WorldWideScience

Sample records for human heat budget

  1. Assimilation impacts on Arctic Ocean circulation, heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hao; Mugford, Ruth I.; Haines, Keith; Smith, Gregory C.

    We investigate the Arctic basin circulation, freshwater content (FWC) and heat budget by using a high-resolution global coupled ice-ocean model implemented with a state-of-the-art data assimilation scheme. We demonstrate that, despite a very sparse dataset, by assimilating hydrographic data in and near the Arctic basin, the initial warm bias and drift in the control run is successfully corrected, reproducing a much more realistic vertical and horizontal structure to the cyclonic boundary current carrying the Atlantic Water (AW) along the Siberian shelves in the reanalysis run. The Beaufort Gyre structure and FWC and variability are also more accurately reproduced. Small but important changes in the strait exchange flows are found which lead to more balanced budgets in the reanalysis run. Assimilation fluxes dominate the basin budgets over the first 10 years (P1: 1987-1996) of the reanalysis for both heat and FWC, after which the drifting Arctic upper water properties have been restored to realistic values. For the later period (P2: 1997-2004), the Arctic heat budget is almost balanced without assimilation contributions, while the freshwater budget shows reduced assimilation contributions compensating largely for surface salinity damping, which was extremely strong in this run. A downward trend in freshwater export at the Canadian Straits and Fram Strait is found in period P2, associated with Beaufort Gyre recharge. A detailed comparison with observations and previous model studies at the individual Arctic straits is also included.

  2. Heat Budget Monitoring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R. A. M.; Neale, C. M. U.; Jaworowski, C.

    2014-12-01

    Frequent estimation of heat flux in active hydrothermal areas are required to monitor the variation in activity. Natural changes in geothermal and hydrothermal features can include rapid significant changes in surface temperature distribution and may be an indication of "re-plumbing" of the systems or potential hydrothermal explosions. Frequent monitoring of these systems can help Park managers make informed decisions on infrastructure development and/or take precautionary actions to protect the public. Norris Geyser Basin (NGB) is one of Yellowstone National Park's hottest and most dynamic basins. Airborne high-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing was used to estimate radiometric temperatures within NGB and allow for the estimation of the spatial and temporal distribution of surface temperatures and the heat flow budget. The airborne monitoring occurred in consecutive years 2008-2012 allowing for the temporal comparison of heat budget in NGB. Airborne thermal infrared images in the 8-12 µm bands with 1-m resolution were acquired using a FLIR SC640 scanner. Digital multispectral images in the green (0.57 μm), red (0.65 μm), and near infrared (0.80 μm) bands were also acquired to classify the terrain cover and support the atmospheric and emissivity correction of the thermal images. The airborne images were taken in the month of September on selected days with similar weather and under clear sky conditions. In the winter of 2012, images were also taken in March to compare the effect of the cold weather and snow cover on the heat budget. Consistent methods were used to acquire and process the images each year to limit the potential variability in the results to only the variability in the hydrothermal system. Data from radiation flux towers installed within the basin were used to compare with airborne radiometric surface temperatures and compensate for residual solar heating in the imagery. The presentation will discuss the different mechanisms involved in

  3. Study on Surface Heat Budget of Various Pavements for Urban Heat Island Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface heat budgets of various pavement surfaces are studied with the aim of mitigating the urban heat island effect. In this study, the thermal characteristics of pavements are examined using data from observations. The net radiation, surface temperature, temperature under the surface, conduction heat flux, and core weight for each experimental surface are recorded, together with the weather conditions at the time of observation. The latent heat flux is estimated from the observed weight of the cores. The surface heat budget under the same weather conditions is examined, and the sensible heat flux from each target surface is calculated. The parameters that influence the surface heat budget, for example, solar reflectance (albedo, evaporative efficiency, heat conductivity, and heat capacity, are examined. On a typical summer day, the maximum reduction in the sensible heat flux from that on a normal asphalt surface is about 150 W/m2 for an asphalt surface with water-retaining material and about 100 W/m2 for a cement concrete surface with water-retaining material, depending on the albedo of each surface.

  4. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to human and animal metabolism combined is highest in Mumbai—the world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  5. Large differences in the diabatic heat budget of the tropical UTLS in reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Wright

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT and lower stratosphere (LS as simulated by five reanalysis models: MERRA, ERA-Interim, CFSR, JRA-25/JCDAS, and NCEP/NCAR. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Although they may be expected given difficulties in representing moist convection in models, the discrepancies in latent heating are still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention.

  6. Metabolic heat production by human and animal populations in cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iain D.; Kennedy, Chris A.

    2017-07-01

    Anthropogenic heating from building energy use, vehicle fuel consumption, and human metabolism is a key term in the urban energy budget equation. Heating from human metabolism, however, is often excluded from urban energy budgets because it is widely observed to be negligible. Few reports for low-latitude cities are available to support this observation, and no reports exist on the contribution of domestic animals to urban heat budgets. To provide a more comprehensive view of metabolic heating in cities, we quantified all terms of the anthropogenic heat budget at metropolitan scale for the world's 26 largest cities, using a top-down statistical approach. Results show that metabolic heat release from human populations in mid-latitude cities (e.g. London, Tokyo, New York) accounts for 4-8% of annual anthropogenic heating, compared to 10-45% in high-density tropical cities (e.g. Cairo, Dhaka, Kolkata). Heat release from animal populations amounts to world's most densely populated megacity—at 6.5 W m-2, surpassing heat production by electricity use in buildings (5.8 W m-2) and fuel combustion in vehicles (3.9 W m-2). These findings, along with recent output from global climate models, suggest that in the world's largest and most crowded cities, heat emissions from human metabolism alone can force measurable change in mean annual temperature at regional scale.

  7. Heat budget parameters for the southwestern Arabian Sea during monsoon - 88 experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sastry, J.S.

    The temporal evolution of heat budget parameters for the southwestern Arabian Sea shows that the net surface heat balance is negative (approx 70 Wm sup(-2)) in May 1988 (phase 1) mainly due to excessive latent heat loss over the radiation income...

  8. Simulated seasonal and interannual variability of mixed layer heat budget in the northern Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeBoyer Montegut, C.; Vialard, J.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Durand, F.; Ethe, C.; Madec, G.

    A global Ocean General Circulation Model (OGCM) is used to investigate the mixed layer heat budget of the Northern Indian Ocean (NIO). The model is validated against observations and shows a fairly good agreement with mixed layer depth data...

  9. Convective boundary layer budgets of moisture and sensible heat over an unstressed prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of convective boundary layer budgets of sensible heat and moisture were examined for two days over the unstressed vegetation of the tallgrass Konza National Prairie. In addition to the budget evaluation the study had these goals: to estimate the area-average surface fluxes and compare them to independent, ground-based measurements, to estimate the near surface evaporative fraction, and to compare different evaluations of the ratio of surface to inversion fluxes, i.e., the entrainment parameter. The budget analyses indicate that vertical and horizontal advection were significant terms in the budget and cannot be ignored.

  10. Seasonal and annual heat budgets offshore the Hanko Peninsula, Gulf of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkouriadi, I.; Lepparanta, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics], Email: ioanna.merkouriadi@helsinki.fi; Shirasawa, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Pan-Okhotsk Research Center, Inst. of Low Temperature Science

    2013-06-01

    A joint Finnish-Japanese sea-ice experiment 'Hanko-9012' carried out offshore the Hanko Peninsula included seasonal monitoring and intensive field campaigns. Ice, oceanographic and meteorological data were collected to examine the structure and properties of the Baltic Sea brackish ice, heat budget and solar radiation transfer through the ice cover. Here, the data from two years (2000 and 2001) are used for the estimation of the seasonal and annual heat budgets. Results present the surface heat balance, and the heat budget of the ice sheet and the waterbody. The ice cover acted as a good control measure of the net surface heat exchange. Solar radiation had a strong seasonal cycle with a monthly maximum at 160 and a minimum below 10 W m{sup -2}, while net terrestrial radiation was mostly between -40 and -60 W m{sup -2}. Latent heat exchange was much more important than sensible heat exchange, similar the net terrestrial radiation values in summer and autumn. A comparison between the latent heat flux released or absorbed by the ice and the net surface heat fluxes showed similar patterns, with a clearly better fit in 2001. The differences can be partly explained by the oceanic heat flux to the lower ice boundary. (orig.)

  11. Contribution of Advective and Non-advective Heat Fluxes to the Heat Budget of a Shallow Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez Miguel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat budget in a shallow lagoon has been established from field measurements at a bihourly scale. Information on the main advective and non-advective heat fluxes were collected during year 2003 at Nueva lagoon (Almería, Southern Spain. Heat storage data was obtained from a thermistor chain located in the deepest part of the lagoon and meteorological information was acquired using an automatic meteorological station placed near the lagoon's shore. In addition, estimation of evaporation was inferred from climatic approaches. Inputs of heat energy were dominated by radiative fluxes, with received net radiation accounting on average for around 95% of the non-advective total gains and radiation losses accounting for around 70% of the non-advective total losses. Sensible heat transfer from/to the atmosphere constituted the second energy input (4% and output (20%, although heat losses by evaporation were also significant. Conduction of heat into the sediments was a relatively constant form of energy loss but constitutes a minor contribution on the overall heat budget. Considerable variability was evident in non-advective heat fluxes at different time scales, from diel to seasonal. In relation to advective heat fluxes, groundwater and irrigation surpluses added to the heat storage of Nueva lagoon, whereas heat advected via precipitation was negligible.

  12. What is the Role of the Sensible Heat Flux on the Surface Heat Budget of Multi-year Sea Ice?

    OpenAIRE

    Guest, Peter S.; Persson, Ola G.; ANDREAS, EDGAR L.; Fairall, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    J1.4 The authors carried out a comprehensive measurement program to determine the surface energy budget at the SHEBA site. This paper will focus on the characteristics of the air-ice sensible heat flux and its role in the surface energy budget. The results discussed here are based on covariance measurements at the main tower site. We continuously sampled the sensible heat flux for almost an entire year at nominal levels of 2 m, 3 m, 5 m, 8 m and 18 m. The N...

  13. The heat budget of the Ross drainage basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1987-01-01

    Integration of the thermodynamic equation over an entire drainage basin yields a fairly simple expression for the steady-state heat balance. This stems from the fact that dissipative heating can be calculated directly from the release of gravitational energy. When mass balance, surface temperature a

  14. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  15. Estimating Heat Fluxes by Merging Profile Formulae and the Energy Budget with a Variational Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张述文; 邱崇践; 张卫东

    2004-01-01

    A variational technique (VT) is applied to estimate surface sensible and latent heat fluxes based on observations of air temperature, wind speed, and humidity, respectively, at three heights (1 m, 4 m, and 10m), and the surface energy and radiation budgets by the surface energy and radiation system (SERBS). The method fully uses all information provided by the measurements of air temperature, wind, and humidity profiles, the surface energy budget, and the similarity profile formulae as well. Data collected at Feixi experiment station installed by the China Heavy Rain Experiment and Study (HeRES) Program are used to test the method. Results show that the proposed technique can overcome the well-known unstablility problem that occurs when the Bowen method becomes singular; in comparison with the profile method, it reduces both the sensitivities of latent heat fluxes to observational errors in humidity and those of sensible heat fluxes to observational errors in temperature, while the estimated heat fluxes approximately satisfy the surface energy budget. Therefore, the variational technique is more reliable and stable than the two conventional methods in estimating surface sensible and latent heat fluxes.

  16. An algorithm to estimate the heating budget from vertical hydrometeor profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, Michael; Adler, Robert; Lang, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    A simple algorithm to estimate the latent heating of cloud systems from their vertical hydrometeor profiles is proposed. The derivation as well as the validation of the algorithm is based on output generated by a nonhydrostatic cloud model with parameterized microphysical processes. Mature and decaying stages of a GATE squall-type convective system have been tested. The algorithm-derived heating budget is in reasonable agreement with the budget predicted by the cloud model. The input to the proposed algoritm can be obtained from either a rain retrieval technique based on information from multichannel passive microwave signals or a kinematic cloud model based on information from Doppler radar wind fields and radar reflectivity patterns. Such an application would have significant implications for spaceborne remote sensing and the large-scale weather prediction data assimilation problem.

  17. Heat Fluxes and River Energy Budget on the Example of Lowland Świder River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łaszewski Maksym

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper present the energy budget of the downstream part of lowland Świder River, right tributary of the Vistula River in Mazovian Lowland, Poland. Heat fluxes were calculated on the example of four days, representing different meteorological and vegetative conditions. Results confirmed the dominant role of radiation, which accounted for an average of 90.7% and 79.7% gains and losses of thermal energy. Participation of non-radiative components proved to be far less crucial; the average contribution of condensation, sensible heat transfer, bed conduction and friction in energy gains accounted respectively to 0.0%, 0.6%, 2.9% and 5.9%, while the average contribution of evaporation, sensible heat transfer and bed conduction in energy losses reached respectively 4.5%, 1.1% and 14.6%. The results showed significant effect of riparian vegetation and cloud cover on river heat fluxes

  18. Contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to heat waves explain synergies between urban heat islands and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Yang, Long; Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu

    2015-05-01

    Heat waves (HWs) are projected to become more frequent and last longer over most land areas in the late 21st century, which raises serious public health concerns. Urban residents face higher health risks due to synergies between HWs and urban heat islands (UHIs) (i.e., UHIs are higher under HW conditions). However, the responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are still largely unknown. This study analyzes observations from two flux towers in Beijing, China and reveals significant differences between the responses of urban and rural (cropland) ecosystems to HWs. It is found that UHIs increase significantly during HWs, especially during the nighttime, implying synergies between HWs and UHIs. Results indicate that the urban site receives more incoming shortwave radiation and longwave radiation due to HWs as compared to the rural site, resulting in a larger radiative energy input into the urban surface energy budget. Changes in turbulent heat fluxes also diverge strongly for the urban site and the rural site: latent heat fluxes increase more significantly at the rural site due to abundant available water, while sensible heat fluxes and possibly heat storage increase more at the urban site. These comparisons suggest that the contrasting responses of urban and rural surface energy budgets to HWs are responsible for the synergies between HWs and UHIs. As a result, urban mitigation and adaption strategies such as the use of green roofs and white roofs are needed in order to mitigate the impact of these synergies.

  19. An observational heat budget analysis of a coral reef, Heron Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKellar, Mellissa C.; McGowan, Hamish A.; Phinn, Stuart R.

    2013-03-01

    Measurements of the surface energy balance, the structure and evolution of the convective atmospheric reef layer (CARL), and local meteorology and hydrodynamics were made during June 2009 and February 2010 at Heron Reef, Australia, to establish the relative partitioning of heating within the water and atmosphere. Horizontal advection was shown to moderate temperature in the CARL and the water, having a cooling influence on the atmosphere, and providing an additional source or sink of energy to the water overlying the reef, depending on tide. The key driver of atmospheric heating was surface sensible heat flux, while heating of the reef water was primarily due to solar radiation, and thermal conduction and convection from the reef substrate. Heating and cooling processes were more defined during winter due to higher sensible and latent heat fluxes and strong diurnal evolution of the CARL. Sudden increases in water temperature were associated with inundation of warmer oceanic water during the flood tide, particularly in winter due to enhanced nocturnal cooling of water overlying the reef. Similarly, cooling of the water over the reef occurred during the ebb tide as heat was transported off the reef to the surrounding ocean. While these results are the first to shed light on the heat budget of a coral reef and overlying CARL, longer-term, systematic measurements of reef thermal budgets are needed under a range of meteorological and hydrodynamic conditions, and across various reef types to elucidate the influence on larger-scale oceanic and atmospheric processes. This is essential for understanding the role of coral reefs in tropical and sub-tropical meteorology; the physical processes that take place during coral bleaching events, and coral and algal community dynamics on coral reefs.

  20. Evaluation of Mediterranean Sea water and heat budgets simulated by an ensemble of high resolution regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Gomez, E. [CERFACS/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex (France); Somot, S.; Dubois, C.; Deque, M. [CNRM/GAME, Meteo-France/CNRS, Toulouse (France); Josey, S.A. [National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Elguindi, N. [LA, CNRS, Toulouse (France)

    2011-11-15

    Air-sea heat and freshwater water fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea play a crucial role in dense water formation. Here, we compare estimates of Mediterranean Sea heat and water budgets from a range of observational datasets and discuss the main differences between them. Taking into account the closure hypothesis at the Gibraltar Strait, we have built several observational estimates of water and heat budgets by combination of their different observational components. We provide then three estimates for water budget and one for heat budget that satisfy the closure hypothesis. We then use these observational estimates to assess the ability of an ensemble of ERA40-driven high resolution (25 km) Regional Climate Models (RCMs) from the FP6-EU ENSEMBLES database, to simulate the various components, and net values, of the water and heat budgets. Most of the RCM Mediterranean basin means are within the range spanned by the observational estimates of the different budget components, though in some cases the RCMs have a tendency to overestimate the latent heat flux (or evaporation) with respect to observations. The RCMs do not show significant improvements of the total water budget estimates comparing to ERA40. Moreover, given the large spread found in observational estimates of precipitation over the sea, it is difficult to draw conclusions on the performance of RCM for the freshwater budget and this underlines the need for better precipitation observations. The original ERA40 value for the basin mean net heat flux is -15 W/m{sup 2} which is 10 W/m{sup 2} less than the value of -5 W/m{sup 2} inferred from the transport measurements at Gibraltar Strait. The ensemble of heat budget values estimated from the models show that most of RCMs do not achieve heat budget closure. However, the ensemble mean value for the net heat flux is -7 {+-} 21 W/m{sup 2}, which is close to the Gibraltar value, although the spread between the RCMs is large. Since the RCMs are forced by the same

  1. Observational estimation of heat budgets on drifting ice and open water over the Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of the surface heat budget over drifting ice and open water in the Arctic Ocean are made using eddy correlation and flux-profile methods using data obtained from drifting ice and from the R/V Xuelong in the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition during August 19-24,1999. The results show that the net radiation received by the ice surface is mainly lost through the sensible heat flux and the heat flux due to melting ice, and the latent heat flux making small contribution to the heat balance. However, the heat balance of the open water surface was dominated by the radiative flux whereas the latent and sensible heat fluxes and the oceanic heat flux were greater than those on the sea-ice surface. These results emphasize that thermodynamic processes are quite different between air/open water and air/sea-ice over the Arctic Ocean which is important when considering the effect of sea-air-ice interaction on climate change process during the summer period.

  2. Spatial structures in the heat budget of the Antarctic Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van de Berg

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Output from the regional climate model RACMO2/ANT is used to calculate the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. The main feature of the wintertime Antarctic ABL is a persistent temperature deficit compared to the free atmosphere. The magnitude of this deficit is controlled by the heat budget. During winter, transport of heat towards the surface by turbulence and net longwave emission are the primary ABL cooling terms. These processes show horizontal spatial variability only on continental scales. Vertical and horizontal advection of heat are the main warming terms. Over regions with convex ice sheet topography, i.e. domes and ridges, warming by downward vertical advection is enhanced due to divergence of the ABL wind field. Horizontal advection balances any excess warming caused by vertical advection, hence the ABL over domes and ridges tends to have a relatively weak temperature deficit. Conversely, vertical advection is reduced in regions with concave topography, i.e. valleys, where the ABL temperature deficit is enlarged. Along the coast, horizontal and vertical advection is governed by the inability of the large-scale circulation to adapt to small scale topographic features. Meso-scale (~10 km topographic structures have thus a strong impact on the ABL winter temperature, besides latitude and surface elevation. During summer, this mechanism is much weaker; and the horizontal variability of ABL temperatures is smaller.

  3. Moisture and heat budgets of the south American monsoon system: climatological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Kayano, Mary T.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Andreoli, Rita Valéria; de Souza, Rodrigo Augusto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    The climatology of the moisture and heat budget equation terms for subareas within the South American Monsoon System (SAMS) region is investigated for the 1958-2014 period considering the distinct phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). These budget equations are applied to the data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Reanalysis project. Sources or sinks of moisture and heat are equation residues, referred to as residue and diabatic terms, respectively. Analyses are done for the Central Amazon Basin (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) for three distinct periods, 1958-1976, 1977-1995, and 1996-2014, that correspond to the cold, warm, and undefined PDO phases. The differences among the PDO phases for each term are discussed. The CAM region acts dominantly as a moisture sink and heat source in all months during the three phases. On the other hand, in the WCB region, the monsoon characteristics are better defined, with a moisture sink (source) and a heat source (sink) during the wet (dry) season. The main result of the present analysis is the persistence of SAMS intensification signs in both CAM and WCB areas up to the last analyzed period (1996-2014), which is consistent with intense flooding in the Amazon Basin in 2008/2009, 2012, and 2014.

  4. Radiation budget and soil heat fluxes in different Arctic tundra vegetation types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszak, Inge; Iturrate Garcia, Maitane; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Schaepman, Michael E.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela

    2016-04-01

    While solar radiation is one of the primary energy sources for warming and thawing permafrost soil, the amount of shortwave radiation reaching the soil is reduced by vegetation shading. Climate change has led to greening, shrub expansion and encroachment in many Arctic tundra regions and further changes are anticipated. These vegetation changes feed back to the atmosphere and permafrost as they modify the surface energy budget. However, canopy transmittance of solar radiation has rarely been measured or modelled for a variety of tundra vegetation types. We assessed the radiation budget of the most common vegetation types at the Kytalyk field site in North-East Siberia (70.8°N, 147.5°E) with field measurements and 3D radiative transfer modelling and linked it to soil heat fluxes. Our results show that Arctic tundra vegetation types differ in canopy albedo and transmittance as well as in soil heat flux and active layer thickness. Tussock sedges transmitted on average 56% of the incoming light and dwarf shrubs 27%. For wet sedges we found that the litter layer was very important as it reduced the average transmittance to only 6%. Model output indicated that both, albedo and transmittance, also depend on the spatial aggregation of vegetation types. We found that permafrost thaw was more strongly related to soil properties than to canopy shading. The presented radiative transfer model allows quantifying effects of the vegetation layer on the surface radiation budget in permafrost areas. The parametrised model can account for diverse vegetation types and variation of properties within types. Our results highlight small scale radiation budget and permafrost thaw variability which are indicated and partly caused by vegetation. As changes in species composition and biomass increase can influence thaw rates, small scale patterns should be considered in assessments of climate-vegetation-permafrost feedbacks.

  5. Observations of the thermal environment on Red Sea platform reefs: a heat budget analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, K. A.

    2011-03-11

    Hydrographic measurements were collected on nine offshore reef platforms in the eastern Red Sea shelf region, north of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The data were analyzed for spatial and temporal patterns of temperature variation, and a simple heat budget analysis was performed with the goal of advancing our understanding of the physical processes that control temperature variability on the reef. In 2009 and 2010, temperature variability on Red Sea reef platforms was dominated by diurnal variability. The daily temperature range on the reefs, at times, exceeded 5°C-as large as the annual range of water temperature on the shelf. Additionally, our observations reveal the proximity of distinct thermal microclimates within the bounds of one reef platform. Circulation on the reef flat is largely wave driven. The greatest diurnal variation in water temperature occurs in the center of larger reef flats and on reefs protected from direct wave forcing, while smaller knolls or sites on the edges of the reef flat tend to experience less diurnal temperature variability. We found that both the temporal and spatial variability in water temperature on the reef platforms is well predicted by a heat budget model that includes the transfer of heat at the air-water interface and the advection of heat by currents flowing over the reef. Using this simple model, we predicted the temperature across three different reefs to within 0.4°C on the outer shelf using only information about bathymetry, surface heat flux, and offshore wave conditions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Simulating the heat budget for waste as it is placed within a landfill operating in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalla, Dina; Van Geel, Paul J; Doyle, James T

    2016-09-01

    A landfill gas to energy (LFGTE) facility in Ste. Sophie, Quebec was instrumented with sensors which measure temperature, oxygen, moisture content, settlement, total earth pressure, electrical conductivity and mounding of leachate. These parameters were monitored during the operating phase of the landfill in order to better understand the biodegradation and waste stabilization processes occurring within a LFGTE facility. Conceptual and numerical models were created to describe the heat transfer processes which occur within five waste lifts placed over a two-year period. A finite element model was created to simulate the temperatures within the waste and estimate the heat budget over a four and a half year period. The calibrated model was able to simulate the temperatures measured to date within the instrumented waste profile at the site. The model was used to evaluate the overall heat budget for the waste profile. The model simulations and heat budget provide a better understanding of the heat transfer processes occurring within the landfill and the relative impact of the various heat source/sink and storage terms. Aerobic biodegradation appears to play an important role in the overall heat budget at this site generating 36% of the total heat generated within the waste profile during the waste placement stages of landfill operations.

  7. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2016-10-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  8. Revisiting the global surface energy budgets with maximum-entropy-production model of surface heat fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Yu; Deng, Yi; Wang, Jingfeng

    2017-09-01

    The maximum-entropy-production (MEP) model of surface heat fluxes, based on contemporary non-equilibrium thermodynamics, information theory, and atmospheric turbulence theory, is used to re-estimate the global surface heat fluxes. The MEP model predicted surface fluxes automatically balance the surface energy budgets at all time and space scales without the explicit use of near-surface temperature and moisture gradient, wind speed and surface roughness data. The new MEP-based global annual mean fluxes over the land surface, using input data of surface radiation, temperature data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (NASA CERES) supplemented by surface specific humidity data from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), agree closely with previous estimates. The new estimate of ocean evaporation, not using the MERRA reanalysis data as model inputs, is lower than previous estimates, while the new estimate of ocean sensible heat flux is higher than previously reported. The MEP model also produces the first global map of ocean surface heat flux that is not available from existing global reanalysis products.

  9. Closing the Energy Budget: Advances in assessing heat fluxes into shallow lakes and ponds (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, S. W.; Hausner, M. B.; Suarez, F. I.; Selker, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    While soil heat flux is traditionally directly measured in any land surface energy study, measuring heat flux into and out of lakes and ponds is complicated by water column mixing processes, differing radiation adsorption coefficients, turbidity variation and heat flux through the sediment-water interface. High resolution thermal profile, to assess heat storage changes in aquatic systems is both time consuming and challenging using traditional thermister or thermocouple strings or casts. Recent advances in Raman spectra distributed temperature sensing (DTS) offer the opportunity to measure, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the thermal storage changes occurring in lakes and ponds. Measurements of thermal storage using DTS are presented from two distinct environments; a strongly density stratified solar pond and a deep cavern system (Devils Hole in Death Valley National Park), demonstrating the effectiveness of high resolution temperature measurements. In the solar pond environment, closure of the energy budget using direct measurements of evaporation and net radiation was greatly improved by incorporating transient thermal measurements, and the development of a cooling boundary layer easily shown. At Devils Hole, variations in shading of the water surface produced small but measureable horizontal gradients in water column temperature for short periods of the day, which impact both pool evaporation and the metabolism and behavior of aquatic organisms

  10. Seasonal cycle of the mixed-layer heat and freshwater budget in the eastern tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Willi; Dengler, Marcus; Lüdke, Jan; Schmidtko, Sunke; Schlundt, Michael; Brandt, Peter; Partners, Preface

    2016-04-01

    A new seasonal mixed-layer heat flux climatology is used to explore the mechanisms driving seasonal variability of sea surface temperature and salinity in the eastern tropical Atlantic (ETA) with a focus on the eastern boundary upwelling regions. Until recently, large areas at the continental margins of the ETA were not well covered by publically available hydrographic data hampering a detailed understanding of the involved processes. In a collaborative effort between African and European partners within the EU-funded PREFACE program, a new seasonal climatology for different components of the heat and freshwater budget was compiled for the ETA using all publically available hydrographic data sets and a large trove of previously not-publically available hydrographic measurements from the territorial waters of western African countries, either from national programs or from the FAO supported EAF-Nansen program. The publically available data includes hydrographic data from global data repositories including most recent ARGO floats and glider measurements. This data set was complemented by velocity data from surface drifter and ARGO floats to allow determining horizontal heat and freshwater advection. Monthly means of air-sea heat fluxes were derived from the TropFlux climatology while precipitation rates were derived from monthly mean fields of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. Finally, microstructure data from individual measurement campaigns allow estimating diapycnal heat and salt fluxes for certain regions during specific months. A detailed analysis of the seasonal cycle of mixed-layer heat and freshwater balance in previously poorly covered regions in the eastern tropical Atlantic upwelling is presented. In both eastern boundary upwelling region, off Senegal/Mauritania and off Angola/Namibia, average net surface heat fluxes warm the mixed layer at a rate between 50 and 80 W/m2 with maxima in the respective summer seasons. Horizontal advection

  11. Towards closure of regional heat budgets in the North Atlantic using Argo floats and surface flux datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wells

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007. The method includes optimal interpolation of the individual profiles to produce gridded fields with error estimates at a 10×10 degree grid box resolution. Closure of the heat budget is obtained within the error estimates for some regions – particularly the eastern subtropical Atlantic – but not for those boxes that include the Gulf Stream. Over the whole range considered, closure is obtained for 13 (9 out of 20 boxes with the NOC (NCEP/NCAR surface fluxes. The seasonal heat budget at 20°–30° N, 35°–25° W is considered in detail. Here, the NCEP based budget has an annual mean residual of -55±35 W m-2 compared with a NOC based value of -4±35 W m-2. For this box, the net heat divergence of 36 W m-2 (Ekman=-4 W m-2, geostrophic=11 W m-2, diffusion=29 W m-2 offsets the net heating of 32 W m-2 from the NOC surface heat fluxes. The results in this box are consistent with an earlier evaluation of the fluxes using measurements from research buoys in the subduction array which revealed biases in NCEP but good agreement of the buoy values with the NOC fields.

  12. Towards closure of regional heat budgets in the North Atlantic using Argo floats and surface flux datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Wells

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The upper ocean heat budget (0–300 m of the North Atlantic from 20°–60° N is investigated using data from Argo profiling floats for 1999–2005 and the NCEP/NCAR and NOC surface flux datasets. Estimates of the different terms in the budget (heat storage, advection, diffusion and surface exchange are obtained using the methodology developed by Hadfield et al. (2007a, b. The method includes optimal interpolation of the individual profiles to produce gridded fields with error estimates at a 10°×10° grid box resolution. Closure of the heat budget is obtained within the error estimates for some regions – particularly the eastern subtropical Atlantic – but not for those boxes that include the Gulf Stream. Over the whole range considered, closure is obtained for 13 (9 out of 20 boxes with the NOC (NCEP/NCAR surface fluxes. The seasonal heat budget at 20–30° N, 35–25° W is considered in detail. Here, the NCEP based budget has an annual mean residual of −55±35 Wm−2 compared with a NOC based value of −4±35 Wm−2. For this box, the net heat divergence of 36 Wm−2 (Ekman=−4 Wm−2, geostrophic=11 Wm−2, diffusion=29 Wm−2 offsets the net heating of 32 Wm−2 from the NOC surface heat fluxes. The results in this box are consistent with an earlier evaluation of the fluxes using measurements from research buoys in the subduction array which revealed biases in NCEP but good agreement of the buoy values with the NOC fields.

  13. Differences in heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal: Implications for the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    An analysis of the heat budgets of the near-surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal shows significant differences between them during the summer monsoon (June-September). In the Arabian Sea the winds associated with the summer monsoon are stronger...

  14. A Heat Budget Study on the Mechanism of SST Variations in the Indian Ocean Dipole Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ruijin; LIU Qinyu; LI Chongyin

    2005-01-01

    By using a new heat budget equation that is closely related to the sea surface temperature (SST) and a dataset from an ocean general circulation model (MOM2) with 10-a integration (1987-1996), the relative importance of various processes determining SST variations in two regions of the Indian Ocean is compared. These regions are defined by the Indian Ocean Dipole Index and will be referred to hereafter as the eastern (0°-10°S, 90°-110°E) and western regions (10°S-10°N, 50°-70°E), respectively. It is shown that in each region there is a falling of SST in boreal summer and a rising in most months of other seasons, but the phases are quite different. In the eastern region, maximum cooling rate occurs in July,whereas in the western region it occurs in June with much larger magnitude. Maximum heating rate occurs in November in the eastern region, but in March in the western one. The western region exhibits another peak of increasing rate of SST in October, indicating a typical half-year period. Net surface heat flux and entrainment show roughly the same phases as the time-varying term, but the former has much larger contribution in most of a year, whereas the latter is important in the boreal summer. Horizontal advection, however, shows completely different seasonal variations as compared with any other terms in the heat budget equation. In the eastern region, it has a maximum in June/November and a minimum in March/September, manifesting a half-year period; in the western region, it reaches the maximum in August and the minimum in November. Further investigation of the horizontal advection indicates that the zonal advection has almost the opposite sign to the meridional advection. In the eastern region, the zonal advection is negative with a peak in August, whereas the meridional one is positive with two peaks in June and October. In the western region, the zonal advection is negative from March to November with two peaks in June and November, whereas the

  15. Heat budget for a waste lift placed under freezing conditions at a landfill operated in a northern climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonany, James E; Van Geel, Paul J; Burak Gunay, H; Burkan Isgor, O

    2013-05-01

    A landfill operated in Ste. Sophie, Québec, Canada was instrumented to better understand the waste stabilization process in northern climates. Instrument bundles were placed within the waste to monitor temperature, settlement, oxygen, moisture content, total load, mounding of leachate and electrical conductivity. A finite element model was developed to simulate the heat budget for the first waste lift placed in the winter months and was calibrated using the first 10.5 months of collected temperature data. The calibrated model was then used to complete a sensitivity analysis for the various parameters that impact the heat budget. The results of the analysis indicated that the heat required for phase change to thaw the liquid fraction within frozen waste had a significant impact on the heat budget causing sections of waste to remain frozen throughout the simulation period. This was supported by the data collected to date at Ste. Sophie and by other researchers indicating that frozen waste placed during the winter months can remain frozen for periods in access of 1.5 years.

  16. Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields in convective regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, XiaoCong; Liu, YiMin; Bao, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Impacts of cloud overlap assumptions on radiative budgets and heating fields are explored with the aid of a cloud-resolving model (CRM), which provided cloud geometry as well as cloud micro and macro properties. Large-scale forcing data to drive the CRM are from TRMM Kwajalein Experiment and the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment field campaigns during which abundant convective systems were observed. The investigated overlap assumptions include those that were traditional and widely used in the past and the one that was recently addressed by Hogan and Illingworth (2000), in which the vertically projected cloud fraction is expressed by a linear combination of maximum and random overlap, with the weighting coefficient depending on the so-called decorrelation length Lcf. Results show that both shortwave and longwave cloud radiative forcings (SWCF/LWCF) are significantly underestimated under maximum (MO) and maximum-random (MRO) overlap assumptions, whereas remarkably overestimated under the random overlap (RO) assumption in comparison with that using CRM inherent cloud geometry. These biases can reach as high as 100 Wm- 2 for SWCF and 60 Wm- 2 for LWCF. By its very nature, the general overlap (GenO) assumption exhibits an encouraging performance on both SWCF and LWCF simulations, with the biases almost reduced by 3-fold compared with traditional overlap assumptions. The superiority of GenO assumption is also manifested in the simulation of shortwave and longwave radiative heating fields, which are either significantly overestimated or underestimated under traditional overlap assumptions. The study also pointed out the deficiency of constant assumption on Lcf in GenO assumption. Further examinations indicate that the CRM diagnostic Lcf varies among different cloud types and tends to be stratified in the vertical. The new parameterization that takes into account variation of Lcf in the vertical well reproduces such a relationship and

  17. Improved predictive ability of climate-human-behaviour interactions with modifications to the COMFA outdoor energy budget model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J. K.; Warland, J. S.; Gillespie, T. J.; Kenny, N. A.

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to implement current and novel research techniques in human energy budget estimations to give more accurate and efficient application of models by a variety of users. Using the COMFA model, the conditioning level of an individual is incorporated into overall energy budget predictions, giving more realistic estimations of the metabolism experienced at various fitness levels. Through the use of VO2 reserve estimates, errors are found when an elite athlete is modelled as an unconditioned or a conditioned individual, giving budgets underpredicted significantly by -173 and -123 W m-2, respectively. Such underprediction can result in critical errors regarding heat stress, particularly in highly motivated individuals; thus this revision is critical for athletic individuals. A further improvement in the COMFA model involves improved adaptation of clothing insulation ( I cl), as well clothing non-uniformity, with changing air temperature ( T a) and metabolic activity ( M act). Equivalent T a values (for I cl estimation) are calculated in order to lower the I cl value with increasing M act at equal T a. Furthermore, threshold T a values are calculated to predict the point at which an individual will change from a uniform I cl to a segmented I cl (full ensemble to shorts and a T-shirt). Lastly, improved relative velocity ( v r) estimates were found with a refined equation accounting for the degree angle of wind to body movement. Differences between the original and improved v r equations increased with higher wind and activity speeds, and as the wind to body angle moved away from 90°. Under moderate microclimate conditions, and wind from behind a person, the convective heat loss and skin temperature estimates were 47 W m-2 and 1.7°C higher when using the improved v r equation. These model revisions improve the applicability and usability of the COMFA energy budget model for subjects performing physical activity in outdoor environments

  18. Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets for surface layer cooling induced by the passage of Hurricane Frances (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peisheng; Sanford, Thomas B.; Imberger, JöRg

    2009-12-01

    Heat and turbulent kinetic energy budgets of the ocean surface layer during the passage of Hurricane Frances were examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In situ data obtained with the Electromagnetic-Autonomous Profiling Explorer (EM-APEX) floats were used to set up the initial conditions of the model simulation and to compare to the simulation results. The spatial heat budgets reveal that during the hurricane passage, not only the entrainment in the bottom of surface mixed layer but also the horizontal water advection were important factors determining the spatial pattern of sea surface temperature. At the free surface, the hurricane-brought precipitation contributed a negligible amount to the air-sea heat exchange, but the precipitation produced a negative buoyancy flux in the surface layer that overwhelmed the instability induced by the heat loss to the atmosphere. Integrated over the domain within 400 km of the hurricane eye on day 245.71 of 2004, the rate of heat anomaly in the surface water was estimated to be about 0.45 PW (1 PW = 1015 W), with about 20% (0.09 PW in total) of this was due to the heat exchange at the air-sea interface, and almost all the remainder (0.36 PW) was downward transported by oceanic vertical mixing. Shear production was the major source of turbulent kinetic energy amounting 88.5% of the source of turbulent kinetic energy, while the rest (11.5%) was attributed to the wind stirring at sea surface. The increase of ocean potential energy due to vertical mixing represented 7.3% of the energy deposited by wind stress.

  19. Long term evolution of heat budget in the Mediterranean Sea from Med-CORDEX forced and coupled simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harzallah, Ali; Jordà, Gabriel; Dubois, Clotilde; Sannino, Gianmaria; Carillo, Adriana; Li, Laurent; Arsouze, Thomas; Cavicchia, Leone; Beuvier, Jonathan; Akhtar, Naveed

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluates the Mediterranean Sea heat budget components from a set of forced and coupled simulations performed in the frame of the Med-CORDEX project. The simulations use regional climate system models (RCSMs) dedicated to the Mediterranean area and driven by the ERA40/ERA-Interim reanalyses. The study focuses on the period 1980-2010. Interannual variations of the average net heat flux at the sea surface are consistent among models but the spread in the mean values is large (from -4.8 to +2.2 Wm-2) with the coupled models showing the lowest heat loss from the sea. For the heat flux at the Strait of Gibraltar both interannual variations and mean values show a large intermodel spread. The basin average temperature shows positive trends with highest values in the coupled models; it also shows interannual variations that are in good agreement with observations. The heat content rate is calculated based on the derivative of the average temperature and is found to be significantly correlated for most models with the net heat flux at the sea surface (average correlation ~0.5) but not with the net heat flux through the Strait of Gibraltar (average correlation ~0.2), suggesting that in the considered RCSMs the interannual variability of the heat content rate is mainly driven by the surface heat fluxes. The resemblance between the simulated and observed heat content rates is stronger in the forced models than in the coupled ones. This is explained by the stronger constraint applied to the forced models by the use of the surface temperature relaxation to observations. The temperature of the outflowing water through the Strait of Gibraltar shows positive and significant trends, also higher in the coupled models. It is suggested that the Mediterranean Sea warming found in most models and in particular in the coupled ones, induces a change of the hydrographic conditions that affects the Strait of Gibraltar.

  20. Impact of dust aerosols on the radiative budget, surface heat fluxes, heating rate profiles and convective activity over West Africa during March 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mallet

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the effect of dust aerosols on the surface and top of atmosphere radiative budget, surface temperature, sensible heat fluxes, atmospheric heating rate and convective activity over West Africa. The study is focused on the regional impact of a major dust event over the period of 7–14 March 2006 through numerical simulations performed with the mesoscale, nonhydrostatic atmospheric model MesoNH. Due to its importance on radiative budgets, a specific attention has been paid to the representation of dust single scattering albedo (SSA in MesoNH by using inversions of the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET. The radiative impacts are estimated using two parallel simulations, one including radiative effects of dust and the other without them. The simulations of dust aerosol impacts on the radiative budget indicate remarkable instantaneous (at midday decrease of surface shortwave (SW radiations over land, with regional (9°–17° N, 10° W–20° E mean of −137 W/m2 during the 9 to 12 March period. The surface dimming resulting from the presence of dust is shown to cause important reduction of both surface temperature (up to 4°C and sensible heat fluxes (up to 100 W/m2, which is consistent with experimental observations. At the top of the atmosphere, the SW cooling (regional mean of −12.0 W/m2 induced by mineral dust is shown to dominate the total net (shortwave + longwave effect. The maximum SW heating occurs within the dusty layer with values comprised between 4 and 7° K by day and LW effect results in a cooling of −0.10/−0.20° K by day. Finally, the simulations suggest the decrease of the convective available potential energy (CAPE over the region in the presence of mineral dust.

  1. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pump Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidel, James [Oakland Univ., Rochester, MI (United States)

    2014-12-22

    The grant objectives of the DOE grant funded project have been successfully completed. The Human Health Building (HHB) was constructed and opened for occupancy for the Fall 2012 semester of Oakland University. As with any large construction project, some issues arose which all were overcome to deliver the project on budget and on time. The facility design is a geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid building utilizing both desiccant dehumidification and variable refrigerant flow heat pumps. It is a cooling dominant building with a 400 ton cooling design day load, and 150 ton heating load on a design day. A 256 vertical borehole (320 ft depth) ground source heat pump array is located south of the building under the existing parking lot. The temperature swing and performance over 2013 through 2015 shows the ground loop is well sized, and may even have excess capacity for a future building to the north (planned lab facility). The HHB achieve a US Green Building Counsel LEED Platinum rating by collecting 52 of the total 69 available LEED points for the New Construction v.2 scoring checklist. Being Oakland's first geothermal project, we were very pleased with the building outcome and performance with the energy consumption approximately 1/2 of the campus average facility, on a square foot basis.

  2. On the accuracy of the simple ocean data assimilation analysis for estimating heat Budgets of the Near-Surface Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    The accuracy of data from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) model for estimating the heat budget of the upper ocean is tested in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. SODA is able to reproduce the changes in heat content when...

  3. Water mass transformation in the deep basins of the Nordic Seas: Analyses of heat and freshwater budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarius, K.; Quadfasel, D.

    2016-08-01

    In the Arctic Mediterranean a transformation of Atlantic Water, flowing in near the surface, into overflow water, which leaves the area at depth, takes place. For this transformation the Nordic Seas are of particular importance, as they are largely ice-free and thus heat loss to the atmosphere during winter is strong. Since 2001 Argo-type profiling float measurements have been carried out in the region and enable the observation of hydrography during the whole year. The measurements concentrate on the deep basins, the Norwegian Basin, Lofoten Basin, Greenland Sea and Icelandic Plateau. They are analysed with special emphasis on the seasonal cycle in hydrography. Based on the mean seasonal cycle of temperature and salinity and atmospheric fluxes from reanalysis products for the first decade of this century heat and freshwater budgets are calculated. The residuum in the budgets gives the lateral exchange of water between the inner basins and the boundary current, circumnavigating the whole area. This lateral exchange is identified with the contribution of the deep basins to the water mass transformation within the Nordic Seas. Budget calculations, using atmospheric flux data from NCEP with corrections for high latitudes, yield a contribution of 18% to the total temperature decrease and 6% to the total salinity decrease in the Arctic Mediterranean, although the basins account for only 4% of the total area. The density increase nearly exclusively takes place in the eastern basins, whereas the Greenland Sea plays an important role in matching the temperature and salinity characteristic of the overflow water. An increasing amount of freshwater in the surface layer will have only minor effects on the strength of the overflows across the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland Ridge.

  4. Advective and Conductive Heat Flow Budget Across the Wagner Basin, Northern Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, F.; Negrete-Aranda, R.; Contreras, J.; Müller, C.; Hutnak, M.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, A.; Harris, R. N.; Sclater, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    In May 2015, we conducted a cruise across the northern Gulf of California, an area of continental rift basin formation and rapid deposition of sediments. The cruise was undertaken aboard the R/V Alpha Helix; our goal was to study variation in superficial conductive heat flow, lateral changes in the shallow thermal conductivity structure, and advective transport of heat across the Wagner basin. We used a Fielax heat flow probe with 22 thermistors that can penetrate up to 6 m into the sediment cover. The resulting data set includes 53 new heat flow measurements collected along three profiles. The longest profile (42 km) contains 30 measurements spaced 1-2 km apart. The western part of the Wagner basin (hanging wall block) exhibit low to normal conductive heat flow whereas the eastern part of the basin (foot wall block) heat flow is high to very high (up to 2500 mWm-2). Two other short profiles (12 km long each) focused on resolving an extremely high heat flow anomaly up to 15 Wm-2 located near the intersection between the Wagner bounding fault system and the Cerro Prieto fault. We hypothesize that the contrasting heat flow values observed across the Wagner basin are due to horizontal water circulation through sand layers and fault pathways of high permeability. Circulation appears to be from west (recharge zone) to east (discharge zone). Additionally, our results reveal strong vertical advection of heat due to dehydration reactions and compaction of fine grained sediments.

  5. Heat Loss of the Earth and Energy Budget of the Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, J.; Jaupart, C.

    2009-05-01

    Determination of the rate of Earth's energy loss is based a very large number of heat flux measurements in a variety of geological settings. Difficulties in integrating the flux over the Earth surface stem from two facts. One is that heat flux varies on a wide range of spatial scales and, in continents, is not a function of a single variable such as geological age, for example. The other difficulty is that the data exhibit large scatter. Advances in the interpretation of oceanic heat flux data are due to a thorough understanding of hydrothermal circulation through oceanic crust and sediments. In continents, the total heat loss has been constrained by sampling of old cratons is now adequate and systematic studies of heat flux and heat production have provided robust constraints on the crustal contribution to the surface heat flux. Heat loss through the ocean floor cannot be determined from the raw data because they are affected by hydrothermal circulation and irregularities in sediment cover. Predictions of the "half-space" model for the conductive cooling of oceanic lithosphere are consistent with heat flux measurements in selected "noise-free" environments as well as with the bathymetry of the sea floor. They are also consistent with values of the mantle temperature beneath oceanic ridges derived from petrology. This cooling model is also consistent with numerical calculations of mantle convection with plates. Using an accurate determination of the area extent of oceanic sea floor including marginal basins and accounting for enhanced heat flux over hot spots, we estimated the rate of heat loss through the oceans to be 32±2 TW (1012 Watts). This result is valid only for the present-day age distribution of sea floor and heat loss may have been different in the past when the distribution of sea floor ages was different from the present. For continents, bias due to the very uneven sampling of the surface heat flux is removed by area- weighting the average. The

  6. Mixed layer heat budget of Kuroshio-Tango Triangle using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Sugimori, Y; Wuwa, J.; Okada, Y; Siripong, A

    Using a three dimensional heat flux model, variation of heat storage in the mixed layer of a triangular oceanic area, embedded in the Kuroshio has been studied for a period of a few days in the month of November, 1983. For the estimation of vertical...

