. Additional extensive enyzme-mediated sulfoxidation would decrease the amount of active sulfide available. In the dog this appears to not be an issue, signalling possible exploitation for therapeutic benefit in treating airway disease.

  14. Differential redox potential between the human cytosolic and mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Steven J. Coles; John T. Hancock; Myra E. Conway

    2012-01-01

    The human branched-chain aminotransferase (hBCAT) isoenzymes are CXXC motif redox sensitive homodimers central to glutamate metabolism in the central nervous system.These proteins respond differently to oxidation by H2O2,NO,and S-glutathionylation,suggesting that the redox potential is distinct between isoenzymes.Using various reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH:GSSG) to alter the redox environment,we demonstrate that hBCATc (cytosolic) has an overall redox potential that is 30 mV lower than hBCATm (mitochondrial).Furthermore,the CXXC motif of hBCATc was estimated to be 80 mV lower,suggesting that hBCATm is more oxidizing in nature.Western blot analysis revealed close correlations between hBCAT S-glutathionylation and the redox status of the assay environment,offering the hBCAT isoenzymes as novel biomarkers for cytosolic and mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  15. Subcellular Distribution of NAD+ between Cytosol and Mitochondria Determines the Metabolic Profile of Human Cells.

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    VanLinden, Magali R; Dölle, Christian; Pettersen, Ina K N; Kulikova, Veronika A; Niere, Marc; Agrimi, Gennaro; Dyrstad, Sissel E; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Nikiforov, Andrey A; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-11-13

    The mitochondrial NAD pool is particularly important for the maintenance of vital cellular functions. Although at least in some fungi and plants, mitochondrial NAD is imported from the cytosol by carrier proteins, in mammals, the mechanism of how this organellar pool is generated has remained obscure. A transporter mediating NAD import into mammalian mitochondria has not been identified. In contrast, human recombinant NMNAT3 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and is able to catalyze NAD(+) biosynthesis in vitro. However, whether the endogenous NMNAT3 protein is functionally effective at generating NAD(+) in mitochondria of intact human cells still remains to be demonstrated. To modulate mitochondrial NAD(+) content, we have expressed plant and yeast mitochondrial NAD(+) carriers in human cells and observed a profound increase in mitochondrial NAD(+). None of the closest human homologs of these carriers had any detectable effect on mitochondrial NAD(+) content. Surprisingly, constitutive redistribution of NAD(+) from the cytosol to the mitochondria by stable expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial NAD(+) transporter NDT2 in HEK293 cells resulted in dramatic growth retardation and a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, despite the elevated mitochondrial NAD(+) levels. These results suggest that a mitochondrial NAD(+) transporter, similar to the known one from A. thaliana, is likely absent and could even be harmful in human cells. We provide further support for the alternative possibility, namely intramitochondrial NAD(+) synthesis, by demonstrating the presence of endogenous NMNAT3 in the mitochondria of human cells. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Subcellular Distribution of NAD+ between Cytosol and Mitochondria Determines the Metabolic Profile of Human Cells*

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    VanLinden, Magali R.; Dölle, Christian; Pettersen, Ina K. N.; Kulikova, Veronika A.; Niere, Marc; Agrimi, Gennaro; Dyrstad, Sissel E.; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Nikiforov, Andrey A.; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD pool is particularly important for the maintenance of vital cellular functions. Although at least in some fungi and plants, mitochondrial NAD is imported from the cytosol by carrier proteins, in mammals, the mechanism of how this organellar pool is generated has remained obscure. A transporter mediating NAD import into mammalian mitochondria has not been identified. In contrast, human recombinant NMNAT3 localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and is able to catalyze NAD+ biosynthesis in vitro. However, whether the endogenous NMNAT3 protein is functionally effective at generating NAD+ in mitochondria of intact human cells still remains to be demonstrated. To modulate mitochondrial NAD+ content, we have expressed plant and yeast mitochondrial NAD+ carriers in human cells and observed a profound increase in mitochondrial NAD+. None of the closest human homologs of these carriers had any detectable effect on mitochondrial NAD+ content. Surprisingly, constitutive redistribution of NAD+ from the cytosol to the mitochondria by stable expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial NAD+ transporter NDT2 in HEK293 cells resulted in dramatic growth retardation and a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, despite the elevated mitochondrial NAD+ levels. These results suggest that a mitochondrial NAD+ transporter, similar to the known one from A. thaliana, is likely absent and could even be harmful in human cells. We provide further support for the alternative possibility, namely intramitochondrial NAD+ synthesis, by demonstrating the presence of endogenous NMNAT3 in the mitochondria of human cells. PMID:26432643

  17. Effect of Cyclosporin A and Angiotensin II on cytosolic calcium levels in primary human gingival fibroblasts

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    Ajitkumar Supraja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the effect of Cyclosporin A (CsA and angiotensin II (Ang II on cytosolic calcium levels in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs. Materials and Methods: Healthy gingival samples from six volunteers were obtained, and primary HGFs were cultured. Cell viability and proliferation assay were performed to identify the ideal concentrations of CsA and Ang II. Cytosolic calcium levels in cultured gingival fibroblasts treated with CsA and Ang II were studied using colorimetric assay, confocal and fluorescence imaging. Statistical analyses were done using SPSS software and GraphPad Prism. Results: Higher levels of cytosolic levels were evident in cells treated with CsA and Ang II when compared to control group and was statistically significant (P < 0.05 in both colorimetric assay and confocal imaging. Fluorescent images of the cultured HGFs revealed the same. Conclusion: Thus calcium being a key player in major cellular functions, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of drug-induced gingival overgrowth.

  18. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis.

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    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-12-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported.

  19. Expression of cytosolic and membrane associated tissue transglutaminase in rat hepatic stellate cells and its upregulation during transdifferentiation to myofibroblasts in culture.

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    Schnabel, Claudia; Sawitza, Iris; Tag, Carmen G.; Lahme, Birgit; Gressner, Axel M.; Breitkopf, Katja

    2004-03-01

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) to collagen producing myofibroblasts (MFB) is a principal event in liver fibrogenesis. In our studies we investigated if tissue transglutaminase (tTG) from these cell types may play a role in liver fibrosis. Separation of cytosol and membrane components showed membrane associated tTG and during transdifferentiation an upregulation of total tTG on mRNA and protein level was found, but no modulation during stimulation with TGF-beta1. In HSC and fully differentiated MFB a significant amount of the total tTG synthesised during transdifferentiation is found to be membrane-associated whereas the remaining portion is cytosol-associated and only very little is found within the extracellular matrix (ECM). The data implicate that tTG in this cell type seems to play an important role in liver fibrogenesis.

  20. Differentially expressed cytosolic proteins in human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines correlate with lineages and functions.

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    Gez, Swetlana; Crossett, Ben; Christopherson, Richard I

    2007-09-01

    Identification of cytosolic proteins differentially expressed between types of leukemia and lymphoma may provide a molecular basis for classification and understanding their cellular properties. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and mass spectrometry have been used to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in cytosolic extracts from four human leukemia and lymphoma cell lines: HL-60 (acute promyelocytic leukemia), MEC1 (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia), CCRF-CEM (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) and Raji (B-cell Burkitt's lymphoma). A total of 247 differentially expressed proteins were identified between the four cell lines. Analysis of the data by principal component analysis identified 22 protein spots (17 different protein species) differentially expressed at more than a 95% variance level between these cell lines. Several of these proteins were differentially expressed in only one cell line: HL-60 (myeloperoxidase, phosphoprotein 32 family member A, ras related protein Rab-11B, protein disulfide-isomerase, ran-specific GTPase-activating protein, nucleophosmin and S-100 calcium binding protein A4), and Raji (ezrin). Several of these proteins were differentially expressed in two cell lines: Raji and MEC1 (C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, elongation factor 2, alpha- and beta-tubulin, transgelin-2 and stathmin). MEC1 and CCRF-CEM (gamma-enolase), HL-60 and CCRF-CEM (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N). The differentially expressed proteins identified in these four cell lines correlate with cellular properties and provide insights into the molecular basis of these malignancies.

  1. Reductive metabolism of nabumetone by human liver microsomal and cytosolic fractions: exploratory prediction using inhibitors and substrates as marker probes.

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    Matsumoto, Kaori; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Koyanagi, Junichi; Takahashi, Tamiko; Akimoto, Masayuki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2015-06-01

    The metabolic reduction of nabumetone was examined by inhibition and correlation studies using human liver microsomes and cytosol. This reduction was observed in both fractions, with the V(max) values for reduction activity being approximately fourfold higher, and the V(max)/K(m) values approximately three-fold higher, in the microsomes than in the cytosol. The reduction of nabumetone was inhibited by 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) inhibitor, in the microsomal fraction. The reduction activity was also inhibited by quercetin and menadione [carbonyl reductase (CBR) inhibitors], and by phenolphthalein and medroxyprogesterone acetate [potent inhibitors of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C1, 1C2 and 1C4] in the cytosol. A good correlation (r² = 0.93) was observed between the reduction of nabumetone and of cortisone, as a marker of 11β-HSD activity, in the microsomal fractions. There was also an excellent relationship between reduction of nabumetone and of the AKR1C substrates, acetohexamide, and ethacrynic acid (r 2 = 0.92 and 0.93, respectively), in the cytosol fractions. However, a poor correlation was observed between the formation of 4-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-butan-2-ol (MNBO) from nabumetone and CBR activity (with 4-benzoyl pyridine reduction as a CBR substrate) in the cytosol fractions (r² = 0.24). These findings indicate that nabumetone may be metabolized by 11β-HSD in human liver microsomes, and primarily by AKR1C4 in human liver cytosol, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. It cannot be completely denied that CBR is involved to some extent in the formation of MNBO from nabumetone in the cytosol fraction.

  2. Studies of the cytosolic thymidine kinase in human cells and comparison to the recombinantly expressed enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock Jensen, Helle

    Thymidine kinase (TK) is a key enzyme in the salvage pathway of the nucleoside metabolism catalyzing the first phosphorylation step in TTP synthesis. Human cytosolic TK (TKl) is highly cell cycle regulated. TKl is regulated on many different levels of expression and isoforms with altered enzymatic...... properties are found in cancer cells. Investigation of these factors offers possibilities to understand the molecular background for TKl expression including to clarify general regulation patterns. It also gives valuable information for constructing new nucleoside analogs for the therapy of cancer and virus...... infections. In the first part of the present investigation a sensitive test for quantitating TKl mRNA (competitive PCR) is developed and the results show that PHA stimulated lymphocytes reveal the same pattern concerning expression of TKl mRNA and TKl enzyme activity as serum-stimulated cells. This pattern...

  3. Human cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1C4 mediates the sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin.

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    Luo, Lijun; Zhou, Chunyang; Hui, Ying; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2016-04-01

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline, has been reported to be excreted in sulfate conjugated form. The current study aimed to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferase(s) (SULT(s)) that is(are) capable of sulfating doxorubicin and its analog epirubicin, and to verify whether sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin may occur under metabolic conditions. A systematic analysis of thirteen known human SULTs, previously cloned, expressed, and purified, revealed SULT1C4 as the only human SULT capable of sulfating doxorubicin and epirubicin. Cultured HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells were labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of different concentrations of doxorubicin or epirubicin. Analysis of spent labeling media showed the generation and release of [(35)S]sulfated doxorubicin and epirubicin by HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the expression of SULT1C4 in both HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. These results provided a molecular basis underlying the previous finding that sulfate-conjugated doxorubicin was excreted in the urine of patients treated with doxorubicin.

  4. Doxorubicin Regulates Autophagy Signals via Accumulation of Cytosolic Ca2+ in Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Park

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOXO is widely used to treat solid tumors. However, its clinical use is limited by side effects including serious cardiotoxicity due to cardiomyocyte damage. Resident cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs act as key regulators of homeostasis in myocardial cells. However, little is known about the function of hCPCs in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, we found that DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity is closely related to calcium-related autophagy signaling and was significantly attenuated by blocking mTOR signaling in human hCPCs. DOXO induced hCPC apoptosis with reduction of SMP30 (regucalcin and autophagosome marker LC3, as well as remarkable induction of the autophagy-related markers, Beclin-1, APG7, and P62/SQSTM1 and induction of calcium-related molecules, CaM (Calmodulin and CaMKII (Calmodulin kinase II. The results of an LC3 puncta assay further indicated that DOXO reduced autophagosome formation via accumulation of cytosolic Ca2+. Additionally, DOXO significantly induced mTOR expression in hCPCs, and inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor, rescued DOXO-mediated autophagosome depletion in hCPCs with significant reduction of DOXO-mediated cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in hCPCs, and restored SMP30 and mTOR expression. Thus, DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity is linked to Ca2+-related autophagy signaling, and inhibition of mTOR signaling may provide a cardio-protective effect against DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity.

  5. Doxorubicin Regulates Autophagy Signals via Accumulation of Cytosolic Ca2+ in Human Cardiac Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Hye; Choi, Sung Hyun; Kim, Hyungtae; Ji, Seung Taek; Jang, Woong Bi; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is widely used to treat solid tumors. However, its clinical use is limited by side effects including serious cardiotoxicity due to cardiomyocyte damage. Resident cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) act as key regulators of homeostasis in myocardial cells. However, little is known about the function of hCPCs in DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity. In this study, we found that DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity is closely related to calcium-related autophagy signaling and was significantly attenuated by blocking mTOR signaling in human hCPCs. DOXO induced hCPC apoptosis with reduction of SMP30 (regucalcin) and autophagosome marker LC3, as well as remarkable induction of the autophagy-related markers, Beclin-1, APG7, and P62/SQSTM1 and induction of calcium-related molecules, CaM (Calmodulin) and CaMKII (Calmodulin kinase II). The results of an LC3 puncta assay further indicated that DOXO reduced autophagosome formation via accumulation of cytosolic Ca2+. Additionally, DOXO significantly induced mTOR expression in hCPCs, and inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor, rescued DOXO-mediated autophagosome depletion in hCPCs with significant reduction of DOXO-mediated cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in hCPCs, and restored SMP30 and mTOR expression. Thus, DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity is linked to Ca2+-related autophagy signaling, and inhibition of mTOR signaling may provide a cardio-protective effect against DOXO-mediated hCPC toxicity. PMID:27735842

  6. Absolute quantification of superoxide dismutase in cytosol and mitochondria of mice hepatic cells exposed to mercury by a novel metallomic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Sevillano, M.A.; García-Barrera, T. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva (Spain); International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain); Navarro, F. [International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, Cell Biology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Gómez-Ariza, J.L., E-mail: ariza@uhu.es [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva (Spain); International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-09

    Highlights: • Identification and quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in mice hepatic cells. • IDA-ICP-MSis applied to obtain a high degree of accuracy, precision and sensibility. • This methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids clean-up procedures. • The application of this method to Hg-exposed mice reveals perturbations in Cu,Zn-SOD. - Abstract: In the last years, the development of new methods for analyzing accurate and precise individual metalloproteins is of increasing importance, since numerous metalloproteins are excellent biomarkers of oxidative stress and diseases. In that way, methods based on the use of post column isotopic dilution analysis (IDA) or enriched protein standards are required to obtain a sufficient degree of accuracy, precision and high limits of detection. This paper reports the identification and absolute quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in cytosol and mitochondria from mice hepatic cells using a innovative column switching analytical approach. The method consisted of orthogonal chromatographic systems coupled to inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry equipped with a octopole reaction systems (ICP-ORS-MS) and UV detectors: size exclusion fractionation (SEC) of the cytosolic and mitochondrial extracts followed by online anion exchange chromatographic (AEC) separation of Cu/Zn containing species. After purification, Cu,Zn-SOD was identified after tryptic digestion by molecular mass spectrometry (MS). The MS/MS spectrum of a doubly charged peptide was used to obtain the sequence of the protein using the MASCOT searching engine. This optimized methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids the use of sample preconcentration and clean-up procedures, such as cut-off centrifuged filters, solid phase extraction (SPE), precipitation procedures, off-line fractions insolates, etc. In this sense, the method is robust, reliable and fast with typical chromatographic run time less than 20 min

  7. Structural plasticity in the human cytosolic sulfotransferase dimer and its role in substrate selectivity and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbs, Zachary E; Rohn-Glowacki, Katie Jo; Crittenden, Frank; Guidry, Amber L; Falany, Charles N

    2015-02-01

    The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) are dimeric enzymes that help maintain homeostasis through the modulation of hormone and drug activity by catalyzing their transformation into hydrophilic sulfate esters and increasing their excretion. Each of the thirteen active human SULT isoforms displays a unique substrate specificity pattern that underlies its individual role in our bodies. These specificities have proven to be complex, in some cases masking the biological role of specific isoforms. The first part of this review offers a short summary of historical underpinnings of human SULTs, primarily centered on the characterization of each isoform's kinetic and structural properties. Recent structural investigations have revealed each SULT has an active site "lid" that undergoes restructuring once the cofactor/sulfonate donor, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS), binds to the enzyme. This structural rearrangement can alter substrate-binding profiles, therefore complicating enzyme/substrate interactions and making substrate/cosubstrate concentrations and binding order important considerations in enzyme functionality. Molecular dynamic simulations have recently been employed to describe this restructuring in an attempt to offer insight to its effects on substrate selectivity. In addition to reviewing new data on SULT molecular dynamics, we will discuss the contribution of PAPS concentrations and SULT dimerization in the regulation of SULT activity within the human body.

  8. Cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} gene in human and rat: Chromosomal localization and polymorphic markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, A.; Simon, J.S.; Jacob, H.J. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The authors report the chromosomal localization and a simple sequence repeat (SSR) in the cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}) gene in both human and rat. A (CA){sub 18} repeat in the promoter of the rat gene was determined to exhibit length polymorphism when analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 19 different inbred rat strains. Genotyping for this marker in 234 F{sub 2} progeny of a SHRXBN intercross mapped the gene to rat chromosome 13. Using a PCR strategy, a fragment of the promoter for the human gene was isolated, and a (CA){sub 18} repeat was identified. Since this marker displayed a low heterozygosity index, they also identified a mononucleotide repeat in the promoter for cPLA{sub 2} that displayed a polymorphism information content value of 0.76. The human gene was mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to chromosome 1q25. Of interest, the gene encoding the enzyme prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (cyclooxygenase-2), which acts on the arachidonic acid product of cPLA{sub 2}, was previously localized to this same chromosomal region, raising the possibility of coordinate regulation. Identification of intragenic markers may facilitate studies of polymorphic variants of these genes as candidates for disorders in which perturbations of the eicosanoid cascade may play a role. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Reed, Daniel M.; Edin, Matthew L.; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L.; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Mitchell, Jane A.; Warner, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.—Kirkby, N. S., Reed, D. M., Edin, M. L., Rauzi, F., Mataragka, S., Vojnovic, I., Bishop-Bailey, D., Milne, G. L., Longhurst, H., Zeldin, D. C., Mitchell, J. A., Warner, T. D. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation. PMID:26183771

  10. Structure of Human GIVD Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Reveals Insights into Substrate Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui; Klein, Michael G.; Snell, Gyorgy; Lane, Weston; Zou, Hua; Levin, Irena; Li, Ke; Sang, Bi-Ching (Takeda Cali)

    2016-07-01

    Cytosolic phospholipases A2 (cPLA2s) consist of a family of calcium-sensitive enzymes that function to generate lipid second messengers through hydrolysis of membrane-associated glycerophospholipids. The GIVD cPLA2 (cPLA2δ) is a potential drug target for developing a selective therapeutic agent for the treatment of psoriasis. Here, we present two X-ray structures of human cPLA2δ, capturing an apo state, and in complex with a substrate-like inhibitor. Comparison of the apo and inhibitor-bound structures reveals conformational changes in a flexible cap that allows the substrate to access the relatively buried active site, providing new insight into the mechanism for substrate recognition. The cPLA2δ structure reveals an unexpected second C2 domain that was previously unrecognized from sequence alignments, placing cPLA2δ into the class of membrane-associated proteins that contain a tandem pair of C2 domains. Furthermore, our structures elucidate novel inter-domain interactions and define three potential calcium-binding sites that are likely important for regulation and activation of enzymatic activity. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing cPLA2's function in signal transduction.

  11. New insights into the posttranslational regulation of human cytosolic thioredoxin by S-palmitoylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhiyu; Zhong, Liangwei, E-mail: liazho@ucas.ac.cn

    2015-05-15

    High level of palmitate is associated with metabolic disorders. We recently showed that enhanced level of S-palmitoylated cytosolic thioredoxin (Trx1) in mouse liver was new characteristic feature of insulin resistance. However, our understanding of the effect of S-palmitoylation on Trx1 is limited, and the tissue specificity of Trx1 S-palmitoylation is unclear. Here we show that S-palmitoylation also occurs at Cys73 of Trx1 in living endothelial cells, and the level of S-palmitoylated Trx1 undergoes regulation by insulin signaling. Trx1 prefers thiol-thioester exchange with palmitoyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. S-palmitoylation alters conformation or secondary structure of Trx1, as well as decreases the ability of Trx1 to transfer electrons from thioredoxin reductase to S-nitrosylated protein–tyrosine phosphatase 1B and S-nitroso-glutathione. Our results demonstrate that S-palmitoylation is an important post-translational modification of human Trx1. - Highlights: • S-palmitoylation occurs at Cys73 of Trx1 in living endothelial cells. • Insulin signaling may regulate level of S-palmitoylated Trx1 in the cells. • S-palmitoylation plays significant effects on Trx1 structure and functions.

  12. Metabolism of F18, a Derivative of Calanolide A, in Human Liver Microsomes and Cytosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmeng Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available 10-Chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide (F18, an analog of calanolide A, is a novel potent nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor against HIV-1. Here, we report the metabolic profile and the results of associated biochemical studies of F18 in vitro and in vivo. The metabolites of F18 were identified based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and/or nuclear magnetic resonance. Twenty-three metabolites of F18 were observed in liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolism of F18 involved 4-propyl chain oxidation, 10-chloromethyl oxidative dechlorination and 12-carbonyl reduction. Three metabolites (M1, M3-1, and M3-2 were also found in rat blood after oral administration of F18 and the reduction metabolites M3-1 and M3-2 were found to exhibit high potency for the inhibition of HIV-1 in vitro. The oxidative metabolism of F18 was mainly catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4 in human microsomes, whereas flavin-containing monooxygenases and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were found to be involved in its carbonyl reduction. In human cytosol, multiple carbonyl reductases, including aldo-keto reductase 1C, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and quinone oxidoreductase 1, were demonstrated to be responsible for F18 carbonyl reduction. In conclusion, the in vitro metabolism of F18 involves multiple drug metabolizing enzymes, and several metabolites exhibited anti-HIV-1 activities. Notably, the described results provide the first demonstration of the capability of FMOs for carbonyl reduction.

  13. Biophysical characterization of the dimer and tetramer interface interactions of the human cytosolic malic enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujithkumar Murugan

    Full Text Available The cytosolic NADP(+-dependent malic enzyme (c-NADP-ME has a dimer-dimer quaternary structure in which the dimer interface associates more tightly than the tetramer interface. In this study, the urea-induced unfolding process of the c-NADP-ME interface mutants was monitored using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy, analytical ultracentrifugation and enzyme activities. Here, we demonstrate the differential protein stability between dimer and tetramer interface interactions of human c-NADP-ME. Our data clearly demonstrate that the protein stability of c-NADP-ME is affected predominantly by disruptions at the dimer interface rather than at the tetramer interface. First, during thermal stability experiments, the melting temperatures of the wild-type and tetramer interface mutants are 8-10°C higher than those of the dimer interface mutants. Second, during urea denaturation experiments, the thermodynamic parameters of the wild-type and tetramer interface mutants are almost identical. However, for the dimer interface mutants, the first transition of the urea unfolding curves shift towards a lower urea concentration, and the unfolding intermediate exist at a lower urea concentration. Third, for tetrameric WT c-NADP-ME, the enzyme is first dissociated from a tetramer to dimers before the 2 M urea treatment, and the dimers then dissociated into monomers before the 2.5 M urea treatment. With a dimeric tetramer interface mutant (H142A/D568A, the dimer completely dissociated into monomers after a 2.5 M urea treatment, while for a dimeric dimer interface mutant (H51A/D90A, the dimer completely dissociated into monomers after a 1.5 M urea treatment, indicating that the interactions of c-NADP-ME at the dimer interface are truly stronger than at the tetramer interface. Thus, this study provides a reasonable explanation for why malic enzymes need to assemble as a dimer of dimers.

  14. Inherited human group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 deficiency abolishes platelet, endothelial, and leucocyte eicosanoid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Nicholas S; Reed, Daniel M; Edin, Matthew L; Rauzi, Francesca; Mataragka, Stefania; Vojnovic, Ivana; Bishop-Bailey, David; Milne, Ginger L; Longhurst, Hilary; Zeldin, Darryl C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D

    2015-11-01

    Eicosanoids are important vascular regulators, but the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isoforms supporting their production within the cardiovascular system are not fully understood. To address this, we have studied platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes from 2 siblings with a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α). Chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine levels of a broad range of eicosanoids produced by isolated vascular cells, and in plasma and urine. Eicosanoid release data were paired with studies of cellular function. Absence of cPLA2α almost abolished eicosanoid synthesis in platelets (e.g., thromboxane A2, control 20.5 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. patient 0.1 ng/ml) and leukocytes [e.g., prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), control 21.9 ± 7.4 ng/ml vs. patient 1.9 ng/ml], and this was associated with impaired platelet activation and enhanced inflammatory responses. cPLA2α-deficient endothelial cells showed reduced, but not absent, formation of prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; control 956 ± 422 pg/ml vs. patient 196 pg/ml) and were primed for inflammation. In the urine, prostaglandin metabolites were selectively influenced by cPLA2α deficiency. For example, prostacyclin metabolites were strongly reduced (18.4% of control) in patients lacking cPLA2α, whereas PGE2 metabolites (77.8% of control) were similar to healthy volunteer levels. These studies constitute a definitive account, demonstrating the fundamental role of cPLA2α to eicosanoid formation and cellular responses within the human circulation.

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: ... were analyzed using molecular biology techniques that involved RT-PCR, ... There is evidence of genetic diversity of HIV and HCV; virulent hepatitis C virus ...

  16. Cardiolipin hydrolysis by human phospholipases A2. The multiple enzymatic activities of human cytosolic phospholipase A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland, A G; Kinkaid, A R; Wilton, D C

    1998-02-05

    The ability of mammalian phospholipases A2 (PLA2) to hydrolyse cardiolipin (diphosphatidylglycerol) was monitored with a fluorescent displacement assay which allows the use of natural phospholipid substrates. The mammalian enzymes used were porcine pancreatic (Group I) secretory PLA2 (sPLA2), human non-pancreatic (Group II) sPLA2 and human cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). High activity was observed with porcine pancreas sPLA2 whereas the human sPLA2 demonstrated only minimal activity with this substrate. In comparison, sPLA2 from Naja naja venom (Group I) also showed only modest activity with this substrate. Since many lipases possess PLA1 activity, a representative enzyme from Rhizopus arrhizus was also assessed for its ability to hydrolyse cardiolipin which proved to be a good substrate for this fungal lipase. In all cases dilysocardiolipin was the major product while some monolyso intermediate was detected after chromatographic separation. Human cPLA2 was unable to hydrolyse cardiolipin at a significant rate, however, both monolysocardiolipin and dilysocardiolipin, which are prepared by the PLA2-catalysed hydrolysis of cardiolipin, were good substrates providing a further example of the extensive lysophospholipase activity of this enzyme. Moreover, cardiolipin that was initially hydrolysed in situ with either excess porcine pancreatic PLA2 or R. arrhizus lipase (PLA1) was subsequently hydrolysed by human cPLA2. One explanation of this result is that human cPLA2 is able to hydrolyse both 1-acyl and 2-acyl-lysophospholipids. (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Cytosolic Bax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sandra; Raulf, Nina; Bregenhorn, Stephanie; Biniossek, Martin L.; Maurer, Ulrich; Czabotar, Peter; Borner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Bax is kept inactive in the cytosol by refolding its C-terminal transmembrane domain into the hydrophobic binding pocket. Although energetic calculations predicted this conformation to be stable, numerous Bax binding proteins were reported and suggested to further stabilize inactive Bax. Unfortunately, most of them have not been validated in a physiological context on the endogenous level. Here we use gel filtration analysis of the cytosol of primary and established cells to show that endogenous, inactive Bax runs 20–30 kDa higher than recombinant Bax, suggesting Bax dimerization or the binding of a small protein. Dimerization was excluded by a lack of interaction of differentially tagged Bax proteins and by comparing the sizes of dimerized recombinant Bax with cytosolic Bax on blue native gels. Surprisingly, when analyzing cytosolic Bax complexes by high sensitivity mass spectrometry after anti-Bax immunoprecipitation or consecutive purification by gel filtration and blue native gel electrophoresis, we detected only one protein, called p23 hsp90 co-chaperone, which consistently and specifically co-purified with Bax. However, this protein could not be validated as a crucial inhibitory Bax binding partner as its over- or underexpression did not show any apoptosis defects. By contrast, cytosolic Bax exhibits a slight molecular mass shift on SDS-PAGE as compared with recombinant Bax, which suggests a posttranslational modification and/or a structural difference between the two proteins. We propose that in most healthy cells, cytosolic endogenous Bax is a monomeric protein that does not necessarily need a binding partner to keep its pro-apoptotic activity in check. PMID:22277657

  18. Cytosolic chloride ion is a key factor in lysosomal acidification and function of autophagy in human gastric cancer cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Shigekuni; Kusuzaki, Katsuyuki; Inui, Toshio; Wang, Xiangdong; Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to clarify roles of cytosolic chloride ion (Cl(-) ) in regulation of lysosomal acidification [intra-lysosomal pH (pHlys )] and autophagy function in human gastric cancer cell line (MKN28). The MKN28 cells cultured under a low Cl(-) condition elevated pHlys and reduced the intra-lysosomal Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-) ]lys ) via reduction of cytosolic Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-) ]c ), showing abnormal accumulation of LC3II and p62 participating in autophagy function (dysfunction of autophagy) accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation via G0 /G1 arrest without induction of apoptosis. We also studied effects of direct modification of H(+) transport on lysosomal acidification and autophagy. Application of bafilomycin A1 (an inhibitor of V-type H(+) -ATPase) or ethyl isopropyl amiloride [EIPA; an inhibitor of Na(+) /H(+) exchanger (NHE)] elevated pHlys and decreased [Cl(-) ]lys associated with inhibition of cell proliferation via induction of G0 /G1 arrest similar to the culture under a low Cl(-) condition. However, unlike low Cl(-) condition, application of the compound, bafilomycin A1 or EIPA, induced apoptosis associated with increases in caspase 3 and 9 without large reduction in [Cl(-) ]c compared with low Cl(-) condition. These observations suggest that the lowered [Cl(-) ]c primarily causes dysfunction of autophagy without apoptosis via dysfunction of lysosome induced by disturbance of intra-lysosomal acidification. This is the first study showing that cytosolic Cl(-) is a key factor of lysosome acidification and autophagy.

  19. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  20. Glutaredoxin 5 deficiency causes sideroblastic anemia by specifically impairing heme biosynthesis and depleting cytosolic iron in human erythroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hong; Jeong, Suh Young; Ghosh, Manik C.; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Silvestri, Laura; Ortillo, Danilo; Uchida, Naoya; Tisdale, John; Camaschella, Clara; Rouault, Tracey A.

    2010-01-01

    Glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) deficiency has previously been identified as a cause of anemia in a zebrafish model and of sideroblastic anemia in a human patient. Here we report that GLRX5 is essential for iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis and the maintenance of normal mitochondrial and cytosolic iron homeostasis in human cells. GLRX5, a mitochondrial protein that is highly expressed in erythroid cells, can homodimerize and assemble [2Fe-2S] in vitro. In GLRX5-deficient cells, [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis was impaired, the iron-responsive element–binding (IRE-binding) activity of iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) was activated, and increased IRP2 levels, indicative of relative cytosolic iron depletion, were observed together with mitochondrial iron overload. Rescue of patient fibroblasts with the WT GLRX5 gene by transfection or viral transduction reversed a slow growth phenotype, reversed the mitochondrial iron overload, and increased aconitase activity. Decreased aminolevulinate δ, synthase 2 (ALAS2) levels attributable to IRP-mediated translational repression were observed in erythroid cells in which GLRX5 expression had been downregulated using siRNA along with marked reduction in ferrochelatase levels and increased ferroportin expression. Erythroblasts express both IRP-repressible ALAS2 and non-IRP–repressible ferroportin 1b. The unique combination of IRP targets likely accounts for the tissue-specific phenotype of human GLRX5 deficiency. PMID:20364084

  1. Cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidases of rat liver and human red blood cells: regulatory properties and role in AMP dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Berghe, G; Bontemps, F; Vincent, M F

    1988-01-01

    Of the various species of cellular 5'-nucleotidases, membranous, lysosomal and cytosolic, only the latter are likely to play a role in the physiologic dephosphorylation of the 5'-nucleoside monophosphates present in the cytoplasm. The necessity to preserve cellular ATP renders a strict control of the dephosphorylation as well as of the deamination of AMP mandatory, because both nucleotides are maintained in equilibrium by adenylate kinase. Our studies of cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidases purified from rat liver and from human erythrocytes, reviewed in this presentation, have shown that both display complex kinetic properties. Both enzymes have markedly higher affinities for IMP and for GMP than for AMP. In addition, they are stimulated by nucleoside triphosphates, among them ATP and GTP, and inhibited by Pi. The erythrocytic purine 5'-nucleotidase is also stimulated by glycerate 2,3-bisphosphate. It could thus be expected that under conditions of ATP and GTP breakdown, particularly when accompanied by an increase in Pi, the dephosphorylation of AMP would be curtailed. To verify this hypothesis, experiments were performed with isolated rat hepatocytes and with human red blood cells. The rate of dephosphorylation of AMP was measured by following time-wise the production of adenosine in the presence of coformycin (or deoxycoformycin) and 5-iodotubercidin. The coformycins inhibit the deamination of adenosine into inosine by adenosine deaminase, and 5-iodotubercidin inhibits the recycling of adenosine into AMP by adenosine kinase. Upon induction of ATP catabolism by the addition of fructose to isolated rat hepatocytes, the dephosphorylation of AMP was nearly completely suppressed. In accordance with these results, the activity of the rat liver cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase, assayed in the presence of concentrations of substrate and effectors mimicking those measured in intact cells following the addition of fructose, was decreased as compared to control conditions. In

  2. Nuclear localization and cytosolic overexpression of LASP-1 correlates with tumor size and nodal-positivity of human breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietl Johannes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP-1, initially identified from human breast cancer, is a specific focal adhesion protein involved in cell proliferation and migration, which was reported to be overexpressed in 8–12 % of human breast cancers and thought to be exclusively located in cytoplasm. Methods In the present work we analyzed the cellular and histological expression pattern of LASP-1 and its involvement in biological behavior of human breast cancer through correlation with standard clinicopathological parameters and expression of c-erbB2 (HER-2/neu, estrogen- (ER and progesterone-receptors (PR. For this purpose immunohistochemical staining intensity and percentage of stained cells were semi-quantitatively rated to define a LASP-1 immunoreactive score (LASP-1-IRS. LASP-1-IRS was determined in 83 cases of invasive ductal breast carcinomas, 25 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS and 18 fibroadenomas. Cellular LASP-1 distribution and expression pattern was visualized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy and assessed through separate Western blots of nuclear and cytosol preparations of BT-20, MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and ZR-75/1 breast cancer cells. Results Statistical analysis revealed that the resulting LASP-1-IRS was significantly higher in invasive carcinomas compared to fibroadenomas (p = 0.0176. Strong cytoplasmatic expression of LASP-1 was detected in 55.4 % of the invasive carcinomas, which correlated significantly with nuclear LASP-1-positivity (p = 0.0014, increased tumor size (p = 0.0159 and rate of nodal-positivity (p = 0.0066. However, levels of LASP-1 expression did not correlate with average age at time point of diagnosis, histological tumor grading, c-erbB2-, ER- or PR-expression. Increased nuclear localization and cytosolic expression of LASP-1 was found in breast cancer with higher tumor stage as well as in rapidly proliferating epidermal basal cells. Confocal microscopy and separate Western blots of cytosolic and

  3. Arf and RhoA regulate both the cytosolic and the membrane-bound phospholipase D from human placenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hansen, Harald S.; Provost, J.J.;

    1997-01-01

    proteins 1 µM mArf3 (2-fold) and 0.37 nM RhoA (2-fold). This is the first report to show RhoA activation of a cytosolic PLD. The activation by mArf3 was maintained after partial purification on DEAE Sepharose of the enzyme. We have previously reported the existence of a membrane-bound PLD from human...... for the inhibitory effect. Furthermore, placental membrane PLD was activated by 30 µM GTP¿S (4-fold) and by mArf3 (1 µM) and RhoA (0.37 nM) by a factor of 3 and 2, respectively. The solubilized membrane phospholipase D was partially purified to a basal specific activity of 25-37 nmol/min/mg. This preparation...

  4. Regulation of the activity and polymerization status of recombinant human cytosolic thymidine kinase by thiols and ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroiwa, N; Yusa, T; Nakamura, Y; Sakiyama, S; Hiwasa, T; Lin, L; Moriyama, Y; Fujimura, S

    2000-02-01

    The cDNA clone encoding human thymidine kinase (hTK), was expressed in E. coli using a prokaryotic expression vector, pKK 223-3. The kinetics of the recombinant hTK (rhTK) were similar to those of cytosolic TK but not of mitochondrial TK. rhTK was highly purified in the presence of either ATP or dithiothreitol (DTT). The specific activity of rhTK purified in the presence of ATP [rhTK(ATP)] was lower than that of rhTK purified in the presence of DTT [rhTK(DTT)]. Activity of the purified rhTK(ATP) was enhanced by addition of thiols including DTT, cysteine, homocysteine and beta-mercaptoethanol but inhibited by various sulfhydryl reagents such as 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). Hence, it was suggested that rhTK is a thiol-type enzyme. Apparent Mr of purified rhTK(ATP) was 100 kDa, which corresponds to the size of a tetramer (25 kDa subunit), while that of purified rhTK(DTT) was 50 kDa, the size of a dimer. The tetramer form of rhTK(ATP) was converted to the dimer by replacement of ATP by DTT. On the other hand, the dimer form of rhTK(DTT) was converted to the tetramer by addition of ATP. Thus, the catalytic activity of human cytosolic TK might be regulated by thiols as well as ATP via its polymerization status.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of cytosol and membrane alanyl-aminopeptidase in human T cell subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Alicja; Tadje, Janine; Arndt, Marco; Wolke, Carmen; Kähne, Thilo; Bartsch, Jaqueline; Faust, Jürgen; Neubert, Klaus; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Lendeckel, Uwe

    2003-04-01

    Aminopeptidase inhibitors strongly affect the proliferation and function of immune cells in man and animals and are promising agents for the pharmacological treatment of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Membrane alanyl-aminopeptidase (mAAP) has been considered as the major target of these anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase inhibitors. Recent evidence also points to a role of the cytosol alanyl-aminopeptidase (cAAP) in the immune response. In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to determine the mRNA expression of both cAAP and mAAP in resting and activated peripheral T cells and also in CD4+, CD8+, Th1, Th2 and Treg (CD4+ CD25+) subpopulations. Both mAAP and cAAP mRNAs were expressed in all cell types investigated, and in response to activation their expression appeared to be upregulated in CD8+ cells, but downregulated in Treg cells. In CD4+ cells, mAAP and cAAP mRNAs were affected in opposite ways in response to activation. The cAAP-specific inhibitor, PAQ-22, did not affect either cAAP or mAAP expression in activated CD4+ or CD8+ cells, whereas in activated Treg cells it markedly upregulated the mRNA levels of both aminopeptidases. The non-discriminatory inhibitor, phebestin, significantly increased the amount of mAAP and cAAP mRNA in CD4+ and that of cAAP in Treg cells.

  6. Human liver cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1-dependent dehydroepiandrosterone sulfation assay by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-20

    Sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1) is a major catalyst of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in human liver cytosol. However, there is a lack of a sensitive and fast analytical method for the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. Therefore, we developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify DHEA-S and used it to optimize the human liver cytosolic SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation assay. DHEA-S and cortisol (internal standard) eluted at 2.95 and 2.75min, respectively. Negative multiple reaction monitoring was used to quantify DHEA-S (m/z 367.3→97.0) and cortisol (m/z 407.2→331.3). No interfering peaks were observed in blank samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2pmol DHEA-S and the calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision was sulfotransferase enzyme assays, and it is the first UPLC-MS/MS method for determining SULT2A1-dependent DHEA sulfation in human liver cytosol.

  7. Purification and characterization of a lipid thiobis ester from human neutrophil cytosol that reversibly deactivates the O2- -generating NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, E A; Gabig, T G

    1990-05-25

    Intact neutrophils possess a cellular mechanism that efficiently deactivates the microbicidal O2-generating NADPH oxidase during the respiratory burst (Akard, L. P., English, D., and Gabig, T. G. (1988) Blood 72, 322-327). The present studies directed at identifying the molecular mechanism(s) involved in NADPH oxidase deactivation showed that a heat- and trypsin-insensitive species in the cytosolic fraction from normal unstimulated neutrophils was capable of deactivating the membrane-associated NADPH oxidase isolated from opsonized zymosan- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. This cytosolic species also deactivated the cell-free-activated oxidase. Deactivation by this cytosolic species occurred in the absence of NADPH-dependent catalytic turnover and was reversible, since NADPH oxidase activity could be subsequently reactivated in the cell-free system. The sedimentable particulate fraction from unstimulated neutrophils did not demonstrate deactivator activity. Deactivator activity was demonstrated in the neutral lipid fraction of neutrophil cytosol extracted with chloroform:methanol. Following complete purification of cytosolic deactivator activity by thin layer chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, the deactivator species was shown to be a lipid thiobis ester compound by mass spectroscopy. Cellular metabolism of this compound in human neutrophils may reveal a unique mechanism for enzymatic control of the NADPH oxidase system and thereby play an important role in regulation of the inflammatory response.

  8. Characterization of hepatic progenitors from human fetal liver using CD34 as a hepatic progenitor marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen Nyamath; Ayesha AM; Aejaz Habeeb; Sanjeev Khosla; Aleem A Khan; CM Habibullah

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To enrich putative hepatic progenitors from the developing human fetal liver using CD34 as a marker.METHODS: Aborted fetuses of 13-20 wk were used for the isolation of liver cells. The cells were labeled with anti CD34; a marker used for isolating progenitor population and the cells were sorted using magnetic cell sorting. The positive fractions of cells were assessed for specific hepatic markers. Further, these cells were cultured in vitro for long term investigation.RESULTS: Flow cytometric and immunocytochemical analysis for alphafetoprotein (AFP) showed that the majority of the enriched CD34 positive cells were positive for AFP. Furthermore, these enriched cells proliferated in the long term and maintained hepatic characteristics in in vitro culture.CONCLUSION: The study shows that aborted human fetal liver is a potential source for isolation of hepatic progenitors for clinical applications. The study also demonstrates that CD34 can be a good marker for the enrichment of progenitor populations.

  9. The three types of human viral hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    Infections with hepatitis A and B viruses are common in all parts of the world and constitute a major public health problem. The identification of specific antigenic markers of these viruses has led to the development of sensitive laboratory tests. These, in turn, have resulted in a better understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, immunology, and the nature of these common infections. In the case of hepatitis type B, laboratory tests revealed a persistent carrier state of the surface antigen in some 120-175 million people and established the significance of hepatitis B virus in the pathogenesis of serious chronic liver disease, including a strong association with primary hepatocellular carcinoma in tropical and some subtropical regions. In addition, the specific diagnosis of hepatitis types A and B has revealed a previously unrecognized form of hepatitis which is clearly unrelated to either type. This new form of infection of the liver is now the most common type of hepatitis after the transfusion of blood and blood products in some areas of the world and it also appears to be an important cause of sporadic hepatitis, particularly among adults. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:78770

  10. Hepatic progenitor cells in human liver tumor development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis Libbrecht

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the results of several studies suggest that human liver tumors can be derived from hepatic progenitor cells rather than from mature cell types.The available data indeed strongly suggest that most combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinomas arise from hepatic progenitor cells that retained their potential to differentiate into the hepatocytic and biliary lineages.Hepatic progenitor cells could also be the basis for some hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatocellular adenomas, although it is very difficult to determine the origin of an individual hepatocellular carcinoma. There is currently not enough data to make statements regarding a hepatic progenitor cell origin of cholangiocarcinoma.The presence of hepatic progenitor cell markers and the presence and extent of the cholangiocellular component are factors that are related to the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinomas and combined hepatocellularcholangiocarcinomas, respectively.

  11. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS Tracking of Chelerythrine, a Na+/K+ Pump Inhibitor, into Cytosol and Plasma Membrane Fractions of Human Lens Epithelial Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Dorney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The quaternary benzo-phenanthridine alkaloid (QBA chelerythrine (CET is a pro-apoptotic drug and Na+/K+ pump (NKP inhibitor in human lens epithelial cells (HLECs. In order to obtain further insight into the mechanism of NKP inhibition by CET, its sub-cellular distribution was quantified in cytosolic and membrane fractions of HLEC cultures by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS. Methods: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs prepared by the Creighton method were concentrated, and size-selected using a one-step tangential flow filtration approach. HLECs cultures were exposed to 50 μM CET in 300 mOsM phosphate-buffered NaCl for 30 min. A variety of cytosolic extracts, crude and purified membranes, prepared in lysing solutions in the presence and absence of a non-ionic detergent, were incubated with AgNPs and subjected to SERS analysis. Determinations of CET were based on a linear calibration plot of the integrated CET SERS intensity at its 659 cm-1 marker band as a function of CET concentration. Results: SERS detected chemically unaltered CET in both cytosol and plasma membrane fractions. Normalized for protein, the CET content was some 100 fold higher in the crude and purified plasma membrane fraction than in the soluble cytosolic extract. The total free CET concentration in the cytosol, free of membranes or containing detergent-solubilized membrane material, approached that of the incubation medium of HLECs. Conclusion: Given a negative membrane potential of HLECs the data suggest, but do not prove, that CET may traverse the plasma membrane as a positively charged monomer (CET+ accumulating near or above passive equilibrium distribution. These findings may contribute to a recently proposed hypothesis that CET binds to and inhibits the NKP through its cytosolic aspect.

  12. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus among Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus ... The two groups compared well as regards age, sex, occupation and social class. However, widows has significantly higher prevalence amongst the HIV patients.

  13. Effects of Sulfur Amino Acids on Tyrosyl or Serine/Threonine Phosphorylation and Translocation of Cytosolic Compounds to Cell Membrane in Stimulus-treated Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitaoka,Noriko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of various sulfur amino acids on the phosphorylation of proteins and the translocation of cytosolic compounds to cell membrane in stimulus-treated human neutrophils using specific monoclonal antibodies. D,L-homocysteine and D,L-homocysteine-thiolactone enhanced fMLP-induced tyrosyl phosphorylation of proteins and the translocation of p47phox, p67phox, and rac to the cell membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. L-cystathionine, NAc-L-cysteine and carboxymethylcysteine suppressed the tyrosyl phophorylation and translocation of cytosolic compounds to the cell membrane. L-cystathionine, L-cysteine and NAc-L-cysteine suppressed PMA-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation and the translocation of cytosolic compounds to the cell membrane. L-cysteine, NAc-L-cysteine and D,L-homocysteine enhanced AA-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation and the translocation of cytosolic compounds to the cell membrane, but L-cystathionine had opposite effects. These results indicated that the effects of sulfur amino acids on tyrosyl or serine/threonine phosphorylation and the translocation of p47phox, p67phox, and rac to the cell membrane in the stimulus-treated human neutrophils were in parallel with those of the stimulus-induced superoxide generation reported in previous paper. L-cysteine, D,L-homocysteine and L-cystathionine weakly inhibited lipid peroxidation, but the other sulfur amino acids tested had no effect.

  14. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008312 Impact of hepatitis B virus infection on the activity of hematopoietic stem cell.SHI Yanmei(石雁梅),et al.Dept Infect Dis,1st Clin Coll,Harbin Med Univ,Harbin 150001.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(4):197-201.Objective To study the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV)infection on the activity of cord hematopoieticstem cells.Methods CD34+cells were isolated from healthy human cord blood by mini MACS.Cells were

  15. Metabolism of BYZX in human liver microsomes and cytosol: identification of the metabolites and metabolic pathways of BYZX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lushan Yu

    Full Text Available BYZX, [(E-2-(4-((diethylaminomethylbenzylidene-5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydroinden-one], belongs to a series of novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and has been synthesized as a new chemical entity for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease symptoms. When incubated with human liver microsomes (HLMs, BYZX was rapidly transformed into its metabolites M1, M2, and M3. The chemical structures of these metabolites were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, which indicated that M1 was an N-desethylated and C = C hydrogenation metabolite of BYZX. M2 and M3 were 2 precursor metabolites, which resulted from the hydrogenation and desethylation of BYZX, respectively. Further studies with chemical inhibitors and human recombinant cytochrome P450s (CYPs, and correlation studies were performed. The results indicated that the N-desethylation of BYZX and M2 was mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP2C8. The reduced form of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate was involved in the hydrogenation of BYZX and M3, and this reaction occurred in the HLMs and in the human liver cytosol. The hydrogenation reaction was not inhibited by any chemical inhibitors of CYPs, but it was significantly inhibited by some substrates of α,β-ketoalkene C = C reductases and their inhibitors such as benzylideneacetone, dicoumarol, and indomethacin. Our results suggest that α,β-ketoalkene C = C reductases may play a role in the hydrogenation reaction, but this issue requires further clarification.

  16. Lung Beractant Increases Free Cytosolic Levels of Ca2+ in Human Lung Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Silva, Alejandro; Vázquez de Lara, Luis G.; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Vargaz-Guadarrama, Ajelet; Flores-Flores, Marycruz; Pezzat Said, Elias; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Mendoza-Milla, Criselda; Tanzi, Franco; Moccia, Francesco; Berra-Romani, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Beractant, a natural surfactant, induces an antifibrogenic phenotype and apoptosis in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). As intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been related to programmed cell death, we aimed to assess the effect of beractant on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in NHLF in vitro. Cultured NHLF were loaded with Fura-2 AM (3 μM) and Ca2+ signals were recorded by microfluorimetric techniques. Beractant causes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a EC50 of 0.82 μg/ml. The application of beractant, at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which has been shown to exert an apoptotic effect in human fibroblasts, elicited different patterns of Ca2+ signals in NHLF: a) a single Ca2+ spike which could be followed by b) Ca2+ oscillations, c) a sustained Ca2+ plateau or d) a sustained plateau overlapped by Ca2+ oscillations. The amplitude and pattern of Ca2+ transients evoked by beractant were dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that beractant activates a Ca2+ signal through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ), Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and Ca2+ influx via a store-operated pathway. Moreover, beractant-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by preventing membrane depolarization upon removal of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+. Finally, the inhibition of store-operated channels prevented beractant-induced NHLF apoptosis and downregulation of α1(I) procollagen expression. Therefore, beractant utilizes SOCE to exert its pro-apoptotic and antifibrinogenic effect on NHLF. PMID:26230503

  17. Lung Beractant Increases Free Cytosolic Levels of Ca2+ in Human Lung Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Guzmán-Silva

    Full Text Available Beractant, a natural surfactant, induces an antifibrogenic phenotype and apoptosis in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF. As intracellular Ca2+ signalling has been related to programmed cell death, we aimed to assess the effect of beractant on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in NHLF in vitro. Cultured NHLF were loaded with Fura-2 AM (3 μM and Ca2+ signals were recorded by microfluorimetric techniques. Beractant causes a concentration-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i with a EC50 of 0.82 μg/ml. The application of beractant, at a concentration of 500 μg/ml, which has been shown to exert an apoptotic effect in human fibroblasts, elicited different patterns of Ca2+ signals in NHLF: a a single Ca2+ spike which could be followed by b Ca2+ oscillations, c a sustained Ca2+ plateau or d a sustained plateau overlapped by Ca2+ oscillations. The amplitude and pattern of Ca2+ transients evoked by beractant were dependent on the resting [Ca2+]i. Pharmacological manipulation revealed that beractant activates a Ca2+ signal through Ca2+ release from intracellular stores mediated by phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ, Ca2+ release from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs and Ca2+ influx via a store-operated pathway. Moreover, beractant-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by preventing membrane depolarization upon removal of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+. Finally, the inhibition of store-operated channels prevented beractant-induced NHLF apoptosis and downregulation of α1(I procollagen expression. Therefore, beractant utilizes SOCE to exert its pro-apoptotic and antifibrinogenic effect on NHLF.

  18. Cytosolic dsDNA triggers apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in normal human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suiquan; Liu, Dongyin; Ning, Weixuan; Xu, Aie

    2015-04-01

    Considerable evidence implicates that viral infection might be a participant factor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. However, it is still unclear how viral infection leads to the melanocyte destruction. To elucidate the effects of viral dsDNA on the viability and cytokine synthesis of normal human melanocytes and to explore the underlying mechanisms, primary cultured normal human melanocytes were transfected with poly(dA:dT). The results demonstrated that poly(dA:dT) triggered apoptosis instead of pyroptosis in melanocytes. Knocking down AIM2 or RIG-I by RNA interference partially reduced the poly(dA:dT)-induced LDH release, suggesting the involvement of both nucleic acid sensors in the process of melanocyte death. Poly(dA:dT) induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes including IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 as well, whereas the pro-inflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by RIG-I siRNA, but not by AIM2 siRNA. Poly(dA:dT) treatment increased the phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and NFκB. Accordingly, NFκB inhibitor Bay 11-7082 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the induction of the cytokine genes except IFN-β. The production of IL6 and IL8 was also suppressed by p38 inhibitor SB203580. On the contrary, the Poly(dA:dT)-induced melanocyte death was only decreased by SP600125. This study provides the possible mechanism of melanocyte destruction and immuno-stimulation in vitiligo by innate immune response following viral infection.

  19. Viral hepatitis E: A disease of humans and animals

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    Kureljušić Branislav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hepatitis E virus is ubiquitous in all parts of the world where pig production exists. The infection occurs in several animal species and its course is mostly asymptomatic. Viral strains isolated from pigs and humans are genetically similar, which indicates a potential zoonotic nature of the disease, and the possibility that pigs, and perhaps also other species of animals diseased with viral hepatitis E are a source of infection to humans. The pig hepatitis E virus, which is similar to the hepatitis E virus in humans, was isolated and described for the first time in the USA in 1997. The infection of pigs with hepatitis E virus occurs through faeco-oral transmission, by ingestion of feed and water contaminated with the virus, or through direct contact between infected and healthy animals. The pathogenesis of this infection in pigs differs from its pathogenesis in humans and it has not been sufficiently examined in all its aspects. Even though viral hepatitis E in pigs has been described as a subclinical disease, some authors describe changes in the concentration of certain biochemical parameters in blood serum of the infected pigs. Histologically, a mild to moderate lymphotic-plasma cellular infiltration is observed in livers of infected pigs, as well as focal areas of hepatocyte necrosis. Viral hepatitis E is an endemic disease of humans in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. In developed countries, hepatitis E sporadically occurs in humans, but it is becoming of increasing importance in particular in Japan, North America, and Europe, because the populations of these areas travel extensively to the endemic regions or as a result of the consumption of thermally untreated meat of wild boar and products made from thermally untreated meat. Pork products can be contaminated with hepatitis E virus. Further proof that indicates the zoonotic potential of this virus and places this diseases among the group of professional diseases of farmers and

  20. Ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidases in normal and AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanisch, Frank; Hellsten, Ylva; Zierz, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    AMPD1 genotypes [homozygotes for C34T mutation (TT); heterozygotes for C34T mutation (CT); and homozygotes for wild type (CC): diseased controls CC; and normal controls CC]. AMP deaminase activity showed genotype-dependent differences. Total cN activity in normal controls accounted for 57...... homogenate 5'-nucleotidase and ectoN, or in cN-I expression on Western blots. No correlation for age, fibre type distribution and AMPD1 genotype was found for whole homogenate nucleotidase, total cN and cN-I using multiple linear regression analysis. There was no gender-specific difference in the activities...... of whole homogenate nucleotidase, total cN and cN-I. The results indicate no changes in the relative expression or catalytic behaviour of cN-I in AMP deaminase-deficient human skeletal muscle, but suggest that increased turnover of AMP by cN-I in working skeletal muscle is due to higher substrate...

  1. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol represses transcription of the gene for the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) by deacetylating hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) (PEPCK-C) is a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis. While this enzyme is often over-expressed in diabetes and obesity, studies showed that decrease in its expression results in lessening the diseases condition in animal...

  2. Sulfation of fulvestrant by human liver cytosols and recombinant SULT1A1 and SULT1E1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edavana VK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vineetha Koroth Edavana1, Xinfeng Yu1, Ishwori B Dhakal1, Suzanne Williams1, Baitang Ning2, Ian T Cook3, David Caldwell1, Charles N Falany3, Susan Kadlubar11Division of Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA; 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Fulvestrant (Faslodex™ is a pure antiestrogen that is approved to treat hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Previous studies have demonstrated that fulvestrant metabolism in humans involves cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs. To date, fulvestrant sulfation has not been characterized. This study examined fulvestrant sulfation with nine recombinant sulfotransferases and found that only SULT1A1 and SULT1E1 displayed catalytic activity toward this substrate, with Km of 4.2 ± 0.99 and 0.2 ± 0.16 µM, respectively. In vitro assays of 104 human liver cytosols revealed marked individual variability that was highly correlated with β-naphthol sulfation (SULT1A1 diagnostic substrate; r = 0.98, P < 0.0001, but not with 17ß-estradiol sulfation (SULT1E1 diagnostic substrate; r = 0.16, P = 0.10. Fulvestrant sulfation was correlated with both SULT1A1*1/2 genotype (P value = 0.023 and copy number (P < 0.0001. These studies suggest that factors influencing SULT1A1/1E1 tissue expression and/or enzymatic activity could influence the efficacy of fulvestrant therapy.Keywords: fulvestrant, sulfotransferase, genotype, copy number

  3. Proteomic comparison of the cytosolic proteins of three Bifidobacterium longum human isolates and B. longum NCC2705

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Champomier-Vergès Marie-Christine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bifidobacteria are natural inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. In full-term newborns, these bacteria are acquired from the mother during delivery and rapidly become the predominant organisms in the intestinal microbiota. Bifidobacteria contribute to the establishment of healthy intestinal ecology and can confer health benefits to their host. Consequently, there is growing interest in bifidobacteria, and various strains are currently used as probiotic components in functional food products. However, the probiotic effects have been reported to be strain-specific. There is thus a need to better understand the determinants of the observed benefits provided by these probiotics. Our objective was to compare three human B. longum isolates with the sequenced model strain B. longum NCC2705 at the chromosome and proteome levels. Results Pulsed field electrophoresis genotyping revealed genetic heterogeneity with low intraspecies strain relatedness among the four strains tested. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we analyzed qualitative differences in the cytosolic protein patterns. There were 45 spots that were present in some strains and absent in others. Spots were excised from the gels and subjected to peptide mass fingerprint analysis for identification. The 45 spots represented 37 proteins, most of which were involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cell wall or cell membrane synthesis. Notably, the protein patterns were correlated with differences in cell membrane properties like surface hydrophobicity and cell agglutination. Conclusion These results showed that proteomic analysis can be valuable for investigating differences in bifidobacterial species and may provide a better understanding of the diversity of bifidobacteria and their potential use as probiotics.