  7. Upper ocean heat budget of western-north Pacific using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Sugimori, Y.; Akiyama, M.

    of the Kuroshio box model, the net surface heat flux for the box is -1.4 x 10@u10@@ watt. Though there is a general view that Kuroshio act as an effective feeder for the surface heat loss for this region in the present case it is found that for 10-days mean period...

  8. The heat budgets of magmatic arcs: Discrepancies between heat flow measurements, volatile fluxes, and interpretations of the geologic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buer, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Arc magmatic processes, from differentiation to emplacement, depend crucially on the rate at which heat and magma are supplied to the arc crust. In active arcs, the total heat flow can be estimated relatively directly by measuring and quantifying the amounts of heat lost via conduction, hydrothermal circulation, and eruption. This total heat flow can be used to calculate the implied magmatic flux at depth. Alternatively, magmatic flux in active arcs can be estimated from measured rates of volatile emissions, usually SO2. Unfortunately, heat flow and volatile flux data sufficiently detailed to make these calculations exist for only a handful of active arcs. In the geologic record, rates of arc magmatic flux have most frequently been estimated by measuring the preserved volumes of intrusive and extrusive products and dividing by the geochronologically determined duration of arc activity. This can be converted to heat flow by assuming a certain amount of heat carried per volume of magma. The ranges of magmatic flux estimated via either heat flow or SO2 are similar for modern arcs, but, on average, estimates from the geologic record are lower by about a factor of three (Fig. 1). This discrepancy may indicate that the assumption that preserved igneous rock volumes represent the total advective flux is a poor choice when interpreting the geologic record. Recycling of early solidified magma and loss of cumulates to the mantle may be important, i.e., the time-integrated advective flux might significantly exceed the net preserved intrusive volume. This is also supported by other lines of evidence, including geochemical mass-balance arguments, thermal models of basalt flux needed to allow substantial assimilation and/or crystal fractionation in the lower crust, high-temperature thermochronology in arcs, and thermal models of the conditions necessary to cause large, explosive eruptions from upper crustal magma chambers. Substantial recycling or convection within the arc crust

  9. Mid-2000s North Atlantic shift: Heat budget and circulation changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somavilla, R.; González-Pola, C.; Schauer, U.; Budéus, G.

    2016-03-01

    Prior to the 2000s, the North Atlantic was the basin showing the greatest warming. However, since the mid-2000s during the so-called global warming hiatus, large amounts of heat were transferred in this basin from upper to deeper levels while the dominance in terms of atmospheric heat capture moved into the Indo-Pacific. Here we show that a large transformation of modal waters in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA) played a crucial role in such contrasting behavior. First, strong winter mixing in 2005 transformed ENA modal waters into a much saltier, warmer, and denser variety, transferring upper ocean heat and salt gained slowly over time to deeper layers. The new denser waters also altered the zonal dynamic height gradient reversing the southward regional flow and enhancing the access of saltier southern waters to higher latitudes. Then, the excess salinity in northern regions favored additional heat injection through deep convection events in later years.

  10. Surface Heat Budget and Solar Radiation Allocation at a Melt Pond During Summer in the Central Arctic Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shugang; ZHAO Jinping; SHI Jiuxin; JIAO Yutian

    2014-01-01

    The heat budget of a melt pond surface and the solar radiation allocation at the melt pond are studied using the 2010 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition data collected in the central Arctic. Temperature at a melt pond surface is proportional to the air temperature above it. However, the linear relationship between the two varies, depending on whether the air temperature is higher or lower than 0℃. The melt pond surface temperature is strongly influenced by the air temperature when the latter is lower than 0℃. Both net longwave radiation and turbulent heat flux can cause energy loss in a melt pond, but the loss by the latter is larger than that by the former. The turbulent heat flux is more than twice the net longwave radiation when the air temperature is lower than 0℃. More than 50%of the radiation energy entering the pond surface is absorbed by pond water. Very thin ice sheet on the pond surface (black ice) appears when the air temperature is lower than 0℃; on the other hand, only a small percentage (5.5%) of net longwave in the solar radiation is absorbed by such a thin ice sheet.

  11. The heat and moisture budgets of the atmosphere over central equatorial Indian Ocean during summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    on board four Russian ships during summer monsoon days (25 to 31 July 1977). The time mean net flux divergences of latent heat and dry static energy are found to be about - 0.366 and -0,471 x 1013 cal/sec respectively in the study area. Contributions from...

  12. Thermoregulatory adaptations and heat energy budget analyses of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terpin, Kenneth M. [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Wild alligators were acclimated to laboratory conditions and thermocouples were surgically implanted at seven locations in the body. Animals were tested at different steady state environmental conditions in a climate space simulation chamber in order to ascertain the effect of heat transfer on body temperature. Results are reported.

  13. Changes in the modeled ice thickness distribution near the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) drifting ice camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R. W.

    2003-06-01

    In the polar oceans the ice thickness distribution controls the exchange of heat between the ocean and the atmosphere and determines the strength of the ice. The Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment included a year-long field program centered on a drifting ice station in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas in the Arctic Ocean from October 1997 through October 1998. Here we use camp observations and develop methods to assimilate ice thickness and open water observations into a model in order to estimate the evolution of the thickness distribution in the vicinity of the camp. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the ice growth and melt, and an ice redistribution model is used to simulate the opening and ridging processes. Data assimilation procedures are developed and then used to assimilate observations of the thickness distribution. Assimilated observations include those of the thin end of the distribution determined by aircraft surveys of the surface temperature and helicopter photographic surveys and aircraft microwave estimates of the open water fraction. The deformation of the ice was determined primarily from buoy and RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) measurements of the ice velocity. Because of the substantial convergence and ridging observed in the spring and summer, the estimated mean ice thickness increases by 59%, from 1.53 to 2.44 m, over the year in spite of a net thermodynamic ice loss for most multiyear ice.

  14. First study of the heat and gas budget for Sirung volcano, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani, Philipon; Alfianti, Hilma; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Oppenheimer, Clive; Sitinjak, Pretina; Tsanev, Vitchko; Saing, Ugan B.

    2017-08-01

    With at least four eruptions over the last 20 years, Sirung is currently one of the more active volcanoes in Indonesia. However, due to its remoteness, very little is known about the volcano and its hyperacid crater lake. We report here on the first measurements of gas and heat emissions from the volcano. Notable is the substantial heat loss from the crater lake surface, amounting to 220 MW. In addition, 17 Gg of SO2, representing 0.8% of Indonesian volcanic SO2 contribution into the atmosphere, 11 Gg of H2S, 17 Gg of CO2, and 550 Gg of H2O are discharged into the atmosphere from the volcano annually. The volatiles degassed from Sirung magmas are subjected to hydrothermal fluid-rock interactions and sulfide depositions, initiated by the disproportionation of SO2. These processes lead to distinct gas compositions and changing lake water chemistry (in the sub-craters and the main crater lake). However, the occurrence of SO2-rich fluids and strong gas flux appear to highlight a rapid fluid transfer to surface, avoiding re-equilibration with lower temperature rocks/fluids in the conduits.

  15. Estimating changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water and factors controlling their importance in the surface energy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, W.B.; Sumner, D.M.; Castillo, A.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Changes in heat energy stored within a column of wetland surface water can be a considerable component of the surface energy budget, an attribute that is demonstrated by comparing changes in stored heat energy to net radiation at seven sites in the wetland areas of southern Florida, including the Everglades. The magnitude of changes in stored heat energy approached the magnitude of net radiation more often during the winter dry season than during the summer wet season. Furthermore, the magnitude of changes in stored heat energy in wetland surface water generally decreased as surface energy budgets were upscaled temporally. A new method was developed to estimate changes in stored heat energy that overcomes an important data limitation, namely, the limited spatial and temporal availability of water temperature measurements. The new method is instead based on readily available air temperature measurements and relies on the convolution of air temperature changes with a regression-defined transfer function to estimate changes in water temperature. The convolution-computed water temperature changes are used with water depths and heat capacity to estimate changes in stored heat energy within the Everglades wetland areas. These results likely can be adapted to other humid subtropical wetlands characterized by open water, saw grass, and rush vegetation type communities. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in the southern Bay of Bengal during October — November, 1998 (BOBMEX-Pilot)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S N Murty; V Ramesh Babu; L V G Rao; Charuta V Prabhu; V Tilvi

    2000-06-01

    Time-series data on upper-ocean temperature, Vessel-Mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (VM-ADCP) measured currents and surface meteorological parameters have been obtained for the first time in the southern Bay of Bengal at 7° N, 10° N, and 13° N locations along 87° E during October - November, 1998 under BOBMEX-Pilot programme. These data have been analysed to examine the diurnal variability of upper oceanic heat budget and to estimate the eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper layer. Diurnal variation of near-surface temperature is typical at northern location (13°N) with a range of 0.5°C while the diurnal range of temperature is enhanced to 0.8°C at the central location (10° N) due to intense solar radiation (1050 W/m2), clear skies and low wind speeds. At the southern location (7°N), the diurnal variation of temperature is atypical with the minimum temperature occurring at 2000 hrs instead of at early morning hours. In general, the diurnal curve of temperature penetrated up to 15 to 20 m with decreasing diurnal range with depth. The VM-ADCP measured horizontal currents in the upper ocean were predominantly easterly/northeasterly at southern location, north/northerly at central location and northwesterly at northern location, thus describing a large-scale cyclonic gyre with the northward meridional flow along 87°E. The magnitudes of heat loss at the surface due to air-sea heat exchanges and in the upper 50 m layer due to vertical diffusion of heat are highest at the southern location where intense convective activity followed by overcast skies and synoptic disturbance prevailed in the lower atmosphere. This and the estimated higher value (0.0235 m2/s) of eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper ocean (0-50 m depth) suggest that 1-D processes controlled the upper layer heat budget at the southern location. On the other hand, during the fair weather conditions, at the central and northern locations, the upper layer gained heat

  17. Biophysical aspects of human thermoregulation during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2016-04-01

    Humans maintain a relatively constant core temperature through the dynamic balance between endogenous heat production and heat dissipation to the surrounding environment. In response to metabolic or environmental disturbances to heat balance, the autonomic nervous system initiates cutaneous vasodilation and eccrine sweating to facilitate higher rates of dry (primarily convection and radiation) and evaporative transfer from the body surface; however, absolute heat losses are ultimately governed by the properties of the skin and the environment. Over the duration of a heat exposure, the cumulative imbalance between heat production and heat dissipation leads to body heat storage, but the consequent change in core temperature, which has implications for health and safety in occupational and athletic settings particularly among certain clinical populations, involves a complex interaction between changes in body heat content and the body's morphological characteristics (mass, surface area, and tissue composition) that collectively determine the body's thermal inertia. The aim of this review is to highlight the biophysical aspects of human core temperature regulation by outlining the principles of human energy exchange and examining the influence of body morphology during exercise and environmental heat stress. An understanding of the biophysical factors influencing core temperature will enable researchers and practitioners to better identify and treat individuals/populations most vulnerable to heat illness and injury during exercise and extreme heat events. Further, appropriate guidelines may be developed to optimize health, safety, and work performance during heat stress.

  18. Qualitative research on the cause of budget travel heat%穷游热的成因:一个质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国征

    2015-01-01

    Budget travel has become one of the most popular ways of traveling.However,fewer tourism scholars bring it into the view of tourism research.In order to explore the causes of the heat of budget travel,this article uses the method of grounded theory that is a typical one of qualitative researches to study the cause of budget travel heat,collects the data by depth interview,observation,and analyzes the data with the help of MaxQda.The result of the study shows that the main causes of budget travel heat are the economic capacity of young tourists, the new travel concept of young tourists,the catalysis of network media,and the boosting of tourism commodity prices.%穷游逐渐成为时下年轻旅游者热捧的旅游方式之一。然而,关于穷游的理论研究却很少见。为了深化对穷游热现象的理论认识,文章运用质性研究中扎根理论方法探寻其形成原因。通过参与观察、深入访谈和收集网络文本三种方式获取研究资料。运用 MaxQda 软件完成资料分析。研究结果表明:穷游热的成因主要有年轻旅游者经济能力的限制、年轻旅游者旅游观念的转变、网络传媒的催化和旅游物价的助推。

  19. Hydration Effects on Human Physiology and Exercise-Heat Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    AD REPORT NO T7-90 HYDRATION EFFECTS :N HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEA PERFORMANCE Co U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...effects on human physiology and exercise.-heat performance 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael N. Sawka, Andrew J. Young. William A. Latzka, P. Darrell...acknowledge Ms. Patricia DeMusis for preparing the manuscript. AD Report No. HYDRATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEAT PERFORMANCE by Michael N

  20. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Déqué, M.; Dell'Aquilla, A.; Elizalde, A.; Gualdi, S.; Jacob, D.; L'Hévéder, B.; Li, L.; Oddo, P.; Sannino, G.; Scoccimarro, E.; Sevault, F.

    2012-10-01

    Within the CIRCE project "Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment", an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing some difference in the

  1. Future projections of the surface heat and water budgets of the Mediterranean Sea in an ensemble of coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, C.; Somot, S.; Deque, M.; Sevault, F. [CNRM-GAME, Meteo-France, CNRS, Toulouse (France); Calmanti, S.; Carillo, A.; Dell' Aquilla, A.; Sannino, G. [ENEA, Rome (Italy); Elizalde, A.; Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Gualdi, S.; Oddo, P.; Scoccimarro, E. [INGV, Bologna (Italy); L' Heveder, B.; Li, L. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)

    2012-10-15

    Within the CIRCE project ''Climate change and Impact Research: the Mediterranean Environment'', an ensemble of high resolution coupled atmosphere-ocean regional climate models (AORCMs) are used to simulate the Mediterranean climate for the period 1950-2050. For the first time, realistic net surface air-sea fluxes are obtained. The sea surface temperature (SST) variability is consistent with the atmospheric forcing above it and oceanic constraints. The surface fluxes respond to external forcing under a warming climate and show an equivalent trend in all models. This study focuses on the present day and on the evolution of the heat and water budget over the Mediterranean Sea under the SRES-A1B scenario. On the contrary to previous studies, the net total heat budget is negative over the present period in all AORCMs and satisfies the heat closure budget controlled by a net positive heat gain at the strait of Gibraltar in the present climate. Under climate change scenario, some models predict a warming of the Mediterranean Sea from the ocean surface (positive net heat flux) in addition to the positive flux at the strait of Gibraltar for the 2021-2050 period. The shortwave and latent flux are increasing and the longwave and sensible fluxes are decreasing compared to the 1961-1990 period due to a reduction of the cloud cover and an increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs) and SSTs over the 2021-2050 period. The AORCMs provide a good estimates of the water budget with a drying of the region during the twenty-first century. For the ensemble mean, he decrease in precipitation and runoff is about 10 and 15% respectively and the increase in evaporation is much weaker, about 2% compared to the 1961-1990 period which confirm results obtained in recent studies. Despite a clear consistency in the trends and results between the models, this study also underlines important differences in the model set-ups, methodology and choices of some physical parameters inducing

  2. El Chichón crater lake dynamic based on continuous physical data and mass-heat budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The March-April 1982 Plinian eruption of El Chichón volcano destroyed the summit domes system and created a new 200 m deep crater. Since then, a shallow lake (~3 m) with acidic pH (~2.3), and temperature around 30°C appeared in the crater. This lake has never disappeared until now although its volume has suffered important variations from 40,000 m3 to 160,000 m3. Chemical composition of the lake is also highly variable (Cl/SO4 = 0-79 molar ratio), alternating between acid-sulfate and acid-chloride-sulfate composition. These variations can occur very fast within few weeks and are not directly correlated with precipitation. Due to its shallow depth and small volume, El Chichón crater lake is probably one of the most dynamic crater lake on earth. These rapid changes in chemistry and volume reflect the dynamic of one group of geyser-type springs ('Soap Pools springs, SP') located offshore and the input of hydrothermal steam underneath the crater. The SP springs discharge sporadically to the lake neutral waters with Cl content currently around 3000 mg/l, while the condensed steam feeds the lake with Cl-free and SO4-rich acid water. In this study, we present for the first time continuous physical data of the crater lake (temperature, depth, meteoric precipitation, wind velocity, solar radiation, air humidity). These data were registered by a meteorological station and two dataloggers installed inside and outside the lake. Using a mass and heat budget model constrained with these data, we were able to estimate the flux of 'hydrothermal' fluid entering the lake through the sub-lacustrian fumaroles and SP springs. Tracing the variations of the input flux in time can be help to understand the dynamic of the 'crater lake-SP springs-fumaroles' system but also can provide an efficient way of monitoring the volcanic activity. During the observation period, the mean mass flux entering the lake (Min) was respectively of 12 ± 2 kg/s, corresponding to a total heat flux (Ein) of

  3. Implications of climate change on the heat budget of lentic systems used for power station cooling: Case study Clinton Lake, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P. Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2016-01-01

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change--in particular higher air temperatures--on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  4. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-05

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  5. [Mechanism of heat transfer in various regions of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchakov, Iu I; Nozdrachev, A D

    2009-01-01

    The processes of heat transfer in a human body were studied with the use of a mathematical model. It has been shown that only conductive or only convective heat transfer may occur in different body areas. The rate of blood-mediated heat transfer in the presence of blood circulation is many times higher than heat transfer due to temperature gradient; therefore, the convective process prevails over the conductive process. The body core contains a variety of blood vessels, and the bulk of blood concentrates there in the norm. Hence, heat transfer in it is mainly convective. In surface tissues, where the rate of blood circulation is lower and the vasculature has certain specific features, heat transfer is mainly conductive. Hence, the core and surface tissues are absolutely different body zones in terms of heat transfer.

  6. Effects of heat stress on baroreflex function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Craig G.; Cui, Jian; Wilson, Thad E.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Heat stress significantly reduces orthostatic tolerance in humans. The mechanism(s) causing this response remain unknown. The purpose of this review article is to present data pertaining to the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance in heat stressed individuals is a result of heat stress induced alterations in baroflex function. METHODS: In both normothermic and heat stressed conditions baroreflex responsiveness was assessed via pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods. In addition, the effects of heat stress on post-synaptic vasoconstrictor responsiveness were assessed. RESULTS: Generally, whole body heating did not alter baroreflex sensitivity defined as the gain of the linear portion of the baroreflex curve around the operating point. However, whole body heating shifted the baroreflex curve to the prevailing (i.e. elevated) heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. Finally, the heat stress impaired vasoconstrictor responses to exogenous administration of adrenergic agonists. CONCLUSION: Current data do not support the hypothesis that reduced orthostatic tolerance associated with heat stress in humans is due to impaired baroreflex responsiveness. This phenomenon may be partially due to the effects of heat stress on reducing vasoconstrictor responsiveness.

  7. The Human Carbon Budget: An Estimate of the Spatial Distribution of Metabolic Carbon Consumption and Release in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Marland, Gregg [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the consumption and release of carbon by humans over the landscape, we developed a carbon budget for humans in the United States. The budget was derived from food commodity intake data for the US and from algorithms representing the metabolic processing of carbon by humans. Data on consumption, respiration, and waste of carbon by humans were distributed over the US using geospatial population data with a resolution of approximately 450 x 450 m. The average adult in the US contains about 21 kg C and consumes about 67 kg C yr-1 which is balanced by the annual release of about 59 kg C as expired CO2, 7 kg C as feces and urine, and less than 1 kg C as flatus, sweat, and aromatic compounds. In 2000, an estimated 17.2 Tg C were consumed by the US population and 15.2 Tg C were expired to the atmosphere as CO2. Historically, carbon stock in the US human population has increased between 1790-2006 from 0.06 Tg to 5.37 Tg. Displacement and release of total harvested carbon per capita in the US is nearly 12% of per capita fossil fuel emissions. Humans are using, storing, and transporting carbon about the Earth s surface. Inclusion of these carbon dynamics in regional carbon budgets can improve our understanding of carbon sources and sinks.

  8. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  9. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  10. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40),

  11. Guidelines for the nomenclature of the human heat shock proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, Harm H.; Hageman, Jurre; Vos, Michel J.; Kubota, Hiroshi; Tanguay, Robert M.; Bruford, Elspeth A.; Cheetham, Michael E.; Chen, B.; Hightower, Lawrence E.

    2009-01-01

    The expanding number of members in the various human heat shock protein (HSP) families and the inconsistencies in their nomenclature have often led to confusion. Here, we propose new guidelines for the nomenclature of the human HSP families, HSPH (HSP110), HSPC (HSP90), HSPA (HSP70), DNAJ (HSP40), a

  12. Estimation of human heat loss in five Mediterranean regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, M; Simsek, E; Sahin, B; Yasar, A; Ozbek, A

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of seasonal weather differences on the human body's heat losses in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The provinces of Adana, Antakya, Osmaniye, Mersin and Antalya were chosen for the research, and monthly atmospheric temperatures, relative humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure data from 2007 were used. In all these provinces, radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body based on skin surface and respiration were analyzed from meteorological data by using the heat balance equation. According to the results, the rate of radiative, convective and evaporative heat losses from the human body varies considerably from season to season. In all the provinces, 90% of heat loss was caused by heat transfer from the skin, with the remaining 10% taking place through respiration. Furthermore, radiative and convective heat loss through the skin reached the highest values in the winter months at approximately between 110 and 140W/m(2), with the lowest values coming in the summer months at roughly 30-50W/m(2).

  13. Declarativity and efficiency in providing services of general economic interest. Empirical study regarding the relation between heating costs and budget constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Miron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Defined by each country separately, according to real options, circumstances and traditions, the services of general economic interest have an objective purpose in ensuring protection and security for population. The services of general economic interest involve both public and economic services and show characteristics of both fields, reflecting the capabilities of communities to organize, regulate and provide them. Considering the accessibility to the essential service of general economic interest of providing household heating, as an undeniable condition of consumer protection, an analysis has been made in this field, with reference to the concrete manner of providing these services. The goal of this endeavor was to emphasize the actual conditionalities induced by the budget constraints of households while ensuring the universality of the access to the essential heating service. The empirical study is based on a survey of 55 households in sector 2 of Bucharest that have access to gas heating systems, while they have different revenues and equipments. The processing of the gathered data allowed the procurement of certain indicators that explain how household revenues determine the access to the heating services and how the deficiencies of the insurance system of these services deepen the social polarization and increase the weightings of those living at the limit of subsistence.

  14. Budget estimates, fiscal year 1995. Volume 1: Agency summary, human space flight, and science, aeronautics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA budget request has been restructured in FY 1995 into four appropriations: human space flight; science, aeronautics, and technology; mission support; and inspector general. The human space flight appropriations provides funding for NASA's human space flight activities. This includes the on-orbit infrastructure (space station and Spacelab), transportation capability (space shuttle program, including operations, program support, and performance and safety upgrades), and the Russian cooperation program, which includes the flight activities associated with the cooperative research flights to the Russian Mir space station. These activities are funded in the following budget line items: space station, Russian cooperation, space shuttle, and payload utilization and operations. The science, aeronautics, and technology appropriations provides funding for the research and development activities of NASA. This includes funds to extend our knowledge of the earth, its space environment, and the universe and to invest in new technologies, particularly in aeronautics, to ensure the future competitiveness of the nation. These objectives are achieved through the following elements: space science, life and microgravity sciences and applications, mission to planet earth, aeronautical research and technology, advanced concepts and technology, launch services, mission communication services, and academic programs.

  15. Thermotolerance and Human Performance: Role of Heat Shock Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    of the significant teratogens in humans, animals, and insects. However, protection from teratogenic effects as is true for various aspects of the...heat shock proteins as molecular chaperones. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1993;9:601–634 Germain M, Webster W, Edwards M. Hyperthermia as a teratogen ...physical or chemical teratogens are expressed later as enhanced induction of heat shock proteins when embryonic hearts are cultured in

  16. Short-term variability of surface heat budget of the east central Arabian Sea during November, 1992

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Rao, L.V.G.

    , among all the parameters only the latent heat flux or evaporation showed variation with maxima during morning and late night hours and minimum around local noon. This diurnal variation of latent heat flux was resulted from the diurnal variation of wind...

  17. Optimization study of using PTC for human body heating dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Adrian SALAORU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A better knowledge of the human body heat loses mechanisms is important for both diminishing the number of deaths during the surgical procedures of the patients under effect of full anaesthesia and increasing the efficiency of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC systems. For these studies it is necessary to manufacture a human body mannequin having its surface temperature maintained on a value close to the real human body temperature. A number of PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient thermistors placed on the entire external surface of the mannequin can be used for this purpose. This paper presents a study of the transient heating regime and the stability of the maintained temperature, performed on these devices.

  18. Measurements of the summer surface heat budget of the Northeast Water Polynya. USCGC Polar Sea cruise, July 15--August 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnett, P.J.

    1994-03-01

    A research cruise of the USCGC Polar Sea to the Northeast Water Polynya, off the eastern coast of Greenland (77--81{degree}N, 6--17{degree}W), was made from mid-July to mid-August of 1992 (NEWP `92) as the first field component of the multi-disciplinary study of a high-Arctic polynya funded by the NSF as part of the Arctic Systems Science program. Instruments to measure the components of the surface heat budget of the polynya were installed on a foremast at the bow of the ship. This report presents the measured variables and derived surface fluxes in graphical and tabulated form. Profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity were taken using radiosondes, and these are also presented.

  19. Barcoding heat shock proteins to human diseases : looking beyond the heat shock response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kakkar, Vaishali; Meister-Broekema, Melanie; Minoia, Melania; Carra, Serena; Kampinga, Harm H.

    There are numerous human diseases that are associated with protein misfolding and the formation of toxic protein aggregates. Activating the heat shock response (HSR) - and thus generally restoring the disturbed protein homeostasis associated with such diseases - has often been suggested as a

  20. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Tropical Energy Budget Using TRMM-based Atmospheric Radiative Heating Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Ecuyer, T.; McGarragh, G.; Ellis, T.; Stephens, G.; Olson, W.; Grecu, M.; Shie, C.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D.; Li, J.; Tian, B.

    2008-05-01

    It is widely recognized that clouds and precipitation exert a profound influence on the propagation of radiation through the Earth's atmosphere. In fact, feedbacks between clouds, radiation, and precipitation represent one of the most important unresolved factors inhibiting our ability to predict the consequences of global climate change. Since its launch in late 1997, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has collected more than a decade of rainfall measurements that now form the gold standard of satellite-based precipitation estimates. Although not as widely advertised, the instruments aboard TRMM are also well-suited to the problem of characterizing the distribution of atmospheric heating in the tropics and a series of algorithms have recently been developed for estimating profiles of radiative and latent heating from these measurements. This presentation will describe a new multi-sensor tropical radiative heating product derived primarily from TRMM observations. Extensive evaluation of the products using a combination of ground and satellite-based observations is used to place the dataset in the context of existing techniques for quantifying atmospheric radiative heating. Highlights of several recent applications of the dataset will be presented that illustrate its utility for observation-based analysis of energy and water cycle variability on seasonal to inter-annual timescales and evaluating the representation of these processes in numerical models. Emphasis will be placed on the problem of understanding the impacts of clouds and precipitation on atmospheric heating on large spatial scales, one of the primary benefits of satellite observations like those provided by TRMM.

  1. Limits to sustained energy intake. XXIII. Does heat dissipation capacity limit the energy budget of lactating bank voles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Edyta T; Król, Elżbieta; Chrzascik, Katarzyna M; Rudolf, Agata M; Speakman, John R; Koteja, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Understanding factors limiting sustained metabolic rate (SusMR) is a central issue in ecological physiology. According to the heat dissipation limit (HDL) theory, the SusMR at peak lactation is constrained by the maternal capacity to dissipate body heat. To test that theory, we shaved lactating bank voles (Myodes glareolus) to experimentally elevate their capacity for heat dissipation. The voles were sampled from lines selected for high aerobic exercise metabolism (A; characterized also by increased basal metabolic rate) and unselected control lines (C). Fur removal significantly increased the peak-lactation food intake (mass-adjusted least square means ± s.e.; shaved: 16.3 ± 0.3 g day(-1), unshaved: 14.4 ± 0.2 g day(-1); Plines. Thus, the experimental evolution model did not reveal a difference in the limiting mechanism between animals with inherently different metabolic rates.

  2. Budgeting in Hard Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Frank M.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with school board members and administrators produced a list of suggestions for balancing a budget in hard times. Among these are changing calendars and schedules to reduce heating and cooling costs; sharing personnel; rescheduling some extracurricular activities; and forming cooperative agreements with other districts. (MLF)

  3. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diurnal and vertical variability of the sensible heat and carbon dioxide budgets in the atmospheric surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casso-Torralba, P.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Bosveld, F.; Soler, M.R.; Vermeulen, A.; Werner, C.; Moors, E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The diurnal and vertical variability of heat and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric surface layer are studied by analyzing measurements from a 213 m tower in Cabauw (Netherlands). Observations of thermodynamic variables and CO2 mixing ratio as well as vertical profiles of the turbulent fluxes

  5. Passive heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racinais, S; Wilson, M G; Périard, J D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated passive heat exposure (i.e., acclimation) on muscle contractility in humans. Fourteen nonheat-acclimated males completed two trials including electrically evoked twitches and voluntary contractions in thermoneutral conditions [Cool: 24°C, 40% relative humidity (RH)] and hot ambient conditions in the hyperthermic state (Hot: 44-50°C, 50% RH) on consecutive days in a counterbalanced order. Rectal temperature was ~36.5°C in Cool and was maintained at ~39°C throughout Hot. Both trials were repeated after 11 days of passive heat acclimation (1 h per day, 48-50°C, 50% RH). Heat acclimation decreased core temperature in Cool (-0.2°C, P heat acclimation improved skeletal muscle contractility as evidenced by an increase in evoked peak twitch amplitude both in Cool (20.5 ± 3.6 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) and Hot (20.5 ± 4.7 vs. 22.0 ± 4.0 N·m) (+9%, P heat acclimation improves skeletal muscle contractile function during electrically evoked and voluntary muscle contractions of different intensities both in Cool and Hot. These results suggest that repeated heat exposure may have important implications to passively maintain or even improve muscle function in a variety of performance and clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  7. Budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a timetable for congressional action under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The Congress missed a number of these deadlines last year. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  8. DCS Budget Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — DCS Budget Tracking System database contains budget information for the Information Technology budget and the 'Other Objects' budget. This data allows for monitoring...

  9. Decadal Arctic surface atmosphere/ocean heat budgets and mass transport estimates from several atmospheric and oceanic reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurin, gennaday; Carton, James

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic is undergoing dramatic changes associated with the loss of seasonal and permanent ice pack. By exposing the surface ocean to the atmosphere these changes dramatically increase surface exchange processes. In contrast, increases in freshwater and heat input decreases turbulent exchanges within the ocean. In this study we present results from an examination of changing ocean heat flux, storage, and transport during the 36 year period 1980-2015. To identify changes in the surface atmosphere we examine three atmospheric reanalyses: MERRA2, ERA-I, and JRA55. Significant differences in fluxes from these reanalyses arise due to the representation of clouds and water vapor. These differences provide an indication of the uncertainties in the historical record. Next we turn to the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation version 3 (SODA3) global ocean/sea ice reanalysis system to allow us to infer the full ocean circulation from the limited set of historical record of ocean observations. SODA3 has 10 km horizontal resolution in the Arctic and assimilates the full suite of historical marine temperature and salinity observations. To account for the uncertainties in atmospheric forcing, we repeat our analysis with each of the three atmospheric reanalyses. In the first part of the talk we review the climatological seasonal surface fluxes resulting from our reanalysis system, modified for consistency with the ocean observations, and the limits of what we can learn from the historical record. Next we compare the seasonal hydrography, heat, and mass transports with direct estimates from moorings. Finally we examine the impact on the Arctic climate of the changes in sea ice cover and variability and trends of ocean/sea ice heat storage and transport and their contributions to changes in the seasonal stratification of the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Cactus, Riparian Habitat, and Turf Grass: Water Budget and Policy Implications of Vegetation Change Under Urban Heat Island and Effluent Irrigation in the Southwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of two urban growth drivers--urban heat island (UHI) and effluent irrigation--on the landscaping vegetation component of water budgets in semi-arid southern Arizona, and has policy significance for other urbanizing regions facing water scarcity. Landscaping irrigation, accounting for up to half of the study area's urban water demand, is influenced by vegetation type, UHI temperature and evapotranspiration, and water type (potable or effluent). Conservation programs that have resulted in widespread adoption of low-flow indoor plumbing fixtures and appliances currently identify irrigation of lawns, trees, and other landscaping as targets to reduce water use. At the same time, however, high water-demand turf grass is expanding on golf courses, public parks, and campuses that are irrigated using effluent that historically has supported riparian corridor habitat. Tucson, Arizona's UHI over 1969-2006 is characterized by a 0.043 degC/yr increase in annual average differences between urban - nonurban minimum temperatures (Tmin). The most pronounced trends in urban Tmin increases are 0.097 degC/yr for the months of March, April, May, and June corresponding to the pre- monsoon period of highest outdoor water demand. The UHI Tmax and reference evapotranspiration trends are less marked but indicate increasing irrigation demand for both residential and public landscaping. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Landsat Thematic Mapper for 1984-2005 shows that vegetation, particularly turf on golf courses, is increasing in Tucson's expanding urban fringe but has largely stabilized or is marginally decreasing in the urban core. Regression analysis of NDVI with water use (records only available for 2000-2006) shows mixed results. The tradeoff between water conservation for residential landscaping and expanding turf grass on public landscaping at the cost of riparian corridors is explored from dual water budget and policy perspectives.

  11. Backshell Radiative Heating on Human-Scale Mars Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    West,Thomas K., IV; Theisinger, John E.; Brune, Andrew J.; Johnston, Christopher O.

    2017-01-01

    This work quantifies the backshell radiative heating experienced by payloads on human- scale vehicles entering the Martian atmosphere. Three underlying configurations were studied: a generic sphere, a sphere-cone forebody with a cylindrical payload, and an ellipsled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the flow field and radiation were performed using the LAURA and HARA codes, respectively. Results of this work indicated the primary contributor to radiative heating is emission from the CO2 IR band system. Furthermore, the backshell radiation component of heating can persist lower than 2 km/s during entry and descent. For the sphere-cone configuration a peak heat flux of about 3.5 W/cm(exp. 2) was observed at the payload juncture during entry. At similar conditions, the ellipsled geometry experienced about 1.25 W/cm(exp. 2) on the backshell, but as much as 8 W/cm(exp. 2) on the base at very high angle of attack. Overall, this study sheds light on the potential magnitudes of backshell radiative heating that various configurations may experience. These results may serve as a starting point for thermal protection system design or configuration changes necessary to accommodate thermal radiation levels.

  12. Convective heat transfer area of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi

    2004-12-01

    In order to clarify the heat transfer area involved in convective heat exchange for the human body, the total body surface area of six healthy subjects was measured, and the non-convective heat transfer area and floor and chair contact areas for the following nine common body positions were measured: standing, sitting on a chair, sitting in the seiza position, sitting cross-legged, sitting sideways, sitting with both knees erect, sitting with a leg out, and the lateral and supine positions. The main non-convective heat transfer areas were: the armpits (contact between the upper arm and trunk regions), contact between the two legs, contacts between the fingers and toes, and contact between the hands and the body surface. Also, when sitting on the floor with some degree of leg contact (sitting in the seiza position, cross-legged, or sideways), there was a large non-convective heat transfer area on the thighs and legs. Even when standing or sitting in a chair, about 6-8% of the body surface did not transfer heat by convection. The results showed that the effective thermal convective area factor for the naked whole body in the standing position was 0.942. While sitting in a chair this factor was 0.860, while sitting in a chair but excluding the chair contact area it was 0.918, when sitting in the seiza position 0.818, when sitting cross-legged 0.843, in the sideways sitting position 0.855, when sitting with both knees erect 0.887, in the leg-out sitting position 0.906, while in the lateral position it was 0.877 and the supine position 0.844. For all body positions, the effective thermal convective area factor was greater than the effective thermal radiation area factor, but smaller than the total body surface area.

  13. Radiative Effects of Water Clouds on Heat, Cloud Microphysical and Surface Rainfall Budgets Associated with Pre-Summer Torrential Rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates thermal, cloud microphysical and surface-rainfall responses to the radiative effects of water clouds by analyzing two pairs of two-dimensional cloud-resolving model sensitivity experiments of a pre-summer heavy rainfall event. In the presence of the radiative effects of ice clouds, exclusion of the radiative effects of water clouds reduces the model domain mean rain rate through the mean hydrometeor increase, which is associated with the decreases in the melting of graupel and cloud ice caused by enhanced local atmospheric cooling. In the absence of the radiative effects of ice clouds, removal of the radiative effects of water clouds increases model domain mean rain rate via the enhancements in the mean net condensation and the mean hydrometeor loss. The enhanced mean net condensation and increased mean latent heat are related to the strengthened mean infrared radiative cooling in the lower troposphere. The increased mean hydrometeor loss associated with the reduction in the melting of graupel is caused by the enhanced local atmospheric cooling.

  14. BEYOND BUDGETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Cvrkalj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional budgeting principles, with strictly defined business goals, have been, since 1998, slowly growing into more sophisticated and organization-adjusted alternative budgeting concepts. One of those alternative concepts is the “Beyond budgeting” model with an implemented performance effects measuring process. In order for the model to be practicable, budget planning and control has to be reoriented to the “bottom up” planning and control approach. In today’s modern business surroundings one has to take both present and future opportunities and threats into consideration, by valorizing them in a budget which would allow a company to realize a whole pallet of advantages over the traditional budgeting principles which are presented later in the article. It is essential to emphasize the importance of successfully implementing the new budgeting principles within an organization. If the implementation has been lacking and done without a higher goal in mind, it is easily possible that the process has been implemented without coordination, planning and control framework within the organization itself. Further in the article we present an overview of managerial techniques and instruments within the “Beyond budgeting” model such as balanced scorecard, rolling forecast, dashboard, KPI and other supporting instruments. Lastly we define seven steps for implementing the “Beyond budgeting” model and offer a comparison of “Beyond budgeting” model against traditional budgeting principles which lists twelve reasons why “Beyond budgeting” is better suited to modern and market-oriented organizations. Each company faces those challenges in their own characteristic way but implementing new dynamic planning models will soon become essential for surviving in the market.

  15. Human Brain Stem Structures Respond Differentially to Noxious Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eRitter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the physiological correlates of pain, the brain stem is considered to be one core region that is activated by noxious input. In animal studies, different slopes of skin heating (SSH with noxious heat led to activation in different columns of the midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG. The present study aimed at finding a method for differentiating structures in PAG and other brain stem structures, which are associated with different qualities of pain in humans according to the structures that were associated with different behavioral significances to noxious thermal stimulation in animals. Brain activity was studied by fMRI in healthy subjects in response to steep and shallow SSH with noxious heat. We found differential activation to different SSH in the PAG and the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM. In a second experiment we demonstrate that the different SSH were associated with different pain qualities. Our experiments provide evidence that brainstem structures, i.e. the PAG and the RVM, become differentially activated by different SSH. Therefore, different SSH can be utilized when brain stem structures are investigated and when it is aimed to activate these structures differentially. Moreover, percepts of first pain were elicited by shallow SSH whereas percepts of second pain were elicited by steep SSH. The stronger activation of these brain stem structures to SSH, eliciting percepts of second vs. first pain, might be of relevance for activating different coping strategies in response to the noxious input with the two types of SSH.

  16. Importance of the Saharan heat low in controlling the North Atlantic free tropospheric humidity budget deduced from IASI δD observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Flamant, Cyrille; Risi, Camille; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-08-01

    The isotopic composition of water vapour in the North Atlantic free troposphere is investigated with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements of the D / H ratio (δD) above the ocean. We show that in the vicinity of West Africa, the seasonality of δD is particularly strong (130 ‰), which is related with the influence of the Saharan heat low (SHL) during summertime. The SHL indeed largely influences the dynamic in that region by producing deep turbulent mixing layers, yielding a specific water vapour isotopic footprint. The influence of the SHL on the isotopic budget is analysed on various time and space scales and is shown to be large, highlighting the importance of the SHL dynamics on the moistening and the HDO enrichment of the free troposphere over the North Atlantic. The potential influence of the SHL is also investigated on the inter-annual scale as we also report important variations in δD above the Canary archipelago region. We interpret the variability in the enrichment, using backward trajectory analyses, in terms of the ratio of air masses coming from the North Atlantic and air masses coming from the African continent. Finally, the interest of IASI high sampling capabilities is further illustrated by presenting spatial distributions of δD and humidity above the North Atlantic from which we show that the different sources and dehydration pathways controlling the humidity can be disentangled thanks to the added value of δD observations. More generally, our results demonstrate the utility of δD observations obtained from the IASI sounder to gain insight into the hydrological cycle processes in the West African region.

  17. Satellite-Based Surface Heat Budgets and Sea Surface Temperature Tendency in the Tropical Eastern Indian and Western Pacific Oceans for the 1997/98 El Nino and 1998/99 La Nina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2002-01-01

    The 1997/98 is a strong El Nino warm event, while the 1998/99 is a moderate La Nina cold event. We have investigated surface heat budgets and sea surface temperature (SST) tendency for these two events in the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans using satellite-retrieved surface radiative and turbulent fluxes. The radiative fluxes are taken from the Goddard Satellite-retrieved Surface Radiation Budget (GSSRB), derived from radiance measurements of the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The GSSRB covers the domain 40 deg S - 4 deg N, 90 deg E-17 deg W and a period from October 1997 to December 2000. The spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg lat-long and the temporal resolution is 1 day. The turbulent fluxes are taken from Version 2 of the Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes (GSSTF-2). The GSSTF-2 has a spatial resolution of 1 deg x 1 deg lat-long over global Oceans and a temporal resolution of 1 day covering the period July 1987-December 2000. Daily turbulent fluxes are derived from the S S M (Special Sensor Microwave/Imager) surface wind and surface air humidity, and the SST and 2-m air temperature of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis, using a stability-dependent bulk flux algorithm. The changes of surface heat budgets, SST and tendency, cloudiness, wind speed, and zonal wind stress of the 1997/98 El Nino relative to the1998/99 La Nina for the northern winter and spring seasons are analyzed. The relative changes of surface heat budgets and SST tendency of the two events are quite different between the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans. For the tropical western Pacific, reduced solar heating (more clouds) is generally associated with decreased evaporative cooling (weaker winds), and vise versa. The changes in evaporative cooling over-compensate that of solar heating and dominate the spatial variability of the changes in net surface heating. Both solar heating and evaporative cooling offset each other to reduce

  18. Inverse modeling for heat conduction problem in human abdominal phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.

  19. The hexameric structures of human heat shock protein 90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chung Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90 functions as a dimeric molecular chaperone. HSP90 identified on the cell surface has been found to play a crucial role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and has become a validated anti-cancer target for drug development. It has been shown to self-assemble into oligomers upon heat shock or divalent cations treatment, but the functional role of the oligomeric states in the chaperone cycle is not fully understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the crystal structure of a truncated HSP90 that contains the middle segment and the carboxy-terminal domain, termed MC-HSP90. The structure reveals an architecture with triangular bipyramid geometry, in which the building block of the hexameric assembly is a dimer. In solution, MC-HSP90 exists in three major oligomer states, namely dimer, tetramer and hexamer, which were elucidated by size exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation. The newly discovered HSP90 isoform HSP90N that lacks the N-terminal ATPase domain also exhibited similar oligomerization states as did MC-HSP90. CONCLUSIONS: While lacking the ATPase domain, both MC-HSP90 and HSP90N can self-assemble into a hexameric structure, spontaneously. The crystal structure of MC-HSP90 reveals that, in addition to the C-terminal dimerization domain, the residue W320 in the M domain plays a critical role in its oligomerization. This study not only demonstrates how the human MC-HSP90 forms a hexamer, but also justifies the similar formation of HSP90N by using 3D modeling analysis.

  20. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Human Core Temperature Prediction for Heat-Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    injuries across the services, including 311 cases of heat stroke . The risk of heat injury is modulated by both intrinsic factors (such as genetics... Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Applications Insti- tute, Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, U.S. Army Medical Research...stress (beyond 37 °C), progressing to hyperthermia and heat exhaustion (beyond 39 °C), and then to heat stroke (beyond 40 °C) [2]. The rising core

  2. Spatial and temporal variability of the heat budget parameters and currents in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, D.P.; Rao, V.S.

    Analysis of the thermal structure in coastal waters off Visakhapatnam revealed sub-surface inversions during October. In postmonsoon, a good association existed between wind stress (tau) and total heat loss (Qe+Qs) and between SST and heat content...

  3. Estimation of surface heat and moisture fluxes over a prairie grassland. I - In situ energy budget measurements incorporating a cooled mirror dew point hygrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Crosson, William L.; Tanner, Bertrand D.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is focused on in situ measurements taken during FIFE required to support the development and validation of a biosphere model. Seasonal time series of surface flux measurements obtained from two surface radiation and energy budget stations utilized to support the FIFE surface flux measurement subprogram are examined. Data collection and processing procedures are discussed along with the measurement analysis for the complete 1987 test period.

  4. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  5. Automated Budget System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Automated Budget System (ABS) automates management and planning of the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center (MMAC) budget by providing enhanced capability to plan,...

  6. Spatiotemporal trends in human vulnerability to the heat across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, S. C.; Dixon, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    While human vulnerability to excessive heat has been well documented, relatively few studies have examined long-term trends in vulnerability to heat events. In this research, we examine temporal trends in mortality associated with heat waves, defined using three different definitions of heat wave, for the largest 51 metropolitan areas of the US, over a 36-year period (1975-2010). Regardless of the definition of heat wave, an overall decline in heat vulnerability is seen over the period. While in the first years of the study, 18 to 26 metropolitan areas showed statistically significant increases in mortality on heat wave days, by the final decade of the study period, this had decreased to 6 to 7. Within this narrative, however, examining individual metropolitan areas shows greater variability within the downward trend. Several contributing factors to the variability were observed, including the occurrence of an extreme heat wave affecting the overall heat wave-mortality relationship, and the frequency of heat events over a given period. These broad decreases in heat vulnerability, while encouraging, should be viewed in a cautionary sense. With society aging, there will be a greater number of highly susceptible individuals in the future; further adaptation gains are difficult in many places as air conditioning is now available in most homes in the US. Further, increased use of air conditioning has been associated with a stronger heat island; which, moving forward, is likely to occur alongside a greater number of heat events.

  7. Human tolerance to heat strain during exercise: influence of hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, M N; Young, A J; Latzka, W A; Neufer, P D; Quigley, M D; Pandolf, K B

    1992-07-01

    This study determined whether 1) exhaustion from heat strain occurs at the same body temperatures during exercise in the heat when subjects are euhydrated as when they are hypohydrated, 2) aerobic fitness influences the body temperature at which exhaustion from heat strain occurs, and 3) curves could be developed to estimate exhaustion rates at a given level of physiological strain. Seventeen heat-acclimated men [maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from 45 to 65 ml.kg-1.min-1] attempted two heat stress tests (HSTs): one when euhydrated and one when hypohydrated by 8% of total body water. The HSTs consisted of 180 min of rest and treadmill walking (45% VO2max) in a hot-dry (ambient temperature 49 degrees C, relative humidity 20%) environment. The required evaporative cooling (Ereq) exceeded the maximal evaporative cooling capacity of the environment (Emax); thus thermal equilibrium could not be achieved and 27 of 34 HSTs ended by exhaustion from heat strain. Our findings concerning exhaustion from heat strain are 1) hypohydration reduced the core temperature that could be tolerated; 2) aerobic fitness, per se, did not influence the magnitude of heat strain that could be tolerated; 3) curves can be developed to estimate exhaustion rates for a given level of physiological strain; and 4) exhaustion was rarely associated with a core temperature up to 38 degrees C, and it always occurred before a temperature of 40 degrees C was achieved. These findings are applicable to heat-acclimated individuals performing moderate-intensity exercise under conditions where Ereq approximates or exceeds Emax and who have high skin temperatures.

  8. Preventing Heat Injuries by Predicting Individualized Human Core Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-14

    1 Mark J. Buller, 2 William J. Tharion, 2 Jaques Reifman 1 1 Department of Defense Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software...climates. In fact, between 2009 and 2013 there were 12,907 heat injuries across the Services, including 1,757 cases of heat stroke [1, 2]. The primary...documents/pubs/msmrs/2014/v21_n03.pdf#Page=10, accessed on 07/22/2015. [3] Y. Epstein and W.O. Roberts, “The pathophysiology of heat stroke : an integrative

  9. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field: implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert; Werner, Cynthia Anne; Murphy, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m−2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m−2) to the ~35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  10. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  11. FY 1996 Congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    The FY 1996 budget presentation is organized by the Department`s major business lines. An accompanying chart displays the request for new budget authority. The report compares the budget request for FY 1996 with the appropriated FY 1995 funding levels displayed on a comparable basis. The FY 1996 budget represents the first year of a five year plan in which the Department will reduce its spending by $15.8 billion in budget authority and by $14.1 billion in outlays. FY 1996 is a transition year as the Department embarks on its multiyear effort to do more with less. The Budget Highlights are presented by business line; however, the fifth business line, Economic Productivity, which is described in the Policy Overview section, cuts across multiple organizational missions, funding levels and activities and is therefore included in the discussion of the other four business lines.

  12. [Heat exchange between human body and environment (theoretical bases of physiological measurement and evaluation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzagno, G

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this report the theory of the heat exchange between human body and external environment is developed. In particular, the problems concerning energy expenditure and heat production [metabolic heat] during physical activity, the heat exchange between internal organs and body surface, and its elimination are considered. Proposal of heat exchange equations (in case of conduction, convection, evaporation, radiation transport) are made, and the involved parameters and constants are indicated. Some pages are devoted to heat exchange through the lung and to "perspiratio insensibilis". In the second part the problems concerning the wellbeing and the thermal discomfort are discussed. A description of some widely employed indices of thermal stress, strain and comfort concludes the report [P4SR index, HSI index, ITS index, TTL index, HR index, WBGT index, TE indices]. In the end, the Fanger equations of thermal comfort are presented and discussed.

  13. Nonlinear solution for radiation boundary condition of heat transfer process in human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, A; Moradi, A; Dehghani, M; Ahani, A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method based on finite element method for solving radiation boundary condition of heat equation inside the human eye and other applications. Using this method, we can solve heat equation inside human eye without need to model radiation boundary condition to a robin boundary condition. Using finite element method we can obtain a nonlinear equation, and finally we use nonlinear algorithm to solve it. The human eye is modeled as a composition of several homogeneous regions. The Ritz method in the finite element method is used for solving heat differential equation. Applying the boundary conditions, the heat radiation condition and the robin condition on the cornea surface of the eye and on the outer part of sclera are used, respectively. Simulation results of solving nonlinear boundary condition show the accuracy of the proposed method.

  14. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  15. Estimation and harvesting of human heat power for wearable electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziurdzia, P.; Brzozowski, I.; Bratek, P.; Gelmuda, W.; Kos, A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of self-powered wearable electronic devices that are capable of harvesting free available energy dissipated by the user in the form of human heat. The free energy source is intended to be used as a secondary power source supporting primary battery in a sensor bracelet. The main scope of the article is a presentation of the concept for a measuring setup used to quantitative estimation of heat power sources in different locations over the human body area. The crucial role in the measurements of the human heat plays a thermoelectric module working in the open circuit mode. The results obtained during practical tests are confronted with the requirements of the dedicated thermoelectric generator. A prototype design of a human warmth energy harvester with an ultra-low power DC-DC converter based on the LTC3108 circuit is analysed.

  16. Metal-silicate partitioning of U: Implications for the heat budget of the core and evidence for reduced U in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Bethany A.; Rahman, Zia; Righter, Kevin; Campbell, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    Earth's core might require an internal heat source, such as radioactive decay, to explain the presence of the magnetic field through geologic time. To investigate whether U would be an important heat source in the core, we performed metal-silicate partitioning experiments of U at P-T (up to 67 GPa and 5400 K) conditions more relevant to a magma ocean scenario than has previously been reported. This study finds the partitioning of U to be strongly dependent on ƒO2, temperature, the S content of the metal and the SiO2 content of the silicate during core-mantle differentiation. Differentiation at mean conditions of 42-58 GPa and 3900-4200 K would put 1.4-3.5 ppb U (2-8 wt% S) in the core, amounting to a maximum of 1.4 (+1/-0.7) TW of heat 4.5 billion years ago. This is likely not enough heat to mitigate early widespread mantle melting. It was also found that U likely exists in the 2+ oxidation state in silicate melts in the deep Earth, a state which has not been previously observed in nature.

  17. Tropical Warm Pool Surface Heat Budgets and Temperature: Contrasts Between 1997-98 El Nino and 1998-99 La Nina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Wang, Kung-Hwa

    2003-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual variations of the net surface heating F(sub NET) and sea surface temperature tendency (T(sub s)/dt) in the tropical eastern Indian and western Pacific Oceans are studied. The surface heat fluxes are derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager and Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite radiance measurements for the period October 1997-September 2000. It is found that the magnitude of solar heating is lager than that of evaporative cooling, but the spatial variation of the latter is significantly large than the former. As a result, the spatial variations of seasonal and interannual variability of F(sub NET), follow closely that of evaporative cooling. Seasonal variations of F(sub NET) and T(sub s)/dt are significantly correlated, except for the equatorial western Pacific. The high correlation is primarily attributable to high correlation between seasonal cycles of solar heating and T(sub s)/dt. The change of F(sub NET) between 1997-98 El Nino and 1998-99 La Nina is significantly larger in the tropical eastern Indian Ocean than tropical western Pacific. For the former region, the reduced evaporative cooling arising from weakened winds during the El Nino is generally associated with enhanced solar heating due to decreased cloudiness, and thus increases the interannual variability of F(sub NET). For the latter region, the reduced evaporative cooling due to weakened winds is generally associated with but exceeds the reduced solar heating arising from increased cloudiness, and vise versa. Thus the interannual variability of F(sub NET) is reduced due to this offsetting effect. Interannual variations of F(sub NET) and T(sub s)/dt have very low correlation. This is most likely related to interannual variability of ocean dynamics, which includes the variations of solar radiation penetrating through oceanic mixed layer, upwelling of cold thermocline water, Indonesian throughflow for transporting heat from the Pacific to Indian Ocean, and

  18. Fetal calf serum heat inactivation and lipopolysaccharide contamination influence the human T lymphoblast proteome and phosphoproteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hazir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of fetal calf serum (FCS heat inactivation and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS contamination on cell physiology have been studied, but their effect on the proteome of cultured cells has yet to be described. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of heat inactivation of FCS and LPS contamination on the human T lymphoblast proteome. Human T lymphoblastic leukaemia (CCRF-CEM cells were grown in FCS, either non-heated, or heat inactivated, having low ( Results A total of four proteins (EIF3M, PRS7, PSB4, and SNAPA were up-regulated when CCRF-CEM cells were grown in media supplemented with heat inactivated FCS (HE as compared to cells grown in media with non-heated FCS (NHE. Six proteins (TCPD, ACTA, NACA, TCTP, ACTB, and ICLN displayed a differential phosphorylation pattern between the NHE and HE groups. Compared to the low concentration LPS group, regular levels of LPS resulted in the up-regulation of three proteins (SYBF, QCR1, and SUCB1. Conclusion The present study provides new information regarding the effect of FCS heat inactivation and change in FCS-LPS concentration on cellular protein expression, and post-translational modification in human T lymphoblasts. Both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS were shown to modulate the expression and phosphorylation of proteins involved in basic cellular functions, such as protein synthesis, cytoskeleton stability, oxidative stress regulation and apoptosis. Hence, the study emphasizes the need to consider both heat inactivation and LPS contamination of FCS as factors that can influence the T lymphoblast proteome.

  19. Verification of uncertainty budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Madsen, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The quality of analytical results is expressed by their uncertainty, as it is estimated on the basis of an uncertainty budget; little effort is, however, often spent on ascertaining the quality of the uncertainty budget. The uncertainty budget is based on circumstantial or historical data, and th...

  20. Federal budget timetable

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the federal budget timetable under the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 (Gramm-Rudman-Hollings). These deadlines apply to fiscal years (FY) 1987-1991. The deficit reduction measures in Gramm-Rudman-Hollings would lead to a balanced budget in 1991.

  1. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  2. Human monocyte heat shock protein 72 responses to acute hypoxic exercise after 3 days of exercise heat acclimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ben J; Mackenzie, Richard W A; Cox, Valerie; James, Rob S; Thake, Charles D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term heat acclimation (STHA) could confer increased cellular tolerance to acute hypoxic exercise in humans as determined via monocyte HSP72 (mHSP72) expression. Sixteen males were separated into two matched groups. The STHA group completed 3 days of exercise heat acclimation; 60 minutes cycling at 50% V̇O2peak in 40°C 20% relative humidity (RH). The control group (CON) completed 3 days of exercise training in 20°C, 40% RH. Each group completed a hypoxic stress test (HST) one week before and 48 hours following the final day of CON or STHA. Percentage changes in HSP72 concentrations were similar between STHA and CON following HST1 (P = 0.97). STHA induced an increase in basal HSP72 (P = 0.03) with no change observed in CON (P = 0.218). Basal mHSP72 remained elevated before HST2 for the STHA group (P 0.05). Percent change in mHSP72 was lower after HST2 in STHA compared to CON (P = 0.02). The mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise was attenuated following 3 days of heat acclimation. This is indicative of improved tolerance and ability to cope with the hypoxic insult, potentially mediated in part by increased basal reserves of HSP72.

  3. Previous heat shock treatment inhibits Mayaro virus replication in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, P L; Godinho-Netto, M C; Carvalho Mda, G

    1997-01-01

    Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were submitted to mild or severe heat shock (42 degrees C or 44 degrees C) for 1 h, while another group of cells was double-heat-shocked (submitted to 42 degrees C for 1 h, returned to 37 degrees C for 3 h, then exposed to 44 degrees C for 1 h). After each heat treatment, the cells were infected with Mayaro virus for 24 h and incubated at 37 degrees C. The results showed that the double-heat-shocked thermotolerant cells exhibited a 10(4)-fold virus titre inhibition, despite the recovery of protein synthesis and original morphology 24 h post-infection. In contrast, cells submitted to mild or severe heat shock exhibited weaker inhibition of Mayaro virus titre (10(2)-fold). The mildly heat-shocked cells also presented a full recovery in protein synthesis, which was not observed in severely heat-shocked cells. These results indicate that exposure of A549 cells to a mild or to a double heat shock treatment before Mayaro virus infection induces an antiviral state.

  4. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P heat stress (7.6 +/- 0.7 to 8.6 +/- 0.8 microM; P > 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress.

  5. Humans as a Source of Heat and Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This is the first part of a planned research into the effect of the human being on the indoor climate. The results are among other things intended for CFD calculations. This part deals with the influence from breathing, smoking, bioeffluents and vapour. The results are mainly based on measurement...... around a breathing thermal model placed in three fundamentally different types of indoor climates: - Quiet surroundings, no ventilation - Displacement ventilation - Constant horizontal flow...

  6. Both happy and sad melodies modulate tonic human heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huixuan; Chen, Andrew C N

    2009-09-01

    The mechanism of music effects on pain perception remains to be elucidated. To determine which component (mood or valence) of music is more important in music-induced hypoalgesia, we compared the effects of 2 melodies with different moods (happy vs sad) but with the same degree of valence (pleasant vs unpleasant) to an affective neutral lecture and a control (baseline) on the objective and subjective responses to tonic heat pain. Our hypothesis was that if mood was the key component, the happy melody would reduce pain, whereas the sad one would exacerbate pain; and if valence is the key component, the 2 melodies would both alleviate pain. Twenty females participated in this study which consisted of 4 conditions (baseline, happy melody, sad melody, and lecture). Pain tolerance time (PTT), pain intensity, and distress dynamics and the characteristics of pain were measured. A newly devised multiple affective rating scale (MARS) was employed to assess the subjective experience of auditory perception. Both happy and sad melodies of equal valence resulted in significant lower pain ratings during the pain test and were in contrast to the mood prediction. These results indicate that the valence of music, rather than the mood it induced, appears to be the most likely mediator of the hypoalgesic effect of the different music. This article provides new evidence that the valence of music is more crucial than mood in affective pain modulation. This finding gives impetus for health professionals to manage pain more effectively in patients with proper music.

  7. Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in an Outdoor Urban Arid Environment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To protect humans from heat stress risks, thermal comfort and heat stress potential were evaluated under arid environment, which had never been made for such climate. The thermal indices THI, WBGT, PET, and UTCI were used to evaluate thermal comfort and heat stress. RayMan software model was used to estimate the PET, and the UTCI calculator was used for UTCI. Dry and wet bulb temperatures (Td, Tw, natural wet bulb temperature (Tnw, and globe temperature (Tg were measured in a summer day to be used in the calculation. The results showed the following. (i The thermal sensation and heat stress levels can be evaluated by either the PET or UTCI scales, and both are valid for extremely high temperature in the arid environment. (ii In the comfort zone, around 75% of individuals would be satisfied with the surrounding environment and feel comfortable during the whole day. (iii Persons are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel uncomfortable most of the daytime in summer. (iv Heat fatigue is expected with prolonged exposure to sun light and activity. (v During the daytime, humans should schedule their activities according to the highest permissible values of the WBGT to avoid thermal shock.

  8. Modelling flow and heat transfer around a seated human body by computational fluid dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Voigt, Lars Peter Kølgaard

    2003-01-01

    A database (http://www.ie.dtu.dk/manikin) containing a detailed representation of the surface geometry of a seated female human body was created from a surface scan of a thermal manikin (minus clothing and hair). The radiative heat transfer coefficient and the natural convection flow around...

  9. Water-budget methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2010-01-01

    A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and

  10. Attributing human mortality during extreme heat waves to anthropogenic climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Huntingford, Chris; Masato, Giacomo; Guillod, Benoit P.; Frumhoff, Peter; Bowery, Andy; Wallom, David; Allen, Myles

    2016-07-01

    It has been argued that climate change is the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. The extreme high temperatures of the summer of 2003 were associated with up to seventy thousand excess deaths across Europe. Previous studies have attributed the meteorological event to the human influence on climate, or examined the role of heat waves on human health. Here, for the first time, we explicitly quantify the role of human activity on climate and heat-related mortality in an event attribution framework, analysing both the Europe-wide temperature response in 2003, and localised responses over London and Paris. Using publicly-donated computing, we perform many thousands of climate simulations of a high-resolution regional climate model. This allows generation of a comprehensive statistical description of the 2003 event and the role of human influence within it, using the results as input to a health impact assessment model of human mortality. We find large-scale dynamical modes of atmospheric variability remain largely unchanged under anthropogenic climate change, and hence the direct thermodynamical response is mainly responsible for the increased mortality. In summer 2003, anthropogenic climate change increased the risk of heat-related mortality in Central Paris by ∼70% and by ∼20% in London, which experienced lower extreme heat. Out of the estimated ∼315 and ∼735 summer deaths attributed to the heatwave event in Greater London and Central Paris, respectively, 64 (±3) deaths were attributable to anthropogenic climate change in London, and 506 (±51) in Paris. Such an ability to robustly attribute specific damages to anthropogenic drivers of increased extreme heat can inform societal responses to, and responsibilities for, climate change.

  11. Budget Summary of Changes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — The Summary of Changes dataset extracted from PBGC's congressional budget justification. It contains all administrative and program increases and decreases including...

  12. 7 CFR 3402.14 - Budget and budget narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget and budget narrative. 3402.14 Section 3402.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... budget narrative. Applicants must prepare the Budget, Form CSREES-2004, and a budget...

  13. UTCI-Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Bröde, Peter; Kampmann, Bernhard; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The UTCI-Fiala mathematical model of human temperature regulation forms the basis of the new Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTC). Following extensive validation tests, adaptations and extensions, such as the inclusion of an adaptive clothing model, the model was used to predict human temperature and regulatory responses for combinations of the prevailing outdoor climate conditions. This paper provides an overview of the underlying algorithms and methods that constitute the multi-node dynamic UTCI-Fiala model of human thermal physiology and comfort. Treated topics include modelling heat and mass transfer within the body, numerical techniques, modelling environmental heat exchanges, thermoregulatory reactions of the central nervous system, and perceptual responses. Other contributions of this special issue describe the validation of the UTCI-Fiala model against measured data and the development of the adaptive clothing model for outdoor climates.

  14. Effects of whole body heating on dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, C. G.; Zhang, R.; Levine, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify whether dynamic baroreflex regulation of heart rate (HR) is altered during whole body heating. In 14 subjects, dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR was assessed using transfer function analysis. In normothermic and heat-stressed conditions, each subject breathed at a fixed rate (0. 25 Hz) while beat-by-beat HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were obtained. Whole body heating significantly increased sublingual temperature, HR, and forearm skin blood flow. Spectral analysis of HR and SBP revealed that the heat stress significantly reduced HR and SBP variability within the high-frequency range (0.2-0.3 Hz), reduced SBP variability within the low-frequency range (0.03-0.15 Hz), and increased the ratio of low- to high-frequency HR variability (all P regulation of HR within the high-frequency range (from 1.04 +/- 0.06 to 0.54 +/- 0.6 beats. min(-1). mmHg(-1); P body heating reduced high-frequency dynamic baroreflex regulation of HR associated with spontaneous changes in blood pressure. Reduced vagal baroreflex regulation of HR may contribute to reduced orthostatic tolerance known to occur in humans during heat stress.

  15. EFFECT OF HEAT PRECONDITIONING BY MICROWAVE HYPERTHERMIA ON HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE AFTER ECCENTRIC EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Saga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to clarify whether heat preconditioning results in less eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage and muscle soreness, and whether the repeated bout effect is enhanced by heat preconditioning prior to eccentric exercise. Nine untrained male volunteers aged 23 ± 3 years participated in this study. Heat preconditioning included treatment with a microwave hyperthermia unit (150 W, 20 min that was randomly applied to one of the subject's arms (MW; the other arm was used as a control (CON. One day after heat preconditioning, the subjects performed 24 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors at 30°·s-1 (ECC1. One week after ECC1, the subjects repeated the procedure (ECC2. After each bout of exercise, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, range of motion (ROM of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference, blood creatine kinase (CK activity and muscle soreness were measured. The subjects experienced both conditions at an interval of 3 weeks. MVC and ROM in the MW were significantly higher than those in the CON (p < 0.05 for ECC1; however, the heat preconditioning had no significant effect on upper arm circumference, blood CK activity, or muscle soreness following ECC1 and ECC2. Heat preconditioning may protect human skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage after a single bout of eccentric exercise but does not appear to promote the repeated bout effect after a second bout of eccentric exercise

  16. Analysis of phosphorylation of human heat shock factor 1 in cells experiencing a stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane William S

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock factor (HSF/HSF1 not only is the transcription factor primarily responsible for the transcriptional response of cells to physical and chemical stress but also coregulates other important signaling pathways. The factor mediates the stress-induced expression of heat shock or stress proteins (HSPs. HSF/HSF1 is inactive in unstressed cells and is activated during stress. Activation is accompanied by hyperphosphorylation of the factor. The regulatory importance of this phosphorylation has remained incompletely understood. Several previous studies on human HSF1 were concerned with phosphorylation on Ser303, Ser307 and Ser363, which phosphorylation appears to be related to factor deactivation subsequent to stress, and one study reported stress-induced phosphorylation of Ser230 contributing to factor activation. However, no previous study attempted to fully describe the phosphorylation status of an HSF/HSF1 in stressed cells and to systematically identify phosphoresidues involved in factor activation. The present study reports such an analysis for human HSF1 in heat-stressed cells. Results An alanine scan of all Ser, Thr and Tyr residues of human HSF1 was carried out using a validated transactivation assay, and residues phosphorylated in HSF1 were identified by mass spectrometry and sequencing. HSF1 activated by heat treatment was phosphorylated on Ser121, Ser230, Ser292, Ser303, Ser307, Ser314, Ser319, Ser326, Ser344, Ser363, Ser419, and Ser444. Phosphorylation of Ser326 but none of the other Ser residues was found to contribute significantly to activation of the factor by heat stress. Phosphorylation on Ser326 increased rapidly during heat stress as shown by experiments using a pSer326 phosphopeptide antibody. Heat stress-induced DNA binding and nuclear translocation of a S326A substitution mutant was not impaired in HSF1-negative cells, but the mutant stimulated HSP70 expression several times less well than wild type

  17. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, R.W.; Billen, G.; Swaney, D.; Townsend, A.; Jaworski, N.; Lajtha, K.; Downing, J.A.; Elmgren, Ragnar; Caraco, N.; Jordan, T.; Berendse, F.; Freney, J.; Kudeyarov, V.; Murdoch, P.; Zhu, Z.-L.

    1996-01-01

    We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr-1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr-1. On a per area basis, however, the largest nitrogen fluxes are found in the highly disturbed watersheds around the North Sea, in northwestern Europe, and in the northeastern U.S., all of which have riverine nitrogen fluxes greater than 1,000 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources of nitrogen dominate riverine fluxes to the coast in all regions. River fluxes of total nitrogen from the temperate regions of the North Atlantic basin are correlated with population density, as has been observed previously for fluxes of nitrate in the world's major rivers. However, more striking is a strong linear correlation between river fluxes of total nitrogen and the sum of anthropogenically-derived nitrogen inputs to the temperate regions (fertilizer application, human-induced increases in atmospheric deposition of oxidized forms of nitrogen, fixation by leguminous crops, and the import/export of nitrogen in agricultural products). On average, regional nitrogen fluxes in rivers are only 25% of these anthropogenically derived nitrogen inputs. Denitrification in wetlands and aquatic ecosystems is probably the dominant sink, with storage in forests perhaps also of importance. Storage of nitrogen in groundwater, although of importance in some localities, is a very small sink for nitrogen inputs in all regions. Agricultural sources of nitrogen dominate inputs in many regions, particularly the Mississippi basin and the North Sea drainages. Deposition of oxidized nitrogen, primarily of industrial origin, is the

  18. Budgeting for PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Lh

    2008-10-01

    There are a number of models for the acquisition of digital image management systems. The specific details for development of a budget for a PACS/RIS acquisition will depend upon the acquisition model - although there are similarities in the overarching principles and general information, particularly concerning the radiology service requirements that will drive budget considerations.While budgeting for PACS/RIS should follow the same principles as budgeting for any new technology, it is important to understand how far the implementation of digital image management systems can reach in a healthcare setting. Accurate identification of those elements of the healthcare service that will be affected by a PACS/RIS implementation is a critical component of successful budget formation and of the success of any business case and subsequent project that relies on those budget estimates.A budget for a PACS/RIS capital acquisition project should contain capital and recurrent elements. The capital is associated with the acquisition of the system in a purchase model and capital budget may also be required for upgrade - depending upon a facility's financial management processes.The recurrent (or operational) cost component for the PACS/RIS is associated with maintaining the system(s) in a sustainable operational state.It is also important to consider the service efficiencies, cost savings and service quality improvements that PACS/RIS can generate and include these factors into the economic analysis of any proposal for a PACS/RIS project.

  19. Budgeting Based on Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kelt L.

    2011-01-01

    Every program in a school or school district has, or once had, a purpose. The purpose was most likely promoted, argued and debated among school constituencies--parents, teachers, administrators and school board members--before it was eventually approved. This process occurs year after year, budget after budget. In itself, this is not necessarily a…

  20. Managing the Student Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Martha Lewkus

    1984-01-01

    Looks at the factors complicating the management of student worker budgets in libraries (e.g., the number of separate but interrelated budgets involved). Proposes a budgetary system incorporating double-entry bookkeeping, continuous proving, and combination receipts and disbursements. Considers the advantages of the system and details procedures.…

  1. Learning From Low Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers turn small-budget productions into box-office successes Organizers of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys—low budget films—to encourage a generation of young,talented directors.

  2. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Heat Shock Protein 70 Genes are Positively Associated with Human Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd;

    2010-01-01

    with longevity. The involvement of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in cellular maintenance and repair mechanisms, including its role as an anti-inflammatory protein, makes it a suitable candidate for studying such associations. We have studied the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A (-110A...... the opportunity to perform survival analysis on these subjects. Haplotype relative risk, and genotype relative risk were calculated to measure the effects of haplotypes and genotypes on human survival in a sex-specific manner. A significant association of HSPA1A-AA (RR=3.864; p=0.016) and HSPA1B-AA (RR=2.764; p=0...... observations from heat shock response (HSR) study where we had shown that after heat stimulation, mononuclear cells from the carriers of genotype HSPA1L-TT had better HSR than cells with the HSPA1L-CC genotype....

  4. Combined facial heating and inhalation of hot air do not alter thermoeffector responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Kimura, Kenichi; Crandall, Craig G

    2015-09-01

    The influence of thermoreceptors in human facial skin on thermoeffector responses is equivocal; furthermore, the presence of thermoreceptors in the respiratory tract and their involvement in thermal homeostasis has not been elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that hot air directed on the face and inhaled during whole body passive heat stress elicits an earlier onset and greater sensitivity of cutaneous vasodilation and sweating than that directed on an equal skin surface area away from the face. Six men and two women completed two trials separated by ∼1 wk. Participants were passively heated (water-perfused suit; core temperature increase ∼0.9°C) while hot air was directed on either the face or on the lower leg (counterbalanced). Skin blood flux (laser-Doppler flowmetry) and local sweat rate (capacitance hygrometry) were measured at the chest and one forearm. During hot-air heating, local temperatures of the cheek and leg were 38.4 ± 0.8°C and 38.8 ± 0.6°C, respectively (P = 0.18). Breathing hot air combined with facial heating did not affect mean body temperature onsets (P = 0.97 and 0.27 for arm and chest sites, respectively) or slopes of cutaneous vasodilation (P = 0.49 and 0.43 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or the onsets (P = 0.89 and 0.94 for arm and chest sites, respectively), or slopes of sweating (P = 0.48 and 0.65 for arm and chest sites, respectively). Based on these findings, respiratory tract thermoreceptors, if present in humans, and selective facial skin heating do not modulate thermoeffector responses during passive heat stress. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Volume analysis of heat-induced cracks in human molars: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sandholzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Only a few methods have been published dealing with the visualization of heat-induced cracks inside bones and teeth. Aims : As a novel approach this study used nondestructive X-ray microtomography (micro-CT for volume analysis of heat-induced cracks to observe the reaction of human molars to various levels of thermal stress. Materials and Methods: Eighteen clinically extracted third molars were rehydrated and burned under controlled temperatures (400, 650, and 800°C using an electric furnace adjusted with a 25°C increase/min. The subsequent high-resolution scans (voxel-size 17.7 μm were made with a compact micro-CT scanner (SkyScan 1174. In total, 14 scans were automatically segmented with Definiens XD Developer 1.2 and three-dimensional (3D models were computed with Visage Imaging Amira 5.2.2. The results of the automated segmentation were analyzed with an analysis of variance (ANOVA and uncorrected post hoc least significant difference (LSD tests using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 17. A probability level of P < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. Results: A temperature-dependent increase of heat-induced cracks was observed between the three temperature groups (P < 0.05, ANOVA post hoc LSD. In addition, the distributions and shape of the heat-induced changes could be classified using the computed 3D models. Conclusion: The macroscopic heat-induced changes observed in this preliminary study correspond with previous observations of unrestored human teeth, yet the current observations also take into account the entire microscopic 3D expansions of heat-induced cracks within the dental hard tissues. Using the same experimental conditions proposed in the literature, this study confirms previous results, adds new observations, and offers new perspectives in the investigation of forensic evidence.

  7. A heterogeneous human tissue mimicking phantom for RF heating and MRI thermal monitoring verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yu; Wyatt, Cory; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul; Craciunescu, Oana; MacFall, James; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K.

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes a heterogeneous phantom that mimics a human thigh with a deep-seated tumor, for the purpose of studying the performance of radiofrequency (RF) heating equipment and non-invasive temperature monitoring with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The heterogeneous cylindrical phantom was constructed with an outer fat layer surrounding an inner core of phantom material mimicking muscle, tumor and marrow-filled bone. The component materials were formulated to have dielectric and thermal properties similar to human tissues. The dielectric properties of the tissue mimicking phantom materials were measured with a microwave vector network analyzer and impedance probe over the frequency range of 80-500 MHz and at temperatures of 24, 37 and 45 °C. The specific heat values of the component materials were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range of 15-55 °C. The thermal conductivity value was obtained from fitting the curves obtained from one-dimensional heat transfer measurement. The phantom was used to verify the operation of a cylindrical four-antenna annular phased array extremity applicator (140 MHz) by examining the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal imaging patterns for various magnitude/phase settings (including settings to focus heating in tumors). For muscle and tumor materials, MRI was also used to measure T1/T2* values (1.5 T) and to obtain the slope of the PRFS phase change versus temperature change curve. The dielectric and thermal properties of the phantom materials were in close agreement to well-accepted published results for human tissues. The phantom was able to successfully demonstrate satisfactory operation of the tested heating equipment. The MRI-measured thermal distributions matched the expected patterns for various magnitude/phase settings of the applicator, allowing the phantom to be used as a quality assurance tool. Importantly, the material formulations for the various tissue types

  8. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  9. Heat Transfer Behavior across the Dentino-Enamel Junction in the Human Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lin; Dong, Shao-Jie; Kong, Ting-Ting; Wang, Rong; Zou, Rui; Liu, Qi-Da

    2016-01-01

    During eating, the teeth usually endure the sharply temperature changes because of different foods. It is of importance to investigate the heat transfer and heat dissipation behavior of the dentino–enamel junction (DEJ) of human tooth since dentine and enamel have different thermophysical properties. The spatial and temporal temperature distributions on the enamel, dentine, and pulpal chamber of both the human tooth and its discontinuous boundaries, were measured using infrared thermography using a stepped temperature increase on the outer boundary of enamel crowns. The thermal diffusivities for enamel and dentine were deduced from the time dependent temperature change at the enamel and dentine layers. The thermal conductivities for enamel and dentine were calculated to be 0.81 Wm-1K-1 and 0.48 Wm-1K-1 respectively. The observed temperature discontinuities across the interfaces between enamel, dentine and pulp-chamber layers were due to the difference of thermal conductivities at interfaces rather than to the phase transformation. The temperature gradient distributes continuously across the enamel and dentine layers and their junction below a temperature of 42°C, whilst a negative thermal resistance is observed at interfaces above 42°C. These results suggest that the microstructure of the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) junction play an important role in tooth heat transfer and protects the pulp from heat damage. PMID:27662186

  10. Normal human epidermal keratinocytes treated with 7-dehydrocholesterol express increased levels of heat shock protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammone, Thomas; Muizzuddin, Neelam; Goyarts, Earl; Gan, David; Giacomoni, Paolo; Marenus, Ken; Maes, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Human skin, and its isolated cells, respond to insults with a variety of repair and protective mechanisms. One such mechanism is the production of heat shock proteins (HSPs). Heat shock proteins help the other cellular proteins fold correctly into their active three-dimensional structures. Therefore, they can enhance the survival of cells under harsh, denaturing conditions. In order to develop a means of promoting the heat shock response to prepare the skin to withstand insult, we are investigating materials that appear to protect the skin biologically. One such material is vitamin D3 and its precursors. We have observed that keratinocytes treated with 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), a precursor of vitamin D3, have increased levels of protein and mRNA for heat shock proteins. In addition, we observed that topically applied 7-DHC increases the minimal dose of UVB required to induce erythema. These data suggest that 7-DHC can induce heat shock proteins in skin keratinocytes and that they will be more resistant to UVB insult.

  11. [Numerical Simulation of Heat Transfer in the Human Anterior Chamber at Different Corneal Temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingmin; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Junming

    2015-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) model of human anterior chamber is reconstructed to explore the effect of different corneal temperatures on the heat transfer in the chamber. Based on the optical coherence tomography imaging of the volunteers with normal anterior chamber, a 3D anterior chamber model was reconstructed by the method of UG parametric design. Numerical simulation of heat transfer and aqueous humor flow in the whole anterior chamber were analyzed by the finite volume methods at different corneal temperatures. The results showed that different corneal temperatures had obvious influence on the temperature distribution and the aqueous flow in the anterior chamber. The temperature distribution is linear and axial symmetrical around the pupillary axis. As the temperature difference increases, the symmetry becomes poorer. Aqueous floated along the warm side and sank along the cool side which forms a vortexing flow. Its velocity increased with the addition of temperature difference. Heat fluxes of cornea, lens and iris were mainly affected by the aqueous velocity. The higher the velocity, the bigger more absolute value of the above-mentioned heat fluxes became. It is practicable to perform the numerical simulation of anterior chamber by the optical coherence tomography imaging. The results are useful for studying the important effect of corneal temperature on the heat transfer and aqueous humor dynamics in the anterior chamber.

  12. Co-localization of the heat shock protein and human immunoglobulin G in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Chun-guang; LIU Yan-fang; LI Kai-nan; YU Lu; CUI Ji-hong; LI Jing; YANG Shou-jing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin observed in patients with cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, and liver1,2 have been interpreted as humoral responses of host to cancer growth.3 Recently, Qiu et al4 described in detail that human cancers of epithelial origin, including carcinomas of breast, colon, liver, lung, established epithelial cancer lines, produce immunoglobulin G (IgG) in their cytoplasm. Under normal conditions, heat shock proteins (HSPs) have multiple cellular functions, such as folding and translocating newly synthesized proteins. When a cell is injured or under stress, HSPs refold damaged protein or facilitate degradation of proteins. In most cancers, heat shock proteins can capture tumour specific peptide to inhibit the growth of cancer. This study demonstrated that human IgG and HSPs are co-localized in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  14. Simultaneous pasteurization and homogenization of human milk by combining heat and ultrasound: effect on milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czank, Charles; Simmer, Karen; Hartmann, Peter E

    2010-05-01

    The combination of ultrasound and heat (thermoultrasound) is an emerging food preservation technique that retains higher quantities of bioactive components compared with current thermal pasteurization practice, but has not yet been assessed for pasteurizing human milk. Artificially contaminated human milk samples were treated with ultrasound (20 kHz, 150 watts) with and without heating. The retention of four human milk proteins was quantified by biochemical assay and laser scattering particle sizing was used to determine the extent of homogenization. While ultrasonic treatment was effective at inactivating Escherichia coli (D4 degrees C=5.94 min), Staphylococcus epidermidis exhibited resistance (D4 degrees C=16.01 min). Thermoultrasonic treatment was considerably more effective (Esch. coli D45 degrees C=1.74 min, D50 degrees C=0.89 min; Staph. epidermidis D45 degrees C=2.08 min, D50 degrees C=0.94 minutes) with a predicted retention (2.8 min treatment, 50 degrees C) of secretory IgA lysozyme, lactoferrin and bile salt stimulated lipase of 91, 80, 77, and 45%, respectively. Homogenization of the milk samples occurred after 5 min and 2 min of ultrasonic and thermoultrasonic treatment, respectively. Thermoultrasonic treatment is an effective method for pasteurizing donor human milk and retaining a greater proportion of bioactive components compared with current practices. However, further studies are required to assess the practicality of applying this technique routinely to donor human milk.

  15. Heat shock protein 70 chaperoned alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Rui-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interaction between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line BEL7402.METHODS: The expression and localization of HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell line BEL-7402 were determined by immunocytochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in HCC cells was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical staining detection showed that HCC cell BEL-7402 expressed a high level of HSP70 and AFP synchronously. Both were stained in cell plasma.AFP existed in the immunoprecipitate of anti-HSP70 mAb,while there was HSP70 in the immunoprecipitate of antiAFP mAb.CONCLUSION: HSP70 chaperones AFP in human HCCcell BEL-7402. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell can be a new route to study the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of HCC.

  16. Who needs budgets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Jeremy; Fraser, Robin

    2003-02-01

    Budgeting, as most corporations practice it, should be abolished. That may sound radical, but doing so would further companies' long-running efforts to transform themselves into developed networks that can nimbly adjust to market conditions. Most other building blocks are in place, but companies continue to restrict themselves by relying on inflexible budget processes and the command-and-control culture that budgeting entails. A number of companies have rejected the foregone conclusions embedded in budgets, and they've given up the self-interested wrangling over what the data indicate. In the absence of budgets, alternative goals and measures--some financial, such as cost-to-income ratios, and some nonfinancial, such as time to market-move to the foreground. Companies that have rejected budgets require employees to measure themselves against the performance of competitors and against internal peer groups. Because employees don't know whether they've succeeded until they can look back on the results of a given period, they must use every ounce of energy to ensure that they beat the competition. A key feature of many companies that have rejected budgets is the use of rolling forecasts, which are created every few months and typically cover five to eight quarters. Because the forecasts are regularly revised, they allow companies to continuously adapt to market conditions. The forecasting practices of two such companies, both based in Sweden, are examined in detail: the bank Svenska Handelsbanken and the wholesaler Ahlsell. Though the first companies to reject budgets were located in Northern Europe, organizations that have gone beyond budgeting can be found in a range of countries and industries. Their practices allow them to unleash the power of today's management tools and realize the potential of a fully decentralized organization.

  17. Delineation of downstream signalling components during acrosome reaction mediated by heat solubilized human zona pellucida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwar Pankaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human egg is enveloped by a glycoproteinaceous matrix, zona pellucida (ZP, responsible for binding of the human spermatozoa to the egg and induction of acrosomal exocytosis in the spermatozoon bound to ZP. In the present manuscript, attempts have been made to delineate the downstream signalling components employed by human ZP to induce acrosome reaction. Methods Heat-solubilized human ZP (SIZP was used to study the induction of acrosome reaction in capacitated human spermatozoa using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin (TRITC-PSA in absence or presence of various pharmacological inhibitors. In addition, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i levels in sperm using Fluo-3 acetoxymethyl ester as fluorescent probe were also estimated in response to SIZP. Results SIZP induces acrosomal exocytosis in capacitated human sperm in a dose dependent manner accompanied by an increase in [Ca2+]i. Human SIZP mediated induction of acrosome reaction depends on extracellular Ca2+ and involves activation of Gi protein-coupled receptor, tyrosine kinase, protein kinases A & C and phosphoinositide 3 (PI3- kinase. In addition, T-type voltage operated calcium channels and GABA-A receptor associated chloride (Cl- channels play an important role in SIZP mediated induction of acrosome reaction. Conclusions Results described in the present study provide a comprehensive account of the various downstream signalling components associated with human ZP mediated acrosome reaction.

  18. Heat and water rate transfer processes in the human respiratory tract at various altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandjov, I M

    2001-02-01

    The process of the respiratory air conditioning as a process of heat and mass exchange at the interface inspired air-airways surface was studied. Using a model of airways (Olson et al., 1970) where the segments of the respiratory tract are like cylinders with a fixed length and diameter, the corresponding heat transfer equations, in the paper are founded basic rate exchange parameters-convective heat transfer coefficient h(c)(W m(-2) degrees C(-1)) and evaporative heat transfer coefficient h(e)(W m(-2)hPa(-1)). The rate transfer parameters assumed as sources with known heat power are connected to airflow rate in different airways segments. Relationships expressing warming rate of inspired air due to convection, warming rate of inspired air due to evaporation, water diffused in the inspired air from the airways wall, i.e. a system of air conditioning parameters, was composed. The altitude dynamics of the relations is studied. Every rate conditioning parameter is an increasing function of altitude. The process of diffusion in the peripheral bronchial generations as a basic transfer process is analysed. The following phenomenon is in effect: the diffusion coefficient increases with altitude and causes a compensation of simultaneous decreasing of O(2)and CO(2)densities in atmospheric air. Due to this compensation, the diffusion in the peripheral generations with altitude is approximately constant. The elements of the human anatomy optimality as well as the established dynamics are discussed and assumed. The square form of the airways after the trachea expressed in terms of transfer supposes (in view of maximum contact surface), that a maximum heat and water exchange is achieved, i.e. high degree of air condition at fixed environmental parameters and respiration regime.

  19. FY 1997 congressional budget request: Budget highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This is an overview of the 1997 budget request for the US DOE. The topics of the overview include a policy overview, the budget by business line, business lines by organization, crosswalk from business line to appropriation, summary by appropriation, energy supply research and development, uranium supply and enrichment activities, uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund, general science and research, weapons activities, defense environmental restoration and waste management, defense nuclear waste disposal, departmental administration, Office of the Inspector General, power marketing administrations, Federal Energy Regulatory commission, nuclear waste disposal fund, fossil energy research and development, naval petroleum and oil shale reserves, energy conservation, economic regulation, strategic petroleum reserve, energy information administration, clean coal technology and a Department of Energy Field Facilities map.

  20. Budget Automation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — BAS is the central Agency system used to integrate strategic planning, annual planning, budgeting and financial management. BAS contains resource (dollars and FTE),...

  1. Mathematical Simulation of Heat Impact of Heated Up to High Temperatures Particle on Human Skin: Simple One-Dimensional Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solodkin Andrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is developed physical and mathematical models of process of a heat transfer between skin and a heating source - single heated up to high temperatures particle. Temperature distribution in system “particle-skin” for heated wooden particle is obtained. The data obtained during work can be used for addition of already available materials on the given subjects and comparisons of influences on a skin of various factors, and also can be useful to development of new systems of protection against the influences damaging factors in the conditions of fire.

  2. An efficient procedure for purification of recombinant human β heat shock protein 90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bandehpour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90 is typically the most abundant chaperone in the eukaryotic cell cytoplasm, and its expression is essential for loading immunogenic peptides onto major histocompatibility complex molecules for presentation to T-cells. Therefore, it may act as a good candidate as an adjuvant molecule in vaccine technology. "n Methods: Initially the human Hsp90β gene was cloned into the heat inducible expression vector pGP1-2 and then the recombinant protein was isolated by ion exchange chromatography. After intradermal injection of confirmed purified band of protein to rabbits and isolation of the serum IgG antibody, for its affinity purification, the rabbit’s purified Hsp90 specific IgG was coupled to the cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B. Results: The recovery of the purified protein of interest by affinity chromatography was 50% . "n "nConclusion: This research enabled purification of human heat shock protein by a laboratory "n "nprepared column chromatography. "n   

  3. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-02-22

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student's t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p milk, potentially saving infants' lives.

  4. Molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhalaya, M Ya; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B; Lademann, J; Darvin, M E

    2014-07-01

    The generation of ROS underlies all solar infrared-affected therapeutic and pathological cutaneous effects. The signaling pathway NF-kB is responsible for the induced therapeutic effects, while the AP-1 for the pathological effects. The different signaling pathways of infrared-induced ROS and infrared-induced heat shock ROS were shown to act independently multiplying the influence on each other by increasing the doses of irradiation and/or increasing the temperature. The molecular action mechanisms of solar infrared radiation and heat on human skin are summarized and discussed in detail in the present paper. The critical doses are determined. Protection strategies against infrared-induced skin damage are proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  6. The effect of simulated flash heating pasteurisation and Holder pasteurisation on human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Coutsoudis, Anna; Autran, Chloe; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Bode, Lars

    2017-08-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important protective functions in human milk. A low-cost remote pasteurisation temperature-monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cell phone-based networked sensing system to monitor simulated flash heat pasteurisation. To compare the pasteurisation effect on HMOs of the FoneAstra FH method with the current Sterifeed Holder method used by human milk banks. Donor human milk samples (n = 48) were obtained from a human milk bank and pasteurised using the two pasteurisation methods. HMOs were purified from samples and labelled before separation using high-performance liquid chromatography. Concentrations of total HMOs, sialylated and fucosylated HMOs and individual HMOs using the two pasteurisation methods were compared using repeated-measures ANOVA. The study demonstrated no difference in total concentration of HMOs between the two pasteurisation methods and a small but significant increase in the total concentration of HMOs regardless of pasteurisation methods compared with controls (unpasteurised samples) (pmilk and therefore is a possible alternative for providing safely sterilised human milk for low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Heating properties of the needle type applicator made of shape memory alloy by 3-D anatomical human head model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoto, N; Kato, K; Kanazawa, Y; Shindo, Y; Tsuchiya, K; Kubo, M; Uzuka, T; Takahashi, H; Fujii, Y

    2009-01-01

    Since the human brain is protected by the skull, it is not easy to non-invasively heat deep brain tumors with electromagnetic energy for hyperthermia treatments. Generally, needle type applicators were used in clinical practice to heat brain tumors. To expand the heating area of needle type applicators, we have developed a new type of needle made of a shape memory alloy (SMA). In this paper, heating properties of the proposed SMA needle type applicator were discussed. Here, in order to apply the SMA needle type applicator clinically. First, we constructed an anatomical 3-D FEM model from MRI and X-ray CT images using 3D-CAD software. Second, we estimated electric and temperature distributions to confirm the SMA needle type applicator using the FEM soft were JMAG-Studio. From these results, it was confirmed that the proposed method can expand the heating area and control the heating of various sizes of brain tumors.

  8. Effect of heat stress on intestinal barrier function of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-zhen XIAO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the heat stress-induced dysfunction of intestinal barrier including intestinal tight junction and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Methods Human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers, serving as the intestinal barrier model, were exposed to different temperature (37-43℃ for designated time. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER and horseradish peroxidase (HRP flux permeability were measured to evaluate barrier integrity. Level of tight junction (TJ protein occludin was analyzed by Western blotting. Cell apoptosis rate was determined using Annexin V-FITC/PI kit by flow cytometry. Results Compared with the 37℃ group, TEER lowered and the permeability for HRP increased significantly after heat exposure (P<0.01 in 39℃, 41℃ and 43℃ groups. The expression of occludin increased when the temperature was elevated from 37℃ to 41℃, and it reached the maximal level at 41℃. However, its expression gradually decreased with passage of time at 43℃. Cell apoptosis was enhanced with elevation of the temperature (P<0.05 or P<0.01. Conclusion Heat stress can induce damage to tight junction and enhance apoptosis of epithelial cells, thus causing dysfunction of intestinal epithelial barrier.

  9. A study of heat distribution in human skin: use of Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huon V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the long-term objectives of this study is to be able to act quickly on body burns, to avoid propagating lesions due to heat diffusion. An experimental and numerical study is presented to better understand the thermomechanical behavior of the skin and its direct environment when exposed to strong thermal variations. The experimental step, suggested in this article, consists in placing a cooled cylindrical steel bar on the skin of a human forearm and measuring the temperature change using an infra-red camera. Blood circulation in the veins was seen to clearly influence of the heat diffusion. These experimental measurements provide a numerical model of the skin and its direct vicinity. This two-dimensional multi-layer model uses the Pennes equation to model biological tissue and the equation of heat in a fluid, to model blood. The properties of materials from the literature are validated by experimentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the experimental observations, but also to estimate blood speed in the veins.