  4. Theories about evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus in primates and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Frederico de Carvalho Dominguez Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The human hepatitis B virus causes acute and chronic hepatitis and is considered one of the most serious human health issues by the World Health Organization, causing thousands of deaths per year. There are similar viruses belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family that infect non-human primates and other mammals as well as some birds. The majority of non-human primate virus isolates were phylogenetically close to the human hepatitis B virus, but like the human genotypes, the origins of these viruses remain controversial. However, there is a possibility that human hepatitis B virus originated in primates. Knowing whether these viruses might be common to humans and primates is crucial in order to reduce the risk to humans. Objective: To review the existing knowledge about the evolutionary origins of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates. Methods: This review was done by reading several articles that provide information about the Hepadnaviridae virus family in non-human primates and humans and the possible origins and evolution of these viruses. Results: The evolutionary origin of viruses of the Hepadnaviridae family in primates has been dated back to several thousand years; however, recent analyses of genomic fossils of avihepadnaviruses integrated into the genomes of several avian species have suggested a much older origin of this genus. Conclusion: Some hypotheses about the evolutionary origins of human hepatitis B virus have been debated since the '90s. One theory suggested a New World origin because of the phylogenetic co-segregation between some New World human hepatitis B virus genotypes F and H and woolly B virus in basal sister-relationship to the Old monkey human hepatitis World non-human primates and human hepatitis B virus variants. Another theory suggests an Old World origin of human hepatitis B virus, and that it would have been spread following prehistoric human migrations over 100,000 years ago. A third theory

  5. Variability of human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Little, JM; Lester, R; Kuipers, F; Vonk, R; Mackenzie, PI; Drake, RR; Frame, L; Radominska-Pandya, A

    1999-01-01

    The availability of a unique series of liver samples from human subjects, both control patients (9) and those with liver disease (6; biliary atresia (2), retransplant, chronic tyrosinemia type I, tyrosinemia, Wilson's disease) allowed us to characterize human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases usi

  6. Fast and sensitive quantification of human liver cytosolic lithocholic acid sulfation using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sumit; Lau, Aik Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Detoxification of lithocholic acid (LCA) to lithocholic acid sulfate (LCA-S) is catalyzed by sulfotransferases, mainly SULT2A1. We developed and validated an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantify human liver cytosolic-dependent LCA sulfation. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an UPLC C18 column (2.1×50mm, 1.7μm) and a gradient elution of 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. Negative electrospray ionization with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to quantify LCA-S (455.3→97.0) and cholic acid (407.2→343.3; internal standard). The retention time was 3.51min for LCA-S and 3.08min for cholic acid. The lower limit of quantification of LCA-S was 0.5nM (or 0.23ng/ml in 400μl total volume) and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 200pmol. Intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were <14%. The quality control samples were stable at room temperature for 4h, 4°C for 24h, -20°C for 14 days, and after three freeze-thaw cycles. The matrix (20-100μg cytosolic protein) did not affect LCA-S quantification. This is the first UPLC-MS/MS method applied to optimization of the human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation assay. The optimal levels of MgCl2 and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) cofactor were 2.5mM and 20μM, respectively. Addition of reducing agents (2-mercaptoethanol and DL-dithiothreitol) did not affect LCA-S formation. Human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation was linear with 20-100μg of cytosolic protein and 5-30min incubation time. This UPLC-MS/MS approach offers a specific, sensitive, fast, and direct approach for quantifying human liver cytosolic LCA sulfation.

  7. Structures of human cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase reveal a novel self-regulatory mechanism of activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang; Zhao, Jingyue; Xu, Zhen; Peng, Baozhen; Huang, Qiuhua; Arnold, Eddy; Ding, Jianping

    2004-08-06

    Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate, and regulation of the enzymatic activity of IDHs is crucial for their biological functions. Bacterial IDHs are reversibly regulated by phosphorylation of a strictly conserved serine residue at the active site. Eukaryotic NADP-dependent IDHs (NADP-IDHs) have been shown to have diverse important biological functions; however, their regulatory mechanism remains unclear. Structural studies of human cytosolic NADP-IDH (HcIDH) in complex with NADP and in complex with NADP, isocitrate, and Ca2+ reveal three biologically relevant conformational states of the enzyme that differ substantially in the structure of the active site and in the overall structure. A structural segment at the active site that forms a conserved alpha-helix in all known NADP-IDH structures assumes a loop conformation in the open, inactive form of HcIDH; a partially unraveled alpha-helix in the semi-open, intermediate form; and an alpha-helix in the closed, active form. The side chain of Asp279 of this segment occupies the isocitrate-binding site and forms hydrogen bonds with Ser94 (the equivalent of the phosphorylation site in bacterial IDHs) in the inactive form and chelates the metal ion in the active form. The structural data led us to propose a novel self-regulatory mechanism for HcIDH that mimics the phosphorylation mechanism used by the bacterial homologs, consistent with biochemical and biological data. This mechanism might be applicable to other eukaryotic NADP-IDHs. The results also provide insights into the recognition and specificity of substrate and cofactor by eukaryotic NADP-IDHs.

  8. Differential 3-bromopyruvate inhibition of cytosolic and mitochondrial human serine hydroxymethyltransferase isoforms, key enzymes in cancer metabolic reprogramming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiardini, Alessandro; Tramonti, Angela; Schirch, Doug; Guiducci, Giulia; di Salvo, Martino Luigi; Fiascarelli, Alessio; Giorgi, Alessandra; Maras, Bruno; Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Contestabile, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1 and SHMT2, respectively) are well-recognized targets of cancer research, since their activity is critical for purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis and because of their prominent role in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells. Here we show that 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), a potent novel anti-tumour agent believed to function primarily by blocking energy metabolism, differentially inactivates human SHMT1 and SHMT2. SHMT1 is completely inhibited by 3BP, whereas SHMT2 retains a significant fraction of activity. Site directed mutagenesis experiments on SHMT1 demonstrate that selective inhibition relies on the presence of a cysteine residue at the active site of SHMT1 (Cys204) that is absent in SHMT2. Our results show that 3BP binds to SHMT1 active site, forming an enzyme-3BP complex, before reacting with Cys204. The physiological substrate l-serine is still able to bind at the active site of the inhibited enzyme, although catalysis does not occur. Modelling studies suggest that alkylation of Cys204 prevents a productive binding of l-serine, hampering interaction between substrate and Arg402. Conversely, the partial inactivation of SHMT2 takes place without the formation of a 3BP-enzyme complex. The introduction of a cysteine residue in the active site of SHMT2 by site directed mutagenesis (A206C mutation), at a location corresponding to that of Cys204 in SHMT1, yields an enzyme that forms a 3BP-enzyme complex and is completely inactivated. This work sets the basis for the development of selective SHMT1 inhibitors that target Cys204, starting from the structure and reactivity of 3BP.

  9. Cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase IIIA1 inhibitors decrease cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and increase the Ca2+ content of intracellular storage sites in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roevens, P; de Chaffoy de Courcelles, D

    1993-06-09

    The effect of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (cAMP-PDE) inhibitors on Ca2+ homeostasis in human platelets was studied using both quin-2 (2-(bis-(acetylamino)-5-methyl-phenoxy)methyl-6-methoxy-8-bis-(acetylami no) quinoline) and chlorotetracycline (CTC) to measure changes in cytosolic Ca2+ as well as changes in the amount of Ca2+ accumulated in intracellular storage sites. At therapeutic concentrations (1 microM) milrinone and R 80 122 but not enoximone decreased the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in the resting platelet while the Ca2+ content in intracellular stores was increased. These observations are in accord with the proposed mechanism of action of cAMP-PDE inhibitors on cardiomyocites and highlight the particular role of cAMP in regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis.

  10. Immunohistochemical study of hepatic oval cells in human chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Ma; De Kai Qiu; Yan Shen Peng

    2001-01-01

    AIM To detect immunohistochemically the presence of oval cells in chronic viral hepatitis with antibody against c-kit.METHODS We detected oval cells in paraffin-embedded liver sections of 3 normal controls and 26 liver samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis, using immunohistochemistry with antibodies against c-kit, π-class glutathione Stransferase ( Tr-GST ) and cytokeratins 19(CK19).RESULTS Oval cells were not observed in normal livers. In chronic viral hepatitis, hepatic oval cells were located predominantly in the periportal . region and fibrosis septa,characterized by an ovoid nucleus, small size,and scant cytoplasm. Antibody against stem cell factor receptor, c-kit, had higher sensitivity and specificity than π-GST and CK19. About 50% -70% of c-kit positive oval cells were stained positively for either π-GST or CK19.CONCLUSION Oval cells are frequently detected in human livers with chronic viral hepatitis, suggesting that oval cell proliferation is associated with the liver regeneration in this condition.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Humans and Swine, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Annalisa; Gonzales, José Luis; Bonelli, Sara Irene; Valda, Ybar; Pieri, Angela; Segundo, Higinio; Ibañez, Ramón; Mantella, Antonia; Bartalesi, Filippo; Tolari, Francesco; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We determined the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in persons in 2 rural communities in southeastern Bolivia and the presence of HEV in human and swine fecal samples. HEV seroprevalence was 6.3%, and HEV genotype 3 strains with high sequence homology were detected. PMID:21801630

  12. In vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolism of α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and methedrone by human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreira, Noelia; Erratico, Claudio; Kosjek, Tina; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Heath, Ester; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the in vitro Phase I and Phase II metabolites of three new psychoactive substances: α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and methedrone, using human liver microsomes and human liver cytosol. Accurate-mass spectra of metabolites were obtained using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Six Phase I metabolites of α-PVP were identified, which were formed involving reduction, hydroxylation, and pyrrolidine ring opening reactions. The lactam compound was the major metabolite observed for α-PVP. Two glucuronidated metabolites of α-PVP, not reported in previous in vitro studies, were further identified. MDPV was transformed into 10 Phase I metabolites involving reduction, hydroxylation, and loss of the pyrrolidine ring. Also, six glucuronidated and two sulphated metabolites were detected. The major metabolite of MDPV was the catechol metabolite. Methedrone was transformed into five Phase I metabolites, involving N- and O-demethylation, hydroxylation, and reduction of the ketone group. Three metabolites of methedrone are reported for the first time. In addition, the contribution of individual human CYP enzymes in the formation of the detected metabolites was investigated.

  13. LeftyA sensitive cytosolic pH regulation and glycolytic flux in Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salker, Madhuri S.; Zhou, Yuetao; Singh, Yogesh [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brosens, Jan [Division of Reproductive Health, Warwick Medical School, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, University Hospital, Coventry CV2 2DX (United Kingdom); Lang, Florian, E-mail: florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Physiology, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Objective: LeftyA, a powerful regulator of stemness, embryonic differentiation, and reprogramming of cancer cells, counteracts cell proliferation and tumor growth. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux, which is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH and thus requires export of H{sup +} and lactate. H{sup +} extrusion is in part accomplished by Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchangers, such as NHE1. An effect of LeftyA on transport processes has, however, never been reported. The present study thus explored whether LeftyA modifies regulation of cytosolic pH (pHi) in Ishikawa cells, a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma cell model. Methods: NHE1 transcript levels were determined by qRT-PCR, NHE1 protein abundance quantified by Western blotting, pH{sub i} estimated utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity from Na{sup +} dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, and lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing an enzymatic assay and subsequent colorimetry. Results: A 2 h treatment with LeftyA (8 ng/ml) significantly decreased NHE1 transcript levels (by 99.6%), NHE1 protein abundance (by 71%), Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity (by 55%), pHi (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.05 ± 0.02), and lactate release (by 41%). Conclusions: LeftyA markedly down-regulates NHE1 expression, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger activity, pHi, and lactate release in Ishikawa cells. Those effects presumably contribute to cellular reprogramming and growth inhibition. - Highlights: • LeftyA, an inhibitor of tumor growth, reduces Na{sup +}/H{sup +}-exchanger activity by 55%. • LeftyA decreases NHE1 transcripts by 99.6% and NHE1 protein by 71%. • LeftyA decreases cytosolic pH from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.05 ± 0.02. • Cytosolic acidification by Lefty A decreases glycolysis by 41%. • Cytosolic acidification by Lefty A compromises energy production of tumor cells.

  14. Mammalian cytosolic glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Daniel F A R; Fernandes, Pedro Alexandrino; Ramos, Maria João

    2008-08-01

    Glutathione Transferases (GSTs) are crucial enzymes in the cell detoxification process catalyzing the nucleophilic attack of glutathione (GSH) on toxic electrophilic substrates and producing a less dangerous compound. GSTs studies are of great importance since they have been implicated in the development of drug resistance in tumoral cells and are related to human diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, atherosclerois, liver cirrhosis, aging and cataract formation. In this review we start by providing an evolutionary perspective of the mammalian cytosolic GSTs known to date. Later on we focus on the more abundant classes alpha, mu and pi and their structure, catalysis, metabolic associated functions, drug resistance relation and inhibition methods. Finally, we introduce the recent insights on the GST class zeta from a metabolic perspective.

  15. 1α,25(OH) 2D3 Sensitive Cytosolic pH Regulation and Glycolytic Flux in Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ni; Zhou, Yuetao; Zhang, Shaqiu; Singh, Yogesh; Shi, Bing; Salker, Madhuri S; Lang, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cell proliferation is modified by 1,25-Dihydroxy-Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a steroid hormone predominantly known for its role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Key properties of tumor cells include enhanced glycolytic flux with excessive consumption of glucose and formation of lactate. As glycolysis is highly sensitive to cytosolic pH, maintenance of glycolysis requires export of H+ ions and lactate, which is in part accomplished by Na+/H+ exchangers, such as NHE1 and monocarboxylate transporters, such as MCT4. An effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on those transport processes has, however, never been reported. As cytosolic pH impacts on apoptosis, the study further explored the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on apoptosis and on the apoptosis regulating kinase AKT, transcription factor Forkhead box O-3 (FOXO3A) and B-cell lymphoma protein BCL-2. In human endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells, cytosolic pH (pHi) was determined utilizing (2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein [BCECF] fluorescence, Na+/H+ exchanger activity from Na+ dependent realkalinization after an ammonium pulse, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels using qRT-PCR, NHE1, MCT4, total & phospho AKT, total & phospho-FOXO3A and BCL-2 protein abundance by Western blotting, lactate concentration in the supernatant utilizing a colorimetric enzyme assay and cell death quantification using CytoTox 96®, Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining. A 24 hours treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) significantly increased cytosolic pH (pHi), significantly decreased Na+/H+ exchanger activity, NHE1 and MCT4 transcript levels as well as protein abundance and significantly increased lactate concentration in the supernatant. Treatment of Ishikawa cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) further triggered apoptosis, an effect paralleled by decreased phosphorylation of AKT and FOXO3A as well as decreased abundance of BCL-2. In Ishikawa cells 1,25(OH)2D3 is a powerful stimulator of glycolysis, an effect presumably due to

  16. Effects of hepatitis B virus infection on human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Min Huang; Tian-Hua Huang; Huan-Ying Qiu; Xiao-Wu Fang; Tian-Gang Zhuang; Hong-Xi Liu; Yong-Hua Wang; Li-Zhi Deng; Jie-Wen Qiu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the level of sperm chromosome aberrations in male patients with hepatitis B, and to directly detect whether there are HBV DNA integrations in sperm chromosomes of hepatitis B patients.METHODS: Sperm chromosomes of 14 tested subjects (5healthy controls, 9 patients with HBV infection, including 1with acute hepatitis B, 2 with chronic active hepatitis B, 4with chronic persistent hepatitis B, 2 chronic HBsAg carriers with no clinical symptoms) were prepared using interspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free golden hamster ova and human spermatozoa, and the frequencies of aberration spermatozoa were compared between subjects of HBV infection and controls. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBV DNA probe to detect the specific HBV DNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.RESULTS: The total frequency of sperm chromosome aberrations in HBV infection group (14.8%, 33/223) was significantly higher than that in the control group (4.3%,5/116). Moreover, the sperm chromosomes in HBV infection patients commonly presented stickiness, clumping, failure to staining, etc, which would affect the analysis of sperm chromosomes. Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBV DNA were seen in sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitis. In 9 (9/42) sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots, one presented 5 obvious FISH spots, others presented 2 to 4signals. There was significant difference of fluorescence intensity among the signal spots. The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes was random.CONCLUSION: HBV infection can bring about mutagenic effects on sperm chromosomes. Integrations of viral DNA into sperm chromosomes which are multisites and nonspecific, can further increase the instability of sperm chromosomes. This study suggested that HBV infection can create extensively hereditary effects by alteration genetic constituent and

  17. Occult Hepatitis B in Patients Co-Infected With Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Diagnosis of the occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV is important due to the fact that the HBV infection may have a clinical impact on liver disease in coinfected HIV/HCV patients. Isolated hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb positive HBV infection has been reported in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the occult hepatitis B in patients co-infected with HCV-HIV. Methods In a cross-sectional study, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HBcAb tests were performed for all HIV-HCV co-infected patients, referred to the HIV Clinic of Hamadan. HBsAb was requested for HBsAg negative-HBcAb positive individuals and in the case of negative HBsAb, HBV-DNA PCR was performed. Finally the collected data was analyzed with SPSS. Results Of 103 HIV-HCV coinfected patients, both HBsAg and HBcAb were positive in 7 patients (6.8%, negative in 44 (42.7% patients and 52 (50.5% of all patients were HBsAg negative and HBcAb positive, which positivity of HBsAg had statistical correlation with positivity of HBcAb. In the last group HBsAb and HBV-DNA PCR were done, which resulted in the titer of antibody to be positive in 4 patients (7.7% and the PCR to be negative in all (100% patients. Conclusions The significant number of coinfected HIV-HCV patients only had HBcAb positive test without detectable HBV-DNA. Further studies for detection of HBV-DNA in both serum and liver biopsy specimens may help clarify the impact of HBV infection in coinfected HIV/HCV patients.

  18. Prevalence of hepatitis C Antibody in Human Immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-25

    Oct 25, 2015 ... impacts on the course and man- agement ... cause of the increased incidence and accelerated natural history in co-infected persons.4HCV infection may also impact the ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency .... 8 (88.9). 1 (33.3). 2.67. 0.83 – 33.18. Anti-HCV positive. N u m b er p ositive.

  19. Intestinal and hepatic metabolism of glutamine and citrulline in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Poll, Marcel C G; Ligthart-Melis, Gerdien C; Boelens, Petra G; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Dejong, Cornelis H C

    2007-06-01

    Glutamine plays an important role in nitrogen homeostasis and intestinal substrate supply. It has been suggested that glutamine is a precursor for arginine through an intestinal-renal pathway involving inter-organ transport of citrulline. The importance of intestinal glutamine metabolism for endogenous arginine synthesis in humans, however, has remained unaddressed. The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal conversion of glutamine to citrulline and the effect of the liver on splanchnic citrulline metabolism in humans. Eight patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal surgery received a primed continuous intravenous infusion of [2-(15)N]glutamine and [ureido-(13)C-(2)H(2)]citrulline. Arterial, portal venous and hepatic venous blood were sampled and portal and hepatic blood flows were measured. Organ specific amino acid uptake (disposal), production and net balance, as well as whole body rates of plasma appearance were calculated according to established methods. The intestines consumed glutamine at a rate that was dependent on glutamine supply. Approximately 13% of glutamine taken up by the intestines was converted to citrulline. Quantitatively glutamine was the only important precursor for intestinal citrulline release. Both glutamine and citrulline were consumed and produced by the liver, but net hepatic flux of both amino acids was not significantly different from zero. Plasma glutamine was the precursor of 80% of plasma citrulline and plasma citrulline in turn was the precursor of 10% of plasma arginine. In conclusion, glutamine is an important precursor for the synthesis of arginine after intestinal conversion to citrulline in humans.

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Patient Concerns: Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Diagnoses: Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. Interventions: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Outcomes: Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456–1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. Lessons: AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections. PMID:28207511

  1. Expression of the orphan cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT4A1 and its major splice variant in human tissues and cells: dimerization, degradation and polyubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima P Sidharthan

    Full Text Available The cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT4A1 is highly conserved between mammalian species but its function remains unknown. Polymorphisms in the SULT4A1 gene have been linked to susceptibility to schizophrenia. There are 2 major SULT4A1 transcripts in humans, one that encodes full length protein (wild-type and one that encodes a truncated protein (variant. Here, we investigated the expression of SULT4A1 in human tissues by RT-PCR and found the wild-type mRNA to be expressed mainly in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and prostate while the splice variant was more widely expressed. In human cell-lines, the wild-type transcript was found in neuronal cells, but the variant transcript was expressed in nearly all other lines examined. Western blot analysis only identified SULT4A1 protein in cells that expressed the wild-type mRNA. No variant protein was detected in cells that expressed the variant mRNA. Ectopically expressed full length SULT4A1 protein was stable while the truncated protein was not, having a half-life of approximately 3 hr. SULT4A1 was also shown to homodimerize, consistent with other SULTs that contain the consensus dimerization motif. Mutation of the dimerization motif resulted in a monomeric form of SULT4A1 that was rapidly degraded by polyubiquitination on the lysine located within the dimerization motif. These results show that SULT4A1 is widely expressed in human tissues, but mostly as a splice variant that produces a rapidly degraded protein. Dimerization protects the protein from degradation. Since many other cytosolic sulfotransferases possess the conserved lysine within the dimerization motif, homodimerization may serve, in part, to stabilize these enzymes in vivo.

  2. Expression of the orphan cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT4A1 and its major splice variant in human tissues and cells: dimerization, degradation and polyubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidharthan, Neelima P; Butcher, Neville J; Mitchell, Deanne J; Minchin, Rodney F

    2014-01-01

    The cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT4A1 is highly conserved between mammalian species but its function remains unknown. Polymorphisms in the SULT4A1 gene have been linked to susceptibility to schizophrenia. There are 2 major SULT4A1 transcripts in humans, one that encodes full length protein (wild-type) and one that encodes a truncated protein (variant). Here, we investigated the expression of SULT4A1 in human tissues by RT-PCR and found the wild-type mRNA to be expressed mainly in the brain, gastrointestinal tract and prostate while the splice variant was more widely expressed. In human cell-lines, the wild-type transcript was found in neuronal cells, but the variant transcript was expressed in nearly all other lines examined. Western blot analysis only identified SULT4A1 protein in cells that expressed the wild-type mRNA. No variant protein was detected in cells that expressed the variant mRNA. Ectopically expressed full length SULT4A1 protein was stable while the truncated protein was not, having a half-life of approximately 3 hr. SULT4A1 was also shown to homodimerize, consistent with other SULTs that contain the consensus dimerization motif. Mutation of the dimerization motif resulted in a monomeric form of SULT4A1 that was rapidly degraded by polyubiquitination on the lysine located within the dimerization motif. These results show that SULT4A1 is widely expressed in human tissues, but mostly as a splice variant that produces a rapidly degraded protein. Dimerization protects the protein from degradation. Since many other cytosolic sulfotransferases possess the conserved lysine within the dimerization motif, homodimerization may serve, in part, to stabilize these enzymes in vivo.

  3. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  4. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010349 Relationships between serum hepatitis B virus load in mothers,free maternal DNA in peripheral blood of newborns and hepatitis B virus infection of newborns. WEI Junni(魏俊妮),et al. Dept Epidemiol,Shanxi Med Univ,Taiyuan 030001. Chin J Infect Dis 2010;28(5):297-300. Objective To study the relationships between serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level

  5. Effect of valine 106 on structure-function relation of cytosolic human thymidine kinase - Kinetic properties and oligomerization pattern of nine substitution mutants of V106

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Berenstein, Dvora; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    Information on the regulation and structure-function relation of enzymes involved in DNA precursor synthesis is pivotal, as defects in several of these enzymes have been found to cause depletion or deletion of mitochondrial DNA resulting in severe diseases. Here, the effect of amino acid 106...... on the enzymatic properties of the cell-cycle-regulated human cytosolic thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is investigated. On the basis of the previously observed profound differences between recombinant TK1 with Val106 (V106WT) and Met106 (V106M) in catalytic activity and oligomerization pattern, we designed...... transition from a dimer with low catalytic activity to a tetramer with high catalytic activity. Group II (V106G, V106H, V106K, V106L and V106Q) behaves like V106M in that they are permanently high activity tetramers, irrespective of ATP exposure. We conclude that size and conformation of amino acid 106...

  6. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There are at least 5 hepatitis viruses. Hepatitis A is contracted when a child eats food or drinks water that is contaminated with the virus or has ...

  7. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  8. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  9. Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iorio, Alfonso; Marchesini, Emanuela; Awad, Tahany;

    2010-01-01

    Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).......Antiviral treatment for chronic hepatitis C may be less effective if patients are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)....

  10. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis B Chapter 3 - Hepatitis E Hepatitis C Deborah Holtzman INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis C virus ( ... human blood Map 3-05. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection 1 PDF Version (printable) 1 ...

  11. Human CIA2A (FAM96A) and CIA2B (FAM96B) integrate maturation of different subsets of cytosolic-nuclear iron-sulfur proteins and iron homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Stehling, Oliver; Mascarenhas, Judita; Ajay A Vashisht; Sheftel, Alex D.; Niggemeyer, Brigitte; Rösser, Ralf; Pierik, Antonio J.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Lill, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cytosolic and nuclear proteins involved in metabolism, DNA maintenance, protein translation, or iron homeostasis depend on iron-sulfur (Fe/S) cofactors, yet their assembly is poorly defined. Here, we identify and characterize human CIA2A (FAM96A), CIA2B (FAM96B), and CIA1 (CIAO1) as components of the cytosolic Fe/S protein assembly (CIA) machinery. CIA1 associates with either CIA2A or CIA2B and the CIA targeting factor MMS19. The CIA2B-CIA1-MMS19 complex binds to and facilitates asse...

  12. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005226 Characteristics of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets in hepatitis B patients. FAN Zhen-ping(范振平),et al. Center Bio Ther, Instit Infect Dis, 302 Hosp Chin PLA, Beijing 100039. World Chin J Digestol, 2005;13(2): 194-197. Objective: To characterize the T-lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B, and to explore their relations with the disease state. Methods: Peripheral blood

  13. Hepatic Clearance Prediction of Nine Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors in Rat

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the rate-limiting step in the overall hepatic clearance of the marketed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PI) in rats by predicting the experimentally determined hepatic in vivo clearance of these drugs based on in vitro clearance values for uptake and/or metabolism. In vitro uptake and metabolic clearance values were determined in suspended rat hepatocytes and rat liver microsomes, respectively. In vivo hepatic clearance was determined afte...

  14. Expression of cytosolic 5' nucleotidase does not correlate with expression of oxidative metabolism marker: myoglobine in human skeletal muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katarzyna Lechward; Kinga Tkacz-Stachowska

    2009-01-01

    Our previous studies had shown that eytosolic 5'nucleotidase-I (eN-I) is expressed in several tissues in pigeons, including brain and several different skeletal muscles. We observed that cN-I mRNA levels varied among different pigeon muscles. Initial quantification of the differences revealed that ~5-10 times more of cN-I transcript was present in red, oxidative muscles (breast muscle and gastrocnemius) than in white ones,composed of glycolytic fibers (biceps brachii). We had found this observation very intriguing and decided to compare human skeletal muscles distribution of cN-I with the type of oxygen metabolism. Our screen involved 60 samples of several human muscles and we assayed the correlation between the amount of tran-scripts of cN-I and myoglobine, which we took as a measure of oxidative-slow twitch fibers. Our question was whether in humans, cN-I presence in skeletal muscles was related to their fiber composition. If that was the case, then cN-I expression could serve as a tool to assess the percentage of oxidative fibers in any given human muscle sample, where myogiobine expression could not be readily measured. After quantification of expression of both genes, we concluded that there was no correlation between expression of cN-I and fiber type. Therefore, contrary to the pigeon muscles, cN-Idid not reflect the ratio of oxidative fibers to the total mass of the muscle sample in humans. That difference indicated that there were certain mechanisms that dif-ferentially regulated the expression of cN-I in muscle tissues of mammals and lower vertebrates.

  15. Diospyrin derivative, an anticancer quinonoid, regulates apoptosis at endoplasmic reticulum as well as mitochondria by modulating cytosolic calcium in human breast carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Binod [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Radiation and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Amit [Radiation and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ghosh, Subhalakshmi [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pandey, Badri N., E-mail: bnp@barc.gov.in [Radiation and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, Kaushala P. [Radiation and Cancer Biology Section, Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Hazra, Banasri, E-mail: banasrihazra@yahoo.co.in [Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diospyrin diethylether (D7) caused oxidative stress-dependent activation of PC-PLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activated PC-PLC induced a sustained-release of Ca{sup 2+} from endoplasmic reticulum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The elevated cytosolic Ca{sup +2} led to the calpain-caspase12 dependent apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer D7-Induced Ca{sup +2} also found to accentuate the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Diospyrin diethylether (D7), a bisnaphthoquinonoid derivative, exhibited an oxidative stress-dependent apoptosis in several human cancer cells and tumor models. The present study was aimed at evaluation of the increase in cytosolic calcium [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} leading to the apoptotic cell death triggered by D7 in MCF7 human breast carcinoma cells. A phosphotidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) inhibitor, viz. U73122, and an antioxidant, viz. N-acetylcysteine, could significantly prevent the D7-induced rise in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} and PC-PLC activity. Using an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Ca{sup 2+} mobilizer (thapsigargin) and an ER-IP3R antagonist (heparin), results revealed ER as a major source of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} which led to the activation of calpain and caspase12, and cleavage of fodrin. These effects including apoptosis were significantly inhibited by the pretreatment of Bapta-AM (a cell permeable Ca{sup 2+}-specific chelator), or calpeptin (a calpain inhibitor). Furthermore, D7-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub c} was found to alter mitochondrial membrane potential and induce cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by either Bapta-AM or ruthenium red (an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter). Thus, these results provided a deeper insight into the D7-induced redox signaling which eventually integrated the calcium-dependent calpain/caspase12 activation and mitochondrial alterations to accentuate the induction of apoptotic cell death.

  16. Induction of progesterone receptor A form attenuates the induction of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunming; Ni, Xiaotian; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Zhu, Xiaoou; Sun, Kang

    2010-05-01

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA(2alpha), now known as PLA2G4A) is the enzyme catalyzing the formation of the rate-limiting substrate, arachidonic acid, for prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The increasing expression of PLA2G4A toward term gestation in human amnion fibroblasts is believed to be the crucial event in parturition. Human amnion fibroblasts produce cortisol, progesterone and express glucocorticoid receptor (GR), progesterone receptor A (PGRA) form at term. The roles of progesterone and PGRA in the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol via GR in the amnion fibroblasts remain largely unknown. Using cultured human term amnion fibroblasts, we found that cortisol induced the expression of PGRA, which was attenuated by inhibiting PG synthesis with indomethacin. Knockdown of PGRA expression or inhibition of endogenous progesterone production with trilostane significantly enhanced the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol, whereas overexpression of PGRA attenuated the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Although exogenous progesterone did not alter PLA2G4A expression under basal conditions, it attenuated cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression at concentrations about tenfold higher, which might be achieved by competition with cortisol for GR. In conclusion, PGRA in the presence of endogenous progesterone is a transdominant repressor of the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. High level of progesterone may compete with cortisol for GR, thus further inhibiting the induction of PLA2G4A by cortisol. Moreover, increased PG synthesis by cortisol may feed back on the expression of PGRA leading to attenuation of cortisol-induced PLA2G4A expression. The above findings may be pertinent to the inconsistent effects of glucocorticoids on parturition in humans.

  17. Identification of CMS as a cytosolic adaptor of the human pTalpha chain involved in pre-TCR function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, María N; Nusspaumer, Gretel; Fuentes, Patricia; González-García, Sara; Alcain, Juan; Toribio, María L

    2007-12-15

    The T-cell receptor beta (TCRbeta)/pre-TCRalpha (pTalpha) pre-TCR complex (pre-TCR) signals the expansion and differentiation of de-veloping thymocytes. Functional pro-perties of the pre-TCR rely on its unique pTalpha chain, which suggests the participation of specific intracellular adaptors. However, pTalpha-interacting molecules remain unknown. Here, we identified a polyproline-arginine sequence in the human pTalpha cytoplasmic tail that interacted in vitro with SH3 domains of the CIN85/CMS family of adaptors, and mediated the recruitment of multiprotein complexes involving all (CMS, CIN85, and CD2BP3) members. Supporting the physiologic relevance of this interaction, we found that 1 such adaptor, CMS, interacted in vivo with human pTalpha, and its expression was selectively up-regulated during human thymopoiesis in pre-TCR-activated thymocytes. Upon activation, pre-TCR clustering was induced, and CMS and polymerized actin were simultaneously recruited to the pre-TCR activation site. CMS also associated via its C-terminal region to the actin cytoskeleton in the endocytic compartment, where it colocalized with internalized pTalpha in traffic to lysosomal degradation. Notably, deletion of the pTalpha CIN85/CMS-binding motif impaired pre-TCR-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization and NFAT transcriptional activity, and precluded activation induced by overexpression of a CMS-SH3 N-terminal mutant. These results provide the first molecular evidence for a pTalpha intracellular adaptor involved in pre-TCR function.

  18. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of human cytosolic isoforms I and II with (reduced) Schiff's bases incorporating sulfonamide, carboxylate and carboxymethyl moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Gihane; Cristian, Alina; Barboiu, Mihail; Vullo, Daniella; Winum, Jean-Yves; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-05-15

    A library of Schiff bases was synthesized by condensation of aromatic amines incorporating sulfonamide, carboxylic acid or carboxymethyl functionalities as Zn(2+)-binding groups, with aromatic aldehydes incorporating tert-butyl, hydroxy and/or methoxy groups. The corresponding amines were thereafter obtained by reduction of the imines. These compounds were assayed for the inhibition of two cytosolic human carbonic anhydrase (hCA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoenzymes, hCA I and II. The Ki values of the Schiff bases were in the range of 7.0-21,400nM against hCA II and of 52-8600nM against hCA I, respectively. The corresponding amines showed Ki values in the range of 8.6nM-5.3μM against hCA II, and of 18.7-251nM against hCA I, respectively. Unlike the imines, the reduced Schiff bases are stable to hydrolysis and several low-nanomolar inhibitors were detected, most of them incorporating sulfonamide groups. Some carboxylates also showed interesting CA inhibitory properties. Such hydrosoluble derivatives may show pharmacologic applications.

  19. Biliary Secretion of Quasi-Enveloped Human Hepatitis A Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Hirai-Yuki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is an unusual picornavirus that is released from cells cloaked in host-derived membranes. These quasi-enveloped virions (eHAV are the only particle type circulating in blood during infection, whereas only nonenveloped virions are shed in feces. The reason for this is uncertain. Hepatocytes, the only cell type known to support HAV replication in vivo, are highly polarized epithelial cells with basolateral membranes facing onto hepatic (blood sinusoids and apical membranes abutting biliary canaliculi from which bile is secreted to the gut. To assess whether eHAV and nonenveloped virus egress from cells via vectorially distinct pathways, we studied infected polarized cultures of Caco-2 and HepG2-N6 cells. Most (>99% progeny virions were released apically from Caco-2 cells, whereas basolateral (64% versus apical (36% release was more balanced with HepG2-N6 cells. Both apically and basolaterally released virions were predominantly enveloped, with no suggestion of differential vectorial release of eHAV versus naked virions. Basolateral to apical transcytosis of either particle type was minimal (<0.02%/h in HepG2-N6 cells, arguing against this as a mechanism for differences in membrane envelopment of serum versus fecal virus. High concentrations of human bile acids converted eHAV to nonenveloped virions, whereas virus present in bile from HAV-infected Ifnar1−/−Ifngr1−/− and Mavs−/− mice banded over a range of densities extending from that of eHAV to that of nonenveloped virions. We conclude that nonenveloped virions shed in feces are derived from eHAV released across the canalicular membrane and stripped of membranes by the detergent action of bile acids within the proximal biliary canaliculus.

  20. Derivation and characterization of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongxin; Chen, Song; Cai, Jun; Guo, Yushan; Song, Zhihua; Che, Jie; Liu, Chun; Wu, Chen; Ding, Mingxiao; Deng, Hongkui

    2009-07-31

    The derivation of hepatic progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (hES) cells is of value both in the study of early human liver organogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for hepatocyte transplantation therapy. Here, we report for the first time the generation of hepatic progenitor cells derived from hES cells. Hepatic endoderm cells were generated by activating FGF and BMP pathways and were then purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting using a newly identified surface marker, N-cadherin. After co-culture with STO feeder cells, these purified hepatic endoderm cells yielded hepatic progenitor colonies, which possessed the proliferation potential to be cultured for an extended period of more than 100 days. With extensive expansion, they co-expressed the hepatic marker AFP and the biliary lineage marker KRT7 and maintained bipotential differentiation capacity. They were able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, which expressed ALB and AAT, and into cholangiocyte-like cells, which formed duct-like cyst structures, expressed KRT19 and KRT7, and acquired epithelial polarity. In conclusion, this is the first report of the generation of proliferative and bipotential hepatic progenitor cells from hES cells. These hES cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells could be effectively used as an in vitro model for studying the mechanisms of hepatic stem/progenitor cell origin, self-renewal and differentiation.

  1. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus infection in non-human primates in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated 37 serum samples of non-human primates in Assam State Zoo and the Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam for seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection during the period from December, 2007 to November, 2009. Four serum samples were also collected from animal keepers of the zoo to investigate transmission of the disease to the attendants working with these primates. Competitive ELISA was performed using hepatitis A virus ELISA kit (Wanti Hep. AV to detect hepatitis A virus antibody in serum samples. Ten (27.21% of the non-human primate samples and three (75% human samples had detectable anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies. Living status of the non-human primates (Free living was a high potential risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection had significant difference between free living non-human primates and captive non-human primates (P less than 0.05. No significant difference (p=0.86 was seen between male and female non-human primates

  3. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus infection in non-human primates in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.G. Nath

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated 37 serum samples of non-human primates in Assam State Zoo and the Department of Forest and Environment, Govt. of Assam for seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection during the period from December, 2007 to November, 2009. Four serum samples were also collected from animal keepers of the zoo to investigate transmission of the disease to the attendants working with these primates. Competitive ELISA was performed using hepatitis A virus ELISA kit (Wanti Hep. AV to detect hepatitis A virus antibody in serum samples. Ten (27.21% of the non-human primate samples and three (75% human samples had detectable anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies. Living status of the non-human primates (Free living was a high potential risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus infection had significant difference between free living non-human primates and captive non-human primates (P less than 0.05. No significant difference (p=0.86 was seen between male and female non-human primates

  4. Using Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) As Surrogate for Human Hepatitis C Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This test is designed to validate virucidal effectiveness claims for a product to be registered as a virucide. It determines the potential of the test agent to disinfect hard surfaces contaminated with human Hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  5. Co‑infections of hepatitis B and C with human immunodeficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-04

    Jan 4, 2015 ... Background: Hepatitis B and C viral co‑infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to affect progression ... region;[1] they equally share similar routes of transmission such as ... the southern part of Nigeria.

  6. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus — hepatitis B virus co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azhani Mandiwana

    determine the prevalence of HIV–HBV co-infection amongst HAART eligible adult ... hepatitis B virus (HBV).2,3 Primary modes of the HIV–HBV co- ... due to treatment failure. .... antibody to hepatitis B core (Immunoglobulin [Ig] M, G fractions),.

  7. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008079 Relationship of HBV genotype and bcp and pc mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. SU Minghua(苏明华), et al. Dept Infect Dis Clin Hosp, Guangxi Med Univ, Nanning 530027. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3507-3513. Objective To investigate the relationship of HBV gene mutations with HBV DNA rebound after lamivudine therapy. Methods Twenty-seven hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA rebound after

  8. Cytosol cathepsin-D content and proliferative activity of human breast cancer. The Comitato Italiano per il Controllo di Qualita del Laboratorio in Oncologia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, A; Mangia, A; Correale, M; Abbate, I; Ferri, G; Piffanelli, A; Catozzi, L; Amadori, D; Riccobon, A; De Lena, M

    1992-01-01

    Mitogenic properties have been demonstrated in vitro for the lysosomal acidic protease cathepsin-D (cath-D). We investigated possible relationships between cath-D cytosol cell content and tumor proliferative activity in a series of 129 operable breast cancer patients. For total cytosol cath-D evaluation, a solid phase two-site immunoradiometric assay was utilized on tumor cell cytosol obtained for hormone receptor assay (DCC method). The percentage of S-phase cells was analyzed by 3H-thymidine autoradiographic assay. Median 3H-thymidine Labeling Index (3H-Tdr-LI) of the series was 2.7%; median cath-D content resulted 57 pmol/mg of protein cytosol and was significantly higher in node-positive with respect to the node-negative subgroup (p < 0.03). When classified in low, intermediate or high tumor cath-D content and slow or fast proliferative activity (cut-off: median values of the series), no significant agreement was found between the two variables. Statistical analysis, however, showed that a significant inverse correlation existed in node positive tumors between cath-D and 3H-Tdr-LI values which was even more evident in N-positive high estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) cases (coefficient of correlation = 0.6828; p = 0.0001). Cytosol cath-D content cannot be generally proposed as a direct marker of proliferative activity for operable breast cancer.

  9. Hepatitis A virus infection and hepatitis A vaccination in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chen, Guan-Jhou; Lee, Yu-Lin; Huang, Yi-Chia; Cheng, Aristine; Sun, Hsin-Yun; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Eng; Hung, Chien-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common infectious etiologies of acute hepatitis worldwide. The virus is known to be transmitted fecal-orally, resulting in symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. HAV can also be transmitted through oral-anal sex. Residents from regions of low endemicity for HAV infection often remain susceptible in their adulthood. Therefore, clustered HAV infections or outbreaks of acute hepatitis A among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users have been reported in countries of low endemicity for HAV infection. The duration of HAV viremia and stool shedding of HAV may be longer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals compared to HIV-negative individuals with acute hepatitis A. Current guidelines recommend HAV vaccination for individuals with increased risks of exposure to HAV (such as from injecting drug use, oral-anal sex, travel to or residence in endemic areas, frequent clotting factor or blood transfusions) or with increased risks of fulminant disease (such as those with chronic hepatitis). The seroconversion rates following the recommended standard adult dosing schedule (2 doses of HAVRIX 1440 U or VAQTA 50 U administered 6-12 mo apart) are lower among HIV-positive individuals compared to HIV-negative individuals. While the response rates may be augmented by adding a booster dose at week 4 sandwiched between the first dose and the 6-mo dose, the need of booster vaccination remain less clear among HIV-positive individuals who have lost anti-HAV antibodies. PMID:28611512

  10. Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1101 correlates with less severe hepatitis in Taiwanese male carriers of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Lin; Liao, Ya-Tang; Liu, Chun-Jen; Lai, Ming-Yang; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yang, Sien-Sing; Hu, Jui-Ting; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2009-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules are associated with host immune responses against hepatitis B virus infection. Male gender is the apparent host factor when someone encounters with the severity of hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the most polymorphic HLA class II allele, human leukocyte antigen-DRB1, with the severity of hepatitis in male carriers of hepatitis B virus. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 204 carriers of hepatitis B virus (131 men and 73 women) who have been followed-up for more than 1 year at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital were collected consecutively. Fifty carriers of hepatitis B virus (group I) with alanine aminotransferase /=2x upper limit of normal (mean follow-up 81.3 months). Alleles of HLA-DRB1 were typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization and genotypes of hepatitis B virus by melting curve analysis. HLA-DRB1*1101 was found in 18% of group I versus 8% of group II in male carriers (OR 0.23, P = 0.020, after adjustment for age) and 4% versus 9.4% in female carriers (P = 0.094). In male carriers harboring DRB1*1101, the distribution of hepatitis B viral genotype was comparable between the two groups. HLA-DRB1*1101 correlates with less severe hepatitis in Taiwanese male carriers of hepatitis B virus.

  11. Differential Roles for the Interferon-inducible IFI16 and AIM2 Innate Immune Sensors for Cytosolic DNA in Cellular Senescence of Human Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xin; Ponomareva, Larissa; Veeranki, Sudhakar; Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Dickerson, Eric; Choubey, Divaker

    2011-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible IFI16 and AIM2 proteins act as innate immune sensors for cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Upon sensing dsDNA, the IFI16 protein induces the expression of IFN-β whereas the AIM2 protein forms an inflammasome, which promotes the secretion of IL-1β. Given that the knockdown of IFI16 expression in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) delays the onset of cellular senescence, we investigated the potential roles for the IFI16 and AIM2 proteins in cellular senescence. We found that increased IFI16 protein levels in old (versus young) HDFs were associated with the induction of IFN-β. In contrast, increased levels of the AIM2 protein in the senescent (versus old) HDFs were associated with increased production of IL-1β. The knockdown of type I IFN-receptor subunit-α, which reduced the basal levels of the IFI16, but not the AIM2, protein delayed the onset of cellular senescence. Accordingly, increased constitutive levels of IFI16 and AIM2 proteins in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) HDFs were associated with the activation of the IFN-signaling and increased levels of IL-1β. The IFN-β treatment of the young HDFs, which induced the expression of IFI16 and AIM2 proteins, activated a DNA-damage response and also increased basal levels of IL-1β. Interestingly, the knockdown of AIM2 expression in HDFs increased the basal levels of IFI16 protein and activated the IFN-signaling. In contrast, the knockdown of the IFI16 expression in HDFs decreased the basal and dsDNA-induced activation of the IFN-signaling. Collectively, our observations demonstrate differential roles for the IFI16 and AIM2 proteins in cellular senescence and associated secretory phenotype. PMID:21471287

  12. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Inhibition of the human cytosolic isoforms I and II and transmembrane, tumor-associated isoforms IX and XII with boronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winum, Jean-Yves; Innocenti, Alessio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Montero, Jean-Louis; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2009-05-15

    A series of aromatic, arylalkenyl- and arylalkyl boronic acids were assayed as inhibitors of four physiologically relevant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, the cytosolic human (h) hCA I and II, and the transmembrane, tumor-associated hCA IX and XII. The best hCA I and II inhibitor was biphenyl boronic acid with, a K(I) of 3.7-4.5 microM, whereas the remaining derivatives showed inhibition constants in the range of 6.0-1560 microM for hCA I and of 6.0-1050 microM for hCA II, respectively. hCA IX and XII were effectively inhibited by most of the aromatic boronic acids (K(I)s of 7.6-12.3 microM) whereas the arylalkenyl and aryl-alkyl derivatives generally showed weaker inhibitory properties (K(I)s of 34-531 microM). The nature of the moiety substituting the boronic acid group strongly influenced the CA inhibitory activity, with inhibitors possessing low micromolar to millimolar activity being detected in this small series of investigated compounds. This study proves that the B(OH)(2) moiety represents a new zinc-binding group for the generation of effective CA inhibitors targeting isoforms with medicinal chemistry applications. The boronic acids probably bind to the Zn(II) ion within the CA active site leading to a tetrahedral geometry of the metal ion and of the B(III) derivative.

  13. Establishment of mice model with human viral hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li-Fen; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Ma, Chun-Hong; Liu, Su-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Li-Ning; Cao, Ying-Lin; Zhu, Fa-Liang; Liu, Yu-Gang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish a mice model of hepatitis B by using HBV-transgenic mice, and to transfer HBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induced from syngeneic BALB/c mice immunized by a eukaryotic expression vector containing HBV complete genome DNA. METHODS: HBV DNA was obtained from digested pBR322-2HBV and ligated with the vector pcDNA3. Recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was identified by restriction endonuclease assay and transfected into human hepatoma cell line HepG2 with lipofectin. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAg in culture supernatant, and RT-PCR to determine the existence of HBV PreS1 mRNA. BALB/c mice were immunized with pcDNA3-HBV or pcDNA3 by intramuscular injection. ELISA was used to detect the expression of HBsAb in serum. MTT assay was used to measure non-specific or specific proliferation ability and specific killing activity of spleen lymphocytes. Lymphocytes from immunized mice were transferred into HBV-transgenic mice (2.5 × 107 per mouse). Forty-eight hours later, the level of serum protein and transaminase was detected with biochemical method, liver and kidney were sectioned and stained by HE to observe the pathological changes. RESULTS: By enzyme digestion with Eco RI, Xho I and Hind III, the recombinant pcDNA3-HBV was verified to contain a single copy of HBV genome, which was inserted in the positive direction. HepG2 cells transfected with the recombinant could stably express PreS1 mRNA and HBsAg. After immunized by pcDNA3-HBV for 4 weeks, HBsAb was detected in the serum of BALB/c mice. The potential of spleen lymphocytes for both non-specific and specific proliferation and the specific killing activity against target cells were enhanced. The transgenic mice in model group had no significant changes in the level of serum protein but had an obvious increase of ALT and AST. The liver had obvious pathological changes, while the kidney had no evident damage. CONCLUSION: A eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3-HBV containing HBV complete

  14. Clonorchis sinensis ferritin heavy chain triggers free radicals and mediates inflammation signaling in human hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qiang; Xie, Zhizhi; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Ren, Mengyu; Shang, Mei; Lei, Huali; Tian, Yanli; Li, Shan; Liang, Pei; Chen, Tingjin; Liang, Chi; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-02-01

    Clonorchiasis, caused by direct and continuous contact with Clonorchis sinensis, is associated with hepatobiliary damage, inflammation, periductal fibrosis, and the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells respond to liver injury through production of proinflammatory mediators which drive fibrogenesis; however, their endogenous sources and pathophysiological roles in host cells were not determined. C. sinensis ferritin heavy chain (CsFHC) was previously confirmed as a component of excretory/secretory products and exhibited a number of extrahepatic immunomodulatory properties in various diseases. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern and biological role of CsFHC in C. sinensis. CsFHC was expressed throughout life stages of C. sinensis. More importantly, we found that treatment of human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2 with CsFHC triggered the production of free radicals via time-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The increase in free radicals substantially promoted the degradation of cytosolic IκBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB subunits (p65 and p50). CsFHC-induced NF-κB activation was markedly attenuated by preincubation with specific inhibitors of corresponding free radical-producing enzyme or the antioxidant. In addition, CsFHC induced an increased expression level of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-6, in NF-κB-dependent manner. Our results indicate that CsFHC-triggered free radical-mediated NF-κB signaling is an important factor in the chronic inflammation caused by C. sinensis infection.

  15. Purinergic receptor functionality is necessary for infection of human hepatocytes by hepatitis delta virus and hepatitis B virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Taylor

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV are major sources of acute and chronic hepatitis. HDV requires the envelope proteins of HBV for the processes of assembly and infection of new cells. Both viruses are able to infect hepatocytes though previous studies have failed to determine the mechanism of entry into such cells. This study began with evidence that suramin, a symmetrical hexasulfated napthylurea, could block HDV entry into primary human hepatocytes (PHH and was then extrapolated to incorporate findings of others that suramin is one of many compounds that can block activation of purinergic receptors. Thus other inhibitors, pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonate (PPADS and brilliant blue G (BBG, both structurally unrelated to suramin, were tested and found to inhibit HDV and HBV infections of PHH. BBG, unlike suramin and PPADS, is known to be more specific for just one purinergic receptor, P2X7. These studies provide the first evidence that purinergic receptor functionality is necessary for virus entry. Furthermore, since P2X7 activation is known to be a major component of inflammatory responses, it is proposed that HDV and HBV attachment to susceptible cells, might also contribute to inflammation in the liver, that is, hepatitis.

  16. Significance of blood analysis in hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shen; Qin Huang; Hong-Qing Sun; Reena Ghildyal

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To study the effect of hepatitis virus infection on cirrhosis and liver function markers in HIV-infected hemophiliacs.METHODS:We have analyzed the immunological,liver function and cirrhosis markers in a cohort of hemophiliacs co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis viruses.RESULTS:There was no difference in immunological markers among co-infected patients and patients infected with HIV only and those co-infected with one or more hepatitis virus. Although liver function and cirrhosis markers remained within a normal range,there was a worsening trend in all patients co-infected with hepatitis virus C (HCV),which was further exacerbated in the presence of additional infection with hepatitis virus B (HBV).CONCLUSION:Co-infection with HIV,HBV and HCV leads to worsening of hyaluronic acid and liver function markers. Increases in serum hyaluronic acid may be suggestive of a predisposition to liver diseases.

  17. Anti-hepatitis C virus treatment may prevent the progression of liver fibrosis in non-responder human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Sagnelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate changes in liver histology in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection non-responders to a suboptimal Interferon+Ribavirine regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 49 patients with two sequential liver biopsies: 18 were non-responders to Interferon+Ribavirine treatment (Group hepatitis C virus Rx administered after the 1st liver biopsy who underwent a 2nd liver biopsy after a median period of 3.92 year and 31 were patients who remained untreated for hepatitis C virus disease (Group hepatitis C virus untreated after the 1st liver biopsy because of refusal and underwent a 2nd liver biopsy after a median period of 5.05-years. Most patients in both groups were under highly active antiretroviral therapy. At the time of 1st liver biopsy similar degrees of necro-inflammation, fibrosis and steatosis were observed in both groups. Changes in liver lesions between 1st and 2nd liver biopsys were adjusted for different intervals between liver biopsys by a mathematic formula. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis did not change in 88.9% of patients in Group hepatitis C virus Rx and in 77.4% in Group hepatitis C virus untreated. A marked deterioration in liver fibrosis was observed in 5 (16% patients in Group hepatitis C virus untreated and in none in Group hepatitis C virus treated. Necro-inflammation and steatosis remained substantially unchanged in both groups. CONCLUSION: Liver histology remained substantially unchanged in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus patients non-responder to anti-hepatitis C virus therapy over 4 years observation, suggesting an effective anti-hepatitis C virus early treatment for all hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus coinfected patients who can reasonably tolerate therapy.

  18. Comparison of Morphology and Microstructural Components of Hepatic Portal Vein between Human and Pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yifei; HUANG Tiezhu; WANG Peijun; LI Wenchun; YU Minghua

    2005-01-01

    In order to provide morphological data and theoretical basis for pig-to-human hepatic xenotransplantation, the difference in morphological parameters and vessel wall structural factors between human and porcine hepatic portal vein was studied. From human subjects and pigs of varying ages, hepatic portal veins were collected, paraffin-embedded and cut into sections. The histological structures were stained with HE, and elastin, collagen and smooth muscles were stained with Weigert, Aniline blue and orange G, respectively. Morphological parameters and relative contents of structural components were determined under microscopy and by computer image analysis system, respectively. The results showed that histological structures of human and porcine hepatic portal vein wall were similar. Caliber, wall thickness, lumen and wall area in pigs increased with age, all in linear correlation to months. Morphological parameters of 6- month-old pigs were similar to those of human. In pigs, collagen content increased gradually with months, elastin content remained relatively stable, smooth muscle content reached the peak at the 3rd month, and collagen/elastin (C/E) rose gradually. The contents of collagen and elastin in porcine hepatic portal vein wall were lower, while the content of smooth muscle was higher than in human, and C/E at the 5th and 6th month was similar to that in human. It is concluded that morphological parameters and contents of structural components of porcine hepatic portal vein vary with age. At the 6 month, its caliber, wall thickness, lumen and wall area are similar to those of human. There are differences in contents of structural components between human and pigs. However, in terms of C/E, mechanic properties of pigs at the 5th and 6th month mimic those of human, hence inosculation is viable in xenotransplantation between pigs and human.

  19. Seroprevalence of the Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses and Treponema pallidum at the Beijing General Hospital from 2010 to 2014: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxia Xu

    Full Text Available The hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency viruses and Treponema pallidum are important causes of infectious diseases concern to public health.Between 2010 and 2014, we used an automated chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay to detect the hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency viruses as well as Treponema pallidum (the rapid plasma regain test was used in 2010-2011. Positive human immunodeficiency virus tests were confirmed via western blotting.Among 416,130 subjects, the seroprevalences for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum were 5.72%, 1.23%, 0.196%, and 0.76%, respectively. Among 671 patients with positive human immunodeficiency virus results, 392 cases were confirmed via western blotting. Hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent in men (7.78% and 0.26%, respectively than in women (4.45% and 0.021%, respectively. The hepatitis B and C virus seroprevalences decreased from 6.21% and 1.58%, respectively, in 2010, to 5.37% and 0.988%, respectively, in 2014. The human immunodeficiency virus seroprevalence increased from 0.04% in 2010 to 0.17% in 2014, and was elevated in the Infectious Disease (2.65%, Emergency (1.71%, and Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (1.12% departments. The specificity of the human immunodeficiency virus screening was 71.4%. The false positive rates for the Treponema pallidum screening tests increased in patients who were 60-70 years old. The co-infection rates for the hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were 0.47% in hepatitis C virus-positive patients and 7.33% in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.During 2010-2014, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections were more frequent among men at our institution. Although the seroprevalences of hepatitis B and C viruses decreased, the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection increased (with

  20. Selenoprotein P mRNA expression in human hepatic tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Li Li; Ke-Jun Nan; Tao Tian; Chen-Guang Sui; Yan-Fang Liu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of Selenoprotein P mRNA (SePmRNA) in tissues of normal liver, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its relationship with HCC occurrence and development.METHODS: The expression of SePmRNA in tissues of normal liver, liver cirrhosis and HCC were detected by in situ hybridization using a cDNA probe.RESULTS: The enzyme digesting products of pBluescript-Human Selenoprotein P were evaluated by electrophoresis.The positive expression of SePmRNA was found in the tissues of normal liver,liver cirrhosis and HCC.The expression of SeP mRNA was found in hepatic interstitial substance,especially in endothelial cells and lymphocytes of vasculature.The positive rate of SePmRNA in normal liver tissue was 84.6% (11/13) and the positive signals appeared in the nucleus and cytoplasm,mostly in the nucleolus,and the staining granules were larger in the nucleolus and around the nucleus.The positive rate of SePmRNA in liver cirrhosis tissue was 45.O% (9/20) and the positive signals were mainly in the nucleolus and cytoplasm,being less around the nucleus and inner nucleus than that in normal liver tissue. The positive rate of SePmRNA in HCC tissue was 30.0% (9/30) and the positive signals were in the cytoplasm, but less in the nucleus.CONCLUSION: SePmRNA expression in the tissues of normal liver and HCC is significantly different (84.6% vs 30.0%, P = 0.003), suggesting that SeP might play a role in the occurrence and development of HCC.

  1. MAVS-dependent host species range and pathogenicity of human hepatitis A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; Hensley, Lucinda; McGivern, David R; González-López, Olga; Das, Anshuman; Feng, Hui; Sun, Lu; Wilson, Justin E; Hu, Fengyu; Feng, Zongdi; Lovell, William; Misumi, Ichiro; Ting, Jenny P-Y; Montgomery, Stephanie; Cullen, John; Whitmire, Jason K; Lemon, Stanley M

    2016-09-30

    Hepatotropic viruses are important causes of human disease, but the intrahepatic immune response to hepatitis viruses is poorly understood because of a lack of tractable small- animal models. We describe a murine model of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection that recapitulates critical features of type A hepatitis in humans. We demonstrate that the capacity of HAV to evade MAVS-mediated type I interferon responses defines its host species range. HAV-induced liver injury was associated with interferon-independent intrinsic hepatocellular apoptosis and hepatic inflammation that unexpectedly resulted from MAVS and IRF3/7 signaling. This murine model thus reveals a previously undefined link between innate immune responses to virus infection and acute liver injury, providing a new paradigm for viral pathogenesis in the liver. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Distinct Hepatic Receptors for Low Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein E in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeg, Jeffrey M.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Gregg, Richard E.; Schaefer, Ernst J.; Brewer, H. Bryan

    1985-02-01

    Since the liver is a central organ for lipid and lipoprotein synthesis and catabolism, hepatic receptors for specific apolipoproteins on plasma lipoproteins would be expected to modulate lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The role of hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E-containing lipoproteins was evaluated in patients with complementary disorders in lipoprotein metabolism: abetalipoproteinemia and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. In addition, hepatic membranes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolemia were studied and compared before and after portacaval shunt surgery. The results establish that the human liver has receptors for apolipoproteins B and E. Furthermore, in the human, hepatic receptors for low density lipoproteins and apolipoprotein E are genetically distinct and can undergo independent control.