  10. A numerical study of heat and water vapor transfer in MDCT-based human airway models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-10-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) thermo-fluid model is developed to study regional distributions of temperature and water vapor in three multi-detector row computed-tomography-based human airways with minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min. A one-dimensional (1D) model is also solved to provide necessary initial and boundary conditions for the 3D model. Both 3D and 1D predicted temperature distributions agree well with available in vivo measurement data. On inspiration, the 3D cold high-speed air stream is split at the bifurcation to form secondary flows, with its cold regions biased toward the inner wall. The cold air flowing along the wall is warmed up more rapidly than the air in the lumen center. The repeated splitting pattern of air streams caused by bifurcations acts as an effective mechanism for rapid heat and mass transfer in 3D. This provides a key difference from the 1D model, where heating relies largely on diffusion in the radial direction, thus significantly affecting gradient-dependent variables, such as energy flux and water loss rate. We then propose the correlations for respective heat and mass transfer in the airways of up to 6 generations: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], where Nu is the Nusselt number, Sh is the Sherwood number, Re is the branch Reynolds number, D a is the airway equivalent diameter, and [Formula: see text] is the tracheal equivalent diameter.

  11. Budgeting and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Carsten

    Budgets and budget control has been known since the early 19th century1. However the use of budget control was until the beginning of the 1920ies in US primarily related to governmental units and states and to a minor extent to business units in practice. At that time James McKinsey describes...... budgetary control as involving the following: 1. The statement of the plans of all the departments of the business for a certain period of time in the form of estimates 2. The coordination of these estimates into a well-balanced program for the business as a whole. 3. The preparation of reports showing...... a comparison between the actual and the estimated performance, and the revision of the original plans when these reports show that such a revision is necessary. As can be seen from the statement budgetary control includes at the same time a planning and coordination mechanism for actions and performance ex...

  12. Formation of tRNA granules in the nucleus of heat-induced human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Ryu [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Mizuno, Rie [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Watanabe, Kazunori, E-mail: watanabe@ric.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Ijiri, Kenichi [Radioisotope Center, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs are tranlocated into the nucleus in heat-induced HeLa cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNAs form the unique granules in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer tRNA ganules overlap with nuclear stress granules. -- Abstract: The stress response, which can trigger various physiological phenomena, is important for living organisms. For instance, a number of stress-induced granules such as P-body and stress granule have been identified. These granules are formed in the cytoplasm under stress conditions and are associated with translational inhibition and mRNA decay. In the nucleus, there is a focus named nuclear stress body (nSB) that distinguishes these structures from cytoplasmic stress granules. Many splicing factors and long non-coding RNA species localize in nSBs as a result of stress. Indeed, tRNAs respond to several kinds of stress such as heat, oxidation or starvation. Although nuclear accumulation of tRNAs occurs in starved Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this phenomenon is not found in mammalian cells. We observed that initiator tRNA{sup Met} (Meti) is actively translocated into the nucleus of human cells under heat stress. During this study, we identified unique granules of Meti that overlapped with nSBs. Similarly, elongator tRNA{sup Met} was translocated into the nucleus and formed granules during heat stress. Formation of tRNA granules is closely related to the translocation ratio. Then, all tRNAs may form the specific granules.

  13. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  14. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  15. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called “anhydrobiosis”. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  16. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  17. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  18. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Wingerden

    Full Text Available Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to

  19. Etap Hotel Augsburg City with green technology. VRV heat recovery technology in low-budget hotels: 2-conductor and 3-conductor systems; Etap Hotel Augsburg City mit gruenen Extras. VRV-Technologie in Low-Budgets-Hotels in 2- und 3-Leiter Ausfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graupensberger, Thomas; Huhn, Ole [Daikin Airconditioning Germany GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Etap Hotel, the low-budget hotels of the Accor Group and the European leader in this segment, opened a new hotel in Augsburg city on 1 March 2010. the building was constructed according to ecological criteria and boasts state-of-the-art technology. The contribution presents details.

  20. Public Budget Database - Budget Authority and offsetting receipts 1976-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains historical budget authority and offsetting receipts for 1976 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used...

  1. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Brodie; Schmidt, Stefan; King, Tracy; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Amundson Mansen, Kimberly; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2017-01-01

    A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH) pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH) method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA), lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10). Donor milk samples (N = 50) were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001), and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001) and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001). Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives. PMID:28241418

  2. Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Elfaitouri

    Full Text Available Myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME, also called Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, a common disease with chronic fatigability, cognitive dysfunction and myalgia of unknown etiology, often starts with an infection. The chaperonin human heat shock protein 60 (HSP60 occurs in mitochondria and in bacteria, is highly conserved, antigenic and a major autoantigen. The anti-HSP60 humoral (IgG and IgM immune response was studied in 69 ME patients and 76 blood donors (BD (the Training set with recombinant human and E coli HSP60, and 136 30-mer overlapping and targeted peptides from HSP60 of humans, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and 26 other species in a multiplex suspension array. Peptides from HSP60 helix I had a chaperonin-like activity, but these and other HSP60 peptides also bound IgG and IgM with an ME preference, theoretically indicating a competition between HSP60 function and antibody binding. A HSP60-based panel of 25 antigens was selected. When evaluated with 61 other ME and 399 non-ME samples (331 BD, 20 Multiple Sclerosis and 48 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus patients, a peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae HSP60 detected IgM in 15 of 61 (24% of ME, and in 1 of 399 non-ME at a high cutoff (p<0.0001. IgM to specific cross-reactive epitopes of human and microbial HSP60 occurs in a subset of ME, compatible with infection-induced autoimmunity.

  3. The Effect of Simulated Flash-Heat Pasteurization on Immune Components of Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie Daniels

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A pasteurization temperature monitoring system has been designed using FoneAstra, a cellphone-based networked sensing system, to monitor simulated flash-heat (FH pasteurization. This study compared the effect of the FoneAstra FH (F-FH method with the Sterifeed Holder method currently used by human milk banks on human milk immune components (immunoglobulin A (IgA, lactoferrin activity, lysozyme activity, interleukin (IL-8 and IL-10. Donor milk samples (N = 50 were obtained from a human milk bank, and pasteurized. Concentrations of IgA, IL-8, IL-10, lysozyme activity and lactoferrin activity were compared to their controls using the Student’s t-test. Both methods demonstrated no destruction of interleukins. While the Holder method retained all lysozyme activity, the F-FH method only retained 78.4% activity (p < 0.0001, and both methods showed a decrease in lactoferrin activity (71.1% Holder vs. 38.6% F-FH; p < 0.0001 and a decrease in the retention of total IgA (78.9% Holder vs. 25.2% F-FH; p < 0.0001. Despite increased destruction of immune components compared to Holder pasteurization, the benefits of F-FH in terms of its low cost, feasibility, safety and retention of immune components make it a valuable resource in low-income countries for pasteurizing human milk, potentially saving infants’ lives.

  4. Small heat shock proteins potentiate amyloid dissolution by protein disaggregases from yeast and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Duennwald

    Full Text Available How small heat shock proteins (sHsps might empower proteostasis networks to control beneficial prions or disassemble pathological amyloid is unknown. Here, we establish that yeast sHsps, Hsp26 and Hsp42, inhibit prionogenesis by the [PSI+] prion protein, Sup35, via distinct and synergistic mechanisms. Hsp42 prevents conformational rearrangements within molten oligomers that enable de novo prionogenesis and collaborates with Hsp70 to attenuate self-templating. By contrast, Hsp26 inhibits self-templating upon binding assembled prions. sHsp binding destabilizes Sup35 prions and promotes their disaggregation by Hsp104, Hsp70, and Hsp40. In yeast, Hsp26 or Hsp42 overexpression prevents [PSI+] induction, cures [PSI+], and potentiates [PSI+]-curing by Hsp104 overexpression. In vitro, sHsps enhance Hsp104-catalyzed disaggregation of pathological amyloid forms of α-synuclein and polyglutamine. Unexpectedly, in the absence of Hsp104, sHsps promote an unprecedented, gradual depolymerization of Sup35 prions by Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. This unanticipated amyloid-depolymerase activity is conserved from yeast to humans, which lack Hsp104 orthologues. A human sHsp, HspB5, stimulates depolymerization of α-synuclein amyloid by human Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40. Thus, we elucidate a heretofore-unrecognized human amyloid-depolymerase system that could have applications in various neurodegenerative disorders.

  5. Heat shock protein 27 expression in the human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk A

    2008-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in protein folding, assembly and transport, and which play critical roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival and differentiation. We set out to test the hypothesis that HSP27 protein is expressed in the human testes and its expression varies with the state of spermatogenesis. HSP27 expression was examined in 30 human testicular biopsy specimens (normal spermatogenesis, maturation arrest and Sertoli cell only syndrome, 10 cases each) using immunofluorescent methods. The biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing investigations for infertility. The seminiferous epithelium of the human testes showing normal spermatogenesis had a cell type-specific expression of HSP27. HSP27 expression was strong in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. Alternatively, the expression was moderate in the spermatocytes, weak in the spermatids and absent in the spermatozoa. In testes showing maturation arrest, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells, weak in the spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. It was absent in the spermatids and Leydig cells. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and absent in the Leydig cells. We report for the first time the expression patterns of HSP27 in the human testes and show differential expression during normal spermatogenesis, indicating a possible role in this process. The altered expression of this protein in testes showing abnormal spermatogenesis may be related to the pathogenesis of male infertility.

  6. EXPENSES FOR ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES FROM LOCAL BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINEL ICHIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we propose to analyze and deepen significant categories of costs funded from the local budgets, namely the expenditure for economic activities. Our scientific approach begins with determining the place occupied by such expenses in local public expenditure by specifying their content and role. The center of gravity of the study is to treat and deepen the three subgroups of expenses that we consider representative: "The expenses for production, transportation, distribution and supply of heat in a centralized system", "Transport Costs" and Expenditure for agriculture and forestry ". The reaserch is based on the quantitative analysis of the expenses for economic actions, in local budgets, based on the existing data from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, and highlights the structure of this type of expenses as well as the place they hold in the expediture of local budgets.The study includes an analysis of the dynamics of the share held by economic costs within total expenses from local budgets. From the reaserch carried out, it is shown that the evolution and structure of the expenditures for economic actions from local budgets is determined by the action of certain economical and social factors that vary from one administrative teritorial unit to another: the ray of economical develpoment of the administrative ter itorial unit, urbanization, the number and social structure of the population. The reaserch shows that in the field of expenses for economic actions, the largest share is held by expenditures for transportation (almost 80%, far away from the expenses for fuel and energy (13,66%. During the 1999-2013 the dynamic of expenses for economical actions in the total of expenditures of local budgets, is sinusoidal due to the intervention of certain legislative changes.

  7. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  8. NOAA seeks healthy budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan

    The small, crowded room of the House side of the U.S. Capitol building belied the large budget of $1,611,991,000 requested for Fiscal Year 1992 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. John A. Knauss, Undersecretary for Oceans and Atmosphere, U.S. Department of Commerce, delivered his testimony on February 28 before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. He told the subcommittee that the budget “attempts to balance the two goals of maintaining NOAA's position as an important science agency and addressing the serious budget problems that the government continues to face.”Climate and global change, modernization of the National Weather Service, and the Coastal Ocean Science program are NOAA's three ongoing, high-priority initiatives that the budget addresses. Also, three additional initiatives—a NOAA-wide program to improve environmental data management, President Bush's multiagency Coastal America initiative, and a seafood safety program administered jointly by NOAA and the Food and Drug Administration—are addressed.

  9. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  10. Budgeting Academic Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  11. Implementing Responsibility Centre Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Recently, institutes of higher education (universities) have shown a renewed interest in organisational structures and operating methodologies that generate productivity and innovation; responsibility centre budgeting (RCB) is one such process. This paper describes the underlying principles constituting RCB, its origin and structural elements, and…

  12. Pakistan boosts science budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2009-08-01

    Government spending on science and technology development in Pakistan will jump by about a quarter in 2009-2010 compared with the previous fiscal year, with big increases planned for nuclear physics and higher education. In late June the country's National Assembly approved a budget of 48.2bn Pakistani rupees (Rs), or about £361m, for new science projects.

  13. Dynamic Simulation of Human Thermoregulation and Heat Transfer for Spaceflight Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas R.; Nelson, David A.; Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Models of human thermoregulation and heat transfer date from the early 1970s and have been developed for applications ranging from evaluating thermal comfort in spacecraft and aircraft cabin environments to predicting heat stress during EVAs. Most lumped or compartment models represent the body as an assemblage cylindrical and spherical elements which may be subdivided into layers to describe tissue heterogeneity. Many existing models are of limited usefulness in asymmetric thermal environments, such as may be encountered during an EVA. Conventional whole-body clothing models also limit the ability to describe local surface thermal and evaporation effects in sufficient detail. A further limitation is that models based on a standard man model are not readily scalable to represent large or small subjects. This work describes development of a new human thermal model derived from the 41-node man model. Each segment is divided into four concentric, constant thickness cylinders made up of a central core surrounded by muscle, fat, and skin, respectively. These cylinders are connected by the flow of blood from a central blood pool to each part. The central blood pool is updated at each time step, based on a whole-body energy balance. Results show the model simulates core and surface temperature histories, sweat evaporation and metabolic rates which generally are consistent with controlled exposures of human subjects. Scaling rules are developed to enable simulation of small and large subjects (5th percentile and 95th percentile). Future refinements will include a clothing model that addresses local surface insulation and permeation effects and developing control equations to describe thermoregulatory effects such as may occur with prolonged weightlessness or with aging.

  14. Deciphering human heat shock transcription factor 1 regulation via post-translational modification in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Batista-Nascimento

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1 plays an important role in the cellular response to proteotoxic stresses. Under normal growth conditions HSF1 is repressed as an inactive monomer in part through post-translation modifications that include protein acetylation, sumoylation and phosphorylation. Upon exposure to stress HSF1 homotrimerizes, accumulates in nucleus, binds DNA, becomes hyper-phosphorylated and activates the expression of stress response genes. While HSF1 and the mechanisms that regulate its activity have been studied for over two decades, our understanding of HSF1 regulation remains incomplete. As previous studies have shown that HSF1 and the heat shock response promoter element (HSE are generally structurally conserved from yeast to metazoans, we have made use of the genetically tractable budding yeast as a facile assay system to further understand the mechanisms that regulate human HSF1 through phosphorylation of serine 303. We show that when human HSF1 is expressed in yeast its phosphorylation at S303 is promoted by the MAP-kinase Slt2 independent of a priming event at S307 previously believed to be a prerequisite. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation at S303 in yeast and mammalian cells occurs independent of GSK3, the kinase primarily thought to be responsible for S303 phosphorylation. Lastly, while previous studies have suggested that S303 phosphorylation represses HSF1-dependent transactivation, we now show that S303 phosphorylation also represses HSF1 multimerization in both yeast and mammalian cells. Taken together, these studies suggest that yeast cells will be a powerful experimental tool for deciphering aspects of human HSF1 regulation by post-translational modifications.

  15. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  16. Determination of anticonvulsants in human plasma using SPME in a heated interface coupled online to liquid chromatography (SPME-LC)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Claudete; Gomes, Paulo Clairmont Feitosa de Lima; Neto, Álvaro José dos Santos; Rodrigues, Jose Carlos; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and liquid chromatography (LC) with heated online desorption (SPME-LC) was developed and validated to analyze anticonvulsants (AEDs) in human plasma samples. A heated lab-made interface chamber was used in the desorption procedure, which allowed the transference of the whole extracted sample. The SPME conditions were optimized by applying an experimental design. Important factors are discussed such as fiber coating types, ...

  17. Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shabat, Yael; Shitzer, Avraham

    2012-07-01

    Facial heat exchange convection coefficients were estimated from experimental data in cold and windy ambient conditions applicable to wind chill calculations. Measured facial temperature datasets, that were made available to this study, originated from 3 separate studies involving 18 male and 6 female subjects. Most of these data were for a -10°C ambient environment and wind speeds in the range of 0.2 to 6 m s(-1). Additional single experiments were for -5°C, 0°C and 10°C environments and wind speeds in the same range. Convection coefficients were estimated for all these conditions by means of a numerical facial heat exchange model, applying properties of biological tissues and a typical facial diameter of 0.18 m. Estimation was performed by adjusting the guessed convection coefficients in the computed facial temperatures, while comparing them to measured data, to obtain a satisfactory fit (r(2) > 0.98, in most cases). In one of the studies, heat flux meters were additionally used. Convection coefficients derived from these meters closely approached the estimated values for only the male subjects. They differed significantly, by about 50%, when compared to the estimated female subjects' data. Regression analysis was performed for just the -10°C ambient temperature, and the range of experimental wind speeds, due to the limited availability of data for other ambient temperatures. The regressed equation was assumed in the form of the equation underlying the "new" wind chill chart. Regressed convection coefficients, which closely duplicated the measured data, were consistently higher than those calculated by this equation, except for one single case. The estimated and currently used convection coefficients are shown to diverge exponentially from each other, as wind speed increases. This finding casts considerable doubts on the validity of the convection coefficients that are used in the computation of the "new" wind chill chart and their applicability to humans in

  18. Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Fibroblast Cells under Magnetic Resonant Coupling Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Mizuno

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, resonant coupling wireless power transfer (WPT technology has been attracting attention and has been widely researched for practical use. Moreover, dosimetric evaluation has also been discussed to evaluate the potential health risks of the electromagnetic field from this WPT technology based on the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP guidelines. However, there has not been much experimental evaluation of the potential health risks of this WPT technology. In this study, to evaluate whether magnetic resonant coupling WPT induces cellular stress, we focused on heat shock proteins (Hsps and determined the expression level of Hsps 27, 70 and 90 in WI38VA13 subcloned 2RA human fibroblast cells using a western blotting method. The expression level of Hsps under conditions of magnetic resonant coupling WPT for 24 h was not significantly different compared with control cells, although the expression level of Hsps for cells exposed to heat stress conditions was significantly increased. These results suggested that exposure to magnetic resonant coupling WPT did not cause detectable cell stress.

  19. Expression of Heat Shock Protein 70 mRNA in Epithelial Cells of Human Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To try to find out the pathogenesis of the cataract , effects of beat and oxidative stresson heat shock proteins of tissue cultured human lens epithelial cells (LEC-B3) were investigate& Methods:Cells were exposed to heat shock (45℃) and oxidative stress(5OmMH2O2 for 30 min, and then allowed to recoverat different intervals (Oh, 2h, 4h, 6h, 16h, 24h) in physiological medium Reverse transcription polymerasechain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determined the level of HSP70. Results: HSPs existed in both physiologicaland stressful situation. The level of HSP7OmRNA increased 2h later after both stresses. The expression of HSP70got to the summit during 2h to 6h in each group. Subsequently it decreased gradually in each group, maintaininga high level at 16h. Conclusion: HSP70 exists in lens epithelial cells and can be induced after stress. Thedata suggested it may play an important protective role in lens epithelial cells in respond to cellular stress.

  20. Heat stress increases long-term human migration in rural Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, V.; Gray, C.; Kosec, K.

    2014-03-01

    Human migration attributable to climate events has recently received significant attention from the academic and policy communities . Quantitative evidence on the relationship between individual, permanent migration and natural disasters is limited . A 21-year longitudinal survey conducted in rural Pakistan (1991-2012) provides a unique opportunity to understand the relationship between weather and long-term migration. We link individual-level information from this survey to satellite-derived measures of climate variability and control for potential confounders using a multivariate approach. We find that flooding--a climate shock associated with large relief efforts--has modest to insignificant impacts on migration. Heat stress, however--which has attracted relatively little relief--consistently increases the long-term migration of men, driven by a negative effect on farm and non-farm income. Addressing weather-related displacement will require policies that both enhance resilience to climate shocks and lower barriers to welfare-enhancing population movements.

  1. Nutrient budget in ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titlyanova, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Methods to calculate nutrient budgets in forest and grassland ecosystems are analyzed on the basis of a large number of published materials and original data. New estimates of the belowground production in forest ecosystems with due account for the growth of fine roots are suggested. Nutrient retranslocation from senescent plant tissues to growing plant tissues and nutrient leaching from the forest canopy are discussed. The budgets of major nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) in tundra, forest, and steppe ecosystems are calculated. Nutrient cycles in two forest ecosystems—a coniferous stand dominated by Picea abies and a broad-leaved stand dominated by Quercus robur—are analyzed in detail. It is shown that the more intensive turnover of nutrients in the oak stand is also characterized by a more closed character of the nutrient cycles.

  2. See-Through Budgets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A more transparent budget is needed to keep track of fiscal expenditures Just what was the massive 3 trillion yuan in revenue collected by the Chinese Government last fiscal year used for? This is a big question swirling around the conversation tables of a nation eager for answers. Most Chinese people are now increasingly aware of the right to know how governments at all levels spend their money and are

  3. The Incredible Shrinking Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2013

    2013-01-01

    If district technology leaders had a nickel for every time they heard the phrase "the new normal," they'd have all the money they need to run their IT departments. In an effort to help readers think about their budgets in creative and practical ways, "T.H.E. Journal" and the Consortium for School Networking (CoSN) recently convened a panel of CTOs…

  4. Transcriptional Activation of a Constitutive Heterochromatic Domain of the Human Genome in Response to Heat ShockD⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Nicoletta; Denegri, Marco; Chiodi, Ilaria; Corioni, Margherita; Valgardsdottir, Rut; Cobianchi, Fabio; Riva, Silvano; Biamonti, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock triggers the assembly of nuclear stress bodies that contain heat shock factor 1 and a subset of RNA processing factors. These structures are formed on the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions of specific human chromosomes, among which chromosome 9. In this article we show that these heterochromatic domains are characterized by an epigenetic status typical of euchromatic regions. Similarly to transcriptionally competent portions of the genome, stress bodies are, in fact, enriched in acetylated histone H4. Acetylation peaks at 6 h of recovery from heat shock. Moreover, heterochromatin markers, such as HP1 and histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, are excluded from these nuclear districts. In addition, heat shock triggers the transient accumulation of RNA molecules, heterogeneous in size, containing the subclass of satellite III sequences found in the pericentromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 9. This is the first report of a transcriptional activation of a constitutive heterochromatic portion of the genome in response to stress stimuli. PMID:14617804

  5. TRADITIONAL BUDGETING VERSUS BEYOND BUDGETING: A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS ILDIKO REKA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Budgets are an important part of the business environment since 1920 and are considered to be the key drivers and evaluators of managerial performance; and the key elements for planning and control. Budgets are the most powerful tool for management control; they can play an essential role in the organization’s power politics because it can increase the power and authority of top management and limit the autonomy of lower-level managers. Besides its advantages traditional budgeting presents disadvantages also. In recent years criticism towards traditional budgeting has increased. The basis of this criticism is that traditional budgeting is a relic of the past; it prevents reactions to changes in the market, it cannot keep up with the changes and requirements of today’s business world and it isn’t useful for business management. In order to eliminate criticism researchers and practitioners have developed more systematic and alternative concepts of budgeting that suits better for the needs of the modern business environment. Beyond budgeting, better budgeting, rolling forecasts, activity-based budgeting are the main alternatives developed in the last years. From the mentioned alternatives this article examines only beyond budgeting. Our paper discusses how budgeting has evolved into its current state, before examining why this universal technique has come under such heavy criticism of late. The paper is a literature analysis, it contributes to the existing managerial accounting literature and it is structured as follows. In the first part the background and evolution of budgeting is presented, followed by the analysis of related theories in traditional budgeting, emphasizing both the advantages and disadvantages of traditional budgeting. The second part of the paper continues with the discussion about alternative budgeting methods highlighting pros and cons of alternative methods, especially beyond budgeting. In the third part conducted

  6. Structure-mechanical function relations at nano-scale in heat-affected human dental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Tan; Sandholzer, Michael A; Le Bourhis, Eric; Baimpas, Nikolaos; Landini, Gabriel; Korsunsky, Alexander M

    2014-04-01

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of dental materials related to their hierarchical structure is essential for understanding and predicting the effect of microstructural alterations on the performance of dental tissues in the context of forensic and archaeological investigation as well as laser irradiation treatment of caries. So far, few studies have focused on the nano-scale structure-mechanical function relations of human teeth altered by chemical or thermal treatment. The response of dental tissues to thermal treatment is thought to be strongly affected by the mineral crystallite size, their spatial arrangement and preferred orientation. In this study, synchrotron-based small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) techniques were used to investigate the micro-structural alterations (mean crystalline thickness, crystal perfection and degree of alignment) of heat-affected dentine and enamel in human dental teeth. Additionally, nanoindentation mapping was applied to detect the spatial and temperature-dependent nano-mechanical properties variation. The SAXS/WAXS results revealed that the mean crystalline thickness distribution in dentine was more uniform compared with that in enamel. Although in general the mean crystalline thickness increased both in dentine and enamel as the temperature increased, the local structural variations gradually reduced. Meanwhile, the hardness and reduced modulus in enamel decreased as the temperature increased, while for dentine, the tendency reversed at high temperature. The analysis of the correlation between the ultrastructure and mechanical properties coupled with the effect of temperature demonstrates the effect of mean thickness and orientation on the local variation of mechanical property. This structural-mechanical property alteration is likely to be due to changes of HAp crystallites, thus dentine and enamel exhibit different responses at different temperatures. Our results enable an improved understanding of

  7. Heat Capacity Changes for Transition-State Analogue Binding and Catalysis with Human 5'-Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ross S; Cameron, Scott A; Karp, Jerome M; Arcus, Vickery L; Schramm, Vern L

    2017-02-17

    Human 5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) catalyzes the phosphorolysis of 5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA). Its action regulates cellular MTA and links polyamine synthesis to S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) salvage. Transition state analogues with picomolar dissociation constants bind to MTAP in an entropically driven process at physiological temperatures, suggesting increased hydrophobic character or dynamic structure for the complexes. Inhibitor binding exhibits a negative heat capacity change (-ΔCp), and thus the changes in enthalpy and entropy upon binding are strongly temperature-dependent. The ΔCp of inhibitor binding by isothermal titration calorimetry does not follow conventional trends and is contrary to that expected from the hydrophobic effect. Thus, ligands of increasing hydrophobicity bind with increasing values of ΔCp. Crystal structures of MTAP complexed to transition-state analogues MT-DADMe-ImmA, BT-DADMe-ImmA, PrT-ImmA, and a substrate analogue, MT-tubercidin, reveal similar active site contacts and overall protein structural parameters, despite large differences in ΔCp for binding. In addition, ΔCp values are not correlated with Kd values. Temperature dependence of presteady state kinetics revealed the chemical step for the MTAP reaction to have a negative heat capacity for transition state formation (-ΔCp(‡)). A comparison of the ΔCp(‡) for MTAP presteady state chemistry and ΔCp for inhibitor binding revealed those transition-state analogues most structurally and thermodynamically similar to the transition state. Molecular dynamics simulations of MTAP apoenzyme and complexes with MT-DADMe-ImmA and MT-tubercidin show small, but increased dynamic motion in the inhibited complexes. Variable temperature CD spectroscopy studies for MTAP-inhibitor complexes indicate remarkable protein thermal stability (to Tm = 99 °C) in complexes with transition-state analogues.

  8. Quantifying urban heat island effects and human comfort for cities of variable size and urban morphology in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.; Koopmans, S.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Hove, van B.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the canopy layer urban heat island (UHI) and human comfort in a range of small to large cities and villages in the Netherlands. So far, this subject has not been substantially studied in the Netherlands, since it has a relatively mild Cfb climate and impact was assumed to be mi

  9. PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70-KILODALTON HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE PUTATIVE CREATINE KINASE M-ISOFORM IN HUMAN SPERM IS IDENTIFIED AS THE 70 kDa HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN HSPA2* Gabor Huszar1, Kathryn Stone2, David Dix3 and Lynne Vigue11The Sperm Physiology Laboratory, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2 W.M. Keck Foundatio...

  10. Relationship between the induction of heat shock proteins and the decrease in glucocorticoid receptor during heat shock response in human osteosarcoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋亮年

    1995-01-01

    Previously,it has been found that glucocorticoid receptor(GR)binding activity decreasedrapidly during heat shock response in HOS-8603,a human osteosarcorna cell line.In this study,Therelationship between the induction of heat shock proteins(HSPs)and the decrease in GR was furtherstudied in the same cell line.It was found that even though quercetin could specifically inhibit the ex-pression of hsp90α and hsp70 mRNA,it could not prevent GR from the decrease in response to the heatshock treatment.This represents the first reported evidence that the induction of HSPs and the decrease inGR during heat shock response were 2 independent biological events.The results of the present study furthershowed that although the heat shock treatment alone had no effects on alkaline phosphatase(AKP)activity,itcould completely block the induction of AKP activity in HOS-8603 cells by dexamethasone(Dex),a syntheticglucocorticoid.These results demonstrate that the heat shock-induced alteration in GR was accompanied by adecrease in GR functional activity.Furthermore,when the induction of HSPs was inhibited by the treatmentof cells with quercetin,the stimulatory effects of Dex on AKP activity could still be inhibited completely bythe heat shock treatment.The results of this part,on the basis of GR functional activity,further demonstratethat quercetin could not inhibit the heat shock-induced decrease in GR,even though it could inhibit the induc-tion of HSPs.To clarify further the effects of quercetin alone on GR binding activity in HOS-8603 cells,theregulation of GR by quercetin was also studied.It was found for the first time that quercetin coulddown-regulate GR in a time-dependent manner significantly,and that the down-regulation of GR by quercetinin HOS-8603 cells paralelled with a decrease in glucocorticoid-mediated functional responses,suggesting thatthe down-regulation of GR by quercetin is of biological significance.

  11. BUDGET AND BUDGET EXECUTION IN THE NORTHWEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN BATRANCEA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The budget is a tool multiannual financial forecasting both at micro and macro level. In this sense, regional and local government budget is a financial instrument that connects resources to use local funds in order to ensure the prosperity of the community concerned. Construction and especially budget execution highlights the effectiveness of local and regional government. Using a system of indicators correlated reveals income, expenditure and budgetary outturn.

  12. Reforming the EU Budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    The marginal involvement of the EU in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a lack of attention to the EU budget and its determinants. In this paper I analyse an original dataset containing yearly data on the main macrocategories of expenditure and how they have...... changed over the last three decades (1984-2013). Using time series analysis, I find that the ability to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological position of the co-legislators, and some ‘structuring events’ - like the adoption of the Multiannual Financial Framework and the accession...

  13. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  14. Environmental budget and policy goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The assigned budget for environmental sector is quite insufficient to meet enormous environmental demand. Under this circumstance, there is only one way to solve environmental problems efficiently, i.e. to use a given budget efficiently. Therefore, the study on efficient utilization of a given environmental invested finance is needed by customizing a diagnosis of present condition on the operation of environmental budget and environmental investment analysis. In this respect, an entire national budget of 1999 and environmental budget were analyzed in this study. By analyzing economic efficiency of sewage disposal program, integrated septic tank system, VOC regulation, incinerator construction program, food waste disposal program, and recycling program, an efficient budget policy was presented. 19 refs., 18 figs., 169 tabs.

  15. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  16. Human resting extracellular heat shock protein 72 concentration decreases during the initial adaptation to exercise in a hot, humid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen C.; Ferguson, Richard A.; Nimmo, Myra A.

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72 is a cytosolic protein that also is present in the circulation. Extracellular Hsp72 (eHsp72) is inducible by exercise and is suggested to act as a danger signal to the immune system. The adaptive response of eHsp72 to repeated exercise-heat exposures in humans remains to be determined. An intracellular animal study found a reduced Hsp72 response, with no change in resting levels, during heat stress after a single day of passive heat acclimation. The current study therefore tested whether adaptations in human eHsp72 levels would similarly occur 24 hours after a single exercise-heat exposure. Seven males completed cycle exercise (42.5% V̇O2peak for 2 hours) in a hot, humid environment (38°C, 60% relative humidity) on each of 2 consecutive days. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein before exercise and 0 hours and 22 hours postexercise for the analysis of eHsp72. Exercise-heat stress resulted in enhanced eHsp72, with a similar absolute increase found on both days (day 1: 1.26 ng/mL [0.80 ng/mL]; day 2: 1.29 ng/mL [1.60 ng/mL]). Resting eHsp72 decreased from rest on day 1 to day 2's 22-hour postexercise sample (P < 0.05). It is suggested that the reduction in resting eHsp72 after 2 consecutive exercise-heat exposures is possibly due to an enhanced removal from the circulation, for either immunoregulatory functions, or for improved cellular stress tolerance in this initial, most stressful period of acclimation. PMID:16817318

  17. Human recombinant factor VIIa may improve heat intolerance in mice by attenuating hypothalamic neuronal apoptosis and damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chuan-Chih; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Cheng-Hsien; Yung, Ming-Chi

    2014-10-01

    Intolerance to heat exposure is believed to be associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis impairment [reflected by decreases in blood concentrations of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone]. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of human recombinant factor VIIa (rfVIIa) on heat intolerance, HPA axis impairment, and hypothalamic inflammation, ischemic and oxidative damage, and apoptosis in mice under heat stress. Immediately after heat stress (41.2 °C for 1 h), mice were treated with vehicle (1 mL/kg of body weight) or rfVIIa (65-270 µg/kg of body weight) and then returned to room temperature (26 °C). Mice still alive on day 4 of heat exposure were considered survivors. Cellular ischemia markers (e.g., glutamate, lactate-to-pyruvate ratio), oxidative damage markers (e.g., nitric oxide metabolite, hydroxyl radials), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α) in hypothalamus were determined. In addition, blood concentrations of both ACTH and corticosterone were measured. Hypothalamic cell damage was assessed by determing the neuronal damage scores, whereas the hypothalamic cell apoptosis was determined by assessing the numbers of cells stained with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated αUTP nick-end labeling, caspase-3-positive cells, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecula-1-positive cells in hypothalamus. Compared with vehicle-treated heated mice, rfVIIa-treated heated mice had significantly higher fractional survival (8/10 vs 1/10), lesser thermoregulatory deficit (34.1 vs 24.8 °C), lesser extents of ischemic, oxidative, and inflammatory markers in hypothalamus, lesser neuronal damage scores and apoptosis in hypothalamus, and lesser HPA axis impairment. Human recombinant factor VIIa appears to exert a protective effect against heatstroke by attenuating hypothalamic cell apoptosis (due to ischemic, inflammatory, and oxidative damage

  18. A mathematical model of endovascular heat transfer for human brain cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan Carlos; Yon, Steven; Magers, Mike; Dobak, John

    2000-11-01

    Selective cooling of the brain has been shown to exhibit protective effects in cerebral ischemia, trauma, and spinal injury/ischemia. A multi-compartment, unsteady thermal model of the response of the human brain to endovascular cooling is discussed and its results compared to recent experimental data conducted with sheep and other mammals. The model formulation is based on the extension of the bioheat equation, originally proposed by Pennes(1) and later modified by Wissler(2), Stolwijk(3) and Werner and Webb(4). The temporal response of the brain temperature and that of the various body compartments to the cooling of the blood flowing through the common carotid artery is calculated under various scenarios. The effect of the boundary conditions as well as the closure assumptions used in the model, i.e. perfusion rate, metabolism heat production, etc. on the cooling rate of the brain are systematically investigated. (1) Pennes H. H., “Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperature in the resting forearm.” J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 93-122, 1948. (2) Wissler E. H., “Steady-state temperature distribution in man”, J. Appl. Physiol., 16: 764-740, 1961. (3) Stolwick J. A. J., “Mathematical model of thermoregulation” in “Physiological and behavioral temperature regulation”, edited by J. D. Hardy, A. P. Gagge and A. J. Stolwijk, Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfiels, Ill., 703-721, 1971. (4) Werner J., Webb P., “A six-cylinder model of human thermoregulation for general use on personal computers”, Ann. Physiol. Anthrop., 12(3): 123-134, 1993.

  19. Heat Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional-Like Proliferation of Normal Human Fibroblasts Mediated by Pressed Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Inoue

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal heat treatment conditions for enhancement of pressed silk-mediated 3D-like proliferation of normal human dermal fibroblasts, as well as to determine the responses to heat shock of cells and intracellular signaling pathways. The beginning of 3D-like pattern formation of cells was observed in the second week after the start of the experiment. The mean rates of beginning of 3D-like pattern formation by cells heat-treated at 40 ºC and 43 ºC for 10 min were significantly higher (3.2- and 8.6-fold, respectively than that of untreated cells. We found that apoptosis had occurred in 7.5% and 50.0% of the cells at one week after heat treatment for 10 min at 43 ºC and 45 ºC, respectively. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and that of Hsp27 were markedly increased by heat treatment at 43 ºC for 10 min. The results of an experiment using a p38 MAPK inhibitor and Hsp27 inhibitor suggest that activation of p38 MAPK by heat shock is associated with 3D-like cell proliferation and that Hsp27 contributes to the inhibition of apoptosis. The results of this study should be useful for further studies aimed at elucidation of the physiologic mechanisms underlying thermotherapy.

  20. Protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle: relationships to age and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran Valls, Maria R; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into "old" and "old sarcopenic") were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r (2) = -.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r (2) = -.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  1. Human heat shock protein-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes display potent antitumour immunity in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Qian, Jianfei; Zhang, Wenhao; Fu, Weijun; Du, Juan; Jiang, Hua; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chunyang; Xi, Hao; Yi, Qing; Hou, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cell–derived heat shock proteins (HSPs) are used as vaccines for immunotherapy of cancer patients. However, it is proposed that the peptide chaperoned on HSPs, not HSPs themselves, elicited a potent immune response. Given that HSPs are highly expressed by most myeloma cells and vital to myeloma cell survival, we reasoned that HSPs themselves might be an ideal myeloma antigen. In the present study, we explored the feasibility of targeting HSPs themselves for treating multiple myeloma. We identified and chose HLA-A*0201-binding peptides from human HSPB1 (HSP27) and HSP90AA1 (HSP90), and confirmed their immunogenicity in HLA-A*0201 transgenic mice. Dendritic cells pulsed with HSPB1 and HSP90AA1 peptides were used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and myeloma patients to generate HSP peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). HSP peptide-specific CTLs efficiently lysed HLA-A*0201+ myeloma cells (established cell lines and primary plasma cells) but not HLA-A*0201− myeloma cells in vitro, indicating that myeloma cells naturally express HSP peptides in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. More importantly, HSP peptide-specific CTLs effectively reduced tumour burden in the xenograft mouse model of myeloma. Our study clearly demonstrated that HSPs might be novel tumour antigens for immunotherapy of myeloma. PMID:24824351

  2. Effects of Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap on human platelets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Guo, You-chi

    1993-03-01

    Human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was irradiated in vitro with a fiberoptic Nd:YAG laser-heated metal cap to study its effects on platelets. The energy of the laser was 5 and 10 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 6, and 9 seconds and 14 watts with an irradiation time of 0, 3, 4, and 5 seconds, respectively. The irradiated PRPs were analyzed for platelet count, aggregation reaction, thromboxane (TX)B2 measurement and electron microscopy. Various degrees of decrease in platelet count were observed in all groups. Except the 5Wx3S group, the other groups showed an increase in the maximum aggregation rate of platelets, which corresponded to the enhancement of TXB2 formation. It was also demonstrated by a transmission electron microscopy in 10Wx3S, 10Wx6S, 10Wx9S, 14Wx3S, 14Wx4S, and 14Wx5S energy groups that alpha- and dense-particles in irradiated platelets became sparse in number or even disappeared, less electron density, irregularity in size and shape, and a tendency for these particles to cluster around platelet membranes and open canalicular systems, which dilated apparently. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy depicted the appearance of short and thick pseudopods on the surfaces of some irradiated platelets and an increase in the axis rate in most of the irradiated platelets.

  3. The upregulation of heat shock protein 47 expression in human buccal fibroblasts stimulated with arecoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2008-04-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 47, a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, is involved in the processing and/or secretion of procollagen. HSP47 is consistently and dramatically upregulated in a variety of fibrotic diseases. The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human buccal mucosa and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) specimens and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. The mRNA levels of HSP47 from fibroblasts cultured from 20 OSF and 10 normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs) were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The effect of arecoline, the major areca nut alkaloid, was added to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Furthermore, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, p38 inhibitor SB203580, cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NS-398, and glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine were added to find the possible mechanisms. OSF demonstrated significantly higher HSP47 mRNA expression than BMFs (P Arecoline was also found to elevate HSP47 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner (P arecoline when compared with control (P arecoline-induced HSP47 mRNA expression (P arecoline in fibroblasts may be mediated by MEK, PI3K, and COX-2 signal transduction pathways.

  4. Sensitivity of Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the modern carbon budget to early human land use: analyses with a process-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Joos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Dynamic Global Vegetation model coupled to a simplified Earth system model is used to simulate the impact of anthropogenic land cover changes (ALCC on Holocene atmospheric CO2 and the contemporary carbon cycle. The model results suggest that early agricultural activities cannot explain the mid to late Holocene CO2 rise of 20 ppm measured on ice cores and that proposed upward revisions of Holocene ALCC imply a smaller contemporary terrestrial carbon sink. A set of illustrative scenarios is applied to test the robustness of these conclusions and to address the large discrepancies between published ALCC reconstructions. Simulated changes in atmospheric CO2 due to ALCC are less than 1 ppm before 1000 AD and 30 ppm at 2004 AD when the HYDE 3.1 ALCC reconstruction is prescribed for the past 12 000 years. Cumulative emissions of 69 GtC at 1850 and 233 GtC at 2004 AD are comparable to earlier estimates. CO2 changes due to ALCC exceed the simulated natural interannual variability only after 1000 AD. To consider evidence that land area used per person was higher before than during early industrialisation, agricultural areas from HYDE 3.1 were increased by a factor of two prior to 1700 AD (scenario H2. For the H2 scenario, the contemporary terrestrial carbon sink required to close the atmospheric CO2 budget is reduced by 0.5 GtC yr−1. Simulated CO2 remains small even in scenarios where average land use per person is increased beyond the range of published estimates. Even extreme assumptions for preindustrial land conversion and high per-capita land use do not result in simulated CO2 emissions that are sufficient to explain the magnitude and the timing of the late Holocene CO2 increase.

  5. Effects of passive heating on central blood volume and ventricular dimensions in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crandall, C.G.; Wilson, T.E.; Marving, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Mixed findings regarding the effects of whole-body heat stress on central blood volume have been reported. This study evaluated the hypothesis that heat stress reduces central blood volume and alters blood volume distribution. Ten healthy experimental and seven healthy time control (i.e. non-heat...... plus central vasculature (17 +/- 2%), thorax (14 +/- 2%), inferior vena cava (23 +/- 2%) and liver (23 +/- 2%) (all P Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/1...

  6. Operational budgeting using fuzzy goal programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mohammadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Having an efficient budget normally has different advantages such as measuring the performance of various organizations, setting appropriate targets and promoting managers based on their achievements. However, any budgeting planning requires prediction of different cost components. There are various methods for budgeting planning such as incremental budgeting, program budgeting, zero based budgeting and performance budgeting. In this paper, we present a fuzzy goal programming to estimate operational budget. The proposed model uses fuzzy triangular as well as interval number to estimate budgeting expenses. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a real-world case study in province of Qom, Iran and the results are analyzed.

  7. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...... is a motivational paradox....

  8. The European Union Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Šimović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the current budgetary system of the EU, its features and the differences in it from the budgets of nation states, particularly from the standpoint of budgetary revenue and expenditure. Below there is an analysis of the system of the redistribution of EU budgetary resources via the Structural Funds, leading to different net positions of the member states in the use of budgetary resources. The object of the system is to achieve the maximum economic and social cohesion within the EU. The article points out that processes of EU enlargement and the creation of a new “financial perspective” will lead to many problems in the fulfilment of these objectives.

  9. Acute limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function in the leg of aged humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Steven A; Gagnon, Daniel; Adams, Amy N; Cramer, Matthew N; Kouda, Ken; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-01-01

    Local heating of an extremity increases blood flow and vascular shear stress throughout the arterial tree. Local heating acutely improves macrovascular dilator function in the upper limbs of young healthy adults through a shear stress-dependent mechanism but has no such effect in the lower limbs of this age group. The effect of acute limb heating on dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the lower limbs of aged adults is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute lower limb heating improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the leg vasculature of aged adults. Nine young and nine aged adults immersed their lower limbs at a depth of ~33 cm into a heated (~42°C) circulated water bath for 45 min. Before and 30 min after heating, macro (flow-mediated dilation)- and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) dilator functions were assessed in the lower limb, following 5 min of arterial occlusion, via Doppler ultrasound. Compared with preheat, macrovascular dilator function was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.6) but was improved in aged adults (P = 0.04). Similarly, microvascular dilator function, as assessed by peak reactive hyperemia, was unchanged following heating in young adults (P = 0.1) but was improved in aged adults (P < 0.01). Taken together, these data suggest that acute lower limb heating improves both macro- and microvascular dilator function in an age dependent manner. We demonstrate that lower limb heating acutely improves macro- and microvascular dilator function within the atherosclerotic prone vasculature of the leg in aged adults. These findings provide evidence for a potential therapeutic use of chronic lower limb heating to improve vascular health in primary aging and various disease conditions. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Budget Report 2009: Adjustment Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a 2009 budget survey conducted by "Library Journal" in which a random sample of U.S. public libraries were surveyed via mail or fax in October 2008. Those that answered the survey projected a modest increase in budgets for 2009, just 2%, with less than a 1% increase in funds for materials, a predictable area for cuts. That…

  11. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...

  12. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  13. RESPONSIBILITY CENTERS AND ENTITY BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÎRCĂ ALIONA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation on relationships between responsibility centers and budgets supposes examining the influence of management control over the entity management structures. Thus, responsibility centers help to streamline the management structure and ensure the implementation of the budget system into practice. Budgeting refers to the transformation of financial plans into monetary units. The pragmatic approach of the relationship between responsibility centers and budgets is analyzed on the basis of Romanian entities in the regulated market of the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The fact that entities which show the management structure and at the same time show the income and expense budget makes us claim that both have an important role to play in implementing the entity strategies.

  14. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Howard, Luke [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Hales, David [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Kunkle, Rick [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Gordon, Andy [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program; Spencer, Melinda [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction, Olympia, WA (United States). Washington States Univ. Energy Program

    2016-02-18

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP)research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH. Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  15. Response of Local Nitric Oxide Release to Manual Acupuncture and Electrical Heat in Humans: Effects of Reinforcement Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Xing Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine the influences of manual acupuncture (MA and electrical heat corresponding to reinforcing methods on nitric oxide (NO release over the skin regions in humans. A device with collecting solution was taped to the skin surface along pericardium (PC or lung (LU meridian. Acupuncture needles were gently inserted into PC 4 with reinforcing stimulation (low force/rate for 20 minutes in the MA group. LU11 on the finger was heated (43-44°C by electrical heat for 20 minutes. Biocapture was consecutively conducted for two 20-minute intervals during and after each treatment. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx- in the collecting samples were quantified using chemiluminescence in blinded fashion. Baseline NOx- levels are higher and tended to be higher over PC and LU acupoints during the 1st biocapture. NOx- levels over PC regions were consistently increased by MA during both intervals. NOx- concentrations over LU acupoints were increased and tended to be increased by electrical heat in the 1st and 2nd biocapture. The results suggest that reinforcing MA and electrical heat induce NO released from the local skin regions with higher levels at acupoints, which improve local circulation and contribute to the beneficial effects of the therapies.

  16. Development of a new diagnosis method for caries in human teeth based on thermal images under pulse heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Kaneko, Kenji

    2001-03-01

    A new diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for the incipient caries of human teeth. Experimental study was made on the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth in various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. Coefficients of the temperature descent were obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i.e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from temperature descent coefficients.