  3. Murine adenovirus infection of SCID mice induces hepatic lesions that resemble human Reye syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirofski, L.; Horwitz, M S; Scharff, M. D.; Factor, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Murine adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) infection of CB-17 SCID mice (which are homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency mutation) induces hepatic histopathologic and ultrastructural features that are strikingly similar to human Reye syndrome. Gross pathologic examination of MAV-1-infected mice revealed only pale yellow liver tissue. Histopathologic studies of tissue from MAV-1-infected mice revealed diffuse hepatic injury manifested by microvesicular fatty degenerative changes of hepatoc...

  4. Characterization of hepatic progenitors from human fetal liver during second trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mekala Subba Rao; Aleem Ahmed Khan; Nyamath Parveen; Mohammed Aejaz Habeeb; Chittor Mohammed Habibullah; Gopal Pande

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To enrich hepatic progenitors using epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAH) as a marker from human fetal liver and investigate the expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and their markers associated with hepatic progenitor cells.METHODS: EpCAM +ve cells were isolated usingmagnetic cell sorting (MACS) from human fetuses (n =10) at 15-25 wk gestation.Expression of markers for hepatic progenitors such as albumin,alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),CD29 (integrin β1),CD49f (integrin α6) and CD90 (Thy 1) was studied by using flow cytometry,immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR; HLA class Ⅰ (A,B,C) and class Ⅱ (DR) expression was studied by flow cytometry only.RESULTS: FACS analysis indicated that EpCAM +ve cells were positive for CD29,CD49f,CD90,CD34,HLA class Ⅰ,albumin and AFP but negative for HLA class Ⅱ (DR) and CD45.RT PCR showed that EpCAM +ve cells expressed liver epithelial markers (CK18),biliary specific marker (CK19) and hepatic markers (albumin,AFP).On immunocytochemical staining,EpCAH +ve cells were shown positive signals for CK18 and albumin.CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that these EpCAM +ve cells can be used as hepatic progenitors for cell transplantation with a minimum risk of alloreactivity and these cells may serve as a potential source for enrichment of hepatic progenitor.

  5. Reelin expression in human liver of patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

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    Simone Carotti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reelin is a secreted extracellular glycoprotein that plays a critical role during brain development. Several studies have described Reelin expression in hepatic stellate cells of the human liver. In order to investigate the possible role of Reelin in the process of hepatic fibrogenesis, in this study we investigated Reelin expression in the liver tissue of patients infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV. On this basis, Reelin expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry during liver biopsies of 81 patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis. A Knodell score was used to stage liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblast immunohistochemical markers (CRBP-1, alpha-SMA were also evaluated. As further confirmed by co-localization experiments (Reelin +CRBP-1, Reelin protein was expressed by hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and a significant positive correlation was found between Reelin expression and the stage of liver fibrosis (P=0.002. Moreover, Reelin correlated with CRBP-1 positive cells (P=0.002, but not with alpha-SMA, suggesting that Reelin should not be regarded as a marker of hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts differentiation but rather as a functional protein expressed during some phases of liver fibrosis. Furthermore, Disabled-1 (Dab1, a Reelin adaptor protein, was expressed in cells of ductular reaction suggesting a paracrine role for Reelin with regards these elements. In conclusion, Reelin was expressed by human hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts and the number of these cells increased significantly in the lobule as the liver fibrosis progressed, suggesting a role for Reelin in the activation of hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts during liver injury. Reelin may potentially be incorporated into liver injury evaluations in combination with other histological data.

  6. Reelin Expression in Human Liver of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Simone; Perrone, Giuseppe; Amato, Michelina; Gentilucci, Umberto Vespasiani; Righi, Daniela; Francesconi, Maria; Pellegrini, Claudio; Zalfa, Francesca; Zingariello, Maria; Picardi, Antonio; Muda, Andrea Onetti; Morini, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Reelin is a secreted extracellular glyco-protein that plays a critical role during brain development. Several studies have described Reelin expression in hepatic stellate cells of the human liver. In order to investigate the possible role of Reelin in the process of hepatic fibrogenesis, in this study we investigated Reelin expression in the liver tissue of patients infected with the Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). On this basis, Reelin expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry during liver biopsies of 81 patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis. A Knodell score was used to stage liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblast immunohistochemical markers (CRBP-1, alpha-SMA) were also evaluated. As further confirmed by colocalization experiments (Reelin +CRBP-1), Reelin protein was expressed by hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and a significant positive correlation was found between Reelin expression and the stage of liver fibrosis (P=0.002). Moreover, Reelin correlated with CRBP-1 positive cells (P=0.002), but not with alpha-SMA, suggesting that Reelin should not be regarded as a marker of hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts differentiation but rather as a functional protein expressed during some phases of liver fibrosis. Furthermore, Disabled-1 (Dab1), a Reelin adaptor protein, was expressed in cells of ductular reaction suggesting a paracrine role for Reelin with regards these elements. In conclusion, Reelin was expressed by human hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts and the number of these cells increased significantly in the lobule as the liver fibrosis progressed, suggesting a role for Reelin in the activation of hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts during liver injury. Reelin may potentially be incorporated into liver injury evaluations in combination with other histological data. PMID:28348420

  7. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production.

  8. Hepatic lipase mRNA is expressed in rat and human steroidogenic organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractRat and human steroidogenic organs contain an enzyme activity that is indistinguishable from hepatic lipase present in liver. Using primers that recognize exons 5 and 8 of the rat and human HL gene, a 596-bp product was found by RT-PCR in rat liver, adrenal, ovaries and testes, but not i

  9. Serum ferritin concentration predicts hepatic fibrosis better than hepatic iron concentration in human HFE-Haemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Marnie J; Crawford, Darrell H G; Wockner, Leesa F; Powell, Lawrie W; Ramm, Grant A

    2017-09-01

    Ferritin is purported to have proinflammatory and profibrogenic effects on hepatic stellate cells. Thus, rather than acting as a passive indicator of hepatic iron concentration (HIC) in haemochromatosis, ferritin may directly influence fibrosis. This study evaluated whether serum ferritin is a better predictor of hepatic fibrosis compared to variables previously associated with increased fibrosis risk in haemochromatosis. We identified 291 C282Y HFE-homozygous patients who had undergone liver biopsy for histological fibrosis staging and measurement of HIC. Ordinal logistic regression determined the best model for fibrosis stage not including serum ferritin. Then, serum ferritin was introduced into this model to assess whether the predictive power of the model was significantly increased and to evaluate the effect on other predictors of fibrosis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses without serum ferritin demonstrated that log HIC (OR 2.89; P serum ferritin in multivariate analysis substantially improved the predictive power of the model (χ(2 ) = 37.15; P serum ferritin in this model rendered the effects of HIC, gender, alcohol and steatosis to non-significance. In haemochromatosis, serum ferritin is a better predictor of fibrosis stage than HIC, gender, steatosis and alcohol. These data support a hypothesis that ferritin may play a role in fibrosis rather than simply acting as a passive indicator of iron storage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A genetically humanized mouse model for hepatitis C virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorner, M.; Horwitz, J.A.; Robbins, J.B.; Barry, W.T.; Feng, Q.; Mu, K.; Jones, C.T.; Schoggins, J.W.; Catanese, M.T.; Burton, D.R.; Law, M.; Rice, C.M.; Ploss, A.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a major medical problem. Antiviral treatment is only partially effective and a vaccine does not exist. Development of more effective therapies has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Although xenotransplantation of immunodeficient mice with hum

  11. Simultaneous detection of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus in human plasma using Taq-man chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaja M N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Designing a rapid, reliable and sensitive assay, for detection of hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus variants by real-time PCR, is challenging at best. A recent approach for quantifying the viral load using the sensitive fluorescence principle, was used in this study. A total of 350 samples were collected from outpatient unit, Center for Liver Research and Diagnostics (CLRD. Complete Human HBV DNA and HCV sequences were obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI; primers and probes were designed and synthesized from core, surface and x region of Hepatitis B and UTR region of HCV. Real-time based detection was done, using standard kit and in-house generated standards and RT-PCR protocols. A standard curve was generated by using the Smart Cycler II software and serial dilution 102 to 108 of cloned viral regions, the calibration curve was linear in a range from 102 to108 cp/ml for both HBV and HCV, with R2 value of 0.999 and 0.995. Out of 100 predetermined HCV negative samples, 02 samples were found positive with in-house developed RT-PCR assay, the positivity of this sample was confirmed by sequencing the amplified product. Low cost of this assay procedure and précised sample volume will permit the assay to be implemented for routine screening of Hepatitis B and C virus mono-infection and co-infection using Real Time PCR , Nucleic acid Chip technology and Fluorescent End Point detection systems. This assay is reproducible showing limited inter and intra assay variability. Our results correlated well with the standard kit for HBV and HCV virus monitor.

  12. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation induces markers of alternative macrophage activation and reduces established hepatic fibrosis.

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    Ursula Manuelpillai

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatic inflammation from multiple etiologies leads to a fibrogenic response that can progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC from term delivered placenta has been shown to decrease mild to moderate hepatic fibrosis in a murine model. To model advanced human liver disease and assess the efficacy of hAEC therapy, we transplanted hAEC in mice with advanced hepatic fibrosis. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4 twice weekly resulting in bridging fibrosis by 12 weeks. hAEC (2 × 10(6 were infused via the tail vein at week 8 or weeks 8 and 10 (single and double dose, respectively. Human cells were detected in mouse liver four weeks after transplantation showing hAEC engraftment. CCl(4 treated mice receiving single or double hAEC doses showed a significant but similar decrease in liver fibrosis area associated with decreased activation of collagen-producing hepatic stellate cells and decreased hepatic protein levels of the pro-fibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta1. CCl(4 administration caused hepatic T cell infiltration that decreased significantly following hAEC transplantation. Hepatic macrophages play a crucial role in both fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. Mice exposed to CCl(4 demonstrated increased numbers of hepatic macrophages compared to normal mice; the number of macrophages decreased significantly in CCl(4 treated mice given hAEC. These mice had significantly lower hepatic protein levels of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 than mice given CCl(4 alone. Alternatively activated M2 macrophages are associated with fibrosis resolution. CCl(4 treated mice given hAEC showed increased expression of genes associated with M2 macrophages including YM-1, IL-10 and CD206. We provide novel data showing that hAEC transplantation induces a wound healing M2 macrophage phenotype associated with reduction of established

  13. Hepatitis A and B immunizations of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, Jeffrey C

    2005-10-01

    All persons at risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) types 1 and 2, including men who have sex with men, those with multiple heterosexual contacts, abusers of illegal injection drugs, and persons frequently exposed to blood and blood products, are also at high risk for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. HIV can prolong the duration and increase the level of HAV viremia and augment HAV-related liver abnormalities. HIV also magnifies HBV viremia and the risk of HBV reactivation, chronic active HBV infection, cirrhosis, and death. Because of these concerns, hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all HIV-positive/HAV seronegative persons, with 2 standard doses given 6 to 12 months apart. Immune response to hepatitis A vaccines is excellent, even in moderately immune-suppressed individuals. Hepatitis B vaccination is also recommended for all HIV-positive persons lacking prior immunity. However, immune reactivity to hepatitis B vaccines is frequently suboptimal in terms of patients' rate of response, antibody titer, and durability. Relatively high CD4+ T-cell counts (> or =500/mm3) and low levels of HIV viremia (hepatitis B vaccine response. Higher hepatitis B vaccine doses, prolongation of the vaccination schedule, or both, as prescribed for many patients with non-HIV-related immune deficiencies, may be considered initially. Revaccination should be instituted if postvaccination titers of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen are <10 mIU/mL (<10 IU/L). Nonresponders may also react to a subsequent vaccine course if CD4+ T-cell counts rise to 500/mm3 following institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy; vaccine adjuvant trials are under way. Universal, age-based immunization of all young and middle-aged adults appears to be the most comprehensive way of protecting all populations who are at high risk.

  14. Identification of potential biomarkers of hepatitis B-induced acute liver failure using hepatic cells derived from human skin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Robim M; Sachinidis, Agapios; De Boe, Veerle; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; De Kock, Joery

    2015-09-01

    Besides their role in the elucidation of pathogenic processes of medical and pharmacological nature, biomarkers can also be used to document specific toxicological events. Hepatic cells generated from human skin-derived precursors (hSKP-HPC) were previously shown to be a promising in vitro tool for the evaluation of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, their capacity to identify potential liver-specific biomarkers at the gene expression level was investigated with particular emphasis on acute liver failure (ALF). To this end, a set of potential ALF-specific biomarkers was established using clinically relevant liver samples obtained from patients suffering from hepatitis B-associated ALF. Subsequently, this data was compared to data obtained from primary human hepatocyte cultures and hSKP-HPC, both exposed to the ALF-inducing reference compound acetaminophen. It was found that both in vitro systems revealed a set of molecules that was previously identified in the ALF liver samples. Yet, only a limited number of molecules was common between both in vitro systems and the ALF liver samples. Each of the in vitro systems could be used independently to identify potential toxicity biomarkers related to ALF. It seems therefore more appropriate to combine primary human hepatocyte cultures with complementary in vitro models to efficiently screen out potential hepatotoxic compounds.

  15. Molecular cloning of the 31 kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2, as an antigen recognized by the lung cancer-specific human monoclonal antibody, AE6F4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, S; Shoji, M; Setoguchi, Y; Kato, M; Hashizume, S; Ichikawa, A; Osada, K; Katakura, Y; Tachibana, H; Murakami, H

    1995-01-01

    The human monoclonal antibody AE6F4 specifically reacts with human lung cancer tissues but does not with normal tissues. This monoclonal antibody recognizes a cytosolic 31 kDa antigen in the cancer cells. In a previous study, we elucidated that the 31 kDa antigen belonged to a family of proteins collectively designated as 14-3-3 proteins, which were known as protein kinase-dependent activators of tyrosine/trytophan hydroxylases, or protein kinase C inhibitor proteins. Here we report molecular cloning of the 31 kDa antigen from the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line, A549. Sequencing analysis indicates that the cloned cDNA is identical to that of previously reported human placental cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which is also a member of the 14-3-3 protein family. Western analysis demonstrated that a 31 kDa recombinant cPLA2 expressed in monkey COS cells was recognized by the AE6F4 monoclonal antibody. Binding of the monoclonal antibody to the recombinant cPLA2 was abolished when treated with sodium periodate, suggesting that not only are carbohydrate chains associated with the cPLA2, but they also play a crucial role in antigen recognition by the monoclonal antibody.

  16. "Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies among Volunteer Blood Donors "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Moniri

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion transmitted infections are potentially dangerous complications of transfusion therapy in immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of transmissible infections in blood donor population in Kashan, Iran. A total of 600 consecutive sera were tested for CMV-IgM antibody, HBsAg, hepatitis B core (HBc antibody, hepatitis C (HCV antibody, and HIV antibody with standard methods. Of the sera tested, 14 specimens (2.3% were CMV-IgM positive. The frequency of seropositive revealed no significant differences between male and female donors. The frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive tests tend to decline with increasing the age. There was no relation between the frequency rates of CMV-IgM seropositive with the educational level, socioeconomic status, marital status, urban dweller and rural resident patients. The prevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV antibody was 0.5%, 0.5%, and 0%, respectively. These findings implied important clinical applications because detection of CMV positive sera may reduce the risk for transmission of CMV in blood transfusion and thereby decrease the risk on CMV-induced complications.

  17. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

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    Jose Eduardo Levi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods: A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan® MPX kit (Roche on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results: Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive. Overall, six donors (0.02% were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion: The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717 contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program.

  18. Profile of Inflammation-associated genes during Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Joseph Ignatius Irudayam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Expression of genes associated with inflammation was analyzed during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs to hepatic cells. Messenger RNA transcript profiles of differentiated endoderm (day 5, hepatoblast (day 15 and hepatocyte-like cells (day 21 were obtained by RNA sequencing analysis. When compared to endoderm cells an immature cell type, the hepatic cells (days 15 and 21 had significantly higher expression of acute phase protein genes including complement factors, coagulation factors, serum amyloid A and serpins. Furthermore, hepatic phase of cells expressed proinflammatory cytokines IL18 and IL32 as well as cytokine receptors IL18R1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, IL2RG, IL6R, IL6ST and IL10RB. These cells also produced CCL14, CCL15, and CXCL- 1, 2, 3, 16 and 17 chemokines. Endoderm cells had higher levels of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, than that of hepatic cells. Sirtuin family of genes involved in aging, inflammation and metabolism were differentially regulated in endoderm and hepatic phase cells. Ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF family as well as downstream signaling factors TRAF2, TRAF4, FADD, NFKB1 and NFKBIB were differentially expressed during hepatic differentiation.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, C and D in Bangladesh's trucking industry: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, L; Saquib, N; Metzger, J; Choudhury, P; Siddiqui, M; Hassan, M

    2001-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B and C, viral infections with shared percutaneous, mucosal and perinatal routes of transmission, are responsible for serious morbidity and mortality globally. In Bangladesh there is a dearth of research on prevalence and risk factors for these diseases. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis (B, C, D) and risk factors associated with infection in men in Bangladesh's trucking industry (drivers and helpers on trucks), a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections. The study population comprised 388 men (245 drivers, 143 helpers) working out of Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Subjects were selected through a two-tiered sampling strategy. Of 185 trucking agencies 38 were randomly selected and a of 10 subjects was recruited from each agency. Subjects were interviewed, underwent a comprehensive physical examination and had blood samples taken. Gold standard laboratory tests were conducted to detect HIV, hepatitis B, C, and D infections. To assess risk factors associated with current hepatitis B infections or being a carrier (HBsAg) and lifetime exposure to hepatitis B infection (anti-HBc), simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. The prevalence of diseases were: HIV 0%, hepatitis C condom use, especially in high-risk sexual contacts.

  20. Hepatitis B and C infection and liver disease trends among human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan E Buskin; Elizabeth A Barash; John D Scott; David M Aboulafia; Robert W Wood

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine trends in and correlates of liver disease and viral hepatitis in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cohort.METHODS: The multi-site adult/adolescent spectrum of HIV-related diseases (ASD) followed 29 490 HIVinfected individuals receiving medical care in 11 U.S.metropolitan areas for an average of 2.4 years, and a total of 69 487 person-years, between 1998 and 2004.ASD collected data on the presentation, treatment, and outcomes of HIV, including liver disease, hepatitis screening, and hepatitis diagnoses.RESULTS: Incident liver disease, chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were diagnosed in 0.9, 1.8, and 4.7 per 100 person-years.HBV and HCV screening increased from fewer than 20% to over 60% during this period of observation (P < 0.001).Deaths occurred in 57% of those diagnosed with liver disease relative to 15% overall (P < 0.001).Overall 10% of deaths occurred among individuals with a diagnosis of liver disease.Despite care guidelines promoting screening and vaccination for HBV and screening for HCV, screening and vaccination were not universally conducted or, if conducted, not documented.CONCLUSION: Due to high rates of incident liver disease, viral hepatitis screening, vaccination, and treatment among HIV-infected individuals should be a priority.

  1. Profile of Inflammation-associated genes during Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatius Irudayam, Joseph; Contreras, Deisy; Spurka, Lindsay; Ren, Songyang; Kanagavel, Vidhya; Ramaiah, Arunachalam; Annamalai, Alagappan; French, Samuel W; Klein, Andrew S; Funari, Vincent; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2015-12-01

    Expression of genes associated with inflammation was analyzed during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to hepatic cells. Messenger RNA transcript profiles of differentiated endoderm (day 5), hepatoblast (day 15) and hepatocyte-like cells (day 21) were obtained by RNA sequencing analysis. When compared to endoderm cells an immature cell type, the hepatic cells (days 15 and 21) had significantly higher expression of acute phase protein genes including complement factors, coagulation factors, serum amyloid A and serpins. Furthermore, hepatic phase of cells expressed proinflammatory cytokines IL18 and IL32 as well as cytokine receptors IL18R1, IL1R1, IL1RAP, IL2RG, IL6R, IL6ST and IL10RB. These cells also produced CCL14, CCL15, and CXCL- 1, 2, 3, 16 and 17 chemokines. Endoderm cells had higher levels of chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, than that of hepatic cells. Sirtuin family of genes involved in aging, inflammation and metabolism were differentially regulated in endoderm and hepatic phase cells. Ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family as well as downstream signaling factors TRAF2, TRAF4, FADD, NFKB1 and NFKBIB were differentially expressed during hepatic differentiation.

  2. Hepatitis Delta Virus: Replication Strategy and Upcoming Therapeutic Options for a Neglected Human Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Florian A.; Urban, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    The human Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is unique among all viral pathogens. Encoding only one protein (Hepatitis Delta Antigen; HDAg) within its viroid-like self-complementary RNA, HDV constitutes the smallest known virus in the animal kingdom. To disseminate in its host, HDV depends on a helper virus, the human Hepatitis B virus (HBV), which provides the envelope proteins required for HDV assembly. HDV affects an estimated 15–20 million out of the 240 million chronic HBV-carriers and disperses unequally in disparate geographical regions of the world. The disease it causes (chronic Hepatitis D) presents as the most severe form of viral hepatitis, leading to accelerated progression of liver dysfunction including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and a high mortality rate. The lack of approved drugs interfering with specific steps of HDV replication poses a high burden for gaining insights into the molecular biology of the virus and, consequently, the development of specific novel medications that resiliently control HDV replication or, in the best case, functionally cure HDV infection or HBV/HDV co-infection. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HBV molecular biology, presents an update on novel cell culture and animal models to study the virus and provides updates on the clinical development of the three developmental drugs Lonafarnib, REP2139-Ca and Myrcludex B. PMID:28677645

  3. Genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of human hepatitis E virus in Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Bao Geng; Mao-Rong Wang; Ling Wang; Jie Wang; Zhi-Guo Yang; Yan Cheng; Fei Qiao; Min Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the genetic characteristics and pathogenicity of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the potential risk factors for sporadic hepatitis E.METHODS:Sixty-two serum samples from the patients with acute hepatitis E were collected,including 23 cases coinfected with hepatitis B virus.Anti-HEV detection and partial HEV RNA amplification were performed by enzyme immunoassays and reverse transcriptionnested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) method,respectively,and PCR products were sequenced.The isolated human HEV sequences were analyzed phylogenetically.RESULTS:The positive rate of serum HEV RNA were 21.0% (13/62),including 5 cases of liver failure.All the 13 isolates shared a 82.1%-98.0% nucleotide homology with each other and had identities of 74.7%-81.0%,75.3%-78.6%,75.3%-80.0% and 82.1%-96.1% with the corresponding regions of HEV genotypes 1-4,respectively.The human HEV strain GS-NJ-12 shared a 100% nucleotide identity with the swine HEV strain swIM6-43 isolated from Inner Mongolia,China.CONCLUSION:Swine may be a principal risk factor for occurrence of sporadic hepatitis E in eastern China,and genotype 4 HEV can induce acute liver failure.

  4. Effects of Acute Hyperglucagonemia on Hepatic and Intestinal Lipoprotein Production and Clearance in Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Changting; Pavlic, Mirjana; Szeto, Linda; Patterson, Bruce W.; Lewis, Gary F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The metabolism of hepatic- and intestinally derived lipoproteins is regulated in a complex fashion by nutrients, hormones, and neurologic and other factors. Recent studies in animal models suggest an important role for glucagon acting via the glucagon receptor in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) secretion. Here we examined the direct effects of glucagon on regulation of hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein metabolism in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight healthy men underwent two studies each, in random order, 4–6 weeks apart in which de novo lipogenesis, kinetics of larger VLDL1 TG, and kinetics of VLDL1 and smaller VLDL2 apolipoprotein (apo)B100 and B48 were studied using established stable isotope enrichment methods. Subjects were studied in the constant fed state under conditions of a pancreatic clamp (with infusion of somatostatin, insulin, and growth hormone) at either basal glucagon (BG study, 64.5 ± 2.1 pg/mL) or hyperglucagonemia (high glucagon [HG] study, 183.2 ± 5.1 pg/mL). RESULTS There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of VLDL1 or VLDL2 TG, apoB100 or apoB48 between BG and HG studies. There was, however, lower (P lipoprotein metabolism. CONCLUSIONS Glucagon acutely regulates hepatic but not intestinal lipoprotein particle metabolism in humans both by decreasing hepatic lipoprotein particle production as well as by inhibiting particle clearance, with no net effect on particle concentration. PMID:20980459

  5. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction in human hepatic cells infected with dengue 2 virus

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bacha, Tatiana; Midlej, Victor; Pereira da Silva, Ana Paula; Silva da Costa, Leandro; Benchimol, Marlene; Galina, Antonio; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction in human hepatic cells infected with dengue 2 virus correspondence: Corresponding author. Fax: +55 21 22708647. (El-Bacha, Tatiana) (El-Bacha, Tatiana) Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Virus, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - RJ-Brasil--> , Av. Bauhinia n? 400 ? CCS Bloco H 2? andar--> , sala 22. Ilha do Governador--> ...

  6. Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction in human hepatic cells infected with dengue 2 virus

    OpenAIRE

    El-Bacha, Tatiana; Midlej, Victor; Silva, Ana Paula Pereira da; COSTA,LEANDRO SILVA DA; Benchimol, Marlene; Galina, Antonio; POIAN,ANDREA T. DA

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial and bioenergetic dysfunction in human hepatic cells infected with dengue 2 virus correspondence: Corresponding author. Fax: +55 21 22708647. (El-Bacha, Tatiana) (El-Bacha, Tatiana) Laboratorio de Bioquimica de Virus, Instituto de Bioquimica Medica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - RJ-Brasil--> , Av. Bauhinia n? 400 ? CCS Bloco H 2? andar--> , sala 22. Ilha do Governador--> ...

  7. CD133(+) human umbilical cord blood stem cells enhance angiogenesis in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhafif, Nagwa; El Baz, Hanan; Hammam, Olfat; Hassan, Salwa; Salah, Faten; Mansour, Wafaa; Mansy, Soheir; Yehia, Hoda; Zaki, Ahmed; Magdy, Ranya

    2011-01-01

    The in vivo angiogenic potential of transplanted human umbilical cord blood (UCB) CD133(+) stem cells in experimental chronic hepatic fibrosis induced by murine schistosomiasis was studied. Enriched cord blood-derived CD133(+) cells were cultured in primary medium for 3 weeks. Twenty-two weeks post-Schistosomiasis infection in mice, after reaching the chronic hepatic fibrotic stage, transplantation of stem cells was performed and mice were sacrificed 3 weeks later. Histopathology and electron microscopy showed an increase in newly formed blood vessels and a decrease in the fibrosis known for this stage of the disease. By immunohistochemical analysis the newly formed blood vessels showed positive expression of the human-specific angiogenic markers CD31, CD34 and von Willebrand factor. Few hepatocyte-like polygonal cells showed positive expression of human vascular endothelial growth factor and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The transplanted CD133(+) human stem cells primarily enhanced hepatic angiogenesis and neovascularization and contributed to repair in a paracrine manner by creating a permissive environment that enabled proliferation and survival of damaged cells rather than by direct differentiation to hepatocytes. A dual advantage of CD133(+) cell therapy in hepatic disease is suggested based on its capability of hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation.

  8. Secretion and apparent activation of human hepatic lipase requires proper oligosaccharide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Verhoeven (Adrie); B.P. Neve (Bernadette); H. Jansen (Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractHuman hepatic lipase (HL) is a glycoprotein with four N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. The importance of glycosylation for the secretion of catalytically active HL was studied in HepG2 cells by using inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, N-glycosylat

  9. The role of human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus coinfections in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Lima Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy spectrum and outcome is associated with the host immune response against Mycobacterium leprae. The role of coinfections in leprosy patients may be related to a depression of cellular immunity or amplification of inflammatory responses. Leprosy remains endemic in several regions where human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, hepatitis B virus (HBV or hepatitis C virus (HCV are also endemic. We have evaluated the evidence for the possible role of these viruses in the clinical manifestations and outcomes of leprosy. HTLV-1, HBV and HCV are associated with leprosy in some regions and institutionalization is an important risk factor for these viral coinfections. Some studies show a higher prevalence of viral coinfection in lepromatous cases. Although HBV and HCV coinfection were associated with reversal reaction in one study, there is a lack of information about the consequences of viral coinfections in leprosy. It is not known whether clinical outcomes associated with leprosy, such as development of reactions or relapses could be attributed to a specific viral coinfection. Furthermore, whether the leprosy subtype may influence the progression of the viral coinfection is unknown. All of these important and intriguing questions await prospective studies to definitively establish the actual relationship between these entities.

  10. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association St...

  11. Optical diagnostic of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) from human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis is the second most common disease worldwide with half of the cases arising in the developing world. The mortality associated with hepatitis B and C can be reduced if the disease is detected at the early stages of development. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool to detect biochemical changes accompanying hepatitis progression. Raman spectra were acquired from 20 individuals with six hepatitis B infected patients, six hepatitis C infected patients and eight healthy patients in order to gain an insight into the determination of biochemical changes for early diagnostic. The human blood serum was examined at a 532 nm excitation laser source. Raman characteristic peaks were observed in normal sera at 1006, 1157 and 1513 cm-1, while in the case of hepatitis B and C these peaks were found to be blue shifted with decreased intensity. New Raman peaks appeared in HBV and HCV infected sera at 1194, 1302, 844, 905, 1065 and 1303 cm-1 respectively. A Mat lab subroutine and frequency domain filter program is developed and applied to signal processing of Raman scattering data. The algorithms have been successfully applied to remove the signal noise found in experimental scattering signals. The results show that Raman spectroscopy displays a high sensitivity to biochemical changes in blood sera during disease progression resulting in exceptional prediction accuracy when discriminating between normal and malignant. Raman spectroscopy shows enormous clinical potential as a rapid non-invasive diagnostic tool for hepatitis and other infectious diseases.

  12. High Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers in Romanian Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Simona

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated the frequency of hepatitis coinfection in Romanian adolescents who were diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection prior to 1995. Methods One hundred sixty-one adolescents (13–18 years of age with symptomatic HIV infection, but without signs of hepatic dysfunction, and 356 age-matched, HIV-uninfected controls underwent laboratory testing for markers of parenterally acquired hepatitis virus infection. Results Seventy-eight percent of HIV-infected adolescents had markers of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, as compared with 32% of controls (P = .0001. The prevalence of HBV replicative markers was more than 5-fold higher in HIV-infected adolescents as compared with controls: 43.4% vs 7.9% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; and 11.2% vs 2.2% (P = .0001, respectively, for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg. The prevalence of HBsAg chronic carriers and the presence of HBV replicative markers was significantly higher in patients with immunologically defined AIDS (CD4+ cell counts P = .02 for HBsAg and 22.8% vs 5.7%, (P = .002 for HBV DNA. After 1 year of follow-up, the proportion of those who cleared the HBeAg was considerably lower in severely immunosuppressed coinfected patients: 4.7% vs 37.1% (P = .003. Four additional HIV-infected adolescents became HBsAg-positive over the term of follow-up (incidence rate, 24.9/1000 person-years, despite a record of immunization against hepatitis B. Conclusion A substantial percentage of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected Romanian adolescents have evidence of past or present HBV infection. In HIV-infected adolescents, the degree of immunosuppression is correlated with persistence of HBV replicative markers, even in the absence of clinical or biochemical signs of liver disease.

  13. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus in a human diploid cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai-Hua Tang; Jiang-Sen Mao; Shao-Ai Chai; Yong Chen; Fang-Cheng Zhuang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hotspots, direction, and the time course of evolution of hepatitis A virus in the process of consecutive cell culture passage in human KMB17 diploid cells.METHODS: Wild type hepatitis A virus H2w was serially propagated in KMB17 cells until passage 30, and the full-length genomes of H2w and its six chosen progenies were determined by directly sequencing RT-PCR products amplified from viral genomic RNA. Alignment comparison of sequences from H2w with its six progenies and phylogenetic analysis of the whole VP1 region from H2w, progenies of H2w, and other cell culture adapted hepatitis A virus were then carried out to obtain data on the molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus in the process of consecutive passage in KMB17 cells.RESULTS: Most of the mutations occurred by passage 5 and several hotspots related to adaptation of the virus during cell growth were observed. After that stage, few additional mutations occurred through the remaining duration of passage in KMB17 cells except for mutation in the virulence determinants, which occurred in the vicinity of passage 15. The phylogenetic analysis of the whole VP1 region suggested that the progenies of H2w evolved closely to other cell culture adapted hepatitis A virus, i.e. MBB, L-A-1, other than its progenitor H2w.CONCLUSION: Hepatitis A virus served as a useful model for studying molecular evolution of viruses in a given environment. The information obtained in this study may provide assistance in cultivating the next generation of a seed virus for live hepatitis A vaccine production.

  14. Hepatitis B virus exposure in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive Cuban patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licel Rodríguez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV, 295 subjects were selected at random from the National Registry of human immunodeficiency virus positive subjects. Evidence of exposure to HBV was defined as: testing Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and anti-Hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc positive or anti-HBc positive only. Overall, 133 (45.5% were positive for anti-HBc and 15 (5.1% resulted positive to HBsAg. Significant statistical association was found between male sex and exposure to HBV (p<0.01. Homosexual or bisexual behavior was found to be strongly associated to HBV exposure (p<0.001. In conclusion, the prevalence of HBV serological markers is higher in Cuban HIV positive subjects compared to the Cuban general population.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma, human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis in the HAART era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Douglas C Macdonald; Mark Nelson; Mark Bower; Thomas Powles

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rising. HCC in HIV almost invariably occurs in the context of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection and, on account of shared modes of transmission, this occurs in more than 33% and 10% of patients with HIV worldwide respectively. It has yet to be clearly established whether HIV directly accelerates HCC pathogenesis or whether the rising incidence is an epiphenomenon of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, wherein the increased longevity of patients with HIV allows long-term complications of viral hepatitis and cirrhosis to develop. Answering this question will have implications for HCC surveillance and the timing of HCV/HBV therapy, which in HIV co-infection presents unique challenges. Once HCC develops, there is growing evidence that HIV co-infection should not preclude conventional therapeutic strategies, including liver transplantation.

  16. Metabolism of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate by hepatic and placental microsomes of human and baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Zharikova, Olga L; Mattison, Donald R; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2008-05-01

    Recent data from our laboratory revealed the formation of an unknown metabolite of 17 hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-HPC), used for treatment of preterm deliveries, during its perfusion across the dually perfused human placental lobule. Previously, we demonstrated that the drug is not hydrolyzed, neither in vivo nor in vitro, to progesterone and caproate. Therefore, the hypothesis for this investigation is that 17-HPC is actively metabolized by human and baboon (Papio cynocephalus) hepatic and placental microsomes. Baboon hepatic and placental microsomes were investigated to validate the nonhuman primate as an animal model for drug use during pregnancy. Data presented here indicate that human and baboon hepatic microsomes formed several mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxylated derivatives of 17-HPC. However, microsomes of human and baboon placentas metabolized 17-HPC to its mono-hydroxylated derivatives only in quantities that were a fraction of those formed by their respective livers, except for two metabolites (M16' and M17') that are unique for placenta and contributed to 25% and 75% of the total metabolites formed by human and baboon, respectively. The amounts of metabolites formed, relative to each other, by human and baboon microsomes were different suggesting that the affinity of 17-HPC to CYP enzymes and their activity could be species-dependent.

  17. Hepatic-intestinal disposal of endogenous human alpha atrial natriuretic factor99-126 in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Schütten, H J

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic-intestinal disposal of endogenous human alpha atrial natriuretic factor99-126 (ANF) was assessed in 13 patients with cirrhosis (six Child-Turcotte class A, five class B, and two class C) and eight control subjects. The Fick principle was applied during hepatic vein catheterization. Arterial...

  18. Hepatic-intestinal disposal of endogenous human alpha atrial natriuretic factor99-126 in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Schütten, H J

    1990-01-01

    Hepatic-intestinal disposal of endogenous human alpha atrial natriuretic factor99-126 (ANF) was assessed in 13 patients with cirrhosis (six Child-Turcotte class A, five class B, and two class C) and eight control subjects. The Fick principle was applied during hepatic vein catheterization. Arterial...

  19. Human SepSecS or SLA/LP: selenocysteine formation and autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Sotiria; Herkel, Johannes; Simonović, Miljan; Lohse, Ansgar W; Söll, Dieter

    2010-07-01

    Selenocysteine, the 21st genetically encoded amino acid, is the major form of the antioxidant trace element selenium in the human body. In eukaryotes and archaea its synthesis proceeds through a phosphorylated intermediate in a tRNA-dependent fashion. The final step of selenocysteine formation is catalyzed by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS) that converts phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) to selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec). The human SepSecS protein is also known as soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (SLA/LP), which represents one of the antigens of autoimmune hepatitis. Here we review the discovery of human SepSecS and the current understanding of the immunogenicity of SLA/LP in autoimmune hepatitis.

  20. Decreased expression of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, MRP2, in human livers with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoshita, E; Taguchi, K; Inokuchi, A; Uchiumi, T; Kinukawa, N; Shimada, M; Tsuneyoshi, M; Sugimachi, K; Kuwano, M

    2001-12-01

    To understand hepatic injury during the process of hepatitis viral infection, determination of liver-specific functions at molecular levels is critical. Because the transport of endogenous/exogenous toxic substances is an intrinsically important hepatic function, we examined whether expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene was affected in patients with hepatitis viral infection. To determine which ABC transporter was expressed differently in patients with hepatic viral infection, we assayed the expression of MDR1, MDR3, MRP1, MRP2, and MRP3 in non-cancerous regions in the liver of 42 patients with hepatic tumors using both quantitative RT-PCR and immunological staining analysis, and compared the hepatic expression levels between patients with hepatitis viral infection and non-infected controls. Of the five ABC transporter genes studied, the mRNAs of MRP2 and MRP3 were highly expressed in the human liver. There was a significant reduction in MRP2 expression to 29% in the virus-infected liver. Treatment of hepatic cells with inflammatory cytokines resulted in decreased mRNA levels of MRP2 and decreased MRP2 promoter activity. The down-regulation of MRP2 might induce a failure in the transport of various genotoxic substances in the liver with hepatitis virus infection.

  1. Chronic exposure to rifaximin causes hepatic steatosis in pregnane X receptor-humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-10-01

    Rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic that exhibits low gastrointestinal absorption, is a potent agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR), which contributes to its therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. To investigate the effects of long-term administration of rifaximin on the liver, PXR-humanized mice were administered rifaximin for 6 months; wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated in parallel as controls. Histological analysis revealed time-dependent intense hepatocellular fatty degeneration and increased hepatic triglycerides in PXR-humanized mice and not in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. After long-term treatment, PXR target genes were induced in small intestine and liver, with significant up-regulation in the expression of hepatic genes related to triglyceride synthesis and lipid accumulation. However, no significant hepatic accumulation of rifaximin was found, even after 6 months of treatment, in PXR-humanized mice. Genes in the small intestine that are involved in the uptake of fatty acids and triglycerides were induced along with increased triglyceride accumulation in intestinal epithelial cells of PXR-humanized mice; this was not observed in wild-type and Pxr-null mice. These findings suggest that long-term administration of rifaximin could lead to PXR-dependent hepatocellular fatty degeneration as a result of activation of genes involved in lipid uptake, thus indicating a potential adverse effect of rifaximin on liver function after long-term exposure.

  2. Kinetics of glyburide metabolism by hepatic and placental microsomes of human and baboon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharikova, Olga L; Ravindran, Selvan; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Hill, Ronald A; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2007-06-15

    Glyburide (glibenclamide) is under investigation for treatment of gestational diabetes. Two metabolites of glyburide have been previously identified in patients, namely, 4-trans-(M1) and 3-cis-(M2) hydroxycyclohexyl glyburide. Recently, the metabolism of glyburide by microsomes of liver and placenta from humans and baboons revealed the formation of four additional metabolites: 4-cis-(M2a), 3-trans-(M3), and 2-trans-(M4) hydroxycyclohexyl glyburide, and ethyl-hydroxy glyburide (M5). The aim of this investigation was to determine the kinetics for the metabolism of glyburide by cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes of human and baboon placental and hepatic microsomes. The metabolism of glyburide by microsomes from the four organs revealed saturation kinetics and apparent K(m) values between 4 and 12 microM. However, the rates for formation of the metabolites varied between organs and species. M1 was the major metabolite (36% of total), formed by human hepatic microsomes with V(max) of 80+/-13 pmol mg protein(-1)min(-1), and together with M2, accounted for only 51% of the total. M5 was the major metabolite (87%) formed by human placental microsomes with V(max) of 11 pmol mg protein(-1)min(-1). In baboon liver, M5 had the highest rate of formation (V(max) 135+/-32 pmol mg protein(-1)min(-1), 39% of total), and in its placenta, was M4 (V(max) 0.7+/-0.1 pmol mg protein(-1)min(-1), 65%). The activity of human and baboon hepatic microsomes in metabolizing glyburide was similar, but the activity of human and baboon placental microsomes was 7% and 0.3% of their respective hepatic microsomes. The data obtained suggest that more than 1 CYP isozyme is responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of glyburide.

  3. [Induction of hepatic specification of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Pei, Hai-yun; Guan, Li-dong; Nan, Xue; Bai, Ci-xian; Liu, Hui; Li, Bao-wei; Wang, Yun-fang; Pei, Xue-tao

    2009-07-01

    To induce hepatic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) in vitro. hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue and treated with improved hepatic medium containing HGF, bFGF and FGF4. After 7 days of culture, OSM was added to the culture media. Cell growth during hepatic differentiation was evaluated by CCK8 assay. Morphology of differentiation was examined under light microscope. Liver specific genes and proteins were detected by RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. And functional characteristics of hepatocytes were also examined. The number of hADSCs cultured in the improved hepatic media was increased significantly in comparison to hADSCs cultured in control media from 5 days to 21 days (t=6.59, 8.69, 15.94 and 24.64, respectively, Pspecific activities, such as uptake and excretion of indocyanine green, glycogen storage and albumin production. hADSCs can be induced into hepatocyte-like cells in this differentiation system. And this differentiation system promoted the growth of hADSCs.

  4. Donor-dependent variations in hepatic differentiation from human-induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiwara, Masatoshi; Aoi, Takashi; Okita, Keisuke; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Inoue, Haruhisa; Takayama, Naoya; Endo, Hiroshi; Eto, Koji; Toguchida, Junya; Uemoto, Shinji; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2012-07-31

    Hepatocytes generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are unprecedented resources for pharmaceuticals and cell therapy. However, the in vitro directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into mature hepatocytes remains challenging. Little attention has so far been paid to variations among hiPSC lines in terms of their hepatic differentiation. In the current study, we developed an improved hepatic differentiation protocol and compared 28 hiPSC lines originated from various somatic cells and derived using retroviruses, Sendai viruses, or episomal plasmids. This comparison indicated that the origins, but not the derivation methods, may be a major determinant of variation in hepatic differentiation. The hiPSC clones derived from peripheral blood cells consistently showed good differentiation efficiency, whereas many hiPSC clones from adult dermal fibroblasts showed poor differentiation. However, when we compared hiPSCs from peripheral blood and dermal fibroblasts from the same individuals, we found that variations in hepatic differentiation were largely attributable to donor differences, rather than to the types of the original cells. These data underscore the importance of donor differences when comparing the differentiation propensities of hiPSC clones.

  5. Studies on the integration of hepatitis B virusDNA sequence in human sperm chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-MinHUANG; Tian-HuaHUANG

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To study the integration of hepatitis Bvirus(HBV)DNAinto sperm chromosomes in hepatitsBpatients and the features of its integration.Methods:Sperm chromosomes of 14subjects(5healthy controls and9HBpatients,including1acute hepatitis B,2chronic active hepatitisB,4chronic persistent hepatitsB,2HBsAg chronic carriers with no clinical symptoms)were prepared using imterspecific in vitro fertilization between zona-free hamster oocytes and human spermatozoa.Fluosescence in situ hybridization(FISH)to sperm chromosome spreads was carried out with biotin-labeled full length HBVDNAprobe to detect the specificHBVDNA sequences in the sperm chromosomes.Results:Specific fluorescent signal spots for HBVDNAwere seen iv sperm chromosomes of one patient with chronic persistent hepatitisB.In9(9/42)sperm chromosome complements containing fluorescent signal spots,one presented5obvious FISHspots and the others2to4signals.The fluorescence intensity showed significant difference among the signal spots.The distribution of signal sites among chromosomes seems to be random.Con clusion:HBV could integrate into human sperm chromosomes.Results suggest that the possibility of vertical transmission of HBVvia the germ line tothe next generation is present.

  6. Profile of stress and toxicity gene expression in human hepatic cells treated with Efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sucerquia, Leysa J; Blas-Garcia, Ana; Marti-Cabrera, Miguel; Esplugues, Juan V; Apostolova, Nadezda

    2012-06-01

    Hepatic toxicity and metabolic disorders are major adverse effects elicited during the pharmacological treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Efavirenz (EFV), the most widely used non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), has been associated with these events, with recent studies implicating it in stress responses involving mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in human hepatic cells. To expand these findings, we analyzed the influence of EFV on the expression profile of selected stress and toxicity genes in these cells. Significant up-regulation was observed with Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1), which indicated metabolic stress. Several genes directly related to oxidative stress and damage exhibited increased expression, including Methalothionein 2A (MT2A), Heat shock 70kDa protein 6 (HSPA6), Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) and DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3). In addition, Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) was enhanced, whereas mRNA levels of the inflammatory genes Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Serpin peptidase inhibitor (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1 (SERPINE1) decreased and increased, respectively. This profile of gene expression supports previous data demonstrating altered mitochondrial function and presence of oxidative stress/damage in EFV-treated hepatic cells, and may be of relevance in the search for molecular targets with therapeutic potential to be employed in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the hepatic toxicity associated with HIV therapy.

  7. Gene expression analysis of primary normal human hepatocytes infected with human hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun Mi Ryu; Sung Gyoo Park; Sung Su Yea; Won Hee Jang; Young-Il Yang; Guhung Jung

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To find the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatocytes during the initial state of infection by cDNA microarray.METHODS: Primary normal human hepatocytes (PNHHs)were isolated and infected with HBV. From the PNHHs,RNA was isolated and inverted into complement DNA (cDNA) with Cy3- or Cy5- labeled dUTP for microarray analysis. The labeled cDNA was hybridized with microarray chip, including 4224 cDNAs. From the image of the microarray, expression profiles were produced and some of them were confirmed by RT-PCR, immunoblot analysis, and NF-κB luciferase reporter assay.RESULTS: From the cDNA microarray, we obtained 98differentially regulated genes. Of the 98 genes, 53 were up regulated and 45 down regulated. Interestingly, in the up regulated genes, we found the TNF signaling pathway-related genes: LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK. By using RT-PCR, we confirmed the up-regulation of these genes in HepG2, Huh7, and Chang liver cells, which were transfected with pHBV1.2x, a plasmid encoding all HBV messages. Moreover, these three genes participated in HBVmediated NF-κB activation.CONCLUSION: During the initial state of HBV infection,hepatocytes facilitate the activation of NF-κB through up regulation of LT-α, TRAF2, and NIK.

  8. Electrical impedance characterization of normal and cancerous human hepatic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Shlomi; Ivorra, Antoni; Reuter, Victor E; Rubinsky, Boris; Solomon, Stephen B

    2010-07-01

    The four-electrode method was used to measure the ex vivo complex electrical impedance of tissues from 14 hepatic tumors and the surrounding normal liver from six patients. Measurements were done in the frequency range 1-400 kHz. It was found that the conductivity of the tumor tissue was much higher than that of the normal liver tissue in this frequency range (from 0.14 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.03 +/- 0.01 S m(-1) at 1 kHz to 0.25 +/- 0.06 S m(-1) versus 0.15 +/- 0.03 S m(-1) at 400 kHz). The Cole-Cole models were estimated from the experimental data and the four parameters (rho(0), rho(infinity), alpha, f(c)) were obtained using a least-squares fit algorithm. The Cole-Cole parameters for the cancerous and normal liver are 9 +/- 4 Omega m(-1), 2.2 +/- 0.7 Omega m(-1), 0.5 +/- 0.2, 140 +/- 103 kHz and 50 +/- 28 Omega m(-1), 3.2 +/- 0.6 Omega m(-1), 0.64 +/- 0.04, 10 +/- 7 kHz, respectively. These data can contribute to developing bioelectric applications for tissue diagnostics and in tissue treatment planning with electrical fields such as radiofrequency tissue ablation, electrochemotherapy and gene therapy with reversible electroporation, nanoscale pulsing and irreversible electroporation.

  9. In vitro metabolic clearance of pyrethroid pesticides by rat and human hepatic microsomes and cytochrome P450 isoforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Species differences in the intrinsic clearance (CLint) and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of pyrethroid pesticides were examined in rat and human hepatic microsomes. The pyrethroids bifenthrin, S-bioallethrin, bioresmethrin, β-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, cis-per...

  10. Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raffaella Cancello; Joan Tordjman; Christine Poitou; Gaël Guilhem; Jean Luc Bouillot; Danielle Hugol; Christiane Coussieu; Arnaud Basdevant; Avner Bar Hen; Pierre Bedossa; Michèle Guerre-Millo; Karine Clément

    2006-01-01

    Increased Infiltration of Macrophages in Omental Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Marked Hepatic Lesions in Morbid Human Obesity Raffaella Cancello 1 2 3 , Joan Tordjman 1 2 3 , Christine Poitou 1 2 3...

  11. PKCδ regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity and hepatosteatosis in mice and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezy, Olivier; Tran, Thien T; Pihlajamäki, Jussi;

    2011-01-01

    PKCδ. Here, we found that PKCδ expression in liver was 2-fold higher in B6 versus 129 mice from birth and was further increased in B6 but not 129 mice in response to a high-fat diet. PRKCD gene expression was also elevated in obese humans and was positively correlated with fasting glucose...... tolerance, and reduced hepatosteatosis with aging. Conversely, mice with liver-specific overexpression of PKCδ developed hepatic insulin resistance characterized by decreased insulin signaling, enhanced lipogenic gene expression, and hepatosteatosis. Therefore, changes in the expression and regulation...... of PKCδ between strains of mice and in obese humans play an important role in the genetic risk of hepatic insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatosteatosis; and thus PKCδ may be a potential target in the treatment of metabolic syndrome....

  12. Comparative metabolism of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene in male and female mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes and cytosol and male rat hepatocytes via oxidative dehalogenation and glutathione S-conjugation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xing; Szostek, Bogdan; Yang, Ching-Hui; Cheatham, Steve F; Mingoia, Robert T; Nabb, Diane L; Gannon, Shawn A; Himmelstein, Matthew W; Jepson, Gary W

    2011-07-01

    In vitro metabolism of 1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropene (PFP) was investigated in the present study. PFP was metabolized via cytochrome P450-catalyzed oxidative dehalogenation in liver microsomes and glutathione transferase (GST)-catalyzed conjugation in liver microsomes and cytosol. Two oxidation products, 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropionaldehyde (TPA) and 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvaldehyde (TFPA), and two GSH conjugates, S-(2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropenyl)-GSH (TFPG) and S-(1,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)-GSH (PFPG) were identified. Enzyme kinetic parameters for the formation of TFPA, TFPG, and PFPG were obtained in male and female rat, mouse, dog, and human liver microsomes and cytosol and were confirmed using freshly isolated male rat hepatocytes. For the TFPA pathway, dog microsomes exhibited much larger K(m) values than rat, mouse, and human microsomes. Sex differences in the rates of metabolism within a given species were minor and generally were less than 2-fold. Across the species, liver microsomes were the primary subcellular fraction for GSH S-conjugation and the apparent reaction rates for the formation of TFPG were much greater than those for PFPG in liver microsomes. PFPG was unstable and had a half-life of approximately 3.9 h in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 and 37°C). The intrinsic clearance values for the formation of TFPA were much greater than those for the formation of GSH S-conjugates, suggesting that cytochrome P450-mediated oxidation is the primary pathway for the metabolism of PFP at relatively low PFP concentrations. Because saturation of the GST-mediated reactions was not reached at the highest possible PFP concentration, GSH S-conjugation may become a much more important pathway at higher PFP concentrations (relative to the K(m) for TFPA).

  13. Immunohistochemical characterization of hepatic stem cell-related cells in developing human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HU Yong; WANG Jian; ZHOU Ji; ZHANG Taiping; YU Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the expression characteristics of the various kinds of possible markers in hepatic stem cells(HSCs)and other HSC-related cells in human fetal liver in various developmental stages.It is significant to investigate the immunohistochemical expression for better understanding of the origin,difierentiation and migration of HSCs in the developing human liver.H-E staining and immunohistochemical methods were used to observe the expression of hepatic/cholangiocellular differentiation markers(AFF,GST-π,CK7,CK19)and hematopoietic stem cell markers(CD34 and c-kit)in several kinds of HSC-related cells in thirty cases of fetal liver samples (4-35 weeks after pregnancy).AFP expression appears in fetal hepatocytes at four weeks'gestation.It Deaks at 16-24 weeks'gestation and decreases gradually afterwards.Finally,weak signals were only found in some ductal plate cells and a few limiting plate cells.GST-π was detected in hepatic cord cells from the sixth week and in the ductal plate cells from the eighth week.Twenty-six weeks later,only some ductal plate cells and a few limiting plate cells show positive signals.CK19 expression peaks during the 6th-11th weeks in hepatic cord cells and decreases gradually afterwards,except for the ductal plates.CK7 expression was limited in the ductal plate cells and bile ducts cells from the 14th week.CD34 and c-kit were detected at the eighth week in some ductal plate cells and a few mononuclear cells in the hepatic cords/mesenchymal tissue of portal areas.After 21 weeks.CD34 and c-kit were found only in ductal plate cells and a few mononuclear cells in the hepatic mesenchymal tissue of portal areas.Fetal hepatocytes at 4-16 weeks'gestation are mainly constituted by HSCs characterized with bi-potential differentiation capacity.At 16 weeks'gestation,most hepatic cord cells begin to differentiate into hepatocytes and abundant HSCs remain in ductal plate(the origin site of Hering canals).It is also indicated mat the

  14. Hepatitis B and C virus co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus positive North Indian patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Swati Gupta; Sarman Singh

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients at a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi,India.METHODS:Serum samples from 451 HIV positive patients were analyzed for HBsAg and HCV antibodies during three years (Jan 2003-Dec 2005). The control group comprised of apparently healthy bone-marrow and renal donors.RESULTS:The study population comprised essentially of heterosexually transmitted HIV infection. The prevalence rate of HBsAg in this population was 5.3% as compared to 1.4% in apparently healthy donors (P < 0.001).Though prevalence of HCV co-infection (2.43%) was lower than HBV in this group of HIV positive patients,the prevalence was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than controls (0.7%). Triple infection of HIV, HBV and HCV was not detected in any patient.CONCLUSION:Our study shows a significantly high prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in HIV infected patients. Hepatitis viruses in HIV may lead to faster progression to liver cirrhosis and a higher risk of antiretroviral therapy induced hepatotoxicity. Therefore,it would be advisable to detect hepatitis virus coinfections in these patients at the earliest.

  15. Fatty Acid Desaturase 1 (FADS1) Gene Polymorphisms Control Human Hepatic Lipid Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2014-01-01

    Fatty Acid Desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS)-identified six FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and these lipid levels as well as total hepatic fat content (HFC) were tested. The potential function of these SNPs in regulating transcription of 3 FADS genes (FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3) in the locus was also investigated. We found that while these SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (r2 >0.8), the rare alleles of these SNPs were consistently and significantly associated with the accumulation of multiple very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), with C47H85O13P (C36:4), a phosphatidylinositol (PI) and C43H80O8PN (C38:3), a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) reached the Bonferroni corrected significance (prs174556), but not FADS2 or FADS3 (p>0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed critical insight into the mechanism underlying FADS1 and its polymorphisms in modulating hepatic lipid deposition by altering gene transcription and controlling lipid composition in human livers. PMID:25123259

  16. Scalable spheroid model of human hepatocytes for hepatitis C infection and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Nugraha, Bramasta; Triyatni, Miriam; Hart, Stefan; Sankuratri, Suryanarayana; Yu, Hanry

    2014-07-07

    Developing effective new drugs against hepatitis C (HCV) virus has been challenging due to the lack of appropriate small animal and in vitro models recapitulating the entire life cycle of the virus. Current in vitro models fail to recapitulate the complexity of human liver physiology. Here we present a method to study HCV infection and replication on spheroid cultures of Huh 7.5 cells and primary human hepatocytes. Spheroid cultures are constructed using a galactosylated cellulosic sponge with homogeneous macroporosity, enabling the formation and maintenance of uniformly sized spheroids. This facilitates easy handling of the tissue-engineered constructs and overcomes limitations inherent of traditional spheroid cultures. Spheroids formed in the galactosylated cellulosic sponge show enhanced hepatic functions in Huh 7.5 cells and maintain liver-specific functions of primary human hepatocytes for 2 weeks in culture. Establishment of apical and basolateral polarity along with the expression and localization of all HCV specific entry proteins allow for a 9-fold increase in viral entry in spheroid cultures over conventional monolayer cultures. Huh 7.5 cells cultured in the galactosylated cellulosic sponge also support replication of the HCV clone, JFH (Japanese fulminant hepatitis)-1 at higher levels than in monolayer cultures. The advantages of our system in maintaining liver-specific functions and allowing HCV infection together with its ease of handling make it suitable for the study of HCV biology in basic research and pharmaceutical R&D.

  17. Modification of histone acetylation facilitates hepatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejun Dong

    Full Text Available The multi-potentiality of mesenchymal stem cells makes them excellent options for future tissue engineering and clinical therapy, including liver injury. In this study, we investigated the effects of valproic acid (VPA, a direct inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC, on the hepatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs. The cells were found to differentiate into a more homogeneous hepatocyte-like population when pretreated with 5 mM VPA for 72 h. The expression of liver-specific markers was significantly upregulated in the VPA-treated group at the mRNA and protein levels. VPA treatment also significantly enhanced the hepatic functions of the differentiated cells, including glycogen storage, cytochrome P450 activity, AFP and ALB synthesis, and urea production. Further analysis showed that treatment with 5 mM of VPA for 72 h greatly improved the histones H3 and H4 acetylation. These results demonstrated that VPA could considerably improve the hepatic differentiation of human BMMSCs, probably because the chromatin-acetylated state changes upon VPA treatment through its HDAC inhibitory effect. Thus, this study provides a direct research model for producing human hepatocytes for clinical purposes.