  17. Greenhouse gas budget of agricultural systems: real possibility or dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Calanca, P.; Fuhrer, J.; Leifeld, J.; Jocher, M.; Volk, M.

    2003-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) by human activities are causing an increase of global mean temperature. Model calculations have shown that the rate of increase might have a decisive influence on the stability of the climate. It is therefore crucial to slow down the increase of GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. Storage of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is mentioned as one possibility in the Kyoto protocol. Mitigation options to decrease GHG emissions in agricultural systems as well as to increase carbon stock in agricultural soils are in discussion. The quantification and verification of the GHG budget is a prerequisite to establish a trade within the Kyoto protocol. On the scientific level this comes down to a greenhouse gas budget for agricultural systems. Comparability and interpretation of GHG budgets depends on an appropriate and consistent choice of the considered system, especially the system boundaries. In this presentation we discuss the feasibility of such a budget for a the smallest unit: the yearly budget of grassland system. Differences between GHG budget and carbon budget will be assessed.

  18. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Beom Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1β (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively and immediately after heating (p < 0.001 in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001 and B cells (p < 0.001 were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in

  19. Global Carbon Budget 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie M.; Canadell, Josep G.; Sitch, Stephen; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen P.; Manning, Andrew C.; Boden, Thomas A.; Tans, Pieter P.; Houghton, Richard A.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Alin, Simone; Andrews, Oliver D.; Anthoni, Peter; Barbero, Leticia; Bopp, Laurent; Chevallier, Frédéric; Chini, Louise P.; Ciais, Philippe; Currie, Kim; Delire, Christine; Doney, Scott C.; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gkritzalis, Thanos; Harris, Ian; Hauck, Judith; Haverd, Vanessa; Hoppema, Mario; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Jain, Atul K.; Kato, Etsushi; Körtzinger, Arne; Landschützer, Peter; Lefèvre, Nathalie; Lenton, Andrew; Lienert, Sebastian; Lombardozzi, Danica; Melton, Joe R.; Metzl, Nicolas; Millero, Frank; Monteiro, Pedro M. S.; Munro, David R.; Nabel, Julia E. M. S.; Nakaoka, Shin-ichiro; O'Brien, Kevin; Olsen, Are; Omar, Abdirahman M.; Ono, Tsuneo; Pierrot, Denis; Poulter, Benjamin; Rödenbeck, Christian; Salisbury, Joe; Schuster, Ute; Schwinger, Jörg; Séférian, Roland; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Takahashi, Taro; Tian, Hanqin; Tilbrook, Bronte; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; van der Werf, Guido R.; Viovy, Nicolas; Walker, Anthony P.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-11-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates and consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models. We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2006-2015), EFF was 9

  20. Monounsaturated fatty acid ether oligomers formed during heating of virgin olive oil show agglutination activity against human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikios, Ioannis S; Mavromoustakos, Thomas M

    2014-01-29

    The present work focuses on the characterization of molecules formed when virgin olive oil is heated at 130 °C for 24 h open in air, which are found to be strong agglutinins. The hemagglutinating activity of the newly formed molecule isolated from the heated virgin olive oil sample was estimated against human red blood cells (RBCs). Dimers and polymers (high molecular weight molecules) were identified through thin layer chromatography (TLC) of the oil mixture. (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) were the methods used for structural characterization. Among others, oligomerization of at least two monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) by an ether linkage between the hydrocarbon chains is involved. Light microscopy was used to characterize and visualize the agglutination process. Agglutination without fusion or lysis was observed. It was concluded that the heating of virgin olive oil open in air, among other effects, produces oligomerization as well as polymerization of unsaturated FA, possibly of monohydroxy, monounsaturated FA that is associated with strong hemagglutinating activity against human RBCs. The nutritional value and the effects on human health of such oligomers are not discussed in the literature and remain to be investigated.

  1. Children: Oklahoma's Investment in Tomorrow '96. Preliminary Report: Agency Budget by Cabinet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth, Oklahoma City.

    This report presents preliminary Oklahoma state agency budget summaries for all programs serving children in the Departments of Administration, Agriculture, Commerce, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Human Resources, Safety and Security, Tourism and Recreation, and Veterans Affairs. The budget figures are organized by cabinet and…

  2. Effects of Blood Flow on Skin Heating Induced by Millimeter Wave Irradiation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Johnson and Proppe 1996), resulting in an effi- cient removal of heat by the increased SkBF. Presum- ably, the noted inter-species variability in the...over the majority of their surface area (Johnson and Proppe 1996). Furthermore, mathe- matical modeling indicated that the rate of skin heating could...New York: The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.; Report IEEE Std C95.1.1999; 1999. Johnson JM, Proppe DW. Cardiovascular

  3. Global Carbon Budget 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Canadell, J. G.; Sitch, S.; Korsbakken, J. I.; Friedlingstein, P.; Peters, G. P.; Andres, R. J.; Boden, T. A.; Houghton, R. A.; House, J. I.; Keeling, R. F.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; Bakker, D. C. E.; Barbero, L.; Bopp, L.; Chang, J.; Chevallier, F.; Chini, L. P.; Ciais, P.; Fader, M.; Feely, R. A.; Gkritzalis, T.; Harris, I.; Hauck, J.; Ilyina, T.; Jain, A. K.; Kato, E.; Kitidis, V.; Klein Goldewijk, K.; Koven, C.; Landschützer, P.; Lauvset, S. K.; Lefèvre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lima, I. D.; Metzl, N.; Millero, F.; Munro, D. R.; Murata, A.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; O'Brien, K.; Olsen, A.; Ono, T.; Pérez, F. F.; Pfeil, B.; Pierrot, D.; Poulter, B.; Rehder, G.; Rödenbeck, C.; Saito, S.; Schuster, U.; Schwinger, J.; Séférian, R.; Steinhoff, T.; Stocker, B. D.; Sutton, A. J.; Takahashi, T.; Tilbrook, B.; van der Laan-Luijkx, I. T.; van der Werf, G. R.; van Heuven, S.; Vandemark, D.; Viovy, N.; Wiltshire, A.; Zaehle, S.; Zeng, N.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates as well as consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover change (some including nitrogen-carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global

  4. Heat Sensing Receptor TRPV1 Is a Mediator of Thermotaxis in Human Spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegazzo, Massimo; Magagna, Sabina; Di Nisio, Andrea; Šabović, Iva; Rocca, Maria Santa; Scattolini, Valentina; Filippi, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The molecular bases of sperm thermotaxis, the temperature-oriented cell motility, are currently under investigation. Thermal perception relies on a subclass of the transient receptor potential [TRP] channels, whose member TRPV1 is acknowledged as the heat sensing receptor. Here we investigated the involvement of TRPV1 in human sperm thermotaxis. We obtained semen samples from 16 normozoospermic subjects attending an infertility survey programme, testis biopsies from 6 patients with testicular germ cell cancer and testis fine needle aspirates from 6 patients with obstructive azoospermia undergoing assisted reproductive technologies. Expression of TRPV1 mRNA was assessed by RT-PCR. Protein expression of TRPV1 was determined by western blot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. Sperm motility was assessed by Sperm Class Analyser. Acrosome reaction, apoptosis and intracellular-Ca2+ content were assessed by flow cytometry. We found that TRPV1 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in the testis, in both Sertoli cells and germ-line cells. Moreover, compared to no-gradient controls at 31°C or 37°C (Ctrl 31°C and Ctrl 37°C respectively), sperm migration towards a temperature gradient of 31–37°C (T gradient) in non-capacitated conditions selected a higher number of cells (14,9 ± 4,2×106 cells T gradient vs 5,1± 0,3×106 cells Ctrl 31°C and 5,71±0,74×106 cells Ctrl 37°C; P = 0,039). Capacitation amplified the migrating capability towards the T gradient. Sperms migrated towards the T gradient showed enriched levels of both TRPV1 protein and mRNA. In addition, sperm cells were able to migrate toward a gradient of capsaicin, a specific agonist of TRPV1, whilst capsazepine, a specific agonist of TRPV1, blocked this effect. Finally, capsazepine severely blunted migration towards T gradient without abolishing. These results suggest that TRPV1 may represent a facilitating mediator of sperm thermotaxis. PMID:27992447

  5. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K R; Wilby, Robert L; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-11

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  6. Communicating the deadly consequences of global warming for human heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tom K. R.; Wilby, Robert L.; Murphy, Conor

    2017-04-01

    In December of 2015, the international community pledged to limit global warming to below 2 °C above preindustrial (PI) to prevent dangerous climate change. However, to what extent, and for whom, is danger avoided if this ambitious target is realized? We address these questions by scrutinizing heat stress, because the frequency of extremely hot weather is expected to continue to rise in the approach to the 2 °C limit. We use analogs and the extreme South Asian heat of 2015 as a focusing event to help interpret the increasing frequency of deadly heat under specified amounts of global warming. Using a large ensemble of climate models, our results confirm that global mean air temperature is nonlinearly related to heat stress, meaning that the same future warming as realized to date could trigger larger increases in societal impacts than historically experienced. This nonlinearity is higher for heat stress metrics that integrate the effect of rising humidity. We show that, even in a climate held to 2 °C above PI, Karachi (Pakistan) and Kolkata (India) could expect conditions equivalent to their deadly 2015 heatwaves every year. With only 1.5 °C of global warming, twice as many megacities (such as Lagos, Nigeria, and Shanghai, China) could become heat stressed, exposing more than 350 million more people to deadly heat by 2050 under a midrange population growth scenario. The results underscore that, even if the Paris targets are realized, there could still be a significant adaptation imperative for vulnerable urban populations.

  7. On the Use of Hydrological Models and Satellite Data to Study the Water Budget of River Basins Affected by Human Activities: Examples from the Garonne Basin of France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Eric; Gascoin, Simon; Grusson, Youen; Murgue, Clément; Bardeau, Mélanie; Anctil, François; Ferrant, Sylvain; Lardy, Romain; Le Moigne, Patrick; Leenhardt, Delphine; Rivalland, Vincent; Sánchez Pérez, José-Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Therond, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Natural and anthropogenic forcing factors and their changes significantly impact water resources in many river basins around the world. Information on such changes can be derived from fine scale in situ and satellite observations, used in combination with hydrological models. The latter need to account for hydrological changes caused by human activities to correctly estimate the actual water resource. In this study, we consider the catchment area of the Garonne river (in France) to investigate the capabilities of space-based observations and up-to-date hydrological modeling in estimating water resources of a river basin modified by human activities and a changing climate. Using the ISBA-MODCOU and SWAT hydrological models, we find that the water resources of the Garonne basin display a negative climate trend since 1960. The snow component of the two models is validated using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer snow cover extent climatology. Crop sowing dates based on remote sensing studies are also considered in the validation procedure. Use of this dataset improves the simulated evapotranspiration and river discharge amounts when compared to conventional data. Finally, we investigate the benefit of using the MAELIA multi-agent model that accounts for a realistic agricultural and management scenario. Among other results, we find that changes in crop systems have significant impacts on water uptake for agriculture. This work constitutes a basis for the construction of a future modeling framework of the sociological and hydrological system of the Garonne river region.

  8. Construction, Expression and Identification of a Recombinant BCG Vaccine Encoding Human Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Heat Shock Protein 65

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴五星; 梁靓; 高红; 黄海浪; 陈智浩; 程继忠; 皇甫永穆

    2004-01-01

    Heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is one of the most important protective immunogens against the tuberculosis infection. The signal sequence of antigen 85B and the whole HSP65 DNA sequence of human Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) were amplified from BCG genome and plasmid pCMV-MTHSP65 respectively by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). These two sequences were cloned into the plasmid pBCG-2100 under the control of the promoter of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) from human M. tuberculosis, yielding the prokaryotic shuttle expression plasmid pBCG-SP-HSP65. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR detection and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the two cloned DNA sequences were consistent with those previously reported, and the direction of their inserting into the recombinant was correct and the reading frame had been maintained. The recombinants were electroporated into BCG to construct the recombinant BCG vaccine and induced by heating. The induced expression detected by SDS-PAGE showed that the content of 65 kD protein expressed in recombinant BCG was 35.69 % in total bacterial protein and 74.09 % in the cell lysate supernatants, suggesting that the recombinant HSP65 gene could express in BCG with high efficiency and the expressed proteins were mainly soluble. Western-blot showed that the secretive recombinant proteins could specifically combine with antibody against M.tuberculosis HSP65, indicating that the recombinant proteins possess the biological activity of HSP65.

  9. GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release-3.0 data sets contains global 3-hourly, daily, monthly/3-hourly, and monthly averages of surface and top-of...

  10. Congress smiles on research budgets

    CERN Multimedia

    Reichhardt, T

    1998-01-01

    Congress has agreed to match or exceed most of the funding requests for the major science agencies requested by President Clinton in February. Many of them will receive their largest budget increases for years (11 paragraphs).

  11. Increase voted to NSF Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Subcommittee on Science, Research, and Technology of the House Committee on Science and Technology voted by a narrow margin on March 10 to increase the National Science Foundation (NSF) budget authorization by $30 million, pushing the total budget to $1099.5 million. The increase is targeted solely for science and engineering education (see table). Although the total for research and related activities in NSF remained the same as in President Reagan's budget request, the subcommittee shifted funds among directorates, including an $8.9 million decrease from the budget of the Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO). The subcommittee action also calls for $1.6 million to be allocated to United States participation in the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (NASA).

  12. The Status of Budget Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Williams

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the breadth of the current forecast literature as it relates to public budget making. It serves to provide summary information to decision-makers who otherwise do not have the resources to learn more than a small amount focused on much more narrowly defined areas of forecasting (such as the politics of forecast bias. Next, it serves those who perform forecasting related to budgeting by reviewing the current methods and practices commonly used in this domain. It also provides a ground level for future public budget forecasting research. Finally, this article identifies several areas in which the public forecasting literature needs additional development. Several of these areas, such as the effectiveness of nonregression-based forecasting techniques, are quite important to the majority of governments in the United States and other subnational jurisdictions, where budget offices are limited and resource investments in technology are scarce.

  13. Response of Urban Systems to Climate Change in Europe: Heat Stress Exposure and the Effect on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine; Thomas, Bart; Grommen, Mart

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is driven by global processes such as the global ocean circulation and its variability over time leading to changing weather patterns on regional scales as well as changes in the severity and occurrence of extreme events such as heavy rain- and windstorms, floods, drought, heat waves, etc. The summer 2003 European heat wave was the hottest summer on record in Europe over the past centuries leading to health crises in several countries like France and caused up to 70.000 excess deaths over four months in Central and Western Europe. The main risks induced by global climate change in urbanised areas are considered to be overheating and resulting health effects, increased exposure to flood events, increased damage losses from extreme weather conditions but also shortages in the provision of life-sustaining services. Moreover, the cities themselves create specific or inherent risks and urban adaptation is often very demanding. As most of Europe's inhabitants live in cities, it is of particular relevance to examine the impact of climate variability on urban areas and their populations. The present study focusses on the identification of heat stress variables related to human health and the extraction of this information by processing daily temperature statistics of local urban climate simulations over multiple timeframes of 20 years and three different European cities based on recent, near future and far future global climate predictions. The analyses have been conducted in the framework of the NACLIM FP7 project funded by the European Commission involving local stakeholders such as the cities of Antwerp (Belgium), Berlin (Germany) and Almada (Portugal) represented by different climate and urban characteristics. Apart from the urban-rural temperature increment (urban heat island effect), additional heat stress parameters such as the average number of heat wave days together with their duration and intensities have been covered during this research. In a

  14. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  15. US physics suffers budget setbacks

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    "The US has slashed funding for the International Linear Collider (ILC) by 75% as the budget for 2008 has been finally agreed between the Republican Bush Administration and Democratic Cngress. The new budget legislation, which US president George W. Bush is expected to signe by 31 December, will see up to 200 scientists at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilag) lose their jobs." (2 pages)

  16. Nearshore human interventions reverse patterns of decline in lake calcium budgets in central Ontario as demonstrated by mass-balance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Huaxia; McConnell, Christopher; Somers, Keith M.; Yan, Norman D.; Watmough, Shaun; Scheider, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    Calcium (Ca) has declined to levels threatening aquatic biota in lakes on the eastern Canadian Shield. Predictive models for future changes in lake Ca are generally based on catchment-scale studies, but these models rarely account for unmeasured sources of Ca supply that are common in the nearshore areas of developed lakes. In this study we utilize up to 29 years of hydrological and water chemistry data for three lakes in central Ontario that differ in degree of human intervention to demonstrate that shoreline development may exert large effects on Ca mass balances. In the relative absence of shoreline development, Red Chalk Lake exhibited what we consider to be the normal response, a reduction in Ca load from the catchment over the last three decades, leading to a reduction in lake export and lake Ca concentration. Calcium load, export, and lake water Ca concentration also fell in Harp Lake, but less than in Red Chalk Lake, because Ca loads were elevated by human activities in Harp Lake's moderately developed shoreline area. By contrast, Dickie Lake experienced an exceptional change in Ca dynamics: both export and lake concentrations rose because of elevated load from the shoreline area linked to the use of dust suppressants on gravel roads. Reductions in both stream Ca concentration and flow volume have led to calcium decline in streams and lakes. Long-term soil acidification processes and climatic variability with its link to hydrology can explain the general pattern of Ca decline in lakes on the south-central Canadian Shield. However, given the widespread lakeshore development and use of dust suppressants on gravel roads, predictions of lake Ca levels need to take into account nearshore activities, especially those that augment rates of Ca supply.

  17. Sub-Facet Heterogeneity of the Urban Surface Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamurthy, P.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Smith, J. A.; Baeck, M. L.; Welty, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Princeton Urban Canopy Model (PUCM) and observational data are combined to understand the influence of urban sub-facet heterogeneity, and the associated influence of material properties, on the urban surface energy budget. This heterogeneity is related to the different surfaces and materials (asphalt, concrete, grass, black roofs, green roofs, etc.) that are typically found within one urban facet (roof, wall, and ground). Of particular interest is the role of water storage and evaporation from urban surfaces in modulating the energy budget. The PUCM is evaluated at sites of various urban densities. Subsequently, one densely-built site is selected for in-depth analysis and the model is applied, with sub-facet resolution, to simulate the water and energy budgets. Our analyses show that while all built surfaces convert most of the incoming energy into sensible rather than latent heat, sensible heat fluxes from asphalt and non-reflective rooftops are twice as high as those from concrete surfaces and light colored roofs. Another important and commonly observed characteristic of urban areas- the shift in peak time of sensible heat compared to rural areas, is shown to be mainly linked to concrete's high heat storage capacity. Our results also indicate that while evaporation from built surfaces is discontinuous and intermittent, overall, these surfaces accounted for nearly 16% of latent heat fluxes (LE) at the study site during the study period. More importantly, this contribution is mainly concentrated during the 48 hours following a rain event and thus its accurate representation is critical to our understanding of the urban surface energy budget during wet periods.

  18. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Bifidobacterium longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1 and GII.4 strains to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E.coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders and one non-HBGA expressing E.coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E.coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E.coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission.

  19. Russia’s State Budget in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Belev; Tatiana Tischenko; Ilya Sokolov

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with 2012 Russia's state budget. Authors speak about general characteristics of the budget system in Russia. They analyse revenues from major taxes and main parameters of the federal budget in 2012 and for 2012-2014, explain budget expenditures and give prospects of the budgetary and tax policy in Russia..

  20. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  1. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  2. Features of Budget Execution in Public Institutions’ Budgets Entirely Funded by Public and Local Budgets; Case Study in an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Ionela

    2012-01-01

    Budgeting, a set of steps taken by state competent bodies in order to materialize the financial policy applied by governmental authority, takes place in the following stages: setting out the budget statement, approving the budget, budget execution, budget execution completion, controlling and approving budget execution completion. Budget execution is described in specialized literature especially as a stage in the budgeting process in the components of the national public budget (public budge...

  3. Development of a New Diagnosis Method for Incipient Caries in Human Teeth Based on Thermal Images under Pulse Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakagami, Takahide; Kubo, Shiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Tomoyasu; Matsuyama, Kazumasa; Nakashima, Shoji; Kaneko, Kenji

    A new noninvasive diagnosis method based on the pulse heating thermographic NDT was proposed for incipient caries of human teeth. Experiments were conducted to study the applicability of the proposed method to the quantitative evaluation of location and shape of the incipient caries as well as the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of incipient caries. The incipient caries were artificially introduced to the extracted human teeth with various severities. Impulse heat flux by the xenon flash lamp was applied to the surface of the tooth and sequential thermal images were taken by the high-speed infrared thermography. It was found that the caries were clearly identified as the localized high temperature region in the sequential thermal images. A coefficient of the temperature descent was obtained from sequential thermal images. It was found that the degree of the demineralization, i. e. the degree of incipient caries was evaluated from the temperature descent coefficient. Further the proposed technique was applied to the detection of natural incipient caries in an extracted human molar tooth. It was found that natural incipient caries was also clearly identified in the thermal images.

  4. Heat production and quantitative oxidation of nutrients by physical activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Chwalibog, André; Jakobsen, K

    1994-01-01

    The effect of physical activity on heat production and oxidation of nutrients was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. The experiment included 6 male and 4 female healthy subjects who, during a 24-hour stay in the respiration chambers, performed, in the morning and afternoon, 15 min cycling...

  5. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, JJW; van den Berg, CAT

    PURPOSE: One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of

  6. The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, K.C.; Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Nilsson, H.; Malchaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational

  7. Function of human eccrine sweat glands during dynamic exercise and passive heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N.; Shibasaki, M.; Aoki, K.; Koga, S.; Inoue, Y.; Crandall, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of change in the density of activated sweat glands (ASG) and sweat output per gland (SGO) during dynamic constant-workload exercise and passive heat stress. Eight male subjects (22.8 +/- 0.9 yr) exercised at a constant workload (117.5 +/- 4.8 W) and were also passively heated by lower-leg immersion into hot water of 42 degrees C under an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C and relative humidity of 50%. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, sweating rate (SR), and heart rate were measured continuously during both trials. The number of ASG was determined every 4 min after the onset of sweating, whereas SGO was calculated by dividing SR by ASG. During both exercise and passive heating, SR increased abruptly during the first 8 min after onset of sweating, followed by a slower increase. Similarly for both protocols, the number of ASG increased rapidly during the first 8 min after the onset of sweating and then ceased to increase further (P > 0.05). Conversely, SGO increased linearly throughout both perturbations. Our results suggest that changes in forearm sweating rate rely on both ASG and SGO during the initial period of exercise and passive heating, whereas further increases in SR are dependent on increases in SGO.

  8. The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, K.C.; Havenith, G.; Holmér, I.; Nilsson, H.; Malchaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygi

  9. a-Adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness is preserved in the heated human leg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, David M; Sander, Mikael; Stallknecht, Bente Merete

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that passive leg heating attenuates a-adrenergic vasoconstriction within that limb. Femoral blood flow (FBF, femoral artery ultrasound Doppler) and femoral vascular conductance (FVC, FBF/mean arterial blood pressure), as well as calf muscle blood flow (CalfBF, ¹³³...

  10. Dynamics of the full length and mutated heat shock factor 1 in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Herbomel

    Full Text Available Heat shock factor 1 is the key transcription factor of the heat shock response. Its function is to protect the cell against the deleterious effects of stress. Upon stress, HSF1 binds to and transcribes hsp genes and repeated satellite III (sat III sequences present at the 9q12 locus. HSF1 binding to pericentric sat III sequences forms structures known as nuclear stress bodies (nSBs. nSBs represent a natural amplification of RNA pol II dependent transcription sites. Dynamics of HSF1 and of deletion mutants were studied in living cells using multi-confocal Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mFCS and Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP. In this paper, we show that HSF1 dynamics modifications upon heat shock result from both formation of high molecular weight complexes and increased HSF1 interactions with chromatin. These interactions involve both DNA binding with Heat Shock Element (HSE and sat III sequences and a more transient sequence-independent binding likely corresponding to a search for more specific targets. We find that the trimerization domain is required for low affinity interactions with chromatin while the DNA binding domain is required for site-specific interactions of HSF1 with DNA.

  11. Heat Shock Protein Induction in Human Cells by CO2 Laser Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-14

    Boorstein W. A review of the role of 70 kD heat shock proteins in protein translocation across membranes. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1990:58:137-46. 32...1991;65:363-366. 55. Young DB. Stress proteins and the immune response. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1990;58:203-208. 56. Craig EA, Kramer J, Kosic-Smithers

  12. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediates cutaneous vasodilation during local heating and is attenuated in middle-aged human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Rebecca S; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Smith, Caroline J; Berkowitz, Dan E; Kenney, W Larry; Holowatz, Lacy A

    2012-06-01

    Local skin heating is used to assess microvascular function in clinical populations because NO is required for full expression of the response; however, controversy exists as to the precise NO synthase (NOS) isoform producing NO. Human aging is associated with attenuated cutaneous vasodilation but little is known about the middle aged, an age cohort used for comparison with clinical populations. We hypothesized that endothelial NOS (eNOS) is the primary isoform mediating NO production during local heating, and eNOS-dependent vasodilation would be reduced in middle-aged skin. Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) and during acetylcholine dose-response (ACh-DR: 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, 50.0, 100.0 mmol/l) protocols. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of 24 men and women; age cohorts were 12 middle-aged (53 ± 1 yr) and 12 young (23 ± 1 yr). Sites served as control, nonselective NOS inhibited [N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)], inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibited (1400W), and neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibited (N(ω)-propyl-l-arginine). After full expression of the local heating response, l-NAME was perfused at all sites. Cutaneous vascular conductance was measured and normalized to maximum (%CVC(max): Nitropress). l-NAME reduced %CVCmax at baseline, all phases of the local heating response, and at all ACh concentrations compared with all other sites. iNOS inhibition reduced the initial peak (53 ± 2 vs. 60 ± 2%CVC(max); P vasodilation during local heating (52 ± 6 vs. 68 ± 4%CVC(max); P = 0.013) and ACh perfusion (50 mmol/l: 83 ± 3 vs. 93 ± 2%CVC(max); 100 mmol/l: 83 ± 4 vs. 92 ± 3%CVC(max); both P = 0.03) were reduced in middle-aged skin. There were no differences in NOS isoform expression obtained from skin biopsy samples between groups (all P > 0.05). These data suggest that eNOS mediates the production of NO during local heating and that cutaneous vasodilation is attenuated in middle-aged skin.

  13. Generic Advertising Optimum Budget for Iran’s Milk Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Shahbazi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the main targets of planners, decision makers and governments is increasing society health with promotion and production of suitable and healthy food. One of the basic commodities that have important role in satisfaction of required human food is milk. So, some part of government and producer healthy budget allocate to milk consumption promotion by using generic advertising. If effectiveness of advertising budget on profitability is more, producer will have more willing to spend for advertising. Determination of optimal generic advertising budget is one of important problem in managerial decision making in producing firm as well as increase in consumption and profit and decrease in wasting and non-optimality of budget. Materials and Methods: In this study, optimal generic advertising budget intensity index (advertising budget share of production cost was estimated under two different scenarios by using equilibrium replacement model. In equilibrium replacement model, producer surplus are maximized in respect to generic advertising in retail level. According to market where two levels of farm and processing before retail exist and there is trade in farm and retail level, we present different models. Fixed and variable proportion hypothesis is another one. Finally, eight relations are presented for determination of milk generic advertising optimum budget. So, we use data from several resources such as previous studies, national (Iran Static center and international institute (Fao formal data and own estimation. Because there are several estimations in previous studies, we identify some scenarios (in two general scenarios for calculation of milk generic advertising optimum budget. Results and Discussion: Estimation of milk generic advertising optimum budget in scenario 1 shows that in case of one market level, fixed supplies and no trade, optimum budget is 0.4672539 percent. In case of one market level and no trade, optimum

  14. The prevalence of Beyond Budgeting in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels

      The annual budget has been criticised in recent years. The critics claim, among other things, that the annual budget is not suitable for today's business environment, that annual budgets stimulate dysfunctional behaviour and furthermore that the use of budgets is too costly. This paper examines...... with contingencies as perceived environmental uncertainty, size or decentralization. Instead increased competitive pressure is associated with supplementing the budget with rolling forecasts....

  15. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  16. The HumanIndexMod and New Calculations Demonstrating Heat Stress Effects All Aspects of Human Life Through Industry, Agriculture, and Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzan, J. R.; Huber, M.

    2014-12-01

    We show the new climatic tool, HumanIndexMod (HIM), for quantitatively assessing key climatic variables that are critical for decision making. The HIM calculates 9 different heat stress and 4 moist thermodynamic quantities using meteorological inputs of T, P, and Q. These heat stress metrics are commonly used throughout the world. We show new methods for integrating and standardizing practices for applying these metrics with the latest Earth system models. We implemented the HIM into CLM4.5, a component of CESM, maintained by NCAR. These heat stress metrics cover philosophical approaches of comfort, physiology, and empirically based algorithms. The metrics are directly connected to the Urban, Canopy, Bare Ground, and Lake modules, to differentiate distinct regimes within each grid cell. The module calculates the instantaneous moisture-temperature covariance at every model time step and in every land surface type, capturing all aspects of non-linearity. The HIM uses the most accurate and computationally efficient moist thermodynamic algorithms available. Additionally, we show ways that the HIM may be effectively integrated into climate modeling and observations. The module is flexible. The user may decide which metrics to call, and there is an offline version of the HIM that is available to be used with weather and climate datasets. Examples include using high temporal resolution CMIP5 archive data, local weather station data, and weather and forecasting models. To provide comprehensive standards for applying the HIM to climate data, we executed a CLM4.5 simulation using the RCP8.5 boundary conditions. Preliminary results show moist thermodynamic and heat stress quantities have smaller variability in the extremes as compared to extremes in T (both at the 95th percentile). Additionally, the magnitude of the moist thermodynamic changes over land is similar to sea surface temperature changes. The metric changes from the early part of the 21st century as compared to the

  17. Towards closing the surface energy budget of a mid-latitude grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.F.G.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Observations for May and August, 2005, from a long-term grassland meteorological station situated in central Netherlands were used to evaluate the closure of the surface energy budget. We compute all possible enthalpy changes, such as the grass cover heat storage, dew water heat storage, air mass he

  18. Heat shock protein 90 has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-responsive sperm function in human sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 plays critical roles in client protein maturation, signal transduction, protein folding and degradation, and morphological evolution; however, its function in human sperm is not fully understood. Therefore, our objective in this study was to elucidate the mechanism by which heat shock protein 90 exerts its effects on human sperm function. By performing indirect immunofluorescence staining, we found that heat shock protein 90 was localized primarily in the neck, midpiece, and tail regions of human sperm, and that its expression increased with increasing incubation time under capacitation conditions. Geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90, was shown to inhibit this increase in heat shock protein 90 expression in western blotting analyses. Using a multifunctional microplate reader to examine Fluo-3 AM-loaded sperm, we observed for the first time that inhibition of heat shock protein 90 by using geldanamycin significantly decreased intracellular calcium concentrations during capacitation. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that geldanamycin enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins, including heat shock protein 90, in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of geldanamycin on human sperm function in the absence or presence of progesterone was evaluated by performing chlortetracycline staining and by using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. We found that geldanamycin alone did not affect sperm capacitation, hyperactivation, and motility, but did so in the presence of progesterone. Taken together, these data suggest that heat shock protein 90, which increases in expression in human sperm during capacitation, has roles in intracellular calcium homeostasis, protein tyrosine phosphorylation regulation, and progesterone-stimulated sperm function. In this study, we provide new insights into the roles of heat shock protein 90 in sperm function.

  19. Heat storage in the Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Sastry, J.S.

    Heat storage in the Andaman Sea in upper 20 m, where a strong halocline seems to inhibit vertical heat transport has been evaluated and discussed in relation to the other parameters of heat budget. Estimation of annual evaporation gives rise to 137...

  20. The global methane budget 2000-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Castaldi, Simona; Jackson, Robert B.; Alexe, Mihai; Arora, Vivek K.; Beerling, David J.; Bergamaschi, Peter; Blake, Donald R.; Brailsford, Gordon; Brovkin, Victor; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crevoisier, Cyril; Crill, Patrick; Covey, Kristofer; Curry, Charles; Frankenberg, Christian; Gedney, Nicola; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Ishizawa, Misa; Ito, Akihiko; Joos, Fortunat; Kim, Heon-Sook; Kleinen, Thomas; Krummel, Paul; Lamarque, Jean-François; Langenfelds, Ray; Locatelli, Robin; Machida, Toshinobu; Maksyutov, Shamil; McDonald, Kyle C.; Marshall, Julia; Melton, Joe R.; Morino, Isamu; Naik, Vaishali; O'Doherty, Simon; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Peters, Glen P.; Pison, Isabelle; Prigent, Catherine; Prinn, Ronald; Ramonet, Michel; Riley, William J.; Saito, Makoto; Santini, Monia; Schroeder, Ronny; Simpson, Isobel J.; Spahni, Renato; Steele, Paul; Takizawa, Atsushi; Thornton, Brett F.; Tian, Hanqin; Tohjima, Yasunori; Viovy, Nicolas; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; van Weele, Michiel; van der Werf, Guido R.; Weiss, Ray; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Wilton, David J.; Wiltshire, Andy; Worthy, Doug; Wunch, Debra; Xu, Xiyan; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Qiuan

    2016-12-01

    The global methane (CH4) budget is becoming an increasingly important component for managing realistic pathways to mitigate climate change. This relevance, due to a shorter atmospheric lifetime and a stronger warming potential than carbon dioxide, is challenged by the still unexplained changes of atmospheric CH4 over the past decade. Emissions and concentrations of CH4 are continuing to increase, making CH4 the second most important human-induced greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Two major difficulties in reducing uncertainties come from the large variety of diffusive CH4 sources that overlap geographically, and from the destruction of CH4 by the very short-lived hydroxyl radical (OH). To address these difficulties, we have established a consortium of multi-disciplinary scientists under the umbrella of the Global Carbon Project to synthesize and stimulate research on the methane cycle, and producing regular (˜ biennial) updates of the global methane budget. This consortium includes atmospheric physicists and chemists, biogeochemists of surface and marine emissions, and socio-economists who study anthropogenic emissions. Following Kirschke et al. (2013), we propose here the first version of a living review paper that integrates results of top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models, inventories and data-driven approaches (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry, and inventories for anthropogenic emissions, data-driven extrapolations). For the 2003-2012 decade, global methane emissions are estimated by top-down inversions at 558 Tg CH4 yr-1, range 540-568. About 60 % of global emissions are anthropogenic (range 50-65 %). Since 2010, the bottom-up global emission inventories have been closer to methane emissions in the most carbon-intensive Representative Concentrations Pathway (RCP8.5) and higher than all other RCP scenarios

  1. Absorption, by humans, of beta-carotene from fortified soybean oil added to rice: effect of heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra-de-Oliveira, J E; Fávaro, R M; Leonardo, I R; Jordão Júnior, A A; Vannucchi, H

    1998-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the absorption of beta-carotene in humans when rice is prepared with refined cooking soybean oil fortified with beta-carotene and to assess the effect of heat treatment on its bioavailability. Sixteen healthy adults subjects participated in two experimental trials. Studies were carried out during two experimental periods of 11 days with a 12-day interval between them. Beta carotene was added to the soybean cooking oil and rice was cooked with it or it was added to the rice after cooking. Experimental diets included these two kinds of rice during the first day and fasting blood samples were collected on different days. All of the test diets were low in carotenoids. Plasma carotenoids were measured by HPLC method. beta-carotene absorption was calculated through postabsorptive peak rise in plasma beta-carotene and the total area under the absorption curve was determined by the trapezoidal method for the 11-day period. Absorption of carotene from heated or unheated fortified soybean oil were similar. Peak plasma carotene rise was different in men and women, p oil used in the preparation of rice is absorbed, heated or not, and could be a practical source of provitamin A. Developing countries looking for strategies to increase vitamin A intake could use fortification of vegetable oils with synthetic beta-carotene as a simple method.

  2. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Modulates Heat Nociception in the Human Brain - An fMRI Study in Healthy Volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Becerra, Lino; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we record...... cortex. Sumatriptan injection reversed these changes. CONCLUSION: The changes in BOLD-signals in the brain after CGRP infusion suggests that systemic CGRP modulates nociceptive transmission in the trigeminal pain pathways in response to noxious heat stimuli.......BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP) provokes headache and migraine in humans. Mechanisms underlying CGRP-induced headache are not fully clarified and it is unknown to what extent CGRP modulates nociceptive processing in the brain. To elucidate this we recorded...

  3. Studying the effects of the heat stress on the various layers of human skin using damage function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijaz, Mir; Khanday, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a model to identify the effects of thermal stress on temperature distribution and damage in human dermal regions. The design and selection of the model takes into account many factors effecting the temperature distribution of skin, e.g., thermal conductance, perfusion, metabolic heat generation and thermal protective capabilities of the skin. The transient temperature distribution within the region is simulated using a two-dimensional finite element model of the Pennes’ bioheat equation. The relationship between temperature and time is integrated to view the damage caused to human skin by using Henriques’ model Henriques, F. C., Arch. Pathol. 43 (1947) 489-502]. The Henriques’ damage model is found to be more desirable for use in predicting the threshold of thermal damage. This work can be helpful in both emergency medicines as well as to plastic surgeon in deciding upon a course of action for the treatment of different burn injuries.

  4. Binding of natural and synthetic inhibitors to human heat shock protein 90 and their clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikaitė, Vilma; Matulis, Daumantas

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the recent progress in the field of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor design. Hsp90 is a heat shock protein with a molecular weight of approximately 90 kDa. Hsp90 is considered a good anticancer target because its inhibition leads to inactivation of its numerous client proteins participating in various signaling and other processes involved in cancer progression. Numerous Hsp90 inhibitors-leads currently tested in clinical trials are presented in this review. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the application of biophysical binding assays in the development of Hsp90 inhibitors. The binding of designed lead compounds to various Hsp90 constructs is measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and thermal shift assay. These assays provide a detailed energetic insight of the binding reaction, including the enthalpy, entropy, heat capacity, and the Gibbs free energy. A detailed description of the binding energetics helps to extend our knowledge of structure-activity relationships in the design of more potent inhibitors. The most active compounds are then tested for their absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, toxicity, and activity against cancer cell lines.

  5. Comparison of biological effects of modulated electro-hyperthermia and conventional heat treatment in human lymphoma U937 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andocs, G; Rehman, M U; Zhao, Q-L; Tabuchi, Y; Kanamori, M; Kondo, T

    2016-01-01

    Loco-regional hyperthermia treatment has long history in oncology. Modulated electro-hyperthermia (mEHT, trade name: oncothermia) is an emerging curative treatment method in this field due to its highly selective actions. The impedance-matched, capacitive-coupled modulated radiofrequency (RF) current is selectively focused in the malignant cell membrane of the cancer cells. Our objective is studying the cell-death process and comparing the cellular effects of conventional water-bath hyperthermia treatment to mEHT. The U937 human histiocytic lymphoma cell line was used for the experiments. In the case of conventional hyperthermia treatment, cells were immersed in a thermoregulated water bath, whereas in the case of mEHT, the cells were treated using a special RF generator (LabEHY, Oncotherm) and an applicator. The heating dynamics, the maximum temperature reached (42 °C) and the treatment duration (30 min) were exactly the same in both cases. Cell samples were analysed using different flow cytometric methods as well as microarray gene expression assay and western blot analysis was also used to reveal the molecular basis of the induced effects. Definite difference was observed in the biological response to different heat treatments. At 42 °C, only mEHT induced significant apoptotic cell death. The GeneChip analysis revealed a whole cluster of genes, which are highly up-regulated in case of only RF heating, but not in conventional heating. The Fas, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and ERK signalling pathway was the dominant factor to induce apoptotic cell death in mEHT, whereas the cell-protective mechanisms dominated in case of conventional heating. This study has clearly shown that conventional hyperthermia and RF mEHT can result in different biological responses at the same temperature. The reason for the difference is the distinct, non-homogenous energy distribution on the cell membrane, which activates cell death-related signalling pathways in m

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Heat Shock Protein 70 Genes are Positively Associated with Human Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter Gerd

    2010-01-01

    A positive relationship between stress tolerance and longevity has been observed in several model systems. That the same correlation is applicable in humans and that it may be open to experimental manipulation for extending human lifespan requires studies on association of stress genes...

  7. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics.

  8. Oral administration of γ-aminobutyric acid affects heat production in a hot environment in resting humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazawa Taiki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central administration of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA induces lower body temperature in animals in hot ambient air. However, it is still unknown whether oral GABA administration affects temperature regulation at rest in a hot environment in humans. Therefore, in the present study, we specifically hypothesized that systemic administration of GABA in humans would induce hypothermia in a hot environment and that this response would be observed in association with decreased heat production. Methods Eight male participants drank a 200-ml sports drink with 1 g of GABA (trial G or without GABA (trial C, then rested for 30 minutes in a sitting position in a hot environment (ambient air temperature 33°C, relative humidity 50%. Results We found that changes in esophageal temperature from before drinking the sports drink were lower in trial G than in trial C (-0.046 ± 0.079°C vs 0.001 ± 0.063°C; P 2 vs 47 ± 8 W/m2; P Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that a single oral administration of GABA induced a larger decrease in body core temperature compared to a control condition during rest in a hot environment and that this response was concomitant with a decrease in total heat production.

  9. Use of postmortem temperature decay response surface plots of heat transport in the human eye to predict time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jimmy L

    2014-03-01

    A finite element heat transfer model of the human eye was previously constructed and applied to experimental postmortem temperature decay curves collected in eyeballs of ten human bodies. The model was applied in the early postmortem period of 0–24 h under conditions of natural convection–radiation. Based upon this previous model, response surfaces for postmortem temperature decay were constructed based upon variable ranges of the natural convective–radiation heat transfer coefficient from 7–13 W/m2 K, ambient temperatures of 10–33°C, and times of 0–24 h. Mathematical equations to describe these response surfaces have been developed. This response surface method is demonstrated for use by coroners/medical personnel to estimate time of death from recorded field temperature data collected over a 30-min period. Sensitivity of the model to small changes in the key variable of ambient temperature is explored. The response surface model is applied to two cases of previously collected experimental eyeball temperature data. This response surface model method is only valid for constant surrounding temperatures, conditions of natural convection, no radiation effects, and postmortem times of 0–24 h.

  10. Differential translocation of heat shock factor-1 after mild and severe stress to human skin fibroblasts undergoing aging in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirovic, Dino; de Toda, Irene Martinez; Nizard, Carine; Rattan, Suresh I S

    2014-12-01

    Repeated exposure to mild heat shock (HS) has been shown to induce a wide range of health promoting hormetic effects in various biological systems, including human cells undergoing aging in vitro. In order to understand how cells distinguish between mild and severe stress, we have investigated the extent of early and immediate HS response by analyzing the nuclear translocation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), in serially passaged normal adult human facial skin fibroblasts exposed to mild (41 °C) or severe (43 °C) HS. Cells respond differently when exposed to mild and severe HS at different passage levels in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation. In early passage young cells there was a 5-fold difference between mild and severe HS in the extent of HSF1 translocation. However, in near senescent late passage cells, the difference between mild and severe stress in terms of the extent of HSF1 translocation was reduced to less than 2-fold. One of the reasons for this age-related attenuation of heat shock response is due to the fact there was a higher basal level of HSF1 in the nuclei of late passage cells, which is indicative of increased intrinsic stress during cellular aging. These observations are consistent with previously reported data that whereas repeated mild stress given at younger ages can slow down aging and increase the lifespan, the same level of stress given at older ages may not provide the same benefits. Therefore, elucidating the early and immediate steps in the induction of stress response can be useful in deciding whether a particular level of stress is potentially hormetically beneficial or not.

  11. Heat transfer and thermoregulation in the largemouth blackbass, Micropterus salmoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    An energy budget equation, based on energy budget theory for terrestrial organisms, was developed to describe the heat energy exchange between a largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and its aquatic environment. The energy budget equation indicated that convection and a combined conduction-convection process were major avenues of heat exchange for a fish. Solid aluminum castings were used to experimentally determine heat transfer coefficients for the largemouth bass at water velocities covering the free and forced convection ranges. Heat energy budget theory was applied to the casting data and the derived coefficients were used to characterize heat exchange between the bass and its aquatic habitat. The results indicate that direct transfer of heat from the body surface is the major mechanism of heat exchange for a fish.

  12. EFFECIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN BUDGET ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Tsvetochkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of motivation aspects isincreasing in the modern human resourcesmanagement system. Motivation and staffincentive are the main means of ensuring theoptimal use of the enterprise resources, mobilizing workforce capacity. The article presents the results of a study to determine the types ofemployee motivation. Recommendations aregiven for the formation of an effective personnel motivation system in budget organizations.

  13. EFFECIENCY IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION IN BUDGET ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Irina A. Tsvetochkina; Ruslan A. Baryshev

    2015-01-01

    The importance of motivation aspects isincreasing in the modern human resourcesmanagement system. Motivation and staffincentive are the main means of ensuring theoptimal use of the enterprise resources, mobilizing workforce capacity. The article presents the results of a study to determine the types ofemployee motivation. Recommendations aregiven for the formation of an effective personnel motivation system in budget organizations.

  14. Heat shock protein 70 antisense oligonucleotide inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Gang Zhao; Wen-Lu Shen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Heat shock protein (HSP)70 is over-expressed in human gastric cancer and plays an important role in the progression of this cancer. We investigated the effects of antisense HSP70 oligomer on human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, and its potential role in gene therapy for this cancer.METHODS: Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was treated in vitro with various concentrations of antisense HSP70 oligonucleotides at different intervals. Growth inhibition was determined as percentage by trypan blue dye exclusion test. Extracted DNA was electrophoresed on agarose gel, and distribution of cell cycle and kinetics of apoptosis induction were analyzed by propidium iodide DNA incorporation using flow cytometry, which was also used to detect the effects of antisense oligomer pretreatment on the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock in SGC-7901 cells. Proteins were extracted for simultaneous measurement of HSP70 expression level by SDS-PAGE Western blotting.RESULTS: The number of viable cells decreased in a doseand time-dependent manner, and ladder-like patterns of DNA fragments were observed in SGC-7901 cells treated with antisense HSP70 oligomers at a concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h, which were consistent with inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometric analysis showed a dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptotic rate by HSP70 antisense oligomers. This response was accompanied with a decrease in the percentage of cells in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, suggesting inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, flow cytometry also showed that pretreatment of SGC-7901 cells with HSP70 antisense oligomers enhanced the subsequent apoptosis induced by heat shock treatment. Western blotting demonstrated that HSP70 antisense oligomers inhibited HSP70 expression, which preceded apoptosis, and HSP70 was undetectable at the concentration of 10 μmol/L for 48 h or 8 μmol/L for 72 h.CONCLUSION: Antisense HSP70 oligomers

  15. Mathematical Simulation of Dynamic Heat Transfer in a Human Clothing-Environment System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Li-ying

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the dynamic heat transfer in the clothing microclimate under transient wear conditions. This model is solved numerically by the implicit finite difference method. If the physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the model can predict the thermoregulatory response of the body, Experimentad measurements with garments made of fibers with different levels of hygroscopicity are compared with predictions by the model. There is good agreement between prediction and experiment for the temperature of the clothing microclimate.

  16. Review on modeling heat transfer and thermoregulatory responses in human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Weng, Wenguo; Chen, Weiwang; Luo, Na

    2016-12-01

    Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders. The experimental validated methods for human subjects and manikin are compared. The coupled method is provided for the manikin, controlled by the thermal model as an active system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is also used along with the manikin or/and the thermal model, to evaluate the thermal responses of human body in various applications, such as evaluation of thermal comfort to increase the energy efficiency, prediction of tolerance limits and thermal acceptability exposed to hostile environments, indoor air quality assessment in the car and aerospace industry, and design protective equipment to improve function of the human activities.