  18. Hepatic progenitor cells in human liver cirrhosis:Immunohistochemical,electron microscopic and immunofluorencence confocal microscopic findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Cheng Xiao; Xiao-Long Jin; Peter Ruck; Anne Adam; Edwin Kaiserling

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether hepatic progenitor cells (HPC),that reveal the features of oval cells in rodents and small epithelial cells (SEC) in certain human liver disease, were also found in human liver cirrhosis (HLC).METHODS: Surgical liver specimens from 20 cases of hepatitis B virus-positive HLC (15 cases containing hepatocellular carcinoma) were investigated by light microscopic immunohistochemistry (LM-IHC). Among them specimens from 15 cases were investigated by electron microscopy (EM)and those from 5 cases by immunofluorencence confocal laser scanning microscopy (ICLSM). Antibodies against cytokeratin 7 and albumin were used and single and/or double labelling were performed respectively.RESULTS: LM-IHC showed that at the margins of regenerating nodules and in the fibrous septae, a small number of cells in the proliferating bile ductules were positive for CK7 and albumin. At the EM level these HPC were morphologically similar to the SEC described previously, and also similar to the oval cells seen in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis.They were characterized by their small size, oval shape, a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, a low organelle content in cytoplasm, and existence of tonofilaments and intercellular junctions. ICLSM revealed that HPC expressed both cytokeratin 7 and albumin.CONCLUSION: HPC with ultrastructural and immunophenotypical features of oval cells, i.e., hepatic stem cell-like cells as noted in other liver diseases, were found in HLC. These findings further support the hypothesis that bipotent hepatic stem cells, that may give rise to biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes, exist in human livers.

  19. Interactions of cytosolic sulfotransferases with xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Margaret O; Ambadapadi, Sriram

    2013-11-01

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the sulfonic group from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate to hydroxy or amine groups in substrate molecules. The human cytosolic sulfotransferases that have been most studied, namely SULT1A1, SULT1A3, SULT1B1, SULT1E1 and SULT2A1, are expressed in different tissues of the body, including liver, intestine, adrenal, brain and skin. These sulfotransferases play important roles in the sulfonation of endogenous molecules such as steroid hormones and neurotransmitters, and in the elimination of xenobiotic molecules such as drugs, environmental chemicals and natural products. There is often overlapping substrate selectivity among the sulfotransferases, although one isoform may exhibit greater enzyme efficiency than other isoforms. Similarly, inhibitors or enhancers of one isoform often affect other isoforms, but typically with different potency. This means that if the activity of one form of sulfotransferase is altered (either inhibited or enhanced) by the presence of a xenobiotic, the sulfonation of endogenous and xenobiotic substrates for other isoforms may well be affected. There are more examples of inhibitors than enhancers of sulfonation. Modulators of sulfotransferase enzymes include natural products ingested as part of the human diet as well as environmental chemicals and drugs. This review will discuss recent work on such interactions.

  20. Human Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1a Contributes Significantly to Hepatic Lipogenic Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bitter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP 1, the master regulator of lipogenesis, was shown to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is attributed to its major isoform SREBP1c. Based on studies in mice, the minor isoform SREBP1a is regarded as negligible for hepatic lipogenesis. This study aims to elucidate the expression and functional role of SREBP1a in human liver. Methods: mRNA expression of both isoforms was quantified in cohorts of human livers and primary human hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were treated with PF-429242 to inhibit the proteolytic activation of SREBP precursor protein. SREBP1a-specifc and pan-SREBP1 knock-down were performed by transfection of respective siRNAs. Lipogenic SREBP-target gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Results: In human liver, SREBP1a accounts for up to half of the total SREBP1 pool. Treatment with PF-429242 indicated SREBP-dependent auto-regulation of SREBP1a, which however was much weaker than of SREBP1c. SREBP1a-specifc knock-down also reduced significantly the expression of SREBP1c and of SREBP-target genes. Regarding most SREBP-target genes, simultaneous knock-down of both isoforms resulted in effects of only similar extent as SREBP1a-specific knock-down. Conclusion: We here showed that SREBP1a is significantly contributing to the human hepatic SREBP1 pool and has a share in human hepatic lipogenic gene expression.

  1. Cryopreserved hepatic progenitor cells derived from human embryonic stem cells can arrest progression of liver fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arundhati; Raju, Sheena; Viswanathan, Chandra

    2016-10-01

    Hepatocytes generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are considered to be an excellent candidate for restoring the liver function deficiencies. We have earlier standardized a three-step differentiation protocol to generate functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from hESCs, which expressed the major hepatic markers. We have also found that the HLCs remain stable and functional even after extended period of in vitro culture and cryopreservation. In the present study, we have aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of cryopreserved-thawed hESC-derived hepatic progenitor cells following transplantation in carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrotic rat livers. Significant therapeutic effects, including improved hepatic histology and normal serum biochemistry of hepatic enzymes along with increased survival rate, were observed in the cell transplanted rats. This result is an encouraging indication to develop methods for clinical application of hESC-derived hepatic lineage cells.

  2. Discovery of a novel hepatovirus (Phopivirus of seals) related to human Hepatitis A Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony. S.J.,; St. Leger, J.A; Liang, E.; Hicks, A.L.; Sanchez-Leon, M.D; Ip, Hon S.; Jain, K.; Lefkowitch, J. H.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Knowles, N.; Goldstein, T.; Pugliares, K.; Rowles, T.; Lipkin, W.I.

    2015-01-01

    Describing the viral diversity of wildlife can provide interesting and useful insights into the natural history of established human pathogens. In this study, we describe a previously unknown picornavirus in harbor seals (tentatively named phopivirus) that is related to human hepatitis A virus (HAV). We show that phopivirus shares several genetic and phenotypic characteristics with HAV, including phylogenetic relatedness across the genome, a specific and seemingly quiescent tropism for hepatocytes, structural conservation in a key functional region of the type III internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and a codon usage bias consistent with that of HAV.

  3. Human Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein 1a Contributes Significantly to Hepatic Lipogenic Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Bitter; Nüssler, Andreas K.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.; Kathrin Klein; Zanger, Ulrich M.; Matthias Schwab; Oliver Burk

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1, the master regulator of lipogenesis, was shown to be associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is attributed to its major isoform SREBP1c. Based on studies in mice, the minor isoform SREBP1a is regarded as negligible for hepatic lipogenesis. This study aims to elucidate the expression and functional role of SREBP1a in human liver. Methods: mRNA expression of both isoforms was quantified in cohorts of human li...

  4. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  5. Higher rate of hepatitis events in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D genotype II infection: a cohort study in a medical center in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Sy, Cheng-Len; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and impact of hepatitis δ virus (HDV) on hepatic outcomes and virological and immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in northern Taiwan have been reported. However, the epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in HIV-HBV coinfection patients in southern Taiwan remains uncertain. In this cohort study, a total of 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV were identified between January 1, 2009 and May 30, 2012. The seroprevalence of anti-HDV antibodies, HDV genotyping, clinical manifestations and hepatic outcomes were compared between the patients with and without HDV coinfection, and laboratory examinations and hepatic outcomes were recorded. Among the 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV, seven were seropositive for HDV (10.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in risk factors for acquiring HIV infection. During a median observation period of 27.8 months, the adjusted hazard ratio of HDV and HBV genotype (type B vs. non-type B) on hepatitis flare-ups were 62.132 (p = 0.04) and 0.028 (p = 0.01), respectively. All seven patients had genotype II and were HDV viremic. The phylogenetic tree analysis and clinical history evaluation did not identify any clusters of HDV infection. HDV infection resulted in higher rate of hepatitis flare-ups, but it did not have a statistical significance on HIV progression and immunological response to HAART. Whether higher rate of HDV viremia has worse impact on the hepatic outcomes requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Induction of hepatic CYP3A enzymes by pregnancy-related hormones: studies in human hepatocytes and hepatic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Grepper, Susan; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2013-02-01

    CYP3A activity is induced by approximately 2-fold during the third trimester of human pregnancy. Placental growth hormone (PGH), estrogens (primarily 17β-estradiol), cortisol, and progesterone have the potential to modulate CYP3A activity. Therefore, we determined whether the elevated plasma concentrations of these hormones during pregnancy induce hepatic CYP3A expression. We incubated sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH) from premenopausal female donors (n = 2) with the physiologic (unbound, 1× total) and the 10× total third trimester hormone plasma concentrations (individually and in combination) and determined their effect on CYP3A activity and the transcripts of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and the respective hormone receptors (growth hormone receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and estrogen receptor alpha). Of all the hormones, cortisol was the most potent inducer of CYP3A activity and CYP3A4, CYP3A5 mRNA expression. The combination of PGH/growth hormone and cortisol induced CYP3A activity and expression significantly more than did cortisol alone. When incubated with the unbound or total plasma concentration of all the hormones, CYP3A activity in SCHH was induced to an extent comparable to that observed in vivo during the third trimester. These hormones had only a modest effect on the mRNA expression of the hormone receptors. The pattern of induction observed in SCHH was reproduced in HepaRG cells but not in HuH7/HepG2 cells. SCHH or HepaRG cells could be used to determine the mechanistic basis of CYP3A induction during pregnancy and to predict the magnitude of induction likely to be observed during the first and second trimesters, when phenotyping studies to measure in vivo CYP3A activity are logistically difficult to perform.

  7. High frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in swine from South Brazil and close similarity to human HEV isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandes

    2017-01-03

    Hepatitis E virus is responsible for acute and chronic liver infections worldwide. Swine hepatitis E virus has been isolated in Brazil, and a probable zoonotic transmission has been described, although data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs from a small-scale farm in the rural area of Paraná State, South Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 170 pigs and screened for hepatitis E virus RNA using a duplex real-time RT-PCR targeting a highly conserved 70nt long sequence within overlapping parts of ORF2 and ORF3 as well as a 113nt sequence of ORF2. Positive samples with high viral loads were subjected to direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. hepatitis E virus RNA was detected in 34 (20.0%) of the 170 pigs following positive results in at least one set of screening real-time RT-PCR primers and probes. The swine hepatitis E virus strains clustered with the genotype hepatitis E virus-3b reference sequences in the phylogenetic analysis and showed close similarity to human hepatitis E virus isolates previously reported in Brazil.

  8. Genome-Derived Cytosolic DNA Mediates Type I Interferon-Dependent Rejection of B Cell Lymphoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu J. Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The DNA damage response (DDR induces the expression of type I interferons (IFNs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show the presence of cytosolic DNA in different mouse and human tumor cells. Treatment of cells with genotoxic agents increased the levels of cytosolic DNA in a DDR-dependent manner. Cloning of cytosolic DNA molecules from mouse lymphoma cells suggests that cytosolic DNA is derived from unique genomic loci and has the potential to form non-B DNA structures, including R-loops. Overexpression of Rnaseh1, which resolves R-loops, reduced the levels of cytosolic DNA, type I Ifn transcripts, and type I IFN-dependent rejection of lymphoma cells. Live-cell imaging showed a dynamic contact of cytosolic DNA with mitochondria, an important organelle for innate immune recognition of cytosolic nucleotides. In summary, we found that cytosolic DNA is present in many tumor cells and contributes to the immunogenicity of tumor cells.

  9. Transient Expression of Transgenic IL-12 in Mouse Liver Triggers Unremitting Inflammation Mimicking Human Autoimmune Hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Farina, Irene; Di Scala, Marianna; Salido, Eduardo; López-Franco, Esperanza; Rodríguez-García, Estefania; Blasi, Mercedes; Merino, Juana; Aldabe, Rafael; Prieto, Jesús; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2016-09-15

    The etiopathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) remains poorly understood. In this study, we sought to develop an animal model of human AIH to gain insight into the immunological mechanisms driving this condition. C57BL/6 mice were i.v. injected with adeno-associated viral vectors encoding murine IL-12 or luciferase under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Organ histology, response to immunosuppressive therapy, and biochemical and immunological parameters, including Ag-specific humoral and cellular response, were analyzed. Mechanistic studies were carried out using genetically modified mice and depletion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Adeno-associated virus IL-12-treated mice developed histological, biochemical, and immunological changes resembling type 1 AIH, including marked and persistent liver mononuclear cell infiltration, hepatic fibrosis, hypergammaglobulinemia, anti-nuclear and anti-smooth muscle actin Abs, and disease remission with immunosuppressive drugs. Interestingly, transgenic IL-12 was short-lived, but endogenous IL-12 expression was induced, and both IL-12 and IFN-γ remained elevated during the entire study period. IFN-γ was identified as an essential mediator of liver damage, and CD4 and CD8 T cells but not NK, NKT, or B cells were essential executors of hepatic injury. Furthermore, both MHC class I and MHC class II expression was upregulated at the hepatocellular membrane, and induction of autoreactive liver-specific T cells was detected. Remarkably, although immunoregulatory mechanisms were activated, they only partially mitigated liver damage. Thus, low and transient expression of transgenic IL-12 in hepatocytes causes loss of tolerance to hepatocellular Ags, leading to chronic hepatitis resembling human AIH type 1. This model provides a practical tool to explore AIH pathogenesis and novel therapies.

  10. Hepatic metabolism of toluene after gastrointestinal uptake in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Mølhave, Lars; Honoré Hansen, S

    1993-01-01

    The metabolism of toluene and the influence of small doses of ethanol were measured in eight male volunteers after gastrointestinal uptake, the toluene concentration in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of hippuric acid and ortho-cresol being used as the measures of metabolism. During toluene...... exposure to 2 mg.min-1 for 3 h the alveolar toluene concentration was 0.07 (range 0-0.11) mg.m-3; exposure to 6 mg.min-1 for 30 min increased the alveolar concentration to 0.9 (range 0.03-2.6) mg.m-3. Ingestion of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 g of ethanol per kilogram of body weight during toluene exposure of 2 mg...... doses of ethanol inhibit toluene metabolism, and the procedure is sensitive enough to measure metabolic interactions between solvents and other xenobiotics in humans....

  11. Bioenergetic Changes during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells along the Hepatic Lineage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkinson, Branden M; Madsen, Claus Desler; Kalisz, Mark

    2017-01-01

    of embryonic origin differentiating along the hepatic lineage. Our study reveals especially the transition between hepatic specification and hepatic maturation as dependent on mitochondrial respiration and demonstrates that even though differentiating cells are primarily dependent on glycolysis until induction...

  12. Regulation of human hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by diesel exhaust particle extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Le Vee

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs are common environmental air pollutants primarily affecting the lung. DEPs or chemicals adsorbed on DEPs also exert extra-pulmonary effects, including alteration of hepatic drug detoxifying enzyme expression. The present study was designed to determine whether organic DEP extract (DEPe may target hepatic drug transporters that contribute in a major way to drug detoxification. Using primary human hepatocytes and transporter-overexpressing cells, DEPe was first shown to strongly inhibit activities of the sinusoidal solute carrier (SLC uptake transporters organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP 1B1, 1B3 and 2B1 and of the canalicular ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux pump multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, with IC50 values ranging from approximately 1 to 20 μg/mL and relevant to environmental exposure situations. By contrast, 25 μg/mL DEPe failed to alter activities of the SLC transporter organic cation transporter (OCT 1 and of the ABC efflux pumps P-glycoprotein and bile salt export pump (BSEP, whereas it only moderately inhibited those of sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide and of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP. Treatment by 25 μg/mL DEPe was next demonstrated to induce expression of BCRP at both mRNA and protein level in cultured human hepatic cells, whereas it concomitantly repressed mRNA expression of various transporters, including OATP1B3, OATP2B1, OCT1 and BSEP. Such changes in transporter expression were found to be highly correlated to those caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a reference activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR pathway. This suggests that DEPe, which is enriched in known ligands of AhR like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alters drug transporter expression via activation of the AhR cascade. Taken together, these data established human hepatic transporters as targets of organic chemicals containing in DEPs, which may contribute

  13. Isolation of Human Antibodies Against Hepatitis E From Phage Display Library by Metal Affinity Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To isolate human antibodies against hepatitis E virus from phage display library by a new method of panning phage antibody library based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). Methods Phage antibody library was allowed to mix with hex-His tagged expressed HEV specific antigen, NE2, in solution for adequate binding before affinity resin for hex-His was added. The non-specific phage antibodies were removed by extensive washing and the specific bound phage antibodies could then be eluted to infect TG1 or repeat the binding process for subsequent rounds of purification. The specificity of the selected human antibodies were tested by antigen competitive ELISA, human sera blocking ELISA, scFv expression, and sequence analysis. Results His-NE2 specific recombinant phages were successfully enriched after panning procedure. Two individual phage clones, 126 and 138, showed 50% inhibition in NE2 antigen competition ELISA and obvious blocking effect by HEV positive serum in blocking ELISA. Soluble scFv of 126, 138 bound to NE2 specifically. Conclusion Two specific human phage antibodies against hepatitis E virus (HEV) from phage display library were isolated by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The immobilized metal affinity chromatography applied to phage antibody selection was a helpful supplement to the selection in solution.

  14. High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biplab Bose; Navin Khanna; Subrat K Acharya; Subrata Sinha

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody.METHODS: We cloned the VH and VL genes of this mouse antibody; and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and CL domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. Coli.RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal.This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E> coli to increase the yield.CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a fulllength chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.

  15. Both lipolysis and hepatic uptake of VLDL are impaired in transgenic mice coexpressing human apolipoprotein E*3Leiden and human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M.C.; Dahlmans, V.E.H.; Gorp, P.J.J. van; Breuer, M.L.; Mol, M.J.T.M.; Zee, A. van der; Frants, R.R.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing human APOE*3Leiden are highly susceptible to diet-induced hyperlipoproteinemia and atherosclerosis due to a defect in hepatic uptake of remnant lipoproteins. In addition to the human APOE*3Leiden gene, these mice carry the human APOC1 gene (APOE*3Leiden- C1). To

  16. Non-invasive measurement of hepatic oxygenation by an oxygen electrode in human orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifalian, A M; Mallett, S; Piasecki, C; Rolles, K; Davidson, B R

    2000-06-01

    Precise evaluation of graft reperfusion is difficult in clinical liver transplantation. The oxygen electrode (OE) is a novel technique to detect blood flow indirectly by measuring the quantity of oxygen which can diffuse from the hepatic tissue to the surface electrode. Application of the surface OE does not influence the liver blood flow or parenchymal perfusion. Adequate graft oxygenation is essential to the outcome of organ transplantation and has not previously been analysed intra-operatively in liver transplant recipients. The OE was applied to the surface of the graft intra-operatively in 22 human liver grafts after restoring portal vein and hepatic artery inflow. OE readings were compared with liver blood flow using an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF). Intra-operative haemodynamics and donor organ parameters known to influence graft function were correlated with the OE readings. There was a significant correlation (r=0.89; poxygenation using the OE and total liver blood flow measured by EMF. The tissue oxygenation measurements were reproducible with a coefficient of variation of 5%. The hepatic tissue oxygenation increased significantly from baseline following venous reperfusion of the graft (282+/-23 vs 3107+/-288 (+/-SE) nA, poxygen perfusion. There was significant negative correlation (r=0.80, poxygenation. The OE provides a reliable, cheap and non-invasive method of monitoring liver graft oxygenation and perfusion during transplantation.

  17. Metabolism of Oxycodone in Human Hepatocytes from Different Age Groups and Prediction of Hepatic Plasma Clearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Timo; Tolonen, Ari; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Oxycodone is commonly used to treat severe pain in adults and children. It is extensively metabolized in the liver in adults, but the maturation of metabolism is not well understood. Our aim was to study the metabolism of oxycodone in cryopreserved human hepatocytes from different age groups (3 days, 2 and 5 months, 4 years, adult pool) and predict hepatic plasma clearance of oxycodone using these data. Oxycodone (0.1, 1, and 10 μM) was incubated with hepatocytes for 4 h, and 1 μM oxycodone also with CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (1 μM). Oxycodone and noroxycodone concentrations were determined at several time points with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In vitro clearance of oxycodone was used to predict hepatic plasma clearance, using the well-stirred model and published physiological parameters. Noroxycodone was the major metabolite in all batches and ketoconazole inhibited the metabolism markedly in most cases. A clear correlation between in vitro oxycodone clearance and CYP3A4 activity was observed. The predicted hepatic plasma clearances were typically much lower than the published median total plasma clearance from pharmacokinetic studies. The data suggests that there are no children-specific metabolites of oxycodone. Moreover, CYP3A activity seems to be the major determinant in metabolic clearance of oxycodone regardless of age group or individual variability in hepatocyte batches. PMID:22291644

  18. Generation and In Vitro Expansion of Hepatic Progenitor Cells from Human iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells have the unique properties of self-renewal and multipotency (producing progeny belonging to two or more lineages). Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from somatic cells by simultaneous expression of pluripotent factors (Oct3/4, Klf4, Sox2, and c-Myc). They share the same properties as embryonic stem (ES) cells and can differentiate into several tissue cells, i.e., neurons, hematopoietic cells, and liver cells. Therefore, iPS cells are suitable candidate cells for regenerative medicine and analyses of disease mechanisms.The liver is the major organ that regulates a multitude of metabolic functions. Hepatocytes are the major cell type populating the liver parenchyma and express several metabolic enzymes that are necessary for liver functions. Although hepatocytes are essential for maintaining homeostasis, it is difficult to alter artificial and transplanted cells because of their multifunctionality, donor shortage, and immunorejection risk. During liver development, hepatic progenitor cells in the fetal liver differentiate into both mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. As hepatic progenitor cells have bipotency and high proliferation ability, they could present a potential source for generating transplantable cells or as a liver study model. Here we describe the induction and purification of hepatic progenitor cells derived from human iPS cells. These cells can proliferate for a long term under suitable culture conditions.

  19. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by quercetin in human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikui; Cheng; Ge; Sun; Wei; Guo; Yayun; Huang; Weihua; Sun; Fei; Zhao; Kanghong; Hu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is one of the most serious and prevalent viral diseases in the world. Although several anti-HBV drugs have been used clinically, their side and adverse effects limit treatment efficacy. Therefore, it is necessary to identify novel potential anti-HBV agents. The flavonol quercetin has shown activity against some retroviruses, but its effect on HBV remains unclear. In the present study, quercetin was incubated with Hep G2.2.15 cells, as well as Hu H-7 cells transfected with an HBV plasmid. Quercetin was shown to significantly reduce Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) and Hepatitis B e antigen(HBe Ag), secretion and HBV genomic DNA levels in both cell lines. In addition, co-incubation with lamivudine(3TC), entecavir(ETV), or adefovir(Ade) further enhanced the quercetin-induced inhibition of HBV replication. This inhibition was partially associated with decreased heat shock proteins and HBV transcription levels. The results indicate that quercetin inhibited HBV antigen secretion and genome replication in human hepatoma cell lines, which suggests that quercetin may be a potentially effective anti-HBV agent.

  20. Cytosolic proteostasis through importing of misfolded proteins into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Linhao; Zhou, Chuankai; Jin, Erli; Kucharavy, Andrei; Zhang, Ying; Wen, Zhihui; Florens, Laurence; Li, Rong

    2017-03-16

    Loss of proteostasis underlies ageing and neurodegeneration characterized by the accumulation of protein aggregates and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although many neurodegenerative-disease-associated proteins can be found in mitochondria, it remains unclear how mitochondrial dysfunction and protein aggregation could be related. In dividing yeast cells, protein aggregates that form under stress or during ageing are preferentially retained by the mother cell, in part through tethering to mitochondria, while the disaggregase Hsp104 helps to dissociate aggregates and thereby enables refolding or degradation of misfolded proteins. Here we show that, in yeast, cytosolic proteins prone to aggregation are imported into mitochondria for degradation. Protein aggregates that form under heat shock contain both cytosolic and mitochondrial proteins and interact with the mitochondrial import complex. Many aggregation-prone proteins enter the mitochondrial intermembrane space and matrix after heat shock, and some do so even without stress. Timely dissolution of cytosolic aggregates requires the mitochondrial import machinery and proteases. Blocking mitochondrial import but not proteasome activity causes a marked delay in the degradation of aggregated proteins. Defects in cytosolic Hsp70s leads to enhanced entry of misfolded proteins into mitochondria and elevated mitochondrial stress. We term this mitochondria-mediated proteostasis mechanism MAGIC (mitochondria as guardian in cytosol) and provide evidence that it may exist in human cells.

  1. Definition of the transcription initiation site of human plasminogen gene in liver and non hepatic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgaretti, N; Bruno, L; Pontoglio, M; Candiani, G; Meroni, G; Ottolenghi, S; Taramelli, R

    1990-12-31

    We have mapped the cap site of the human plasminogen mRNA by primer extension and PCR techniques and found that it is located at position -161 relative to the first ATG, 97 bases upstream to the 5' end of the previously isolated cDNA clone. Seven human hepatic and non hepatic cell lines and fresh liver cells were tested for human plasminogen mRNA expression: the liver and the liver derived HepG2 cell line represent the major site of plasminogen RNA synthesis while the other cell lines (Hep3B, HeLa, IMR, 293 CaCo and SW626) show much lower levels.

  2. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene polymorphisms control human hepatic lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes, including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We aimed to delineate the role of FADSs in modulating lipid composition in human liver. We performed a targeted lipidomic analysis of a variety of phospholipids, sphingolipids, and ceramides among 154 human liver tissue samples. The associations between previously genome-wide association studies (GWASs)-identified six FADS single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and these lipid levels as well as total hepatic fat content (HFC) were tested. The potential function of these SNPs in regulating transcription of three FADS genes (FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3) in the locus was also investigated. We found that though these SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium (r(2) > 0.8), the rare alleles of these SNPs were consistently and significantly associated with the accumulation of multiple long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), with C47H85O13P (C36:4), a phosphatidylinositol (PI), and C43H80O8PN (C38:3), a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), reached the Bonferroni corrected significance (P rs174556), but not FADS2 or FADS3 (P > 0.05). Our findings revealed critical insight into the mechanism underlying FADS1 and its polymorphisms in modulating hepatic lipid deposition by altering gene transcription and controlling lipid composition in human livers. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Chronic hepatitis B serum promotes apoptotic damage in human renal tubular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun-Liang Deng; Xin-Wen Song; Hai-Jun Liang; Chen Feng; Yun-Jian Sheng; Ming-Yong Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of the serum of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) on apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro and to study the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN).METHODS: The levels of serum TGF-β1 were measured by specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HBV DNA was tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 44 patients with CHB ,and 20 healthy persons as the control. The normal human kidney proximal tubular cell (HK-2) was cultured together with the sera of healthy persons, CHB patients with HBV-DNA negative(20 cases) and HBV-DNA positive (24 cases) for up to 72 h. Apoptosis and Fas expression of the HK-2 were detected by flow cytometer.RESULTS: The apoptosis rate and Fas expression of HK-2 cells were significantly higher in HBV DNA positive serum group 19.01±5.85% and 17.58±8.35%, HBV DNA negative serum group 8.12±2.80% and 6.96 ± 2.76% than those in control group 4.25±0.65% and 2.33 ± 1.09%, respectively (P < 0.01). The apoptosis rate and Fas expression of HK-2 in HBV DNA positive serum group was significantly higher than those in HBV DNA negative serum (P < 0.01). Apoptosis rate of HK-2 cells in HBV DNA positive serum group was positively correlated with the level of HBV-DNA (r = 0.657). The level of serum TGF-β1 in CHB group was 163.05 ± 91.35 μg/L, significantly higher as compared with 81.40 ± 40.75 μg/L in the control group (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: The serum of patients with chronic hepatitis B promotes apoptotic damage in human renal tubular cells by triggering a pathway of Fas up-regulation. HBV and TGF-β1 may play important roles in the mechanism of hepatitis B virus associated glomerulonephritis.

  4. Peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Marchesini, Emanuela; Iorio, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of peginterferon plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Trials were identified through manual and electronic searches. Randomized trials comparing peginterferon plus ribavirin...... with interferon plus ribavirin, the proportion with a sustained virological response was 26% (109 of 423) for patients with genotype 1 or 4 and 57% (130 of 230) for genotype 2 or 3. Several adverse events occurred, including fatal lactic acidosis and liver failure, but there were no significant differences...

  5. Preparation of human single chain Fv antibody against hepatitis C virus E2 protein and its identification in immunohistochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wei Zhong; Jun Cheng; Gang Wang; Shuang-Shuang Shi; Li Li; Ling-Xia Zhang; Ju-Mei Chen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To screen human single chain Fv antibody (scFv)against hepatitis C virus E2 antigen and identify its applicationin immunohistochemistry.METHODS: The phage antibody library was panned by HCVE2 antigen, which was coated in microtiter plate. After fiverounds of biopanning,56 phage clones were identified specificto HCV E2 antigen. The selected scFv clones were digestedby SfiI/NotI and DNA was sequenced. Then it was subclonedinto the vector pCANTABSE for expression as E-taggedsoluble scFv. The liver tissue sections from normal personand patients with chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis Cwere immunostained with HCV E2 scFv antibody.RESULTS: The data of scFv-E2 DNA digestion and DNAsequencing showed that the scFv gene is composed of 750bp. ELISA and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that thehuman single chain Fy antibody against hepatitis C E2 antigenhas a specific binding character with hepatitis virus E2 antigenand paraffin-embedded tissue, but did not react with liver tissuesfrom healthy persons or patients with chronic hepatitis B.CONCLUSION: We have successfully screened andidentified HCV E2 scFv and the scFv could be used in theimmunostaining of liver tissue sections from patients withchronic hepatitis C.

  6. The absence of the human platelet antigen polymorphism effect on fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Picelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Hepatic fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections has been associated with viral and host factors, including genetic polymorphisms. Human platelet antigen polymorphisms are associated with the rapid development of fibrosis in HCV-monoinfected patients. This study aimed to determine whether such an association exists in human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients.METHODS:Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from 36 human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients was genotyped to determine the presence of human platelet antigens-1, -3, or -5 polymorphisms. Fibrosis progression was evaluated using the Metavir scoring system, and the patients were assigned to two groups, namely, G1 that comprised patients with F1, portal fibrosis without septa, or F2, few septa (n = 23 and G2 that comprised patients with F3, numerous septa, or F4, cirrhosis (n = 13. Fisher's exact test was utilized to determine possible associations between the human platelet antigen polymorphisms and fibrosis progression.RESULTS:There were no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the human platelet antigen systems evaluated. Statistically significant differences were not observed between G1 and G2 with respect to the distributions of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the human platelet antigen systems.CONCLUSION:The greater stimulation of hepatic stellate cells by the human immunodeficiency virus and, consequently, the increased expression of transforming growth factor beta can offset the effect of human platelet antigen polymorphism on the progression of fibrosis in patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 and the hepatitis C virus.

  7. Hepatic involvement in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection: discrepancies between AIDS patients and those with earlier stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer-Krämer, L; Krämer, A; Weigel, R; Rögler, G; Fleige, B; Krause, P H; Hahn, E G; Riecken, E O; Pohle, H D

    1991-04-01

    The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on type and severity of liver disease was studied in 61 HIV-positive patients who did not have AIDS and in 45 AIDS patients. Liver biopsies revealed viral hepatitis in 12 of 18 non-AIDS patients but in only 4 of 34 AIDS patients (P less than .0005, Fisher's exact test). Acute, non-A non-B, and chronic active hepatitis B were seen exclusively in the non-AIDS group; however, chronic persistent hepatitis B was seen in both groups. In 9 of 18 AIDS patients intra vitam liver histopathology established diagnoses of opportunistic infections or tumors. Tissue reaction to certain pathogens, such as hepatitis B virus, mycobacteria, and cryptococci, seems to be milder in AIDS patients than in others who are HIV positive or the expected reaction of the normal host. This is likely because of impaired cell-mediated immunity in patients with advanced HIV disease.

  8. Dating the origin and dispersal of hepatitis B virus infection in humans and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil; Ho, Simon Y W; Belshaw, Robert; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2013-03-01

    The origin of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans and other primates remains largely unresolved. Understanding the origin of HBV is crucial because it provides a framework for studying the burden, and subsequently the evolution, of HBV pathogenicity with respect to changes in human population size and life expectancy. To investigate this controversy we examined the relationship between HBV phylogeny and genetic diversity of modern humans, investigated the timescale of global HBV dispersal, and tested the hypothesis of HBV-human co-divergence. We find that the global distribution of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes are consistent with the major prehistoric modern human migrations. We calibrate the HBV molecular clock using the divergence times of different indigenous human populations based on archaeological and genetic evidence and show that HBV jumped into humans around 33,600 years ago; 95% higher posterior density (HPD): 22,000-47,100 years ago (estimated substitution rate: 2.2 × 10(-6) ; 95% HPD: 1.5-3.0 × 10(-6) substitutions/site/year). This coincides with the origin of modern non-African humans. Crucially, the most pronounced increase in the HBV pandemic correlates with the global population increase over the last 5,000 years. We also show that the non-human HBV clades in orangutans and gibbons resulted from cross-species transmission events from humans that occurred no earlier than 6,100 years ago. Our study provides, for the first time, an estimated timescale for the HBV epidemic that closely coincides with dates of human dispersals, supporting the hypothesis that HBV has been co-expanding and co-migrating with human populations for the last 40,000 years. (HEPATOLOGY 2013). Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  9. Mechanistic insights into the specificity of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls through the use of fluoro-tagged probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuase, E J; van 't Erve, T J; Rahaman, A; Robertson, L W; Duffel, M W; Luthe, G

    2016-02-01

    Determining the relationships between the structures of substrates and inhibitors and their interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes is of prime importance in predicting the toxic potential of new and legacy xenobiotics. Traditionally, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies are performed with many distinct compounds. Based on the chemical properties of the tested compounds, complex relationships can be established so that models can be developed to predict toxicity of novel compounds. In this study, the use of fluorinated analogues as supplemental QSAR compounds was investigated. Substituting fluorine induces changes in electronic and steric properties of the substrate without substantially changing the chemical backbone of the substrate. In vitro assays were performed using purified human cytosolic sulfotransferase hSULT2A1 as a model enzyme. A mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (4-OH PCB 14) and its four possible mono-fluoro analogues were used as test compounds. Remarkable similarities were found between this approach and previously published QSAR studies for hSULT2A1. Both studies implicate the importance of dipole moment and dihedral angle as being important to PCB structure in respect to being substrates for hSULT2A1. We conclude that mono-fluorinated analogues of a target substrate can be a useful tool to study the structure activity relationships for enzyme specificity.

  10. The synthesis of novel pyrazole-3,4-dicarboxamides bearing 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide moiety with effective inhibitory activity against the isoforms of human cytosolic carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Samet; Alım, Zuhal; İşgör, Mehmet Mustafa; Beydemir, Şükrü; Kasımoğulları, Rahmi

    2016-10-01

    A series of 1-(3-substituted-phenyl)-5-phenyl-N(3),N(4)-bis(5-sulfamoyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3,4-dicarboxamides (4-15) were synthesized. The structures of these pyrazole-sulfonamides were confirmed by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analysis methods. Human cytosolic carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isozymes (hCA I and II) were purified from erythrocyte cells by affinity chromatography. The inhibitory effects of newly synthesized derivatives (4-15) were investigated in vitro on esterase activities of these isozymes. The Ki values were determined as 0.119-3.999μM for hCA I and 0.084-0.878μM for hCA II. The results showed that the compound 6 for hCA I and the compound 11 for hCA II had the highest inhibitory effect. Beside that, the compound 8 had the lowest inhibition effect on both isozymes.

  11. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  12. Apelin mediates the induction of profibrogenic genes in human hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Casals, Gregori; Pauta, Montserrat; Ros, Josefa; Reichenbach, Vedrana; Bataller, Ramon; Morales-Ruiz, Manuel; Jimenez, Wladimiro

    2010-11-01

    Apelin is a peptide with relevant functions in angiogenesis and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that apelin is overexpressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of cirrhotic rats. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis show high circulating levels of this peptide. We evaluated the role of endogenous apelin system in fibrogenesis-related gene induction in human HSCs. Messenger expression and immunolocalization of apelin were analyzed in human cirrhotic liver and in control samples. Apelin expression was analyzed in a human HSC line (LX-2) under hypoxic conditions or in the presence of proinflammatory or profibrogenic stimuli. LX-2 cells were stimulated with apelin, and a selected profile of fibrogenesis-related genes was quantified. In vivo inactivation of apelin was analyzed in the liver of fibrotic rats after administrating specific blockers of the molecules triggering apelin induction. Apelin was overexpressed in HSCs from human cirrhotic liver. Neither hypoxia nor proinflammatory substances induced the expression of apelin in LX-2. By contrast, both profibrogenic molecules angiotensin II (AII) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) enhanced apelin expression in these cells. Apelin increased the synthesis of collagen-I and platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) in LX-2. AII and ET-1 stimulated collagen-I and PDGFRβ expression, and this induction was drastically reduced when apelin receptor was blocked in these cells. In accordance, AII or ET-1 receptor antagonists reduced the hepatic synthesis of apelin, collagen-I, and PDGFRβ in fibrotic rats. apelin mediates some of the fibrogenic effects triggered by AII and ET-1, thus suggesting that apelin could be an important mediator of fibrogenesis in human liver disease.

  13. Human obesity reduces the number of hepatic leptin receptor (ob-R) expressing NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, Anne; Breitmeier, Dirk; Kuhlmann, Susanne; Nave, Heike

    2011-01-01

    In the industrialized world, obesity is an increasing socioeconomic health problem. Obese subjects have a higher risk of developing several types of cancer. NK cells are an integral component of the innate immune system, able to destruct tumor cells. The adipokine leptin plays a crucial role in the development of obesity and its related diseases. Peripheral leptin signaling is modulated by the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of hepatic NK cells (CD56+) and the number of leptin-receptor positive (Ob-R+) cells in the livers of five normal-weight and five obese humans. Livers were removed during autopsy and accurately defined sections were stained immunohistochemically and CD56+, Ob-R+, and double-positive cells were quantified. Results revealed a dramatic reduction of NK cells and Ob-R-expressing NK cells in the livers of obese individuals. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, body-weight-dependent numbers of hepatic NK cells. This supports the hypothesis of obesity-associated alterations of immune cell numbers in different human organs.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity and subtyping of human Hepatitis E virus isolates from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazo, Santiago; Ramos, Natalia; Russi, José Carlos; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health concern in many developing countries causing waterborne outbreaks, as well as sporadic autochthonous hepatitis. It is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route. However, zoonotic transmission from animal reservoirs to human has also been suggested. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in South America and the HEV epidemiology in this region seems to be very complex. However, data about the molecular characterization of HEV isolates of the region is still lacking and further investigation is needed. Our study characterized human HEV strains detected in a 1-year period in Uruguay, by extensive sequence analysis of three regions of the HEV genome. Uruguayan strains were closely related to a set of European strains and in turn, were dissimilar to Brazilian, Argentinean and Bolivian isolates. Additionally, the co-circulation of viral subtypes 3i and 3h was observed. Circulation of subtype 3i had been reported in Argentina and Bolivia whereas sequences of subtype 3h are rare and had never been reported in Latin America. In order to contribute to shedding light over the molecular epidemiology of this emergent infection in the region, we thoroughly analyzed the genetic variability of HEV strains detected in Uruguay, providing the largest dataset of sequences of HEV ever reported in a country in South America.

  15. In vitro replication of plasmids containing human ribosomal gene sequences: origin localization and dependence on an aprotinin-binding cytosolic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Georgoff, I; Fresa, K L; Sylvester, J; Gonzalez, I; Cohen, S

    1993-11-01

    We previously investigated the role of an aprotinin-binding protein (ADR) in the initiation of DNA replication in isolated quiescent nuclei. In the present study, we have used a cell-free DNA replication system to test the ability of plasmid vectors which contain sequences from the human ribosomal RNA gene to serve as replicative templates in vitro when exposed to ADR-containing preparations. Significant dTTP incorporation was seen using DNA from either a 7-kb sequence in the 5' spacer region (CHE) or a 7-kb sequence which begins near the end of the 28S coding region and extends into the 3' spacer region (ADBB), while sequences from other regions of the rRNA gene mediated little or no dTTP incorporation. The characteristics of plasmid-directed dTTP incorporation indicate that most incorporation is due to DNA replication and not repair or damage-initiated processes. To conclusively demonstrate origin-dependent replication in the plasmid system and to further map replication origins, an approach was developed using ddGTP to restrict the length of daughter strands followed by hybridization of these replication products to restriction fragments spanning the putative origin region. This approach allowed us to identify replication origin activity apart from parent strand repair or synthesis initiated at random damaged sites. One of the origins was localized to a 1375-bp fragment within the 5' spacer region, and this fragment contains sequences homologous to those found in other replication origins.

  16. Hepatic Differentiation from Murine and Human iPS Cells Using Nanofiber Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Taiji; Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2016-01-01

    The induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells of murine and human are capable to differentiate into any cell type of the body through recapitulating normal development, similarly as the embryonic stem (ES) cells. Lines of evidence support that both ES cells and iPS cells are induced to differentiate in vitro by sequential treatment of humoral cues such as growth factors and chemicals, combined with the use of certain microenvironments including extracellular matrices and scaffolds.Here, we describe the procedure to potentiate hepatic lineage cells differentiation from murine and human iPS cells, using growth factor cocktails and nanofiber scaffolds. Nanofiber scaffolds have a three-dimensional surface mimicking the fine structures of the basement membrane in vivo, allow the iPS cells to differentiate into the definitive endoderm and mature hepatocyte-like cells more efficiently than the two-dimensional conventional culture plates.

  17. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    Improving crop nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency (NUE) is of major importance in modern agriculture in order to reduce the amount of N fertilizer used for crop production. There is a high demand for development of crops which are able to produce high yields but with a concomitantly lower N...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...... and wildtype control. However, when grown to maturity the differences between transgenic lines and wildtype were highly dependent on the growth conditions applied. The transgenic lines had a higher N utilization efficiency (NUtE) than wildtype control, but only when exposed to a mild N stress following...

  18. Life cycle of cytosolic prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia; Vorberg, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Prions are self-templating protein aggregates that were originally identified as the causative agent of prion diseases in mammals, but have since been discovered in other kingdoms. Mammalian prions represent a unique class of infectious agents that are composed of misfolded prion protein. Prion proteins usually exist as soluble proteins but can refold and assemble into highly ordered, self-propagating prion polymers. The prion concept is also applicable to a growing number of non-Mendelian elements of inheritance in lower eukaryotes. While prions identified in mammals are clearly pathogens, prions in lower eukaryotes can be either detrimental or beneficial to the host. Prion phenotypes in fungi are transmitted vertically from mother to daughter cells during cell division and horizontally during mating or abortive mating, but extracellular phases have not been reported. Recent findings now demonstrate that in a mammalian cell environment, protein aggregates derived from yeast prion domains exhibit a prion life cycle similar to mammalian prions propagated ex vivo. This life cycle includes a soluble state of the protein, an induction phase by exogenous prion fibrils, stable replication of prion entities, vertical transmission to progeny and natural horizontal transmission to neighboring cells. Our data reveal that mammalian cells contain all co-factors required for cytosolic prion propagation and dissemination. This has important implications for understanding prion-like properties of disease-related protein aggregates. In light of the growing number of identified functional amyloids, cell-to-cell propagation of cytosolic protein conformers might not only be relevant for the spreading of disease-associated proteins, but might also be of more general relevance under non-disease conditions.

  19. Redox characteristics of the eukaryotic cytosol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López-Mirabal, H Reynaldo; Winther, Jakob R

    2007-01-01

    (ROS) and glutathionylated proteins are maintained at very low levels. In the present review, recent progress in the understanding of the cytosolic thiol-disulfide redox metabolism and novel analytical approaches to studying cytosolic redox properties are discussed. We will focus on the yeast model...

  20. Liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection: Diagnostic methods and clinical impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caterina; Sagnelli; Salvatore; Martini; Mariantonietta; Pisaturo; Giuseppe; Pasquale; Margherita; Macera; Rosa; Zampino; Nicola; Coppola; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Several non-invasive surrogate methods have recently challenged the main role of liver biopsy in assessing liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-monoinfected and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)/HCV-coinfected patients, applied to avoid the well-known side effects of liver puncture. Serological tests involve the determination of biochemical markers of synthesis or degradation of fibrosis, tests not readily available in clinical practice, or combinations of routine tests used in chronic hepatitis and HIV/HCV coinfection. Several radiologic techniques have also been proposed, some of which commonly used in clinical practice. The studies performed to compare the prognostic value of noninvasive surrogate methods with that of the degree of liver fibrosis assessed on liver tissue have not as yet provided conclusive results. Each surrogate technique has shown some limitations, including the risk of over- or under-estimating the extent of liver fibrosis. The current knowledge on liver fibrosis in HIV/HCVcoinfected patients will be summarized in this review article, which is addressed in particular to physicians involved in this setting in their clinical practice.

  1. Protecting contacts of hepatitis A: what's the difference between vaccine and human normal immunoglobulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowcroft, N S

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy of vaccine when time since exposure is prolonged (more than 1 week from onset of illness in the index case) is unknown, but is likely to be significantly lower than human normal immunoglobulin (HNIG). We estimated the number of additional secondary cases that may occur through giving vaccine instead of HNIG to contacts of cases of hepatitis A who are identified more than 1 week after onset in the index case. This was calculated for different levels of vaccine efficacy, assuming HNIG efficacy to be 80-90%. The number of households that need to be treated to prevent one secondary case was calculated using estimates of secondary attack ratios (AR). If more than 1 week has elapsed from onset of illness in the index case, for an average household size of 2.3 people, a vaccine efficacy of 50% and an AR of 10-25%, 8-26 households would need to be treated with vaccine before one additional secondary case would be observed. As UK public health professionals manage around one hepatitis A case per month, it would take from 8 months to over 2 years for them to observe one additional case amongst contacts using vaccine rather than HNIG. It is unlikely that an average practitioner would notice if vaccine were 30% less effective than HNIG. Public health practice and advice to patients and contacts should be based on evidence as well as experience.

  2. Modulation of Bcl-x Alternative Splicing Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to chronic viral hepatitis and, more recently, from fatty liver diseases. Activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs represent a key aspect of fibrogenesis and are associated with progressive reduction of HSC apoptosis. Bcl-x, an antiapoptotic member of Bcl-2 gene family, plays a role in apoptosis regulation in mammalian cells. Through alternative splicing, the Bcl-x gene yields two major protein isoforms with opposing functions, antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and proapoptotic Bcl-xS. This study aimed to investigate the role of Bcl-x and its alternate splicing in HSC apoptosis. The results indicated that the expression of Bcl-xL was dramatically higher than Bcl-2 in activated human HSCs. The relative expression of Bcl-xL over Bcl-xS increased gradually when HSCs were activated in cell culture, which was consistent with the increase in apoptosis resistance of activated HSCs. Redirection of Bcl-x splicing by an antisense oligonucleotide from the antiapoptotic isoform to the proapoptotic isoform induced death of HSCs without other apoptosis stimuli. We conclude that Bcl-x plays a role in regulation of HSC apoptosis and modulation of Bcl-x alternative splicing may become a novel molecular therapy for liver fibrosis.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection of human hepatoma cell line 7721 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Fei Hao; Feng Min; Qiao-Yu Ma; Guo-Dong Liu

    2001-01-01

    AIM To establish a cell culture system with long-term replication of hepatitis C virus in vitro.``METHODS Human hepatoma cell line 7721 was tested for its susceptibility to HCV by incubating with a serum from a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Cells and supernatant were harvested at various phases during the culturing periods The presence of HCV RNA, the expression of HCV antigens in cells and/or supernatant were examined by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry respectively.``RESULTS The intracellular HCV RNA was first detected on d 2 after infection and then could be intermittently detected in both cells and supernatant over a period of at least three months. The expression of HCV NS3, CP10antigens could be observed in cells. The fresh cells could be infected by supematant from cultured infected cells and the transmission of viral genome from HCV-infected 7721 cells to PBMCs was also observed.``CONCLUSION The hepatoma line 7721 is not only susceptible to HCV but also supports its long-term replication in vitro.``

  4. Genetic characteristics of the human hepatic stellate cell line LX-2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Weiskirchen

    Full Text Available The human hepatic cell line LX-2 has been described as tool to study mechanisms of hepatic fibrogenesis and the testing of antifibrotic compounds. It was originally generated by immortalisation with the Simian Vacuolating Virus 40 (SV40 transforming (T antigen and subsequent propagation in low serum conditions. Although this immortalized line is used in an increasing number of studies, detailed genetic characterisation has been lacking. We here have performed genetic characterisation of the LX-2 cell line and established a single-locus short tandem repeat (STR profile for the cell line and characterized the LX-2 karyotype by several cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Spectral karyotyping (SKY revealed a complex karyotype with a set of aberrations consistently present in the metaphases analyses which might serve as cytogenetic markers. In addition, various subclonal and single cell aberrations were detected. Our study provides criteria for genetic authentication of LX-2 and offers insights into the genotype changes which might underlie part of its phenotypic features.

  5. Hepatic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells in miniaturized format suitable for high-throughput screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Carpentier

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of protocols to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs including embryonic (ESC and induced pluripotent (iPSC stem cells into functional hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs creates new opportunities to study liver metabolism, genetic diseases and infection of hepatotropic viruses (hepatitis B and C viruses in the context of specific genetic background. While supporting efficient differentiation to HLCs, the published protocols are limited in terms of differentiation into fully mature hepatocytes and in a smaller-well format. This limitation handicaps the application of these cells to high-throughput assays. Here we describe a protocol allowing efficient and consistent hepatic differentiation of hPSCs in 384-well plates into functional hepatocyte-like cells, which remain differentiated for more than 3 weeks. This protocol affords the unique opportunity to miniaturize the hPSC-based differentiation technology and facilitates screening for molecules in modulating liver differentiation, metabolism, genetic network, and response to infection or other external stimuli.

  6. Natural taurine promotes apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells in proteomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xin; Liang, Jian; LIN, ZHI-XIU; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the differential expression of proteins between natural taurine treated hepatic stellate cells and controls, and investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism of natural taurine in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  8. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, D.; Demangel, C.; Ingen, van J.; Perez, J.; Baldeon, L.; Abdallah, A.M.; Caleechurn, L.; Bottal, D.; Zon, van M.; Punder, de K.; Laan, van der T.; Kant, A.; Willemsen, P.; Bitter, W.; Soolingen, D.; Brosch, R.; Wel, van der N.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biologic

  9. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, D.; Demangel, C.; Ingen, J. van; Perez, J.; Baldeon, L.; Abdallah, A.M.; Caleechurn, L.; Bottai, D.; Zon, M. van; Punder, K. de; Laan, T. van der; Kant, A.; Bossers-de Vries, R.; Willemsen, P.; Bitter, W.; Soolingen, D. van; Brosch, R.; Wel, N. van der; Peters, P.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biologic

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  11. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus and syphilis among individuals attending anonymous testing for HIV in Luanda, Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F

    2013-01-24

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV

  12. Hepatitis B or hepatitis C co-infection in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus and effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs on liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmapriyadarsini C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB and hepatitis are the two common co-infections in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT may have an effect on the liver enzymes in these co-infected HIV patients. Aims: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C virus coinfection in HIV infected patients in Tamilnadu and assess effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs on their liver function. Settings: HIV positive subjects referred to the Tuberculosis Research Centre, Chennai Materials and Methods: All HIV infected patients referred to the Tuberculosis Research centre, from March 2000 to May 2004, were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg & Hepatitis C virus (HCV antibodies by enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA. HIV infection was confirmed using two rapid tests and one ELISA. Patients were given either short- course anti-tuberculosis treatment or preventive therapy for tuberculosis, depending on the presence or absence of active TB, if their baseline liver functions were within normal limits. None of these patients were on antiretroviral therapy during the study period. Statistical Analysis: Paired t-test was used to find the significance between baseline and end of treatment liver enzymes levels, while logistic regression was done for assessing various associations. Results: Of the 951 HIV-infected patients, 61 patients (6.4% were HBsAg positive, 20 (2.1% had demonstrable anti HCV antibodies in their blood. Serial estimation of liver enzymes in 140 HIV patients (81 being co-infected with either HBV or HCV showed that 95% did not develop any liver toxicity while they were on anti-tuberculosis treatment or prophylaxis. Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis B and C coinfection was fairly high in this largely heterosexually infected population supporting the use of more careful screening for these viruses in HIV positive persons in this region. Anti-tuberculosis therapy as well as TB preventive

  13. Maintenance of Hepatic Functions in Primary Human Hepatocytes Cultured on Xeno-Free and Chemical Defined Human Recombinant Laminins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaaki; Zemack, Helen; Johansson, Helene; Hagbard, Louise; Jorns, Carl; Li, Meng; Ellis, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Refined methods for maintaining specific functions of isolated hepatocytes under xeno-free and chemical defined conditions is of great importance for the development of hepatocyte research and regenerative therapy. Laminins, a large family of heterotrimeric basement membrane adhesion proteins, are highly cell and tissue type specific components of the extracellular matrix and strongly influence the behavior and function of associated cells and/or tissues. However, detailed biological functions of many laminin isoforms are still to be evaluated. In this study, we determined the distribution of laminin isoforms in human liver tissue and isolated primary human hepatocytes by western blot analysis, and investigated the efficacy of different human recombinant laminin isoforms on hepatic functions during culture. Protein expressions of laminin-chain α2, α3, α4, β1, β3, γ1, and γ2 were detected in both isolated human hepatocytes and liver tissue. No α1 and α5 expression could be detected in liver tissue or hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were isolated from five different individual livers, and cultured on human recombinant laminin isoforms -111, -211, -221, -332, -411, -421, -511, and -521 (Biolamina AB), matrigel (extracted from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma), or collagen type IV (Collagen). Hepatocytes cultured on laminin showed characteristic hexagonal shape in a flat cell monolayer. Viability, double stranded DNA concentration, and Ki67 expression for hepatocytes cultured for six days on laminin were comparable to those cultured on EHS and Collagen. Hepatocytes cultured on laminin also displayed production of human albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, bile acids, and gene expression of liver-enriched factors, such as hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, glucose-6-phosphate, cytochrome P450 3A4, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. We conclude that all forms of human recombinant laminin tested maintain cell viability and liver-specific functions of primary human

  14. Shared and Distinct Mechanisms of Compartmentalized and Cytosolic Ciliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Leroux, Michel R

    2015-12-07

    Most motile and all non-motile (also known as primary) eukaryotic cilia possess microtubule-based axonemes that are assembled at the cell surface to form hair-like or more elaborate compartments endowed with motility and/or signaling functions. Such compartmentalized ciliogenesis depends on the core intraflagellar transport (IFT) machinery and the associated Bardet-Biedl syndrome complex (BBSome) for dynamic delivery of ciliary components. The transition zone (TZ), an ultrastructurally complex barrier or 'gate' at the base of cilia, also contributes to the formation of compartmentalized cilia. Yet, some ciliated protists do not have IFT components and, like some metazoan spermatozoa, use IFT-independent mechanisms to build axonemes exposed to the cytosol. Moreover, various ciliated protists lack TZ components, whereas Drosophila sperm surprisingly requires the activity of dynamically localized TZ proteins for cytosolic ciliogenesis. Here, we discuss the various ways eukaryotes use IFT and/or TZ proteins to generate the wide assortment of compartmentalized and cytosolic cilia observed in nature. Consideration of the different ciliogenesis pathways allows us to propose how three types of cytosol-exposed cilia (primary, secondary and tertiary), including cilia found in the human sperm proximal segment, are likely generated by evolutionary derivations of compartmentalized ciliogenesis.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells from the human umbilical cord ameliorate fulminant hepatic failure and increase survival in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng Yang; Hong-Cui Cao; Qiao-Ling Pan; Jiong Yu; Jun Li; Lan-Juan Li

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cell therapy has been promising for various diseases. We investigated whether transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) has any therapeutic effects on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice. METHODS:hUCMSCs isolated from human umbilical cord were cultured and transplanted via the tail vein into severe combined immune deifciency mice with GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure. After transplantation, the localiza-tion and differentiation of hUCMSCs in the injured livers were investigated by immunohistochemical and genetic analy-ses. The recovery of the injured livers was evaluated histologi-cally. The survival rate of experimental animals was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS:hUCMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, CD105 and CD90, but did not express CD31, CD79b, CD133, CD34, and CD45. Cultured hUCMSCs displayed adip-ogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that transplantation of hUCMSCs reduced hepatic necrosis and promoted liver regeneration. Transplantation of hUCMSCs prolonged the survival rate of mice with fulminant hepatic failure. Polymerase chain reaction for humanalu sequences showed the presence of human cells in mouse livers. Positive staining for human albumin, human alpha-fetoprotein and human cytokeratin 18 suggested the for-mation of hUCMSCs-derived hepatocyte-like cellsin vivo. CONCLUSIONS:hUCMSC was a potential candidate for stem cell based therapies. After transplantation, hUCMSCs partially repaired hepatic damage induced by GalN/LPS in mice. hUC-MSCs engrafted into the injured liver and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells.

  16. Carcinogen-Induced Hepatic Tumors in KLF6+/- Mice Recapitulate Aggressive Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with p53 Pathway Deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarocchi, Mirko; Hannivoort, Rebekka; Hoshida, Yujin; Lee, Ursula E.; Vetter, Diana; Narla, Goutham; Villanueva, Augusto; Oren, Moshe; Llovet, Josep M.; Friedman, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Inactivation of KLF6 is common in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, thereby abrogating its normal antiproliferative activity in liver cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of KLF6 depletion on human HCC and experimental hepatocarcinoge

  17. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.

  18. A long-term hepatitis B viremia model generated by transplanting nontumorigenic immortalized human hepatocytes in Rag-2-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parashar, B; Moshage, H; Tanaka, KE; Engelhardt, D; Rabbani, E; Roy-Chowdhury, N; Roy-Chowdhury, J

    2000-01-01

    Development of new therapies for human hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) would be greatly facilitated by the availability of a suitable small-animal model for HBV virus production in vivo. To develop a murine model for HBV production, we established an immortalized, cloned liver cell line by transfe

  19. Release of Virus from Lymphoid Tissue Affects Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Hepatitis C Virus Kinetics in the Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Viktor; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Kinetic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been estimated from plasma virus levels following perturbation of the chronically infected (quasi-) steady state. We extend previous models by also considering the large pool of virus

  20. Factors in enhancing blood safety by nucleic acid technology testing for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatakrishna Shyamala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades through an awareness of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI, a majority of countries have mandated serology based blood screening assays for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis C virus (HCV, and Hepatitis B virus (HBV. However, despite improved serology assays, the transfusion transmission of HIV, HCV, and HBV continues, primarily due to release of serology negative units that are infectious because of the window period (WP and occult HBV infections (OBI. Effective mode of nucleic acid technology (NAT testing of the viruses can be used to minimize the risk of TTIs. This review compiles the examples of NAT testing failures for all three viruses; analyzes the causes for failure, and the suggestions from retrospective studies to minimize such failures. The results suggest the safest path to be individual donation testing (ID format for highest sensitivity, and detection of multiple regions for rapidly mutating and recombining viruses. The role of blood screening in the context of the donation and transfusion practices in India, the donor population, and the epidemiology is also discussed. World wide, as the public awareness of TTIs increases, as the recipient rights for safe blood are legally upheld, as the possibility to manage diseases such as hepatitis through expensive and prolonged treatment becomes accessible, and the societal responsibility to shoulder the health costs as in the case for HIV becomes routine, there is much to gain by preventing infections than treating diseases.

  1. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  2. Hepatic expression of detoxification enzymes is decreased in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chai

    Full Text Available Levels of bile acid metabolic enzymes and membrane transporters have been reported to change in cholestasis. These alterations (e.g. CYP7A1 repression and MRP4 induction are thought to be adaptive responses that attenuate cholestatic liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms of these adaptive responses in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction remain unclear.We collected liver samples from cholestatic patients with biliary obstruction due to gallstones and from control patients without liver disease (n = 22 per group. The expression levels of bile acid synthetic and detoxification enzymes, membrane transporters, and the related nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors were measured.The levels of bile acid synthetic enzymes, CYP7B1 and CYP8B1, and the detoxification enzyme CYP2B6 were increased in cholestatic livers by 2.4-fold, 2.8-fold, and 1.9-fold, respectively (p<0.05. Conversely, the expression levels of liver detoxification enzymes, UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1-4, and GSTM1-4, were reduced by approximately 50% (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. The levels of membrane transporters, OSTβ and OCT1, were increased 10.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively, (p<0.05, whereas those of OSTα, ABCG2 and ABCG8 were all decreased by approximately 40%, (p<0.05 in human cholestatic livers. Hepatic nuclear receptors, VDR, HNF4α, RXRα and RARα, were induced (approximately 2.0-fold, (p<0.05 whereas FXR levels were markedly reduced to 44% of control, (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. There was a significantly positive correlation between the reduction in FXR mRNA and UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1, ABCG2/8 mRNA levels in livers of obstructive cholestatic patients (p<0.05.The levels of hepatic detoxification enzymes were significantly decreased in human obstructive cholestasis, and these decreases were positively associated with a marked reduction of FXR levels. These findings are consistent with impaired

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection and replication in primarily cultured human fetal hepatocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Lin; Qun Chen; Li-Ye Yang; Wen-Yu Li; Xi-Biao Cao; Jiao-Ren Wu; You-Peng Peng; Mo-Rui Chen

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the infection and replication of hepatitis B virus(HBV)in primarily cultured human fetal hepatocytes(HFHs).METHODS:The human fetal hepatocytes were cultured in serum-free medium,HBV-positive serum was added into the medium to study the susceptibility of hepatocytes to HBV infection.The supernatant was collected for ELISA assay of HBsAg and HBeAg,and quantitative fluorescence PCR for HBV-DNA assay daily.Albumin and HBcAg,CK8 and CK18 expressions were detected by immunohistochemistry in cultured hepatocytes.Content of lactate dehydrogenate(LDH)was measured to find out the integrity of the cell membrane.RESULTS:A stable hepatocyte culture system was established.HBV could infect the hepatocytes and replicate,and HBcAg expression could be detected by immunohistochemistry in hepatocyte-like cells.HBV-DNA in the supernatant could be detected from d 2 to d 18 and HBsAg and HBeAg were positive on d 3-d 18 after HBV infection.HBV in medium increased from d 0 to d 6 and subsequently decreased as the cells were progressively loosing their hepatocyte phenotypes.CONCLUSION:HBV could infect human fetal hepatocytes and replicate.This in vitro model allowed a detailed Study on early events associated with human HBV entry into cells and subsequent replication.

  4. Amphiregulin activates human hepatic stellate cells and is upregulated in non alcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Chad; Sigala, Barbara; Soeda, Junpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Morgan, Maelle; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Cabibi, Daniela; Pazienza, Valerio; Selden, Claire; Roskams, Tania; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A.

    2015-01-01

    Amphiregulin (AR) involvement in liver fibrogenesis and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) regulation is under study. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe form non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Our aim was to investigate ex vivo the effect of AR on human primary HSC (hHSC) and verify in vivo the relevance of AR in NAFLD fibrogenesis. hHSC isolated from healthy liver segments were analyzed for expression of AR and its activator, TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE). AR induction of hHSC proliferation and matrix production was estimated in the presence of antagonists. AR involvement in fibrogenesis was also assessed in a mouse model of NASH and in humans with NASH. hHSC time dependently expressed AR and TACE. AR increased hHSC proliferation through several mitogenic signaling pathways such as EGFR, PI3K and p38. AR also induced marked upregulation of hHSC fibrogenic markers and reduced hHSC death. AR expression was enhanced in the HSC of a murine model of NASH and of severe human NASH. In conclusion, AR induces hHSC fibrogenic activity via multiple mitogenic signaling pathways, and is upregulated in murine and human NASH, suggesting that AR antagonists may be clinically useful anti-fibrotics in NAFLD. PMID:25744849

  5. Genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-co-infected patients from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspe, Rossana C; Sulbarán, Yoneira F; Loureiro, Carmen L; Martínez, Nahir; Devesa, Marisol; Rodríguez, Yesseima; Torres, Jaime R; Rangel, Héctor R; Pujol, Flor H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-co-infected Venezuelan patients. The prevalence of HBV and HCV markers of infection in HIV-1 patients was 14% for anti-hepatitis B core antigen, 3% for hepatitis B surface antigen and 0.7% for anti-HCV, respectively. HBV prevalence was higher than HCV, as expected for a country where sexual intercourse, not intravenous drug use, is the main mode of HIV-1 transmission. The HCV genotype distribution in HIV-1-co-infected patients was similar to that obtained in HCV-mono-infected patients, but genotype 1a was more frequent in HIV-1-infected patients. The HBV genotype distribution exhibited differences between mono-infected and HIV-1-co-infected individuals. HBV F3 was the most common subgenotype in both groups, followed by F1b in HIV-1 co-infection and F2 in HBV mono-infection. In addition, genotype G (single infection) was found in an HIV-1-co-infected individual. A high prevalence of occult HBV infection was detected in HIV-1-co-infected naïve patients (18%), with F2 being the most common genotype (75%). To the best of our knowledge, these results correspond to the first description of frequency and molecular characterization of HBV and HCV in HIV-1 Venezuelan patients. © 2014 The Authors.

  6. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection in undocumented migrants and refugees in southern Italy, January 2012 to June 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Nicola; Alessio, Loredana; Gualdieri, Luciano; Pisaturo, Mariantonietta; Sagnelli, Caterina; Caprio, Nunzio; Maffei, Rita; Starace, Mario; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Pasquale, Giuseppe; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Screening of undocumented migrants or refugees for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections has been offered free of charge and free from bureaucratic procedures since 2012 at four primary-level clinical centres in Naples and Caserta, Italy. Of 926 undocumented migrants and refugees visiting one of the primary-level clinical centres from January 2012 to June 2013, 882 (95%) were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) and antibodies against HCV and HIV. Of the 882 individuals enrolled, 78 (9%) were HBsAg positive, 35 (4%) anti-HCV positive and 11 (1%) anti-HIV positive (single infections); seven (1%) had more than one infection (three were HBsAg positive). Of the 801 HBsAg-negative patients, 373 (47%) were anti-HBc positive. The HBsAg-positivity rate was high (14%; 62/444) in individuals from sub-Saharan Africa and intermediate in those from eastern Europe (6%; 12/198), northern Africa (2%; 2/80) and Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka (the 'India-Pakistan area') (3%; 4/126). Anti-HCV was detected in 9/126 (7%) individuals originating from the India-Pakistan area, in 12/198 (6%) from eastern Europe, in 17/444 (4%) from sub-Saharan and in 2/80 (2%) from northern Africa. The HBV, HCV and HIV infections in the undocumented migrants and refugees screened serve as a reminder to the Italian healthcare authorities to carry out extensive screening and educational programmes for these populations.

  7. Rabbit and human hepatitis E virus strains belong to a single serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Cheng, Xianfeng; Dai, Xing; Dong, Chen; Xu, Mingjie; Liang, Jiuhong; Dong, Min; Purdy, Michael A; Meng, Jihong

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen and all four established genotypes of HEV belong to a single serotype. The recently identified rabbit HEV is antigenically and genetically related to human HEV. It is unclear whether rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV. The purpose of this study was to determine the serotypic relationship between rabbit and human HEVs. HEV ORF2 recombinant capsid protein p166 (amino acids 452-617) of four known HEV genotypes and rabbit HEV were used to induce immune serum, which were evaluated for their ability to neutralize human HEV genotype 1, 4, and rabbit HEV strains by an in vitro PCR-based HEV neutralization assay. Immune sera of five kinds of p166 proteins were all found to neutralize or cross-neutralize the three different HEV strains, suggesting a common neutralization epitope(s) existing between human and rabbit HEV. Rabbit models of a second-passage rabbit HEV strain, JS204-2, and a genotype 4 human HEV strain, NJ703, were established as evidenced by fecal virus shedding, viremia and anti-HEV IgG seroconversion. Six rabbits, recovered from JS204 infection, were challenged with NJ703, and another six recovered from NJ703 infection were challenged with JS204-2. After challenge, viremia was not detected, shorter fecal virus shedding durations and obvious early stage declines in anti-HEV IgG values were observed. The results from this study indicate that rabbit HEV belongs to the same serotype as human HEV.

  8. Expression of Human Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Gene in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉乐; 王晋芳; 邱并生; 赵淑珍; 田波

    1994-01-01

    Expression of Human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) gene in plant was reported for the first time. The recombinant plasmid pRoKⅡ-HBsAg was constructed by inserting HBsAg gene into the downstream of CaMV 35S promoter of binary vector pRoKⅡ and then introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The kanamycin-resistant plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. It was shown that HBsAg gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco plants and their progenies by ELISA. The spherical particles of ψ 22 nm in the leaf extract of trangenic tobacco were observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy.

  9. Randomized Trial: Immunogenicity and Safety of Coadministered Human Papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine and Combined Hepatitis A and B Vaccine in Girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Court; Breindahl, Morten; Aggarwal, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This randomized, open, controlled, multicenter study (110886/NCT00578227) evaluated human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV-16/18 vaccine) coadministered with inactivated hepatitis A and B (HAB) vaccine. Coprimary objectives were to demonstrate noninferiority of hepatitis A......, hepatitis B, and HPV-16/18 immune responses at month 7 when vaccines were coadministered, compared with the same vaccines administered alone....

  10. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling.

  11. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Follow Us Home Health Information Liver Disease Hepatitis (Viral) Hepatitis C Related Topics English English Español Section Navigation Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B ...

  12. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Multicompartment Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Freyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC holds great potential for application in regenerative medicine, pharmacological drug screening, and toxicity testing. However, full maturation of hiPSC into functional hepatocytes has not yet been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of a dynamic three-dimensional (3D hollow fiber membrane bioreactor technology to improve the hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in comparison to static two-dimensional (2D cultures. A total of 100 × 106 hiPSC were seeded into each 3D bioreactor (n = 3. Differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE was induced by adding activin A, Wnt3a, and sodium butyrate to the culture medium. For further maturation, hepatocyte growth factor and oncostatin M were added. The same differentiation protocol was applied to hiPSC maintained in 2D cultures. Secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, a marker for DE, was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in 2D cultures, while secretion of albumin, a typical characteristic for mature hepatocytes, was higher after hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in 3D bioreactors. Functional analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP isoenzymes showed activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in both groups, although at a lower level compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH. CYP2B6 activities were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in 3D bioreactors compared with 2D cultures, which is in line with results from gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the majority of cells was positive for albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A at the end of the differentiation process. In addition, cytokeratin 19 (CK19 staining revealed the formation of bile duct-like structures in 3D bioreactors similar to native liver tissue. The results indicate a better maturation of hiPSC in the 3D bioreactor system compared to 2D cultures and emphasize the potential of dynamic 3D culture

  13. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused Three-Dimensional Multicompartment Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Nora; Knöspel, Fanny; Strahl, Nadja; Amini, Leila; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Jacobs, Frank; Monshouwer, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hepatic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) holds great potential for application in regenerative medicine, pharmacological drug screening, and toxicity testing. However, full maturation of hiPSC into functional hepatocytes has not yet been achieved. In this study, we investigated the potential of a dynamic three-dimensional (3D) hollow fiber membrane bioreactor technology to improve the hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in comparison to static two-dimensional (2D) cultures. A total of 100 × 106 hiPSC were seeded into each 3D bioreactor (n = 3). Differentiation into definitive endoderm (DE) was induced by adding activin A, Wnt3a, and sodium butyrate to the culture medium. For further maturation, hepatocyte growth factor and oncostatin M were added. The same differentiation protocol was applied to hiPSC maintained in 2D cultures. Secretion of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a marker for DE, was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2D cultures, while secretion of albumin, a typical characteristic for mature hepatocytes, was higher after hepatic differentiation of hiPSC in 3D bioreactors. Functional analysis of multiple cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes showed activity of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4 in both groups, although at a lower level compared to primary human hepatocytes (PHH). CYP2B6 activities were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 3D bioreactors compared with 2D cultures, which is in line with results from gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the majority of cells was positive for albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK18), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) at the end of the differentiation process. In addition, cytokeratin 19 (CK19) staining revealed the formation of bile duct-like structures in 3D bioreactors similar to native liver tissue. The results indicate a better maturation of hiPSC in the 3D bioreactor system compared to 2D cultures and emphasize the potential of dynamic 3D culture

  14. Dynamic microRNA profiles of hepatic differentiated human umbilical cord lining-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Cui

    Full Text Available Despite the extensive hepatic differentiation potential of human umbilical cord lining-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSC, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of hUC-MSC differentiation. At the post-transcriptional level, microRNAs are key players in the control of cell fate determination during differentiation. In this study, we aimed to identify microRNAs involved in the hepatic differentiation of hUC-MSCs. After successfully isolating hUC- MSCs, we induced hepatocyte formation in vitro with growth factors. After 26 days of induction, hUC-MSCs could express hepatocyte-specific genes, synthesize urea and glycogen and uptake low-density lipoprotein. Cellular total RNA from hUC-MSCs and hepatic differentiated hUC-MSCs was collected at 7 time points, including 2 days, 6 days, 10 days, 14 days, 22 days and 26 days, for microRNA microarray analysis. Dynamic microRNA profiles were identified that did not overlap or only partially overlapped with microRNAs reported to be involved in human liver development, hepatocyte regeneration or hepatic differentiation of liver-derived progenitor cells. A total of 61 microRNAs among 1205 human and 144 human viral microRNAs displayed consistent changes and were altered at least 2-fold between hUC-MSCs and hepatic differentiated hUC-MSCs. Among these microRNAs, 25 were over-expressed; this over-expression occurred either gradually or increased sharply and was maintained at a high level. A total of 36 microRNAs were under-expressed, with an expression pattern similar to that of the over-expressed microRNAs. The expression of the altered expressed microRNAs was also confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We also found that microRNAs involved in hepatic differentiation were not enriched in hepatocyte or hepatocellular carcinoma cells and can potentially target liver-enriched transcription factors and genes. The elucidation of the microRNA profile during the hepatic

  15. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    OpenAIRE

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-01-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of...

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis and human immuno-deficiency virus in multitransfused patients from a pediatric hematology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suar Çakı Kılıç

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Transfusion transmitted hepatitis has been a severe problem in Turkey in pediatric cancer patients and in chronic congenital anemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus infections in these patients in a University Hospital. METHODS: Multi-transfused 66 children (59 acute leukemia, 6 thalassemia major, 1 severe hereditary spherocytosis diagnosed and followed-up between May, 2000 and December, 2006 were evaluated. Screening of all the patients for HbsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HCV and anti-HIV was performed at presentation and during the last follow-up. Serologic studies of leukemic patients were also repeated at the end of the chemotherapy. Hepatitis B vaccination was administered to unvaccinated patients with anemia. All blood products were provided by Blood Bank of the Center. RESULTS: No patient was found HBsAg, anti-HCV or anti-HIV positive at diagnosis and at the end of the therapy. There was history of hepatitis B vaccination in only 42% of the patients at diagnosis due to administration of this vaccine to newborns since 1998. At the beginning of the study, 45 % (n=27 of the leukemic patients were immune for hepatitis B, but after completion of the intensive chemotherapy seropositivity persisted in only 28.8 % (n=17. CONCLUSION: Transmission of these viruses is no longer a real problem even in multitransfused immunosuppressed children in Pediatric Hematology Units as a result of the improvements in screening of voluntary blood donors, administration of disposable material in clinics and vaccination by hepatitis B.

  17. Cytosolic Ca2+ shifts as early markers of cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the cytotoxic potential of new and so far unknown compounds as well as their metabolites is fundamental in risk assessment. A variety of strategic endpoints have been defined to describe toxin-cell interactions, leading to prediction of cell fate. They involve measurement of metabolic endpoints, bio-energetic parameters or morphological cell modifications. Here, we evaluated alterations of the free cytosolic Ca2+ homeostasis using the Fluo-4 dye and compared results with the metabolic cell viability assay Alamar Blue. We investigated a panel of toxins (As2O3, gossypol, H2O2, staurosporine, and titanium(IV)-salane complexes) in four different mammalian cell lines covering three different species (human, mouse, and African green monkey). All tested compounds induced an increase in free cytosolic Ca2+ within the first 5 s after toxin application. Cytosolic Ca2+ shifts occurred independently of the chemical structure in all tested cell systems and were persistent up to 3 h. The linear increase of free cytosolic Ca2+ within the first 5 s of drug treatment correlates with the EC25 and EC75 values obtained in Alamar Blue assays one day after toxin exposure. Moreover, a rise of cytosolic Ca2+ was detectable independent of induced cell death mode as assessed by caspase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity in HeLa versus MCF-7 cells at very low concentrations. In conclusion, a cytotoxicity assay based on Ca2+ shifts has a low limit of detection (LOD), is less time consuming (at least 24 times faster) compared to the cell viability assay Alamar Blue and is suitable for high-troughput-screening (HTS). PMID:23384168

  18. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 Activity, Abundance, and Expression Throughout Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Natalie C; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Ansong, Charles; Anderson, Lindsey N; Smith, Jordan N; Corley, Richard A; Wright, Aaron T

    2016-07-01

    Cytochrome P450s are oxidative metabolic enzymes that play critical roles in the biotransformation of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. The expression and activity of P450 enzymes varies considerably throughout human development; the deficit in our understanding of these dynamics limits our ability to predict environmental and pharmaceutical exposure effects. In an effort to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the ontogeny of P450 enzymes, we employed a multi-omic characterization of P450 transcript expression, protein abundance, and functional activity. Modified mechanism-based inhibitors of P450s were used as chemical probes for isolating active P450 proteoforms in human hepatic microsomes with developmental stages ranging from early gestation to late adult. High-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify and quantify probe-labeled P450s, allowing for a functional profile of P450 ontogeny. Total protein abundance profiles and P450 rRNA was also measured, and our results reveal life-stage-dependent variability in P450 expression, abundance, and activity throughout human development and frequent discordant relationships between expression and activity. We have significantly expanded the knowledge of P450 ontogeny, particularly at the level of individual P450 activity. We anticipate that these results will be useful for enabling predictive therapeutic dosing, and for avoiding potentially adverse and harmful reactions during maturation from both therapeutic drugs and environmental xenobiotics. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Superantigen-induced collagenase gene expression in human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes involves prostaglandin E{sub 2}: Evidence for a role of cyclooxygenase-2 and cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehindate, K; Al-Daccak, R.; Mourad, W. [Laval Univ., Ste-Foy, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    MHC class II molecules expressed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells act as signal-transducer molecules. We demonstrate that engagement of MHC class II molecules on human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes by their natural ligand, the staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), selectively induces the production of interstitial collagenase over the expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). Collagenase gene expression required de novo protein synthesis and was accompanied by high levels of PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting its implication in this response. Two inhibitors that affect prostaglandin biosynthesis, indomethacin and arachidonyl-trifluoromethyl-ketone, inhibited both PGE{sub 2} production and collagenase gene expression. The addition of exogenous PGE{sub 2} to inhibitor-treated cells partially restored the SEA-induced collagenase, indicating a role for PGE{sub 2} in this response. As cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and -2), cytosolic phospholipase A{sub 2} (cPLA{sub 2}), and secreted PLA{sub 2} (sPLA{sub 2}) are the enzymes potentially implicated in prostaglandin synthesis, their involvement in SEA-induced collagenase was investigated. The mRNA levels of COX-2 and cPLA{sub 2} rapidly increased following ligation of MHC class II molecules, while COX-1 and sPLA{sub 2} mRNA levels were unchanged and transiently depressed, respectively. SEA-induced COX-2 mRNA was translated adequately to protein, whereas cPLA{sub 2} protein level was not enhanced, but rapidly phosphorylated, a process previously linked to the enzyme activation. In conclusion, this work demonstrates a selective induction of collagenase gene expression over its natural inhibitor TIMP in human IFN-{gamma}-treated fibroblast-like synoviocytes mediated, at least in part, by PGE{sub 2}, and provides evidence that signaling via MHC class II molecules induces the production of PGE{sub 2} through enhanced production of COX-2 and possibly activation of the cPLA{sub 2}. 46 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Human Upcyte Hepatocytes: Characterization of the Hepatic Phenotype and Evaluation for Acute and Long-Term Hepatotoxicity Routine Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Laia; Gómez-Lechón, M José; López, Silvia; Guzmán, Carla; Castell, José V; Donato, M Teresa; Jover, Ramiro

    2016-07-01

    The capacity of human hepatic cell-based models to predict hepatotoxicity depends on the functional performance of cells. The major limitations of human hepatocytes include the scarce availability and rapid loss of the hepatic phenotype. Hepatoma cells are readily available and easy to handle, but are metabolically poor compared with hepatocytes. Recently developed human upcyte hepatocytes offer the advantage of combining many features of primary hepatocytes with the unlimited availability of hepatoma cells. We analyzed the phenotype of upcyte hepatocytes comparatively with HepG2 cells and adult primary human hepatocytes to characterize their functional features as a differentiated hepatic cell model. The transcriptomic analysis of liver characteristic genes confirmed that the upcyte hepatocytes expression profile comes closer to human hepatocytes than HepG2 cells. CYP activities were measurable and showed a similar response to prototypical CYP inducers than primary human hepatocytes. Upcyte hepatocytes also retained conjugating activities and key hepatic functions, e.g. albumin, urea, lipid and glycogen synthesis, at levels close to hepatocytes. We also investigated the suitability of this cell model for preclinical hepatotoxicity risk assessments using multiparametric high-content screening, as well as transcriptomics and targeted metabolomic analysis. Compounds with well-documented in vivo hepatotoxicity were screened after acute and repeated doses up to 1 week. The evaluation of complex mechanisms of cell toxicity, drug-induced steatosis and oxidative stress biomarkers demonstrated that, by combining the phenotype of primary human hepatocytes and the ease of handling of HepG2 cells, upcyte hepatocytes offer suitable properties to be potentially used for toxicological assessments during drug development.

  1. In vivo activity of a mixture of two human monoclonal antibodies (anti-HBs) in a chronic hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Heijtink; W. Paulij; P.A.C. van Bergen (Patrick); M.H. van Roosmalen (Mark); D. Rohm; B. Eichentopf; E. Muchmore; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A. de Man (Robert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractA 35-year-old female hepatitis B virus carrier chimpanzee was infused with one dose of a mixture of human monoclonal antibodies 9H9 and 4-7B (antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen; HBsAg). Blood samples were taken before and up to 3 weeks afte

  2. Evaluation of hepatic glutathione transferase Mu 1 and Theta 1 activities in humans and mice using genotype information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Shingo; Fujimoto, Kazunori; Kato, Ayako; Endo, Seiko; Fukahori, Aiko; Shinagawa, Akira; Fischer, Thomas; Mueller, Juergen; Takasaki, Wataru

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the impact of glutathione transferases Mu 1 (GSTM1)- and glutathione transferase Theta 1 (GSTT1)-null genotypes on hepatic GST activities in humans and compared the results with those of Gstm1- and Gstt1-null mice. In liver with GSTM1/Gstm1-null genotype, GST activity toward p-nitrobenzyl chloride (NBC) was significantly decreased in both humans and mice. In addition, in liver with GSTT1/Gstt1-null genotype, GST activity toward dichloromethane (DCM) was significantly decreased in both humans and mice. Therefore, null genotypes of GSTM1/Gstm1 and GSTT1/Gstt1 are considered to decrease hepatic GST activities toward NBC and DCM, respectively, in both humans and mice. This observation shows the functional similarity between humans and mice for GSTM1 and GSTT1 toward some substrates. In the case of NBC and DCM, Gst-null mice would be relevant models for humans with GST-null genotype. In addition, decreases in GST activities toward 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, trans-4-phenyl-3-buten-2-one, and 1-chloro-2,4,-dinitrobenzene were observed in Gstm1-null mice, and a decrease in GST activity toward 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane was observed in Gstt1-null mice. However, an impact of GST-null genotypes on GST activities toward these substrates was not observed in humans. In the case of these mouse-specific substrates, Gst-null mice may be relevant models for humans regardless of GST genotype, because GST activities, which are higher in wild-type mice than in humans, were eliminated in Gst-null mice. This study shows that comparison of hepatic GST activities between humans and mice using genotype information would be valuable in using Gst-null mice as human models.

  3. Mannan binding lectin-associated serine protease 1 is induced by hepatitis C virus infection and activates human hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, A; Baloch, K; Brown, R J P; Wallis, R; Chen, L; Dexter, L; McClure, C P; Shakesheff, K; Thomson, B J

    2013-11-01

    Mannan binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease type 1 (MASP-1) has a central role in the lectin pathway of complement activation and is required for the formation of C3 convertase. The activity of MASP-1 in the peripheral blood has been identified previously as a highly significant predictor of the severity of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but not in liver disease of other aetiologies. In this study we tested the hypotheses that expression of MASP-1 may promote disease progression in HCV disease by direct activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and may additionally be up-regulated by HCV. In order to do so, we utilized a model for the maintenance of primary human HSC in the quiescent state by culture on basement membrane substrate prior to stimulation. In comparison to controls, recombinant MASP-1 stimulated quiescent human HSCs to differentiate to the activated state as assessed by both morphology and up-regulation of HSC activation markers α-smooth muscle actin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1. Further, the expression of MASP-1 was up-regulated significantly by HCV infection in hepatocyte cell lines. These observations suggest a new role for MASP-1 and provide a possible mechanistic link between high levels of MASP-1 and the severity of disease in HCV infection. Taken together with previous clinical observations, our new findings suggest that the balance of MASP-1 activity may be proinflammatory and act to accelerate fibrosis progression in HCV liver disease.

  4. A consensus for occupational health management of healthcare workers infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and / or hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Wada, Koji; Smith, Derek R

    2017-05-25

    Occupational health management plays an important role in the prevention of provider-to-patient transmission in healthcare workers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Therefore, the Japan Society for Occupational Health's Research Group on Occupational Health for Health Care Workers has proposed a consensus for the management of healthcare workers infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV based on recent evidence for each concerned group. The consensus recommends that: (1) employers in medical institutions should establish a policy of respecting the human rights of healthcare workers, management strategies for occupational blood exposure, and occupational health consultation; (2) occupational health staff should appropriately assess the risk of provider-to-patient transmission of HIV, HBV, and/or HCV infection and rearrange their tasks if necessary. When conducting risk assessment, occupational health staff should obtain informed consent and then cooperate with the physician in charge as well as infection control experts in the workplace; (3) healthcare workers infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV should disclose their employment to their treating physician and consult with their doctor regarding the need for special considerations at work; and (4) supervisors and colleagues in medical institutions should correctly understand the risks of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection and should not engage in any behavior that leads to discrimination against colleagues infected with HIV, HBV, and/or HCV.

  5. Association of filamin A and vimentin with hepatitis C virus proteins in infected human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Ahrens, W A; Phatak, S U; Hwang, S; Schrum, L W; Bonkovsky, H L

    2011-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and remains a major therapeutic challenge. A variety of host proteins interact with HCV proteins. The definitive role of cytoskeletal (CS) proteins in HCV infection remains to be determined. In this study, our aim was to determine the expression profile of differentially regulated and expressed selected CS proteins and their association with HCV proteins in infected hepatocytes as possible therapeutic targets. Using proteomics, qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence techniques, we revealed that filamin A (fila) and vimentin (vim) were prominently increased proteins in HCV-expressing human hepatoma cells compared with parental cells and in liver biopsies from patients with CHC vs controls. HCV nonstructural (NS) 3 and NS5A proteins were associated with fila, while core protein partially with fila and vim. Immunoprecipitation showed interactions among fila and NS3 and NS5A proteins. Cells treated with interferon-α showed a dose- and time-dependent decrease in CS and HCV proteins. NS proteins clustered at the perinuclear region following cytochalasin b treatment, whereas disperse cytoplasmic and perinuclear distribution was observed in the no-treatment group. This study demonstrates and signifies that changes occur in the expression of CS proteins in HCV-infected hepatocytes and, for the first time, shows the up-regulation and interaction of fila with HCV proteins. Association between CS and HCV proteins may have implications in future design of CS protein-targeted therapy for the treatment for HCV infection.

  6. A SELEX-screened aptamer of human hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal suppresses viral replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The specific interaction between hepatitis B virus (HBV polymerase (P protein and the ε RNA stem-loop on pregenomic (pg RNA is crucial for viral replication. It triggers both pgRNA packaging and reverse transcription and thus represents an attractive antiviral target. RNA decoys mimicking ε in P protein binding but not supporting replication might represent novel HBV inhibitors. However, because generation of recombinant enzymatically active HBV polymerase is notoriously difficult, such decoys have as yet not been identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a SELEX approach, based on a new in vitro reconstitution system exploiting a recombinant truncated HBV P protein (miniP, to identify potential ε decoys in two large ε RNA pools with randomized upper stem. Selection of strongly P protein binding RNAs correlated with an unexpected strong enrichment of A residues. Two aptamers, S6 and S9, displayed particularly high affinity and specificity for miniP in vitro, yet did not support viral replication when part of a complete HBV genome. Introducing S9 RNA into transiently HBV producing HepG2 cells strongly suppressed pgRNA packaging and DNA synthesis, indicating the S9 RNA can indeed act as an ε decoy that competitively inhibits P protein binding to the authentic ε signal on pgRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates the first successful identification of human HBV ε aptamers by an in vitro SELEX approach. Effective suppression of HBV replication by the S9 aptamer provides proof-of-principle for the ability of ε decoy RNAs to interfere with viral P-ε complex formation and suggests that S9-like RNAs may further be developed into useful therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.

  7. Expression kinetics of hepatic progenitor markers in cellular models of human liver development recapitulating hepatocyte and biliary cell fate commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Pooja; Tian, Lipeng; Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Jang, Yoon-Young

    2016-09-01

    Due to the limitations of research using human embryos and the lack of a biological model of human liver development, the roles of the various markers associated with liver stem or progenitor cell potential in humans are largely speculative, and based on studies utilizing animal models and certain patient tissues. Human pluripotent stem cell-based in vitro multistage hepatic differentiation systems may serve as good surrogate models for mimicking normal human liver development, pathogenesis and injury/regeneration studies. Here, we describe the implications of various liver stem or progenitor cell markers and their bipotency (i.e. hepatocytic- and biliary-epithelial cell differentiation), based on the pluripotent stem cell-derived model of human liver development. Future studies using the human cellular model(s) of liver and biliary development will provide more human relevant biological and/or pathological roles of distinct markers expressed in heterogeneous liver stem/progenitor cell populations.

  8. Adaptation of hepatic mitochondrial function in humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver is lost in steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Szendroedi, Julia; Kaul, Kirti; Jelenik, Tomas; Nowotny, Peter; Jankowiak, Frank; Herder, Christian; Carstensen, Maren; Krausch, Markus; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Schlensak, Matthias; Roden, Michael

    2015-05-05

    The association of hepatic mitochondrial function with insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) or steatohepatitis (NASH) remains unclear. This study applied high-resolution respirometry to directly quantify mitochondrial respiration in liver biopsies of obese insulin-resistant humans without (n = 18) or with (n = 16) histologically proven NAFL or with NASH (n = 7) compared to lean individuals (n = 12). Despite similar mitochondrial content, obese humans with or without NAFL had 4.3- to 5.0-fold higher maximal respiration rates in isolated mitochondria than lean persons. NASH patients featured higher mitochondrial mass, but 31%-40% lower maximal respiration, which associated with greater hepatic insulin resistance, mitochondrial uncoupling, and leaking activity. In NASH, augmented hepatic oxidative stress (H2O2, lipid peroxides) and oxidative DNA damage (8-OH-deoxyguanosine) was paralleled by reduced anti-oxidant defense capacity and increased inflammatory response. These data suggest adaptation of the liver ("hepatic mitochondrial flexibility") at early stages of obesity-related insulin resistance, which is subsequently lost in NASH.

  9. Low-dose acetaminophen induces early disruption of cell-cell tight junctions in human hepatic cells and mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Wesam; Treskes, Philipp; Samuel, Kay; Sullivan, Gareth J.; Siller, Richard; Srsen, Vlastimil; Morgan, Katie; Bryans, Anna; Kozlowska, Ada; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Underwood, Ian; Smith, Stewart; del-Pozo, Jorge; Moss, Sharon; Thompson, Alexandra Inés; Henderson, Neil C.; Hayes, Peter C.; Plevris, John N.; Bagnaninchi, Pierre-Olivier; Nelson, Leonard J.

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of cell-cell tight junction (TJ) adhesions is a major feature in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Liver TJs preserve cellular polarity by delimiting functional bile-canalicular structures, forming the blood-biliary barrier. In acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity, the mechanism by which tissue cohesion and polarity are affected remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that acetaminophen, even at low-dose, disrupts the integrity of TJ and cell-matrix adhesions, with indicators of cellular stress with liver injury in the human hepatic HepaRG cell line, and primary hepatocytes. In mouse liver, at human-equivalence (therapeutic) doses, dose-dependent loss of intercellular hepatic TJ-associated ZO-1 protein expression was evident with progressive clinical signs of liver injury. Temporal, dose-dependent and specific disruption of the TJ-associated ZO-1 and cytoskeletal-F-actin proteins, correlated with modulation of hepatic ultrastructure. Real-time impedance biosensing verified in vitro early, dose-dependent quantitative decreases in TJ and cell-substrate adhesions. Whereas treatment with NAPQI, the reactive metabolite of acetaminophen, or the PKCα-activator and TJ-disruptor phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, similarly reduced TJ integrity, which may implicate oxidative stress and the PKC pathway in TJ destabilization. These findings are relevant to the clinical presentation of acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity and may inform future mechanistic studies to identify specific molecular targets and pathways that may be altered in acetaminophen-induced hepatic depolarization. PMID:28134251

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity and hepatitis B surface antigenemia (HBSAG) among blood donors in Benin city, Edo state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umolu, Patience Idia; Okoror, Lawrence Ehis; Orhue, Philip

    2005-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B virus are blood borne pathogens that can be transmitted through blood transfusion and could pose a huge problem in areas where mechanisms of ensuring blood safety are suspect. This study became necessary in a population where most of the blood for transfusion is from commercial blood donors. A total of 130 donors comprising 120 commercial donors and 10 voluntary donors were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B surface antigen in Benin city using Immunocomb HIV - 1 and 2 Biospot kit and Quimica Clinica Aplicada direct latex agglutination method respectively. Thirteen (10%) samples were HIV seropositive and 7(5.8%) were HBsAg positive. The age bracket 18 - 25years had the highest numbers of donors and also had the highest number of HBsAg positive cases (7.8%) while the age group 29 - 38years had highest number of HIV seropositive cases. High prevalence of HIV antibodies and Hepatitis B surface antigen was found among commercial blood donors. Appropriate and compulsory screening of blood donors using sensitive methods, must be ensured to prevent post transfusion hepatitis and HIV.

  11. Low-dose acetaminophen induces early disruption of cell-cell tight junctions in human hepatic cells and mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal, Wesam; Treskes, Philipp; Samuel, Kay; Sullivan, Gareth J; Siller, Richard; Srsen, Vlastimil; Morgan, Katie; Bryans, Anna; Kozlowska, Ada; Koulovasilopoulos, Andreas; Underwood, Ian; Smith, Stewart; Del-Pozo, Jorge; Moss, Sharon; Thompson, Alexandra Inés; Henderson, Neil C; Hayes, Peter C; Plevris, John N; Bagnaninchi, Pierre-Olivier; Nelson, Leonard J

    2017-01-30

    Dysfunction of cell-cell tight junction (TJ) adhesions is a major feature in the pathogenesis of various diseases. Liver TJs preserve cellular polarity by delimiting functional bile-canalicular structures, forming the blood-biliary barrier. In acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity, the mechanism by which tissue cohesion and polarity are affected remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that acetaminophen, even at low-dose, disrupts the integrity of TJ and cell-matrix adhesions, with indicators of cellular stress with liver injury in the human hepatic HepaRG cell line, and primary hepatocytes. In mouse liver, at human-equivalence (therapeutic) doses, dose-dependent loss of intercellular hepatic TJ-associated ZO-1 protein expression was evident with progressive clinical signs of liver injury. Temporal, dose-dependent and specific disruption of the TJ-associated ZO-1 and cytoskeletal-F-actin proteins, correlated with modulation of hepatic ultrastructure. Real-time impedance biosensing verified in vitro early, dose-dependent quantitative decreases in TJ and cell-substrate adhesions. Whereas treatment with NAPQI, the reactive metabolite of acetaminophen, or the PKCα-activator and TJ-disruptor phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, similarly reduced TJ integrity, which may implicate oxidative stress and the PKC pathway in TJ destabilization. These findings are relevant to the clinical presentation of acetaminophen-hepatotoxicity and may inform future mechanistic studies to identify specific molecular targets and pathways that may be altered in acetaminophen-induced hepatic depolarization.

  12. Turnover rates of hepatic collagen and circulating collagen-associated proteins in humans with chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Decaris

    Full Text Available Accumulation and degradation of scar tissue in fibrotic liver disease occur slowly, typically over many years. Direct measurement of fibrogenesis, the rate of scar tissue deposition, may provide valuable therapeutic and prognostic information. We describe here results from a pilot study utilizing in vivo metabolic labeling to measure the turnover rate of hepatic collagen and collagen-associated proteins in plasma for the first time in human subjects. Eight subjects with chronic liver disease were labeled with daily oral doses of 2H2O for up to 8 weeks prior to diagnostic liver biopsy and plasma collection. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure the abundance and fractional synthesis rate (FSR of proteins in liver and blood. Relative protein abundance and FSR data in liver revealed marked differences among subjects. FSRs of hepatic type I and III collagen ranged from 0.2-0.6% per day (half-lives of 4 months to a year and correlated significantly with worsening histologic fibrosis. Analysis of plasma protein turnover revealed two collagen-associated proteins, lumican and transforming growth factor beta-induced-protein (TGFBI, exhibiting FSRs that correlated significantly with FSRs of hepatic collagen. In summary, this is the first direct measurement of liver collagen turnover in vivo in humans and suggests a high rate of collagen remodeling in advanced fibrosis. In addition, the FSRs of collagen-associated proteins in plasma are measurable and may provide a novel strategy for monitoring hepatic fibrogenesis rates.

  13. Induction of Hepatic and Endothelial Differentiation by Perfusion in a Three-Dimensional Cell Culture Model of Human Fetal Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekor, Christopher; Gerlach, Jörg C; Nettleship, Ian; Schmelzer, Eva

    2015-07-01

    The development of functional engineered tissue constructs depends on high cell densities and appropriate vascularization. In this study we implemented a four-compartment three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor culture model for studying the effects of medium perfusion on endothelial, hepatic, and hematopoietic cell populations of primary human fetal liver in an in vivo-like environment. Human fetal liver cells were cultured in bioreactors configured to provide either perfusion or diffusion conditions. Metabolic activities of the cultures were monitored daily by measuring glucose consumption and lactate production. Cell viability during culture was analyzed by lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hepatic functionality was determined by the release of albumin and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in culture medium samples. After 4 days of culture, cells were analyzed for the expression of a variety of endothelial, hepatic, and hematopoietic genes, as well as the surface marker expression of CD31 and CD34 in flow cytometry. We found that medium perfusion increased the gene expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor (vWF), CD140b, CD309, and CD144 while decreasing the gene expression of the erythrocyte-surface marker CD235a. Hepatic differentiation was promoted under perfusion conditions as demonstrated by lower AFP and higher albumin secretion compared with cultures not exposed to medium perfusion. Additionally, cultures exposed to medium perfusion gave higher rates of glucose consumption and lactate production, indicating increased metabolic activity. In conclusion, high-density bioreactors configured to provide constant medium perfusion significantly induced hepatic and endothelial cell differentiation and provided improved conditions for the culture of human fetal liver cells compared with cultures without perfusion.

  14. Seroprevalence survey of Egyptian tourism workers for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and Treponema pallidum infections: association of hepatitis C virus infections with specific regions of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sayed, N M; Gomatos, P J; Rodier, G R; Wierzba, T F; Darwish, A; Khashaba, S; Arthur, R R

    1996-08-01

    Blood samples from 740 Egyptian Nationals working in the tourism industry at two sites in the South Sinai governorate were screened for markers of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Treponema pallidum. Study subjects included 467 individuals from a rural seashore tourist village and 273 persons at two hotels in a well-established resort town. Subjects' ages ranged from 15 to 70 years; 99.3% were male. The prevalence of serologic markers for currently asymptomatic or past HBV infection alone was 20.7% (n = 153), of markers for past or chronic HCV infection alone was 7.4% (n = 55), and of markers for both HBV and HCV was 6.9% (n = 51). Of the 204 individuals positive for anti-HBV core antibody, 12 (5.9%) were also positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Two individuals (0.3%) had a serologic market suggestive of an active syphilitic infection. No subject was found to be HIV-seropositive. History of prior injections and number of injections were associated with infection with HCV. Primary residence in the Nile delta and valley areas where schistosomiasis is highly endemic, was also a statistically significant risk factor for HCV, but not HBV infection.

  15. Hepatitis-C and Hepatitis-B Co-Infections in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a study to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV infections in HIV positive patients at a main referral center for HIV/AIDS in Iran. Serum samples from 201 HIV positive patients referring to a referral center for HIV/AIDS were analyzed for the presence of some hepatitis B (HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and Hepatitis C (anti-HCV markers, during 2004- 2005. HBsAg was positive in 27 patients (13.4%, anti-HBc was positive in 60 patients (29.8% and anti-HBs in 23 patients (11.4%. Anti-HCV Ab was positive in 135 of 201 (67.2%. HBV and HCV coinfection was observed in 73 of 201 (36.3%. The maximum prevalence of HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV coinfections were seen in intravenous drug users; 61.2% and 85.1%, respectively (P<0.0001. The minimum prevalence of HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV were seen in HIV patients´wife (HIV+ patients who were infected by monogamous sexual contact with their HIV positive husband both of them were 8% (P<0.0001. This study showed that HBV-HIV and HCV-HIV coinfections are significant in patients with HIV/AIDS in Iran. A greater relevance was observed in the association between HCV and HIV. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate risk factors and risk groups for these infections in Iran.

  16. Persistence of hepatitis C virus in a white population: associations with human leukocyte antigen class 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, Liam J

    2012-02-03

    The aim of this study was to define novel associations between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class 1 alleles and persistence or clearance of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a white population. All individuals in the study were seropositive for anti-HCV antibodies. Viral status was determined by the Roche HCV Amplicor test. HLA-A, -B, -C allelic group profile was molecularly defined by reverse line probe hybridization. The strongest individual allelic group associations with persistent HCV infection were HLA A*11 (p = 0.044) and Cw*04 (p = 0.006). However, only the HLA C*04 association survived correction for multiple comparisons. Further analysis of alleles in linkage with HLA Cw*04 revealed that the haplotype HLA A*11, Cw*04 was present in 11 individuals, 10 of whom were viremic (p = 0.05). No gene dosage effect was observed. No association between HLA class 1 allelic groups and aviremia and virus load was evident in this white population. HLA B*44 is associated with low virus load in human immunodeficiency virus disease, but this association was not evident in this HCV-infected population. Novel HLA class 1 alleles associated with persistence of HCV have been identified.

  17. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Horng-Jyh

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV), a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population), and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  18. A Novel Human Radixin Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection at the Level of Cell Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukong, Terence N; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection of hepatocytes is a multistep process involving the interaction between viral and host cell molecules. Recently, we identified ezrin-moesin-radixin proteins and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) as important host therapeutic targets for HCV treatment development. Previously, an ezrin hinge region peptide (Hep1) has been shown to exert anti-HCV properties in vivo, though its mechanism of action remains limited. In search of potential novel inhibitors of HCV infection and their functional mechanism we analyzed the anti-HCV properties of different human derived radixin peptides. Sixteen different radixin peptides were derived, synthesized and tested. Real-time quantitative PCR, cell toxicity assay, immuno-precipitation/western blot analysis and computational resource for drug discovery software were used for experimental analysis. We found that a human radixin hinge region peptide (Peptide1) can specifically block HCV J6/JFH-1 infection of Huh7.5 cells. Peptide 1 had no cell toxicity or intracellular uptake into Huh7.5 cells. Mechanistically, the anti-HCV activity of Peptide 1 extended to disruption of HCV engagement of CD81 thereby blocking downstream SYK activation, which we have recently demonstrated to be important for effective HCV infection of target hepatocytes. Our findings highlight a novel functional class of anti-HCV agents that can inhibit HCV infection, most likely by disrupting vital viral-host signaling interactions at the level of virus entry.

  19. Comparison of the channelized Hotelling and human observers for lesion detection in hepatic SPECT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michael A.; de Vries, Daniel J.; Soares, Edward J.

    1997-04-01

    The relative rankings of the channelized Hotelling model observer were compared to those of the human observers for the task of detecting 'hot' tumors in simulated hepatic SPECT slices. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were determined using eighty images for each of three slice locations. The acquisition and processing strategies investigated were: (1) imaging solely primary photons, (2) imaging primary plus scatter within a 20% symmetric energy window for Tc-99m, (3) imaging with primary plus an elevated amount of scatter, (4) energy-spectrum-based scatter compensation of the primary plus scatter acquisitions, and (5) energy-spectrum-based scatter compensation of the acquisitions with an elevated amount of scatter. Both square non-overlapping channels (SQR), and overlapping difference- of-Gaussian channels (DOG) were incorporated into the Hotelling model observer. When the scatter compensation results were excluded, both channelized Hotelling model observers exhibited a strong correlation with the rankings of the human-observers. With the inclusion of the scatter compensation results, only with the DOG model observer was the null-hypothesis of no correlation rejected at the p equals 0.05 level. It is concluded that further investigation of the channel model used with the Hotelling observer is indicated to determine if better correlation can be obtained.

  20. Clinical cancer chemoprevention: From the hepatitis B virus (HBV vaccine to the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Jyh Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2 million new cancer cases are attributed to infectious agents each year worldwide. Vaccines for the hepatitis B virus (HBV, a risk factor of hepatocellular cancer, and human papillomavirus (HPV, a risk factor of cervical cancer, are considered major successes in clinical chemoprevention of cancer. In Taiwan, the first evidence of cancer prevention through vaccinations was provided by HBV vaccination data in infants. The Taiwanese HBV vaccination program has since become a model immunization schedule for newborns worldwide. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is generally accepted as prerequisite for cervical cancer diagnosis; however, cervical cancer is a rare complication of HPV infections. This is due to the fact that such infections tend to be transient. The safety and efficacy of both available HPV quadrivalent vaccine and bivalent vaccine are not in doubt at the present time. Until a human cytomegalovirus (CMV vaccine becomes available, simple hygienic practices, such as hand washing, can prevent CMV infection both before and during pregnancy. Each country should establish her official guidelines regarding which vaccines should be used to treat various conditions, the target population (i.e., universal or limited to a selected population, and the immunization schedules. After a vaccine is recommended, decisions regarding reimbursement by the public health care fund are evaluated. The guidelines become part of the immunization schedule, which is updated annually and published in the official bulletin. In conclusion, both HBV and HPV vaccines are considered major successes in the chemoprevention of cancer.

  1. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene polymorphisms control human hepatic lipid composition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Libo; Athinarayanan, Shaminie; Jiang, Guanglong; Chalasani, Naga; Zhang, Min; Liu, Wanqing

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid desaturase ( FADS ) genes and their variants have been associated with multiple metabolic phenotypes, including liver enzymes and hepatic fat accumulation, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear...

  2. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  3. Protein Fv produced during vital hepatitis is a novel activator of human basophils and mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, V; Bouvet, J P; Marone, G

    1993-11-15

    Protein Fv is found in the normal liver and is released in the stools of patients suffering from viral hepatitis. Protein Fv isolated from five patients stimulated the release of histamine and sulfidopeptide leukotriene C4 from purified and unpurified peripheral blood basophils. Protein Fv absorbed with protein A-Sepharose coated with polyclonal IgG did not induce histamine secretion, whereas removal of putative contaminating Ig did not modify the releasing activity. The characteristics of the release reaction were similar to those of rabbit IgG anti-Fc fragment of human IgE (anti-IgE). There was an excellent correlation (Spearman rank coefficient (rs) = 0.83; p ADZ) blocked both anti-IgE- and protein Fv-induced releases, whereas human polyclonal IgG and a monoclonal IgG purified from another myeloma patient (patient ZEG) selectively blocked protein Fv-induced secretion. Protein Fv also induced the release of preformed (histamine and tryptase) and de novo synthesized mediators (sulfidopeptide leukotriene C4 and/or PGD2) from mast cells purified from human lung parenchyma and skin tissues. There was a significant correlation between the maximal percent histamine release induced by protein Fv and anti-IgE from skin mast cells (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01). There was also an excellent correlation between histamine and tryptase release caused by protein Fv from both lung (rs = 0.80; p < 0.001) and skin mast cells (rs = 0.70; p < 0.01). Thus, we established that protein Fv acts as a novel activator of human basophils and mast cells presumably by interacting with the VH domain of the IgE.

  4. Hepatic maturation of human iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Daiki; Takayama, Kazuo; Nagamoto, Yasuhito; Mitani, Seiji; Sakurai, Fuminori; Tachibana, Masashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from human iPS cells (human iPS-HLCs) are expected to be utilized in drug development and research. However, recent hepatic characterization of human iPS-HLCs showed that these cells resemble fetal hepatocytes rather than adult hepatocytes. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a method to enhance the hepatic function of human iPS-HLCs. Because the gene expression levels of the hepatic transcription factors (activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (c/EBPα), and prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1)) in adult liver were significantly higher than those in human iPS-HLCs and fetal liver, we expected that the hepatic functions of human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. The gene expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, 2E1, alpha-1 antitrypsin, transthyretin, Na+/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 and protein expression levels of CYP2C9 and CYP2E1 were upregulated by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. These results suggest that the hepatic functions of the human iPS-HLCs could be enhanced by ATF5, c/EBPα, and PROX1 transduction. Our findings would be useful for the hepatic maturation of human iPS-HLCs.

  5. The anti-HBsAg (human type B hepatitis, surface antigen) and anti-HBeAg (human type B hepatitis, e antigen) C18 dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Kadsura matsudai and Schizandra arisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Der; Huang, Ray-Ling; Kuo, Li-Ming Yang; Hung, Chia-Cheng; Ong, Chi-Wi; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2003-11-01

    The C(18) dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans including three novel schizanrin F (1), G (2), H (3), along with the known kadsurarin (4), were isolated from Kadsura matsudai. A new C(19) homolignan named schiarisanrin E (5), together with the known C(18) lignans, gomisin B (6), G (7) and (+)-gomisin K(3) (8) were obtained from Schizandra arisanensis. Gomisin B, G and (+)-gomisin K(3) showed moderate to strong activity for antihepatitis in anti-HBsAg (human type B hepatitis, surface antigen) and/or anti-HBeAg (human type B hepatitis, e antigen) tests. The structural elucidations of new compounds 1-3 and 5 were based on two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques including COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOESY and CD spectra. Preliminary structure-activity relationship studies for these isolated lignans are also discussed.

  6. An Upregulation in the Expression of Vanilloid Transient Potential Channels 2 Enhances Hypotonicity-Induced Cytosolic Ca2+ Rise in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Hutchinson Gillford Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jenny Chung-Yee; Siu, Chung-Wah; Cheung, Sin-Ying; Tang, Nelson L.; Yu, Shan; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging in multiple organs including the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It is believed that an increased mechanosensitivity of HGPS cells is a causative factor for vascular cell death and vascular diseases in HGPS patients. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cationic channels that can act as cellular sensors for mechanical stimuli. The aim of this present study was to examine the expression and functional role of TRP channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) from the patients with HGPS. The mRNA and protein expression of TRP channels in HGPS and control (IMR90) iPSC-ECs were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs and immunoblots, respectively. Hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) rise in iPSC-ECs was measured by confocal microscopy. RT-PCRs and immunoblots showed higher expressional levels of TRPV2 in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients than those from normal individuals. In functional studies, hypotonicity induced a transient [Ca2+]i rise in iPSC-ECs from normal individuals but a sustained [Ca2+]i elevation in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients. A nonselective TRPV inhibitor, ruthenium red (RuR, 20 µM), and a specific TRPV2 channel inhibitor, tranilast (100 µM), abolished the sustained phase of hypotonicity-induced [Ca2+]i rise in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients, and also markedly attenuated the transient phase of the [Ca2+]i rise in these cells. Importantly, a short 10 min hypotonicity treatment caused a substantial increase in caspase 8 activity in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients but not in cells from normal individuals. Tranilast could also inhibit the hypotonicity-induced increase in caspase 8 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that an up-regulation in TRPV2 expression causes a sustained [Ca2+]i elevation in HGPS-iPSC-ECs under hypotonicity, consequently

  7. An upregulation in the expression of vanilloid transient potential channels 2 enhances hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ rise in human induced pluripotent stem cell model of Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yin Lo

    Full Text Available Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging in multiple organs including the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It is believed that an increased mechanosensitivity of HGPS cells is a causative factor for vascular cell death and vascular diseases in HGPS patients. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP channels are cationic channels that can act as cellular sensors for mechanical stimuli. The aim of this present study was to examine the expression and functional role of TRP channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs from the patients with HGPS. The mRNA and protein expression of TRP channels in HGPS and control (IMR90 iPSC-ECs were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs and immunoblots, respectively. Hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺](i rise in iPSC-ECs was measured by confocal microscopy. RT-PCRs and immunoblots showed higher expressional levels of TRPV2 in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients than those from normal individuals. In functional studies, hypotonicity induced a transient [Ca²⁺](i rise in iPSC-ECs from normal individuals but a sustained [Ca²⁺](i elevation in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients. A nonselective TRPV inhibitor, ruthenium red (RuR, 20 µM, and a specific TRPV2 channel inhibitor, tranilast (100 µM, abolished the sustained phase of hypotonicity-induced [Ca²⁺](i rise in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients, and also markedly attenuated the transient phase of the [Ca²⁺](i rise in these cells. Importantly, a short 10 min hypotonicity treatment caused a substantial increase in caspase 8 activity in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients but not in cells from normal individuals. Tranilast could also inhibit the hypotonicity-induced increase in caspase 8 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that an up-regulation in TRPV2 expression causes a sustained [Ca²⁺](i elevation in HGPS

  8. An upregulation in the expression of vanilloid transient potential channels 2 enhances hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ rise in human induced pluripotent stem cell model of Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chun-Yin; Tjong, Yung-Wui; Ho, Jenny Chung-Yee; Siu, Chung-Wah; Cheung, Sin-Ying; Tang, Nelson L; Yu, Shan; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging in multiple organs including the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It is believed that an increased mechanosensitivity of HGPS cells is a causative factor for vascular cell death and vascular diseases in HGPS patients. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cationic channels that can act as cellular sensors for mechanical stimuli. The aim of this present study was to examine the expression and functional role of TRP channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) from the patients with HGPS. The mRNA and protein expression of TRP channels in HGPS and control (IMR90) iPSC-ECs were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs and immunoblots, respectively. Hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺](i)) rise in iPSC-ECs was measured by confocal microscopy. RT-PCRs and immunoblots showed higher expressional levels of TRPV2 in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients than those from normal individuals. In functional studies, hypotonicity induced a transient [Ca²⁺](i) rise in iPSC-ECs from normal individuals but a sustained [Ca²⁺](i) elevation in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients. A nonselective TRPV inhibitor, ruthenium red (RuR, 20 µM), and a specific TRPV2 channel inhibitor, tranilast (100 µM), abolished the sustained phase of hypotonicity-induced [Ca²⁺](i) rise in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients, and also markedly attenuated the transient phase of the [Ca²⁺](i) rise in these cells. Importantly, a short 10 min hypotonicity treatment caused a substantial increase in caspase 8 activity in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients but not in cells from normal individuals. Tranilast could also inhibit the hypotonicity-induced increase in caspase 8 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that an up-regulation in TRPV2 expression causes a sustained [Ca²⁺](i) elevation in HGPS

  9. Exposure to human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus in hepatic and stellate cell lines reveals cooperative profibrotic transcriptional activation between viruses and cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Shadi; Holmes, Jacinta A; Jindal, Rohit; Bale, Shyam S; Brisac, Cynthia; Alatrakchi, Nadia; Lidofsky, Anna; Kruger, Annie J; Fusco, Dahlene N; Luther, Jay; Schaefer, Esperance A; Lin, Wenyu; Yarmush, Martin L; Chung, Raymond T

    2016-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection accelerates progressive liver fibrosis; however, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. HCV and HIV independently induce profibrogenic markers transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) (mediated by reactive oxygen species [ROS]) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) in hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells in monoculture; however, they do not account for cellular crosstalk that naturally occurs. We created an in vitro coculture model and investigated the contributions of HIV and HCV to hepatic fibrogenesis. Green fluorescent protein reporter cell lines driven by functional ROS (antioxidant response elements), NFκB, and mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) promoters were created in Huh7.5.1 and LX2 cells, using a transwell to generate cocultures. Reporter cell lines were exposed to HIV, HCV, or HIV/HCV. Activation of the 3 pathways was measured and compared according to infection status. Extracellular matrix products (collagen type 1 alpha 1 (CoL1A1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1)) were also measured. Both HCV and HIV independently activated TGFβ1 signaling through ROS (antioxidant response elements), NFκB, and SMAD3 in both cell lines in coculture. Activation of these profibrotic pathways was additive following HIV/HCV coexposure. This was confirmed when examining CoL1A1 and TIMP1, where messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly higher in LX2 cells in coculture following HIV/HCV coexposure compared with either virus alone. In addition, expression of these profibrotic genes was significantly higher in the coculture model compared to either cell type in monoculture, suggesting an interaction and feedback mechanism between Huh7.5.1 and LX2 cells.

  10. Red cell alloimmunization and infectious marker status (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in multiply transfused thalassemia patients of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with thalassemia major are largely transfusion dependent and are thus exposed to a variety of risks such as transmission of infectious diseases, iron overload and alloimmunization. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of human immune deficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and red cell antibodies among multiple-transfused thalassemic patients in and around the national capital region. Materials and Methods: The Department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, conducted this study in collaboration with the National Thalassemia Welfare Society over a period of 1 year starting February2011. Blood samples from the patients were tested for blood group, red cell alloantibody/ies, anti-HIV, anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by ELISA and for the respective viral ribonucleic acid (RNA or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA by nucleic acid testing (NAT. Results: A total of 462 thalassemics which consists of 290 males and 172 females were tested. The overall alloimmunization rate was 4.1% and anti-Kell was the most common antibody identified. Thirteen cases (2.8% were positive for HBsAg by ELISA, 107 (23.1% were reactive for anti HCV and 11 (2.38% for anti HIV antibodies. Further screening and discriminatory assays by NAT confirmed the presence of HBV DNA in 11 cases, HIV RNA in 7 cases and HCV RNA in 48 cases. Conclusion: In spite of advances in Immunohematology and infectious marker testing in recent years, the rates of alloimmunization and infectious marker positivity remains high among multiply transfused patients like thalassemics. Provision of safe and adequate blood supply to these patients is a key to improving their quality-of-life and longevity.