  17. The kinetic and available potential energy budget of a winter extratropical cyclone system

    OpenAIRE

    SMITH, PHILLIP J.; DARE, PATRICIA M.

    2011-01-01

    The energy budget of an extratropical cyclone system which traversed North America and intensified through the period 9–11 January 1975 is presented. The objectives of the study are (1) to document the complete energy budget of a significant winter cyclone event, and (2) to comment on the significance of latent heat release (LHR) in the cyclone's evolution. Results reveal an overall increase in both kinetic (K) and available potential energy (A). K increases are accounted for by boundary flux...

  18. Additive effect of heat on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis via ERK/p38/MITF pathway in human epidermal melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei-Jie; Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Yuan, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wen; Ma, Li-Juan; Lei, Xiao-Bing

    2014-08-01

    Heat is known as an environmental factor that causes significant skin pigmentation, but its effects on melanogenesis have been poorly studied. It has been shown that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in ultraviolet B (UVB) and stress-induced melanogenesis in melanocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat and UVB, on melanocyte melanogenesis, differentiation, and MAPK phosphorylation. The results showed that heat (1 h at 40 °C for 5 days) increased cell dendrites, enlarged cell bodies, and induced extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)/p38/MITF activation but did not influence melanogenesis of human epidermal melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB irradiation (20 mJ/cm(2) for 5 days) induced melanogenesis and c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)/p38/MITF/tyrosinase activation in melanocytes from skin phototype III. UVB combined with heat resulted in much more significant tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis as compared with UVB alone in melanocytes from skin phototype III. Furthermore, heat treatment and UVB irradiation induced JNK, ERK, and p38 activation but not melanogenic and morphological changes in melanocytes from skin phototype I. These findings suggested that heat promoted melanocyte differentiation, probably via heat-induced ERK/p38/MITF/activation. Furthermore, heat had an additive effect on the UVB-induced tyrosinase activation and melanogenesis. These results provide a new clue for dermatologists for the treatment of hypopigmented skin disease with heat combined with UVB irradiation.

  19. Recent Changes in Earth's Energy Budget As Observed By CERES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    A central objective of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) is to produce a long-term climate data record of Earth's radiation budget at the top-of-atmosphere, within-atmosphere and surface together with coincident cloud, aerosol and surface properties. CERES relies on a number of data sources, including broadband CERES radiometers on Terra, Aqua, and Suomi-NPP, high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS and VIIRS), geostationary visible/infrared imagers, meteorological, aerosol and ozone assimilation data, and snow/sea-ice maps based on microwave radiometer data. The many input data sets are integrated and cross-calibrated to provide a consistent climate data record that accurately captures variations in Earth's radiation budget and associated cloud, aerosol and surface properties over a range of time and space scales. The CERES datasets are primarily used for climate model evaluation, process studies and climate monitoring. This presentation will review some of the ways in which the CERES record along with other datasets have been used to improve our understanding Earth's energy budget. At the top-of-atmosphere, we will show how Earth's energy imbalance, a critical indictor of climate change, has varied during the past 15 years relative to what is observed by in-situ observations of ocean heat content by the Argo observing system. We will use these results to place the so-called global warming hiatus into a larger context that takes Earth's energy budget into account. We will also discuss how recent advances in surface radiation budget estimation by the CERES group is reshaping the debate on why the surface energy budget cannot be closed to better than 15 Wm-2 using state-of-the-art observations. Finally, we will highlight the dramatic changes that have been observed by CERES over the Arctic Ocean, and discuss some of the yet unresolved observational challenges that limit our ability document change in this unique part of the planet.

  20. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-04-01

    One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of this research is testing the feasibility of measuring thermoregulation in vivo using MR methods. The calves of 13 volunteers were scanned at 3 tesla. A Proton Resonance Frequency Shift method was used for temperature measurement. Arterial Spin Labeling and phase contrast scans were used for perfusion and flow measurements respectively. The calves were monitored during extreme RF exposure (20 W/kg, 16 min) and after physical exercise. Temperature increases due to RF absorption (range of the 90th percentile of all volunteers: 1.1-2.5°C) matched with the reference skin temperature changes. Increases in perfusion and flow were defined on the whole leg and normalized to baseline. Perfusion showed a significant increase due to RF heating (ratio compared with baseline: 1.28 ± 0.37; P thermoregulation, which will become essential when new safety guidelines are based on thermal dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) in regulating human sperm-egg recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Brett; Bromfield, Elizabeth G; Dun, Matthew D; Redgrove, Kate A; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Aitken, R John

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2), as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  2. The role of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2 in regulating human sperm-egg recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Nixon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common lesions present in the spermatozoa of human infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. Although this unique cellular interaction can now be readily by-passed by assisted reproductive strategies such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, recent large-scale epidemiological studies have encouraged the cautious use of this technology and highlighted the need for further research into the mechanisms responsible for defective sperm-egg recognition. Previous work in this field has established that the sperm domains responsible for oocyte interaction are formed during spermatogenesis prior to being dynamically modified during epididymal maturation and capacitation in female reproductive tract. While the factors responsible for the regulation of these sequential maturational events are undoubtedly complex, emerging research has identified the molecular chaperone, heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2, as a key regulator of these events in human spermatozoa. HSPA2 is a testis-enriched member of the 70 kDa heat shock protein family that promotes the folding, transport, and assembly of protein complexes and has been positively correlated with in vitro fertilization (IVF success. Furthermore, reduced expression of HSPA2 from the human sperm proteome leads to an impaired capacity for cumulus matrix dispersal, sperm-egg recognition and fertilization following both IVF and ICSI. In this review, we consider the evidence supporting the role of HSPA2 in sperm function and explore the potential mechanisms by which it is depleted in the spermatozoa of infertile patients. Such information offers novel insights into the molecular mechanisms governing sperm function.

  3. EXECUTION OF BUDGET INDICATORS IN ROMANIA’S PUBLIC BUDGET; IMPROVEMENT METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONELA POPA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the aspects concerning the budget process are laid down in Law 500/2002 regarding public finance. According to this law, budget inputs and outputs as well as the specific regulations of a fiscal year are provided and authorized for a budget year by an annual budget law. As to the budgets making up the general consolidated budget, it should be mentioned that only two of them act as laws; they are the law of public budget and the law of public social insurance budget (and implicitly their amending laws. The present paper envisages the analysis of how effective the execution methods of budget indicators is in the public budget which from the perspective of revenues and expenses means the most important component of the general consolidated budget.

  4. Unforeseen costs of cutting mosquito surveillance budgets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo M Vazquez-Prokopec

    Full Text Available A budget proposal to stop the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC funding in surveillance and research for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue and West Nile virus has the potential to leave the country ill-prepared to handle new emerging diseases and manage existing ones. In order to demonstrate the consequences of such a measure, if implemented, we evaluated the impact of delayed control responses to dengue epidemics (a likely scenario emerging from the proposed CDC budget cut in an economically developed urban environment. We used a mathematical model to generate hypothetical scenarios of delayed response to a dengue introduction (a consequence of halted mosquito surveillance in the City of Cairns, Queensland, Australia. We then coupled the results of such a model with mosquito surveillance and case management costs to estimate the cumulative costs of each response scenario. Our study shows that halting mosquito surveillance can increase the management costs of epidemics by up to an order of magnitude in comparison to a strategy with sustained surveillance and early case detection. Our analysis shows that the total costs of preparedness through surveillance are far lower than the ones needed to respond to the introduction of vector-borne pathogens, even without consideration of the cost in human lives and well-being. More specifically, our findings provide a science-based justification for the re-assessment of the current proposal to slash the budget of the CDC vector-borne diseases program, and emphasize the need for improved and sustainable systems for vector-borne disease surveillance.

  5. The Era of Budget Hotels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    What began as an idea from an Internet posting is now set to sweep through China Asingle posting on the Internet gave birth to a large budget hotel brand.In 2001, the founder of ctrip.com, Ji Qi, noticed an online friend com-plaining that ctrip.com’s hotel reser-

  6. Medicare: FY2009 Budget Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-06

    Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and...9 Short-Term Power Wheelchair Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Current Law...five- year budget window. Proposals include savings achieved through reductions in many of the Medicare payment updates. The Medicare Prescription

  7. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  8. Budgeting for Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John P.; Van Egmond-Pannell, Dorothy

    1987-01-01

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia, runs a food service operation responsible for serving 100,000 student lunches at 179 school locations each day. In addition, meals are provided by contractual agreement to day care centers and private schools. The budget process is explained and illustrated with a chart. (MLF)

  9. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  10. Technology support for participatory budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...

  11. Kollektiivne vastutus ja gender budgeting

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Vestlusringi teemad: riigieelarve koostamisel ei arvestata soolist võrdõiguslikkust; gender budgeting kui üks soolise võrdõiguslikkuse jälgimise viise; vabaabielu võib osutuda naisele palju ebasoodsamaks kui mehele; kogukonna kollektiivne vastutus perevägivalla korral. Vt. samas: Aasta 2004 suurte mõtlejate auhinnad

  12. Spatial frequency domain error budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschildt, H; Krulewich, D

    1998-08-27

    The aim of this paper is to describe a methodology for designing and characterizing machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, one of our responsibilities is to design or select the appropriate machine tools to produce advanced optical and weapons systems. Recently, many of the component tolerances for these systems have been specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of residual errors on the surface. We typically use an error budget as a sensitivity analysis tool to ensure that the parts manufactured by a machine will meet the specified component tolerances. Error budgets provide the formalism whereby we account for all sources of uncertainty in a process, and sum them to arrive at a net prediction of how "precisely" a manufactured component can meet a target specification. Using the error budget, we are able to minimize risk during initial stages by ensuring that the machine will produce components that meet specifications before the machine is actually built or purchased. However, the current error budgeting procedure provides no formal mechanism for designing machines that can produce parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from the current error budgeting procedure is a single number estimating the net worst case or RMS error on the work piece. This procedure has limited ability to differentiate between low spatial frequency form errors versus high frequency surface finish errors. Therefore the current error budgeting procedure can lead us to reject a machine that is adequate or accept a machine that is inadequate. This paper will describe a new error budgeting methodology to aid in the design and characterization of machines used to manufacture or inspect parts with spatial-frequency-based specifications. The output from this new procedure is the continuous spatial frequency content of errors that result on a machined part. If the machine

  13. Heat Shock Protein–Based Therapeutic Strategies Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Brenner

    1999-01-01

    the requirement of CypA in HIV-1 replication and formation of infectious virions. Studies by our group show the upregulated expression of hsp27 and hsp70 during single-cycle HIV infections. These species redistribute to the cell surface following HIV-infection and heat stress, serving as targets for NK and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot studies show that hsp27, hsp70, and hsp78 complex with HIV-1 viral proteins intracellularly. Hsp70, hsp56, and CypA are assembled into HIV-1 virions. The ability of hsps to interact with HIV-1 viral proteins, combined with their inherent adjuvant and immunogenic properties, indicates that hsps may serve as vehicles for antigen delivery and the design of vaccines against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infect. Dis. Obstet. Gynecol. 7:80–90, 1999.

  14. A note on India’s water budget and evapotranspiration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Narasimhan

    2008-06-01

    Some recent analyses of India ’s water budget are based on information attributed to the Ministry of Water Resources.An examination of the budget components indicates that they imply an evapotranspiration estimate that is significantly lower than what one may expect based on information from other sources.If such is the case,India ’s water resources situation may be more dire than is otherwise perceived.For,higher evapotranspiration implies correspondingly reduced availability of water for human use.It should be worthwhile to investigate and reconcile the apparent discrepancy between water budget and evapotranspiration,considering the importance of water in the national context.

  15. President's Fiscal Year 2016 Budget Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — Each year, after the President's State of the Union address, the Office of Management and Budget releases the Administration's Budget, offering proposals on key...

  16. Behavior-Based Budget Management Using Predictive Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2013-03-01

    Historically, the mechanisms to perform forecasting have primarily used two common factors as a basis for future predictions: time and money. While time and money are very important aspects of determining future budgetary spend patterns, organizations represent a complex system of unique individuals with a myriad of associated behaviors and all of these behaviors have bearing on how budget is utilized. When looking to forecasted budgets, it becomes a guessing game about how budget managers will behave under a given set of conditions. This becomes relatively messy when human nature is introduced, as different managers will react very differently under similar circumstances. While one manager becomes ultra conservative during periods of financial austerity, another might be un-phased and continue to spend as they have in the past. Both might revert into a state of budgetary protectionism masking what is truly happening at a budget holder level, in order to keep as much budget and influence as possible while at the same time sacrificing the greater good of the organization. To more accurately predict future outcomes, the models should consider both time and money and other behavioral patterns that have been observed across the organization. The field of predictive analytics is poised to provide the tools and methodologies needed for organizations to do just this: capture and leverage behaviors of the past to predict the future.

  17. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  18. Chronic Heat Stress and Cognitive Development: An Example of Thermal Conditions Influencing Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riniolo, Todd C.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2006-01-01

    Although thermal conditions influence the development of living organisms in a wide variety of ways, this topic has been recently ignored in humans. This paper reintroduces thermal conditions as a topic of importance for developmentalists by presenting an example of how thermal conditions are hypothesized to influence a particular developmental…

  19. Modeling and simulation of heat distribution in human skin caused by laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Y.; Dams, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Study of light-based skin rejuvenation needs prospective insights of mechanism of laser tissue interaction. A well-built model plays a key role in predicting temperature distribution in human skin exposed to laser irradiation. Therefore, it not only provides guidance for in vitro experiment, but

  20. Modeling and simulation of heat distribution in human skin caused by laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luan, Y.; Dams, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    Study of light-based skin rejuvenation needs prospective insights of mechanism of laser tissue interaction. A well-built model plays a key role in predicting temperature distribution in human skin exposed to laser irradiation. Therefore, it not only provides guidance for in vitro experiment, but als

  1. Human heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 interferes with Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA)-mediated adhesion and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Paolo; Bozza, Giuseppe; Capecchi, Barbara; Caproni, Elena; Barrile, Riccardo; Norais, Nathalie; Capitani, Mirco; Sallese, Michele; Cecchini, Paola; Ciucchi, Laura; Gao, Zhenai; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Aricò, Beatrice; Merola, Marcello

    2012-03-01

    NadA (N eisseria meningitidisadhesin A), a meningococcal surface protein, mediates adhesion to and invasion of human cells, an activity in which host membrane proteins have been implicated. While investigating these host factors in human epithelial cells by affinity chromatography, we discovered an unanticipated interaction of NadA with heat shock protein (Hsp) 90, a molecular chaperone. The specific in vitro interaction of recombinant soluble NadA and Hsp90 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitations, dot and far-Western blot. Intriguingly, ADP, but not ATP, was required for this association, and the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG promoted complex formation. Hsp90 binding to an Escherichia coli strain used as carrier to express surface exposed NadA confirmed these results in live bacteria. We also examined RNA interference, plasmid-driven overexpression, addition of exogenous rHsp90 and 17-AAG inhibition in human epithelial cells to further elucidate the involvement of Hsp90 in NadA-mediated adhesion and invasion. Together, these data suggest an inverse correlation between the amount of host Hsp90 and the NadA adhesive/invasive phenotype. Confocal microscopy also demonstrated that meningococci interact with cellular Hsp90, a completely novel finding. Altogether our results show that variation of host Hsp90 expression or activity interferes with adhesive and invasive events driven by NadA.

  2. Budget estimates fiscal year 1995: Volume 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report contains the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) fiscal year budget justification to Congress. The budget provides estimates for salaries and expenses and for the Office of the Inspector General for fiscal year 1995. The NRC 1995 budget request is $546,497,000. This is an increase of $11,497,000 above the proposed level for FY 1994. The NRC FY 1995 budget request is 3,218 FTEs. This is a decrease of 75 FTEs below the 1994 proposed level.

  3. A Content Analysis of Defense Budget Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    President’s budget. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Defense Budget, Content Analysis, Political Discourse, Budget Rhetoric, Political Communication , Senate Armed...represent the most recent paradigm shift in political communication research (Scheufele & Tewksbury, 2007, p. 10). These three models combine to construct...this study was to fill the gap on political communication by examining whether Congress was responsive to framing by the President’s budget. To

  4. Localized or Systemic {italic In Vivo} Heat-Inactivation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A Mathematical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perelson, A.S.; Nys, N.; Nelson, G.; Sessler, D.I.

    1993-12-15

    Temperatures as low as 42 C, maintained for a little as 25 minutes, inactivate {approx}25% of HIV. Furthermore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cells are more sensitive to heat than healthy lymphocytes and susceptibility increases when the cells are pre-sensitized by exposure to tumor necrosis factor. Thus, induction of a whole-body hyperthermia, or hyperthermia specifically limited to tissues having a high viral load, are potential antiviral therapies for acquired immunodeficiency disease (AIDS). Accordingly, we incorporated therapeutic hyperthermia into an existing mathematical model which evaluates the interaction between HIV and CD4{sup +} T cells. Given the assumptions and limitations of this model, the results indicate that a daily therapy, reducing the population of actively infected cells by 40% or infectious virus by 50%, would effectively reverse the depletion of T cells. In contrast, a daily reduction of 20% of either actively infected cells or infectious virus would have a marginal effect. However, reduction by 20% of both actively infected cells and infectious virus could restore T cell numbers, assuming that permanent damage had not been inflicted on the thymus. Whole-body hyperthermia seems unlikely to be clinically useful, unless it can be induced non-invasively without general anesthesia. In contrast, heating directed specifically to areas of viral concentration may be effective and have a suitable risk/benefit ratio.

  5. Large-eddy Simulation of Heat and Water Vapor Transfer in CT-Based Human Airway Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Tawhai, Merryn; Hoffman, Eric; Lin, Ching-Long

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel imaging-based thermodynamic model to study local heat and mass transfers in the human airways. Both 3D and 1D CFD models are developed and validated. Large-eddy simulation (LES) is adopted to solve 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with Boussinesq approximation along with temperature and water vapor transport equations and energy-flux based wall boundary condition. The 1D model provides initial and boundary conditions to the 3D model. The computed tomography (CT) lung images of three healthy subjects with sinusoidal waveforms and minute ventilations of 6, 15 and 30 L/min are considered. Between 1D and 3D models and between subjects, the average temperature and water vapor distributions are similar, but their regional distributions are significantly different. In particular, unlike the 1D model, the heat and water vapor transfers in the 3D model are elevated at the bifurcations during inspiration. Moreover, the correlations of Nusselt number (Nu) and Sherwood number (Sh) with local Reynolds number and airway diameter are proposed. In conclusion, use of the subject-specific lung model is essential for accurate prediction of local thermal impacts on airway epithelium. Supported in part by NIH grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494 and S10-RR022421.

  6. Stereospecific anticancer effects of ginsenoside Rg3 epimers isolated from heat-processed American ginseng on human gastric cancer cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Hwa Park

    2014-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: HAG significantly reduced the cancer cell proliferation, and the contents of ginsenosides Rb1 and Re were markedly decreased, whereas the peaks of less-polar ginsenosides [20(S,R-Rg3, Rk1, and Rg5] were newly detected. Based on the activity-guided fractionation of HAG, ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3 played a key role in inducing apoptosis in human gastric cancer AGS cells, and it was generated mainly from ginsenoside Rb1. Ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3 induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, as well as regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that heat-processing serves as an increase in the antitumor activity of American ginseng in AGS cells, and ginsenoside 20(S-Rg3, the active component produced by heat-processing, induces the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, which contributes to the apoptotic cell death.

  7. Fluoxetine-induced regulation of heat shock protein 90 and 14-3-3ε in human embryonic carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Daeyoung; Choi, Mi Ran; Han, Dal Mu Ri; Chai, Young Gyu; Choi, Joonho

    2014-12-03

    Fluoxetine, a serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitor, exerts antidepressant and antianxiety effects on major depressive and anxiety disorders. Previous studies suggest that treatment with fluoxetine influences the expression of various proteins that are involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the neuronal cells of the brain. However, many aspects of the molecular pathways that modulate antidepressant action are not well understood. Here, with the aim of identifying proteins involved in antidepressant action, we examined the protein expression profile of human embryonic carcinoma (NCCIT) cells in response to fluoxetine treatment using proteomic techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We found several upregulated and downregulated proteins in fluoxetine-treated NCCIT cells, and then biochemically confirmed the increased expression of heat shock protein 90 and 14-3-3ε, which play an essential role in many cellular mechanisms including cell cycle control and other signaling pathways. Our data suggest that the regulated expression of heat shock protein 90, 14-3-3ε, and other identified proteins may be associated with the therapeutic action of fluoxetine.

  8. Development of a simple radiant heat induced experimental pain model for evaluation of analgesics in normal healthy human volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U.R Naidu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Human experimental pain models help to understand the mechanism of the painful conditions and can also be adopted to test analgesic efficacy of drugs. In early phases, the clinical development of new analgesics is hindered due to the lack of reliable tests for the experimental pain models. In the present study, we have developed and validated a simple radiant heat pain model which can be used for future screening of various analgesic agents. Materials and Methods : We have standardized the thermal pain model by recording pain threshold and pain tolerance time in seconds at three different intensities and levels in 24 healthy subjects. Reproducibility of the test procedure was evaluated by recording the pain parameters by two observers on three consecutive days. Validity of model was further tested by evaluating the analgesic effect of tramadol. Results and Conclusions : Use of radiant heat pain model with high intensity and short level was found to produce low variability with coefficient of variation less than 5%. Interobserver and interperiod reproducibility was very good as shown by Bland - Altman plot; with most of the values within ± 2SD. Tramadol produced statistically significant increase in pain threshold time. The newly developed pain model produces a type of experimental pain which is responsive to analgesic effects of tramadol at clinically relevant doses.

  9. Fever-range whole-body heat treatment stimulates antigen-specific T-cell responses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasunobu; Ito, Yusuke; Ostapenko, Valentina V; Sakai, Mayuko; Matsushita, Norimasa; Imai, Kenichiro; Shimizu, Koichi; Aruga, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Keishi

    2014-11-01

    Increase in body temperature has been thought to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, although its precise mechanisms are still under investigation. Here, we examined the effects of physiologically relevant thermal stress on the cytokine production from human peripheral T cells. Volunteers were heated using a whole-body hyperthermia device, the rectal temperature was maintained above 38.5 °C for more than 60 min, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained before and after the treatment. When T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies, marked increases in the production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 were observed in PBMCs prepared immediately after and 24h after the treatment. Similarly, enhanced production of IFN-γ in response to the tuberculin purified protein derivative or antigenic viral peptides was also observed immediately after and 24h after the treatment. Fluorescence photo-bleaching analyses showed heat-induced increase of membrane fluidity in T cells, which probably enables them to induce rapid and efficient cluster formation of molecules involved in antigen recognition and signal transduction for T-cell stimulation. We concluded that physiologically relevant thermal stress could efficiently modify T-cell responsiveness to various stimuli, including enhanced responses to specific antigens.

  10. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sae Tanaka; Junko Tanaka; Yoshihiro Miwa; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Toshiaki Katayama; Kazuharu Arakawa; Atsushi Toyoda; Takeo Kubo; Takekazu Kunieda

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are se...

  11. Numerical model of heat transfer in the human eye with consideration of fluid dynamics of the aqueous humour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karampatzakis, Andreas; Samaras, Theodoros, E-mail: theosama@auth.g [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-10-07

    In this work we present a new 3D numerical model for heat transfer in the human eye, which takes into account the aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber. We show that consideration of this phenomenon in the calculations alters the temperature distribution on the corneal and lens surfaces, without, however, noticeably changing their absolute values. The most notable effect is that the coolest area of the cornea moves at a point of 2 mm inferior to its geometric centre. The maximum velocity of the fluid in the anterior chamber was found to be 3.36 x 10{sup -4} m s{sup -1}. The effect of the flow on displacing the cool area of the corneal surface temperature is counterbalanced by assuming anisotropic thermal conductivity. The model was implemented in the case of an artificial intraocular lens to show the resulting temperature variations.

  12. 42 CFR 441.472 - Budget methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget methodology. 441.472 Section 441.472 Public... Self-Directed Personal Assistance Services Program § 441.472 Budget methodology. (a) The State shall set forth a budget methodology that ensures service authorization resides with the State and meets the...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9035 - Budget period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Budget period. 35.9035 Section 35.9035... ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9035 Budget period. An applicant may choose its budget period in consultation with and subject to the approval of the Regional Administrator. ...

  14. Standards of Excellence in Budget Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Denny G.; Harmer, W. Gary

    This guide describes the Meritorious Budget Awards Program recognizing excellence in school system budgeting awarded by the Association of School Business Officials. The award is designed to help school business administrators achieve a high standard of excellence in budget presentations. Chapters provide the expectations and relevant criteria…

  15. Changes in arterial blood pressure elicited by severe passive heating at rest is associated with hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Ichinose, Masashi; Honda, Yasushi; Tsuji, Bun; Watanabe, Kazuhito; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The arterial blood pressure and ventilatory responses to severe passive heating at rest varies greatly among individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the increase in ventilation seen during severe passive heating of resting humans is associated with a decrease in arterial blood pressure. Passive heating was performed on 18 healthy males using hot water immersion to the level of the iliac crest and a water-perfused suit. We then divided the subjects into two groups: MAP(NOTINC) (n = 8), whose mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) at the end of heating had increased by ≤3 mmHg, and MAP(INC) (n = 10), whose MAP increased by >3 mmHg. Increases in esophageal temperature (T (es)) elicited by the heating were similar in the two groups (+2.3 ± 0.3 vs. +2.4 ± 0.4 °C). Early during heating (increase in T (es) was ventilation ([Formula: see text]), and end-tidal CO(2) pressure ([Formula: see text]) were similar between the groups. However, during the latter part of heating (increase in T (es) was ≥1.5 °C), the increase in [Formula: see text] and decrease in [Formula: see text] were significantly greater or tended to be greater, while the increase in MAP was significantly smaller in MAP(NOTINC) than MAP(INC). Among all subjects, heating-induced changes in [Formula: see text] significantly and negatively correlated with heating-induced changes in MAP during the latter part of heating (r = -0.52 to -0.74, P passive heating can be explained by the magnitude of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation.

  16. Effects of Helicobacter pylori and Heat Shock Protein 70 on the Proliferation of Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Tao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori changed the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70. However, the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and the roles of HSP70 during the progress need further investigation. Objective. To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 on the proliferation of human gastric epithelial cells. Methods. H. pylori and a human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS were cocultured. The proliferation of AGS cells was quantitated by an MTT assay, and the expression of HSP70 in AGS cells was detected by Western blotting. HSP70 expression in AGS cells was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA to investigate the role of HSP70. The siRNA-treated AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori and cell proliferation was measured by an MTT assay. Results. The proliferation of AGS cells was accelerated by coculturing with H. pylori for 4 and 8 h, but was suppressed at 24 and 48 h. HSP70 expression was decreased in AGS cells infected by H. pylori for 48 h. The proliferation in HSP70-silenced AGS cells was inhibited after coculturing with H. pylori for 24 and 48 h compared with the control group. Conclusions. Coculture of H. pylori altered the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased HSP70 expression. HSP70 knockdown supplemented the inhibitory effect of H. pylori on proliferation of epithelial cells. These results indicate that the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells at least partially depend on the decreased expression of HSP70 induced by the bacterium.

  17. 75 FR 17923 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Recordkeeping Requirements for Microbiological Testing and... ``Recordkeeping Requirements for Microbiological Testing and Corrective Measures for Bottled Water'' has...

  18. 78 FR 39734 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget Approval; Recordkeeping Requirements for Microbiological Testing and... ``Recordkeeping Requirements for Microbiological Testing and Corrective Measures for Bottled Water'' has...

  19. Inhibiting Heat Shock Proteins Can Potentiate the Cytotoxic Effect of Cannabidiol in Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Katherine A; Dennis, Jayne L; Dalgleish, Angus G; Liu, Wai M

    2015-11-01

    Cannabinoids possess a number of characteristics that make them putative anticancer drugs, and their value as such is currently being explored in a number of clinical studies. To further understand the roles that cannabinoids may have, we performed gene expression profiling in glioma cell lines cultured with cannabidiol (CBD) and/or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and pursued targets identified by this screening. Results showed that a large number of genes belonging to the heat shock protein (HSP) super-family were up-regulated following treatment, specifically with CBD. Increases were observed both at the gene and protein levels and arose as a consequence of increased generation of ROS by CBD, and correlated with an increase in a number of HSP client proteins. Furthermore, increases impeded the cytotoxic effect of CBD; an effect that was improved by co-culture with pharmacalogical inhibitors of HSPs. Similarly, culturing glioma cells with CBD and HSP inhibitors increased radiosensitivity when compared to CBD-alone. Taken together, these data indicate that the cytotoxic effects of CBD can be diminished by HSPs that indirectly rise as a result of CBD use, and that the inclusion of HSP inhibitors in CBD treatment regimens can enhance the overall effect.

  20. Five countries pioneering accrual budgeting and accounting in central government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dees, M.; Neelissen, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    In its 2001 Budget Memorandum, the Dutch government announced that accrual budgeting and accounting would replace the current obligation-cash budgeting and accounting system in ministerial budgets and accounts in several years’ time.

  1. Stability of SARS Coronavirus in Human Specimens and Environment and Its Sensitivity to Heating and UV Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-MING DUAN; XIAO-PING DONG; SARS RESEARCH TEAM; XIN-SHENG ZHAO; RUI-FU WEN; JING-JING HUANG; GUO-HUA PI; SU-XIANG ZHANG; JUN HAN; SHENG-LI BI; LI RUAN

    2003-01-01

    The causal agent for SARS is considered as a novel coronavirus that has never been described both in human and animals previously. The stability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments was studied. Methods Using a SARS coronavirus strain CoV-P9,which was isolated from pharyngeal swab of a probable SARS case in Beijing, its stability in mimic human specimens and in mimic environment including surfaces of commonly used materials or in household conditions, as well as its resistances to temperature and UV irradiation were analyzed. A total of 106 TCID50 viruses were placed in each tested condition, and changes of the viral infectivity in samples after treatments were measured by evaluating cytopathic effect (CPE) in cell line Vero-E6 at 48 h after infectionn. Results The results showed that SARS coronavirus in the testing condition could survive in serum, 1:20 diluted sputum and feces for at least 96 h, whereas it could remain alive in urine for at least 72 h with a low level of infectivity. The survival abilities on the surfaces of eight different materials and in water were quite comparable, revealing reduction of infectivity after 72 to 96 h exposure. Viruses stayed stable at 4℃, at room temperature (20℃) and at 37℃ for at least 2 h without remarkable change in the infectious ability in cells, but were convened to be non-infectious after 90-, 60- and 30-min exposure at 56℃, at 67℃ and at 75℃, respectively. Irradiation of UV for 60 min on the virus in culture medium resulted in the destruction of viral infectivity at an undetectable level. Conclusion The survival ability of SARS coronavirus in human specimens and in environments seems to be relatively strong. Heating and UV irradiation can efficiently eliminate the viral infectivity.

  2. Capital budgeting practices in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo de Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed further light on the capital budgeting techniques used by Spanish companies. Our paper posits that the gap between theory and practice might be related to the nature of sources of value and to the efficiency of mechanisms aligning managerial and shareholder incentives, rather than to resource restrictions or model misinterpretation. We analyze data from a survey conducted in 2011, the final sample comprising 140 non-financial Spanish firms. Our findings show a behaviour pattern similar to that reported in prior research for firms in other countries. Particularly noteworthy is that payback appears to be the most widely used tool, while real options are used relatively little. Our results confirm that size and industry are related to the frequency of use of certain capital budgeting techniques. Further, we find that the relevance of growth opportunities and flexibility is an important factor explaining the use of real options.

  3. New York State budget update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The New York State Assembly proposed a 1999-2000 spending plan that rejected Governor George Pataki's sweeping cuts in funding for AIDS and other health-related programs. The proposal would add $12.4 million to AIDS services, including $10 million for community-based HIV-related services. The State Senate has not yet issued its proposed budget. The Governor is expected to be the biggest obstacle to the funding; he used his veto power extensively last year.

  4. Estimation of IT energy budget during the St. Patrick's Day storm 2015: observations, modeling and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Meng, X.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Tsurutani, B.

    2015-12-01

    We present estimates for the energy budget of the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. Empirical models and coupling functions are used as proxies for energy input due to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling. Fluxes of thermospheric nitric oxide and carbon dioxide cooling emissions are estimated in several latitude ranges. Solar wind data and the Weimer 2005 model for high-latitude electrodynamics are used to drive GITM modeling for the storm. Model estimations for energy partitioning, Joule heating, NO cooling are compared with observations and empirical proxies. We outline challenges in the estimation of the IT energy budget (Joule heating, Poynting flux, particle precipitation) during geomagnetic storms.

  5. Will the damage be done before we feel the heat? Infectious disease emergence and human response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2013-12-01

    The global political economy is facing extreme challenges against a backdrop of large-scale expansion of human and domestic animal populations and related impacts on the biosphere. Significant global socio-ecological changes have occurred in the period of a single lifetime, driven by increased technology and access to physical and biological resources through open markets and globalization. Current resource consumption rates are not sustainable and ecological tipping points are being reached and one of the indicators of these may be a changing balance between hosts and pathogens. A period of extraordinary progress in reducing infection risk and disease impact on humans and domestic animals in the 20th Century is reversing in the 21st, but not always and not everywhere. Drivers for this shift are discussed in terms of demographics, agroecology, biodiversity decline and loss of resilience in ecosystems, climate change and increasing interconnectedness between species globally. Causality of disease emergence remains highly speculative, but patterns and data are emerging to commend a precautionary approach, while reassessing our global political, social and economic systems.

  6. Innovative Concepts of Budgeting in the Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bąk

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the current concepts of budgeting with the special focus on innovative budgets. It includes the evolution of the budgeting concept starting from the traditional one which was applied in the second half of the 20th Century and assumed the budget as the main tool for the achievement of company’s goals. The next presented method is Better Budgeting. It arouse at the nineties as the resposne for the critics of the traditional method which was accused for the fixed assumptions which were no longer matching with the fast changing competitive environment. This method assumed the high level of budget preparation as he opposite to the detailed level as well as shorter planning period. The Beyond Budgeting was the most radical method and eliminated budget as the tool supporting the management; the concept has been used from the nineties until today, by more than seventy multinational companies from beyond budgeting round table. However, Beyond Budgeting was also criticised for not being applied in the industrial sector and too theoretical approach. Therefore, Ronald Gleicha from European Business School, established a working group, which icludes the scientists and managers, in order to create by mid of 2009, the new and opitimal method, which is called Modern Budgeting.

  7. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression of the heat shock protein 60 gene from the human pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izacc, S M; Gomez, F J; Jesuino, R S; Fonseca, C A; Felipe, M S; Deepe, G S; Soares, C M

    2001-10-01

    A gene encoding the heat shock protein (HSP) 60 from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) was cloned and characterized. The hsp60 gene is composed of three exons divided by two introns. Structural analysis of the promoter detected canonical sequences characteristic of regulatory regions from eukaryotic genes. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Pb hsp60 gene and the respective cloned cDNA consists of 592 residues highly homologous to other fungal HSP60 proteins. The hsp60 gene is present as a single copy in the genome, as shown by Southern blot analysis. The HSP60 protein was isolated from Pb yeast cellular extracts. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of HSP60 confirmed that the cloned hsp60 gene correlated to the predicted protein in Pb. HSP60 expression appeared to be regulated during form transition in Pb, as different levels of expression were detected in in vitro labeling of cells and northern blot analysis. The complete coding region of Pb hsp60 was fused with plasmid pGEX-4T-3 and expressed in Escherichia coli as a glutathione S-transferase-tagged recombinant protein. The protein reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised to a human recombinant HSP60. Western immunoblot experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein and the native HSP60 were recognized by sera from humans with paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM).

  8. Expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human esophageal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Guo-Zhen Liu; Ai-Li Song; Rui-Fen Chen; Hai-Yan Li; Yu Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and significance of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human esophageal carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues.METHODS: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 in 78human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues was studied by immunohistochemistry and pathology photograph analysis.RESULTS: Both esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues could express HSP70 and grp94. Of the 78 cases of esophageal carcinoma, 95.0%(72/78) showed positive HSP70, mainly stained in nuclei, while grp94 was mainly stained in cell plasma, and the positive rate was 71.8%(56/78).There was a significant difference in the expression of HSP70 and grp94 between esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). Compared with adjacent normal tissues, there was a significant difference between differential types and HSP70 expression (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: HSP70 and grp94 express differently in cell plasma and nuclei. The expression intensity of HSP70is related to the differentiation of esophageal carcinoma.

  9. Heat shock protein 47 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas and upregulated by arecoline in human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Tseng, Ling-Hsien; Li, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Chung-Hung; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2011-05-01

    Heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) is a product of CBP2 gene located at chromosome 11q13.5, a region frequently amplified in human cancers. Areca quid chewing is a major risk factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of this study was to compare HSP47 expression in normal human oral epithelium and OSCC and further to explore the potential mechanisms that may lead to induce HSP47 expression. Thirty-two OSCC specimens and ten normal oral tissue biopsy samples without areca quid chewing were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The oral epithelial cell line OC2 cells were challenged with arecoline, a major areca nut alkaloid, by using Western blot analysis. Furthermore, glutathione precursor N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398, and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A were added to find the possible regulatory mechanisms. HSP47 expression was significantly higher in OSCC specimens than normal epithelium (P0.05). The lower HSP47 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.015). Arecoline was found to elevate HSP47 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression (Parecoline-induced HSP47 expression was downregulated by NAC, PD98059, LY294002, NS398, and herbimycin A. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Skin blood flow and local temperature independently modify sweat rate during passive heat stress in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E; Low, David A; Keller, David M; Brothers, R Matthew; Shibasaki, Manabu; Crandall, Craig G

    2010-11-01

    Sweat rate (SR) is reduced in locally cooled skin, which may result from decreased temperature and/or parallel reductions in skin blood flow. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature each independently attenuate sweating. In protocols I and II, eight subjects rested supine while wearing a water-perfused suit for the control of whole body skin and internal temperatures. While 34°C water perfused the suit, four microdialysis membranes were placed in posterior forearm skin not covered by the suit to manipulate skin blood flow using vasoactive agents. Each site was instrumented for control of local temperature and measurement of local SR (capacitance hygrometry) and skin blood flow (laser-Doppler flowmetry). In protocol I, two sites received norepinephrine to reduce skin blood flow, while two sites received Ringer solution (control). All sites were maintained at 34°C. In protocol II, all sites received 28 mM sodium nitroprusside to equalize skin blood flow between sites before local cooling to 20°C (2 sites) or maintenance at 34°C (2 sites). In both protocols, individuals were then passively heated to increase core temperature ~1°C. Both decreased skin blood flow and decreased local temperature attenuated the slope of the SR to mean body temperature relationship (2.0 ± 1.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.7 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased skin blood flow, P = 0.01; 1.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.07 ± 0.05 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1) for the effect of decreased local temperature, P = 0.02). Furthermore, local cooling delayed the onset of sweating (mean body temperature of 37.5 ± 0.4 vs. 37.6 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that local cooling attenuates sweating by independent effects of decreased skin blood flow and decreased local skin temperature.

  11. Crank-Nicholson Scheme for the Estimation of Thermal Disturbance on the Peripheral Tissues of Human Body Subjected to Oscillatory Boundary Condition and Time Dependent Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M. A.; Hussain, Fida

    2015-07-01

    To predict the behaviour of thermal physiology of a finite biological tissue in severe cold climatic conditions, a mathematical model has been established based on Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation with oscillatory boundary condition and time dependent heat source term. Crank-Nicholson scheme has been employed to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem to understand the change in stable temperature profiles at the peripheral tissues of human body subjected to forced convection due to cold. Thermal stress at these regions with respect to different input parameters has been computed under extreme environmental conditions using MATLAB Software. The results have shown a relative significance and provide a reasonable outcome in terms of variable metabolic heat generation and oscillatory heat source. The oscillations of the temperature profiles from the mean temperatures were computed in relation with tissue medium and other physiological parameters.

  12. Significance of expression of heat shock protein90α in human gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-Sheng Zuo; Jie Dai; Ai-Hua Bo; Jie Fan; Xiu-Ying Xiao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the significance of hsp90α expression in human gastric cancer tissues.METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining was used in clinical specimens from 33 cases of gastric cancer and 33 cases of gastritis with rabbit anti-human hsp90α multi-clonal antibody in order to explore the relationship between the expression of hsp90α in gastric carcinoma tissue and gastritis tissue as well as in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer and lymph node metastasis.RESULTS: Hsp90α was detected in 88 % of gastric carcinoma cases and 55 % of gastritis cases. The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group (P<0.01, P=0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in gastric cancer and in mucous membrane adjacent to cancer was 88 % and 55 % respectively (P<0.01,P=0.005). The hsp90α positive rate in lymph node metastasis group and non-lymph node metastasis group was 100 % and 60 %respectively, and a significant correlation between hsp90α expression and lymph node metastasis was shown (P<0.01,P=0.005).CONCLUSION: The hsp90α expression rate in gastric cancer group was significantly higher than that in gastritis group as well as that in the group of mucous membrane adjacent to cancer. The hsp90α expression in lymphatic node metastasis group was higher than that in non-lymphatic node metastasis group. The results indicate that increased hsp90α expression has a close relationship with occurrence and lymph node metastasis of gastric cancer.

  13. Analysis and simulation of heat transfer in human tooth during the curing of orthodontic appliance and food ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Velazquez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze and simulate the heat transfer in the human tooth undergoing fixed orthodontic appliances and food intake. An in vivo representative mathematic model of a layered thermographic profile was developed during the LED curing of Gemini bracket 0.022 in slot (conventional ligating system and Transbond XT adhesive. The characterization of the layered thermic response allowed to identify if during the LED curing process, according to manufacturer's specification (light curing unit, adhesive can induce pulpar necrosis. The profile's thermographic model was the simulation basis of many conditions such as food intake, due to in vivo metrology is affected by the impossibility of a correct apparatus position and the physiologic function of the oral cavity which is exposed to uncontrollable temperature changes. The metrology was carried out with a T-440 thermographic camera during LED curing bracket, using a LED curing light (Elipar S10 placed at 3 ± 1 mm for 5 s at each mesial and distal surface. The thermography outcomes were analyzed in the FLIR Tools Software, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS 22. To adjust the mathematic model error, in vitro studies were performed on third molars for the purpose of realizing extreme exposition temperature condition tests caused by the LED curing unit without jeopardizing the human tooth vitality as would it be on in vivo experimentation. The bracket curing results according to manufacturer's conditions reached 39°C in vivo temperatures and 47°C on in vitro tests, which does not jeopardize human tooth vitality as said by previous researches, although, an LED curing precise protocol established by the manufacturer's LED curing light is sustained.

  14. Tumor-derived heat shock protein 70 peptide complexes are cross-presented by human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noessner, Elfriede; Gastpar, Robert; Milani, Valeria; Brandl, Anna; Hutzler, Peter J S; Kuppner, Maria C; Roos, Miriam; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Asea, Alexzander; Calderwood, Stuart K; Issels, Rolf D

    2002-11-15

    Our study demonstrates that tumor-derived heat shock protein (HSP)70 chaperones a tyrosinase peptide and mediates its transfer to human immature dendritic cells (DCs) by receptor-dependent uptake. Human tumor-derived HSP70 peptide complexes (HSP70-PC) thus have the immunogenic potential to instruct DCs to cross-present endogenously expressed, nonmutated, and tumor antigenic peptides that are shared among tumors of the melanocytic lineage for T cell recognition. T cell stimulation by HSP70-instructed DCs is dependent on the Ag bound to HSP70 in that only DCs incubated with HSP70-PC purified from tyrosinase-positive (HSP70-PC/tyr(+)) but not from tyrosinase-negative (HSP70-PC/tyr(-)) melanoma cells resulted in the specific activation of the HLA-A*0201-restricted tyrosinase peptide-specific cytotoxic T cell clone. HSP70-PC-mediated T cell stimulation is very efficient, delivering the tyrosinase peptide at concentrations as low as 30 ng/ml of HSP70-PC for T cell recognition. Receptor-dependent binding of HSP70-PC and active cell metabolism are prerequisites for MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation and T cell stimulation. T cell stimulation does not require external DC maturation signals (e.g., exogenously added TNF-alpha), suggesting that signaling DC maturation is an intrinsic property of the HSP70-PC itself and related to receptor-mediated binding. The cross-presentation of a shared human tumor Ag together with the exquisite efficacy are important new aspects for HSP70-based immunotherapy in clinical anti-cancer vaccination strategies, and suggest a potential extension of HSP70-based vaccination protocols from a patient-individual treatment modality to its use in an allogeneic setting.

  15. Energy Budget on Various Land Use Areas Using Reanalysis Data in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Han Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy budget is closely related to the hydrological cycle through evapotranspiration (ET or latent heat. Hence, quantifying the energy budget on different land uses is critical for understanding the water budget and providing useful land use information for decision makers. However, traditional methods, including in situ measurements and model-only approaches, have deficiencies in data availability, and we have still not yet fully realized how well the energy budgets presented in reanalysis data sets. Therefore, in this study, North American regional reanalysis (NARR data set from 1992 to 2002 were employed to investigate the energy budget on various land uses (lake, wetland, agriculture, forest, and urban at a regional scale in Florida. The results showed that the lake and urban areas had high values of energy budget, evaporation, and low Bowen ratio, while the wetland areas have the opposite treads because of the lowest evaporation rate. During drought periods, Bowen ratio, surface temperature, and sensible heat were becoming higher than those of normal years conditions. Finally, by comparing with the observed data, we found NARR had better assimilation of precipitation observations and demonstrated the land use effects from the different coefficient of correlation relationships.

  16. Neural and non-neural control of skin blood flow during isometric handgrip exercise in the heat stressed human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibasaki, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    During heat stress, isometric handgrip (IHG) exercise causes cutaneous vasoconstriction, but it remains controversial whether neural mechanisms are responsible for this observation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cutaneous vasoconstriction during IHG exercise in heat ...

  17. Analysis of human factors on urban heat island and simulation of urban thermal environment in Lanzhou city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinghu

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) effect is a global phenomenon caused by urbanization. Because of the number and complexity of factors contributing to the urban thermal environment, traditional statistical methods are insufficient for acquiring data and analyzing the impact of human activities on the thermal environment, especially for identifying which factors are dominant. The UHI elements were extracted using thermal infrared remote sensing data to retrieve the land surface temperatures of Lanzhou city, and then adopting an object-oriented fractal net evolution approach to create an image segmentation of the land surface temperature (LST). The effects of urban expansion on the urban thermal environment were quantitatively analyzed. A comprehensive evaluation system of the urban thermal environment was constructed, the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou was assessed, and principal influencing factors were identified using spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) and multisource spatial data. We found that in the last 20 years, the UHI effect in Lanzhou city has been strengthened, as the UHI ratio index has increased from 0.385 in 1993 to 0.579 in 2001 and to 0.653 in 2011. The UHI expansion had a spatiotemporal consistency with the urban expansion. The four major factors that affect the spatial pattern of the urban thermal environment in Lanzhou can be ranked in the following order: landscape configuration, anthropogenic heat release, urban construction, and gradient from man-made to natural land cover. These four together accounted for 91.27% of the variance. A linear model was thus successfully constructed, implying that SPCA is helpful in identifying major contributors to UHI. Regression analysis indicated that the instantaneous LST and the simulated thermal environment have a good linear relationship, the correlation coefficient between the two reached 0.8011, highly significant at a confidence level of 0.001.

  18. 经济型酒店人力资源管理的现状及对策研究--以如家酒店集团为例%Present Situation and Countermeasure of Budget Hotel Human Resources Management:Take Home Inn Hotel Group as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵善荣

    2016-01-01

    经济型酒店,顾名思义是价格低廉、环境舒适、性价比高的现代酒店,价格和服务是其重要特色,而服务质量的保证主要来自于对从业人员的管理。正如管理大师彼得·德鲁克所言,人力不是成本,是企业最重要的资源,如何做好人力资源管理,已经成为增强经济型酒店竞争力的核心。然而,作为酒店发展的核心,人力资源管理却因种种原因,成为了影响我国经济型酒店健康发展的瓶颈。本文以如家酒店集团为例,从经济型酒店人力资源管理方面存在的问题出发,对典型事例进行分析,探索解决这些问题的方法。%Budget hotel, just as its name implies is cheap, comfortable and cost-effective. Price and service are the important characteristic, and guarantee the quality of service is mainly from the management of the practitioners. As management guru Peter Drucker says, the human is not the cost, but is the most important resource of an enterprise, so how to do a good job in human resources management has become a core to increase the competitiveness of budget hotel. However, as the core of hotel development, human resources management has become the bottleneck affecting the healthy development of budget hotel in China because of various reasons. Taking Home Inns hotel group as an example, from the problems of budget hotel human resources management, this paper analyzes the typical cases, and explored the ways to solve these problems.

  19. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts o

  20. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts o

  1. ANthropogenic heat FLUX estimation from Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmong, C.S.B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Del Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mi, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2017-01-01

    The H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impac

  2. Combined effect of heat stress, dehydration and exercise on neuromuscular function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftaiti, F; Grélot, L; Coudreuse, J M; Nicol, C

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the combined effect of exercise induced hyperthermia and dehydration on neuromuscular function in human subjects. Six trained male runners ran for 40 min on a treadmill at 65% of their maximal aerobic velocity while wearing a tracksuit covered with an impermeable jacket and pants to impair the evaporation of sweat. These stressful experimental running conditions led the runners to a physiological status close to exhaustion. On average, the 40 min run ended at a heart rate of 196 (SD 8) beats.min-1, a tympanic temperature of 40 (SD 0.3) degrees C and with a loss of body mass of 2 (SD 0.5)%. Pre- and post-running strength tests included measurements of maximal knee extension and flexion torques in both isometric and isokinetic (at 60 and 240 degrees.s-1) conditions. A 20 s endurance test at 240 degrees.s-1 was also performed. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from six knee extensor and flexor muscles during the entire protocol. The treadmill run led to clear decrements in maximal extension torque and EMG activity both in isometric and at the slowest isokinetic velocity (60 degrees.s-1). However, no differences in these parameters were observed at 240 degrees.s-1. Furthermore, the EMG patterns of the major knee extensor and flexor muscles remained remarkably stable during the treadmill run. These results demonstrate that the exercise-induced hyperthermia and dehydration in the present experiments had only minor effects on the neuromuscular performance. However, it is also suggested that high internal body temperature per se could limit the production of high force levels.

  3. The effect of motivation profile and participative budgeting on budget goal commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    2009-01-01

    The effect of participative budgeting on motivation is often considered in management accounting research. In this study we focus on dispositional factors of motivation rooted in personality that affect budgeting. Especially we focus on the effect of personality traits in the form of achievement......, power and affiliation motives on budget goal commitment in interaction with participative budgeting. The study is based on a survey among bank managers at different organizational levels of a Scandinavian regional bank and the results indicate that the effect of participative budgeting on budget goal...

  4. Budget estimates. Fiscal year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Congress has determined that the safe use of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes is a legitimate and important national goal. It has entrusted the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with the primary Federal responsibility for achieving that goal. The NRC`s mission, therefore, is to regulate the Nation`s civilian use of byproduct, source, and special nuclear materials to ensure adequate protection of public health and safety, to promote the common defense and security, and to protect the environment. The NRC`s FY 1998 budget requests new budget authority of $481,300,000 to be funded by two appropriations - one is the NRC`s Salaraies and Expenses appropriation for $476,500,000, and the other is NRC`s Office of Inspector General appropriation for $4,800,000. Of the funds appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses, $17,000,000, shall be derived from the Nuclear Waste Fund and $2,000,000 shall be derived from general funds. The proposed FY 1998 appropriation legislation would also exempt the $2,000,000 for regulatory reviews and other assistance provided to the Department of Energy from the requirement that the NRC collect 100 percent of its budget from fees. The sums appropriated to the NRC`s Salaries and Expenses and NRC`s Office of Inspector General shall be reduced by the amount of revenues received during FY 1998 from licensing fees, inspection services, and other services and collections, so as to result in a final FY 1998 appropriation for the NRC of an estimated $19,000,000 - the amount appropriated from the Nuclear Waste Fund and from general funds. Revenues derived from enforcement actions shall be deposited to miscellaneous receipts of the Treasury.

  5. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies being synthesised in RECCAP. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: Net Primary Production (NPP; Net Ecosystem Production (NEP; fire; Land Use Change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial.

    The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 29 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 31 ± 5 Tg C yr−1 and 18 ± 7 Tg C yr−1 respectively. The resultant Net Biome Production (NBP of 31 ± 35 Tg C yr−1 offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 Tg C yr−1 by 32 ± 36%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  6. Network interdiction with budget constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhi, Nankakishore [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Several scenarios exist in the modern interconnected world which call for efficient network interdiction algorithms. Applications are varied, including computer network security, prevention of spreading of Internet worms, policing international smuggling networks, controlling spread of diseases and optimizing the operation of large public energy grids. In this paper we consider some natural network optimization questions related to the budget constrained interdiction problem over general graphs. Many of these questions turn out to be computationally hard to tackle. We present a particularly interesting practical form of the interdiction question which we show to be computationally tractable. A polynomial time algorithm is then presented for this problem.

  7. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Pendall, Elise; Frank, John; Kelly, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (D endroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous disturbance spreads across the landscape. Water cycling may dramatically change due to increasing spatial heterogeneity from uneven mortality. Water and energy storage within trees and soils may also decrease, due to hydraulic failure and mortality caused by blue stain fungi followed by shifts in the water budget. This forest disturbance was unique in comparison to fire or timber harvesting because water fluxes were altered before significant structural change occurred to the canopy. We investigated the impacts of bark beetles on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand and ecosystem level hydrologic processes and the resulting vertical and horizontal spatial variability in energy storage. Bark beetle-impacted stands had on average 57 % higher soil moisture, 1.5 °C higher soil temperature, and 0.8 °C higher tree bole temperature over four growing seasons compared to unimpacted stands. Seasonal latent heat flux was highly correlated with soil moisture. Thus, high mortality levels led to an increase in ecosystem level Bowen ratio as sensible heat fluxes increased yearly and latent heat fluxes varied with soil moisture levels. Decline in canopy biomass (leaf, stem, and branch) was not seen, but ground-to-atmosphere longwave radiation flux increased, as the ground surface was a larger component of the longwave radiation. Variability in soil, latent, and sensible heat flux and radiation measurements increased during the disturbance. Accounting for stand level variability in water and energy fluxes will provide a method to quantify potential drivers of ecosystem processes and services as well as lead to greater

  8. 高温热浪对人类健康影响的研究进展%Resarch Progress of Influence of High Temperature and Heat Wave on Human Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏珍; 郑山; 王式功; 尚可政

    2012-01-01

    由于全球气候变暖和城市热岛效应的影响,热浪已成为世界范围内夏季频繁发生的极端天气灾害事件,加之其对人类健康的显著影响,因此受到越来越多的组织和机构的关注.本研究综述了高温热浪对人类健康影响的时间、地点、人群等流行病学分布特征,同时概述了其对心血管系统、呼吸系统、传染病等造成的影响及其预防控制措施,为更好地应对高温热浪提供了科学依据.%The heat wave has become an extreme weather disaster event frequently happened in summer all over the world due to global climate warming and urban heat island effect,and it has a notable impact on human health, so more and more organizations and institutions are concerned for it. In this paper, the epidemiological distribution characteristics of the heat wave effect on human health and the adverse effect of heat wave on the system of cardiovascular and respiratory and some infectious disease were introduced and some suggestions to decrease the impact of the heat wave were also listed.

  9. Potential impacts of human water management on the European heat wave 2003 using fully integrated bedrock-to-atmosphere simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Jessica; Sulis, Mauro; Kollet, Stefan; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that anthropogenic impacts on the terrestrial water cycle lead to a redistribution of water resources in space and time, can trigger land-atmosphere feedbacks, such as the soil moisture-precipitation feedback, and potentially enhance convection and precipitation. Yet, these studies do not consider the full hydrologic cycle from the bedrock to the atmosphere or apply simplified hydrologic models, neglecting the connection of irrigation to water withdrawal and groundwater depletion. Thus, there is a need to incorporate water resource management in 3D hydrologic models coupled to earth system models. This study addresses the impact of water resource management, i.e. irrigation and groundwater abstraction, on land-atmosphere feedbacks through the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in a physics-based soil-vegetation-atmosphere system simulating 3D groundwater dynamics at the continental scale. The integrated Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform, TerrSysMP, consisting of the three-dimensional subsurface and overland flow model ParFlow, the Community Land Model CLM3.5 and the numerical weather prediction model COSMO of the German Weather Service, is set up over the European CORDEX domain in 0.11° resolution. The model closes the terrestrial water and energy cycles from aquifers into the atmosphere. Anthropogenic impacts are considered by applying actual daily estimates of irrigation and groundwater abstraction from Wada et al. (2012, 2016), as a source at the land surface and explicit removal of groundwater from aquifer storage, respectively. Simulations of the fully coupled system are performed over the 2003 European heat wave and compared to a reference simulation, which does not consider human interactions in the terrestrial water cycle. We study the space and time characteristics and evolution of temperature extremes, and soil moisture and precipitation anomalies influenced by human water management during the heat wave. A first set of simulations

  10. Micrometeorological data for energy-budget studies near Rogers Spring, Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W.D.; Rapp, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    The data were collected at two sites near Rogers Spring for use in energy-budget studies beginning in 1994. The data collected at each site included net radiation, air temperature at two heights, dew- point temperature at two heights, windspeed at two heights, soil heat flux, and soil temperature in the interval between the land surface and the buried heat-flux plates.

  11. Heat Shock Factor-1 and Nuclear Factor-kappaB Are Systemically Activated in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A O’Reilly

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Context :Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB is a transcription factor for a wide range of proinflammatory mediators while heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1 transcribes stress proteins that protect against cellular damage. Both are attractive therapeutic targets, undergoing investigation in other acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Objective :To evaluate the role of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and HSF-1 in human acute pancreatitis and their relationship to cytokine/chemokine production, disease severity and outcome. Patients :Twenty-four patients with acute pancreatitis and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. NF-kappaB and HSF-1 were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor II and interleukin-8 were measured by ELISA. Acute physiology scores (APS, APACHE II scores and final Atlanta designations of severity were also determined. Results: Systemic NF-kappaB activation occurs in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls (P=0.004. However, there was no significant difference between those with mild and severe disease (P=0.685. Systemic activation of HSF-1 was observed in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.053. Activation, however, was greatest in those who had a final Atlanta designation of mild pancreatitis compared to those who had a severe attack of acute pancreatitis (P=0.036. Furthermore, HSF-1 was inversely correlated with acute physiology score (APS; r=-0.49, P=0.019 and APACHE II score (r=-0.47, P=0.026. Conclusions: Both NF-kappaB and HSF-1 are systemically activated in human acute pancreatitis. HSF-1 activation may protect against severity of pancreatitis

  12. Human-derived physiological heat shock protein 27 complex protects brain after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Teramoto

    Full Text Available Although challenging, neuroprotective therapies for ischemic stroke remain an interesting strategy for countering ischemic injury and suppressing brain tissue damage. Among potential neuroprotective molecules, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27 is a strong cell death suppressor. To assess the neuroprotective effects of HSP27 in a mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we purified a "physiological" HSP27 (hHSP27 from normal human lymphocytes. hHSP27 differed from recombinant HSP27 in that it formed dimeric, tetrameric, and multimeric complexes, was phosphorylated, and contained small amounts of αβ-crystallin and HSP20. Mice received intravenous injections of hHSP27 following focal cerebral ischemia. Infarct volume, neurological deficit scores, physiological parameters, and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated 24 h after reperfusion. Intravenous injections of hHSP27 1 h after reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size and improved neurological deficits. Injected hHSP27 was localized in neurons on the ischemic side of the brain. hHSP27 suppressed neuronal cell death resulting from cytochrome c-mediated caspase activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory responses. Recombinant HSP27 (rHSP27, which was artificially expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and dephosphorylated hHSP27 did not have brain protective effects, suggesting that the phosphorylation of hHSP27 may be important for neuroprotection after ischemic insults. The present study suggests that hHSP27 with posttranslational modifications provided neuroprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury and that the protection was mediated through the inhibition of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Intravenously injected human HSP27 should be explored for the treatment of acute ischemic strokes.

  13. Correlation between clinicopathology and expression of heat shock protein 70 and glucose-regulated protein 94 in human colonic adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Fan-Rong Qiu; Guo-Zhen Liu; Rui-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between dinicopathology and expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and glucose-regulated protein 94 (grp94) in human colonic carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 was studied in 80 human colonic cancers with or without metastasis as well as in their adjacent mucous membrane by way of immunohistochemistry and pathology photograph analysis.RESULTS: The expression of HSP70 and grp94 was significantly higher in cancer than that in adjacent mucous membrane (92.5%, 85.0% vs 56.3%, 42.5%, P<0.01).HSP70 and grp94 expressed higher in moderately- and poorly-differentiated colonic cancers than that in their adjacent tissues (93.7%, 87.5%; 100%, 90% vs 56.3%,42.5%; P<0.01). Dukes C and D stages of colonic cancers showed higher positive rates than Dukes A and B stage groups (97.1%, 91.2%; 100%, 90.9%; vs 80%, 70%;78.6%, 71.4%; P<0.05). There were definite differences in HSP70 and grp94 expression between metastasis groups and non-metastasis groups (100% vs75%, 100%vs 50%, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The HSP70 and grp94 expression rates in colonic cancer groups are significantly higher than that in their adjacent mucous membrane. The HSP70 and grp94expression in poorly-differentiated colonic cancers with metastasis is significantly higher than well-differentiated cancers without metastasis. The overexpression of HSP70and grp94 can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for colonic cancer.

  14. Combination of two oxidant stressors suppresses the oxidative stress and enhances the heat shock protein 27 response in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brerro-Saby, Christelle; Delliaux, Stephane; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Boussuges, Alain; Gole, Yoann; Jammes, Yves

    2010-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the combination of 2 oxidant stressors (hyperoxia and fatiguing exercise) might reduce or suppress the oxidative stress. We concomitantly measured the plasma concentration of heat shock proteins (Hsp) that protect the cells against the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. Healthy humans breathed pure oxygen under normobaric condition for 50-minute periods during which they stayed at rest or executed maximal static handgrip sustained until exhaustion. They also repeated handgrip bouts in normoxic condition. We performed venous blood measurements of 2 markers of the oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reduced ascorbic acid) and Hsp27. Under normoxic condition, the handgrip elicited an oxidative stress and a modest increase in plasma Hsp27 level (+7.1 +/- 5.4 ng/mL). Under hyperoxic condition, (1) at rest, compared with the same time schedule in normoxic condition, we measured an oxidative stress (increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased reduced ascorbic acid levels) and the plasma Hsp27 level increased (maximal variation, +12.5 +/- 6.0 ng/mL); and (2) after the handgrip, the oxidative stress rapidly disappeared. The combination of both hyperoxia and handgrip bout doubled the Hsp27 response (maximal variation, +24.8 +/- 9.2 ng/mL). Thus, the combination of 2 hits eliciting an oxidative stress seems to induce an adaptive Hsp27 response that might counterbalance an excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Program Direction FY 2017 Budget At-A-Glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Program Direction enables EERE to maintain and support a world-class federal workforce to accomplish its mission of creating and sustaining American leadership in the sustainable transportation, renewable power, and energy efficiency sectors. The FY 2017 Program Direction budget request provides resources for program and project management, administrative support, contract administration, human capital management, headquarters and field site non-laboratory facilities and infrastructure, and contractor support.

  16. Water Budget, 1983-1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, Mark (Bonneville Power Administration, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1986-10-01

    This report encompasses the first three years (1983, 1984, and 1985) of operation. It includes: (1) background and history of the development of the Water Budget concept including a discussion of Water Budget manager positions; (2) implementation of the Water Budget since its formulation by the Council in 1983; (3) a discussion of the research and monitoring funded by BPA; and (4) a discussion of Section 304 of the Council's Program.

  17. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Nichols Act reforms (1986) were intended to rectify this situation. Then, with the drawdown after the fall of the Soviet Union, budget offices were...significant constraint as a variable in analyses of the effectiveness and suitability of systems. CAIV is intended to reduce acquisition costs. After ...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns

  18. Budgeting for a district VISION 2020 programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lewallen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Core concepts of a strong VISION 2020 programme Many eye care professionals view the prospect of budgeting with about as much pleasure as a visit to the dentist! Nevertheless, if VISION 2020 is going to succeed, programme managers will have to acquire some basic skills in budgeting. First, it is useful to identify some of the core concepts of a strong, practical VISION 2020 programme to be considered when preparing a budget.

  19. Low Budget,Big Box Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese filmmakers are refining the art of turning a profit from small budget films ORGANIZERS of China’s upcoming film festivals are finally giving recognition to the little guys,to encourage a generation of young,talented directors producing low budget films. Several nominees were announced on September 10 to compete for the Small and Medium-Budget Film Prize at the annual Golden Rooster and Hundred Flowers Film Festival,later in the year.

  20. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  1. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affected Political Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolution of debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after the introduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (including the provincial capitals during the period 1995–2009. Our results show that the Budgetary Stability Law has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated the incumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims. Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoral cycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before the implementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the election year.

  2. The Nitrogen Budget of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We comprehensively compile and review N content in geologic materials to calculate a new N budget for Earth. Using analyses of rocks and minerals in conjunction with N-Ar geochemistry demonstrates that the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) contains \\sim7\\pm4 times present atmospheric N (4\\times10^18 kg N, PAN), with 27\\pm16\\times10^18 kg N. Comparison to chondritic composition, after subtracting N sequestered into the core, yields a consistent result, with BSE N between 17\\pm13\\times10^18 kg to 31\\pm24\\times10^18 kg N. In the chondritic comparison we calculate a N mass in Earth's core (180\\pm110 to 300\\pm180\\times10^18 kg) and discuss the Moon as a proxy for the early mantle. Significantly, we find the majority of the planetary budget of N is in the solid Earth. The N estimate herein precludes the need for a "missing N" reservoir. Nitrogen-Ar systematics in mantle rocks and basalts identify two mantle reservoirs: MORB-source like (MSL) and high-N. High-N mantle is composed of young, N-rich material subducted from the...

  3. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT OF SECURITY BUDGET OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Onishchenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The institutional framework from positions of different conceptual approaches was examined in the article. The attention was paid the problems of institutional support budget security in Ukraine. The institutionalization of budgetary relations and especially the formation system of institutional support was investigated. The author's approach to the nature of institutional support budget security was suggested. Institutional and legal, institutional and organizational, and staffing budget security were characterized. It is concluded that the process of institutional development budget security characterized by unacceptable levels of institutional strain.

  4. OMB Recommended vs Approved Operating Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes the Fiscal Year 2015 County Executive Recommended and County Council Approved operating budgets for Montgomery County, for comparison purposes....

  5. Linking hemispheric radiation budgets, ITCZ shifts, and monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, D.; Donohoe, A.; Marshall, J.; Ferreira, D.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the relationship between the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), hemispheric heat budgets, and monsoon strength in past climates. Modern seasonal and interannual variability in the globally-averaged position of the ITCZ (as estimated by the tropical precipitation centroid) reflects the interhemispheric heat balance, with the ITCZ's displacement toward the warmer hemisphere directly proportional to atmospheric heat transport into the cooler hemisphere. Model simulations suggest that ITCZ shifts are likely to have obeyed the same relationship with interhemispheric heat transport in response to past changes in orbital parameters, ice sheets, and ocean circulation. This relationship implies that even small (±1 degree) shifts in the mean (annually and zonally averaged) ITCZ require large changes in hemispheric heat budgets, placing tight bounds on mean ITCZ shifts in past climates. To test this energetic argument, we use the observed relationship between mean ITCZ position and tropical sea surface temperature (SST) gradients in combination with proxy-based estimates of past SST gradients to show that mean ITCZ shifts for the mid-Holocene, Heinrich Stadial 1 and Last Glacial Maximum are not likely to have been more than 1 degree latitude from its present mean position. In exploring these results, we provide brief descriptions of the estimated radiation budgets of past climates that help demonstrate how different climate forcings change the interhemispheric heat balance and thus the ITCZ's global-mean position. We also address the seeming inconsistency between the small ITCZ shifts indicated by energetic constraints and the large changes in monsoon rainfall suggested by proxy data. We compare global-average and regional-scale tropical precipitation in observations and explore their responses to a variety of forcings (orbital changes, ice sheets, hosing) in models. These comparisons make clear that monsoon precipitation can change substantially even in the

  6. Regulations of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe watershed, China, and its implications to water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.

    2015-12-01

    In the arid area, such as the Heihe watershed in Northwest China, agriculture is heavily dependent on the irrigation. Irrigation suggests human-induced hydro process, which modifies the local climate and water budget. In this study, we simulated the irrigation-induced changes in surface energy/moisture budgets and modifications on regional climate, using the WRF-NoahMP modle with an irrigation scheme. The irrigation scheme was implemented following the roles that soil moisture is assigned a saturated value once the mean soil moisture of all root layers is lower than 70% of fileld capacity. Across the growth season refering from May to September, the simulated mean irrigation amount of the 1181 cropland gridcells is ~900 mm, wihch is close to the field measurments of around 1000 mm. Such an irrigation largely modified the surface energy budget. Due to irrigation, the surface net solar radiation increased by ~76.7 MJ (~11 Wm-2) accouting for ~2.3%, surface latent and senbile heat flux increased by 97.7 Wm-2 and decreased by ~79.7 Wm-2 respectively; and local daily mean surface air temperature was thereby cooling by ~1.1°C. Corresponding to the surface energy changes, wind and circulation were also modified and regional water budget is therefore regulated. The total rainfall in the irrigation area increased due to more moisture from surface. However, the increased rainfall is only ~6.5mm (accounting for ~5% of background rainfall) which is much less than the increased evaporation of ~521.5mm from surface. The ~515mm of water accounting for 57% of total irrigation was transported outward by wind. The other ~385 mm accounting for 43% of total irrigation was transformed to be runoff and soil water. These results suggest that in the Heihe watershed irrigation largely modify local energy budget and cooling surface. This study also implicate that the existing irrigation may waste a large number of water. It is thereby valuable to develope effective irrigation scheme to

  7. The Net Energy Budget at the Surface Interface of the "Cold Tongue" Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Pinker, Rachel; Zhang, Banglin; Ma, Yingtao

    2016-04-01

    The southern tropical Pacific region also known as the "cold tongue" region is of great interest in terms of understanding the atmosphere-ocean coupling, and the observed strong seasonal cycle in sea surface temperature. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of air-sea interaction through the analysis of the net heat budget over the "cold tongue" region. Such analysis requires high quality heat budget estimates which are impacted by the complex and extensive low-level stratocumulus clouds in this region. The accuracy at which current satellite and numerical model methods can estimate this net heat budget is of interest. In this paper, the heat budget at the ocean-atmosphere interface in a region bound by 0o S - 30o S, 110o W - 70o W has been derived using satellite observations and compared to in situ measurements and to predictions from numerical models. The approach is based on multi-satellite sensors, buoy observations and numerical analyses. The fluxes are generated at daily and monthly time scales for a 10 year period (2002-2012) at a nominal 10 resolution (some parameters are available at higher resolution). Once the metrics on the accuracy of the satellite estimates are known, they can serve as "ground truth" for evaluating numerical models.

  8. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning Execution Budgeting Programming Planning After Solis 2004, 28 However, the story that these diagrams...budget be separated from the overall defense budget. This separation: would help prevent the kind of financial whiplash that causes cost overruns...notes that after nearly twenty years of reform since the Packard Commission Report and Goldwater-Nichols, “major weapons systems still cost too much

  9. Budget preparation, execution and methods at the major claimant/budget submitting office level

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, James E.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes the current Planning, Programming, and Budgeting System (PPBS) process at a Navy Major Claimant/Budget Submitting Office (BSO) by examining the overall navy process and the processes employed at a major claimant/BSO, COMPACFLT (CPF). The thesis begins by describing the scope of the Planning, Programming, and Budgeting requirements at CPF by describing its Area of Responsibility (AOR) and the major sub-claimants who rely on CPF for program and budget submissions and subse...

  10. Human psychophysics and rodent spinal neurones exhibit peripheral and central mechanisms of inflammatory pain in the UVB and UVB heat rekindling models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Jessica; Sikandar, Shafaq; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Translational research is key to bridging the gaps between preclinical findings and the patients, and a translational model of inflammatory pain will ideally induce both peripheral and central sensitisation, more effectively mimicking clinical pathophysiology in some chronic inflammatory conditions. We conducted a parallel investigation of two models of inflammatory pain, using ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation alone and UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. We used rodent electrophysiology and human quantitative sensory testing to characterise nociceptive processing in the peripheral and central nervous systems in both models. In both species, UVB irradiation produces peripheral sensitisation measured as augmented evoked activity of rat dorsal horn neurones and increased perceptual responses of human subjects to mechanical and thermal stimuli. In both species, UVB with heat rekindling produces central sensitisation. UVB irradiation alone and UVB with heat rekindling are translational models of inflammation that produce peripheral and central sensitisation, respectively. The predictive value of laboratory models for human pain processing is crucial for improving translational research. The discrepancy between peripheral and central mechanisms of pain is an important consideration for drug targets, and here we describe two models of inflammatory pain that involve ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which can employ peripheral and central sensitisation to produce mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats and humans. We use electrophysiology in rats to measure the mechanically- and thermally-evoked activity of rat spinal neurones and quantitative sensory testing to assess human psychophysical responses to mechanical and thermal stimulation in a model of UVB irradiation and in a model of UVB irradiation with heat rekindling. Our results demonstrate peripheral sensitisation in both species driven by UVB irradiation, with a clear mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity of

  11. An Analysis of the Role of the Budget Committees in the Congressional Budget Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Quarterly, 10 Jan. 1987, pp. 44-50. 17. Ibid., p. 44 67 18. Stephen Gettinger, "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate...New in $1 Trillion 1988 Budget Request." Congressional Quarterly, (10 Jan. 1987). "Party Unity, Not Bipartisanship , Sets Tone for Budget Debate

  12. Building America Case Study: Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine Climate High-Performance Homes: Habitat for Humanity -- The Woods, Tacoma, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    The Woods is a Habitat for Humanity (HFH) community of ENERGY STAR Homes (c) Northwest (ESHNW)-certified homes located in the marine climate of Tacoma/Pierce County, Washington. This research report builds on an earlier preliminary draft 2014 BA report, and includes significant billing analysis and cost effectiveness research from a collaborative, ongoing Ductless Heat Pump (DHP) research effort for Tacoma Public Utilities (TPU) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). This report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing such as HFH.

  13. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  14. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.

    Described is the federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D). The report includes: an overview of R&D in context of the total budget, a review of R&D budget data, identification of recurring issues and issues concerning the analysis of R&D budgets, an analysis of the FY 1977 budget, and a…

  15. Technology assessment heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, R.; Purper, G. (Battelle-Institut e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.))

    Technology assessment for an increased application of heat pumps is carried out in four areas: Effects in the economics area, i.e. effects on the economic goals which are defined in the Stability Law, on the goals of the power supply policy which result from the energy programme and its projections, and on the economic structure as a whole. The whole range of social problems concerning the use of heat pumps, i.e. the questions which social groups are affected, how they react, and what consequences are they expected to have on energy conservation as an object of social policy. Consequences in the governmental and administrative sectors, i.e. effects on legislation, administration and government budgets. Effects on the ecological systems; of prime interest in this context are the utilisation of environmental energy, changes in the heat balance, and emmission of pollutants.

  16. Microbiological Safety of Animal Wastes Processed by Physical Heat Treatment: An Alternative To Eliminate Human Pathogens in Biological Soil Amendments as Recommended by the Food Safety Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2017-03-01

    Animal wastes have high nutritional value as biological soil amendments of animal origin for plant cultivation in sustainable agriculture; however, they can be sources of some human pathogens. Although composting is an effective way to reduce pathogen levels in animal wastes, pathogens may still survive under certain conditions and persist in the composted products, which potentially could lead to fresh produce contamination. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act, alternative treatments are recommended for reducing or eliminating human pathogens in raw animal manure. Physical heat treatments can be considered an effective method to inactivate pathogens in animal wastes. However, microbial inactivation in animal wastes can be affected by many factors, such as composition of animal wastes, type and physiological stage of the tested microorganism, and heat source. Following some current processing guidelines for physical heat treatments may not be adequate for completely eliminating pathogens from animal wastes. Therefore, this article primarily reviews the microbiological safety and economic value of physically heat-treated animal wastes as biological soil amendments.

  17. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands: Beyond Arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K.M. van Nispen tot Pannerden (Frans); J.J.A. Posseth (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-based budgeting seems to be a promising tool for improving the management and accountability of public finances. However, its application causes many difficulties. This article briefly reviews international experience with performance-based budgeting and explores its applicat

  18. THE SUBJECTS OF MEDIADISCOURSE OF BUDGET PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Vyacheslavovna Sulina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author highlights the media discourse of the budget process in its subject-temporal dimension. Place and role of the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are determined on the basis of the analysis of budgetary legislation, practical implementation of the budgeting process in the executive and legislative bodies and its reflection in the media. Public discourse of budgeting process includes not only participants, who are legally empowered, but also other actors involved in the formation of the informational agenda regarding the budget. For example, the subjects of media discourse of the budget process are executive and legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, recipients of budgetary funds, political parties, professional and expert communities, civil society activists. Sociocommunicative description of the budgeting process and its subjects is presented based on analytical and inductive methods. At the same time political journalism is not only a space for the formation of media discourse and reflection of the budgetary process, but also one of the indicators of the state of the political system as a whole. The conclusions present methodological aids for the media discourse analysis of specific cases of the budgeting process and may be used for scientific and practical research.

  19. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 federal Budget marks the beginning of a painful and unnecessary fiscal retrenchment. Despite boasting one of the lowest debt-to-GDP ratios amongst industrialized countries, the Conservative government is pressing ahead with deep cuts of more than $5 billion across departmental budgets by 2014-15. For post-secondary education and research,…

  20. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another source, requests a deficiency loan, or scales back the project. (b) RUS may make a budget... AGRICULTURE POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO GUARANTEED AND INSURED TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and... description of how the adjustment will affect loan purposes. RUS will not approve a budget adjustment...

  1. A Performance-Based Web Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Sayf, Frank K.; Lau, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    A web-based formula-driven tool has been developed for the purpose of performing two distinct academic department budgeting functions: allocation funding to the department, and budget management by the department. The tool's major features are discussed and its uses demonstrated. The tool's advantages are presented. (Contains 10 figures.)

  2. Taking Another Path: Community-Based Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Matthew J.; Davis, Darlene G.

    2011-01-01

    Given the current economic constraints facing the country, school districts in the U.S. have been pushed to develop annual budgets through a new lens and to accept the reality that budget adoption is a complex, political process. Whether a school district is rich or poor, growing or declining in enrollment, serving a specialized population or…

  3. Budget Setting Strategies for the Company's Divisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.; Brekelmans, R.C.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of budget setting to the divisions of a company. The approach is quantitative in nature both in the formulation of the requirements for the set-budgets, as related to different general managerial objectives of interest, and in the modelling of the inherent uncertaintie

  4. 7 CFR 3015.115 - Budget revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget revisions. 3015.115 Section 3015.115 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE UNIFORM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS Programmatic Changes and Budget...

  5. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  6. 12 CFR 917.8 - Budget preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.8 Budget preparation... interest by keeping its costs to an efficient and effective minimum. (b) No delegation of budget...

  7. Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenbach, Edward L.

    Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the…

  8. 10 Budget-Savvy Content Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, David J.

    2004-01-01

    Facing an overall budget reduction of 10 percent, most colleges or universities would postpone investing in a Web content management system. However, for California State University Monterey Bay (CSUMB), a large budget cut made Web content management even more important. CSUMB found an innovative way to purchase and implement a new Content…

  9. Revised State Budget Sells Kids Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Administration's May Revision of the 2012-2013 state budget addresses a $15.7 billion shortfall through funding shifts, cuts, and new revenue sources that place children squarely in harms way. California's kids are already grossly underserved relative to the rest of the nation's children. If the May Revise budget is passed by the Legislature,…

  10. LJ's 2010 Budget Survey: Bottoming Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the results of "Library Journal's" 2010 budget survey. The overall trend in FY10 indicated that 72 percent of survey respondents said their budget had been cut, and 43 percent had staff cuts. Among libraries serving populations above one million, these figures were even more acute, with 86 percent reporting…

  11. CAUT Analysis of Federal Budget 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The 2013 federal Budget was delivered ironically the same day as the Parliamentary Budget Officer was in court seeking more information about the impact of the government's $5.2 billion in spending cuts announced last year. The lack of budgetary transparency and accountability has become a hallmark of the Conservative government. Anyone expecting…

  12. Polaprezinc protects human colon cells from oxidative injury induced by hydrogen peroxide: Relevant to cytoprotective heat shock proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuya Ohkawara; Jun Nishihira; Rika Nagashima; Hiroshi Takeda; Masahiro Asaka

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of polaprezinc on cellular damage induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human colon CaCo2 cells.METHODS: CaCo2 cells were treated with polaprezinc (10-100 μmol/L) for 6 h. After polaprezinc treatment,the cells were incubated with H2O2 (20 μmol/L) for 1 h.Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Western blot analysis for heat shock protein (HSP) 27 and HSP72 in the cells was performed. Moreover, cells were pretreated with quercetin (200 μmol/L), an inhibitor of HSP synthesis, 2 h before polaprezinc treatment, and cell viability and the expression of HSP27 and 72 were assessed in these cells.RESULTS: Polaprezinc significantly protected CaCo2 cells from cell damage induced by H2O2, and up-regulated the expressions of HSP27 and HSP72 in the cells (10, 30and 100 μmol/L of polaprezinc; 35.0% ± 7.7%, 58.3% ±14.6% and 64.2% ± 8.2%, respectively. P < 0.01 versus polaprezinc-nontreated cells; 6.0% ± 4.4%). Quercetin inhibited the up-regulation of HSP27 and HSP72 by polaprezinc and diminished the protective effect of polaprezinc against H2O2-caused injury in the cells.CONCLUSION: Polaprezinc is a useful therapeutic agent for treatment of colitis and its effects depend on the function of cytoprotective HSP in colon.

  13. Altered Expression of High Molecular Weight Heat Shock Proteins after OCT4B1 Suppression in Human Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mirzaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: OCT4B1, a novel variant of OCT4, is expressed in cancer cell lines and tissues. Based on our previous reports, OCT4B1 appears to have a crucial role in regulating apoptosis as well as stress response [heat shock proteins (HSPs] pathways. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of OCT4B1 silencing on the expression of high molecular weight HSPs in three different human tumor cell lines. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, OCT4B1 expression was suppressed in AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma, 5637 (bladder tumor and U-87MG (brain tumor cell lines using RNAi strategy. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR array was employed for expression level analysis and the fold changes were calculated using RT2 Profiler PCR array data analysis software version 3.5. Results: Our data revealed up-regulation of HSPD1 (from HSP60 family as well as HSPA14, HSPA1L, HSPA4, HSPA5 and HSPA8 (from HSP70 family following OCT4B1 knock-down in all three cell lines. In contrast, the expression of HSP90AA1 and HSP- 90AB1 (from HSP90 family as well as HSPA1B and HSPA6 (from HSP70 family was down-regulated under similar conditions. Other stress-related genes showed varying expression pattern in the examined tumor cell lines. Conclusion: Our data suggest a direct or indirect correlation between the expression of OCT4B1 and HSP90 gene family. However, OCT4B1 expression was not strongly correlated with the expression of HSP70 and HSP60 gene families.

  14. Small heat shock proteins translocate to the cytoskeleton in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise independently of phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberg, Noni T; Lamb, Graham D; Overgaard, Kristian; Murphy, Robyn M; Vissing, Kristian

    2014-06-01

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are a subgroup of the highly conserved family of HSPs that are stress inducible and confer resistance to cellular stress and injury. This study aimed to quantitatively examine whether type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) affects sHSPs, HSP27 and αB-crystallin, localization, and phosphorylation in human muscle. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies from 11 healthy male volunteers were obtained pre- and 3 h, 24 h, and 7 days following concentric (CONC), eccentric (ECC1), and repeated bout eccentric (ECC2) exercise. No changes were apparent in a control group (n = 5) who performed no exercise. Eccentric exercise induced muscle damage, as evidenced by increased muscle force loss, perceived muscle soreness, and elevated plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin levels. Total HSP27 and αB-crystallin amounts did not change following any type of exercise. Following eccentric exercise (ECC1 and ECC2) phosphorylation of HSP27 at serine 15 (pHSP27-Ser15) was increased approximately 3- to 6-fold at 3 h, and pαB-crystallin-Ser59 increased ~10-fold at 3 h. Prior to exercise most of the sHSP and psHSP pools were present in the cytosolic compartment. Eccentric exercise resulted in partial redistribution of HSP27 (~23%) from the cytosol to the cytoskeletal fraction (~28% for pHSP27-Ser15 and ~7% for pHSP27-Ser82), with subsequent full reversal within 24 h. αB-crystallin also showed partial redistribution from the cytosolic to cytoskeletal fraction (~18% of total) 3 h post-ECC1, but not after ECC2. There was no redistribution or phosphorylation of sHSPs with CONC. Eccentric exercise results in increased sHSP phosphorylation and translocation to the cytoskeletal fraction, but the sHSP translocation is not dependent on their phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Heat Shock Protein 70 Expression Is Spatially Distributed in Human Placenta and Selectively Upregulated during Labor and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulsid, Akrem; Hanretty, Kevin; Lyall, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Placental oxidative stress is a feature of both human labor and the pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) can be induced in cells as a protective mechanism to cope with cellular stress. We hypothesized that HSP 70 would increase during labor and preeclampsia and that expression would vary in different placental zones. Samples were obtained from 12 sites within each placenta: 4 equally spaced apart pieces were sampled from the inner, middle and outer placental regions. Non-labor, labor and preeclampsia were studied. HSP 70 expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. HSP 70 protein expression was increased in the middle compared with the outer area (p = 0.03) in non-labor and in both the inner and middle areas compared with the outer area (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02 respectively) in labor. HSP 70 was increased in the preeclampsia non-labor group compared to the control non-labor group in the inner region (p = 0.003) and in the control labor group compared with the preeclampsia labor group at the middle area (p = 0.001). In conclusion HSP 70 is expressed in a spatial manner in the placenta. Changes in HSP 70 expression occur during labor and preeclampsia but at different zones within the placenta. The physiological and pathological significance of these remains to be elucidated but the results have important implications for how data obtained from studies in placental disease (and other organs) can be influenced by sampling methods. PMID:23382911

  16. Political Budget Cycles in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides research on the theme of the political budget cycles. The goal is to find out whether or not the government tries to manipulate the state budget and its components for the purpose of re-election across the countries of the European Union. In order to verify this theory a dynamic panel data model was used. The results were significant, but only if predetermined elections were not counted into the estimations. In that case, the theory of the political budget cycles could be accepted as valid for the EU countries. The main driving force of the political budget cycles across the countries of the European Union is fluctuation of the government expenditures. During the election year, the government expenditures are higher, and a year after the election, government expenditures are lower. This is reflected into the state budget balance.

  17. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  18. Expression of HIS50 Ag : A rat homologue of mouse heat-stable antigen and human CD24 on B lymphoid cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, MHA; Deenen, GJ; deBoer, N; Bo, W; Kroese, FGM; Opstelten, D

    Recently, a cDNA encoding a newly identified rat antigen (HIS50 Ag) that binds to monoclonal antibody (mAb) HIS50 was cloned and shown to be homologous to cDNA encoding murine heat-stable antigen (HSA) and human CD24. Here we show that, like CD24 and HSA, at least part of HIS50 Ag is inserted into

  19. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    OpenAIRE

    Menjívar Marta; Barbachano-Esparza Laura; Albarrán Gabriela; Gil-Ortiz Mariana; Pedraza-Chaverrí José; Medina-Campos Omar N

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a) aqueous garlic extracts or (b) garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled...

  20. Toward an Improved Understanding of the Global Fresh Water Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Peter H.

    2005-01-01

    The major components of the global fresh water cycle include the evaporation from the land and ocean surfaces, precipitation onto the Ocean and land surfaces, the net atmospheric transport of water from oceanic areas over land, and the return flow of water from the land back into the ocean. The additional components of oceanic water transport are few, principally, the mixing of fresh water through the oceanic boundary layer, transport by ocean currents, and sea ice processes. On land the situation is considerably more complex, and includes the deposition of rain and snow on land; water flow in runoff; infiltration of water into the soil and groundwater; storage of water in soil, lakes and streams, and groundwater; polar and glacial ice; and use of water in vegetation and human activities. Knowledge of the key terms in the fresh water flux budget is poor. Some components of the budget, e.g. precipitation, runoff, storage, are measured with variable accuracy across the globe. We are just now obtaining precise measurements of the major components of global fresh water storage in global ice and ground water. The easily accessible fresh water sources in rivers, lakes and snow runoff are only adequately measured in the more affluent portions of the world. presents proposals are suggesting methods of making global measurements of these quantities from space. At the same time, knowledge of the global fresh water resources under the effects of climate change is of increasing importance and the human population grows. This paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge of the global fresh water budget, evaluating the accuracy of various global water budget measuring and modeling techniques. We review the measurement capabilities of satellite instruments as compared with field validation studies and modeling approaches. Based on these analyses, and on the goal of improved knowledge of the global fresh water budget under the effects of climate change, we suggest

  1. Effect of the Evaporative Cooling on the Human Thermal Comfort and Heat Stress in a Greenhouse under Arid Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abdel-Ghany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal sensation and heat stress were evaluated in a plastic greenhouse, with and without evaporative cooling, under arid climatic conditions in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Suitable thermal comfort and heat stress scales were selected for the evaluation. Experiments were conducted in hot sunny days to measure the required parameters (i.e., the dry and wet bulb temperatures, globe temperature, natural wet bulb temperature, and solar radiation flux in the greenhouse. The results showed that in the uncooled greenhouse, workers are exposed to strong heat stress and would feel very hot most of the day time; they are safe from heat stress risk and would feel comfortable during night. An efficient evaporative cooling is necessary during the day to reduce heat stress and to improve the comfort conditions and is not necessary at night. In the cooled greenhouse, workers can do any activity: except at around noon they should follow a proposed working schedule, in which the different types of work were scheduled along the daytimes based on the heat stress value. To avoid heat stress and to provide comfort conditions in the greenhouses, the optimum ranges of relative humidity and air temperature are 48–55% and 24–28°C, respectively.

  2. Cytoprotective effects of cerium and selenium nanoparticles on heat-shocked human dermal fibroblasts: an in vitro evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bo Yuan, Thomas J Webster, Amit K Roy Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: It is a widely accepted fact that environmental factors affect cells by modulating the components of subcellular compartments and altering metabolic enzymes. Factors (such as oxidative stress and heat-shock-induced proteins and heat shock factors, which upregulate stress-response related genes to protect affected cells are commonly altered during changes in environmental conditions. Studies by our group and others have shown that nanoparticles (NPs are able to efficiently attenuate oxidative stress by penetrating into specific tissues or organs. Such findings warrant further investigation on the effects of NPs on heat-shock-induced stress, specifically in cells in the presence or absence (pretreated of NPs. Here, we examined the cytoprotective effects of two different NPs (cerium and selenium on heat-induced cell death for a model cell using dermal fibroblasts. We report for the first time that both ceria and selenium NPs (at 500 µg/mL possess stress-relieving behavior on fibroblasts undergoing heat shock. Such results indicate the need to further develop these NPs as a novel treatment for heat shock. Keywords: ceria, heat shock, nanotechnology, cell death, nanomedicine, protective

  3. STRATEGIC PLANNING AND PROGRAM BUDGETING IN ROMANIA – RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D#259;nule#539;iu Dan-Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the efforts of Romanian authorities to implement program budgeting. Based on the first results, authorities decided to establish a link between strategic planning and budgeting, as a condition for implementing multi-annual budgeting.

  4. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to 60 GHz Millimeter-Wavelength Radiation on the Genotoxicity and Heat Shock Protein (Hsp Expression of Cells Derived from Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Koyama

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human corneal epithelial (HCE-T and human lens epithelial (SRA01/04 cells derived from the human eye were exposed to 60 gigahertz (GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation for 24 h. There was no statistically significant increase in the micronucleus (MN frequency in cells exposed to 60 GHz millimeter-wavelength radiation at 1 mW/cm2 compared with sham-exposed controls and incubator controls. The MN frequency of cells treated with bleomycin for 1 h provided positive controls. The comet assay, used to detect DNA strand breaks, and heat shock protein (Hsp expression also showed no statistically significant effects of exposure. These results indicate that exposure to millimeter-wavelength radiation has no effect on genotoxicity in human eye cells.

  5. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Voting behavior and budget stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze how the implementation of the Budgetary Stability Law has affectedPolitical Budget Cycles generated by Spanish local governments. Specifically, we study whether the evolutionof debt, budget deficit, capital spending and current spending over the electoral cycle has changed after theintroduction of this law. We use a sample of 132 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants(including the provincial capitals during the period 1995‑2009. Our results show that the Budgetary StabilityLaw has avoided electoral cycles in debt. On the contrary, the adoption of this law has not mitigated theincumbents’ incentives to manipulate deficit, capital spending and current spending with electoral aims.Nevertheless, it has caused a change in the way in which mayors manipulate fiscal policy over the electoralcycle. The opportunistic expansion covered both preelectoral year and the electoral year before theimplementation of this fiscal rule, while after that, deficit and spending increases are confined in the electionyear.En este trabajo analizamos la influencia de la entrada en vigor de la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria en losCiclos Políticos Presupuestarios generados por los gobiernos locales españoles. En concreto, estudiamos si laevolución de la deuda, del déficit, del gasto de capital y del gasto corriente a lo largo del ciclo electoral se havisto modificada tras la introducción de dicha ley. Para ello utilizamos una muestra formada por132 municipios españoles con más de 50.000 habitantes (incluidas las capitales de provincia durante elperiodo 1995‑2009. Nuestros resultados muestran que la Ley de Estabilidad Presupuestaria ha evitado lacreación de Ciclos Políticos Presupuestarios en la deuda. Por el contrario, la aprobación de dicha ley noha atenuado los incentivos de los políticos para manipular el déficit, el gasto de capital y el gasto corriente conla finalidad de permanecer en el poder

  7. Performance and Costs of Ductless Heat Pumps in Marine-Climate High-Performance Homes -- Habitat for Humanity The Woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubliner, Michael [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Howard, Luke [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hales, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Kunkle, Rick [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Gordon, Andy [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Spencer, Melinda [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-02-23

    This final Building America Partnership report focuses on the results of field testing, modeling, and monitoring of ductless mini-split heat pump hybrid heating systems in seven homes built and first occupied at various times between September 2013 and October 2014. The report also provides WSU documentation of high-performance home observations, lessons learned, and stakeholder recommendations for builders of affordable high-performance housing.