  11. Individual donor-nucleic acid testing for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and its role in blood safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs are one of the biggest threats to blood transfusion safety. Nucleic acid testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many countries to reduce the risk of TTIs. NAT shortens this window period, thereby offering blood centers a much higher sensitivity for detecting viral infections. Aims: The objective was to assess the role of individual donor-NAT (ID-NAT for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, hepatitis C virus (HCV and hepatitis B virus (HBV and its role in blood safety. Materials and Methods: A total of 32978 donations were tested for all three viruses using enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (Vironostika ® HIV Ag-Ab, Hepanostika ® HCV ultra and hepatitis B surface antigen ultra by Biomerieux and ID-NAT using Procleix Ultrio plus ® Assay (Novartis Diagnostic, USA. All initial NAT reactive samples and serology nonreactive were retested in triplicate and NAT discriminatory assay for HIV-1, HCV and HBV were performed. Results: Of the 32978 samples, 43 (0.13% were found to be ID-NAT reactive but seronegative. Out of 43, one for HIV-1, 13 for HCV and 27 for HBV were reactive by discriminatory assays. There were two samples that were reactive for both HCV-HBV and counted as HCV-HBV co-infection NAT yield. The prevalence of these viruses in our sample, tested by ID-NAT is 0.06%, 0.71%, and 0.63% for HIV-1, HCV and HBV respectively. The combined NAT yield among blood donors was 1 in 753. Conclusion: ID-NAT testing for HIV-1, HCV and HBV can tremendously improve the efficacy of screening for protecting blood recipient from TTIs. It enables detection of these viruses that were undetected by serological test and thus helped in providing safe blood to the patients.

  12. Gene expression data from acetaminophen-induced toxicity in human hepatic in vitro systems and clinical liver samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robim M. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set is composed of transcriptomics analyses of (i liver samples from patients suffering from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF and (ii hepatic cell systems exposed to acetaminophen and their respective controls. The in vitro systems include widely employed cell lines i.e. HepaRG and HepG2 cells as well as a novel stem cell-derived model i.e. human skin-precursors-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hSKP-HPC. Data from primary human hepatocytes was also added to the data set “Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database” (Igarashi et al., 2015 [1]. Changes in gene expression due to acetaminophen intoxication as well as comparative information between human in vivo and in vitro samples are provided. The microarray data have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GEO: GSE74000. The provided data is used to evaluate the predictive capacity of each hepatic in vitro system and can be directly compared with large-scale publically available toxicogenomics databases. Further interpretation and discussion of these data feature in the corresponding research article “Toxicogenomics-based prediction of acetaminophen-induced liver injury using human hepatic cell systems” (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [2].

  13. Visible to near-infrared refractive properties of freshly-excised human-liver tissues: marking hepatic malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannios, Panagiotis; Toutouzas, Konstantinos G.; Matiatou, Maria; Stasinos, Konstantinos; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M.; Zografos, George C.; Moutzouris, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    The refractive index is an optical constant that plays a significant role in the description of light-matter interactions. When it comes to biological media, refraction is understudied despite recent advances in the field of bio-optics. In the present article, we report on the measurement of the refractive properties of freshly excised healthy and cancerous human liver samples, by use of a prism-coupling technique covering the visible and near-infrared spectral range. Novel data on the wavelength-dependent complex refractive index of human liver tissues are presented. The magnitude of the real and imaginary part of the refractive index is correlated with hepatic pathology. Notably, the real index contrast is pointed out as a marker of discrimination between normal liver tissue and hepatic metastases. In view of the current progress in optical biosensor technologies, our findings may be exploited for the development of novel surgical and endoscopic tools. PMID:27297034

  14. Construction and characterization of a cDNA library from human liver tissue with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-hong; CHEN Zhi; YAO Hang-ping; CHEN Feng; ZHU Hai-hong; ZHOU Hong-juan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To construct a cDNA library from human liver tissue with chronic hepatitis B and check its quality for investigating the expression level of liver tissue infected by hepatitis B virus. This will then be used to find the relevant genes and interesting proteins associated with the development of hepatitis B. Methods: The total RNA from liver tissue with chronic hepatitis B was extracted and the mRNA was purified using TRIZOL method. Switching mechanism at 5' end of the RNA transcript(SMART) technique and CDS Ⅲ/3' primer were used for first-strand cDNA synthesis. Long distance polymerase chain reaction(LD PCR) was then used to synthesize the double-strand cDNA that was then digested by Sfi I and fractionated by CHROMA SPIN-400 column. The longer than 0.4 kb cDNAs were collected and ligated to λTriplEx2 vector. Then λ phage packaging reaction and library amplification were performed. The qualities of both unamplified and amplified cDNA libraries were strictly checked by conventional titer determination. Fourteen plaques were randomly picked and tested using PCR with universal primers derived from the sequence flanking the vector. Results: The titers of unamplifed and amplified libraries were 1.94×106 pfu/ml and1.49×109 pfu/ml respectively. The percentages of recombinants from both libraries were 98.15% in unamplified library and98.76% in amplified library. The lengths of the inserts were 1.23 kb in average, 1-2 kb in 64.29%, and 0.5-1.0 kb in 35.71%.Conclusion: A high quality cDNA library from human liver tissue with chronic hepatitis B was successfully constructed.

  15. Connective tissue growth factor hammerhead ribozyme attenuates human hepatic stellate cell function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Run-Ping Gao; David R Brigstock

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effect of hammerhead ribozyme targeting connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) on human hepatic stellate cell (HSC) function. METHODS: CCN2 hammerhead ribozyme cDNA plus two self-cleaving sequences were inserted into pTriEx2 to produce pTriCCN2-Rz. Each vector was individually transfected into cultured LX-2 human HSCs, which were then stimulated by addition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-b1 to the culture medium. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was used to determine mRNA levels for CCN2 or collagen Ⅰ, while protein levels of each molecule in cell lysates and conditioned medium were measured by ELISA. Cell-cycle progression of the transfected cells was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In pTriEx2-transfected LX-2 cells, TGF-β1 treatment caused an increase in the mRNA level for CCN2 or collagen Ⅰ, and an increase in produced and secreted CCN2 or extracellular collagen Ⅰ protein levels. pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells showed decreased basal CCN2 or collagen mRNA levels, as well as produced and secreted CCN2 or collagen Ⅰ protein. Furthermore, the TGF-b1-induced increase in mRNA or protein for CCN2 or collagen Ⅰ was inhibited partially in pTriCCN2-Rz-transfected LX-2 cells. Inhibition of CCN2 using hammerhead ribozyme cDNA resulted in fewer of the cells transitioning into S phase. CONCLUSION: Endogenous CCN2 is a mediator of basal or TGF-b1-induced collagen Ⅰ production in human HSCs and regulates entry of the cells into Sphase.

  16. Variability in the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among young injecting drug users in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Diaz, Theresa; Perlis, Theresa; Vlahov, David; Maslow, Carey; Latka, Mary; Rockwell, Russell; Edwards, Vincent; Friedman, Samuel R; Monterroso, Edgar; Williams, Ian; Garfein, Richard S

    2003-03-01

    Cohort studies of young (aged 18-30 years) injecting drug users recruited in 1997-1999 in the Harlem and Lower East Side areas of New York City, New York, were used to assess the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The authors found that HIV incidence was low at both sites: 0.8/100 person-years at the Harlem site and 0/100 person-years at the Lower East Side site. In contrast, HBV incidence was moderate (12.2/100 person-years) at the Harlem site and high (30.7/100 person-years) at the Lower East Side site. Similarly, HCV incidence was moderate (9.3/100 person-years) at the Harlem site and high (34.0/100 person-years) at the Lower East Side site. Results show that high rates of HBV and HCV transmission do not imply high rates of HIV transmission, even within an area of high HIV seroprevalence.

  17. Molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus among transgender commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia; Dharmawan, Ruben; Marwoto

    2017-02-01

    Sexual contact and other risk behavior among transgender working as commercial sex workers are important factors for sexual and blood-borne virus (BBV) infections. However, there no data concerning the molecular status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) circulated among transgender working as commercial sex workers. Blood samples obtained from transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta were examined for HIV antibodies, HBsAg and HCV antibodies, respectively, by immunological assays. All blood samples were also subjected for viral nucleic acid extraction and molecular detection of HIV, HBV and HCV by nested RT-PCR. The PCR products were purified from agarose gels, and the nucleotide sequences were retrieved and molecular analyzed. HIV, HBV and HCV was detected in 26.9% (7/26), 19.2% (5/26) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. HIV CRF01_AE and B were found to be circulating in the community. HBV genotype B3 predominated, followed by C1. HCV genotype 1a predominated among HCV-infected transgender working as commercial sex workers, followed by 1c, 3a, and 4a. HIV, HBV, and HCV were found circulating in the transgender working as commercial sex workers in Surakarta, Indonesia.

  18. Acute hypoxia and cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic drug metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, Gesche; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Brøsen, Kim;

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes.......Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute hypoxia on the activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes....

  19. Morphometric characterization of the human portal and hepatic venous trees: A quantitative support to the liver micro-anatomic models free of subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar-Medina, Sergio; Palomar-De Lucas, Brenda; Guerrero-Albors, Ester; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo

    2017-06-01

    Conventional models of liver microanatomy assume the presence of subunits. Nevertheless, some researchers propose that the liver is a continuous structure, free of these subunits, but with a characteristic vascular pattern. The present study describes a morphometric analysis of portal and hepatic veins in 50 human autopsy non-pathological liver samples. The main objective was to measure three proportions: 1. portal tracts / hepatic veins, 2. distributing portal veins / distributing hepatic veins and 3. terminal portal veins / terminal hepatic veins. These ratios were compared with the traditional microcirculatory liver models. Our material comprised 3,665 portal veins and 3,761 hepatic veins. The minimum diameter of half of the venous vessels of both types belongs to the interval (25μm , 60μm), given that 1881 portal veins (49.434%) and 1924 hepatic veins (50.565%) fall within this interval. We have statistically shown with the χ² test (α=0.990) that the portal and hepatic veins belonging to the interval (25μm , 400μm) (distributing veins) had an identical proportion. If the portal and hepatic veins are arranged according to the principle of interdigitation of Takashasi (1970), there should be an almost identical number of both types of veins. Our results contradict the presumably numeric preponderance of distributing portal veins with regard to the distributing hepatic veins that is inherent in the models of Kiernan, Matsumoto and Rappaport.

  20. Integration-deficient lentivectors: an effective strategy to purify and differentiate human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghua; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Corbineau, Sébastien; Vernet, Rémi; Gayon, Régis; Dianat, Noushin; Martinet, Clémence; Clay, Denis; Goulinet-Mainot, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Tachdjian, Gérard; Burks, Deborah; Vallier, Ludovic; Bouillé, Pascale; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Weber, Anne

    2013-07-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, the safety of cell therapy using differentiated hPSC derivatives must be improved through methods that will permit the transplantation of homogenous populations of a specific cell type. To date, purification of progenitors and mature cells generated from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells remains challenging with use of conventional methods. We used lentivectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the liver-specific apoliprotein A-II (APOA-II) promoter to purify human hepatic progenitors. We evaluated both integrating and integration-defective lentivectors in combination with an HIV integrase inhibitor. A human embryonic stem cell line was differentiated into hepatic progenitors using a chemically defined protocol. Subsequently, cells were transduced and sorted at day 16 of differentiation to obtain a cell population enriched in hepatic progenitor cells. After sorting, more than 99% of these APOA-II-GFP-positive cells expressed hepatoblast markers such as α-fetoprotein and cytokeratin 19. When further cultured for 16 days, these cells underwent differentiation into more mature cells and exhibited hepatocyte properties such as albumin secretion. Moreover, they were devoid of vector DNA integration. We have developed an effective strategy to purify human hepatic cells from cultures of differentiating hPSCs, producing a novel tool that could be used not only for cell therapy but also for in vitro applications such as drug screening. The present strategy should also be suitable for the purification of a broad range of cell types derived from either pluripotent or adult stem cells.

  1. Direct assessment of hepatic mitochondrial oxidative and anaplerotic fluxes in humans using dynamic 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Befroy, Douglas E; Perry, Rachel J; Jain, Nimit

    2014-01-01

    that rates of mitochondrial oxidation and anaplerosis in human liver can be directly determined noninvasively. Using this approach, we found the mean rates of hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux (VTCA) and anaplerotic flux (VANA) to be 0.43 ± 0.04 μmol g(-1) min(-1) and 0.60 ± 0.11 μmol g(-1) min(-1...

  2. Co-infections with hepatitis B and C viruses in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebbani, K; Ouladlahsen, A; Bensghir, A; Akil, A; Lamdini, H; Issouf, H; Brahim, I; Kitab, B; Fakhir, F Z; Wakrim, L; Marhoum El Filali, K; Himmich, H; Ezzikouri, S; Benjelloun, S

    2013-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major public health concerns. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among HIV-infected patients, and to identify the main circulating hepatitis strains in Morocco. The study was carried out in 503 HIV-infected patients. Our survey indicated that the prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection was 10.6%; 5.2% of patients were HBV surface antigen positive, and 5.4% of patients were anti-HCV positive. Among the HBV surface antigen-positive group, HBV DNA sequencing identified exclusively genotype D (D1: 26.7%; D7: 73.3%) in accordance with what is found in the general population. In contrast, sequencing of HCV isolates produced an unusual subtype distribution with a decreasing order of prevalence: 1a, 3a (both 23.5%), 1b, 4a (both 17.6%), 1c (11.8%) and 6h (6%).

  3. Human telomerase activity, telomerase and telomeric template expression in hepatic stem cells and in livers from fetal and postnatal donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2009-10-01

    Although telomerase activity has been analyzed in various normal and malignant tissues, including liver, it is still unknown to what extent telomerase can be associated with specific maturational lineage stages. We assessed human telomerase activity, protein and gene expression for the telomerase reverse transcriptase, as well as expression of the telomeric template RNA hTER in hepatic stem cells and in various developmental stages of the liver from fetal to adult. In addition, the effect of growth factors on telomerase activity was analyzed in hepatic stem cells in vitro. Telomerase was found to be highly active in fetal liver cells and was significantly higher than in hepatic stem cells, correlating with gene and protein expression levels. Activity in postnatal livers from all donor ages varied considerably and did not correlate with age or gene expression levels. The hter expression could be detected throughout the development. A short stimulation by growth factors of cultured hepatic stem cells did not increase telomerase activity. Telomerase is considerably active in fetal liver and variably in postnatal livers. Although telomerase protein is present at varying levels in liver cells of all donor ages, gene expression is solely associated with fetal liver cells.

  4. Human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells can be distinguished by expression of phenotypic markers related to their specialised functions in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PF Lalor; WK Lai; SM Curbishley; S Shetty; DH Adams

    2006-01-01

    The hepatic sinusoids are lined by a unique population of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC), which is one of the first hepatic cell populations to come into contact with blood components. However, HSEC are not simply barrier cells that restrict the access of bloodborne compounds to the parenchyma. They are functionally specialised endothelial cells that have complex roles, including not only receptor-mediated clearance of endotoxin, bacteria and other compounds, but also the regulation of inflammation, leukocyte recruitment and host immune responses to pathogens. Thus understandlng the differentiation and function of HSEC is critical for the elucidation of liver biology and pathophysiology. This article reviews methods for isolating and studying human hepatic endothelial cell populations using in vitro models. We also discuss the expression and functions of phenotypic markers, such as the presence of fenestrations and expression of VAP-1, Stabilin-1, L-SIGN, which can be used to identify sinusoidal endothelium and to permit discrimination from vascular and lymphatic endothelial cells.

  5. An implantable vascularized protein gel construct that supports human fetal hepatoblast survival and infection by hepatitis C virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha J Harding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Widely accessible small animal models suitable for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV in vivo are lacking, primarily because rodent hepatocytes cannot be productively infected and because human hepatocytes are not easily engrafted in immunodeficient mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report here on a novel approach for human hepatocyte engraftment that involves subcutaneous implantation of primary human fetal hepatoblasts (HFH within a vascularized rat collagen type I/human fibronectin (rCI/hFN gel containing Bcl-2-transduced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Bcl-2-HUVEC in severe combined immunodeficient X beige (SCID/bg mice. Maturing hepatic epithelial cells in HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants displayed endocytotic activity at the basolateral surface, canalicular microvilli and apical tight junctions between adjacent cells assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Some primary HFH, but not Huh-7.5 hepatoma cells, appeared to differentiate towards a cholangiocyte lineage within the gels, based on histological appearance and cytokeratin 7 (CK7 mRNA and protein expression. Levels of human albumin and hepatic nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha mRNA expression in gel implants and plasma human albumin levels in mice engrafted with HFH and Bcl-2-HUVEC were somewhat enhanced by including murine liver-like basement membrane (mLBM components and/or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF-HUVEC within the gel matrix. Following ex vivo viral adsorption, both HFH/Bcl-2-HUVEC and Huh-7.5/Bcl-2-HUVEC co-implants sustained HCV Jc1 infection for at least 2 weeks in vivo, based on qRT-PCR and immunoelectron microscopic (IEM analyses of gel tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The system described here thus provides the basis for a simple and robust small animal model of HFH engraftment that is applicable to the study of HCV infections in vivo.

  6. Human broadly neutralizing antibodies to the envelope glycoprotein complex of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giang, Erick; Dorner, Marcus; Prentoe, Jannick C

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects ∼2% of the world's population. It is estimated that there are more than 500,000 new infections annually in Egypt, the country with the highest HCV prevalence. An effective vaccine would help control this expanding global health burden. HCV is highly variable......, and an effective vaccine should target conserved T- and B-cell epitopes of the virus. Conserved B-cell epitopes overlapping the CD81 receptor-binding site (CD81bs) on the E2 viral envelope glycoprotein have been reported previously and provide promising vaccine targets. In this study, we isolated 73 human m......Abs recognizing five distinct antigenic regions on the virus envelope glycoprotein complex E1E2 from an HCV-immune phage-display antibody library by using an exhaustive-panning strategy. Many of these mAbs were broadly neutralizing. In particular, the mAb AR4A, recognizing a discontinuous epitope outside the CD81...

  7. The depuration dynamics of oysters (Crassostrea gigas artificially contaminated with hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Abreu Corrêa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the country of Brazil, Santa Catarina is a major shellfish producer. Detection of viral contamination is an important step to ensure production quality and consumer safety during this process. In this study, we used a depuration system and ultraviolet (UV disinfection to eliminate viral pathogens from artificially infected oysters and analysed the results. Specifically, the oysters were contaminated with hepatitis A virus (HAV or human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5. After viral infection, the oysters were placed into a depuration tank and harvested after 48, 72 and 96 h. After sampling, various oyster tissues were dissected and homogenised and the viruses were eluted with alkaline conditions and precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The oyster samples were evaluated by cell culture methods, as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and quantitative-PCR. Moreover, at the end of the depuration period, the disinfected seawater was collected and analysed by PCR. The molecular assays showed that the HAdV5 genome was present in all of the depuration time samples, while the HAV genome was undetectable after 72 h of depuration. However, viral viability tests (integrated cell culture-PCR and immunofluorescence assay indicated that both viruses were inactivated with 96 h of seawater recirculation. In conclusion, after 96 h of UV treatment, the depuration system studied in this work purified oysters that were artificially contaminated with HAdV5 and HAV.

  8. Experimental in vitro and in vivo models for the study of human hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allweiss, Lena; Dandri, Maura

    2016-04-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects an estimate of 240 million people worldwide despite the availability of a preventive vaccine. Medication to repress viral replication is available but a cure is rarely achieved. The narrow species and tissue tropism of the virus and the lack of reliable in vitro models and laboratory animals susceptible to HBV infection, have limited research progress in the past. As a result, several aspects of the HBV life cycle as well as the network of virus host interactions occurring during the infection are not yet understood. Only recently, the identification of the functional cellular receptor enabling HBV entry has opened new possibilities to establish innovative infection systems. Regarding the in vivo models of HBV infection, the classical reference was the chimpanzee. However, because of the strongly restricted use of great apes for HBV research, major efforts have focused on the development of mouse models of HBV replication and infection such as the generation of humanized mice. This review summarizes the animal and cell culture based models currently available for the study of HBV biology. We will discuss the benefits and caveats of each model and present a selection of the most important findings that have been retrieved from the respective systems.

  9. Effects of bariatric surgery on hepatic and intestinal lipoprotein particle metabolism in obese, nondiabetic humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nadège; Maraninchi, Marie; Béliard, Sophie; Berthet, Bruno; Nogueira, Juan-Patricio; Wolff, Estelle; Nicolay, Alain; Bégu, Audrey; Dubois, Noémie; Grangeot, Rachel; Mattei, Catherine; Vialettes, Bernard; Xiao, Changting; Lewis, Gary F; Valéro, René

    2014-10-01

    The dyslipidemia of obesity and other insulin-resistant states is characterized by the elevation of plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) of both hepatic (apoB-100-containing very low-density lipoprotein) and intestinal (apoB-48-containing chylomicrons) origin. Bariatric surgery is a well-established and effective modality for the treatment of obesity and is associated with improvements in several metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity, including a reduction in plasma triglycerides. Here, we have investigated the effect of bariatric surgery on TRL metabolism. Twenty-two nondiabetic, obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery: sleeve gastrectomy (n=12) or gastric bypass (n=10) were studied. Each subject underwent 1 lipoprotein turnover study 1 month before surgery followed by a second study, 6 months after surgery, using established stable isotope enrichment methodology, in constant fed state. TRL-apoB-100 concentration was significantly reduced after sleeve gastrectomy, explained by a decrease (Psurgery (Pbariatric surgery. This is the first human lipoprotein kinetic study to explore the mechanism of improvement of TRL metabolism after bariatric surgery. These effects may contribute to the decrease of cardiovascular mortality after surgery. http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01277068. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. On-chip purification and detection of hepatitis C virus RNA from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghi, V; Potrich, C; Pasquardini, L; Lunelli, L; Vanzetti, L; Ebranati, E; Lai, A; Zehender, G; Mombello, D; Cocuzza, M; Pirri, C F; Pederzolli, C

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the main causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection is a crucial need in the clinical management. The conventional diagnostic technologies are challenged when trying to address molecular diagnostics, especially because they require a complex and time-consuming sample preparation phase. Here, a new concept based on surface functionalization was applied to viral RNA purification: first of all polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flat surfaces were modified to hold RNA adsorption. After a careful chemical and morphological analysis of the modified surfaces, the functionalization protocols giving the best RNA adsorbing surfaces were applied to PDMS microdevices. The functionalized microdevices were then used for RNA purification from HCV infected human plasma samples. RNA purification and RT were successfully performed in the same microdevice chamber, saving time of analysis, reagents, and labor. The PCR protocol for HCV cDNA amplification was also implemented in the microdevice, demonstrating that the entire process of HCV analysis, from plasma to molecular readout, could be performed on-chip. Not only HCV but also other microdevice-based viral RNA detection could therefore result in a successful Point-of-Care (POC) diagnostics for resource-limited settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Successful transplantation of human hepatic stem cells with restricted localization to liver using hyaluronan grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Rachael A; Wauthier, Eliane; Lozoya, Oswaldo; McClelland, Randall; Bowsher, James E; Barbier, Claire; Prestwich, Glenn; Hsu, Edward; Gerber, David A; Reid, Lola M

    2013-02-01

    Cell therapies are potential alternatives to organ transplantation for liver failure or dysfunction but are compromised by inefficient engraftment, cell dispersal to ectopic sites, and emboli formation. Grafting strategies have been devised for transplantation of human hepatic stem cells (hHpSCs) embedded into a mix of soluble signals and extracellular matrix biomaterials (hyaluronans, type III collagen, laminin) found in stem cell niches. The hHpSCs maintain a stable stem cell phenotype under the graft conditions. The grafts were transplanted into the livers of immunocompromised murine hosts with and without carbon tetrachloride treatment to assess the effects of quiescent versus injured liver conditions. Grafted cells remained localized to the livers, resulting in a larger bolus of engrafted cells in the host livers under quiescent conditions and with potential for more rapid expansion under injured liver conditions. By contrast, transplantation by direct injection or via a vascular route resulted in inefficient engraftment and cell dispersal to ectopic sites. Transplantation by grafting is proposed as a preferred strategy for cell therapies for solid organs such as the liver.

  12. Hepatitis C virus proteins do not directly trigger fibrogenic events in cultured human liver myofibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Guibert, C; Neaud, V; Rosenbaum, J

    2003-11-01

    Although liver fibrosis is the major complication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis in this setting are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to test the direct effect of HCV proteins on signalling- and fibrosis-related events in cultured human liver myofibroblasts, the effector cells of liver fibrogenesis. Cultured myofibroblasts were exposed to recombinant HCV core, a structural protein, and nonstructural proteins (NS) 3, NS 4 and NS 5. HCV proteins did not significantly increase DNA synthesis in myofibroblasts. We then examined if these proteins affected early signalling events. None of the HCV proteins affected the phosphorylation of the mitogen activated protein kinases/extracellular regulated kinases 1 and 2, or of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase target, Akt. HCV proteins had also no effect on intracellular calcium concentration. In other experiments, fibrogenesis-related parameters were measured. None of the HCV proteins had any effect on the secretion of type I collagen, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 1, gelatinase or urokinase. Alpha-smooth muscle actin expression was also not modified. In summary, our experiments do not support a direct effect of these HCV proteins on fibrogenic cells.

  13. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  14. Polyclonal immunoglobulins from a chronic hepatitis C virus patient protect human liver-chimeric mice from infection with a homologous hepatitis C virus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The role of the humoral immune response in the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely debated. Most chronically infected patients have immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of neutralizing HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) in vitro. It is, however, not clear whether these Ig...... were loaded with chronic phase polyclonal IgG and challenged 3 days later with a 100% infectious dose of the acute phase H77C virus, both originating from patient H. Passive immunization induced sterilizing immunity in five of eight challenged animals. In the three nonprotected animals, the HCV...... chimeric mice, the inoculum was pre-incubated in vitro at an IgG concentration normally observed in humans. Conclusion: Polyclonal IgG from a patient with a long-standing HCV infection not only displays neutralizing activity in vitro using the HCVpp system, but also conveys sterilizing immunity toward...

  15. Ultrastructural Evidences of Hepatitis B Infection in Human Liver Biopsies Disclose Complex Assembly and Morphogenesis Pathways for Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Falcon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite of recent advances on acknowledge of hepatitis B virus (HBV structure and biology, little is known about the morphogenesis and release of virions. In this study, the ultrastructural analysis of HBV components in liver biopsies from chronically HBV-infected patients disclosed complex assembly and morphogenesis pathways for HBV. HBV core (HBcAg and surface (HBsAg antigens were specifically identified in all liver biopsies from HVB-infected patients. HBcAg containing core-like particles 24-28 nm in diameter were observed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Dane’s-like particles were detected either budding to or into the lumen of ER close to HBsAg containing tubular structures. Besides, Dane’s-like particles were detected in different vesicular compartments resembling multivesicular endosomes. Other kind of enveloped HBV-like particles similar to the previously described cobra-shaped and horn-shaped particles were also observed in hepatocytes. Some of these particles were connected to the vesicle membrane through a stalk 20-22 nm in diameter. On the other hand, spherical subviral particles (SVP were frequently observed in cytoplasmic vesicles. Moreover, a minor proportion of enveloped HBV-like particles budding through the plasma membrane to the extracellular space and bile canaliculi were detected. Interestingly, Dane’s-like particles in the bile canaliculi and entering into ductular-like cells were shown. Strikingly, Dane’s-like particles close to tubular structures and specific immunolabeling for HBcAg both in cytoplasm and nuclei of stellate-like cells were detected. Remarkably, HVB-like particles appeared entering hepatocytes from large cytoplasmic processes of fibrocytes raising the interesting possibility of a cell to cell passage of HBV through direct transcellular migration.

  16. Derivation and characterization of Chinese human embryonic stem cell line with high potential to differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Cheng; SHEN Huan; JIANG Wei; SONG Zhi-hua; WANG Cheng-yan; WEI Li-hui

    2011-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem cells have prospective uses in regenerative medicine and drug screening. Every human embryonic stem cell line has its own genetic background,which determines its specific ability for differentiation as well as susceptibility to drugs. It is necessary to compile many human embryonic stem cell lines with various backgrounds for future clinical use,especially in China due to its large population. This study contributes to isolating new Chinese human embryonic stem cell lines with clarified directly differentiation ability.Methods Donated embryos that exceeded clinical use in our in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) center were collected to establish human embryonic stem cells lines with informed consent. The classic growth factors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and recombinant human leukaemia inhibitory factor (hLIF) for culturing embryonic stem cells were used to capture the stem cells from the plated embryos. Mechanical and enzymetic methods were used to propogate the newly established human embryonic stem cells line. The new cell line was checked for pluripotent characteristics with detecting the expression of stemness genes and observing spontaneous differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Finally similar step-wise protocols from definitive endoderm to target specific cells were used to check the cell line's ability to directly differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells.Results We generated a new Chinese human embryonic stem cells line,CH1. This cell line showed the same characteristics as other reported Chinese human embryonic stem cells lines:normal morphology,karyotype and pluripotency in vitro and in vivo. The CH1 cells could be directly differentiated towards pancreatic and hepatic cells with equal efficiency compared to the H1 cell line.Conclusions This newly established Chinese cell line,CH1,which is pluripotent and has high potential to differentiate into pancreatic and hepatic cells,will provide

  17. Activated effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein on human hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Fen Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: After years of experiments and clinical studies, parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP has been shown to be a bone formation promoter that elicits rapid effects with limited adverse reaction. Recently, PTHrP was reported to promote fibrosis in rat kidney in conjunction with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, which is also a fibrosis promoter in liver. However, the effect of PTHrP in liver has not been determined. In this study, the promoting actions of PTHrP were first investigated in human normal hepatic stellate cells (HSC and LX-2 cell lines. METHODS: TGF-β1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, and collagen I mRNA were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR after HSCs or LX-2 cells were treated with PTHrP(1-36 or TGF-β1. Protein levels were also assessed by western-blot analysis. Alpha-SMA were also detected by immunofluorescence, and TGF-β1 secretion was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA of HSC cell culture media. RESULTS: In cultured human HSCs, mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA, collagen I, MMP-2, and TGF-β1 were increased by PTHrP treatment. A similar increasing pattern was also observed in LX-2 cells. Moreover, PTHrP significantly increased TGF-β1 secretion in cultured media from HSCs. CONCLUSIONS: PTHrP activated HSCs and promoted the fibrosis process in LX-2 cells. These procedures were probably mediated via TGF-β1, highlighting the potential effects of PTHrP in the liver.

  18. Activated effects of parathyroid hormone-related protein on human hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fen-Fen; Liu, Cui-Ping; Li, Li-Xuan; Xue, Min-Min; Xie, Fang; Guo, Yu; Bai, Lan

    2013-01-01

    After years of experiments and clinical studies, parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP) has been shown to be a bone formation promoter that elicits rapid effects with limited adverse reaction. Recently, PTHrP was reported to promote fibrosis in rat kidney in conjunction with transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), which is also a fibrosis promoter in liver. However, the effect of PTHrP in liver has not been determined. In this study, the promoting actions of PTHrP were first investigated in human normal hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and LX-2 cell lines. TGF-β1, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), and collagen I mRNA were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after HSCs or LX-2 cells were treated with PTHrP(1-36) or TGF-β1. Protein levels were also assessed by western-blot analysis. Alpha-SMA were also detected by immunofluorescence, and TGF-β1 secretion was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of HSC cell culture media. In cultured human HSCs, mRNA and protein levels of α-SMA, collagen I, MMP-2, and TGF-β1 were increased by PTHrP treatment. A similar increasing pattern was also observed in LX-2 cells. Moreover, PTHrP significantly increased TGF-β1 secretion in cultured media from HSCs. PTHrP activated HSCs and promoted the fibrosis process in LX-2 cells. These procedures were probably mediated via TGF-β1, highlighting the potential effects of PTHrP in the liver.

  19. Gene expression profiles of human liver cells mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ying ZHANG; Fu-qing XU; Chang-liang SHAN; Rong XIANG; Li-hong YE; Xiao-dong ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the gene expression profiles mediated by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx), we characterized the molecular features of pathogenesis associated with HBx in a human liver cell model.Methods: We examined gene expression profiles in L-O2-X cells, an engineered L-O2 cell line that constitutively expresses HBx, relative to L-O2 cells using an Agilent 22 K human 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray representing more than 21,329 unique, well-characterized Homo sapiens genes, Western blot analysis and RNA interference (RNAi) targeting HBx mRNA validated the overexpression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Bcl-2 in L-O2-X cells. Meanwhile, the BrdU incorporation assay was used to test cell proliferation mediated by upregulated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).Results: The microarray showed that the expression levels of 152 genes were remarkably altered; 82 of the genes were upregulated and 70 genes were downregulated in L-O2-X cells. The altered genes were associated with signal transduction pathways, cell cycle, metastasis, transcriptional regulation, immune response, metabolism, and other processes. PCNA and Bcl-2 were upregulated in L-O2-X cells. Furthermore, we found that COX-2 upregulation in L-O2-X cells enhanced proliferation using the BrdU incorporation assay, whereas indomethacin (an inhibitor of COX-2) abolished the promotion.Conclusion: Our findings provide new evidence that HBx is able to regulate many genes that may be involved in the car-cinogenesis. These regulated genes mediated by HBx may serve as molecular targets for the prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Proteomic Profiling of Human Liver Biopsies: Hepatitis C Virus-Induced Fibrosis and Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, Deborah L.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Paeper, Bryan; Proll, Sean; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Carithers, Jr., Robert L.; Larson , Anne M.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Katze, Michael G.

    2007-09-01

    Liver biopsies from HCV-infected patients offer the unique opportunity to study human liver biology and disease in vivo. However, the low protein yields associated with these small samples present a significant challenge for proteomic analysis. In this study we describe the application of an ultra-sensitive proteomics platform for performing robust quantitative proteomic studies on microgram amounts of HCV-infected human liver tissue from 15 patients at different stages of fibrosis. A high quality liver protein data base containing 5,920 unique protein identifications supported high throughput quantitative studies using 16O:18O stable isotope labeling in combination with the accurate mass and time (AMT) tag approach. A total of 1,641 liver biopsy proteins were quantified and ANOVA identified 210 proteins exhibiting statistically significant differences associated with fibrosis stage. Hierarchical clustering revealed that biopsies representative of later fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 3-4) exhibited a distinct protein expression profile indicating an apparent down-regulation of many proteins when compared to samples from earlier fibrosis stages (e.g. Batts-Ludwig stages 0-2). Functional analysis of these signature proteins suggests that impairment of key mitochondrial processes including fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation, and response to oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species occurs during advanced stage 3-4 fibrosis. In conclusion, the results reported here represent a significant advancement in clinical proteomics providing to our knowledge, the first demonstration of global proteomic alterations accompanying liver disease progression in patients chronically infected with HCV. Our findings contribute to a generally emerging theme associating oxidative stress and hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction with HCV pathogenesis.

  1. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction.

  2. Cell-free activation of phagocyte NADPH-oxidase: tissue and differentiation-specific expression of cytosolic cofactor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, J F; Akard, L P; Schell, M J; Gabig, T G

    1987-06-30

    We examined a variety of tissues for the presence of cytosolic cofactor activity that would support arachidonate-dependent cell-free activation of NADPH-oxidase in isolated human neutrophil membranes. Cofactor activity was not found in cytosol isolated from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, placenta, brain, liver, or the human promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60. Induction of differentiation in HL-60 cells led to expression of cytosolic cofactor activity. In dimethylsulphoxide-induced HL-60 cells the level of cytosolic cofactor activity was closely correlated with phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated whole cell superoxide production. These results strongly suggest that the cytosolic cofactor is a phagocyte-specific regulatory protein of physiologic importance in NADPH-oxidase activation.

  3. Metabolism of 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin by human hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, A B; Surry, D; Price, R J; Lake, B G; Evans, D C

    2000-10-01

    M sulphaphenazole, 50-500 microm S-mephenytoin and 2-50 microM quinidine had little effect. 6. The metabolism of 20 microM BFC to HFC in human liver microsomes was also inhibited by an antibody to CYP3A4, whereas antibodies to CYP2C8/9 and CYP2D6 had no effect. 7. In summary, by correlation analysis, use of cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms, chemical inhibition and inhibitory antibodies, BFC appears metabolized by a number of CYP isoforms in human liver. BFC metabolism appears to be primarily catalysed by CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, with possibly some contribution by CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and perhaps other CYP isoforms. 8. The results also demonstrate the importance of the selection of an appropriate substrate concentration when conducting reaction phenotyping studies with human hepatic CYP isoforms.

  4. Sensing microbial RNA in the cytosol

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    Nicolas eVABRET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system faces the difficult task of keeping a fine balance between sensitive detection of microbial presence and avoidance of autoimmunity. To this aim, key mechanisms of innate responses rely on isolation of pathogens in specialized subcellular compartments, or sensing of specific microbial patterns absent from the host. Efficient detection of foreign RNA in the cytosol requires an additional layer of complexity from the immune system. In this particular case, innate sensors should be able to distinguish self and non-self molecules that share several similar properties. In this review, we discuss this interplay between cytosolic pattern recognition receptors and the microbial RNA they detect. We describe how microbial RNAs gain access to the cytosol, which receptors they activate and counter-strategies developed by microorganisms to avoid this response.

  5. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Mulligan, Kathleen; Lee, Jeongae; Lo, Joan C; Wen, Michael; Noor, Mustafa A; Grunfeld, Carl; Schambelan, Morris

    2002-02-01

    We recently reported that treatment with a pharmacologic dose of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) resulted in a significant loss of body fat and gain in lean tissue in HIV-infected patients with syndromes of fat accumulation. However, insulin-mediated glucose disposal decreased transiently after one month of GH therapy. The present paper focuses on the changes of hepatic carbohydrate and fat metabolism associated with GH treatment in the same subjects. We assessed hepatic insulin sensitivity under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp conditions prior to and after one and six months of GH treatment (3 mg/day) in five patients using stable isotope tracer techniques. Indirect calorimetry, and measurements of lipid concentrations. Fasting endogenous glucose production (EGP) increased significantly at one month (12.0 +/- 0.7 to 14.9 +/- 0.9 micromol/kg/min, P glucogenesis (GNG) (3.5 +/- 0.9 to 5.2 +/- 0.9 and 5.8 +/-1.2 micromol/kg/min, n = 4, P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 at one and six months, respectively); small changes in hepatic glycogenolysis also contributed. Sustained increases in lipolysis and progressive decreases in hepatic fractional de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and triglyceride concentrations occurred with GH treatment. These changes were accompanied by an improved lipid profile with a significant increase in HDL cholesterol and significant decreases in total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels, the latter consistent with the decrease in hepatic DNL. During a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic glucose clamp, EGP and GNG were markedly suppressed compared to the corresponding time points under fasting conditions, albeit less so when measured after one month of GH treatment. Thus, in HIV-infected patients with abnormal fat distribution, pharmacologic doses of GH improved the overall lipid profile, but worsened glucose homeostasis under both fasting and hyperinsulinemic conditions. The combined implications of these positive and negative metabolic

  6. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

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    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  7. Hepatitis C virus core protein induces neuroimmune activation and potentiates Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 neurotoxicity.

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    Pornpun Vivithanaporn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV genomes and proteins are present in human brain tissues although the impact of HIV/HCV co-infection on neuropathogenesis remains unclear. Herein, we investigate HCV infectivity and effects on neuronal survival and neuroinflammation in conjunction with HIV infection. METHODOLOGY: Human microglia, astrocyte and neuron cultures were infected with cell culture-derived HCV or exposed to HCV core protein with or without HIV-1 infection or HIV-1 Viral Protein R (Vpr exposure. Host immune gene expression and cell viability were measured. Patch-clamp studies of human neurons were performed in the presence or absence of HCV core protein. Neurobehavioral performance and neuropathology were examined in HIV-1 Vpr-transgenic mice in which stereotaxic intrastriatal implants of HCV core protein were performed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HCV-encoded RNA as well as HCV core and non-structural 3 (NS3 proteins were detectable in human microglia and astrocytes infected with HCV. HCV core protein exposure induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in microglia (p<0.05 but not in astrocytes while increased chemokine (e.g. CXCL10 and interleukin-8 expression was observed in both microglia and astrocytes (p<0.05. HCV core protein modulated neuronal membrane currents and reduced both β-III-tubulin and lipidated LC3-II expression (p<0.05. Neurons exposed to supernatants from HCV core-activated microglia exhibited reduced β-III-tubulin expression (p<0.05. HCV core protein neurotoxicity and interleukin-6 induction were potentiated by HIV-1 Vpr protein (p<0.05. HIV-1 Vpr transgenic mice implanted with HCV core protein showed gliosis, reduced neuronal counts together with diminished LC3 immunoreactivity. HCV core-implanted animals displayed neurobehavioral deficits at days 7 and 14 post-implantation (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: HCV core protein exposure caused neuronal injury

  8. Investigation of the rate-determining process in the hepatic elimination of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takao; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazuya; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Saito, Yoshikazu; Hu, Zhuohan; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2010-02-01

    Elucidation of the rate-determining process in the overall hepatic elimination of drugs is critical for predicting their intrinsic hepatic clearance and the impact of variation of sequestration clearance on their systemic concentration. The present study investigated the rate-determining process in the overall hepatic elimination of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors pravastatin, pitavastatin, atorvastatin, and fluvastatin both in rats and humans. The uptake of these statins was saturable in both rat and human hepatocytes. Intrinsic hepatic clearance obtained by in vivo pharmacokinetic analysis in rats was close to the uptake clearance determined by the multiple indicator dilution method but much greater than the intrinsic metabolic clearance extrapolated from an in vitro model using liver microsomes. In vivo uptake clearance of the statins in humans (pravastatin, 1.44; pitavastatin, 30.6; atorvastatin, 12.7; and fluvastatin, 62.9 ml/min/g liver), which was obtained by multiplying in vitro uptake clearance determined in cryopreserved human hepatocytes by rat scaling factors, was within the range of overall in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance (pravastatin, 0.84-1.2; pitavastatin, 14-35; atorvastatin, 11-19; and fluvastatin, 123-185 ml/min/g liver), whereas the intrinsic metabolic clearance of atorvastatin and fluvastatin was considerably low compared with their intrinsic hepatic clearance. Their uptake is the rate-determining process in the overall hepatic elimination of the statins in rats, and this activity likely holds true for humans. In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of the uptake clearance using a cryopreserved human hepatocytes model and rat scaling factors will be effective for predicting in vivo intrinsic hepatic clearance involving active uptake.

  9. Natural taurine promotes apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells in proteomics analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To study the differential expression of proteins between natural taurine treated hepatic stellate cells and controls, and investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism of natural taurine in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis.METHODS: A proteomic strategy combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraperform ance liquid chromatographyelectrospray ionizationtandem mass spectrometry (UPLCESIMS/MS) was used to study the differential expression of proteins and Western blotting was used to validate the re...

  10. Correlates of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus in a Danish human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Weis, Nina; Schønning, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: Around a quarter of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are spontaneously able to clear the virus. Correlates of spontaneous HCV clearance are not well established and the aim of this study was to characterize factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in...... higher clearance rates due to their repeated exposure to low-dose HCV, leading to immune memory. Our data suggest an interaction of hepatitis B virus and HCV that influences the outcome of acute HCV infection....... in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-co-infected cohort. Methods: We analyzed 327 anti-HCV-positive HIV-1-infected patients using multivariate logistic regression. HCV clearance was defined as the presence of anti-HCV with undetectable HCV RNA from at least 2 measurements more than 6 months apart. Results...

  11. Methods of Liver Stem Cell Therapy in Rodents as Models of Human Liver Regeneration in Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Goradel, Nasser; Darabi, Masoud; Shamsasenjan, Karim; Ejtehadifar, Mostafa; Zahedi, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Cell therapy is a promising intervention for treating liver diseases and liver failure. Different animal models of human liver cell therapy have been developed in recent years. Rats and mice are the most commonly used liver failure models. In fact, rodent models of hepatic failure have shown significant improvement in liver function after cell infusion. With the advent of stem-cell technologies, it is now possible to re-programme adult somatic cells such as skin or hair-follicle cells from individual patients to stem-like cells and differentiate them into liver cells. Such regenerative stem cells are highly promising in the personalization of cell therapy. The present review article will summarize current approaches to liver stem cell therapy with rodent models. In addition, we discuss common cell tracking techniques and how tracking data help to direct liver cell therapy research in animal models of hepatic failure.

  12. Double Filtration Plasmapheresis in Treatment of Patients With Co-Infection of Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mednikov, Roman V; Rabinovich, Vladislav I; Kizlo, Svetlana N; Belyakov, Nikolai A; Sokolov, Alexey A

    2016-08-01

    One of the main causes of mortality of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are complications of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Combining drug therapy for HCV with double filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) has significantly increased the effectiveness of treatment for these patients. However, there are no data on the use of this method for the treatment of patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. We demonstrated that positive clinical effect in the treatment of HCV patients by DFPP (previously demonstrated) is also achieved in the treatment of HIV infected patients, co-infected with HCV. The obtained efficiency of 62.5% is almost two times higher than the predicted treatment efficiency. We can conclude that the complex therapy of hepatitis C, including DFPP and medication by PEG-IFN + RBV is an effective and safe approach for the treatment of HCV in patients co-infected with HCV and HIV.

  13. Cytoglobin is expressed in hepatic stellate cells, but not in myofibroblasts, in normal and fibrotic human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Hiroyuki; Komiya, Tohru; Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Tamori, Akihiro; Enomoto, Masaru; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Iwai, Shuji; Uchida-Kobayashi, Sawako; Fujii, Hideki; Hagihara, Atsushi; Kawamura, Etsushi; Murakami, Yoshiki; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2014-02-01

    Cytoglobin (CYGB) is ubiquitously expressed in the cytoplasm of fibroblastic cells in many organs, including hepatic stellate cells. As yet, there is no specific marker with which to distinguish stellate cells from myofibroblasts in the human liver. To investigate whether CYGB can be utilized to distinguish hepatic stellate cells from myofibroblasts in normal and fibrotic human liver, human liver tissues damaged by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and at different stages of fibrosis were obtained by liver biopsy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on histological sections of liver tissues using antibodies against CYGB, cellular retinol-binding protein-1 (CRBP-1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (Thy-1), and fibulin-2 (FBLN2). CYGB- and CRBP-1-positive cells were counted around fibrotic portal tracts in histological sections of the samples. The expression of several of the proteins listed above was examined in cultured mouse stellate cells. Quiescent stellate cells, but not portal myofibroblasts, expressed both CYGB and CRBP-1 in normal livers. In fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, stellate cells expressed both CYGB and α-SMA, whereas myofibroblasts around the portal vein expressed α-SMA, Thy-1, and FBLN2, but not CYGB. Development of the fibrotic stage was positively correlated with increases in Sirius red-stained, α-SMA-positive, and Thy-1-positive areas, whereas the number of CYGB- and CRBP-1-positive cells decreased with fibrosis development. Primary cultured mouse stellate cells expressed cytoplasmic CYGB at day 1, whereas they began to express α-SMA at the cellular margins at day 4. Thy-1 was undetectable throughout the culture period. In human liver tissues, quiescent stellate cells are CYGB positive. When activated, they also become α-SMA positive; however, they are negative for Thy-1 and FBLN2. Thus, CYGB is a useful marker with which to distinguish stellate cells from portal myofibroblasts in the damaged human

  14. Metabolism of the new nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic agent, RWJ-51204, in mouse, rat, dog, monkey and human hepatic S9 fractions, and in rats, dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W N; McKown, L A; Reitz, A B

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo metabolism of the nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytic agent, RWJ-51204 was investigated after incubation with mice, rat, dog, monkey, and human hepatic S9 fractions in the presence of NADPH-generating system, and a single oral dose administration to rats (100 mg/kg), dogs (5 mg/kg), and humans (2.5 mg/subject). Plasma and red blood cells (2 h, rat) and urine samples (0-24 h, rat, dog and human) were obtained postdose. Unchanged RWJ-51204 (39-93% of the sample in vitro; dog; 17% in human), M2 glucuronide (16% in human). Pathways 2-4 formed minor/trace oxidized, and dehydrated metabolites. RWJ-51204 is extensively metabolized in vitro (except dog) and in vivo in rats, dogs and humans.

  15. Autoimmune hepatitis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Case reports of a rare, but important diagnosis with therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia, Leila; Beattie, Adam; Green, Richard M

    2017-02-01

    Chronic liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV. However, autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in patients with HIV has rarely been reported. Our aim was to evaluate a cohort of patients with HIV and AIH and identify clinical presentations and outcomes. Management of autoimmune hepatitis in context of human immunodeficiency virus, long-term outcomes, and safety in setting of underlying immunocompromised state. Autoimmune Hepatitis, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatotoxicity, Liver Injury, Liver Transplantation. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with HIV and AIH based on histological, serologic, biochemical demographic, and clinical data. Five patients were identified with autoimmune hepatitis; 4 of 5 were women, and all were African or African-American. The age at the time of AIH diagnosis was 46.6 ± 13.4 years. All patients acquired HIV sexually and all had CD4 counts >250 cells/uL (456-1011 cells/uL) and undetectable HIV viral loads at the time of AIH diagnosis. One patient presented with acute liver failure necessitating liver transplantation and developed AIH posttransplantation. At the time of diagnosis, the AST were 350 ± 448 U/L, ALT 247 ± 190 U/L, bilirubin 7 ± 12 mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase 126 ± 53 U/L. All patients had histologic evidence of AIH on liver biopsies. Patients were successfully treated with prednisone and azathioprine, without a decrease in CD4 <250 cells/uL, infectious complications or significant side effects. AIH occurs in patients with well-controlled HIV. In our patient cohort, immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine was safe and effective in inducing remission, without significant complications or development of opportunistic infections.

  16. Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, and Treponema pallidum Infections among Blood Donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

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    Dong-De Xie

    Full Text Available Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively, and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG.A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region.Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39% had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29% harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04% and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05. The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island.Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended.

  17. Complete genome analysis of hepatitis B virus in human immunodeficiency virus infected and uninfected South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gededzha, Maemu P; Muzeze, Muxe; Burnett, Rosemary J; Amponsah-Dacosta, Edina; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Selabe, Selokela G

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are highly endemic in South Africa. Data on the complete genome sequences of HBV in HIV-positive patients in South Africa are scanty. This study characterized the complete HBV genome isolated from both HIV-positive and negative patients at the Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH), Pretoria. Serum samples from nine (five HIV-positive and four HIV-negative) patients attending the DGMAH from 2007 to 2011 were serologically tested, amplified, and sequenced for complete genome. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA6.0. Mutations were analyzed by comparing the sequences with genotype-matched GenBank references. Eight patients were HBsAg positive, with only one from the HIV positive group being negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome sequences classified them into five genotypes; A1 (n = 4), A2 (n = 1), C1 (n = 2), D1 (n = 1), and D3 (n = 1). Deletions up to 35 nucleotides in length were identified in this study. No drug resistance mutations were identified in the P ORF, while the L217R mutation was identified in one subgenotype A2 sequence. The double (A1762T/G1764A) and triple (T1753C/A1762T/G1764A) mutations in the Basal core promoter were identified in four and two sequences, respectively. In the core region, mutation G1888A was identified in four of the subgenotype A1 sequences. In conclusion, this study has added to the limited South African data on HBV genotypes and mutations in HBV/HIV co-infected and HBV mono-infected patients, based on complete HBV genome analysis. Subgenotype A1 was predominant, and no drug-resistant mutants were detected in the study. J. Med. Virol. 88:1560-1566, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Integrative miRNA and Gene Expression Profiling Analysis of Human Quiescent Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Mar; El Taghdouini, Adil; Perea, Luis; Mannaerts, Inge; Vila-Casadesús, Maria; Blaya, Delia; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Affò, Silvia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Graupera, Isabel; Lozano, Juan José; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Lambrecht, Joeri; Ginès, Pere; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-06-22

    Unveiling the regulatory pathways maintaining hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in a quiescent (q) phenotype is essential to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat fibrogenic diseases. To uncover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory interactions in qHSCs, HSCs were FACS-sorted from healthy livers and activated HSCs (aHSCs) were generated in vitro. MiRNA Taqman array analysis showed HSCs expressed a low number of miRNAs (n = 259), from which 47 were down-regulated and 212 up-regulated upon activation. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed that 66% of qHSC-associated miRNAs correlated with more than 6 altered target mRNAs (17,28 ± 10,7 targets/miRNA) whereas aHSC-associated miRNAs had an average of 1,49 targeted genes. Interestingly, interaction networks generated by miRNA-targeted genes in qHSCs were associated with key HSC activation processes. Next, selected miRNAs were validated in healthy and cirrhotic human livers and miR-192 was chosen for functional analysis. Down-regulation of miR-192 in HSCs was found to be an early event during fibrosis progression in mouse models of liver injury. Moreover, mimic assays for miR-192 in HSCs revealed its role in HSC activation, proliferation and migration. Together, these results uncover the importance of miRNAs in the maintenance of the qHSC phenotype and form the basis for understanding the regulatory networks in HSCs.

  19. Prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in the Iranian patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Keyvani, Hossein; Esghaei, Maryam; Zare-Karizi, Shohreh; Dermenaki-Farahani, Sahar-Sadat; Hesami-Zadeh, Khashayar; Fakhim, Shahin

    2016-11-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new form of chronic HCV infection described by the presence of the genomic HCV-RNA in liver biopsy and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples, and undetectable levels or absence of HCV-RNA and in the absence or presence of anti HCV antibodies in the plasma specimens. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of occult HCV infection (OCI) among Iranian subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) using RT-nested PCR. From March 2014 until April 2015, 109 Iranian patients with established HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. After extraction of viral RNA from the plasma and PBMC samples, HCV-RNA status was examined by RT-nested PCR using primers from the 5'-NTR. HCV genotyping was conducted using RFLP analysis. For the confirmation of HCV genotyping by RFLP method, the PCR products were sequenced. Of the 109 patients, 50 were positive for antibodies against HCV. The HCV-RNA was detected in PBMC specimens in 6 (10.2%) out of the total 59 patients negative for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA and also from 4 (8.0%) out of the total 50 patients positive for anti-HCV Abs and undetectable plasma HCV-RNA. HCV genotyping analysis showed that 6 (60.0%) patients were infected with HCV subtype 3a, 3 (30.0%) were infected with HCV subtype 1a and 1 (10.0%) patient was infected with HCV subtype 1b. This study revealed the incidence of OCI (9.2%) in HIV-infected Iranian patients. Hence, designing prospective studies focusing on the detection of OCI in these patients would provide more information. J. Med. Virol. 88:1960-1966, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Transmission dynamics of hepatitis E among swine: potential impact upon human infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV infection is a zoonosis for which pigs play a role as a reservoir. In Japan, the infection has been enzootic in swine. Clarifying the detailed mechanisms of transmission within farms is required in order to facilitate an understanding of the age-specific patterns of infection, especially just prior to slaughter. Results Here we reanalyze a large-scale seroprevalence survey dataset from Japanese pig farms to estimate the force of infection. The forces of infection of swine HEV were estimated to be 3.45 (95% confidence interval: 3.17, 3.75, 2.68 (2.28, 3.14 and 3.11 (2.76, 3.50 [×10-2 per day] in Hokkaido, Honshu and Kyushu, respectively. The estimates with our model assumptions indicated that the average ages at infection ranged from 59.0–67.3 days and that the basic reproduction number, R0, was in the order of 4.02–5.17. Sensitivity analyses of age-specific incidence at different forces of infection revealed that a decline in the force of infection would elevate the age at infection and could increase the number of virus-excreting pigs at the age of 180 days. Conclusion Although our estimates imply that more than 95% of pigs are infected before the age of 150 days, the model shows that a decline in the force of infection could increase the risk of pig-to-human transmission. If the force of infection started to decline, it might be necessary to implement radical countermeasures (e.g. separation of uninfected pigs from infected herds beginning from the end of the suckling stage to minimize the number of virus-positive pigs at the finishing stage.

  1. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  2. Genetic association of autoimmune hepatitis and human leucocyte antigen in German patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Markus W(o)rns; Arndt Weinmann; Catherine Centner; Anja Piendl; Ansgar W Lohse; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To report on our large German collective and updated data of 142 patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) type 1.METHODS: Key investigations performed were liver biopsy, serum autoantibodies as well as serum markers such as IgG and elevated transaminases.Antinuclear antigen (ANA) and smooth muscle antigen (SMA) autoantibodies characterized type 1 AIH. Type 3 (AIH) was solely characterized by the occurrence of soluble liver antigen/liver-pancreas antigen (SLA/LP)autoantibodies either with or without ANA or SMA autoantibodies.RESULTS: Most prevalent HLAs were A2 (68 patients, 48%), B8 (63 patients, 44%), C7 (90 patients, 63%), DR3 (49 patients, 38%), DR4 (49 patients, 38%) and DQ2 (42 patients, 30%). Compared to the Italian and North American patients, we found fewer patients with a DQ2 subtype. Furthermore, the B8-DR3-DQ2human leucocyte antigen (HLA) was also less prominent compared to the North American patients. However, prevalences of B8, DR3, DR4, DR7, DR11 and DR13 were comparable to the Italian and North American patients. Furthermore, we report on an additional subgroup of patients with SLA/LP positive AIH. Generally, in this subgroup of patients the same HLA subtypes were favoured as the AIH type 1. CONCLUSION: Although HLA subtypes were comparable between these three collectives, the German patients were distinct from the Italian and North American patients with respect to DQ2 and from the North American patients with respect to B8-DR3-DQ2HLA. A clinical correlation, e.g. difference in severity or treatability of AIH type 1, has yet to be determined.

  3. Human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF-modified hepatic oval cells improve liver transplant survival.