  8. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.

    2016-12-01

    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  9. PROVIDING BUDGET CREDITS TO RUSSIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gelyakhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The state budget of the Russian Federation can be called the primary means of accumulating financial resources in the country. Giving cash is seen as a measure to prevent the country's financial crisis. Public lending is its basic form. Nevertheless, in spite of the scientific and practical significance of the Russian Federation Public Credit, the issue has not been studied. These circumstances suggest that there are many unresolved issues in the field of public credit Russian Federation.Relevance of the topic of this article is revealed when considering the peculiarities of the legal regulation of public credit of the Russian Federation. In this article the author attempts to develop a series of recommendations to improve legislation at both the federal and regional levels. The growth of the budget deficit in the Russian Federation determines the need to find all the possible sources of financing, the most important of which acts as a budget loan, which refers to "funds provided by the budget to another budget of the budget system, the legal entity (except for state (municipal institutions, a foreign state, foreign legal entity on a returnable and paid basis "(art. 6 of the Budget Code of the Russian Federation [1]. 

  10. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  11. Scientific and theoretical principles of personnel costs’ budgeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.P. Gutsal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article is to determine the main purpose of company’s budgeting, to study its functions in terms of personnel management, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting and to determine the stages of realization budgeting in the company. There have been considered the purpose and aim of budgeting. The main functions of budgeting, which include such ones as: planning, forecasting, information and analysis function, motivational, coordinative, control and involvement function have been identified (determined. In terms of defined functions of budgeting their essence in budgeting personnel costs has been outlined. The main advantages and disadvantages of budgeting have been found. There has been determined the implementing and realization company’s budgeting. The process of budgeting is realized according to the following consecutive stages: preparatory and analytical stage; definition of budget constraints; drafting up the budget; discussion and adjustment of budget indicators; adoption of budget; analysis and control of the budget. There also has been considered budget organization structure which includes budget committee, budget planning and analysis department, financial responsibility center.

  12. Urban Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Doug L.; Estes, Maury G.

    2011-01-01

    It is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. This conversion of the natural landscape vegetation into man-made urban structures such as roads and buildings drastically alter the regional surface energy budgets, hydrology, precipitation patterns, and meteorology. Research studies from many cities have documented these effects range from decreases in air quality, increased energy consumption and alteration of regional climate to direct effects on human health.

  13. 75 FR 39537 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... blood stem cell, stem cell products from cord blood, reproductive tissue, and sperm banks), ] including... Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue... submitted the following proposed collection of information to OMB for review and clearance. Human...

  14. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  15. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  16. Beam positioning error budget in ICF driver

    CERN Document Server

    Shi Zhi Quan; Su Jing Qin

    2002-01-01

    The author presents the method of linear weight sum to beam positioning budget on the basis of ICF request on targeting, the approach of equal or unequal probability to allocate errors to each optical element. Based on the relationship between the motion of the optical components and beam position on target, the position error of the optical components was evaluated, which was referred to as the maximum range. Lots of ray trace were performed, the position error budget were modified by law of the normal distribution. An overview of position error budget of the components is provided

  17. Structure and Evolution of EU Budget Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Mihaela Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although small size, representing only 1% of EU wealth, its budget is an important tool for achieving the objectives of integration. Basically, in one form or another, every EU citizen benefits from the EU budget at the local, national and European level: food and safer toys, new roads and better quality of security at EU borders. These are just a few examples of areas where the EU budget plays a decisive role. To fulfil its objectives, the European Union has traditional own resources, the VAT - based own resources and the GNI- based resources.

  18. Small business, cash budgets and general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, A R

    1991-01-01

    In practice management, general practice falls into the category of small business with all its attendant generic problems. Disciplined planning and good financial management are not often seen in small business. These are required if general practitioners are to continue (or return to) the provision of high quality medical services. An effective budget process, especially cash-flow budgeting, is the key to successful planning and financial management. Budgeting will bring Control, Co-ordination, and Credibility to your practice. It will enable you to set goals and to achieve them.

  19. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  20. Beyond Budgeting og ledelsesfokus i Coloplast

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med denne utredningen har vært å forstå sammenhengen mellom styringsmodellen Beyond Budgeting og ledelse. Beyond Budgeting-filosofien argumenterer for at budsjettet er uegnet som styringsverktøy. For å være mer tilpasningsdyktig i en dynamisk verden, foreslås 12 prinsipper som skal gjøre virksomheten mer fleksibel. Store deler av tidligere forskning ser på implikasjoner ved styringsverktøyene, og få knytter Beyond Budgeting opp mot ledelse. Det er her blitt gjennomført en kvalitativ ...

  1. Preparing for Extreme Heat in India: Using High-Resolution Climate Models to Explore the Impact of Rising Temperatures on Human Health and Labor Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, C.

    2016-12-01

    Globally, higher daily peak temperatures and longer, more intense heat waves are becoming increasingly frequent due to climate change. India, with relatively low GDP per capita, high population density, and tropical climate, is particularly vulnerable to these trends. In May 2015, one of the worst heat waves in world history hit the country, culminating in at least 2,300 officially-reported deaths as temperatures in some regions reached 48°C. As a result of climate change, heat waves in this region will last longer, be more extreme, and occur with greater frequency in the coming years. Impacts will be felt most acutely by vulnerable populations, which include not only those with frail health, but also populations otherwise considered healthy whose livelihood involves working under exposure to high temperatures. The problem is exacerbated by low levels of economic development, particularly in the under-provision of medical services, a higher proportion of weather-reliant income sources, and the inability to recover quickly from shocks. Responding to these challenges requires collaboration among the disciplines of climate science, public health, economics, and public policy. This project, presented as an online web application using Esri's ArcGIS Story Map, covers 1) the impact of extreme heat on human mortality, 2) the impact of combined heat and humidity (as measured by wet bulb globe temperature) on labor productivity, and 3) emerging best practices in adaptation planning by local municipalities and NGOs. The work is presented in a format that is designed to allow policymakers to take a deeper dive into the literature linking extreme temperature to human health and labor productivity, combined with interactive mapping tools that allow planners to drill down to data at the district level across the country of India. Further, the work presents a case study of heat adaptation planning efforts that have already been implemented in the city of Ahmedabad, allowing

  2. Blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis in low-flow extracorporeal life support; an in vitro study using freshly donated human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, R W J; Simons, A P; Lancé, M D; Ganushchak, Y M; Bekers, O; Weerwind, P W

    2017-01-01

    Low-flow extracorporeal life support can be used for cardiopulmonary support of paediatric and neonatal patients and is also emerging as a therapy for patients suffering from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, pump heating and haemolysis have proven to negatively affect the system and outcome. This in vitro study aimed at gaining insight into blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis related to the performance of a new low-flow centrifugal pump. Pump performance in the 400-1,500 ml/min flow range was modulated using small-sized dual-lumen catheters and freshly donated human blood. Measurements included plasma free haemoglobin, blood temperature, pump speed, pump pressure, blood flow and thermographic imaging. Blood warming (ΔTmax=0.5°C) had no relationship with pump performance or haemolysis (R(2)max=0.05). Pump performance-related parameters revealed no relevant relationships with haemolysis (R(2)max=0.36). Thermography showed no relevant heat zones in the pump (Tmax=36°C). Concerning blood warming, pump heating and haemolysis, we deem the centrifugal pump applicable for low-flow extracorporeal circulation.

  3. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Phani K

    2008-09-15

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m(2). The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m(2) resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m(2) to 5(+) kW/m(2) (exposure times from 25s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m(2) and 5 kW/m(2)range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m(2) for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m(2) (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m(2) average heat flux.

  4. Water Budgets: Foundations for Effective Water-Resources and Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Winter, Thomas C.; LaBaugh, James W.; Franke, O. Lehn

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Water budgets provide a means for evaluating availability and sustainability of a water supply. A water budget simply states that the rate of change in water stored in an area, such as a watershed, is balanced by the rate at which water flows into and out of the area. An understanding of water budgets and underlying hydrologic processes provides a foundation for effective water-resource and environmental planning and management. Observed changes in water budgets of an area over time can be used to assess the effects of climate variability and human activities on water resources. Comparison of water budgets from different areas allows the effects of factors such as geology, soils, vegetation, and land use on the hydrologic cycle to be quantified. Human activities affect the natural hydrologic cycle in many ways. Modifications of the land to accommodate agriculture, such as installation of drainage and irrigation systems, alter infiltration, runoff, evaporation, and plant transpiration rates. Buildings, roads, and parking lots in urban areas tend to increase runoff and decrease infiltration. Dams reduce flooding in many areas. Water budgets provide a basis for assessing how a natural or human-induced change in one part of the hydrologic cycle may affect other aspects of the cycle. This report provides an overview and qualitative description of water budgets as foundations for effective water-resources and environmental management of freshwater hydrologic systems. Perhaps of most interest to the hydrologic community, the concepts presented are also relevant to the fields of agriculture, atmospheric studies, meteorology, climatology, ecology, limnology, mining, water supply, flood control, reservoir management, wetland studies, pollution control, and other areas of science, society, and industry. The first part of the report describes water storage and movement in the atmosphere, on land surface, and in the subsurface, as well as water exchange among these

  5. Relative Efficiency of Surface Energy Budgets Over Different Land Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachuan

    The partitioning of available solar energy into different fluxes at the Earth's surface is important in determining different physical processes, such as turbulent transport, subsurface hydrology, land-atmospheric interactions, etc. Direct measurements of these turbulent fluxes were carried out using eddy-covariance (EC) towers. However, the distribution of EC towers is sparse due to relatively high cost and practical difficulties in logistics and deployment. As a result, data is temporally and spatially limited and is inadequate to be used for researches at large scales, such as regional and global climate modeling. Besides field measurements, an alternative way is to estimate turbulent fluxes based on the intrinsic relations between surface energy budget components, largely through thermodynamic equilibrium. These relations, referred as relative efficiency, have been included in several models to estimate the magnitude of turbulent fluxes in surface energy budgets such as latent heat and sensible heat. In this study, three theoretical models based on the lumped heat transfer model, the linear stability analysis and the maximum entropy principle respectively, were investigated. Model predictions of relative efficiencies were compared with turbulent flux data over different land covers, viz. lake, grassland and suburban surfaces. Similar results were observed over lake and suburban surface but significant deviation is found over vegetation surface. The relative efficiency of outgoing longwave radiation is found to be orders of magnitude deviated from theoretic predictions. Meanwhile, results show that energy partitioning process is influenced by the surface water availability to a great extent. The study provides insight into what property is determining energy partitioning process over different land covers and gives suggestion for future models.

  6. Surface energy budget and turbulent fluxes at Arctic terrestrial sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, Andrey; Persson, Ola; Uttal, Taneil; Konopleva-Akish, Elena; Crepinsek, Sara; Cox, Christopher; Fairall, Christopher; Makshtas, Alexander; Repina, Irina

    2017-04-01

    Determination of the surface energy budget (SEB) and all SEB components at the air-surface interface are required in a wide variety of applications including atmosphere-land/snow simulations and validation of the surface fluxes predicted by numerical models over different spatial and temporal scales. Here, comparisons of net surface energy budgets at two Arctic sites are made using long-term near-continuous measurements of hourly averaged surface fluxes (turbulent, radiation, and soil conduction). One site, Eureka (80.0 N; Nunavut, Canada), is located in complex topography near a fjord about 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. The other site, Tiksi (71.6 N; Russian East Siberia), is located on a relatively flat coastal plain less than 1 km from the shore of Tiksi Bay, a branch of the Arctic Ocean. We first analyzed diurnal and annual cycles of basic meteorological parameters and key SEB components at these locations. Although Eureka and Tiksi are located on different continents and at different latitudes, the annual course of the surface meteorology and SEB components are qualitatively similar. Surface energy balance closure is a formulation of the conservation of energy principle. Our direct measurements of energy balance for both Arctic sites show that the sum of the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes and the ground (conductive) heat flux systematically underestimate the net radiation by about 25-30%. This lack of energy balance closure is a fundamental and pervasive problem in micrometeorology. We discuss a variety of factors which may be responsible for the lack of SEB closure. In particular, various storage terms (e.g., air column energy storage due to radiative and/or sensible heat flux divergence, ground heat storage above the soil flux plate, energy used in photosynthesis, canopy biomass heat storage). For example, our observations show that the photosynthesis storage term is relatively small (about 1-2% of the net radiation), but about 8-12% of the

  7. [FY 1996 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1996 fiscal year. Page 1 is the memorandum from the Service to the U.S. Army...

  8. FY 2016 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  9. [FY 1989 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a single page document summarizing Rocky Mountain Arsenal's Budget for the 1989 fiscal year. There are three mentioned tasks; Operations & Planning, Law...

  10. [FY 1990 Budget Summary : Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains information related to Rocky Mountain Arsenal's budget for the 1990 fiscal year. The specifics are broken down into seven tasks, task #1 being...

  11. Physics loses out in UK budget

    CERN Document Server

    Cartlidge, E

    1998-01-01

    British astronomers are angry that the budget for the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council will receive only a 0.5% rise above inflation. All the other research councils will get increases of at least 3% (1 page).

  12. Public Budget Database - Governmental receipts 1962-Current

    Data.gov (United States)

    Executive Office of the President — This file contains governmental receipts for 1962 through the current budget year, as well as four years of projections. It can be used to reproduce many of the...

  13. FY 2015 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  14. FY 2014 Supplement to the Presidents Budget

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — The annual Supplement to the Presidents Budget for the NITRD Program provides a technical summary of the research activities planned and coordinated through NITRD in...

  15. Reduced heat shock response in human mononuclear cells during aging and its association with polymorphisms in HSP70 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Ripudaman; Kølvraa, Steen; Bross, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent changes in heat shock response (HSR) were studied in mononuclear cells (monocytes and lymphocytes) collected from young (mean age = 22.6 +/- 1.7 years) and middle-aged (mean age = 56.3 +/- 4.7 years) subjects after 1 hour of heat shock at 42 degrees C. Genotype-specific HSR...... was measured by genotyping the subjects for 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, HSPA1A(A-110C), HSPA1B(A1267G), and HSPA1L(T2437C), 1 each in the 3 HSP70 genes. A significant age-related decrease in the induction of Hsp70 occurred after heat shock in both monocytes and lymphocytes. The noninducible...

  16. Budget and budgetary process in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Gherghina DRILA

    2010-01-01

    The unitary system of budgets was an important moment in the evolution of public finances, creating the framework for more effective management and control over allocated funds, public finances becoming those interactive tools used to match the requirements of economic and social environment, also being a catalyst for development. Romanian economy hasn’t matured yet, we are to achieve satisfactory participation in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) which, concerning the budget, should be translated...

  17. Meteorological Error Budget Using Open Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    VBA ) script was created that would read the model - based output and corresponding sounding data for each message type (METCM or METB3), output type...produce artillery MET error budget tables that account for expected errors when using MET model -based systems. Representatives of the US and other...nations within the North Atlantic Treaty Organization expressed a need for shareable model -based MET error budgets. Use of an openly available civilian

  18. Default, Reputation and Balanced-Budget Rules

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Stockman

    2004-01-01

    Is a balanced-budget rule compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations? According to the conventional explanation, governments honor their debt obligations to maintain a good reputation for future borrowing. The ability of borrowing is desirable because it allows for greater tax smoothing. However, a balanced-budget rule limits the ability to smooth taxes, rendering a large class of competititve equilibria not compatible with a government honoring its debt obligations. The reput...

  19. INTERNET MARKETING BUDGET ALLOCATION: FROM PRACTITIONER'S PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    LAN ZHAO; JISHAN ZHU

    2010-01-01

    Consider a firm promotes its products through several Internet media with a fixed Internet marketing budget and models the budget allocation decisions as a competitive game, in which each firm formulates its own optimization model that is influenced by the competitors' moves as well. One challenge to the application of such model in practice is how to deal with asymmetric information. In this paper, we discuss several issues that are often asked by the practitioners that are related to dealin...

  20. OPTIMIZING LOCAL BUDGET BALANCING IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Adina Crsitina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the local public finance is growing in accordance with the increasing proportion of the decentralization process. The mechanism of resource allocation, and especially the allocation criteria used, constitutes subjects of debate. Our objective pursued is to assess whether the avoidance of the first step for balancing the allocation of funds can provide enhanced fairness in balancing the local budgets across the country. Local budgets in Romania receive significant resources from the state budget in the form of amounts and quotas distributed from certain taxes, which are revenues for the state budget. Some of these amounts are designed to balance the local budgets. The distribution of funds from the state budget to the local budgets requires two steps. Firstly, the amounts are divided by county, secondly, these amounts are directed within the county especially towards localities which have a lower financial standing. Given the significant disparities between counties, we believe that this mechanism does not ensure fairness in the allocation because the funds distributed according to the first step may not use fair criteria to meet the requirements for balanced local budgets. Therefore, we intend to simulate a balanced allocation of national funds for eliminating the first step that produces the most significant inequities. Direct application of the second step of allocation, with its two phases, will provide more funds serving those local administrative units for the income tax per capita is lower than the national average. Comparing the values allocated for the year 2011 with those obtained in the simulation we will examine changes that occur after the application of this method which seems to be more equitable and appropriate. This work was supported by CNCSISUEFISCSU, project number PNII-IDEI 1780/2008

  1. Human-biometeorological assessment of increasing summertime extreme heat events in Shanghai, China during 1973-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qinqin; Ge, Quansheng; Xi, Jianchao; Zheng, Jingyun

    2016-09-01

    Summertime extreme heat events, defined by the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), have shown increasing trends in Shanghai from 1973 to 2015. There is a clear shift to higher temperatures for the daily maximum UTCI values, and the number of days with daily maximum UTCI exceeding 38 °C significantly increased by 4.34 days/10a. An upward trend of 3.67 days/10a was detected for the number of hot days which also displays an abrupt increase around 1998. Both the frequency and total duration of heat waves have significantly increased by 0.77 times/10a and 3.51 days/10a respectively. Their inter-decadal variations indicate a three-part division of the study period showing more and more heat waves and longer total duration, which are 1.0 times/a and 4.13 days/a for 1973-1987, 1.71 times/a and 7.64 days/a for 1988-2001, and 3.57 times/a and 16.0 days/a for 2002-2015. In addition to that are more occurrences of long-lasting heat waves. Compared with the UTCI, air temperature-based definitions have indicated substantially higher increases in extreme heat events, especially for hot nights. The relatively low humidity and strong wind speeds in the twenty-first century are considered to be responsible for this difference. Our study provides a more in-depth case to monitor extreme heat events under the combining effects of air temperature, humidity, wind speeds, total cloud cover, etc. and can support studies over other regions.

  2. The role of risk and cost benefit in program budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The primary Environmental Management (EM) program mission is protecting human health and the environment. EM is currently facing a decreasing budget while still having to deal with competing requirements and risks to workers, public, and environment. There has been no consistent framework for considering in an integrated fashion the multiple types of risks and hazards present in the nuclear weapons complex. Therefore, to allocate resources during the budget process, EM is using risk, long term costs, mortgage reduction, compliance issues, and stakeholders concerns to prioritize the funding of activities. Risk and cost-benefit analysis are valuable tools to help make decisions to reduce risks to health, safety, and the environment in a sensible and cost-effective manner. Principles for priority setting using risk analysis are to seek to compare risks by grouping them into broad categories of concern (e.g., high, medium, and low); to set priorities in managing risks to account for relevant management and social considerations; to inform priorities by as broad a range of views as possible, ideally with consensus; and, to try to coordinate risk reduction efforts among programs. The Draft Risk Report to Congress, Risks and the Risk Debate: Searching for Common Ground {open_quote}The First Step,{close_quote} provides the first link between budget, compliance requirements, and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities. The process used for the report provides an initial framework to capture the spectrum of risks associated with environmental management activities and to link these risks in a qualitative fashion to compliance and the budget.

  3. Zero-based budgeting: Pathway to sustainable budget implementation in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeh Francis Nnoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the application of Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB system to budget implementation by the Federal Government of Nigeria by ascertaining among others, the relationship between ZBB approach and budget performance indices in Nigeria. To achieve the above, primary data were obtained through questionnaires that were specifically designed for this study. The data obtained were analysed with the SPSS version 21. The statistical tools employed were Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Pearson Correlation Coefficiant (PCC. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability test was used to test the internal consistency/reliability of the instrument used for the study. On the basis of the analysis, we found that there is significant difference in the effectiveness of ZBB in terms of budget implementation compared to the Traditional Budgeting System (TBS. It was also found that the application of ZBB tend to be performance-driven and is able to detect the redundant programmes/projects and staff, thereby recommending either realignment, discharge, transfer or redeployment of projects or resources. The study therefore, recommends among others that ZBB should be encouraged as a good means of budget implementation and also close monitoring of budget execution should be enshrined in work ethics at every stage of budget preparation and implementation in the country. This is believed would go a long way to strengthen measures aimed at mitigating poor budget implementation in the country.

  4. POLITICAL BUDGET CYCLES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FİLİZ ERYILMAZ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The theorical literature on “Political Business Cycles” presents important insights on the extent to which politicians attempt to manipulate government monetary and fiscal policies to influence electoral outcomes, in particular, with the aim of re-election. In recent years “Political Budget Cycles” is the one of the most important topics in Political Business Cycles literature. According to Political Budget Cycles Theory, some components of the government budget are influenced by the electoral cycle and consequently an increase in government spending or decrease in taxes in an election year, leading to larger fiscal deficit. This incumbent’s fiscal manipulation is a tool that governments possess to increase their changes for re-election. In this paper we investigate the presence of Political Budget Cycles using a data set of budget balance, total expenditure and total revenue over the period 1994–2012. Our findings suggest that incumbents in Turkey use fiscal policy to increase their popularity and win elections, therefore fiscal manipulation was rewarded rather than punished by Turkish voters. The meaning of this result is that Political Budget Cycles Theory is valid for Turkey between 1994 and 2012.

  5. College & University Budgeting. An Introduction for Faculty and Academic Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisinger, Richard J., Jr.; Dubeck, Leroy W.

    A budgeting handbook for academic administrators and faculty is presented. Economic and political influences on budgeting are considered, along with sources of funds for public and private colleges, and the chronology of the budget process. Multiyear summaries of the budget process in different types of colleges are included. Some major policy…

  6. State Budget Update, August 21, 2009. Report 09-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    On July 28, the Governor signed legislation making significant revisions to the 2009-10 state budget. The revised budget allocates $85 billion in State General Fund spending, down from the $92 billion in the budget approved by the Governor and Legislature in February. This budget revision also captures some savings from the just-completed 2008-09…

  7. Budget Update, November 9, 2010. Report 10-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfork, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    On October 8, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the 2010-11 Budget Act for the State of California. This budget was the outcome of many months of negotiation between the Governor and the Legislature. The Governor vetoed $963 million in spending from the Legislature's budget, arriving at a budget that addresses an estimated $19.1 billion…

  8. Research and Development in the Federal Budget, FY 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapley, Willis H.; And Others

    The federal government's budgeting process for allocating resources to research and development (R&D) is described. The report includes: (1) a review of the genesis of the FY 1978 budget; (2) a brief look at the overall budgets for FY 1978; (3) a description of the policies underlying the R&D budgets for FY 1978; (4) a discussion of the future…

  9. STATE BUDGET AND FISCAL POLICY INSTRUMENTS TO ACHIEVE ITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haralambie George Alin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tools for carrying out the fiscal budget in Romania. An effective fiscal policy involves increasing budget revenues and reduce their costs of collection. Public expenditure, taxes and debt are tools of fiscal policy to achieve economic stability budget. They are also presented the inter dependencies between fiscal policy and budget.

  10. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX...

  11. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for...

  12. Influence of antioxidants on the contractile response of heat-stressed human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-peng LI

    2017-08-01

    2h, respectively. After stimulated by NE, proportion of the cell surface area contraction was measured to reflect the contractile response of each group. Results Compared with control group, regardless of the NE concentration: in heat stress group, contractile response at 1h increased significantly (P0.05, but in the antioxidant preprocessing group, the contractile response was more significant to the normal NE concentration than to the low NE concentration (P<0.05 or 0.01. Regardless of the NE concentration, the contractile response was lower in the antioxidant preprocessing group than in the heat stress group. Conclusions In the course of heat stress, the contractile response of HUASMCs presents as time- related change. The usage of antioxidant may correct the over-response of HUASMCs to NE in the early heat stress stage, but cannot correct the reduction of the contractile response in the middle and advanced stage. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.06.03

  13. The Energy Budget of the Polar Atmosphere in MERRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Components of the atmospheric energy budget from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) are evaluated in polar regions for the period 1979-2005 and compared with previous estimates, in situ observations, and contemporary reanalyses. Closure of the energy budget is reflected by the analysis increments term, which results from virtual enthalpy and latent heating contributions and averages -11 W/sq m over the north polar cap and -22 W/sq m over the south polar cap. Total energy tendency and energy convergence terms from MERRA agree closely with previous study for northern high latitudes but convergence exceeds previous estimates for the south polar cap by 46 percent. Discrepancies with the Southern Hemisphere transport are largest in autumn and may be related to differences in topography with earlier reanalyses. For the Arctic, differences between MERRA and other sources in TOA and surface radiative fluxes maximize in May. These differences are concurrent with the largest discrepancies between MERRA parameterized and observed surface albedo. For May, in situ observations of the upwelling shortwave flux in the Arctic are 80 W/sq m larger than MERRA, while the MERRA downwelling longwave flux is underestimated by 12 W/sq m throughout the year. Over grounded ice sheets, the annual mean net surface energy flux in MERRA is erroneously non-zero. Contemporary reanalyses from the Climate Forecast Center (CFSR) and the Interim Re-Analyses of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ERA-I) are found to have better surface parameterizations, however these collections are also found to have significant discrepancies with observed surface and TOA energy fluxes. Discrepancies among available reanalyses underscore the challenge of reproducing credible estimates of the atmospheric energy budget in polar regions.

  14. Differential effects of lidocaine on nerve growth factor (NGF)-evoked heat- and mechanical hyperalgesia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinkauf, B; Obreja, O; Schmelz, M; Rukwied, R

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects of a non-specific sodium channel blocker (lidocaine) on heat pain thresholds and mechanical impact pain at day 7 and 21 after intradermal injection of 1 μg NGF. Measurements were performed in 12 healthy male subjects prior to and 5 min after intradermal injection of 150 μl lidocaine administered at concentrations of 0.01% (∼0.4 mM) and 0.1% (∼4 mM) to both NGF and control skin sites. NGF caused a maximum reduction of heat pain thresholds at day 7 (NGF 42.6 ± 0.6 vs. 49.4 ± 0.3 °C in control skin). Lidocaine sensitized normal skin for heat pain, but reduced heat hyperalgesia after NGF at day 7 (44.3 ± 0.8 °C, lidocaine 0.1%; p Lidocaine dose-dependently attenuated mechanically-induced pain at both control and NGF-treated sites. Maximum lidocaine effects on mechanical hyperalgesia were recorded at day 21 in NGF skin (pain reduction to VAS 37 ± 4, p lidocaine 0.1%. Lidocaine differentially affects NGF-induced mechanical hyperalgesia (analgesic effect) and heat sensitivity of nociceptors (sensitizing effect). These opposing responses may be attributed to block of sodium channels vs. sensitization of TRPV1. NGF-evoked extreme mechanical impact pain indicates high action potential discharge frequencies, which might be more susceptible to lidocaine block.

  15. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  16. Nutrition sensitivity of the 2014 budget statement of Republic of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Aryeetey, Richmond N O; Akparibo, Robert; Zotor, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Ghana's Constitution and several international treaties she has ratified demonstrate support for fundamental human rights to nutrition and freedom from hunger. However, it is unknown how this support is being translated into investment in nutrition. National budgets are important vehicles through which governments communicate intent to address pertinent national challenges. The present paper assesses the nutrition sensitivity of Ghana's budget statement for the year ending 31 December 2014. We perused the budget in its entirety, examining allocations to various sectors with the goal of identifying support for direct nutrition interventions. We examined allocations to various sectors as per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). The review shows that the total revenue and grants for the 2014 fiscal year is Ghana Cedis (GH¢) 26 001·9 million (25 % of GDP). The total expenditure for the same period is estimated at GH¢34 956·8 million (33·1 % of GDP). The health sector is allocated GH¢3 353 707 814 (3·8 % of GDP). As of 28 October 2014, the Bank of Ghana's Official Exchange Rate was US$1 = GH¢3·20. It is one of the key sectors whose interventions directly or indirectly impact on nutrition. However, the proportion of the national budget that goes to direct nutrition interventions is not evident in the budget. Nutrition is embedded in other budget lines. Allocations to relevant nutrition-sensitive sectors are very low (Ghana's 2014 budget statement pays scant attention to nutrition. By embedding nutrition in other budget lines, Ghana runs the risk of perpetually rolling out national spending actions insensitive to nutrition.

  17. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  18. Implementing Performance-Based Budgeting in Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ciubotaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article includes a research on budgeting based performance, and proposes a system of performance indicators that assess the linkage between the policies and annual budget law, the compliance of global budgeting performance to European principles in the area of public financial management, and the impact of public financing on economic growth. The analysis of performance indicators shows the linkages between the policies, and budgeting, as well as budgeting performance in compliance with European principles in this area.

  19. The relationship between budget allocated and budget utilized of faculties in an academic institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Wan Noor Hayatie Wan Abdul; Aziz, Rossidah Wan Abdul; Shuib, Adibah; Razi, Nor Faezah Mohamad

    2014-06-01

    Budget planning enables an organization to set priorities towards achieving certain goals and to identify the highest priorities to be accomplished with the available funds, thus allowing allocation of resources according to the set priorities and constraints. On the other hand, budget execution and monitoring enables allocated funds or resources to be utilized as planned. Our study concerns with investigating the relationship between budget allocation and budget utilization of faculties in a public university in Malaysia. The focus is on the university's operations management financial allocation and utilization based on five categories which are emolument expenditure, academic or services and supplies expenditure, maintenance expenditure, student expenditure and others expenditure. The analysis on financial allocation and utilization is performed based on yearly quarters. Data collected include three years faculties' budget allocation and budget utilization performance involving a sample of ten selected faculties of a public university in Malaysia. Results show that there are positive correlation and significant relationship between quarterly budget allocation and quarterly budget utilization. This study found that emolument give the highest contribution to the total allocation and total utilization for all quarters. This paper presents some findings based on statistical analysis conducted which include descriptive statistics and correlation analysis.

  20. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  1. The USDA's Healthy Eating on a Budget Program: Making Better Eating Decisions on a Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Alexandra M.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture has launched a new interactive online program titled Healthy Eating on a Budget. It is an addition to the popular ChooseMyPlate.gov programs, such as the SuperTracker program. The Healthy Eating on a Budget program helps consumers plan, purchase, and prepare healthful meals. This article discusses materials and…

  2. The Optimization of Budget Outcome to Create Trust in Public Expenditure Allocation on Local Budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Koeswara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning and budgeting process is the most crucial process in the administration of local government. Results of previous studies in Solok, the increase in the total budget is not accompanied by spending management capabilities. Expenditure of public service has always fluctuated, but ideally should always increasing. This study aimed to analyze the outcome of the budget in the allocation of public spending in an effort to realize the presence of trust on the budget in Solok West Sumatra Province. This study uses qualitative research methods with the type of research that is selected using descriptive type. While the techniques of data collection are done through an interview, observation and documentation study. This study further highlights the emic perspective, is the voice of the informant, not the personal opinion of the researchers (etic. Then, the data analysis is done categorically and chronologically, viewed repeatedly, and will continue to be encoded. To test the verification of data, triangulation is done by comparing the results of interviews with documents obtained in the field and testing of concepts used by researchers with the information given by the informant. The results showed that the pathology was found that budget allocations reflect inefficiencies as a failure of the link between policy, planning, and budgeting as a fragmented system. But on the other hand, it must be admitted there has been “trust” among policymaking actors in allocating public expenditure budget in playing the role in the budget policy.

  3. Characterization of Mutants of Human Small Heat Shock Protein HspB1 Carrying Replacements in the N-Terminal Domain and Associated with Hereditary Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia K Muranova

    Full Text Available Physico-chemical properties of the mutations G34R, P39L and E41K in the N-terminal domain of human heat shock protein B1 (HspB1, which have been associated with hereditary motor neuron neuropathy, were analyzed. Heat-induced aggregation of all mutants started at lower temperatures than for the wild type protein. All mutations decreased susceptibility of the N- and C-terminal parts of HspB1 to chymotrypsinolysis. All mutants formed stable homooligomers with a slightly larger apparent molecular weight compared to the wild type protein. All mutations analyzed decreased or completely prevented phosphorylation-induced dissociation of HspB1 oligomers. When mixed with HspB6 and heated, all mutants yielded heterooligomers with apparent molecular weights close to ~400 kDa. Finally, the three HspB1 mutants possessed lower chaperone-like activity towards model substrates (lysozyme, malate dehydrogenase and insulin compared to the wild type protein, conversely the environmental probe bis-ANS yielded higher fluorescence with the mutants than with the wild type protein. Thus, in vitro the analyzed N-terminal mutations increase stability of large HspB1 homooligomers, prevent their phosphorylation-dependent dissociation, modulate their interaction with HspB6 and decrease their chaperoning capacity, preventing normal functioning of HspB1.

  4. Nitrogen budget in the Changjiang River drainage area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; YU Zhiming; SONG Xiuxian; CAO Xihua

    2012-01-01

    We established a budget model of nitrogen (N) inputs and outputs between watersheds and waterbodies to determine the sources of riverine N in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River drainage area.Nitrogen inputs in the budget included N from synthetic fertilizer,biological fixation by leguminous and other crops,wet/dry atmospheric deposition,excreta from humans and animals,and crop residues.The total N input was estimated to be 17.6 Tg,of which 20% or 3.5 Tg N was transported into waterbodies.Of the total N transported into waterbodies,the largest proportion was N from animal waste (26%),followed by N from atmospheric wet/dry deposition (25%),synthetic fertilizer N (17%),N in sewage wastes (17%),N in human waste from rural areas (6%) and industrial wastewater N (9%).We studied the spatial patterns of N inputs and outputs by dividing the Changjiang River drainage area into four sub-basins,from upstream to downstream:the Tongtian River drainage area (TTD,the headwater drainage area,138 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities); the Jinsha River drainage area (JSD,347 000 km2,less disturbed by human activities,approx.3 500 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary); the Pingshan-Yichang drainage area (PYD,520 500 km2,large-scale human disturbance,about 2 000 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary);and the Yichang-Datong drainage area (YDD,699 900 km2,large-scale human disturbance,approx.620 km upstream of the Changjiang estuary).The average N input into waterbodies was 2.3,7.3,24.1,and 28.2 kg N/ha in the TTD,JSD,PYD,and YDD sub-basins,respectively,suggesting an increase of N-components of more than 10 times from upstream to downstream areas.

  5. El Niño, La Niña, and the global sea level budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Christopher G.; Quinn, Katherine J.

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies show that nonseasonal variations in global-mean sea level (GMSL) are significantly correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). However, it has remained unclear to what extent these ENSO-related GMSL fluctuations correspond to steric (i.e., density) or barystatic (mass) effects. Here we diagnose the GMSL budget for ENSO events observationally using data from profiling floats, satellite gravimetry, and radar altimetry during 2005-2015. Steric and barystatic effects make comparable contributions to the GMSL budget during ENSO, in contrast to previous interpretations based largely on hydrological models, which emphasize the barystatic component. The steric contributions reflect changes in global ocean heat content, centered on the Pacific. Distributions of ocean heat storage in the Pacific arise from a mix of diabatic and adiabatic effects. Results have implications for understanding the surface warming slowdown and demonstrate the usefulness of the Global Ocean Observing System for constraining Earth's hydrological cycle and radiation imbalance.

  6. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW OSHA- ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  7. Budget reforms in times of austerity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa-per is to......In the literature times of austerity is argued to give rise to centralization of decisions making. A recently published article finds evidence of a centralization cascade in times of austerity. Based on a case study of recent changes of the Danish budget institutions, the aim of this pa......-per is to explore how such a centralization cascade may look like when zooming into a specific case. Another aim is to explore the consequences of the changes of budget institutions. The paper shows that the fiscal crisis was a window of opportunity for the Ministry of Finance to introduce a budget reform...... finally results in a more detailed control and steering carried out by the managing directors in the agencies. The paper also shows that the changes imply a range of consequences; some are functional others are more dysfunction-al. There seems therefore to be a lot of trade-offs when budget institutions...

  8. SAY NO TO NEW BUDGET CUTS !

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    In June, CERN Finance Committee postponed its proposals for the 2011 budget and the Director-General’s medium-term plan (2012–2015). The Member State delegations asked for a significant reduction in these budgets. The Staff Association condemns this request for new budget cuts which shows a short-term political vision. It is therefore organizing a demonstration on 25th August to defend basic research in Europe. On this day your presence is indispensable. Enough of simply getting by ! We know that budget cuts and the reduction of deficits are topical in several countries. The areas of research and training are also affected. However, in the case of CERN, severe budgetary constraints have been imposed for several years now, in particular since 1996 when the Organization’s budget was reduced by around 10%, just when the construction of the LHC was due to start. Since then, 100 million Swiss francs have been lost each year, reducing CERN’s resources to a minimum. All e...

  9. Heating automation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažič, Tomaž

    2013-01-01

    This degree paper presents usage and operation of peripheral devices with microcontroller for heating automation. The main goal is to make a quality system control for heating three house floors and with that, increase efficiency of heating devices and lower heating expenses. Heat pump, furnace, boiler pump, two floor-heating pumps and two radiator pumps need to be controlled by this system. For work, we have chosen a development kit stm32f4 - discovery with five temperature sensors, LCD disp...

  10. A novel approach for anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Frate, Fabio Del; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-01-01

    The recently launched H2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances existing Earth Observation (EO) based me

  11. Garlic's ability to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is preserved in heated garlic: effect unrelated to Cu2+-chelation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menjívar Marta

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that several extracts and compounds derived from garlic are able to inhibit Cu2+-induced low density lipoprotein oxidation. In this work we explored if the ability of aqueous garlic extract to prevent in vitro Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum is affected by heating (a aqueous garlic extracts or (b garlic cloves. In the first case, aqueous extract of raw garlic and garlic powder were studied. In the second case, aqueous extract of boiled garlic cloves, microwave-treated garlic cloves, and pickled garlic were studied. It was also studied if the above mentioned preparations were able to chelate Cu2+. Methods Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation in human serum was followed by the formation of conjugated dienes at 234 nm and 37°C by 240 min in a phosphate buffer 20 mM, pH 7.4. Blood serum and CuSO4 were added to a final concentration of 0.67% and 0.0125 mM, respectively. The lag time and the area under the curve from the oxidation curves were obtained. The Cu2+-chelating properties of garlic extracts were assessed using an approach based upon restoring the activity of xanthine oxidase inhibited in the presence of 0.050 mM Cu2+. The activity of xanthine oxidase was assessed by monitoring the production of superoxide anion at 560 nm and the formation of uric acid at 295 nm. Data were compared by parametric or non-parametric analysis of variance followed by a post hoc test. Results Extracts from garlic powder and raw garlic inhibited in a dose-dependent way Cu2+-induced lipoprotein oxidation. The heating of garlic extracts or garlic cloves was unable to alter significantly the increase in lag time and the decrease in the area under the curve observed with the unheated garlic extracts or raw garlic. In addition, it was found that the garlic extracts were unable to chelate Cu2+. Conclusions (a the heating of aqueous extracts of raw garlic or garlic powder or the heating of garlic cloves by boiling

  12. Processes linking the hydrological cycle and the atmospheric radiative budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueglistaler, Stephan; Dinh, Tra

    2016-04-01

    We study the response of the strength of the global hydrological cycle to changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) using the HiRAM General Circulation Model developed at the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), with the objective to better connect the well-known energetic constraints to physical processes. We find that idealized model setups using a global slab ocean and annual mean insolation give similar scalings as coupled atmosphere-ocean models with realistic land and topography. Using the surface temperatures from the slab ocean runs, we analyse the response in the atmospheric state and hydrological cycle separately for a change in CO2 (but fixed surface temperature), and for a change in surface temperature (but fixed CO2). The former perturbation is also referred to as the "fast" response, whereas the latter is commonly used to diagnose a model's climate sensitivity. As expected from the perspective of the atmospheric radiative budget, an increase in CO2 at fixed surface temperature decreases the strength of the hydrological cycle, and an increase in surface temperature increases the strength of the hydrological cycle. However, the physical processes that connect the atmospheric radiative energy budget to the sensible and latent heat fluxes at the surface remain not well understood. The responses to the two perturbations are linearly additive, and we find that the experiment with fixed surface temperature and changes in CO2 is of great relevance to understanding the total response. This result points to the importance of local radiative heating rate changes rather than just the net atmospheric radiative loss of energy. Although larger in magnitude, the response to changes in surface temperature is dominated by the temperature dependence of the water vapor pressure, but in both cases changes in near-surface relative humidity are very important.

  13. Effects of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and breast carcinoma of nude mice xenograft model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Rong-quan; GU Jun-chao; YU Wei; WANG Yu; ZHANG Zhong-tao; MA Xue-mei

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to identify the multiple sites of leptin activity in obese women with breast cancer.In this study,we examined the effect of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in a breast carcinoma xenograft model of nude mice.Methods We cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and established nude mice bearing xenograffs of these cells,and randomly divided them into experimental and control groups.The experimental group was treated with human leptin,while the control group was treated with the same volume of normal saline.A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in tumor tissues.Western blotting analysis was applied to quantify the protein expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 cells.Immunohistochemical staining was done to assess the positive rate of HSP70 expression in the tumor tissues.Results Leptin activated HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro:leptin upregulated significantly the expression of HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (P <0.001).There was no significant difference in expression of HSP70 mRNA in the implanted tumors between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P>0.05).Immunohistochemical staining revealed no significant difference in tumor HSP70 expression between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P>0.05).Conclusions A nude mouse xenograft model can be safely and efficiently treated with human leptin by subcutaneous injections around the tumor.HSP70 may be target of leptin in breast cancer.Leptin can significantly upregulate the expression of HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.

  14. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  15. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  16. High Spatial Resolution Thermal Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  17. Remote Sensing of the Urban Heat Island Effect: Assessment of Risks to Human Health and Development of Mitigation Strategies for Sustainable Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Laymon, Charles A.; Crosson, William; Howell, Burgess F.; Gillani, Noor V.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of cities, both in population and in areal extent, appears as an inexorable process. Urbanization continues at a rapid rate, and it is estimated that by the year 2025, 80% of the world's population will live in cities. One of the more egregious side effects of urbanization is the deterioration in air quality as a result of increased vehicular traffic, industrialization and related activities. In the United States alone, under the more stringent air quality guidelines established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1997, nearly 300 counties in 34 states will not meet the new air quality standards for ground level ozone. The mitigation of one the physical/environmental characteristics of urbanization known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect, is now being looked at more closely as a possible way to bring down ground level ozone levels in cities and assist states in improving air quality. The UHI results from the replacement of "natural" land covers (e.g., trees, grass) with urban land surface types, such as pavement and buildings. Heat stored in these surfaces is released into the air and results in a "dome" of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities. The effect of this dome of elevated air temperatures is known as the UHI, which is most prevalent about 2-3 hours after sunset on days with intense solar radiation and calm winds. Given the local and regional impacts of the UHI, there are significant potential affects on human health, particularly as related to heat stress and ozone on body temperature regulation and on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. In this study we are using airborne and satellite remote sensing data to analyze how differences in the urban landscape influence or drive the development of the UHI over four U.S. cities. Additionally, we are assessing what the potential impact is on risks to human health, and developing mitigation strategies to make urban areas more environmentally sustainable.

  18. Stochastic Budget Optimization in Internet Advertising

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2010-01-01

    The problems studied in this paper arise out of how advertisers allocate their budget in internet advertising. Advertisers have a set of keywords and some stochastic information about the future, in our case, a probability distribution over scenarios} of cost vs click combinations. The stochastic budget optimization problems that the advertisers face then is to figure out how to spread a given budget across these keywords to maximize the expected number of clicks. We present the first known nontrivial polylogarithmic approximation for these problems; we also present first known hardness results of getting approximations better than logarithmic in various parameters involved. We also identify several special cases of these problems of practical interest, such as with fixed number of scenarios or with polynomial-sized parameters related to cost, which are solvable in polynomial time or with good approximations. The scenario model is natural for optimizing a variety of financial instruments, is apt in practice f...

  19. Perturbations in the carbon budget of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, John; Mitchard, Edward; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-10-01

    The carbon budget of the tropics has been perturbed as a result of human influences. Here, we attempt to construct a 'bottom-up' analysis of the biological components of the budget as they are affected by human activities. There are major uncertainties in the extent and carbon content of different vegetation types, the rates of land-use change and forest degradation, but recent developments in satellite remote sensing have gone far towards reducing these uncertainties. Stocks of carbon as biomass in tropical forests and woodlands add up to 271 ± 16 Pg with an even greater quantity of carbon as soil organic matter. Carbon loss from deforestation, degradation, harvesting and peat fires is estimated as 2.01 ± 1.1 Pg annum(-1); while carbon gain from forest and woodland growth is 1.85 ± 0.09 Pg annum(-1). We conclude that tropical lands are on average a small carbon source to the atmosphere, a result that is consistent with the 'top-down' result from measurements in the atmosphere. If they were to be conserved, they would be a substantial carbon sink. Release of carbon as carbon dioxide from fossil fuel burning in the tropics is 0.74 Pg annum(-1) or 0.57 MgC person(-1) annum(-1) , much lower than the corresponding figures from developed regions of the world.

  20. Hepatitis C Virus E2 Protein Induces Upregulation of IL-8 Pathways and Production of Heat Shock Proteins in Human Thyroid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstad, Sara Salehi; Stefan, Mihaela; Blackard, Jason; Owen, Randall P; Lee, Hanna J; Concepcion, Erlinda; Yi, Zhengzi; Zhang, Weijia; Tomer, Yaron

    2017-02-01

    Thyroiditis is one of the most common extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. By binding to surface cell receptor CD81, HCV envelope glycoprotein E2 mediates entry of HCV into cells. Studies have shown that different viral proteins may individually induce host responses to infection. We hypothesized that HCV E2 protein binding to CD81 expressed on thyroid cells activates a cascade of inflammatory responses that can trigger autoimmune thyroiditis in susceptible individuals. Human thyroid cell lines ML-1 and human thyrocytes in primary cell culture were treated with HCV recombinant E2 protein. The expression of major proinflammatory cytokines was measured at the messenger RNA and protein levels. Next-generation transcriptome analysis was used to identify early changes in gene expression in thyroid cells induced by E2. HCV envelope protein E2 induced strong inflammatory responses in human thyrocytes, resulting in production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, the E2 protein induced production of several heat shock proteins including HSP60, HSP70p12A, and HSP10, in human primary thyrocytes. In thyroid cell line ML-1, RNA sequencing identified upregulation of molecules involved in innate immune pathways with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and increased expression of costimulatory molecules, specifically CD40, known to be a major thyroid autoimmunity gene. Our data support a key role for HCV envelope protein E2 in triggering thyroid autoimmunity through activation of cytokine pathways by bystander mechanisms.