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    Zhu Li

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the field of immunosuppression, acute rejection is still a common postoperative complication following liver transplantation. This study aims to investigate the capacity of the human hepatocyte growth factor (hHGF in modifying hepatic oval cells (HOCs administered simultaneously with orthotopic liver transplantation as a means of improving graft survival. HOCs were activated and isolated using a modified 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH model in male Lewis rats. A HOC line stably expressing the HGF gene was established following stable transfection of the pBLAST2-hHGF plasmid. Our results demonstrated that hHGF-modified HOCs could efficiently differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelial cells in vitro. Administration of HOCs at the time of liver transplantation induced a wider distribution of SRY-positive donor cells in liver tissues. Administration of hHGF-HOC at the time of transplantation remarkably prolonged the median survival time and improved liver function for recipients compared to these parameters in the other treatment groups (P<0.05. Moreover, hHGF-HOC administration at the time of liver transplantation significantly suppressed elevation of interleukin-2 (IL-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ levels while increasing the production of IL-10 and TGF-β1 (P<0.05. HOC or hHGF-HOC administration promoted cell proliferation, reduced cell apoptosis, and decreased liver allograft rejection rates. Furthermore, hHGF-modified HOCs more efficiently reduced acute allograft rejection (P<0.05 versus HOC transplantation only. Our results indicate that the combination of hHGF-modified HOCs with liver transplantation decreased host anti-graft immune responses resulting in a reduction of allograft rejection rates and prolonging graft survival in recipient rats. This suggests that HOC-based cell transplantation therapies can be developed as a means of treating severe liver

  4. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293

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    Nikolau Basil J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2 receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. Methods A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s responsible for this bioactivity. Results A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the

  5. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lankun; Rowe, Eric W; Jeftinija, Ksenija; Jeftinija, Srdija; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Nikolau, Basil J; McKay, Jodi; Kohut, Marian; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2010-11-23

    With a traditional medical use for treatment of various ailments, herbal preparations of Echinacea are now popularly used to improve immune responses. One likely mode of action is that alkamides from Echinacea bind to cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors and induce a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. Here, we show that unidentified compounds from Echinacea purpurea induce cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in non-immune-related cells, which lack CB2 receptors and that the Ca2+ elevation is not influenced by alkamides. A non-immune human cell line, HEK293, was chosen to evaluate E. purpurea root extracts and constituents as potential regulators of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ levels were monitored and visualized by intracellular calcium imaging. U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), an antagonist of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor, were tested to determine the mechanism of this Ca2+ signaling pathway. E. purpurea root ethanol extracts were fractionated by preparative HPLC, screened for bioactivity on HEK293 cells and by GC-MS for potential constituent(s) responsible for this bioactivity. A rapid transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ levels occurs when E. purpurea extracts are applied to HEK293 cells. These stimulatory effects are phospholipase C and IP3 receptor dependent. Echinacea-evoked responses could not be blocked by SR 144528, a specific CB2 receptor antagonist, indicating that CB2 is not involved. Ca2+ elevation is sustained after the Echinacea-induced Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores; this longer-term effect is abolished by 2-APB, indicating a possible store operated calcium entry involvement. Of 28 HPLC fractions from E. purpurea root extracts, six induce cytosolic Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, GC-MS analysis of these fractions, as well as treatment of HEK293 cells with known individual and combined chemicals, indicates the components thought to be responsible for the major

  6. Fulminant hepatic failure attributed to infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in an immunocompetent woman: A case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Baewer, David; Cook, Linda; David, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Mild disease due to human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) has been reported in healthy children. Severe disease due to this virus can occur in immunocompromised patients but is rarely reported in previously healthy adults. We report the case of a previously healthy woman who presented with a skin rash, mild upper respiratory symptoms, and abdominal pain and succumbed to fulminant hepatic failure attributed to infection with HHV-6B. HHV-6 may be more commonly associated with fulminant hepatitis in immunocompetent patients than previously thought and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with skin rash, upper respiratory symptoms, and unexplained hepatitis.

  7. Human induced hepatic lineage-oriented stem cells: autonomous specification of human iPS cells toward hepatocyte-like cells without any exogenous differentiation factors.

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    Tetsuya Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Preparing targeted cells for medical applications from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs using growth factors, compounds, or gene transfer has been challenging. Here, we report that human induced hepatic lineage-oriented stem cells (hiHSCs were generated and expanded as a new type of hiPSC under non-typical coculture with feeder cells in a chemically defined hiPSC medium at a very high density. Self-renewing hiHSCs expressed markers of both human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and hepatocytes. Those cells were highly expandable, markedly enhancing gene expression of serum hepatic proteins and cytochrome P450 enzymes with the omission of FGF-2 from an undefined hiPSC medium. The hepatic specification of hiHSCs was not attributable to the genetic and epigenetic backgrounds of the starting cells, as they were established from distinct donors and different types of cells. Approximately 90% of hiHSCs autonomously differentiated to hepatocyte-like cells, even in a defined minimum medium without any of the exogenous growth factors necessary for hepatic specification. After 12 days of this culture, the differentiated cells significantly enhanced gene expression of serum hepatic proteins (ALB, SERPINA1, TTR, TF, FABP1, FGG, AGT, RBP4, and AHSG, conjugating enzymes (UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, GSTA2, and GSTA5, transporters (SULT2A1, SLC13A5, and SLCO2B1, and urea cycle-related enzymes (ARG1 and CPS1. In addition, the hepatocyte-like cells performed key functions of urea synthesis, albumin secretion, glycogen storage, indocyanine green uptake, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. The autonomous hepatic specification of hiHSCs was due to their culture conditions (coculture with feeder cells in a defined hiPSC medium at a very high density in self-renewal rather than in differentiation. These results suggest the feasibility of preparing large quantities of hepatocytes as a convenient and inexpensive hiPSC differentiation. Our study also suggests the

  8. Multinucleation and cell dysfunction induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles in an L-02 human hepatic cell line

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    Wang W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wen Wang,1–3,* Yang Li,1–3,* Xiaomei Liu,3 Minghua Jin,3 Haiying Du,3 Ying Liu,3 Peili Huang,1,2 Xianqing Zhou,1,2 Lan Yuan,4 Zhiwei Sun1–3 1School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3School of Public Health, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 4Medical and Healthy Analysis Centre, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Silica nanoparticles (SNPs are one of the most important nanomaterials, and have been widely used in a variety of fields. Therefore, their effects on human health and the environment have been addressed in a number of studies. In this work, the effects of amorphous SNPs were investigated with regard to multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells. Our results show that L-02 cells had an abnormally high incidence of multinucleation upon exposure to silica, that increased in a dose-dependent manner. Propidium iodide staining showed that multinucleated cells were arrested in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Increased multinucleation in L-02 cells was associated with increased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial damage on flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, which might have led to failure of cytokinesis in these cells. Further, SNPs inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in exposed cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that multinucleation in L-02 human hepatic cells might be a failure to undergo cytokinesis or cell fusion in response to SNPs, and the increase in cellular reactive oxygen species could be responsible for the apoptosis seen in both mononuclear cells and multinucleated cells. Keywords: silica nanoparticles, human hepatic cell L-02, multinucleation, cell cycle, cell dysfunction, apoptosis

  9. Prenatal invasive procedures in women with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and/or human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Alain; Davies, Gregory; Wilson, R Douglas; Wilson, R Douglas; Audibert, Francois; Brock, Jo-Ann; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June; Chitaya, David T; Gagnon, Alain; Johnson, Jo-Ann; MacDonald, William; Murphy-Kaulbeck, Lynn; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie

    2014-07-01

    Objectif : Analyser le risque d’infection in utero attribuable aux interventions effractives prénatales chez les femmes qui présentent des infections par le virus de l’hépatite B, le virus de l’hépatite C et/ou le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH). Issues : Morbidité et mortalité foetales et néonatales. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « amniocentesis », « chorionic villus sampling », « cordocentesis », « fetal and neonatal infection ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « hepatitis B », « hepatitis C », « HIV ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles publiés en anglais ou en français entre 2002 et 2012 (les études publiées entre 1966 et 2002 ont déjà fait l’objet d’une analyse dans le cadre de la directive clinique n° 123). Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en février 2014. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Pour l’évaluation du risque prénatal chez les femmes infectées par le virus de l’hépatite B, le virus de l’hépatite C et/ou le virus de l

  10. Interspecies variation in phase I metabolism of bufalin in hepatic microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, minipig, monkey, and human.

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    Ning, Jing; Hou, Jie; Wang, Ping; Wu, Jing-Jing; Dai, Zi-Ru; Zou, Li-Wei; Li, Wei; Ge, Guang-Bo; Ma, Xiao-Chi; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    1. Bufalin (BF), one of the major bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Chansu, has been found with various pharmacological and toxicological effects. This study aims to investigate the species differences in phase I metabolism of BF in hepatic microsomes from human and five common experimental animals. 2. Metabolite profiling demonstrated that two major metabolites were formed in liver microsomes from human and animal species in NADPH-generating system. Two major metabolites were identified as 5β-hydroxyl-bufalin and 3-keto-bufalin, with the help of authentic standards. CYP3A was assigned as the main isoform involved in both 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation in all studied liver microsomes. The apparent kinetic parameters including substrate affinity and catalytic efficiency for 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation of BF were also determined. 3. In summary, CYP3A mediated 5β-hydroxylation and 3-oxidation were two major metabolic pathways of BF in hepatic microsomes from human and five studied animals, but kinetic analysis demonstrated that the intrinsic clearances of these two metabolic pathways were much different among various species. The qualitative and quantitative interspecies study indicated that minipig exhibited the similar metabolic profile, kinetic behaviors and intrinsic metabolic clearances of BF phase I biotransformation in comparison with that of human.

  11. Experimental chronic hepatitis B infection of neonatal tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis: A model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans

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    Wang Qi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. Feasible and effective animal models for HBV infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. The tree shrew (Tupaia is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. Whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with HBV in vivo has been controversial for decades. Most published research has been reported on adult tree shrews, and only small numbers of HBV infected newborn tree shrews had been observed over short time periods. We investigated susceptibility of newborn tree shrews to experimental HBV infection as well as viral clearance over a protracted time period. Results Forty-six newborn tree shrews were inoculated with the sera from HBV-infected patients or tree shrews. Serum and liver samples of the inoculated animals were periodically collected and analyzed using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Southern blot, and immunohistochemistry. Six tree shrews were confirmed and four were suspected as chronically HBV-infected for more than 48 (up to 228 weeks after inoculation, including three that had been inoculated with serum from a confirmed HBV-infected tree shrew. Conclusions Outbred neonatal tree shrews can be long-term chronically infected with HBV at a frequency comparable to humans. The model resembles human disease where also a smaller proportion of infected individuals develop chronic HBV related disease. This model might enable genetic and immunologic investigations which would allow determination of underlying molecular causes favoring susceptibility for chronic HBV infection and disease establishment vs. viral clearance.

  12. Recombinant BCG Expressing ESX-1 of Mycobacterium marinum Combines Low Virulence with Cytosolic Immune Signaling and Improved TB Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gröschel, Matthias I.; Sayes, Fadel; Shin, Sung Jae; Frigui, Wafa; Pawlik, Alexandre; Orgeur, Mickael; Canetti, Robin; Honore, Nadine; Simeone, Roxane; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Bitter, Wilbert; Cho, Sang-Nae; Majlessi, Laleh; Brosch, Roland

    2017-01-01

    Recent insights into the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, is recognized by cytosolic nucleotide sensors have opened new avenues for rational vaccine design. The only licensed anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacteriumbovis BCG, provides limited

  13. Hepatic crown-like structure: a unique histological feature in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in mice and humans.

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    Michiko Itoh

    Full Text Available Although macrophages are thought to be crucial for the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases, how they are involved in disease progression from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is poorly understood. Here we report the unique histological structure termed "hepatic crown-like structures (hCLS" in the mouse model of human NASH; melanocortin-4 receptor deficient mice fed a Western diet. In hCLS, CD11c-positive macrophages aggregate to surround hepatocytes with large lipid droplets, which is similar to those described in obese adipose tissue. Histological analysis revealed that hCLS is closely associated with activated fibroblasts and collagen deposition. When treatment with clodronate liposomes effectively depletes macrophages scattered in the liver, with those in hCLS intact, hepatic expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic genes is unaffected, suggesting that hCLS is an important source of inflammation and fibrosis during the progression of NASH. Notably, the number of hCLS is positively correlated with the extent of liver fibrosis. We also observed increased number of hCLS in the liver of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/NASH patients. Collectively, our data provide evidence that hCLS is involved in the development of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, thereby suggesting its pathophysiologic role in disease progression from simple steatosis to NASH.

  14. KN-93, a specific inhibitor of CaMK Ⅱ inhibits human hepatic stellate cell proliferation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping An; Jun-Yong Zhu; Yan Yang; Peng Lv; Yi-Hao Tian; Ming-Kai Chen; He-Sheng Luo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of KN-93, a CaMKⅡ selective inhibitor on cell proliferation and the expression of p53 or p21 protein in human hepatic stellate ceils.METHODS: Human hepatic stellate cells (LX-2) were incubated with various concentrations (0-50 μmol/L) of KN-93 or its inactive derivative, KN-92. Cell proliferation was measured by CCK-8 assay, and the expression of two cell cycle regulators, p53 and p21, was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting.RESULTS: KN-93 (5-50 μmol/L) decreased the proliferation of human hepatic stellate cells in a dosedependent manner from 81.76% (81.76% + 2.58% vs 96.63% + 2.69%, P < 0.05) to 27.15% (27.15% + 2.86% vs 96.59% + 2.44%, P < 0.01) after 24 h treatment.Incubation of 10 μmol/L KN-93 induced the cell growth reduction in a time-dependent manner from 78.27% at 8 h to 11.48% at 48 h. However, KN-92, an inactive derivative of KN-93, did not inhibit cell proliferation effectively. Moreover, analysis of cell cycle regulator expression revealed that KN-93 rather than KN-92 reduced the expression of p53 and p21.CONCLUSION: KN-93 has potent inhibitory effect on proliferation of LX-2 cells by modulating the expression of two special cell cycle regulators, p53 and p21.

  15. Cost effectiveness of adding nucleic acid testing to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus screening of blood donations in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Mapako, Tonderai; Khoza, Star; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Marowa, Lucy; Mvere, David; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDThe aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of introducing individual-donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT), in addition to serologic tests, compared with the exclusive use of serologic tests for the identification of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hu

  16. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  17. Downregulation of IGF-1 receptor occurs after hepatic linage commitment during hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waraky, Ahmed; Aleem, Eiman; Larsson, Olle

    2016-09-30

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) has been suggested to be involved in hepatocyte differentiation. Human hepatocyte cancer cells and stem cells are known to express IGF-1R whereas normal hepatocytes do not. In the present study we optimized a differentiation protocol and verified the different stages by established markers. The expression levels of IGF-1R and major downstream signaling proteins during differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to mature hepatocytes were investigated. We could only demonstrate a minor decrease in IGF-1R expression during endodermal differentiation compared to hESC, but declined substantially (>50%) after hepatic lineage commitment during the hepatocyte specification and maturation stages. This downregulation was paralleled by an upregulation of ERK 1/2, AKT and insulin substrate-1. Neither inhibition nor activation of IGF-1R had any essential effect on endoderm differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, our data suggest that IGF-1R downregulation may have a regulatory impact after initiation of hepatic lineage commitment. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 1-(5-Carboxyindol-1-yl)propan-2-ones as inhibitors of human cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha: synthesis and properties of bioisosteric benzimidazole, benzotriazole and indazole analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovens, Stefanie; Kaptur, Martina; Elfringhoff, Alwine Schulze; Lehr, Matthias

    2009-04-15

    The indole ring systems of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) inhibitor 1-[3-(4-octylphenoxy)-2-oxopropyl]indole-5-carboxylic acid (2) and the isomeric 6-carboxylic acid (3) were replaced by benzimidazole, benzotriazole and indazole scaffolds, respectively. The effect of the structural variations on cPLA(2)alpha inhibitory potency, metabolic stability and solubility was studied. The lead 2 and the indazole-5-carboxylic acid 28 were the metabolically most stable compounds in an assay with rat liver microsomes, while the benzimidazole-5-carboxylic acid derivative 13 possessed the best water solubility (22 microg/mL at pH 7.4). The indazole-5-carboxylic acid 28 revealed the highest cPLA(2)alpha inhibitory potency of the compounds in this series. With an IC(50)-value of 0.005 microM it was about sevenfold more active than the lead 2.

  19. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Background.  Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods.  We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results.  Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions.  Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Access Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-Coinfected People Who Inject Drugs in Guangzhou, China: Implications for HCV Treatment Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carissa E.; Wu, Feng; He, Xi; Zhou, Kali; Cheng, Yu; Cai, Weiping; Geng, Elvin; Volberding, Paul; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment access among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected people who inject drugs is poor, despite a high burden of disease in this population. Understanding barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment uptake is critical to the implementation of new direct-acting antivirals. Methods. We conducted in-depth interviews with patients, physicians, and social workers at an HIV treatment facility and methadone maintenance treatment centers in Guangzhou, China to identify barriers and facilitators to HCV treatment. We included patients who were in various stages of HCV treatment and those who were not treated. We used standard qualitative methods and organized data into themes. Results. Interview data from 29 patients, 8 physicians, and 3 social workers were analyzed. Facilitators and barriers were organized according to a modified Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research schematic. Facilitators included patient trust in physicians, hope for a cure, peer networks, and social support. Barriers included ongoing drug use, low HCV disease knowledge, fragmented reimbursement systems, HIV exceptionalism, and stigma. Conclusions. Expanding existing harm reduction programs, HIV treatment programs, and social services may facilitate scale-up of direct-acting antivirals globally. Improving integration of ancillary social and mental health services within existing HIV care systems may facilitate HCV treatment access. PMID:27419150

  1. A comparison between previous and present histologic assessments of chronic hepatitis C viral infections in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To compare the previously employed classification of liver histology (minimal, chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis) with a new classification recently described by Sheuer et al (activity grade and fibrosis stage) in percutaneous liver biopsies from patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infections.METHODS Liver biopsies from 79 untreated patients were reviewed. Anti-HCV testing had been performed by ELISA and confirmed by a recombinant immunoblot assay. With respect to the new classification, all the specimens were evaluated using the Knodell score for activity.RESULTS A good correlation was revealed between the previous and more recent histologic classifications in patients with abnormal liver enzyme tests. However, in 13/ 15 (87%) of patients with normal aminotransferase values, changes were consistent with chronic persistent hepatitis whereas normal activity and no fibrosis were demonstrated by the Sheuer classification.CONCLUSION The old classification is more often misleading but correlates well with the new classification and thereby permits comparisons between historically clinical studies.

  2. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate therapy for chronic hepatitis B in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus-coinfected individuals for whom interferon-alpha and lamivudine therapy have failed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristig, Maria B; Crippin, Jeffrey; Aberg, Judith A; Powderly, William G; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Kessels, Lisa; Tebas, Pablo

    2002-12-15

    A significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients are coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Currently available treatments for chronic hepatitis B (interferon [IFN]-alpha and lamivudine [3TC]) have limited long-term utility because of side effects or of the development of resistance. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide analog with excellent activity in vitro against HBV, which is also active against 3TC-resistant HBV variants. In this 24-week pilot study, the anti-HBV activity of TDF was prospectively evaluated in a cohort of 6 HIV coinfected subjects for whom 3TC and IFN therapy had previously failed. At baseline, all patients were taking 3TC or FTC and were hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen positive; 4 had cirrhosis. Baseline HBV load was 7.95 log(10) copies/mL. By weeks 12 and 24, HBV load had decreased by 3.1 log(10) copies/mL and 4.3 log(10) copies/mL, respectively. There was a transient increase of transaminases after the initiation of treatment. No patient developed HBe antibodies. TDF is a very promising drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in HIV-infected individuals.

  3. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinori Miyata

    Full Text Available Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10 under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases, photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical

  4. Photoacoustic tomography of human hepatic malignancies using intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  5. Co-infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in New York City, United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong Hun Kim; George Psevdos Jr; Jin Suh; Victoria Lee Sharp

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To study the prevalence and risk factors associated with triple infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an urban clinic population.METHODS:Retrospective chart review of 5639 patients followed at St.Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital HIV Clinic (Center for Comprehensive Care) in New York City,USA from January 1999 to May 2007.The following demographic characteristics were analyzed:age,sex,race and HIV risk factors.A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of demographic factors on acquisition of these viruses.RESULTS:HIV/HBV,HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCVinfections were detected in 252/5639 (4.47%),1411/5639 (25.02%) and 89/5639 (1.58%) patients,respectively.HIV/HBV co-infections were associated with male gender (OR 1.711; P=0.005),black race (OR 2.091; P < 0.001),men having sex with men (MSM)(OR 1.747; P=0.001),intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 0.114; P < 0.001),IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 0.247; P=0.018),or unknown (OR 1.984; P=0.004).HIV/HCV co-infections were associated with male gender (OR 1.241; P=0.011),black race (OR 0.788;P=0.036),MSM(OR 0.565; P < 0.001),IDU (OR 8.956;P < 0.001),IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 9.106;P < 0.001),IDU and MSM (OR 9.179; P < 0.001),or transfusion (OR 3.224; P < 0.001).HIV/HBV/HCV coinfections were associated with male gender (OR 2.156;P=0.015),IDU (OR 6.345; P < 0.001),IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 9.731; P < 0.001),IDU and MSM (OR 9.228; P < 0.001),or unknown (OR 4.219;P=0.007).CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that coinfection with HBV/HCV/HIV is significantly associated with IDU.These results highlight the need to intensify education and optimal models of integrated care,particularly for populations with IDU,to reduce the risk of viral transmission.

  6. Reduction of ischemia reperfusion injury after liver resection and hepatic inflow occlusion by α-lipoic acid in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fritz Dünschede; Kirsten Erbes; Achim Kircher; Stefanie Westermann; Joachim Seifert; Arno Schad; Kempski Oliver; Alexandra K Kiemer; Junginger Theodor

    2006-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the protective effects of preconditioning by α-lipoic acid (LA) in patients undergoing hepatic resection under inflow occlusion of the liver.METHODS:Twenty-four patients undergoing liver resection for various reasons either received 600 mg LA or NaCl 15 min before transection performed under inflow occlusion of the liver. Blood samples and liver wedge biopsy samples were obtained after opening of the abdomen immediately after inflow occlusion of the liver, and 30 min after the end of inflow occlusion of the liver.RESULTS:Serum levels of aspartate transferase and alanine transferase were reduced at all time points in patients who received LA in comparison to those who received NaCL. This was accompanied by reduced histomorphological features of oncosis. We observed TUNELpositive hepatocytes in the livers of the untreated patients, especially after 30 min of ischemia. LA attenuated this increase of TUNEL-positive hepatocytes. Under preconditioning with LA, ATP content was significantly enhanced after 30 min of ischemia and after 30 min of reperfusion.CONCLUSION:This is the first report on the potential for LA reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver in humans who were undergoing liver surgery.Beside its simple and rapid application, side effects did not occur. LA might therefore represent a new strategy against hepatic IRI in humans.

  7. Autoimmune Hepatitis Triggered by Treatment With Pegylated Interferon α-2a and Ribavirin for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Choksi, Dhaval; Parikh, Pathik; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis flare is rarely observed during treatment with pegylated interferon alpha for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. A 49-year-old man receiving pegylated interferon α-2a for HCV infection had icterus and hyperbiliru-binemia in the 14th week of therapy, with HCV RNA undetectable after the 12th dose. Liver biopsy was suggestive of chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis without interface pattern. Pegylated interferon was discontinued; a few weeks later, his aminotransferases and immunoglobulin levels increased significantly. Antibody to cytosolic liver antigen-1 was positive, and liver biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with intense interface hepatitis, consistent with autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:26203454

  8. Hepatic amebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Salles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Amebiasis can be considered the most aggressive disease of the human intestine, responsible in its invasive form for clinical syndromes, ranging from the classic dysentery of acute colitis to extra-intestinal disease, with emphasis on hepatic amebiasis, unsuitably named amebic liver abscess. Found worldwide, with a high incidence in India, tropical regions of Africa, Mexico and other areas of Central America, it has been frequently reported in Amazonia. The trophozoite reaches the liver through the portal system, provoking enzymatic focal necrosis of hepatocytes and multiple micro-abscesses that coalesce to develop a single lesion whose central cavity contains a homogeneous thick liquid, with typically reddish brown and yellow color similar to "anchovy paste". Right upper quadrant pain, fever and hepatomegaly are the predominant symptoms of hepatic amebiasis. Jaundice is reported in cases with multiple lesions or a very large abscess, and it affects the prognosis adversely. Besides chest radiography, ultrasonography and computerized tomography have brought remarkable contributions to the diagnosis of hepatic abscesses. The conclusive diagnosis is made however by the finding of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites in the pus and by the detection of serum antibodies to the amoeba. During the evolution of hepatic amebiasis, in spite of the availability of highly effective drugs, some important complications may occur with regularity and are a result of local perforation with extension into the pleural and pericardium cavities, causing pulmonary abscesses and purulent pericarditis, respectively The ruptures into the abdominal cavity may lead to subphrenic abscesses and peritonitis. The treatment of hepatic amebiasis is made by medical therapy, with metronidazole as the initial drug, followed by a luminal amebicide. In patients with large abscesses, showing signs of imminent rupture, and especially those who do not respond to medical treatment, a

  9. The effects of short term lipid infusion on plasma and hepatic bile lipids in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Pakula, R; Konikoff, F.; Moser, A.; Greif, F.; Tietz, A; Gilat, T; Rubin, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients on parenteral nutrition have an increased incidence of gall bladder sludge and gallstone disease, thought to be related to bile stasis. Intravenous lipid emulsions, especially those containing medium chain triglycerides, have also been shown to have a lithogenic effect on the composition of bile in the gall bladder.
AIMS—To determine whether lipid infusion influences hepatic bile composition in patients with an indwelling T tube following cholecystectomy and choledochotomy...

  10. A Novel Human Radixin Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Infection at the Level of Cell Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Bukong, Terence N; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection of hepatocytes is a multistep process involving the interaction between viral and host cell molecules. Recently, we identified ezrin–moesin–radixin proteins and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) as important host therapeutic targets for HCV treatment development. Previously, an ezrin hinge region peptide (Hep1) has been shown to exert anti-HCV properties in vivo, though its mechanism of action remains limited. In search of potential novel inhibitors of HCV infection and...

  11. Mechanism by which glucose and insulin inhibit net hepatic glycogenolysis in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, K F; Laurent, D.; Rothman, D L; Cline, G W; Shulman, G I

    1998-01-01

    13C NMR spectroscopy was used to assess flux rates of hepatic glycogen synthase and phosphorylase in overnight-fasted subjects under one of four hypoglucagonemic conditions: protocol I, hyperglycemic (approximately 10 mM) -hypoinsulinemia (approximately 40 pM); protocol II, euglycemic (approximately 5 mM) -hyperinsulinemia (approximately 400 pM); protocol III, hyperglycemic (approximately 10 mM) -hyperinsulinemia (approximately 400 pM); and protocol IV; euglycemic (approximately 5 mM) -hypoin...

  12. Hepatic and extrahepatic clearance of circulating human lactoferrin: An experimental study in rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peen, E. [Haukeland Hospital, Dept. of Internal Medicine B, Bergen (Norway); Johansson, A.; Engquist, M. [Linkoeping Univ., Faculty of Health Sciences, Dept. of Medical Microbiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Skogh, T. [Univ. Hospital of Linkoeping, Dept. of Rheumatology, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Lactoferrin, unlabelled or {sup 125}I-labelled by 2 different methods, was given intravenously to rats. Blood, tissue and liver cell radioactivity was measured. Both of the radiolabelled preparations were eliminated by the liver, and some deposited extra hepatically. One preparation formed large aggregates - here 90% of the hepatic uptake occurred in the Kupffer cells. The other preparation, consisting mostly of protein monomers but also dimers/oligomers/micro aggregates, was taken up by hepatocytes (63% of total liver uptake), liver endothelial cells (22%) and Kupffer cells (15%). On a per cell volume basis, lactoferrin uptake was much more efficient by nonparenchymal cells compared to hepatocytes, which explains why immuno morphological staining only revealed lactoferrin in the nonparenchymal liver cells. The study demonstrates that radio-iodination of lactoferrin can affect its properties and handling, which may be important regarding contradictory reports on hepatic lactoferrin uptake. We conclude that both hepatocytes and nonparenchymal liver cells are involved in the blood clearance of lactoferrin, probably to a great extent owing to nonspecific mechanisms. Extrahepatic deposition and exposure (for instance on vessel walls/glomeruli) suggests that lactoferrin can be available to circulating anti-lactoferrin autoantibodies in autoimmune disease. (au) 56 refs.

  13. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Hepatitis A Questions and Answers for the Public Recommend on ... Hepatitis C. What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care, food, or sewage industry Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is the least serious and mildest of these diseases. Symptoms ... most often show up 2 to 6 weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis A virus. They are most often mild, but may last ...

  15. 1-(3-biaryloxy-2-oxopropyl)indole-5-carboxylic acids and related compounds as dual inhibitors of human cytosolic phospholipase A2α and fatty acid amide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahov, Stefan; Drews, Andreas; Hess, Mark; Schulze Elfringhoff, Alwine; Lehr, Matthias

    2011-03-07

    Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are enzymes that have emerged as attractive targets for the development of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. We recently reported that 1-[3-(4-octylphenoxy)-2-oxopropyl]indole-5-carboxylic acid (5) is a dual inhibitor of cPLA2α and FAAH. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that substituents at the indole 3- and 5-positions and replacement of the indole scaffold of this compound by other heterocycles strongly influences the inhibitory potency against cPLA2α and FAAH, respectively. Herein we report the effect of variation of the 4-octyl residue of 5 and an exchange of its carboxylic acid moiety by some bioisosteric functional groups. Several of the compounds assayed were favorably active against both enzymes, and could therefore represent agents with improved analgesic and anti-inflammatory qualities in comparison with selective cPLA2 α and FAAH inhibitors.

  16. Thermal Inactivation Kinetics of Human Norovirus Surrogates and Hepatitis A Virus in Turkey Deli Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hayriye; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-07-01

    Human noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) have been implicated in outbreaks linked to the consumption of presliced ready-to-eat deli meats. The objectives of this research were to determine the thermal inactivation kinetics of HNoV surrogates (murine norovirus 1 [MNV-1] and feline calicivirus strain F9 [FCV-F9]) and HAV in turkey deli meat, compare first-order and Weibull models to describe the data, and calculate Arrhenius activation energy values for each model. The D (decimal reduction time) values in the temperature range of 50 to 72°C calculated from the first-order model were 0.1 ± 0.0 to 9.9 ± 3.9 min for FCV-F9, 0.2 ± 0.0 to 21.0 ± 0.8 min for MNV-1, and 1.0 ± 0.1 to 42.0 ± 5.6 min for HAV. Using the Weibull model, the tD = 1 (time to destroy 1 log) values for FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV at the same temperatures ranged from 0.1 ± 0.0 to 11.9 ± 5.1 min, from 0.3 ± 0.1 to 17.8 ± 1.8 min, and from 0.6 ± 0.3 to 25.9 ± 3.7 min, respectively. The z (thermal resistance) values for FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV were 11.3 ± 2.1°C, 11.0 ± 1.6°C, and 13.4 ± 2.6°C, respectively, using the Weibull model. The z values using the first-order model were 11.9 ± 1.0°C, 10.9 ± 1.3°C, and 12.8 ± 1.7°C for FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV, respectively. For the Weibull model, estimated activation energies for FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV were 214 ± 28, 242 ± 36, and 154 ± 19 kJ/mole, respectively, while the calculated activation energies for the first-order model were 181 ± 16, 196 ± 5, and 167 ± 9 kJ/mole, respectively. Precise information on the thermal inactivation of HNoV surrogates and HAV in turkey deli meat was generated. This provided calculations of parameters for more-reliable thermal processes to inactivate viruses in contaminated presliced ready-to-eat deli meats and thus to reduce the risk of foodborne illness outbreaks.

  17. An efficient and simple co-culture method for isolating primary human hepatic cells: Potential application for tumor microenvironment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Lu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jingkun; Yin, Shuai; Ou, Baochi; Feng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Co-cultivation of non-parenchymal cells (NPCs) and tumor cells from the same donor is important for metastatic cancer research. This study aimed to optimize a protocol for liver NPC isolation. Two novel 3D organotypic co‑culture models for hepatocyte, endothelial cell (EC) and Kupffer cell (KC) isolation were used. Long‑term cell co‑culture, density gradient centrifugation and magnetic‑activated cell sorting (MACS) were established. ECs were isolated from the co‑culture system; the purity of the ECs was 92±1.2%. The island‑like shape of hepatocytes was noted in the 3D co‑culture system, and spindle cells were found in the rest space. Immunofluorescence analysis showed a net structure; the connective tissue was positively stained with VE‑cadherin or CD68, which were ECs and KCs/macrophages. KCs were enriched in this system and separated by using selective adherence to plastic. Clec4f+ KCs consisted of 87±6.3% of these cells. Heterogeneous endothelium populations were detected, including sinusoid ECs, microvascular ECs and hepatic lymphatic vessel epithelial cells. In addition, hepatic progenitor cells were isolated and differentiated into hepatoblasts. Dendritic cells (DCs), invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells were further separated by density gradient centrifugation and magnetic bead sorting. In the present study, high protein expression levels of desmin and GFAP were observed in the hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Most of the HSCs were α‑SMA‑positive cells, which underlined the identity of activated HSCs. Intrahepatic human biliary epithelial cells (hBECs) were semi‑purified by centrifugation on a Percoll gradient and were further immunopurified. In conclusion, we provide an efficient long‑term culture method to obtain liver NPCs in sufficient number and purity.

  18. Cytosolic beta-glycosidases for activation of glycoside prodrugs of daunorubicin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de M.; Pinedo, H.M.; Quadir, R; Haisma, H.J.; Boven, E.

    2003-01-01

    Human cytosolic beta-glycosidase is a small monomeric enzyme that is active under physiological conditions, which might be ideal for enzyme-prodrug therapy. We have previously reported the synthesis of a galactoside (DNR-GlA3) and a glucoside (DNR-GsA3) prodrug of daunorubicin. In the present study,

  19. Cytosolic beta-glycosidases for activation of glycoside prodrugs of daunorubicin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Quadir, R.; Haisma, H.J.; Boven, E.

    2003-01-01

    Human cytosolic beta-glycosidase is a small monomeric enzyme that is active under physiological conditions, which might be ideal for enzyme-prodrug therapy. We have previously reported the synthesis of a galactoside (DNR-GlA(3)) and a glucoside (DNR-GsA3) prodrug of daunorubicin. In the present

  20. Effects of Liver Resection on Hepatic Short-Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, Evelien P. J. G.; Bloemen, Johanne G.; Rensen, Sander S.; van der Vorst, Joost R.; van den Broek, Maartje A.; Venema, Koen; Buurman, Wim A.; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine whether acute loss of liver tissue affects hepatic short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) clearance. Methods Blood was sampled from the radial artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein before and after hepatic resection in 30 patients undergoing partial liver resection. Plasma SCFA levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. SCFA exchange across gut and liver was calculated from arteriovenous differences and plasma flow. Liver volume was estimated by CT liver volumetry. Results The gut produced significant amounts of acetate, propionate, and butyrate (39.4±13.5, 6.2±1.3, and 9.5±2.6 μmol·kgbw-1·h-1), which did not change after partial hepatectomy (p = 0.67, p = 0.59 and p = 0.24). Hepatic propionate uptake did not differ significantly before and after resection (-6.4±1.4 vs. -8.4±1.5 μmol·kgbw-1·h-1, p = 0.49). Hepatic acetate and butyrate uptake increased significantly upon partial liver resection (acetate: -35.1±13.0 vs. -39.6±9.4 μmol·kgbw-1·h-1, p = 0.0011; butyrate: -9.9±2.7 vs. -11.5±2.4 μmol·kgbw-1·h-1, p = 0.0006). Arterial SCFA concentrations were not different before and after partial liver resection (acetate: 176.9±17.3 vs. 142.3±12.5 μmol/L, p = 0.18; propionate: 7.2±1.4 vs. 5.6±0.6 μmol/L, p = 0.38; butyrate: 4.3±0.7 vs. 3.6±0.6 μmol/L, p = 0.73). Conclusion The liver maintains its capacity to clear acetate, propionate, and butyrate from the portal blood upon acute loss of liver tissue. PMID:27835668

  1. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A randomized, open-label study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of human hepatitis C immune globulin (Civacir) in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gary L; Nelson, David R; Terrault, Norah; Pruett, Timothy L; Schiano, Thomas D; Fletcher, Courtney V; Sapan, Christine V; Riser, Laura N; Li, Yufeng; Whitley, Richard J; Gnann, John W

    2005-08-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is the most common indication for liver transplantation, but viral recurrence is universal and progressive graft injury occurs in most recipients. Our aim was to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and antiviral effects of high doses of a human hepatitis C antibody enriched immune globulin product (HCIG) in patients undergoing liver transplantation for chronic hepatitis C. This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled trial conducted at 4 transplant centers in the United States. A total of 18 patients with chronic hepatitis C, who underwent liver transplantation, were randomized to receive low-dose HCIG (75 mg/kg) or high-dose HCIG (200 mg/kg), or no treatment. A total of 17 infusions of HCIG were administered in each treated patient over 14 weeks using a time-dependent dosing strategy based on the PK of anti-hepatitis B immune globulin in liver transplant recipients. Hepatitis C virus levels, liver enzymes, and liver biopsies were obtained serially throughout the study period. PK profiles of HCV antibodies were determined on days 4, 10, and 98. HCIG infusions were safe and tolerated. The infusion rate could not be maximized because of symptoms for 18% to 30% of the doses. The half-life of HCIG was extremely short immediately after transplantation but was gradually prolonged. In the high-dose group, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels normalized in most subjects and no patient developed hepatic fibrosis. However, serum HCV RNA levels were not suppressed at either dose. In conclusion, HCIG, an anti-HCV enriched immune globulin product, appears to be safe in patients with chronic hepatitis C undergoing liver transplantation. Further studies are required to determine whether the drug has beneficial effects in this group of patients.

  3. Unlocking Barriers to DNA Vaccine Immunogenicity: A Cross-Species Analysis of Cytosolic DNA Sensing in Skeletal Muscle Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Skeletal Muscle Myocytes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Gerasimos J. Zaharatos CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital...Immunogenicity: A Cross-Species Analysis of Cytosolic DNA Sensing in Skeletal Muscle Myocytes 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...humans. The present work is testing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle myocytes sense cytosolic DNA and elaborate an inflammatory response to DNA

  4. Highly Synchronized Expression of Lineage-Specific Genes during In Vitro Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Ghosheh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells- (hPSCs- derived hepatocytes have the potential to replace many hepatic models in drug discovery and provide a cell source for regenerative medicine applications. However, the generation of fully functional hPSC-derived hepatocytes is still a challenge. Towards gaining better understanding of the differentiation and maturation process, we employed a standardized protocol to differentiate six hPSC lines into hepatocytes and investigated the synchronicity of the hPSC lines by applying RT-qPCR to assess the expression of lineage-specific genes (OCT4, NANOG, T, SOX17, CXCR4, CER1, HHEX, TBX3, PROX1, HNF6, AFP, HNF4a, KRT18, ALB, AAT, and CYP3A4 which serve as markers for different stages during liver development. The data was evaluated using correlation and clustering analysis, demonstrating that the expression of these markers is highly synchronized and correlated well across all cell lines. The analysis also revealed a distribution of the markers in groups reflecting the developmental stages of hepatocytes. Functional analysis of the differentiated cells further confirmed their hepatic phenotype. Taken together, these results demonstrate, on the molecular level, the highly synchronized differentiation pattern across multiple hPSC lines. Moreover, this study provides additional understanding for future efforts to improve the functionality of hPSC-derived hepatocytes and thereby increase the value of related models.

  5. Hepatitis E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Hepatitis E Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts ... et al. Lancet 2012;380:2095-2128. World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  6. IOP1 protein is an external component of the human cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) machinery and functions in the MMS19 protein-dependent CIA pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Mineaki; Takeda, Yukiko; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2013-06-07

    The emerging link between iron metabolism and genome integrity is increasingly clear. Recent studies have revealed that MMS19 and cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly (CIA) factors form a complex and have central roles in CIA pathway. However, the composition of the CIA complex, particularly the involvement of the Fe-S protein IOP1, is still unclear. The roles of each component are also largely unknown. Here, we show that MMS19, MIP18, and CIAO1 form a tight "core" complex and that IOP1 is an "external" component of this complex. Although IOP1 and the core complex form a complex both in vivo and in vitro, IOP1 behaves differently in vivo. A deficiency in any core component leads to down-regulation of all of the components. In contrast, IOP1 knockdown does not affect the level of any core component. In MMS19-overproducing cells, other core components are also up-regulated, but the protein level of IOP1 remains unchanged. IOP1 behaves like a target protein in the CIA reaction, like other Fe-S helicases, and the core complex may participate in the maturation process of IOP1. Alternatively, the core complex may catch and hold IOP1 when it becomes mature to prevent its degradation. In any case, IOP1 functions in the MMS19-dependent CIA pathway. We also reveal that MMS19 interacts with target proteins. MIP18 has a role to bridge MMS19 and CIAO1. CIAO1 also binds IOP1. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, new models of the CIA machinery are proposed.

  7. Food extracts consumed in Mediterranean countries and East Asia reduce protein concentrations of androgen receptor, phospho-protein kinase B, and phospho-cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha in human prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaskirat; Xie, Chanlu; Yao, Mu; Hua, Sheng; Vignarajan, Soma; Jardine, Greg; Hambly, Brett D; Sved, Paul; Dong, Qihan

    2010-04-01

    Active surveillance is an emerging management option for the rising number of men with low-grade, clinically localized prostate cancer. However, 30-40% of men on active surveillance will progress to high-grade disease over 5 y. With the ultimate aim of developing a food-based chemoprevention strategy to retard cancer progression in these otherwise healthy men, we have developed a blend of food extracts commonly consumed in Mediterranean countries and East Asia. The effect of the food extracts known as Blueberry Punch (BBP) on prostate cancer cell growth and key signaling pathways were examined in vitro and in vivo. BBP reduced prostate cancer cell growth in a dose-dependent manner (0.08-2.5%) at 72 h in vitro due to the reduction in cell proliferation and viability. Prostate cancer cell xenograft-bearing mice, administered 10% BBP in drinking water for 2 wk, had a 25% reduction in tumor volume compared with the control (water only). In vitro, BBP reduced protein concentrations in 3 signaling pathways necessary for the proliferation and survival of prostate cancer cells, namely androgen receptor, phospho-protein kinase B/protein kinase B, and phospho-cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha. The downstream effectors of these pathways, including prostate-specific antigen and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, were also reduced. Thus, this palatable food supplement is a potential candidate for testing in clinical trials and may ultimately prove effective in retarding the progression of low-grade, early-stage prostate cancer in men managed by active surveillance.

  8. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of human hepatic stellate cells treated with natural taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Tang, Yan-Fang

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differential expression of genes and proteins between natural taurine (NTau)‑treated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and control cells as well as the underlying mechanism of NTau in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis. A microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to analyze the proliferation of NTau‑treated HSCs. Flow cytometry was performed to compare the apoptosis rate between NTau-treated and non‑treated HSCs. Proteomic analysis using a combination of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) was conducted to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Microarray analysis was performed to investigate the differential expression of genes and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to validate the results. The experimental findings obtained demonstrated that NTau decreased HSC proliferation, resulting in an increased number of cells in the G0/G1 phase and a reduced number of cells in the S phase. Flow cytometric analysis showed that NTau-treated HSCs had a significantly increased rate of apoptosis when compared with the non‑treated control group. A total of 15 differentially expressed proteins and 658 differentially expressed genes were identified by 2DE and MS, and microarray analysis, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis indicated that these genes and proteins were enriched in the function clusters and pathways related to cell proliferation, cellular apoptosis and oxidation. The transcriptome and proteome analyses of NTau-treated HSCs demonstrated that NTau is able to significantly inhibit cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis, highlighting its potential therapeutic benefits in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  9. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  10. Virological response and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus coinfection

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Alissa; Giordanengo, Valérie; Dunais, Brigitte; de Salvador-Guillouet, Francine; Perbost, Isabelle; Durant, Jacques; Pugliese, Pascal; Joulié, Aline; Roger, Pierre Marie; Rosenthal, Eric

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate virological response to telaprevir or boceprevir in combination with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and resistance mutations to NS3/4A inhibitors in hepatitis C virus-human immunodeficiency virus (HCV-HIV) coinfected patients in a real life setting.

  11. Immune responses to recombinant hepatitis B virus vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients with different CD4~+ T-lymphocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective.To compare the difference of immune responses to hepatitis B virus(HBV)vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus(HIV)-1-infected patients with different CD4+T-lymphocyte counts.Methods HIV-1 infected patients who visited clinic at the Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu were enrolled and divided in-+

  12. Co-administration of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with hepatitis B vaccine: randomized study in healthy girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Josefsson, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Berndtsson Blom, K.; David, M.P.; Dobbelaere, K.; Descamps, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate co-administration of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV) and hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, open, multicenter study. Healthy girls, aged 9-15 years, were randomized to receive HPV (n=24

  13. Co-administration of human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine with hepatitis B vaccine: randomized study in healthy girls.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Bekkers, R.L.M.; Josefsson, A.; Richardus, J.H.; Berndtsson Blom, K.; David, M.P.; Dobbelaere, K.; Descamps, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate co-administration of GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals' human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (HPV) and hepatitis B vaccine (HepB). METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled, open, multicenter study. Healthy girls, aged 9-15 years, were randomized to receive HPV

  14. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    This Maryland resource manual provides local education agencies with guidelines on how to handle body fluids to prevent the transmission of diseases, especially Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting. The first section summarizes the reasons for development of the manual. The second section summarizes…

  15. Resource Manual for Handling Body Fluids in the School Setting To Prevent the Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryland State Dept. of Health and Mental Hygiene, Baltimore.

    Guidelines to prevent the transmission of blood-borne diseases, especially those caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), in the school setting are provided in this resource manual for school staff. Sections include information on the reasons for the development of this manual; a summary of the means of HIV…

  16. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, and co-infections among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan: a retrospective analysis (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K

    2017-02-21

    Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively), while the seroprevalence of HIV increased (P = 0.049). One hundred eighty donors (0.48%) were seropositive for multiple infections. The highest co-infection rate was observed between anti-T. pallidum and HBs

  17. Sexual dimorphism in hepatic, adipose tissue and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity in obese humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper W. ter Horst

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and lipid metabolism differ between men and women, and women tend to have better whole-body or muscle insulin sensitivity. This may be explained, in part, by differences in sex hormones and adipose tissue distribution. Few studies have investigated gender differences in hepatic, adipose tissue and whole-body insulin sensitivity between severely obese men and women. In this study, we aimed to determine the differences in glucose metabolism between severely obese men and women using tissue-specific measurements of insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity was compared between age and body mass index (BMI-matched obese men and women by a two-step euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp with infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose. Basal endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity of the liver, adipose tissue and peripheral tissues were assessed. Liver fat content was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a subset of included subjects. We included 46 obese men and women (age, 48±2 vs 46±2 years, p=0.591; BMI, 41±1 vs 41±1 kg/m2, p=0.832. There was no difference in basal endogenous glucose production (14.4±1.0 vs 15.3±0.5 µmol•kg fat-free mass-1•min-1, p=0.410, adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of free fatty acids, 71.6±3.6 vs 76.1±2.6%, p=0.314 or peripheral insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated rate of disappearance of glucose, 26.2±2.1 vs 22.7±1.7 µmol•kg-1•min-1, p=0.211. Obese men were characterized by lower hepatic insulin sensitivity (insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production, 61.7±4.1 vs 72.8±2.5% in men vs women, resp., p=0.028. Finally, these observations could not be explained by differences in liver fat content (men vs women, 16.5±3.1 vs 16.0±2.5%, p=0.913, n=27.We conclude that obese men have lower hepatic, but comparable adipose tissue and peripheral tissue, insulin sensitivity compared to similarly obese women. Hepatic insulin resistance may

  18. Rapid fabricating technique for multi-layered human hepatic cell sheets by forceful contraction of the fibroblast monolayer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet engineering is attracting attention from investigators in various fields, from basic research scientists to clinicians focused on regenerative medicine. However, hepatocytes have a limited proliferation potential in vitro, and it generally takes a several days to form a sheet morphology and multi-layered sheets. We herein report our rapid and efficient technique for generating multi-layered human hepatic cell (HepaRG® cell sheets using pre-cultured fibroblast monolayers derived from human skin (TIG-118 cells as a feeder layer on a temperature-responsive culture dish. Multi-layered TIG-118/HepaRG cell sheets with a thick morphology were harvested on day 4 of culturing HepaRG cells by forceful contraction of the TIG-118 cells, and the resulting sheet could be easily handled. In addition, the human albumin and alpha 1-antitrypsin synthesis activities of TIG-118/HepaRG cells were approximately 1.2 and 1.3 times higher than those of HepaRG cells, respectively. Therefore, this technique is considered to be a promising modality for rapidly fabricating multi-layered human hepatocyte sheets from cells with limited proliferation potential, and the engineered cell sheet could be used for cell transplantation with highly specific functions.

  19. Thalidomide increases human hepatic cytochrome P450 3A enzymes by direct activation of the pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Norie; van Beuningen, Rinie; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Shibata, Norio; Yajima, Kanako; Utoh, Masahiro; Shimizu, Makiko; Chesné, Christophe; Nakamura, Masato; Guengerich, F Peter; Houtman, René; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-02-17

    Heterotropic cooperativity of human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4/3A5 by the teratogen thalidomide was recently demonstrated by H. Yamazaki et al. ( ( 2013 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 26 , 486 - 489 ) using the model substrate midazolam in various in vitro and in vivo models. Chimeric mice with humanized liver also displayed enhanced midazolam clearance upon pretreatment with orally administered thalidomide, presumably because of human P450 3A induction. In the current study, we further investigated the regulation of human hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Thalidomide enhanced levels of P450 3A4 and 2B6 mRNA, protein expression, and/or oxidation activity in human hepatocytes, indirectly suggesting the activation of upstream transcription factors involved in detoxication, e.g., the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). A key event after ligand binding is an alteration of nuclear receptor conformation and recruitment of coregulator proteins that alter chromatin accessibility of target genes. To investigate direct engagement and functional alteration of PXR and CAR by thalidomide, we utilized a peptide microarray with 154 coregulator-derived nuclear receptor-interaction motifs and coregulator and nuclear receptor boxes, which serves as a sensor for nuclear receptor conformation and activity status as a function of ligand. Thalidomide and its human proximate metabolite 5-hydroxythalidomide displayed significant modulation of coregulator interaction with PXR and CAR ligand-binding domains, similar to established agonists for these receptors. These results collectively suggest that thalidomide acts as a ligand for PXR and CAR and causes enzyme induction leading to increased P450 enzyme activity. The possibilities of drug interactions during thalidomide therapy in humans require further evaluation.

  20. Isolation and characterization of broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to the e1 glycoprotein of hepatitis C virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Russell, Rodney S.; Goossens, Vera

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of humoral and cellular immunity in the prevention or clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is poorly understood. However, there is considerable evidence that neutralizing antibodies are involved in disease control. Here we describe the detailed analysis of human...... monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against HCV glycoprotein E1, which may have the potential to control HCV infection. We have identified two MAbs that can strongly neutralize HCV-pseudotyped particles (HCVpp) bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotypes 1a, 1b, 4a, 5a, and 6a and less strongly...... neutralize HCVpp bearing the envelope glycoproteins of genotype 2a. Genotype 3a was not neutralized. The epitopes for both MAbs were mapped to the region encompassing amino acids 313 to 327. In addition, robust neutralization was also observed against cell culture-adapted viruses of genotypes 1a and 2a...

  1. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused 3D Porous Polymer Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    A huge shortage of liver organs for transplantation has motivated the research field of tissue engineering to develop bioartificial liver tissue and even a whole liver. The goal of NanoBio4Trans is to create a vascularized bioartificial liver tissue, initially as a liver-support system. Due...... to limitations of primary hepatocytes regarding availability and maintenance of functionality, stem cells and especially human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPS cells) are an attractive cell source for liver tissue engineering. The aim of this part of NanoBio4Trans is to optimize culture and hepatic...... differentiation of hIPS-derived definitive endoderm (DE) cells in a 3D porous polymer scaffold built-in a perfusable bioreactor. The use of a microfluidic bioreactor array enables the culture of 16 independent tissues in one experimental run and thereby an optimization study to be performed....

  2. PROGRESSION OF LIVER FIBROSIS IN MONOINFECTED PATIENTS BY HEPATITIS C VIRUS AND COINFECTED BY HCV AND HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Valle TOVO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context The progression of liver fibrosis in patients coinfected by hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HCV/HIV has been increasingly studied in the past decade. Studies made before the highly active antiretroviral therapy suggest that HIV can change the natural history of the HCV infection, leading to a faster progression of the liver fibrosis. Objective To evaluate and compare the fibrosis progression in two groups of patients (HCV/HIV coinfected and HCV monoinfected Methods Seventy patients HCV monoinfected and 26 patients HCV/HIV coinfected who had not undertaken HCV treatment and were submitted to serial percutaneous liver biopsies were retrospectively evaluated. There was no difference in the fibrosis progression between the two groups. Conclusion The fibrosis grade evolution was not worse in the coinfected patients. The immunosuppression absence and the shortest time period between the biopsies in the coinfected group are possible explanations.

  3. Purification of human hepatic glutathione S-transferases and the development of a radioimmunoassay for their measurement in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.D.; Gilligan, D.; Beckett, G.J. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry); Chapman, B.J. (Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1983-10-31

    A purification scheme is described for six human hepatic glutathione S-transferases from a single liver. Five of the transferases comprised Ya monomers and had a molecular mass of 44000. The remaining enzyme comprised Yb monomers and had a molecular mass of 47000. Data are presented demonstrating that there are at least two distinct Ya monomers. A radioimmunoassay has been developed that has sufficient precision and sensitivity to allow direct measurement of glutathione S-transferase concentrations in unextracted plasma. A comparison of aminotransferase and glutathione S-transferase levels, in three patients who had taken a paracetamol overdose, indicated that glutathione S-transferase measurements provided a far more sensitive index of hepatocellular integrity than the more conventional aminotransferase measurements.

  4. TGF-β1 promotes human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells invasion by upregulating autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C-L; Qiao, S; Li, Y-C; Wang, X-F; Sun, R-J; Zhang, X; Qian, R-K; Song, S-D

    2017-06-01

    To study the role of TGF-β1 in autophagy and invasion ability of human hepatic carcinoma HepG2 cells. Cultured HepG2 cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 24 h. The protein expression levels of autophagy relative marker LC3 and Beclin1 were detected by Western blot. The effect of TGF-β1 on invasion ability of HepG2 cells was detected with transwell method. The results demonstrated that TGF-β1 was able to activate autophagy of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) could reverse TGF-β1 induced autophagy process. Also, TGF-β1 significantly promotes the invasion ability of HepG2 cells; however, this process could effectively reverse by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. TGF-β1 enhances HepG2 cells invasion by upregulating autophagy.

  5. Human Embryonic and Hepatic Stem Cell Differentiation Visualized in Two and Three Dimensions Based on Serial Sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestentoft, Peter S.; Brøchner, Christian B; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are characterized by two defining properties, self-renewal and differentiation. Self-renewing hESCs express transcription factors OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG, and surface markers SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 and their ability to differentiate...... into derivatives of the three germ layers show the differentiating potential. Studies suggest a certain microheterogeneity of the hESC colonies, in which not all cells in one colony of apparently undifferentiated cells express all the expected markers. We describe a technique to paraffin embed an entire h...... of an entire colony is accomplished using 3D image processing software such as Mimics(®) or Amira(®). An extended version of this technique even allows for a high-magnification 3D-reconstruction of, e.g., hepatic stem cells in developing liver. These techniques combined allow for both a 2- and a 3-dimensional...

  6. Viral hepatitis C gets personal--the value of human genomics to public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Gwinn, M; Hu, D J

    2013-01-01

    About 180 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with 3-4 million newly infected each year. Only 15-25% of acute HCV infections clear spontaneously, and the remainder persists as chronic HCV infection. More than 350,000 people die every year from hepatitis C-related liver failure and cancer. There is currently no vaccine and the standard-of-care therapies--peg-interferon alpha (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV)--are expensive and have serious side effects. Also, they may be effective in only 40-50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1, the most common HCV genotype in the US. Interleukin 28B (IL28B) genotype was recently and convincingly associated with response to pegIFN and RBV therapy. It has emerged as a robust pretreatment predictor of sustained virological response (SVR, i.e. virologic clearance) to pegIFN and RBV as well as to new triple therapy regimens that include a direct-acting antiviral agent with pegIFN and RBV and increase SVR rates as much as 75% in patients infected with HCV genotype 1. Testing for IL28B genotype may contribute to clinical decision-making and could inform clinical guidelines and public health policies. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Hepatic proteome sensitivity in rainbow trout after chronically exposed to a human pharmaceutical verapamil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Sulc, Miroslav; Hulak, Martin; Randak, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Verapamil (VRP), a cardiovascular pharmaceutical widely distributed and persistent in the aquatic environment, has potential toxicity to fish and other aquatic organisms. However, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these toxic effects are not well known. In the present study, proteomic analysis has been performed to investigate the protein patterns that are differentially expressed in liver of rainbow trout exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27.0, and 270 μg/liter) for 42 days. Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was employed to detect and identify the protein profiles. The analysis revealed that the expression of six hepatic acidic proteins were markedly altered in the treatment groups compared with the control group; three proteins especially were significantly down-regulated in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration (0.5 μg/liter). These results suggested that the VRP induce mechanisms against oxidative stress (glucose-regulated protein 78 and 94 and protein disulfide-isomerase A3) and adaptive changes in ion transference regulation (calreticulin, hyperosmotic glycine-rich protein). Furthermore, for the first time, protein Canopy-1 was found to be significantly down-regulated in fish by chronic exposure to VRP at environmental related levels. Overall, our work supports that fish hepatic proteomics analysis serves as an in vivo model for monitoring the residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment and can provide valuable insight into the molecular events in VRP-induced toxicity in fish and other organisms.

  8. Hepatic scavenger receptor BI is associated with type 2 diabetes but unrelated to human and murine non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Krautbauer, Sabrina; Eisinger, Kristina; Pohl, Rebekka; Meier, Elisabeth M; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2015-11-13

    Scavenger receptor, class B type I (SR-BI) is a physiologically relevant regulator of high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Low HDL is a common feature of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, hepatic SR-BI expression was analyzed in human and murine NAFLD. In primary human hepatocytes NAFLD relevant factors like inflammatory cytokines, lipopolysaccharide and TGF-β did not affect SR-BI protein. Similarly, oleate and palmitate had no effect. The adipokines chemerin, adiponectin, leptin and omentin did not regulate SR-BI expression. Accordingly, hepatic SR-BI was not changed in human and murine fatty liver and non-alcoholic steatohepatits. SR-BI was higher in type 2 diabetes patients but not in those with hypercholesterolemia. The current study indicates a minor if any role of SR-BI in human and murine NAFLD.

  9. Cycling and Tai Chi Chuan exercises exert greater immunomodulatory effect on surface antigen expression of human hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-yawn; CHIANG Jasson; CHEN Yu-jen; CHEN Kung-tung; YANG Rong-sen; LIN Jaung-geng

    2008-01-01

    Background Both athletes with intensive exercise and aged people may have weakened immunity against virus infection.This study aimed to evaluate whether people undergoing aerobic exercises including competitive cyctists with moderate training (CMT) and middle-aged people practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise have higher immunity against hepatitis B virus than age-matched sedentary controls including college students (CSC) and middle-aged people (MSC).Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from competitive cyclists and sedentary controls were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to prepare conditioned medium (MNC-CM) for the assessment of inhibitory effects on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.Results The inhibitory effects on the relative HBsAg expression of CMT's and TCC's MNC-CM were greater than those of the controls.The CMT's MNC-CM prepared from 5 pg/ml PHA decreased HBsAg expression to 61.5%,whereas that of CSC remained at 83.8%.Similarly,this expression by treatment of TCC group' MNC-CM was 68.4% whereas that of MSC group was 84.3%.The levels of cytokines such as interferon-y (IFN-y),tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),IFN-α and interleukin-1β(1L-1β) in the MNC-CM from the CMT and TCC groups were greater than those in the controls.Antibody neutralization of CMT's MNC-CM and addition of recombinant cytokines into CSC's MNC-CM indicated that IFN-y,TNF-α and IFN-α had synergistic effects against HBsAg expression.Similar blocking effect was noted in TCC versus MSC groups.Conclusion These results suggest that the immunomodulatory response to suppress HBsAg expression in CMT and TCC with moderate aerobic exercise is greater than that in age-matched sedentary controls.

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor-α and hepatitis B surface antigen in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Wen-Liang Wang; Qing Li; Qing Qiao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its significance. METHODS: Seventy specimens of HCC tissues were detected by immunohistochemical method. Five specimens of normal human liver tissues were used as control. RESULTS: The TGF-α positive expression rates in HCC and its surrounding tissues were 74.3%(52/70) and 88. t%(52/59), respectively. TGF-α positive granules were mainly in the cytoplasm and fewer existed on the karyotheca. The TGF-α positive expressing rate in well differentiated HCC was significantly higher than that in moderately and poorly differentiated HCC (P<0.05). The TGF-α positive expression also was observed in intrahepatic bile ducts (part of those were hyperplastic ducts). The HBsAg positive expression rates in HCC and its surrounding tissues were 21.4%(15/70) and 79.7%(47/59), respectively. HBsAg positive granules were in the cytoplasm, inclusion and on the karyotheca. There was a prominent positive correlation between TGF-α and HBsAg expression in HCC surrounding tissues (P<0.05, γ=0.34). TGF-α was usually existed with HBsAg in regenerated and/or dysplastic liver cells. In the five normal liver tissues, TGF-α and HBsAg were not detectable in hepatocytes and bile ducts.CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B virus infection is closely related with hepatocarcinogenesis. The overexpression of TGF-α in the liver seems to be associated with the regeneration of hepatocytes injured by HBsAg. The continued expression of TGF-α might lead to dysplasia of liver cells and development of HCC. Furthermore, TGF-α might play a role in morphogenesis and regeneration of intrahepatic bile ducts.

  11. Cytosolic delivery of materials with endosome-disrupting colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Brett A.; Bayles, Andrea R.

    2016-03-15

    A facile procedure to deliver nanocrystals to the cytosol of live cells that is both rapid and general. The technique employs a unique cationic core-shell polymer colloid that directs nanocrystals to the cytosol of living cells within a few hours of incubation. The present methods and compositions enable a host of advanced applications arising from efficient cytosolic delivery of nanocrystal imaging probes: from single particle tracking experiments to monitoring protein-protein interactions in live cells for extended periods.

  12. Eradication of hepatitis C virus and non-liver-related non-acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related events in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Rodríguez-Castellano, Elena; Carrero, Ana; Von Wichmann, Miguel A; Montero, Marta; Galindo, María J; Mallolas, Josep; Crespo, Manuel; Téllez, María J; Quereda, Carmen; Sanz, José; Barros, Carlos; Tural, Cristina; Santos, Ignacio; Pulido, Federico; Guardiola, Josep M; Rubio, Rafael; Ortega, Enrique; Montes, María L; Jusdado, Juan J; Gaspar, Gabriel; Esteban, Herminia; Bellón, José M; González-García, Juan

    2017-08-01

    We assessed non-liver-related non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related (NLR-NAR) events and mortality in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients treated with interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), between 2000 and 2008. The censoring date was May 31, 2014. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the adjusted hazard rate (HR) of overall death in responders and nonresponders. Fine and Gray regression analysis was conducted to determine the adjusted subhazard rate (sHR) of NLR deaths and NLR-NAR events considering death as the competing risk. The NLR-NAR events analyzed included diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, cardiovascular events, NLR-NAR cancer, bone events, and non-AIDS-related infections. The variables for adjustment were age, sex, past AIDS, HIV transmission category, nadir CD4(+) T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV RNA, liver fibrosis, HCV genotype, and exposure to specific anti-HIV drugs. Of the 1,625 patients included, 592 (36%) had a sustained viral response (SVR). After a median 5-year follow-up, SVR was found to be associated with a significant decrease in the hazard of diabetes mellitus (sHR, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-0.93; P = 0.024) and decline in the hazard of chronic renal failure close to the threshold of significance (sHR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.17-1.09; P = 0.075). Our data suggest that eradication of HCV in coinfected patients is associated not only with a reduction in the frequency of death, HIV progression, and liver-related events, but also with a reduced hazard of diabetes mellitus and possibly of chronic renal failure. These findings argue for the prescription of HCV therapy in coinfected patients regardless of fibrosis stage. (Hepatology 2017;66:344-356). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Affinity maturation of a broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibody that prevents acute hepatitis C virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Zhen-Yong; Wang, Yong; Lau, Patrick; Lund, Garry; Rangarajan, Sneha; Fauvelle, Catherine; Liao, Grant C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Warfield, Kelly L; Aman, M Javad; Pierce, Brian G; Fuerst, Thomas R; Bailey, Justin R; Baumert, Thomas F; Mariuzza, Roy A; Kneteman, Norman M; Foung, Steven K H

    2016-12-01

    Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have led to a high cure rate in treated patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but this still leaves a large number of treatment failures secondary to the emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs). To increase the barrier to resistance, a complementary strategy is to use neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) to prevent acute infection. However, earlier efforts with the selected antibodies led to RAVs in animal and clinical studies. Therefore, we identified an HMAb that is less likely to elicit RAVs for affinity maturation to increase potency and, more important, breadth of protection. Selected matured antibodies show improved affinity and neutralization against a panel of diverse HCV isolates. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the affinity-matured HMAb mediates virus neutralization, in part, by inducing conformational change to the targeted epitope, and that the maturated light chain is responsible for the improved affinity and breadth of protection. A matured HMAb protected humanized mice when challenged with an infectious HCV human serum inoculum for a prolonged period. However, a single mouse experienced breakthrough infection after 63 days when the serum HMAb concentration dropped by several logs; sequence analysis revealed no viral escape mutation. The findings suggest that a single broadly neutralizing antibody can prevent acute HCV infection without inducing RAVs and may complement DAAs to reduce the emergence of RAVs. (Hepatology 2016;64:1922-1933). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Propagation of human hepatitis A virus in African green monkey kidney cell culture: primary isolation and serial passage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daemer, R J; Feinstone, S M; Gust, I D; Purcell, R H

    1981-04-01

    Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) was propagated in primary African Green Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney (AGMK) cell cultures. Three strains of HAV were used: MS-1, SD-11, and HM-175. Cells were inoculated with marmoset-passaged material or human clinical specimens and were stained by direct immunofluorescence to establish the identity of the virus. Both clinical samples and marmoset-passaged material produced immunofluorescence. HAV antigen was found scattered throughout the cytoplasm of inoculated cultures. The HM-175 strain produced the most intense immunofluorescence. This strain of HAV had been serially passaged in cell culture seven times. Blocking experiments with paired human sera from naturally acquired HAV infections and hyperimmune chimpanzee serum from an experimentally infected animal established that the immunofluorescence was specific. The viral antigen was found to be exclusively intracellular. The interval to maximum HAV antigen expression was decreased by serial passage. The HAV strain described herein, which was recovered directly from the stool specimen of a patient with HAV in primary AGMK cell culture, may prove useful as a source of antigen for serological tests and as a candidate vaccine strain.

  15. Pectinesterase Inhibitor from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino Achene Inhibits Surface Antigen Expression by Human Hepatitis B Virus

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    Yu-Chuen Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino is an edible component of a popular drink consumed in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is prevalent in Asia, and current treatments for HBV infection need improvement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PEI on the surface antigen expression by HBV (HBsAg. Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 served as in vitro models for assessing the cytotoxicity and HBsAg expression. A culture of primary hepatocytes cultured from mice served as the normal counterpart. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT colorimetric assay. HBsAg expression was evaluated by measuring HBsAg secretion into the culture medium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that PEI did not affect the viability of the human hepatoma cell lines or primary mouse hepatocytes. PEI inhibited the expression of HBsAg in hepatoma cell lines harboring endogenous (Hep3B and integrated (Huh7 HBV genomes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thus implicating a universal activity against HBV gene expression. In conclusion, it suggests that PEI from jelly fig inhibits the expression of human HBsAg in host cells without toxic effects on normal primary hepatocytes.

  16. A 1-Year Quantitative Survey of Noro-, Adeno-, Human Boca-, and Hepatitis E Viruses in Raw and Secondarily Treated Sewage from Two Plants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrmel, M; Lange, H; Rimstad, E

    2015-09-01

    A study of enteric viruses in raw and treated sewage from two secondary treatment plants, which received sewage from Oslo city (plant A) and small municipalities in Hedmark county in Norway (plant B), showed high levels of noro-, adeno-, and bocavirus throughout the year. A seasonal variation was observed for adeno- and GII norovirus with higher levels during winter and bocavirus that had more positive samples during winter. The virus concentrations in raw sewage were comparable in the two plants, with medians (log10 genome copies per liter) of 6.1, 6.3, 6.0, and 4.5 for noro GI, noro GII, adeno-, and bocavirus, respectively. The level of hepatitis E virus was not determined as it was below the limit of quantification. The mean log10 virus reduction was 0.55 (plant A) and 1.44 (plant B) with the highest reduction found in the plant with longer hydraulic retention time. The adenoviruses were dominantly serotype 41, while serotype 12 appeared sporadically. Of the 102 raw and treated sewage samples that were tested, eight were positive for hepatitis E virus of which four were from treated sewage. Two of the four obtained gene sequences from hepatitis E virus originated from the rural sewage samples and showed high similarity with a genotype 3 strain of hepatitis E virus detected in local piglets. Two other hepatitis E virus sequences obtained from urban sewage samples showed high similarities with genotype 3 strains isolated from urban sewage in Spain and a human genotype 1 isolate from India. The study gives information on the levels of noroviruses in raw and treated sewage, which is valuable to risk assessment, information indicating that some infections with hepatitis E viruses in Norway have a regional origin and that human bocavirus 2 and 3 are prevalent in the Norwegian population.

  17. Hepatotoxicity of antiretrovirals in patients with human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis coinfections

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    P Parenti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiretroviral drugs used to treat HIV may cause hepatotoxicity. The high prevalence of persons with chronic hepatitis B or C coinfected, raised aminotransferases have many causes and neither specific markers is a indicator of liver injury, difficulties in interpreting the hepatotoxicity. Objective: We evaluated hepatotoxicity in HIV/HCV- and/or HBV-coinfected patients, risk factors and severity. Methods: Prospective study of HIV-1 patients with start HAART in Hospital Provincial del Centenario from Rosario, Argentina. Patients were classified into two groups, HCV and/or HBV coinfected vs. no coinfected. The major endpoint was hepatotoxicity defined as Benichou's Score within the first 6 months. This score is among the few validated, but little used in clinical practice. Secondary endpoints were risk factors and severity of hepatotoxicity. Results: 140 patients were included, 39% coinfected and 61% no coinfected. Females were similar in both groups; 21% and 27% respectively. The hepatotoxicity within the first 6 month was 44.3%, 75% in coinfected patients and 25% in no-coinfected. RR 3.97 (95% confidence interval 2.34–6.75, p<0.0001. The hepatotoxicity was associated with the use of illicit drugs and alcohol, symptoms, high level aminotransferases previous to HAART and NNRTI+PI. 3% of hepatotoxicity was severe. Conclusions: 44% of HIV patients experienced hepatotoxicity, 75% in coinfected vs 25% in no coinfected. The relative risk of hepatoxocity was almost 4 times higher among in chronic hepatitis-coinfected patients, compared with those with HIV non-coinfected. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were illicit drugs, alcohol, symptoms, high level aminotransferases and NRTI+PI. Only 3% of hepatotoxicity was severe. The Benichou's Score is better than level of aminotransferase for evaluated hepatotoxicity, so it would be recommended for use in clinical practice.

  18. Characteristics of co infection with hepatitis B virus among Romanian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juganariu, Gabriela; Mihalache, Doina; Miftode, Egidia; Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Manciuc, Carmen; Dorobat, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological and viroimmunological features and outcome of HIV/HBV-co infected patients cared in the lasi HIV/AIDS Regional Center. This retrospective study included 252 patients diagnosed with HIV infection and associated hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection assessed at the Hospital of Infectious Diseases in the interval 2000-2013 and treated with antiretroviral drugs active against both HIV and HBV. The prevalence of HIV/HBV co infection was 19.9%. A slightly higher frequency of this co infection was found among males (53.2%); most patients belonged to age group 20-29 years (86.5%), mean age was 25.56 years. The predominant route of transmission was parenteral (58.5%), followed by heterosexual transmission (40.1%). The mean CD4 cell count was 246.20 cells/mm3, in over 41% of cases CD4 count ranging from 200 to 499 cells/mm3. The mean HIV plasma viral load was 142,906 copies/ml. ALT levels varied between 10-323 IU/l, average 49.90 IU/l, over 65% of subjects having pathological levels. In 21.8% of the cases, total cholesterol was very high, and in 16.8% of the patients the serum triglyceride levels were below the reference range (160 mg %). Our results suggest that HIV-positive patients, chronic hepatitis B infection has a high incidence, especially in younger age groups and is correlated with significant degrees of immunosuppression.

  19. Fine tuning of cytosolic Ca 2+ oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Geneviève; Combettes, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Ca 2+ oscillations, a widespread mode of cell signaling, were reported in non-excitable cells for the first time more than 25 years ago. Their fundamental mechanism, based on the periodic Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cytoplasm, has been well characterized. However, how the kinetics of cytosolic Ca 2+ changes are related to the extent of a physiological response remains poorly understood. Here, we review data suggesting that the downstream targets of Ca 2+ are controlled not only by the frequency of Ca 2+ oscillations but also by the detailed characteristics of the oscillations, such as their duration, shape, or baseline level. Involvement of non-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ stores, mainly mitochondria and the extracellular medium, participates in this fine tuning of Ca 2+ oscillations. The main characteristics of the Ca 2+ exchange fluxes with these compartments are also reviewed. PMID:27630768

  20. Fumarase: a mitochondrial metabolic enzyme and a cytosolic/nuclear component of the DNA damage response.

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    Ohad Yogev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, fumarase (FH in human is a well-known tricarboxylic-acid-cycle enzyme in the mitochondrial matrix. However, conserved from yeast to humans is a cytosolic isoenzyme of fumarase whose function in this compartment remains obscure. A few years ago, FH was surprisingly shown to underlie a tumor susceptibility syndrome, Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC. A biallelic inactivation of FH has been detected in almost all HLRCC tumors, and therefore FH was suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. Recently it was suggested that FH inhibition leads to elevated intracellular fumarate, which in turn acts as a competitive inhibitor of HPH (HIF prolyl hydroxylase, thereby causing stabilization of HIF (Hypoxia-inducible factor by preventing proteasomal degradation. The transcription factor HIF increases the expression of angiogenesis regulated genes, such as VEGF, which can lead to high microvessel density and tumorigenesis. Yet this mechanism does not fully explain the large cytosolic population of fumarase molecules. We constructed a yeast strain in which fumarase is localized exclusively to mitochondria. This led to the discovery that the yeast cytosolic fumarase plays a key role in the protection of cells from DNA damage, particularly from DNA double-strand breaks. We show that the cytosolic fumarase is a member of the DNA damage response that is recruited from the cytosol to the nucleus upon DNA damage induction. This function of fumarase depends on its enzymatic activity, and its absence in cells can be complemented by high concentrations of fumaric acid. Our findings suggest that fumarase and fumaric acid are critical elements of the DNA damage response, which underlies the tumor suppressor role of fumarase in human cells and which is most probably HIF independent. This study shows an exciting crosstalk between primary metabolism and the DNA damage response, thereby providing a scenario for metabolic control of tumor

  1. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

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    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-DP loci are associated with the persistent infection of hepatitis B virus in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yun; ZHANG Dong-Hua; JIN Gen-Di; GONG Qi-Ming; ZHANG Xin-Xin; LIAO Xiang-Wei; LI Xin-Hua; HAN Yue; YANG Zhi-Tao; KONG Xiao-Fei; GU Lei-Lei; YU De-Ming; YAO Bi-Lian

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study recently showed that genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP loci were strongly associated with a risk of persistent infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Japanese and Thai individuals and variants in interleukin 28B (IL-28B) have been associated with responses to anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment.The aim of this study was to investigate whether the HLA-DP loci and IL-28B were associated with different outcomes of chronic HBV infection (CHB) in Chinese subjects.The rs9277535 near HLA-DPB1,rs3077 near HLA-DPA1,and rs12979860 near IL-28B were genotyped by direct sequencing in 185 CHB patients and 193 self-limited hepatitis B virus (SLHBV)-infected subjects who recovered from HBV infection.The rs9277535 near HLA-DPB1 was strongly associated with CHB ( P =0.000018 1,OR =1.905).This association was observed independent of HBV e antigen (HBeAg) status and HBV viral loads in HBeAg-positive CHB patients (P =0.0004,OR =1.956),in HBeAg-negative CHB patients (P =0.000 9,OR =1.857),and in HBeAg-negative CHB individuals without detectable levels of HBV DNA in serum ( P =0.001 1,OR =2.05).The rs3077 near HLA-DPA1 was associated with CHB (P =0.020 6,OR =0.686 5) and HBeAg-positive CHB infection status ( P =0.014 3,OR =0.604 7).Meanwhile,a genetic variation of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphism (rs361527,-/ATAAATGTTGA) near HLA-DPA1 was found to be associated with CHB (P =0.030 7,OR =0.702 8)and HBeAg-positive CHB infection status (P =0.023 3,OR =0.619).However,the rs12979860 genotype near IL-28B had no correlation with CHB.This study demonstrated that in the Han Chinese populations,HLA-DP loci,but not IL-28B,were associated with persistence of infection in different outcomes of HBVinfected patients; however,the mechanism needs to be further investigated.

  3. The putative capsid protein of the newly identified avian hepatitis E virus shares antigenic epitopes with that of swine and human hepatitis E viruses and chicken big liver and spleen disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqshenas, G; Huang, F F; Fenaux, M; Guenette, D K; Pierson, F W; Larsen, C T; Shivaprasad, H L; Toth, T E; Meng, X J

    2002-09-01

    We recently identified a novel virus, designated avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV), from chickens with hepatitis-splenomegaly (HS) syndrome in the USA. We showed that avian HEV is genetically related to swine and human HEVs. Here we report the antigenic cross-reactivity of the putative open reading frame 2 (ORF2) capsid protein of avian HEV with those of swine and human HEVs and the Australian chicken big liver and spleen disease virus (BLSV). The region encoding the C-terminal 268 amino acid residues of avian HEV ORF2 was cloned into expression vector pRSET-C. The truncated ORF2 protein was expressed in E. coli as a fusion protein and purified by affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that the avian HEV ORF2 protein reacted with antisera against the Sar-55 strain of human HEV and with convalescent antisera against swine HEV and the US2 strain of human HEV, as well as with antiserum against BLSV. Convalescent sera from specific-pathogen-free chickens experimentally infected with avian HEV also reacted with the recombinant capsid proteins of swine HEV and Sar-55 human HEV. Antisera against the US2 human HEV also reacted with recombinant ORF2 proteins of both swine HEV and Sar-55 human HEV. The antigenic cross-reactivity of the avian HEV putative capsid protein with those of swine and human HEVs was further confirmed, for the most part, by ELISA assays. The data indicate that avian HEV shares certain antigenic epitopes in its putative capsid protein with swine and human HEVs, as well as with BLSV. The results have implications for HEV diagnosis and taxonomy.

  4. Hepatitis B virus genotype G: prevalence and impact in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Doan Y; Balko, Jody; Attar, Nahid; Neak, Enayet; Yuan, He-Jun; Lee, William M; Jain, Mamta K

    2011-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and HBV. This study examined the prevalence and association of HBV/G to liver fibrosis in co-infected patients. HBV genotypes were determined by direct sequencing of the HBV surface gene or Trugene® HBV 1.0 assay in 133 patients infected with HIV/HBV. Quantitative testing of HBV-DNA, HBeAg, and anti-HBe were performed using the Versant® HBV 3.0 (for DNA) and the ADVIA®Centaur assay. The non-invasive biomarkers Fib-4 and APRI were used to assess fibrosis stage. Genotype A was present in 103/133 (77%) of the cohort, genotype G in 18/133 (14%) with genotypes D in 8/133, (6%), F 2/133 (1.5%), and H 2/133 (1.5%). Genotype G was associated with hepatitis B e antigen-positivity and high HBV-DNA levels. Additionally, HBV/G (OR 8.25, 95% CI 2.3-29.6, P = 0.0012) was associated with advanced fibrosis score using Fib-4, whereas, being black was not (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.07, P = 0.01). HBV/G in this population exhibited a different phenotype than expected for pure G genotypes raising the question of recombination or mixed infections. The frequent finding of HBV/G in co-infected patients and its association with more advanced fibrosis, suggests that this genotype leads to more rapid liver disease progression. Further studies are needed to understand why this genotype occurs more frequently and what impact it has on liver disease progression in patients with HBV/HIV.

  5. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases human hepatic stellate cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Wendy A; Jurgensen, Kimberly; Pu, Xinzhu; Lamb, Cheri L; Cornell, Kenneth A; Clark, Reilly J; Klocke, Carolyn; Mitchell, Kristen A

    2016-02-17

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon that elicits toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). In the liver, gross markers of TCDD toxicity are attributed to AhR activation in parenchymal hepatocytes. However, less is known regarding the consequences of TCDD treatment on non-parenchymal cells in the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are non-parenchymal cells that store vitamin A when quiescent. Upon liver injury, activated HSCs lose this storage ability and instead function in the development and maintenance of inflammation and fibrosis through the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and collagen type I. Reports that TCDD exposure disrupts hepatic retinoid homeostasis and dysregulates extracellular matrix remodeling in the liver led us to speculate that TCDD treatment may disrupt HSC activity. The human HSC line LX-2 was used to test the hypothesis that TCDD treatment directly activates HSCs. Results indicate that exposure to 10nM TCDD almost completely inhibited lipid droplet storage in LX-2 cells cultured with retinol and palmitic acid. TCDD treatment also increased LX-2 cell proliferation, expression of α-smooth muscle actin, and production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), all of which are characteristics of activated HSCs. However, TCDD treatment had no effect on Col1a1 mRNA levels in LX-2 cells stimulated with the potent profibrogenic mediator, transforming growth factor-β. The TCDD-mediated increase in LX-2 cell proliferation, but not MCP-1 production, was abolished when phosphoinositide 3-kinase was inhibited. These results indicate that HSCs are susceptible to direct modulation by TCDD and that TCDD likely increases HSC activation through a multi-faceted mechanism.

  6. Deregulation of energy metabolism promotes antifibrotic effects in human hepatic stellate cells and prevents liver fibrosis in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Swathi; Potter, James J; Geschwind, Jean-Francois; Sur, Surojit; Hamilton, James P; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Mezey, Esteban; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-15

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis result from uncontrolled secretion and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) that are activated by liver injury and inflammation. Despite the progress in understanding the biology liver fibrogenesis and the identification of potential targets for treating fibrosis, development of an effective therapy remains elusive. Since an uninterrupted supply of intracellular energy is critical for the activated-HSCs to maintain constant synthesis and secretion of ECM, we hypothesized that interfering with energy metabolism could affect ECM secretion. Here we report that a sublethal dose of the energy blocker, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) facilitates phenotypic alteration of activated LX-2 (a human hepatic stellate cell line), into a less-active form. This treatment-dependent reversal of activated-LX2 cells was evidenced by a reduction in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and collagen secretion, and an increase in activity of matrix metalloproteases. Mechanistically, 3-BrPA-dependent antifibrotic effects involved down-regulation of the mitochondrial metabolic enzyme, ATP5E, and up-regulation of glycolysis, as evident by elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, lactate production and its transporter, MCT4. Finally, the antifibrotic effects of 3-BrPA were validated in vivo in a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis. Results from histopathology & histochemical staining for collagen and α-SMA substantiated that 3-BrPA promotes antifibrotic effects in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate that sublethal, metronomic treatment with 3-BrPA blocks the progression of liver fibrosis suggesting its potential as a novel therapeutic for treating liver fibrosis.

  7. Regulation of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis by epinephrine in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sylvie; Lebon, Vincent; Shulman, Gerald I; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2009-07-01

    The relative contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis (NHG) and gluconeogenesis to rates of glucose production during a physiological increment in plasma epinephrine concentrations, independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations, were determined in seven fasting, healthy young subjects. Plasma insulin concentrations were kept constant by infusing somatostatin (0.1 microg.kg(-1).min(-1)) and replacing basal insulin (24 pmol.m(-2).min(-1)). Epinephrine (1.2 microg.m(-2).min(-1)) was infused for 90 min while NHG was assessed directly by (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The rate of glucose production was assessed using [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose, and gluconeogenesis was calculated as the difference between the rate of glucose production and NHG. Plasma epinephrine concentrations increased rapidly from approximately 100 to approximately 2,000 pmol/l (P < 0.00001) accompanied by an increase in plasma glucose concentrations from 4.3 +/- 0.2 to 13.3 +/- 0.3 mmol/l at 90 min (P = 0.00001). This increase in plasma epinephrine concentration resulted in a 2.5-fold increase in glucose production (from 14.4 +/- 1.0 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) to 35.7 +/- 2.0 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), P < 0.0001), which lasted for approximately 60 min (phase 1), after which glucose production decreased to 31.2 +/- 1.9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P < 0.0001 vs. basal) during the last 30 min of the epinephrine infusion (phase 2). Hepatic glycogen concentrations decreased almost linearly during phase 1, and rates of NHG were 19.9 +/- 3.0 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P = 0.005 vs. basal), which could account for approximately 60% of glucose production. During phase 2, NHG decreased to 7.3 +/- 2.8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) (P = 0.02 vs. peak), accounting for only approximately 20% of glucose production. In conclusion, in the presence of basal plasma insulin and glucagon concentrations, a physiological increase in plasma epinephrine concentrations stimulates glucose production with an initial, 60-min

  8. Molecular modeling and multispectroscopic studies of the interaction of hepatitis B drug, adefovir dipivoxil with human serum albumin

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    Shahabadi, Nahid, E-mail: nahidshahabadi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biology Research Center (MBRC) Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Falsafi, Monireh [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadidi, Saba [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medical Biology Research Center (MBRC) Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The interaction of hepatitis B drug, adefovir dipivoxil with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by using UV–vis, fluorometric, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking techniques. The results indicated that the binding of the drug to HSA caused fluorescence quenching through static quenching mechanism with binding constant of 1.3×103 M{sup −1}. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the hydrophobic force contacts are the major forces in the stability of protein-drug complex (ΔH>0 and ΔS>0). The displacement experiments using the site probes viz., warfarin and ibuprofen showed that adefovir dipivoxil could bind to the site III of HSA. The results of CD and UV–vis spectroscopy indicated that the binding of the drug induced some conformational changes in HSA. Furthermore, the study of molecular docking also confirmed binding of adefovir dipivoxil to the site III of HSA by hydrophobic interaction. - Highlights: • The interaction of adefovir dipivoxil, drug for the treatment of HIV and HBV with human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated. • The drug bound to HSA by hydrophobic force and induced some conformational changes in HSA. • The study of molecular docking showed that adefovir dipivoxil could bind to the site III of HSA mainly.

  9. Triple Staining Including FOXA2 Identifies Stem Cell Lineages Undergoing Hepatic and Biliary Differentiation in Cirrhotic Human Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, Charles E; Bebawee, Remon; Matarlo, Joe; Locker, Joseph; Pattamanuch, Nicole; Gupta, Sanjeev; Rogler, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    Recent investigations have reported many markers associated with human liver stem/progenitor cells, "oval cells," and identified "niches" in diseased livers where stem cells occur. However, there has remained a need to identify entire lineages of stem cells as they differentiate into bile ducts or hepatocytes. We have used combined immunohistochemical staining for a marker of hepatic commitment and specification (FOXA2 [Forkhead box A2]), hepatocyte maturation (Albumin and HepPar1), and features of bile ducts (CK19 [cytokeratin 19]) to identify lineages of stem cells differentiating toward the hepatocytic or bile ductular compartments of end-stage cirrhotic human liver. We identified large clusters of disorganized, FOXA2 expressing, oval cells in localized liver regions surrounded by fibrotic matrix, designated as "micro-niches." Specific FOXA2-positive cells within the micro-niches organize into primitive duct structures that support both hepatocytic and bile ductular differentiation enabling identification of entire lineages of cells forming the two types of structures. We also detected expression of hsa-miR-122 in primitive ductular reactions expected for hepatocytic differentiation and hsa-miR-23b cluster expression that drives liver cell fate decisions in cells undergoing lineage commitment. Our data establish the foundation for a mechanistic hypothesis on how stem cell lineages progress in specialized micro-niches in cirrhotic end-stage liver disease.

  10. Pathways of hepatic glycogen formation in humans following ingestion of a glucose load in the fed state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Schumann, W.C.; Kumaran, K.; Wahren, J.; Landau, B.R.

    1989-06-01

    The relative contributions of the direct and the indirect pathways to hepatic glycogen formation following a glucose load given to humans four hours after a substantial breakfast have been examined. Glucose loads labeled with (6-(/sup 14/)C)glucose were given to six healthy volunteers along with diflunisal (1 g) or acetaminophen (1.5 g), drugs excreted in urine as glucuronides. Distribution of /sup 14/C in the glucose unit of the glucuronide was taken as a measure of the extent to which glucose was deposited directly in liver glycogen (ie, glucose----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) rather than indirectly (ie, glucose----C3-compound----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen). The maximum contribution to glycogen formation by the direct pathway was estimated to be 77% +/- 4%, which is somewhat higher than previous estimates in humans fasted overnight (65% +/- 1%, P less than 0.05). Thus, the indirect pathway of liver glycogen formation following a glucose load is operative in both the overnight fasted and the fed state, although its contribution may be somewhat less in the fed state.

  11. Analysis of B Cell Repertoire Dynamics Following Hepatitis B Vaccination in Humans, and Enrichment of Vaccine-specific Antibody Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Galson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generating a diverse B cell immunoglobulin repertoire is essential for protection against infection. The repertoire in humans can now be comprehensively measured by high-throughput sequencing. Using hepatitis B vaccination as a model, we determined how the total immunoglobulin sequence repertoire changes following antigen exposure in humans, and compared this to sequences from vaccine-specific sorted cells. Clonal sequence expansions were seen 7 days after vaccination, which correlated with vaccine-specific plasma cell numbers. These expansions caused an increase in mutation, and a decrease in diversity and complementarity-determining region 3 sequence length in the repertoire. We also saw an increase in sequence convergence between participants 14 and 21 days after vaccination, coinciding with an increase of vaccine-specific memory cells. These features allowed development of a model for in silico enrichment of vaccine-specific sequences from the total repertoire. Identifying antigen-specific sequences from total repertoire data could aid our understanding B cell driven immunity, and be used for disease diagnostics and vaccine evaluation.

  12. Cytosolic adenylate changes during exercise in prawn muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thebault, M.T. [College de France, 29 - Concarneau (France); Raffin, J.P.; Pichon, R. [Brest Univ., 29 (France)

    1994-11-01

    {sup 31}P NMR and biochemical analysis were used to assess the effect of heavy exercise on cytosolic adenylate levels in Palaemon serratus abdominal muscle. At rest, the MgATP level corresponded to 85.5% of the total ATP content. The cytosolic adenylate concentrations of the prawn muscle are considerably different from that of vertebrates. The percentage of ADP bound to myofilaments was lower in the prawn muscle. Consequently, the level of free cytosolic AMP was greatly higher (thirty fold higher) than in vertebrate muscle. During vigorous work, the concentration of MgATP dropped and the cytosolic AMP accumulated, while the cytosolic adenine nucleotide pool decreased significantly. The phosphorylation potential value and the ATP/ADP ratio, calculated from the cytosolic adenylate, dropped acutely during the whole period of muscular contractions. On the contrary, the adenylate energy charge calculated from the cytosolic adenylate decreased slightly. Therefore, even in muscle displaying no AMP deamination, the adenylate charge is stabilized during exercise by the dynamic changes between cytosolic and bound adenylate species. (author). 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Hemodynamic changes in the hepatic circulation after the modulation of the splenic circulation in an in vivo human experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Satou, Shouichi; Mitsui, Tetsuya; Ninomiya, Riki; Komagome, Masahiko; Ozawa, Fumiaki; Beck, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in liver surgery have highlighted the effects of the splenic circulation on the hepatic circulation with respect to the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR). The aim of the present study was to investigate the actual hemodynamic effects of splenic artery embolization/ligation and splenectomy on the hepatic circulation in patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy through in vivo experimental models. In vivo models of splenic artery embolization/ligation (only splenic artery clamping) and splenectomy (simultaneous clamping of both the splenic artery and the splenic vein) were created in 40 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for various reasons. The portal venous flow velocity, the portal venous flow volume, the hepatic arterial flow velocity, and the hepatic arterial resistance index were measured with color Doppler ultrasonography. Clamping of the splenic artery induced an immediate and significant increase (16%) in the hepatic artery velocity (P splenic artery, the hepatic artery velocity remained significantly increased at the level of the initial clamping, and the portal venous flow significantly decreased (16%, P splenic vein, which was performed after the clamping of the splenic artery, resulted in an immediate and significant decrease (30%) in the portal venous flow (P splenic vein, there was no change in the portal flow, which remained significantly lower (28%) than the flow in controls, whereas the hepatic arterial flow further significantly increased (31%, P splenic artery embolization/ligation and splenectomy are effective for increasing hepatic arterial flow and decreasing portal flow, with splenectomy providing a greater advantage. The HABR underlies these hemodynamic changes.

  14. Hepatitis C virus infection suppresses the interferon response in the liver of the human hepatocyte chimeric mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Tsuge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV can modulate the expression of various genes including those involved in interferon signaling, and up-regulation of interferon-stimulated genes by HCV was reported to be strongly associated with treatment outcome. To expand our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying treatment resistance, we analyzed the direct effects of interferon and/or HCV infection under immunodeficient conditions using cDNA microarray analysis of human hepatocyte chimeric mice. METHODS: Human serum containing HCV genotype 1b was injected into human hepatocyte chimeric mice. IFN-α was administered 8 weeks after inoculation, and 6 hours later human hepatocytes in the mouse livers were collected for microarray analysis. RESULTS: HCV infection induced a more than 3-fold change in the expression of 181 genes, especially genes related to Organismal Injury and Abnormalities, such as fibrosis or injury of the liver (P = 5.90E-16∼3.66E-03. IFN administration induced more than 3-fold up-regulation in the expression of 152 genes. Marked induction was observed in the anti-fibrotic chemokines such as CXCL9, suggesting that IFN treatment might lead not only to HCV eradication but also prevention and repair of liver fibrosis. HCV infection appeared to suppress interferon signaling via significant reduction in interferon-induced gene expression in several genes of the IFN signaling pathway, including Mx1, STAT1, and several members of the CXCL and IFI families (P = 6.0E-12. Genes associated with Antimicrobial Response and Inflammatory Response were also significantly repressed (P = 5.22×10(-10∼1.95×10(-2. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide molecular insights into possible mechanisms used by HCV to evade innate immune responses, as well as novel therapeutic targets and a potential new indication for interferon therapy.

  15. In vitro hepatic metabolism of cediranib, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: interspecies comparison and human enzymology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Utermoehl, Timothy; Spear, Michael; Pollard, Christopher R J; Pattison, Christine; Rollison, Helen; Sarda, Sunil; Ward, Michelle; Bushby, Nick; Jordan, Angela; Harrison, Mike

    2010-10-01

    The in vitro metabolism of cediranib (4-[(4-fluoro-2-methyl-1H-indol-5-yl)oxy]-6-methoxy-7-[3-(1-pyrrolidinyl)propoxy]quinazoline), a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of all three VEGF receptors in late-stage development for the treatment of colorectal cancer and recurrent glioblastoma was investigated in hepatic proteins from preclinical species and humans using radiolabeled material. In human hepatocyte cultures, oxidative and conjugative metabolic pathways were identified, with pyrrolidine N(+)-glucuronidation being the major route. The primary oxidative pathways were di-and trioxidations and pyrrolidine N-oxidation. All metabolites with the exception of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite were observed in rat and cynomolgus monkey hepatocyte preparations. Additional metabolism studies in liver microsomes from these or other preclinical species (CD-1 mouse, Han Wistar rat, Dunkin Hartley guinea pig, Göttingen mini-pig, New Zealand White rabbit, beagle dog, and cynomolgus and rhesus monkey) indicated that the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite was not formed in these additional species. Incubations with recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes and inhibition studies using the nonselective cytochrome P450 (P450) chemical inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole in human hepatocytes indicated that FMO1 and FMO3 contributed to cediranib N-oxidation, whereas UGT1A4 had a major role in cediranib N(+)-glucuronidation. P450 enzymes had only a minor role in the metabolism of cediranib. In conclusion, species differences in the formation of the N(+)-glucuronide metabolite of cediranib were observed. All other metabolites of cediranib found in humans were also detected in rat and cynomolgus monkey. Non-P450 enzymes are predominantly involved in the metabolism of cediranib, and this suggests that clinical drug interactions involving other coadministered drugs are unlikely.

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses, and evaluation of risk factors for transmission: Report of a population screening in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U C Okonkwo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with these viruses in a Nigerian population. Methods. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV and HIV were assayed in 1 498 healthy adult participants. A structured questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for viral acquisition. Bivariate analysis was used to compare differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Significant risk factors were identified by stepwise logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and HIV were 8.8%, 10.0% and 12.9%, respectively, with urban/rural disparity. HBV/HCV positivity was higher among males than females. The reverse was true for HIV. Age was significantly associated with being HBV-, HCV- or HIV-positive. Communal use of a toothbrush was significantly associated with HBV positivity in the final model (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.45 - 4.18. Conclusions. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection is high in Nigeria, with urban/rural disparity. HCV may be more of a public health concern than HBV in some communities. Population-based studies are required to provide vital data to inform optimal national control strategies.

  17. Lamivudine Treatment for Chronic Hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Honkoop (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the smallest human viruses known and belongs to the family of Hepadnaviridae; it was the first human hepatitis virus that could be characterized. Before the discovery of the virus two types of transmission of infectious hepatitis were distinguished o

  18. [Acute outbreak of hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rebollar, Maria; Mallolas, Josep; Pérez, Iñaki; González-Cordón, Ana; Loncà, Montserrat; Torres, Berta; Rojas, Jhon-Fredy; Monteiro, Polyana; Blanco, José-Luis; Martínez, Esteban; Gatell, José-María; Laguno, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest an increased incidence of acute infection with hepatitisC virus (AHC) in men who have sex with men (MSM) co-infected with HIV. Early treatment with interferon-alpha, alone or in combination with ribavirin, significantly reduces the risk of chronic evolution. This retrospective study includes all HIV patients with AHC in our centre from 2003 to March 2013. AHC was defined by seroconversion of HCV antibodies and detection of serum HCV RNA. 93 episodes of AHC were diagnosed in 89 patients. All but three were MSM with a history of unprotected sex. Thirty-seven (40%) patients had other associated sexually transmitted disease. The 29% (27) had any symptoms suggestive of AHC. HCV genotype 4 was the most common (41%), followed by genotype1. Seventy patients started treatment with interferon-alfa and weight-adjusted ribavirin. Currently 46 have completed treatment and follow-up, reaching 26 of them (56.5%) sustained viral response. The incidence of AHC in HIV MSM patients from our centre has increased exponentially in recent years; sexual transmission remains the main route of infection. Early treatment with interferon-alpha and ribavirin achieved a moderate response in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.lagaudriere-gesbert@u-psud.fr [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  20. Receptor channel TRPC6 orchestrate the activation of human hepatic stellate cell under hypoxia condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Soumya C, E-mail: chidambaram.soumya@gmail.com [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Kannan, Anbarasu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Gopal, Ashidha [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Devaraj, Niranjali [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India); Halagowder, Devaraj [Unit of Biochemistry, Department of Zoology, School of Life Sciences, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), a specialized stromal cytotype have a great impact on the biological behaviors of liver diseases. Despite this fact, the underlying mechanism that regulates HSC still remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to understand the role of TRPC6 signaling in regulating the molecular mechanism of HSCs in response to hypoxia. In the present study we showed that under hypoxia condition, the upregulated Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1α (HIF1α) increases NICD activation, which in turn induces the expression of transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) in HSC line lx-2. TRPC6 causes a sustained elevation of intracellular calcium which is coupled with the activation of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway which activates the synthesis of extracellular matrix proteins. TRPC6 also activates SMAD2/3 dependent TGF-β signaling in facilitating upregulated expression of αSMA and collagen. As activated HSCs may be a suitable target for HCC therapy and targeting these cells rather than the HCC cells may result in a greater response. Collectively, our studies indicate for the first time the detailed mechanism of activation of HSC through TRPC6 signaling and thus being a promising therapeutic target. - Highlights: • HIF1α increases NICD, induces TRPC6 in lx2 cells. • TRPC6 a novel regulator in the activation of HSC. • HSCs as target for HCC therapy.

  1. Apparent cytosolic calcium gradients in T-lymphocytes due to fura-2 accumulation in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Ariel; Hoth, Markus

    2004-08-01

    Fura-2 is the most common dye to measure cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i). To facilitate simultaneous imaging of many cells while preserving their cytosolic environment, fura-2 is often loaded into the cytosol in its membrane-permeant ester form. It has been reported that small amounts of fura-2 accumulate in intracellular compartments, an effect that is usually neglected. We show that either focal or non-focal stimulation methods induce large [Ca2+]i gradients in T-lymphocytes during both, Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane. Interfering with mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and by labeling mitochondria with MitoTracker, we demonstrate that [Ca2+]i gradients co-localize with mitochondria and are attributable to mitochondrial fura-2 sequestration. Gradients could not be avoided by different loading protocols, compromising measurements of "real" [Ca2+]i gradients following T-cell stimulation. They were observed in human blood and lamina propria lymphocytes, Jurkat T-cells, mast cells, but not to the same extent in HEK-293 cells. Finally, we show that T-lymphocytes can be efficiently loaded with the membrane-impermeant fura-2 salt by electroporation and by osmotic lysis of pinocytic vesicles, which result in the loss of [Ca2+]i gradients. These methods are therefore suitable to study localized Ca2+ signals in large populations of T-cells while preserving their cytosolic integrity.

  2. Specific high-affinity binding of fatty acids to epidermal cytosolic proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raza, H.; Chung, W.L.; Mukhtar, H. (Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Western Reserve University, OH (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cytosol from rat, mouse, and human skin or rat epidermis was incubated with (3H)arachidonic acid, (14C)retinoic acid, (14C)oleic acid, (3H)leukotriene A4, (3H)prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or (3H) 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE), and protein-bound ligands were separated using Lipidex-1000 at 4C to assess the binding specificity. The binding of oleic acid and arachidonic acid with rat epidermal cytosol was rapid, saturable, and reversible. Binding of oleic acid was competed out with the simultaneous addition of other ligands and found to be in the following order: arachidonic acid greater than oleic acid greater than linoleic acid greater than lauric acid greater than leukotriene A4 greater than 15-HETE = PGE1 greater than PGE2 = PGF2. Scatchard analysis of the binding with arachidonic acid, oleic acid, and retinoic acid revealed high-affinity binding sites with the dissociation constant in the nM range. SDS-PAGE analysis of the oleic acid-bound epidermal cytosolic protein(s) revealed maximum binding at the 14.5 kDa region. The presence of the fatty acid-binding protein in epidermal cytosol and its binding to fatty acids and retinoic acid may be of significance both in the trafficking and the metabolism of fatty acids and retinoids across the skin.

  3. The influence of the human genome on chronic viral hepatitis outcome A influência do genoma humano no curso das hepatites virais crônicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that determine viral clearance or viral persistence in chronic viral hepatitis have yet to be identified. Recent advances in molecular genetics have permitted the detection of variations in immune response, often associated with polymorphism in the human genome. Differences in host susceptibility to infectious disease and disease severity cannot be attributed solely to the virulence of microbial agents. Several recent advances concerning the influence of human genes in chronic viral hepatitis B and C are discussed in this article: a the associations between human leukocyte antigen polymorphism and viral hepatic disease susceptibility or resistance; b protective alleles influencing hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV evolution; c prejudicial alleles influencing HBV and HCV; d candidate genes associated with HBV and HCV evolution; d other genetic factors that may contribute to chronic hepatitis C evolution (genes influencing hepatic stellate cells, TGF-beta1 and TNF-alpha production, hepatic iron deposits and angiotensin II production, among others. Recent discoveries regarding genetic associations with chronic viral hepatitis may provide clues to understanding the development of end-stage complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the near future, analysis of the human genome will allow the elucidation of both the natural course of viral hepatitis and its response to therapy.Os mecanismos que determinam o clearance ou a persistência da infecção viral nas hepatites virais crônicas não estão ainda bem identificados. O progresso no conhecimento sobre as ferramentas genéticas moleculares tem permitido detectar variações na resposta imune, que freqüentemente são associadas com polimorfismos do genoma humano. As diferenças na susceptibilidade do hospedeiro para as doenças infecciosas e a intensidade das doenças não podem ser atribuídas apenas à virulência do agente microbiano. Neste

  4. Immune-driven adaptation of hepatitis B virus genotype D involves preferential alteration in B-cell epitopes and replicative attenuation--an insight from human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, R K; Khatun, M; Ghosh, S; Banerjee, P; Datta, S; Sarkar, S; Saha, B; Santra, A; Banerjee, S; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

    2015-07-01

    An important driving force behind the sequence diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is viral adaptation to host immune responses. To gain an insight into the impact of host immunity on genetic diversification and properties of HBV, we characterized HBV of genotype D from treatment-naive hepatitis B e antigen-positive (EP) and hepatitis B e antigen-negative (EN) patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), where HBV is under stronger immune pressure, with that of HBV derived from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HBV-coinfected individuals, where HIV infection has significantly weakened the immune system. Full-length sequence analysis showed that HBV heterogeneity was most extensive in EN-CHB followed by EP-CHB and HIV/HBV coinfection. The relative magnitude of non-synonymous changes within B-cell epitopes was greater than that in T-cell epitopes of HBV open reading frames (ORFs) in both EP-CHB and EN-CHB. Nine amino acid substitutions were identified in B-cell epitopes and one in a T-cell epitope of HBV in EN-CHB, most of which resulted in altered hydrophobicities, as determined using the Kyte and Doolittle method, relative to wild-type residues found in HBV from the HIV-positive group. Additionally, 19 substitutions occurred at significantly higher frequencies in non-epitope regions of HBV ORF-P in EN-CHB than HIV/HBV-coinfected patients. In vitro replication assay demonstrated that the substitutions, particularly in reverse transcriptase and RNaseH domains of ORF-P, resulted in a decline in replication capacity of HBV. Hence, our results indicate that HBV adapts to increasing immune pressure through preferential mutations in B-cell epitopes and by replicative attenuation. The viral epitopes linked to immune response identified in this study bear important implications for future HBV vaccine studies.

  5. Chronic Exposure to Rifaximin Causes Hepatic Steatosis in Pregnane X Receptor-Humanized Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Tanaka, Naoki; Gonzalez, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Rifaximin, a nonsystemic antibiotic that exhibits low gastrointestinal absorption, is a potent agonist of human pregnane X receptor (PXR), which contributes to its therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease. To investigate the effects of long-term administration of rifaximin on the liver, PXR-humanized mice were administered rifaximin for 6 months; wild-type and Pxr-null mice were treated in parallel as controls. Histological analysis revealed time-dependent intense hepatocellular fat...

  6. Effects of human diets of two different Japanese populations on cancer incidence in rat hepatic drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzyme systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanke, Y; Iitoi, Y; Iwasaki, M; Iwase, Y; Iwama, M; Kimira, M; Takahashi, T; Tsugane, S; Watanabe, S; Akabane, M

    1996-01-01

    Hepatic enzyme systems of drug metabolism and antioxidation were investigated in rats fed the complete human diets consumed in the two Japanese prefectures, Akita and Okinawa, where the incidence of cancers was quite different: Okinawa had the lowest and Akita the highest age-adjusted mortality rate. In rats fed the human diet consumed in Okinawa, hepatic glutathione S-transferase activity was higher and lipid peroxide content was lower than in rats fed the diet consumed in Akita. These data might indicate that the number and/or quantity of the dietary components attributed to the detoxification of carcinogens and the scavenging reactive carcinogen species was much higher in the foods consumed in the population having lower cancer mortality rate.

  7. Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Casiraghi, Francesca; Halff, Glenn A.; Abrahamian, Gregory A.; Davalli, Alberto M.; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Jimenez-Ceja, Lilia M.; Mattern, Vicki; Paez, Ana Maria; Ricotti, Andrea; Tejero, Mary E.; Higgins, Paul B.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram Pablo; Tripathy, Devjit; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Dick, Edward J.; Cline, Gary W.; Folli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant. Aims To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Methods Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. Results Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons. Conclusion Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans. PMID:22125617

  8. Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Kamath

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR and lean insulin sensitive (IS baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver and peripheral (mainly muscle insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA was greater than saturated (LC-SFA fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.

  9. Novel microRNA-like viral small regulatory RNAs arising during human hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Bin; Wu, Meini; Zhang, Jing; Duan, Zhiqing; Wang, Haixuan; Hu, Ningzhu; Hu, Yunzhang

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), including host miRNAs and viral miRNAs, play vital roles in regulating host-virus interactions. DNA viruses encode miRNAs that regulate the viral life cycle. However, it is generally believed that cytoplasmic RNA viruses do not encode miRNAs, owing to inaccessible cellular miRNA processing machinery. Here, we provide a comprehensive genome-wide analysis and identification of miRNAs that were derived from hepatitis A virus (HAV; Hu/China/H2/1982), which is a typical cytoplasmic RNA virus. Using deep-sequencing and in silico approaches, we identified 2 novel virally encoded miRNAs, named hav-miR-1-5p and hav-miR-2-5p. Both of the novel virally encoded miRNAs were clearly detected in infected cells. Analysis of Dicer enzyme silencing demonstrated that HAV-derived miRNA biogenesis is Dicer dependent. Furthermore, we confirmed that HAV mature miRNAs were generated from viral miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) in host cells. Notably, naturally derived HAV miRNAs were biologically and functionally active and induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Genomic location analysis revealed novel miRNAs located in the coding region of the viral genome. Overall, our results show that HAV naturally generates functional miRNA-like small regulatory RNAs during infection. This is the first report of miRNAs derived from the coding region of genomic RNA of a cytoplasmic RNA virus. These observations demonstrate that a cytoplasmic RNA virus can naturally generate functional miRNAs, as DNA viruses do. These findings also contribute to improved understanding of host-RNA virus interactions mediated by RNA virus-derived miRNAs.

  10. In Vitro Infection of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by GB Virus C/Hepatitis G Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogeda, Marta; Navas, Sonia; Martín, Julio; Casqueiro, Mercedes; Rodríguez, Elena; Arocena, Carlos; Carreño, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    GB virus C (GBV-C), also known as hepatitis G virus, is a recently discovered flavivirus-like RNA agent with unclear pathogenic implications. To investigate whether human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are susceptible to in vitro GBV-C infection, we have incubated PBMC from four healthy blood donors with a human GBV-C RNA-positive serum. By means of (i) strand-specific reverse transcription-PCR, cloning, and sequencing; (ii) sucrose ultracentrifugation and RNase sensitivity assays; (iii) fluorescent in situ hybridization; and (iv) Western blot analysis, it has been demonstrated that GBV-C is able to infect in vitro cells and replicate for as long as 30 days under the conditions developed in our cell culture system. The concentration of GBV-C RNA increased during the second and third weeks of culture. The titers of the genomic strand were 10 times higher than the titers of the antigenomic strand. In addition, the same predominant GBV-C sequence was found in all PBMC cultures and in the in vivo-GBV-C-infected PBMC isolated from the donor of the inoculum. GBV-C-specific fluorescent in situ hybridization signals were confined to the cytoplasm of cells at different times during the culture period. Finally, evidence obtained by sucrose ultracentrifugation, RNase sensitivity assays, and Western blot analysis of the culture supernatants suggests that viral particles are released from in vitro-GBV-C-infected PBMC. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated, for the first time, GBV-C replication in human lymphoid cells under experimental in vitro infection conditions. PMID:10196301

  11. Hepatic Stellate Cells Improve Engraftment of Human Primary Hepatocytes: A Preclinical Transplantation Study in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusabineza, Ange-Clarisse; Najimi, Mustapha; van Hul, Noémi; Legry, Vanessa; Khuu, Dung Ngoc; van Grunsven, Leo A; Sokal, Etienne; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-01-01

    Human hepatocytes are used for liver cell therapy, but the small number of engrafting cells limits the benefit of cell transplantation. We tested whether cotransplantation of hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) could improve hepatocyte engraftment in vivo. Human primary hepatocytes were transplanted into SCID mice either alone or in a mixture with HSCs (quiescent or after culture activation) or LX-2 cells (ratio 20:1). Four weeks after transplantation into mouse livers, human albumin-positive (huAlb(+)) hepatocytes were found scattered. When cotransplanted in a mixture with HSCs or LX-2 cells, huAlb(+) hepatocytes formed clusters and were more numerous occupying 2- to 5.9-fold more surface on the tissue section than in livers transplanted with hepatocytes alone. Increased huAlb mRNA expression in livers transplanted with the cell mixtures confirmed those results. The presence of HSCs increased the number of hepatocytes entrapped in the host liver at an early time point posttransplantation but not their proliferation in situ as assessed by cumulative incorporation of BrdU. Importantly, 4 weeks posttransplantation, we found no accumulation of αSMA(+)-activated HSCs or collagen deposition. To follow the fate of transplanted HSCs, HSCs derived from GFP(+) mice were injected into GFP(-) littermates: 17 h posttransplant, GFP(+) HSCs were found in the sinusoids, without proliferating or actively producing ECM; they were undetectable at later time points. Coculture with HSCs improved the number of adherent hepatocytes, with best attachment obtained when hepatocytes were seeded in contact with activated HSCs. In vivo, cotransplantation of hepatocytes with HSCs into a healthy liver recipient does not generate fibrosis, but significantly improves the engraftment of hepatocytes, probably by ameliorating cell homing.

  12. PD 404,182 Is a Virocidal Small Molecule That Disrupts Hepatitis C Virus and Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Ana Maria; Chockalingam, Karuppiah; Bobardt, Michael; Simeon, Rudo; Chang, Jinhong

    2012-01-01

    We describe a virucidal small molecule, PD 404,182, that is effective against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The median 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) for the antiviral effect of PD 404,182 against HCV and HIV in cell culture are 11 and 1 μM, respectively. The antiviral activity of PD 404,182 is due to the physical disruption of virions that is accompanied to various degrees (depending on the virus and exposure temperature/time) by the release of viral nucleic acids into the surrounding medium. PD 404,182 does not directly lyse liposomal membranes even after extended exposure, and it shows no attenuation in antiviral activity when preincubated with liposomes of various lipid compositions, suggesting that the compound inactivates viruses through interaction with a nonlipid structural component of the virus. The virucidal activity of PD 404,182 appears to be virus specific, as little to no viral inactivation was detected with the enveloped Dengue and Sindbis viruses. PD 404,182 effectively inactivates a broad range of primary isolates of HIV-1 as well as HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and it does not exhibit significant cytotoxicity with multiple human cell lines in vitro (50% cytotoxic concentration, >300 μM). The compound is fully active in cervical fluids, although it exhibits decreased potency in the presence of human serum, retains its full antiviral potency for 8 h when in contact with cells, and is effective against both cell-free and cell-associated HIV. These qualities make PD 404,182 an attractive candidate anti-HIV microbicide for the prevention of HIV transmission through sexual intercourse. PMID:22083468

  13. Fatal acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure in an infant with pandemic human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mortada H.F. El-Shabrawi; Bazaraa, Hafez M; Hanan Zekri; Hanaa I. Rady

    2011-01-01

    We report the clinical presentation of a 10 month-old infant who succumbed with acute myocarditis and fulminant hepatic failure associated with a virologically confirmed human influenza A, H1N1 (2009) virus infection. To date, this is the first pediatric patient presenting with this fatal combination of complications during the current H1N1 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend meticulous assessment and follow up of the cardiac status, liver enzymes and coagulation profile in all pediatric patien...

  14. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  15. Human Leukocyte Antigen-E Alleles are Associated with Hepatitis C Virus, Torque Teno Virus, and Toxoplasma Co-infections but are not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis D Virus, and GB Virus C Co-infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dharmawan, Ruben; Raharjo, Irvan; Hudiyono

    2016-01-01

    Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), torque teno virus (TTV), GB virus C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG) anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants’ possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-E*101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027) and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001). HLA-E*103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001). Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated with HCV, TTV, and

  16. Human leukocyte antigen-e alleles are associated with hepatitis c virus, torque teno virus, and toxoplasma co-infections but are not associated with hepatitis b virus, hepatitis d virus, and GB virus c co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiono Agung Prasetyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis D virus (HDV, torque teno virus (TTV, GB virus C (GBV-C, and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher′s exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants′ possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-EFNx010101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027 and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001. HLA-EFNx010103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001. Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated

  17. 3D Spheroid Culture Enhances the Expression of Antifibrotic Factors in Human Adipose-Derived MSCs and Improves Their Therapeutic Effects on Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D cell culture has been reported to increase the therapeutic potentials of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. However, the action mechanisms of 3D MSCs vary greatly and are far from being thoroughly investigated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of 3D spheroids of human adipose-derived MSCs for hepatic fibrosis. Our results showed that 3D culture enhanced the expression of antifibrotic factors by MSCs, including insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF. In vitro studies indicated conditioned medium of 3D cultured MSCs protected hepatocytes from cell injury and apoptosis more effectively compared with 2D cultured cells. More importantly, when transplanted into model mice with hepatic fibrosis, 3D spheroids of MSCs were more beneficial in ameliorating hepatic fibrosis and improving liver function than 2D cultured cells. Therefore, the 3D culture strategy improved the therapeutic effects of MSCs and might be promising for treatment of hepatic fibrosis.

  18. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  19. Quantitative assessment of cytosolic Salmonella in epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Knodler

    Full Text Available Within mammalian cells, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium inhabits a membrane-bound vacuole known as the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV. We have recently shown that wild type S. Typhimurium also colonizes the cytosol of epithelial cells. Here we sought to quantify the contribution of cytosolic Salmonella to the total population over a time course of infection in different epithelial cell lines and under conditions of altered vacuolar escape. We found that the lysosomotropic agent, chloroquine, acts on vacuolar, but not cytosolic, Salmonella. After chloroquine treatment, vacuolar bacteria are not transcriptionally active or replicative and appear degraded. Using a chloroquine resistance assay, in addition to digitonin permeabilization, we found that S. Typhimurium lyses its nascent vacuole in numerous epithelial cell lines, albeit with different frequencies, and hyper-replication in the cytosol is also widespread. At later times post-infection, cytosolic bacteria account for half of the total population in some epithelial cell lines, namely HeLa and Caco-2 C2Bbe1. Both techniques accurately measured increased vacuole lysis in epithelial cells upon treatment with wortmannin. By chloroquine resistance assay, we also determined that Salmonella pathogenicity island-1 (SPI-1, but not SPI-2, the virulence plasmid nor the flagellar apparatus, was required for vacuolar escape and cytosolic replication in epithelial cells. Together, digitonin permeabilization and the chloroquine resistance assay will be useful, complementary tools for deciphering the mechanisms of SCV lysis and Salmonella replication in the epithelial cell cytosol.

  20. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of terms Donate Today Enroll in 123 What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  3. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information on hepatitis, both in the context of HIV coinfection and as a separate illness. NATAP provides coverage of key conferences, maintains a selection of hepatitis articles, and features an ask-the-expert forum on ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personal items (such as toothbrush, razor, and nail clippers) with a person who has the virus Were ... B virus Digestive system Aggressive hepatitis Gianotti-Crosti syndrome on the leg Hepatitis B References Kim DK, ...